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Sample records for blue compact dwarf

  1. The environment of nearby Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R; van Eymeren, Janine; Esteban, Cesar; Popping, Attila; Hibbard, John

    2009-01-01

    We are obtaining deep multiwavelength data of a sample of nearby blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs) combining broad-band optical/NIR and H$\\alpha$ photometry, optical spectroscopy and 21-cm radio observations. Here we present HI results obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array for some BCDGs, all showing evident interaction features in their neutral gas component despite the environment in which they reside. Our analysis strongly suggests that interactions with or between low-luminosity dwarf galaxies or HI clouds are the main trigger mechanism of the star-forming bursts in BCDGs; however these dwarf objects are only detected when deep optical images and complementary HI observations are performed. Are therefore BCDGs real isolated systems?

  2. FORMATION OF ULTRA-COMPACT BLUE DWARF GALAXIES AND THEIR EVOLUTION INTO NUCLEATED DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2015-10-10

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf–dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf–dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf–dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z ∼ [0.2–1]Z{sub ⊙}). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass densities (10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −3}) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40−100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R < 100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multiple stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. These very compact blue remnants can be identified as UCBDs soon after merging and as nucleated dwarfs after the young stars fade. We discuss these results in the context of the origins of metal-rich ultra-compact dwarfs and SGNs.

  3. What will blue compact dwarf galaxies evolve into?

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Hagen T; Janz, Joachim; Papaderos, Polychronis

    2013-01-01

    We present and analyse the photometric properties of a nearly complete sample of blue compact dwarf (BCD) and irregular galaxies in the Virgo cluster from multi-band SDSS images. Our study intends to shed light on the ongoing debate of whether a structural evolution from present-day star-forming dwarf galaxies in a cluster environment into ordinary early-type dwarf galaxies is possible based on the structural properties. For this purpose, we decompose the surface brightness profiles of the BCDs into the luminosity contribution of the starburst component and that of their underlying low surface brightness (LSB) host. The latter dominates the stellar mass of the BCD. We find that the LSB-components of the Virgo BCDs are structurally compatible with the more compact half of the Virgo early-type dwarfs, except for a few extreme BCDs. Thus, after termination of starburst activity, the BCDs will presumably fade into galaxies that are structurally similar to ordinary early-type dwarfs. In contrast, the irregulars ar...

  4. Radio Continuum and HI study of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya, S.; Kantharia, N. G.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2010-01-01

    The multifrequency radio continuum and 21cm HI observations of five blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, Mrk 104, Mrk 108, Mrk 1039, Mrk 1069 and I Zw 97 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) are presented here. Radio continuum emission at 610 MHz and 325 MHz is detected from all the observed galaxies whereas only a few are detected at 240 MHz. In our sample, three galaxies are members of groups and two galaxies (Mrk 1069 and I Zw 97) are isolated galaxies. The radio emission from Mr...

  5. Formation of ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies and their evolution into nucleated dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    We propose that there is an evolutionary link between ultra-compact blue dwarf galaxies (UCBDs) with active star formation and nucleated dwarfs based on the results of numerical simulations of dwarf-dwarf merging. We consider the observational fact that low-mass dwarfs can be very gas-rich, and thereby investigate the dynamical and chemical evolution of very gas-rich, dissipative dwarf-dwarf mergers. We find that the remnants of dwarf-dwarf mergers can be dominated by new stellar populations formed from the triggered starbursts and consequently can have blue colors and higher metallicities (Z~[0.2-1]Z_sun). We also find that the remnants of these mergers can have rather high mass-densities (10^4 M_sun pc^-3) within the central 10 pc and small half-light radii (40-100 pc). The radial stellar structures of some merger remnants are similar to those of nucleated dwarfs. Star formation can continue in nuclear gas disks (R<100 pc) surrounding stellar galactic nuclei (SGNs) so that the SGNs can finally have multi...

  6. The Mid-Infrared Properties of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yanling Wu; Houck, J R; Bernasrd-Salas, J; Lebouteiller, V

    2008-01-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity of the Spitzer Space Telescope has enabled us for the first time to detect a large sample of Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs), which are intrinsically faint in the infrared. In the present paper we present a summary of our findings which providing essential information on the presence/absence of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon features in metal-poor environments. In addition, using Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectroscopy, we study the elemental abundances of neon and sulfur in BCDs and compare with the results from optical studies. Finally, we present an analysis of the mid- and far-infrared to radio correlation in low luminosity low metallicity galaxies.

  7. IN-SPIRALING CLUMPS IN BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Zhang Hongxin; Hunter, Deidre A., E-mail: bge@watson.ibm.com [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    Giant star formation clumps in dwarf irregular galaxies can have masses exceeding a few percent of the galaxy mass enclosed inside their orbital radii. They can produce sufficient torques on dark matter halo particles, halo stars, and the surrounding disk to lose their angular momentum and spiral into the central region in 1 Gyr. Pairs of giant clumps with similarly large relative masses can interact and exchange angular momentum to the same degree. The result of this angular momentum loss is a growing central concentration of old stars, gas, and star formation that can produce a long-lived starburst in the inner region, identified with the blue compact dwarf (BCD) phase. This central concentration is proposed to be analogous to the bulge in a young spiral galaxy. Observations of star complexes in five local BCDs confirm the relatively large clump masses that are expected for this process. The observed clumps also seem to contain old field stars, even after background light subtraction, in which case the clumps may be long-lived. The two examples with clumps closest to the center have the largest relative clump masses and the greatest contributions from old stars. An additional indication that the dense central regions of BCDs are like bulges is the high ratio of the inner disk scale height to the scale length, which is comparable to 1 for four of the galaxies.

  8. Search for Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies During Quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, J Sanchez; Amorin, R; Aguerri, J A; Sanchez-Janssen, R; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    2008-01-01

    Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies are metal poor systems going through a major starburst that cannot last for long. We have identified galaxies which may be BCDs during quiescence (QBCD), i.e., before the characteristic starburst sets in or when it has faded away. These QBCD galaxies are assumed to be like the BCD host galaxies. The SDSS/DR6 database provides ~21500 QBCD candidates. We also select from SDSS/DR6 a complete sample of BCD galaxies to serve as reference. The properties of these two galaxy sets have been computed and compared. The QBCD candidates are thirty times more abundant than the BCDs, with their luminosity functions being very similar except for the scaling factor, and the expected luminosity dimming associated with the end of the starburst. QBCDs are redder than BCDs, and they have larger HII region based oxygen abundance. QBCDs also have lower surface brightness. The BCD candidates turn out to be the QBCD candidates with the largest specific star formation rate (actually, with the largest...

  9. Radio Continuum and HI study of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ramya, S; Prabhu, T P

    2010-01-01

    The multifrequency radio continuum and 21cm HI observations of five blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, Mrk 104, Mrk 108, Mrk 1039, Mrk 1069 and I Zw 97 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) are presented here. Radio continuum emission at 610 MHz and 325 MHz is detected from all the observed galaxies whereas only a few are detected at 240 MHz. In our sample, three galaxies are members of groups and two galaxies (Mrk 1069 and I Zw 97) are isolated galaxies. The radio emission from Mrk 104 and Mrk 108 is seen to encompass the entire optical galaxy whereas the radio emission from Mrk 1039, Mrk 1069, I Zw 97 is confined to massive HII regions. This, we suggest, indicates that the star formation in the latter group of galaxies has recently been triggered and that the environment in which the galaxy is evolving plays a role. Star formation rates (SFR) calculated from 610 MHz emission is in the range 0.01-0.1 M_sun/yr; this is similar to the SFR obtained for individual star forming regions in BCDs. The int...

  10. FUSE observations of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy Mrk 59

    CERN Document Server

    Thuan, T X; Izotov, Yu I

    2001-01-01

    New FUSE far-UV spectroscopy of the nearby metal-deficient (Zsun/8) cometary Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxy Markarian (Mrk) 59 is discussed. The data are used to investigate element abundances in its interstellar medium. The H I absorption lines are characterized by narrow cores which are interstellar in origin and by broad wings which are stellar in origin. The mean interstellar H I column density is ~ 7x10E20 cm-2 in Mrk 59. No H2 lines are seen and N(H2) is < 10E15 cm-2 at the 10 sigma level. The lack of diffuse H2 is due to the combined effect of a strong UV radiation field which destroys the H2 molecules and a low metallicity which leads to a scarcity of dust grains necessary for H2 formation. P-Cygni profiles of the S VI 933.4, 944.5 A and O VI 1031.9, 1037.6 A lines are seen, indicating the presence of very hot O stars and a stellar wind terminal velocity of ~ 1000 km/s. By fitting the line profiles with multiple components having each a velocity dispersion b = 7 km/s and spanning a radial velocity...

  11. HI synthesis observations of the blue compact dwarf NGC 1705

    CERN Document Server

    Elson, E C; Kraan-Korteweg, R C; 10.1093/mnras/sts526

    2013-01-01

    Australia Telescope Compact Array HI-line observations of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 1705 are presented. The data are used to trace the gravitational potential of the galaxy out to several stellar disc scale lengths. A rotation curve is derived for the system and used to generate mass models. Dark matter dominates the gravitational potential at nearly all galactocentric radii. NFW and pseudo-isothermal sphere halo parameterisations allowing for good reproductions of the observations. The models suggest NGC 1705 to have a dark matter halo that it much denser and more compact than previously thought.

  12. Formation and evolution of blue compact dwarfs: The origin of their steep rotation curves

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, A

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the observed steep rotation curves of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) remains largely unexplained by theoretical models of BCD formation. We therefore investigate the rotation curves in BCDs formed from mergers between gas- rich dwarf irregular galaxies based on the results of numerical simulations for BCD formation. The principal results are as follows. The dark matter of merging dwarf irregulars undergoes a central concentration so that the central density can become up to 6 times higher than those of the initial dwarf irregulars. However, the more compact dark matter halo alone can not reproduce the gradient differences observed between dwarf irregulars and BCDs. We provide further support that the central concentration of gas due to rapid gas-transfer to the central regions of dwarf-dwarf mergers is responsible for the observed difference in rotation curve gradients. The BCDs with central gas concentration formed from merging can thus show steeply rising rotation curves in their central r...

  13. Formation and evolution of blue compact dwarfs: the origin of their steep rotation curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Adam; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    The origin of the observed steep rotation curves of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) remains largely unexplained by theoretical models of BCD formation. We therefore investigate the rotation curves in BCDs formed from mergers between gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies based on the results of numerical simulations for BCD formation. The principal results are as follows. The dark matter of merging dwarf irregulars undergoes a central concentration so that the central density can become up to six times higher than those of the initial dwarf irregulars. However, the more compact dark matter halo alone cannot reproduce the gradient differences observed between dwarf irregulars and BCDs. We provide further support that the central concentration of gas due to rapid gas transfer to the central regions of dwarf-dwarf mergers is responsible for the observed difference in rotation curve gradients. The BCDs with central gas concentration formed from merging can thus show steeply rising rotation curves in their central regions. Such gas concentration is also responsible for central starbursts of BCDs and the high central surface brightness and is consistent with previous BCD studies. We discuss the relationship between rotational velocity gradient and surface brightness, the dependence of BCD rotation curves on star formation threshold density, progenitor initial profile, interaction type, and merger mass ratio, as well as potential evolutionary links between dwarf irregulars, BCDs, and compact dwarf irregulars.

  14. In-spiraling Clumps in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Hunter, Deidre

    2012-01-01

    Giant star-formation clumps in dwarf irregular galaxies can have masses exceeding a few percent of the galaxy mass enclosed inside their orbital radii. They can produce sufficient torques on dark matter halo particles, halo stars, and the surrounding disk to lose their angular momentum and spiral into the central region in 1 Gyr. Pairs of giant clumps with similarly large relative masses can interact and exchange angular momentum to the same degree. The result of this angular momentum loss is a growing central concentration of old stars, gas, and star formation that can produce a long-lived starburst in the inner region, identified with the BCD phase. This central concentration is proposed to be analogous to the bulge in a young spiral galaxy. Observations of star complexes in five local BCDs confirm the relatively large clump masses that are expected for this process. The observed clumps also seem to contain old field stars, even after background light subtraction, in which case the clumps may be long-lived....

  15. Kinematic Constraints on Evolutionary Scenarios for Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies I. Neutral Gas Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Van Zee, L; Skillman, E D; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2001-01-01

    We present the results of high spatial resolution HI synthesis observations of six blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies. Optically, the selected galaxies have smooth, symmetric isophotes, and thus are the most likely of the BCD class to fade into an object morphologically similar to a dwarf elliptical when the current starburst ends. The neutral gas in all six galaxies appears to be rotationally supported, however, indicating that true morphological transformation from a BCD to a dE will require significant loss of angular momentum. Based on the observed neutral gas dynamics of these and other BCDs, it is unlikely that present-day BCDs will evolve directly into dwarf ellipticals after a starburst phase. We discuss alternative evolutionary scenarios for BCDs and place them within the larger context of galaxy formation and evolution models.

  16. Luminosity-Metallicity Relations for Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies in the Optical and Near-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yinghe; Gu, Qiusheng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present systematic studies on the B-, R- and $K_s$-band luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations for a set of metal poor, blue compact dwarf galaxies. Metallicity is derived by using both the empirical N2 and the direct $T_e$ methods. Our work reconciles contradictory results obtained by different authors and shows that the L-Z relationship does also hold for blue compact dwarf galaxies. The empirical N2-based slope of the L-Z relation, for each photometric band, is consistent with the $T_e$-based one. We confirm that the slope of the L-Z relation is shallower in the near-infrared than that in the optical. Our investigations on the correlations between the $L_B$-Z relation residuals and different galactic parameters show that the star formation activities could be a cause of the large scatter in the optical L-Z relationships, whereas the internal-absorption might be another possible contributing factor.

  17. LUMINOSITY-METALLICITY RELATIONS FOR BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES IN THE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present systematic studies on the B-, R- and Ks -band luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations for a set of metal-poor, blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). Metallicity is derived by using both the empirical N2 and the direct Te methods. Our work reconciles contradictory results obtained by different authors and shows that the L-Z relationship does also hold for BCDs. The empirical N2-based slope of the L-Z relation, for each photometric band, is consistent with the Te -based one. We confirm that the slope of the L-Z relation is shallower in the near-infrared than that in the optical. Our investigations on the correlations between the LB -Z relation residuals and different galactic parameters show that the star formation activities could be a cause of the large scatter in the optical L-Z relationships, whereas the internal absorption might be another possible contributing factor.

  18. The metallicity evolution of blue compact dwarf galaxies from the intermediate redshift to the local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Jianhui; Fang, Guanwen; Ye, Chengyun; Kong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    We present oxygen abundance measurements for 74 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies in the redshift range in [0.2, 0.5] using the strong-line method. The spectra of these objects are taken using Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT). More than half of these BCDs had dust attenuation corrected using the Balmer decrement method. For comparison, we also selected a sample of 2023 local BCDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. Based on the local and intermediate-z BCD samples, we investigated the cosmic evo- lution of the metallicity, star-formation rate (SFR), and Dn (4000) index. Com- pared with local BCDs, the intermediate-z BCDs had a systematically higher R23 ratio but similar O32 ratio. Interestingly, no significant deviation in the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation was found between the intermediate-z and lo- cal BCDs. Besides the metallicity, the intermediate-z BCDs also exhibited an SFR distribution that was consistent with local BCDs, suggesting a weak de- pendence on redshift. The i...

  19. The HI content of extremely metal-deficient blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Thuan, T X; Hibbard, J E; Izotov, Y I; Hunt, L K

    2016-01-01

    We have obtained new HI observations with the 100m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) for a sample of 29 extremely metal-deficient star-forming Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectral data base to be extremely metal-deficient (12+logO/H<7.6). Neutral hydrogen was detected in 28 galaxies, a 97% detection rate. Combining the HI data with SDSS optical spectra for the BCD sample and adding complementary galaxy samples from the literature to extend the metallicity and mass ranges, we have studied how the HI content of a galaxy varies with various global galaxian properties. There is a clear trend of increasing gas mass fraction with decreasing metallicity, mass and luminosity. We obtain the relation M(HI)/L(g)~L(g)^{-0.3}, in agreement with previous studies based on samples with a smaller luminosity range. The median gas mass fraction f(gas) for the GBT sample is equal to 0.94 while the mean gas mass fraction is 0.90+/-0.15, with a lower limit of ~0.65. The HI depletion ti...

  20. A Study on the Chemical Properties of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yinghe; Gu, Qiusheng

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we report our studies on the gaseous and chemical properties of a relatively large sample (53 members) of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). The results of correlations among the oxygen abundance, stellar mass, gas mass, baryonic mass, and gas fraction are present both for E- and I-type BCDs, which are classified according to Loose & Thuan (1985) and show elliptical and irregular outer haloes, respectively. These correlations of I-type BCDs show similar slopes to those of E-type ones. However, in general, E-type BCDs are more gas-poor and metal-rich than I-type ones at a given baryonic mass. Based on these results, we suggest that E-type BCDs, at least a part of them, and I-type ones might be likely at different evolutionary phases and/or having different progenitors. Our investigation of the correlation between oxygen abundance and gas fraction shows that BCDs appear to have not evolved as isolated systems, but to have experienced some gas flows and/or mergers.

  1. The Stellar Population and Star Formation Properties of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yinghe; Gao, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We study the stellar populations, star formation histories and star formation properties for a sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) selected by cross-correlating the Gil de Paz et al. (2003) sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6). The sample includes 31 BCDs, which span a large range in galactic parameters. Using a stellar population synthesis method, we derive the stellar populations and reconstruct the star formation histories for these BCDs. Our studies confirm that BCDs are not young systems experiencing their first star formation but old systems undergoing a starburst activity. The stellar mass-weighted ages can be as old as 10 Gyr while the luminosity-weighted ages might be up to $\\sim 3$ orders of magnitude younger ($\\sim 10$ Myr) for most galaxies. Based on multi-wavelength data, we also study the integrated star formation properties. The SFR for our sample galaxies spans nearly 3 orders of magnitude, from a few $10^{-3}$ to $\\sim1\\,M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, with the medi...

  2. THE STELLAR POPULATION AND STAR FORMATION PROPERTIES OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study stellar populations, star formation histories (SFHs), and star formation properties for a sample of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs) selected by cross-correlating the Gil de Paz et al. sample with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6. The sample includes 31 BCDs, which span a large range of galactic parameters. Using a stellar population synthesis method, we derive stellar populations and reconstruct SFHs for these BCDs. Our studies confirm that BCDs are not young systems experiencing their first star formation, but old systems undergoing a starburst activity. The stellar mass-weighted ages can be up to 10 Gyr, while the luminosity-weighted ages might be up to approximately three orders of magnitude younger (∼10 Myr) for most galaxies. Based on multiwavelength data, we also study the integrated star formation properties. The star formation rate (SFR) for our sample galaxies spans nearly three orders of magnitude, from a few 10-3 to ∼1 Msun yr-1, with a median value of ∼0.1 Msun yr-1. We find that about 90% of BCDs in our sample have their birthrate parameter (the ratio of the current SFR to the averaged past SFR) b>2-3. We further discuss correlations of the current SFR with the integrated galactic stellar mass and explore the connection between SFR and metallicity.

  3. A STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BLUE COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report our studies on the gaseous and chemical properties of a relatively large sample (53 members) of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs). The results of correlations among the oxygen abundance, stellar mass, gas mass, baryonic mass, and gas fraction are present both for E- and I-type BCDs, which are classified according to Loose and Thuan and show elliptical and irregular outer haloes, respectively. These correlations of I-type BCDs show slopes similar to those of E-type ones. However, in general, E-type BCDs are more gas-poor and metal-rich than I-type ones at a given baryonic mass. Based on these results, we suggest that E-type BCDs, at least a part of them, and I-type ones might be likely at different evolutionary phases and/or having different progenitors. Our investigation of the correlation between oxygen abundance and gas fraction shows that BCDs appear to have not evolved as isolated systems, but to have experienced some gas flows and/or mergers.

  4. VII Zw 403: HI Structure in a Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Caroline E; Nordgren, Tyler E; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Ashley, Trisha; Lynds, Roger; McIntyre, Vince J; O'Neil, Earl J; Östlin, Göran; Westpfahl, David J; Wilcots, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    We present optical (UBVJ), ultraviolet (FUV, NUV), and high resolution atomic hydrogen (HI) observations of the nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD), VII Zw 403. We find that VII Zw 403 has a relatively high HI mass-to-light ratio for a BCD. The rotation velocity is nominally 10-15 km/s, but rises to ~20 km/s after correction for the ~8-10 km/s random motions present in the gas. The velocity field is complex; including a variation in the position angle of the major axis going from the NE to the SW parts of the galaxy. Our high resolution HI maps reveal structure in the central gas, including a large, low-density HI depression or hole between the southern and northern halves of the galaxy, coincident with an unresolved x-ray source. Although interactions have been proposed as the triggering mechanism for the vigorous star formation occurring in BCDs, VII Zw 403 does not seem to have been tidally triggered by an external interaction, as we have found no nearby possible perturbers. It also doesn't appear to fall in t...

  5. The H I content of extremely metal-deficient blue compact dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, T. X.; Goehring, K. M.; Hibbard, J. E.; Izotov, Y. I.; Hunt, L. K.

    2016-09-01

    We have obtained new H I observations with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) for a sample of 29 extremely metal-deficient star-forming Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectral data base to be extremely metal-deficient (12 + log O/H ≤ 7.6). Neutral hydrogen was detected in 28 galaxies, a 97% detection rate. Combining the H I data with SDSS optical spectra for the BCD sample and adding complementary galaxy samples from the literature to extend the metallicity and mass ranges, we have studied how the H I content of a galaxy varies with various global galaxian properties. There is a clear trend of increasing gas mass fraction with decreasing metallicity, mass and luminosity. We obtain the relation M(H I)/Lg∝ L_g^{-0.3}, in agreement with previous studies based on samples with a smaller luminosity range. The median gas mass fraction fgas for the GBT sample is equal to 0.94 while the mean gas mass fraction is 0.90±0.15, with a lower limit of ˜0.65. The H I depletion time is independent of metallicity, with a large scatter around the median value of 3.4 Gyr. The ratio of the baryonic mass to the dynamical mass of the metal-deficient BCDs varies from 0.05 to 0.80, with a median value of ˜0.2. About 65% of the BCDs in our sample have an effective yield larger than the true yield, implying that the neutral gas envelope in BCDs is more metal-deficient by a factor of 1.5-20, as compared to the ionized gas.

  6. Surface brightness profiles of blue compact dwarf galaxies in the GOODS-N and GOODS-S field

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Jianhui; Jiang, Ning; Yan, Wei; Gao, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the structural properties of the underlying hosts of 34 blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies with deep near-infrared (NIR) photometry. The BCD sample is selected from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey in the Great observatories origins Deep Survey North and South fields. We extract the surface brightness profile (SBP) in the optical F 435W and NIR F 160W bands. The SBPs of BCDs in the H band reach 26 mag arcsec^-2 at the 3\\sigma level, which is so far the deepest NIR imaging of BCDs. Then we fit the SBPs with one- and two- component Sersic models. About half of the BCDs favour the two-component model which significantly improves the fit quality. The effective radii of the underlying hosts of BCDs in the B band are smaller than those of early-type dwarfs (dEs) and dwarf irregulars at a fixed luminosity. This discrepancy is similar to findings in many previous works. However, the difference in structural parameters between BCDs and other dwarf galaxies seems to be less sig...

  7. An imaging and spectroscopic study of the very metal-deficient blue compact dwarf galaxy Tol 1214--277

    CERN Document Server

    Fricke, K J; Papaderos, P; Guseva, N G; Thuan, T X

    2001-01-01

    We present a spectrophotometric study based on VLT/FORS I observations of one of the most metal-deficient blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies known, Tol 1214-277 (Z ~ Zsun/25). The data show that roughly half of the total luminosity of the BCD originates from a bright and compact starburst region located at the northeastern tip of a faint dwarf galaxy with cometary appearance. The starburst has ignited less than 4 Myr ago and its emission is powered by several thousands O7V stars and ~ 170 late-type nitrogen Wolf-Rayet stars located within a compact region with < 500 pc in diameter. For the first time in a BCD, a relatively strong [Fe V] 4227 emission line is seen which together with intense He II 4686 emission indicates the presence of a very hard radiation field in Tol 1214-277. We argue that this extraordinarily hard radiation originates from both Wolf--Rayet stars and radiative shocks in the starburst region. The structural properties of the low-surface-brightness (LSB) component underlying the starburst...

  8. New insights into the photometric structure of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies from a deep Near-Infrared study

    CERN Document Server

    Noeske, K G; Cairos, L M; Fricke, K J

    2003-01-01

    We present deep Near-Infrared (NIR) imaging of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDs), allowing for the first time to derive and systematize the NIR structural properties of their stellar low-surface brightness (LSB) host galaxies. Compared to optical data, NIR images, being less contamined by the extended stellar and ionized gas emission from the starburst, permit to study the LSB host galaxy closer to its center. We find that radial surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of the LSB hosts show at large radii a mostly exponential intensity distribution, in agreement with previous optical studies. At small to intermediate radii, however, the NIR data reveal an inwards flattening with respect to the outer exponential slope ("type V SBPs", Binggeli & Cameron 1991) in the LSB component of more than one half of the sample BCDs. This result may constitute an important observational constraint to the dynamics and evolution of BCDs. We apply a modified exponential fitting function (Papaderos et al. 1996a) to parametrize ...

  9. Auto-consistent metallicity and star formation history of the nearest blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 6789

    CERN Document Server

    García-Benito, Rubén

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed auto-consistent study of the nearest blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 6789 by means of optical and UV archive photometry data and optical long-slit ISIS-WHT spectroscopy observations of the five brightest star-forming knots. The analysis of the spectra in all knots allowed the derivation of ionic chemical abundances of oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, argon and neon using measures of both the high- and low-excitation electron temperatures, leading to the conclusion that NGC 6789 is chemically homogeneous with low values of the abundance of oxygen in the range 12+log(O/H) = 7.80-7.93, but presenting at the same time higher values of the nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio than expected for its metal regime. We used archival HST/WFPC2 F555W and F814W observations of NGC 6789 to perform a photometric study of the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the resolved stellar populations and derive its star formation history (SFH), which is compatible with the presence of different young and old stellar populations who...

  10. Properties of free-free, dust, and CO emissions in the starbursts of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The central star-forming regions in three blue compact dwarf galaxies (He 2-10, NGC 5253, and II Zw 40) were observed in the 340 GHz (880 micron) band at 5 arcsec resolution with the Submillimetre Array (SMA). Continuum emission associated with the central star-forming complex was detected in all these galaxies. The SMA 880 micron flux is decomposed into free-free emission and dust emission by using centimetre-wavelength data in the literature. We find that free-free emission contributes half or more of the SMA 880 micron flux in the central starbursts in those three galaxies. In spite of the dominance of free-free emission at 880 micron, the radio-to-far infrared (FIR) ratios in the central star-forming regions are not significantly higher than those of the entire systems, showing the robustness of radio-FIR relation. Based on the robustness of the radio-FIR relation, we argue that the free--free fraction in the 880 micron emission is regulated by the dust temperature. We also analyze the CO (J = 3--2) emiss...

  11. A Gemini/GMOS study of the physical conditions and kinematics of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Eduardo; Thuan, Trinh X.; Izotov, Yuri I.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present an integral field spectroscopic study with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) of the unusual blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Mrk 996. Methods: We show through velocity and dispersion maps, emission-line intensity and ratio maps, and by a new technique of electron density limit imaging that the ionization properties of different regions in Mrk 996 are correlated with their kinematic properties. Results: From the maps, we can spatially distinguish a very dense high-ionization zone with broad lines in the nuclear region, and a less dense low-ionization zone with narrow lines in the circumnuclear region. Four kinematically distinct systems of lines are identified in the integrated spectrum of Mrk 996, suggesting stellar wind outflows from a population of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the nuclear region, superposed on an underlying rotation pattern. From the intensities of the blue and red bumps, we derive a population of ~473 late nitrogen (WNL) stars and ~98 early carbon (WCE) stars in the nucleus of Mrk 996, resulting in a high N(WR)/N(O+WR) of 0.19. We derive, for the outer narrow-line region, an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) = 7.94 ± 0.30 (~0.2 Z⊙) by using the direct Te method derived from the detected narrow [O iii]λ4363 line. The nucleus of Mrk 996 is, however, nitrogen-enhanced by a factor of ~20, in agreement with previous CLOUDY modeling. This nitrogen enhancement is probably due to nitrogen-enriched WR ejecta, but also to enhanced nitrogen line emission in a high-density environment. Although we have made use here of two new methods - principal component analysis (PCA) tomography and a method for mapping low- and high-density clouds - to analyze our data, new methodology is needed to further exploit the wealth of information provided by integral field spectroscopy. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  12. New insights to the photometric structure of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies from deep Near-Infrared studies I. Observations, surface photometry and decomposition of surface brightness profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Noeske, K G; Cairos, L M; Fricke, K J

    2003-01-01

    (shortened) We analyze deep Near Infrared (NIR) broad band images for a sample of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDs), allowing for the quantitative study of their extended stellar low-surface brightness (LSB) host galaxies. NIR surface brightness profiles (SBPs) of the LSB hosts agree at large galactocentric radii with those from optical studies. At small to intermediate radii, however, the NIR data reveal for more than half of our sample a significant flattening of the exponential SBP of the LSB host. Such SBPs ("type V" SBPs, Binggeli & Cameron 1991) have rarely been detected in LSB hosts of BCDs at optical wavelengths, where the relative flux contribution of the starburst is stronger than in the NIR and can hide such central intensity depressions of the LSB host. The structural properties, frequency and physical origin of type V LSB SBPs in BCDs and other dwarf galaxies have not yet been systematically studied. Nevertheless, their occurrence in a significant fraction of BCDs would impose important new ...

  13. SBS 0335-052E+W: deep VLT/FORS+UVES spectroscopy of the pair of the lowest-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Yu I; Fricke, K J; Papaderos, P

    2009-01-01

    (abridged) We present deep archival VLT/FORS1+UVES spectroscopic observations of the system of two blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies SBS 0335-052E and SBS 0335-052W. Our aim is to derive element abundances in different HII regions of this unique system of galaxies and to study spatial abundance variations. We determine abundances of helium, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, chlorine, argon and iron. The oxygen abundance in the brighter eastern galaxy varies in the range 7.11 to 7.32 in different HII regions supporting previous findings and suggesting the presence of oxygen abundance variations on spatial scales of ~1-2 kpc. The oxygen abundance in the brightest region No.1 of SBS 0335-052W is 7.22+/-0.07, consistent with previous determinations.Three other HII regions are much more metal-poor with an unprecedently low oxygen abundance of 12+logO/H=7.01+/-0.07 (region No.2), 6.98+/-0.06 (region No.3), and 6.86+/-0.14 (region No.4). These are the lowest oxygen abundances ever derived in emission-line galaxies. He...

  14. What are the Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Guzmán, R; Gallego, J Perez; Castander, F J; Gruel, N

    2007-01-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are common at z~1, contributing significantly to the total star formation rate density. By z~0, they are a factor of ten rarer. While we know that LCBGs evolve rapidly, we do not know what drives their evolution nor into what types of galaxies they evolve. We present the results of a single-dish HI survey of local LCBGs undertaken to address these questions. Our results indicate that LCBGs have M(HI) and M(DYN) consistent with low-mass spirals, but typically exhaust their gas reservoirs in less than 2 Gyr. Overall, the properties of LCBGs are consistent with them evolving into high-mass dwarf elliptical or dwarf irregular galaxies or low-mass, late-type spiral galaxies.

  15. Exploring the Interstellar Media of Optically Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Most, Hans P; Salzer, John J; Rosenberg, Jessica J; Engstrom, Eric; Fliss, Palmer

    2013-01-01

    We present new Very Large Array HI spectral line, archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and archival Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of eight star-forming blue compact dwarf galaxies that were selected to be optically compact (optical radii less than 1 kpc). These systems have faint blue absolute magnitudes (M_B >= -17), ongoing star formation (based on emission-line selection by the H alpha or [OIII] lines), and are nearby (mean velocity = 3315 km/s = 45 Mpc). One galaxy in the sample, ADBS 113845+2008, is found to have an HI halo that extends 58 r-band scale lengths from its stellar body. In contrast, the rest of the sample galaxies have HI radii to optical-scale-length ratios ranging from 9.3 to 26. The size of the HI disk in the "giant disk" dwarf galaxy ADBS 113845+2008 appears to be unusual as compared to similarly compact stellar populations.

  16. Super Star Clusters in the Blue Dwarf Galaxy UM 462

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzi, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    I present optical observations of the Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy UM 462. The images of this galaxy show several bright compact sources. A careful study of these sources has revealed their nature of young Super Star Clusters. The ages determined from the analysis of the stellar continuum and $H\\alpha$ are between few and few tens Myr. The total star formation taking place into the clusters is about 0.05 $\\mathrm{M_{\\odot}/yr}$. The clusters seem to be located at the edges of two large round-lik...

  17. EXPLORING THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIA OF OPTICALLY COMPACT DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Most, Hans P.; Cannon, John M.; Engstrom, Eric; Fliss, Palmer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica L., E-mail: hmost@macalester.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jrosenb4@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present new Very Large Array H I spectral line, archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and archival Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of eight star-forming blue compact dwarf galaxies that were selected to be optically compact (optical radii <1 kpc). These systems have faint blue absolute magnitudes (M{sub B} {approx}> -17), ongoing star formation (based on emission-line selection by the H{alpha} or [O III] lines), and are nearby (mean velocity = 3315 km s{sup -1} {approx_equal} 45 Mpc). One galaxy in the sample, ADBS 113845+2008, is found to have an H I halo that extends 58 r-band scale lengths from its stellar body. In contrast, the rest of the sample galaxies have H I radii to optical-scale-length ratios ranging from 9.3 to 26. The size of the H I disk in the 'giant disk' dwarf galaxy ADBS 113845+2008 appears to be unusual as compared with similarly compact stellar populations.

  18. Origin of ultra-compact dwarfs: a dynamical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Peng, Eric W.; Côté, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Ferrarese, Laura; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Caldwell, Nelson; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Jordán, Andrés; Lançon, Ariane; Li, Biao; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Bekki, Kenji; Blakeslee, John; Boselli, Alessandro; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Firth, Peter; Sánchez-Janssen, Ruben

    2016-02-01

    Discovery of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) in the past 15 years blurs the once thought clear division between classic globular clusters (GCs) and early-type galaxies. The intermediate nature of UCDs, which are larger and more massive than typical GCs but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies, has triggered hot debate on whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin or merely the most extreme GCs. Previous studies of various scaling relations, stellar populations and internal dynamics did not give an unambiguous answer to the primary origin of UCDs. In this contribution, we present the first ever detailed study of global dynamics of 97 UCDs (r h >~ 10 pc) associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. We found that UCDs follow a different radial number density profile and different rotational properties from GCs. The orbital anisotropies of UCDs are tangentially-biased within ~ 40 kpc of M87 and become radially-biased with radius further out. In contrast, the blue GCs, which have similar median colors to our sample of UCDs, become more tangentially-biased at larger radii beyond ~ 40 kpc. Our analysis suggests that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially-biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the scenario that most UCDs originated from the tidally threshed dwarf galaxies.

  19. On the properties of the interstellar medium in extremely metal-poor blue compact dwarf galaxies: GMOS-IFU spectroscopy and SDSS photometry of the double-knot galaxy HS 2236+1344

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, P; Gomes, J M; Castelli, A V Smith; Vega, L R; .,

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to carry out a spatially resolved investigation of the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in the extremely metal-poor Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxy HS 2236+1344. Special emphasis is laid on the analysis of the spatial distribution of chemical abundances, emission-line ratios and kinematics of the ISM, and to the recent star-forming activity in this galaxy. This study is based on optical integral field unit spectroscopy data from Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Gemini North telescope and archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey images. The data were obtained in two different positions across the galaxy, obtaining a total 4 arcsec X 8 arcsec field which encompasses most of its ISM. Emission-line maps and broad-band images obtained in this study indicate that HS 2236+1344 hosts three Giant HII regions. Our data also reveal some faint curved features in the BCD periphery that might be due to tidal perturbations or expanding ionized-gas shells. The ISM velocity field shows systematic ...

  20. The Evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Disks or Spheroids?

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Rabidoux, K; Wolfe, S; Guzman, R; Perez-Gallego, J; Castander, F J

    2009-01-01

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) are a diverse class of galaxies characterized by high luminosities, blue colors, and high surface brightnesses. Residing at the high luminosity, high mass end of the blue sequence, LCBGs sit at the critical juncture of galaxies that are evolving from the blue to the red sequence. Yet we do not understand what drives the evolution of LCBGs, nor how they will evolve. Based on single-dish HI observations, we know that they have a diverse range of properties. LCBGs are HI-rich with M(HI)=10^{9-10.5} M(sun), have moderate M(dyn)=10^{10-12} M(sun), and 80% have gas depletion timescales less than 3 Gyr. These properties are consistent with LCBGs evolving into low-mass spirals or high mass dwarf ellipticals or dwarf irregulars. However, LCBGs do not follow the Tully-Fisher relation, nor can most evolve onto it, implying that many LCBGs are not smoothly rotating, virialized systems. GMRT and VLA HI maps confirm this conclusion revealing signatures of recent interactions and dynam...

  1. Kinematics of luminous blue compact galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlin, Göran; Amram, Philippe; Boulesteix, Jaques; Bergvall, Nils; Masegosa, Josefa; Márquez, Isabel

    We present results from a Fabry-Perot study of the Hα velocity fields and morphologies of a sample of luminous blue compact galaxies. We estimate masses from photometry and kinematics and show that many of these BCGs are not rotationally supported. Mergers or strong interactions appear to be the triggering mechanism of the extreme starbursts seen in these galaxies.

  2. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs around NGC 3268

    CERN Document Server

    Caso, Juan Pablo; Richtler, Tom; Calderón, Juan Pablo; Castelli, Analía V Smith

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities (from Gemini/GMOS) of the second sample of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and bright globular clusters (GCs) in the Antlia cluster. Twenty-three objects are located around the giant elliptical NGC 3268, and one is close to the fainter lenticular NGC 3273. Together with previously found UCDs around NGC 3258 a total of 35 UCDs and bright GCs has been now identified in the Antlia cluster. Their colours and magnitudes are compared with those of the nuclei of dE,N galaxies already confirmed as Antlia members. For a subsample that lie on ACS images and are brighter than M_V = -9 mag, the effective radii (R_eff) have been measured, the maximum radius being approximately 10 pc. In addition to the radial velocity sample, we find 10 objects in the magnitude range corresponding to GCs but with 10 < R_eff < 17 pc, resembling the so-called `extended clusters'. By number and magnitude, the new UCDs fit to the GC luminosity function, supporting their interpretation as bright GCs. Additionally...

  3. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs around NGC 3258 in Antlia

    CERN Document Server

    Caso, Juan Pablo; Richtler, T; Castelli, A V Smith; Faifer, Favio; 10.1093/mnras/sts687

    2013-01-01

    We present the first compact stellar systems with luminosities in the range of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs), discovered in the Antlia galaxy cluster (-10.5 < M_V < -11.6). The magnitude limit between UCDs and globular clusters (CGs) is discussed. By means of imaging from VLT (FORS1), CTIO (MOSAIC), and the HST (ACS) archive, eleven UCDs/bright GCs are selected on the basis of photometry and confirmed as Antlia members through radial velocities measured on new GEMINI (GMOS-S) spectra. In addition, nine UCD candidates are identified taking into account properties derived from their surface brightness profiles. All of them, members and candidates, are located in the proximity of NGC\\,3258, one of the two brightest elliptical galaxies in the cluster core. Antlia UCDs in this sample present absolute magnitudes fainter than M_V ~ -11.6 mag and most of them have colours within the blue GC range, falling only two within the red GC range. Effective radii measured for the ones lying on the ACS field are in the ran...

  4. The Neutral ISM in Nearby Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, C A; Williams, J P; Guzmán, R; Castander, F J

    2003-01-01

    We observed 20 nearby Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) in HI and CO(J=2-1) with the GBT and JCMT. These ~L^star galaxies are blue, high surface brightness, starbursting, high metallicity galaxies with an underlying older stellar population. They are common at z~1, but rare in the local Universe. It has been proposed that intermediate redshift LCBGs may be the progenitors of local dwarf ellipticals or low luminosity spirals, or that they may be more massive disks forming from the center outward to become L^star galaxies. To discriminate among various possible evolutionary scenarios, we have measured the dynamical masses and gas depletion time scales of this sample of nearby LCBGs. We find that local LCBGs span a wide range of dynamical masses, from 4 x 10^9 to 1 x 10^11 M_solar (measured within R_25). Molecular gas in local LCBGs is depleted quite quickly, in 30 to 200 million years. The molecular plus atomic gas is depleted in 30 million to 10 billion years; however, ~80% of the local LCBGs deplete thei...

  5. Massive compact dwarf stars and C-field

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, L. P.; Sahu, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of C-field in high density matter has been studied. We find that the negative energy and negative pressure of the C-field helps in formation of massive compact stable neutron stars of mass $\\sim$ 0.5 solar mass which is in the range of 0.01 to 1.0 solar mass of recently observed dwarf stars.

  6. A Comprehensive Archival Search for Counterparts to Ultra-Compact High Velocity Clouds: Five Local Volume Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Bennet, P; Willman, B; Hargis, J; Strader, J; Olszewski, E; Tollerud, E J; Simon, J D; Caldwell, N; Guhathakurta, P; James, B L; Koposov, S; McLeod, B; Morrell, N; Peacock, M; Salinas, R; Seth, A C; Stark, D P; Toloba, E

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of five Local Volume dwarf galaxies uncovered during a comprehensive archival search for optical counterparts to ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs). The UCHVC population of HI clouds are thought to be candidate gas-rich, low mass halos at the edge of the Local Group and beyond, but no comprehensive search for stellar counterparts to these systems has been presented. Careful visual inspection of all publicly available optical and ultraviolet imaging at the position of the UCHVCs revealed six blue, diffuse counterparts with a morphology consistent with a faint dwarf galaxy beyond the Local Group. Optical spectroscopy of all six candidate dwarf counterparts show that five have an H$\\alpha$-derived velocity consistent with the coincident HI cloud, confirming their association; the sixth diffuse counterpart is likely a background object. The size and luminosity of the UCHVC dwarfs is consistent with other known Local Volume dwarf irregular galaxies. The gas fraction ($M_{HI}/M_{sta...

  7. Chemical Evolution of Blue Compact Galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Shi; Xu Kong; Fu-Zhen Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Based on a sample of 72 Blue Compact Galaxies (BCGs) observed with the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) and about 4000 strong emission line galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey,we analyzed their chemical evolution history using the revised chemical evolution model of Larsen et al. Our sample covers a much larger metallicity range (7.2<12+log(O/H) <9.0). We found that, in order to reproduce the observed abundance pattern and gas fraction over the whole metallicity range, a relatively continuous star formation history is needed for high metallicity galaxies, while assuming a series of instantaneous bursts with long quiescent periods (some Gyrs) for low metallicity galaxies. Model calculations also show that only the closed-box model is capable of reproducing the observational data over the whole metallicity range. Models that consider the ordinary winds and/or inflow can only fit the observations in the low metallicity range, and a model with enriched wind cannot fit the data in the whole metallicity range. This implies that the current adopted simple wind and inflow models are not applicable to massive galaxies, where the underlying physics of galactic winds or inflow could be more complicated.

  8. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE CORE OF THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have discovered both a red and a blue subpopulation of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in the Coma galaxy cluster. We analyzed deep F475W (Sloan g) and F814W (I) Hubble Space Telescope images obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel as part of the Coma Cluster Treasury Survey and have fitted the light profiles of ∼5000 point-like sources in the vicinity of NGC 4874, one of the two central dominant galaxies of the Coma Cluster. Although almost all of these sources are globular clusters that remain unresolved, we found that 52 objects have effective radii between ∼10 and 66 pc, in the range spanned by dwarf globular transition objects (DGTOs) and UCDs. Of these 52 compact objects, 25 are brighter than MV ∼ -11 mag, a magnitude conventionally thought to separate UCDs and globular clusters. The UCD/DGTO candidates have the same color and luminosity distribution as the most luminous globular clusters within the red and blue subpopulations of the immensely rich NGC 4874 globular cluster system. Unlike standard globular clusters, blue and red UCD/DGTO subpopulations have the same median effective radius. The spatial distribution of UCD/DGTO candidates reveals that they congregate toward NGC 4874 and are not uniformly distributed. We find a relative deficit of UCD/DGTOs compared with globular clusters in the inner 15 kpc around NGC 4874; however, at larger radii UCD/DGTO and globular clusters follow the same spatial distribution.

  9. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the Coma Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Tully, R. Brent; Marzke, ; Ronald O.; Phillipps, Steve; Price, James; Peng, Eric; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/LRIS confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma Cluster, a success rate > 60% for targeted objects ...

  10. Testing MOND with Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpa, Riccardo

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the recently discovered Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxies (UCDs) show that their internal acceleration of gravity is everywhere above a0, the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) constant of gravity. MOND therefore makes the strong prediction that no mass discrepancy should be observed for this class of objects. This is confirmed by the few UCDs for which virial masses were derived. We argue that UCD galaxies represent a suitable test-bench for the theory, in the sense that even a ...

  11. Faint Dwarf Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Taylor, Matthew A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Eigenthaler, Paul; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hilker, Michael; Lançon, Ariane; Mamon, Gary; Mieske, Steffen; Miller, Bryan W.; Peng, Eric W.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén

    2016-08-01

    We report the discovery of a very diverse set of five low-surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxy candidates in Hickson Compact Group 90 (HCG 90) detected in deep U- and I-band images obtained with VLT/VIMOS. These are the first LSB dwarf galaxy candidates found in a compact group of galaxies. We measure spheroid half-light radii in the range 0.7 ≲ reff/kpc ≲ 1.5 with luminosities of -11.65 ≲ MU ≲ -9.42 and -12.79 ≲ MI ≲ -10.58 mag, corresponding to a color range of (U - I)0 ≃ 1.1 - 2.2 mag and surface brightness levels of μU ≃ 28.1 mag/arcsec2 and μI ≃ 27.4 mag/arcsec2. Their colours and luminosities are consistent with a diverse set of stellar population properties. Assuming solar and 0.02 Z⊙ metallicities we obtain stellar masses in the range M_*|_{Z_odot } ˜eq 10^{5.7-6.3} M_{odot } and M_*|_{0.02 Z_odot } ˜eq 10^{6.3-8} M_{odot }. Three dwarfs are older than 1 Gyr, while the other two significantly bluer dwarfs are younger than ˜2 Gyr at any mass/metallicity combination. Altogether, the new LSB dwarf galaxy candidates share properties with dwarf galaxies found throughout the Local Volume and in nearby galaxy clusters such as Fornax. We find a pair of candidates with ˜2 kpc projected separation, which may represent one of the closest dwarf galaxy pairs found. We also find a nucleated dwarf candidate, with a nucleus size of reff ≃ 46 - 63 pc and magnitude MU, 0 = -7.42 mag and (U - I)0 = 1.51 mag, which is consistent with a nuclear stellar disc with a stellar mass in the range 104.9 - 6.5 M⊙.

  12. An Extended Star Formation History in an Ultra Compact Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Mark A; Faifer, Favio R; Kannappan, Sheila J; Forte, Juan Carlos; Bosch, Remco C E van den

    2015-01-01

    There has been significant controversy over the mechanisms responsible for forming compact stellar systems like ultra compact dwarfs (UCDs), with suggestions that UCDs are simply the high mass extension of the globular cluster (GC) population, or alternatively, the liberated nuclei of galaxies tidally stripped by larger companions. Definitive examples of UCDs formed by either route have been difficult to find, with only a handful of persuasive examples of stripped-nucleus type UCDs being known. In this paper we present very deep Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic observations of the suspected stripped nucleus UCD NGC 4546-UCD1 taken in good seeing conditions (< 0.7"). With these data we examine the spatially resolved kinematics and star formation history of this unusual object. We find no evidence of a rise in the central velocity dispersion of the UCD, suggesting that this UCD lacks a massive central black hole like those found in some other compact stellar systems, a conclusion confirmed by detailed dynamical mod...

  13. The WHIQII Survey: Metallicities and Spectroscopic Properties of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Erik J; van Zee, Liese; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    As part of the WIYN High Image Quality Indiana Irvine (WHIQII) survey, we present 123 spectra of emission-line galaxies, selected on intermediate redshift (.4blue colors that appear physically compact. The sample includes 15 true Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) and an additional 27 slightly less extreme emission-line systems. These galaxies represent a highly evolving class that may play an important role in the decline of star formation since z~1, but their exact nature and evolutionary pathways remain a mystery. Here, we use emission lines to determine metallicities and ionization parameters, constraining their intrinsic properties and state of star formation. Some LCBG metallicities are consistent with a "bursting dwarf" scenario, while a substantial fraction of others are not, further confirming that LCBGs are a highly heterogeneous population but are broadly consistent with the intermediate redshift field. In agreement with previous studies, we observe overall evolution ...

  14. Faint Dwarf Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 90

    CERN Document Server

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Puzia, Thomas H; Muñoz, Roberto P; Eigenthaler, Paul; Georgiev, Iskren Y; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hilker, Michael; Lançon, Ariane; Mamon, Gary; Mieske, Steffen; Miller, Bryan W; Peng, Eric W; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a very diverse set of five low-surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxy candidates in Hickson Compact Group 90 (HCG 90) detected in deep U- and I-band images obtained with VLT/VIMOS. These are the first LSB dwarf galaxy candidates found in a compact group of galaxies. We measure spheroid half-light radii in the range $0.7\\!\\lesssim\\! r_{\\rm eff}/{\\rm kpc}\\! \\lesssim\\! 1.5$ with luminosities of $-11.65\\!\\lesssim\\! M_U\\! \\lesssim\\! -9.42$ and $-12.79\\!\\lesssim\\! M_I\\! \\lesssim\\! -10.58$ mag, corresponding to a color range of $(U\\!-\\!I)_0\\!\\simeq\\!1.1\\!-\\!2.2$ mag and surface brightness levels of $\\mu_U\\!\\simeq\\!28.1\\,{\\rm mag/arcsec^2}$ and $\\mu_I\\!\\simeq\\!27.4\\,{\\rm mag/arcsec^2}$. Their colours and luminosities are consistent with a diverse set of stellar population properties. Assuming solar and 0.02 Z$_\\odot$ metallicities we obtain stellar masses in the range $M_*|_{Z_\\odot} \\simeq 10^{5.7-6.3} M_{\\odot}$ and $M_*|_{0.02\\,Z_\\odot}\\!\\simeq\\!10^{6.3-8}\\,M_{\\odot}$. Three dwarfs are ol...

  15. Fornax compact object survey FCOS: On the nature of Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mieske, S; Infante, L

    2004-01-01

    The results of the Fornax Compact Object Survey (FCOS) are presented. The FCOS aims at investigating the nature of the Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies (UCDs) recently discovered in the center of the Fornax cluster (Drinkwater et al. 2000). 280 unresolved objects in the magnitude space covering UCDs and bright globular clusters (1820 mag) at 96% confidence. The mean velocity of the bright compact objects is consistent with that of the dwarf galaxy population in Fornax, but inconsistent with that of NGC 1399's globular cluster system at 93.5% confidence. The compact objects follow a colour magnitude relation with a slope very similar to that of normal dEs, but shifted about 0.2 mag redwards. The magnitude distribution of compact objects shows a fluent transition between UCDs and GCs with an overpopulation of 8 +/- 4 objects for V<20 mag with respect to the extrapolation of NGC 1399's GC luminosity function. The spatial distribution of bright compact objects is in comparison to the faint ones more extended at 88...

  16. An Active Black Hole in a Compact Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    A new type of galaxy has just been added to the galaxy zoo: a small, compact, and old elliptical galaxy that shows signs of a monster black hole actively accreting material in its center. What can this unusual discovery tell us about how compact elliptical galaxies form?A New Galactic BeastCompact elliptical galaxies are an extremely rare early-type dwarf galaxy. Consistent with their name, compact ellipticals are small, very compact collections of ancient stars; these galaxies exhibit a high surface brightness and arent actively forming stars.Optical view of the ancient compact elliptical galaxy SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 (center of image) in an SDSS color composite image. [Adapted from Paudel et al. 2016]Most compact ellipticals are found in dense environments, particularly around massive galaxies. This has led astronomers to believe that compact ellipticals might form via the tidal stripping of a once-large galaxy in interactions with another, massive galaxy. In this model, once the original galaxys outer layers are stripped away, the compact inner bulge component would be left behind as a compact elliptical galaxy. Recent discoveries of a few isolated compact ellipticals, however, have strained this model.Now a new galaxy has been found to confuse our classification schemes: the first-ever compact elliptical to also display signs of an active galactic nucleus. Led by Sanjaya Paudel (Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute), a team of scientists discovered SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 serendipitously in Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. The team used SDSS images and spectroscopy in combination with data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope to learn more about this unique galaxy.Puzzling CharacteristicsSDSS J085431.18+173730.5 presents an interesting conundrum. Ancient compact ellipticals are supposed to be devoid of gas, with no fuel left to trigger nuclear activity. Yet SDSS J085431.18+173730.5 clearly shows the emission lines that indicate active accretion onto

  17. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. VI. The Kinematics of Ultra-compact Dwarfs and Globular Clusters in M87

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hong-Xin; Cote, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Ferrarese, Laura; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Caldwell, Nelson; Gwyn, Stephen D J; Jordan, Andres; Lancon, Ariane; Li, Biao; Munoz, Roberto P; Puzia, Thomas H; Bekki, Kenji; Blakeslee, John; Boselli, Alessandro; Drinkwater, Michael J; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Emsellem, Eric; Firth, Peter; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    The origin of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs)--objects larger and more massive than typical globular clusters (GCs), but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies--has been hotly debated in the 15 years since their discovery. Even whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin, or simply the most extreme GCs, is not yet settled. We present the dynamical properties of 97 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs (rh >~10 pc) and 911 GCs associated with central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. Our UCDs, of which 89% have M_star > ~2X10^6 M_sun and 92% are as blue as the classic blue GCs, nearly triple the sample of previous confirmed Virgo UCDs, providing by far the best opportunity for studying the global dynamics of a UCD system. We found that (1) UCDs have a surface number density profile that is shallower than that of the blue GCs in the inner ~ 70 kpc and as steep as that of the red GCs at larger radii; (2) UCDs exhibit a significantly stronger rotation than the GCs, and the blue GCs seem to have a velocity fi...

  18. Molecular evidence for the subspecific differentiation of blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and polyphyletic origin of dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Zou, Dandan; Tang, Lei; Wang, Gaochao; Peng, Quekun; Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Chen; Zou, Fangdong

    2012-06-01

    Blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), a Central Asian ungulate with restricted geographic distribution, exhibits unclear variation in morphology and phylogeographic structure. The composition of species and subspecies in the genus Pseudois is controversial, particularly with respect to the taxonomic designation of geographically restricted populations. Here, 26 specimens including 5 dwarf blue sheep (Pseudois schaeferi), which were collected from a broad geographic region in China, were analyzed for 2 mitochondrial DNA fragments (cytochrome b and control region sequences). In a pattern consistent with geographically defined subspecies, we found three deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages restricted to different geographic regions. The currently designated two subspecies of blue sheep, Pseudois nayaur nayaur and Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis, were recognized in the phylogenetic trees. In addition, the Helan Mountain population showed distinct genetic characteristics from other geographic populations, and thus should be classified as a new subspecies. In contrast, dwarf blue sheep clustered closely with some blue sheep from Sichuan Province in the phylogenetic trees. Therefore, dwarf blue sheep appear to be a subset of Pseudois nayaur szechuanensis. After considering both population genetic information and molecular clock analysis, we obtained some relevant molecular phylogeographic information concerning the historical biogeography of blue sheep. These results also indicate that western Sichuan was a potential refugium for blue sheep during the Quaternary period.

  19. Deep multiband surface photometry on star forming galaxies: I. A sample of 24 blue compact galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Micheva, Genoveva; Bergvall, Nils; Zackrisson, Erik; Masegosa, Josefa; Marquez, Isabel; Marquart, Thomas; Durret, Florence

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] We present deep optical and near-infrared UBVRIHKs imaging data for 24 blue compact galaxies (BCGs). The sample contains luminous dwarf and intermediate-mass BCGs which are predominantly metal-poor, although a few have near-solar metallicities. We have analyzed isophotal and elliptical integration surface brightness and color profiles, extremely deep (mu_B<29 mag arcsec^{-2}) contour maps and RGB images for each galaxy in the sample. The colors are compared to different spectral evolutionary models. We detect extremely extended low surface brightness (LSB) components dominant beyond the Holmberg radius as well as optical bridges between companion galaxies at the mu_V~28th mag arcsec^{-2} isophotal level. The central surface brightness mu_0 and scale length h_r are derived from two radial ranges typically assumed to be dominated by the underlying host galaxy. We find that mu_0 and h_r of the BCGs host deviate from those of dwarf ellipticals (dE) and dwarf irregulars (dI) solely due to a strong bu...

  20. Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Chiboucas, Kristin; Marzke, Ronald O; Phillipps, Steve; Price, James; Peng, Eric; Trentham, Neil; Carter, David; Hammer, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/LRIS confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma Cluster, a success rate > 60% for targeted objects brighter than M_R = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster p...

  1. ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have undertaken a spectroscopic search for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the dense core of the dynamically evolved, massive Coma cluster as part of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey. UCD candidates were initially chosen based on color, magnitude, degree of resolution within the ACS images, and the known properties of Fornax and Virgo UCDs. Follow-up spectroscopy with Keck/Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer confirmed 27 candidates as members of the Coma cluster, a success rate >60% for targeted objects brighter than MR = -12. Another 14 candidates may also prove to be Coma members, but low signal-to-noise spectra prevent definitive conclusions. An investigation of the properties and distribution of the Coma UCDs finds these objects to be very similar to UCDs discovered in other environments. The Coma UCDs tend to be clustered around giant galaxies in the cluster core and have colors/metallicity that correlate with the host galaxy. With properties and a distribution similar to that of the Coma cluster globular cluster population, we find strong support for a star cluster origin for the majority of the Coma UCDs. However, a few UCDs appear to have stellar population or structural properties which differentiate them from the old star cluster populations found in the Coma cluster, perhaps indicating that UCDs may form through multiple formation channels.

  2. On central black holes in ultra-compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; Luetzgendorf, Nora; Neumayer, Nadine; Hilker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT: The dynamical mass-to-light (M/L) ratios of massive ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) are about 50% higher than predicted by stellar population models. AIMS: Here we investigate the possibility that these elevated M/L ratios are caused by a central black hole (BH), heating up the internal motion of stars. We focus on a sample of ~50 extragalactic UCDs for which velocity dispersions and structural parameters have been measured. METHODS: Using up-to-date distance moduli and a consistent treatment of aperture and seeing effects, we calculate the ratio Psi=(M/L)_{dyn}/(M/L)_{pop} between the dynamical and the stellar population M/L of UCDs. For all UCDs with Psi>1 we estimate the mass of a hypothetical central BH needed to reproduce the observed integrated velocity dispersion. RESULTS: Massive UCDs (M>10^7 M_*) have an average Psi = 1.7 +-0.2, implying notable amounts of dark mass in them. We find that, on average, central BH masses of 10-15% of the UCD mass can explain these elevated dynamical M/L rat...

  3. The red extended structure of IC10, the nearest blue compact galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie A N; Irwin, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 is the closest example of a blue compact galaxy. Here, we use optical gi imaging from CFHT/MegaCam and near infra-red JHK imaging from UKIRT/WFCAM to conduct a comprehensive survey of the structure of IC10. We examine the spatial distribution of its resolved young, intermediate and old stellar populations to large radius and low effective surface brightness levels. Akin to other dwarfs with multiple populations of different ages, stellar populations of decreasing average age are increasingly concentrated in this galaxy. We find that the young, star-bursting population, and the AGB population, are both offset from the geometric center of the older RGB population by a few hundred parsecs, implying that the younger star formation occurred significantly away from the center of the galaxy. The RGB population traces an extended structure that is typical of blue compact galaxies, with an effective radius of ~5.75 arcmins (~1.25 kpc). These measurements show that IC10 is much mor...

  4. Dynamical Tides in Compact White Dwarf Binaries: Helium Core White Dwarfs, Tidal Heating, and Observational Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Tidal dissipation in compact white dwarf (WD) binary systems significantly influences the physical conditions (such as surface temperature and rotation rate) of the WDs prior to mass transfer or merger. In these systems, the dominant tidal effects involve the excitation of gravity waves and their dissipation in the outer envelope of the star. We calculate the amplitude of tidally excited gravity waves in low-mass (0.3M_\\odot) helium-core (He) WDs as a function of the tidal forcing frequency \\omega. Like carbon-oxygen (CO) WDs studied in our previous paper, we find that the dimensionless tidal torque F(\\omega) (inversely proportional to the effective tidal quality factor) has an erratic dependence on \\omega. On average, F(\\omega) scales approximately as \\omega^6, and is several orders of magnitude smaller for He WDs than for CO WDs. We find that tidal torques can begin to synchronize the WD rotation when the orbital period is less than about a hour, although a nearly constant asynchronization is maintained eve...

  5. The Evolution of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Disks or Spheroids?

    CERN Document Server

    Pisano, D J; Garland, C A; Guzman, R; Castander, F J; Perez-Gallego, J

    2011-01-01

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) are a diverse class of galaxies characterized by high luminosity, blue color, and high surface brightness that sit at the critical juncture of galaxies evolving from the blue to the red sequence. As part of our multi-wavelength survey of local LCBGs, we have been studying the HI content of these galaxies using both single-dish telescopes and interferometers. Our goals are to determine if single-dish HI observations represent a true measure of the dynamical mass of LCBGs and to look for signatures of recent interactions that may be triggering star formation in LCBGs. Our data show that while some LCBGs are undergoing interactions, many appear isolated. While all LCBGs contain HI and show signatures of rotation, the population does not lie on the Tully-Fisher relation nor can it evolve onto it. Furthermore, the HI maps of many LCBGs show signatures of dynamically hot components, suggesting that we are seeing the formation of a thick disk or spheroid in at least some LCBGs....

  6. The tidally disturbed luminous compact blue galaxy Mkn 1087 and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Rodríguez, M; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Esteban, Cesar; Rodriguez, Monica

    2004-01-01

    We present new broad-band optical and near-infrared CCD imaging together with deep optical intermediate-resolution spectroscopy of Mkn 1087 and its surrounding objects. We analyze the morphology and colors of the stellar populations of the brightest objects, some of them star-formation areas, as well as the kinematics, physical conditions and chemical composition of the ionized gas associated with them. Mkn 1087 does not host an Active Galactic Nucleus, but it could be a Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy. Although it was classified as a suspected Wolf-Rayet galaxy, we do not detect the spectral features of these sort of massive stars. Mkn 1087 shows morphological and kinematical features that can be explained assuming that it is in interaction with two nearby galaxies: the bright KPG 103a and a dwarf ($M_B\\sim-18$) star-forming companion. We argue that this dwarf companion is not a tidal object but an external galaxy because of its low metallicity [12+log(O/H) = 8.24] with respect to the one derived for Mkn 1087 [...

  7. The Fate of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: An Environmental Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, S M; Glenn, A; Hössel, J G

    2004-01-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are a heterogeneous class which dominate an intermediate phase of galaxy evolution. These sources account for the majority of the star formation between 0.3

  8. Ultra compact dwarfs in the Perseus Cluster: UCD formation via tidal stripping

    CERN Document Server

    Penny, Samantha J; Strader, Jay; Usher, Christopher; Brodie, Jean P; Romanowsky, Aaron J

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a Keck/DEIMOS survey of Ultra Compact Dwarfs (UCDs) in the Perseus Cluster core. We confirm cluster membership for 14 UCDs, with radial velocities ~5300 km s$^{-1}$. Two of these confirmed Perseus UCDs have extremely blue colours ($B-R < 0.6$ mag), reside in star forming filaments surrounding NGC 1275, and have likely formed as massive star clusters in the last ~100 Myr. We also measure a central velocity dispersion of a third, UCD13 ($\\sigma_0 = 38 \\pm 8$ km s$^{-1}$), the most extended UCD in our sample. We determine it to have radius $R_{e} = 85 \\pm 1.1$ pc, a dynamical mass of ($2.3 \\pm 0.8)\\times10^{8}$ M$_{\\odot}$, and a metallicity [Z/H]$= -0.52^{+0.33}_{-0.29}$ dex. UCD13 and the cluster's central galaxy, NGC 1275, have a projected separation of 30 kpc and a radial velocity difference of ~20 km s$^{-1}$. Based on its size, red colour, internal velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, metallicity and proximity to NGC 1275, we argue that UCD13 is likely the remnant nucleus of a ...

  9. The Relationships Among Compact Stellar Systems: A Fresh View of Ultra Compact Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Brodie, Jean P; Strader, Jay; Forbes, Duncan A

    2011-01-01

    We use a combined imaging and spectroscopic survey of the nearby central cluster galaxy, M87, to assemble a sample of 34 confirmed ultra compact dwarfs (UCDs) with half-light radii of >~ 10 pc measured from Hubble Space Telescope images. This doubles the existing sample in M87, making it the largest such sample for any galaxy, while extending the detection of UCDs to unprecedentedly low luminosities (MV = -9). With this expanded sample, we find no correlation between size and luminosity, in contrast to previous suggestions, and no general correlation between size and galactocentric distance. We explore the relationships between UCDs, less luminous extended clusters (including faint fuzzies), globular clusters (GCs), as well as early-type galaxies and their nuclei, assembling an extensive new catalog of sizes and luminosities for stellar systems. Most of the M87 UCDs follow a tight color-magnitude relation, offset from the metal-poor GCs. This, along with kinematical differences, demonstrates that most UCDs ar...

  10. A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil C; van den Bosch, Remco; Mieske, Steffen; Baumgardt, Holger; den Brok, Mark; Strader, Jay; Neumayer, Nadine; Chilingarian, Igor; Hilker, Michael; McDermid, Richard; Spitler, Lee; Brodie, Jean; Frank, Matthias J; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2014-09-18

    Ultra-compact dwarf galaxies are among the densest stellar systems in the Universe. These systems have masses of up to 2 × 10(8) solar masses, but half-light radii of just 3-50 parsecs. Dynamical mass estimates show that many such dwarfs are more massive than expected from their luminosity. It remains unclear whether these high dynamical mass estimates arise because of the presence of supermassive black holes or result from a non-standard stellar initial mass function that causes the average stellar mass to be higher than expected. Here we report adaptive optics kinematic data of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 that show a central velocity dispersion peak exceeding 100 kilometres per second and modest rotation. Dynamical modelling of these data reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole with a mass of 2.1 × 10(7) solar masses. This is 15 per cent of the object's total mass. The high black hole mass and mass fraction suggest that M60-UCD1 is the stripped nucleus of a galaxy. Our analysis also shows that M60-UCD1's stellar mass is consistent with its luminosity, implying a large population of previously unrecognized supermassive black holes in other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

  11. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  12. Possible Local Spiral Counterparts to Compact Blue Galaxies at Intermediate Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, E J; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Zee, Liese van

    2001-01-01

    We identify nearby disk galaxies with optical structural parameters similar to those of intermediate-redshift compact blue galaxies. By comparing HI and optical emission-line widths, we show that the optical widths substantially underestimate the true kinematic widths of the local galaxies. By analogy, optical emission-line widths may underrepresent the masses of intermediate-z compact objects. For the nearby galaxies, the compact blue morphology is the result of tidally-triggered central star formation: we argue that interactions and minor mergers may cause apparently compact morphology at higher redshift.

  13. M32 Analogs? A Population of Massive Ultra Compact Dwarf Galaxies in intermediate redshift CLASH Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of relatively massive, M32-like Ultra Compact Dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in $0.2compact objects concentrated around the brightest cluster galaxies with colors similar to cluster red sequence galaxies. Their colors and magnitudes suggest stellar masses around $10^9 \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$. More than half of these galaxies have half-light radii smaller than 200pc, falling into the category of massive Ultra Compact Dwarfs (UCD), with properties similar to M32. The properties are consistent with a tidal stripping origin, but we can not rule out the possibility that they are early-formed compact objects trapped in massive dark matter halos. The 17 CLASH clusters studied in this work on average contain 2.7 of these objects in the their central 0.3 Mpc and 0.6 in their central 50 kpc. Our study demonstrates the possibility of statistically characteriz...

  14. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Sills, Alison [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Leigh, Nathan [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Knigge, Christian, E-mail: gosnell@astro.wisc.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 IBJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history.

  15. Compact collimators for high brightness blue LEDs using dielectric multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, H.J.; Ma, H.; Ho, C.; Li, M.; Mu, C.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method is presented to inject the light of millimeter-sized high-brightness blue LEDs into light guides of submillimeter thickness. Use is made of an interference filter that is designed to pass only those modes that will propagate in the light guide by total internal reflection. Other modes

  16. H ii REGIONS WITHIN A COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUD. A NEARLY STARLESS DWARF GALAXY?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Magrini, L. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mucciarelli, A.; Fraternali, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Beccari, G. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura Santiago (Chile); Ibata, R.; Martin, N. [Obs. astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Battaglia, G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Testa, V. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Fumana, M.; Marchetti, A. [INAF—IASF, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Correnti, M., E-mail: michele.bellazzini@oabo.inaf.it [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Within the SECCO survey we identified a candidate stellar counterpart to the Ultra Compact High Velocity Cloud (UCHVC) HVC274.68+74.70-123 that was suggested by Adams et al. to be a possible mini halo within the Local Group of galaxies. The spectroscopic follow-up of the brightest sources within the candidate reveals the presence of two H ii regions whose radial velocity is compatible with a physical association with the UVHVC. The available data do not allow us to give a definite answer on the nature of the newly identified system. A few alternative hypotheses are discussed. However, the most likely possibility is that we have found a new faint dwarf galaxy residing in the Virgo cluster of galaxies, which we name SECCO 1. Independently of its actual distance, SECCO 1 displays a ratio of neutral hydrogen mass to V luminosity of M{sub H} {sub I}/L{sub V}≳20, by far the largest among local dwarfs. Hence, it appears to be a nearly starless galaxy and it may be an example of the missing links between normal dwarfs and the dark mini halos that are predicted to exist in large numbers according to the currently accepted cosmological model.

  17. Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies in Abell 1689: a photometric study with the ACS

    CERN Document Server

    Mieske, S; Benítez, N; Coe, D; Blakeslee, J P; Zekser, K; Ford, H; Broadhurst, T J; Illingworth, G D; Hartig, G F; Clampin, M; Ardila, D R; Bartko, F; Bouwens, R J; Brown, R A; Burrows, C J; Cheng, E S; Cross, N J G; Feldman, P D; Franx, M; Golimowski, D A; Goto, T; Gronwall, C; Holden, B; Homeier, N; Kimble, R A; Krist, J E; Lesser, M P; Martel, A R; Menanteau, F; Meurer, G R; Miley, G K; Postman, M; Rosati, P; Sirianni, M; Sparks, W B; Tran, H D; Tsvetanov, Z I; White, R L; Zheng, W

    2004-01-01

    The properties of Ultra Compact Dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in Abell 1689 (z=0.183) are investigated, based on deep high resolution ACS images. A UCD candidate has to be unresolved, have i26.8 mag, the radial and luminosity distribution of the UCD candidates can be explained well by Abell 1689's globular cluster (GC) system. For i<26.8 mag, there is an overpopulation of 15 +/- 5 UCD candidates with respect to the GC luminosity function. For i<26 mag, the radial distribution of UCD candidates is more consistent with the dwarf galaxy population than with the GC system of Abell 1689. The UCD candidates follow a color-magnitude trend with a slope similar to that of Abell 1689's genuine dwarf galaxy population, but shifted fainter by about 2-3 mag. Two of the three brightest UCD candidates (M_V ~ -17 mag) are slightly resolved. At the distance of Abell 1689, these two objects would have King-profile core radii of ~35 pc and r_eff ~300 pc, implying luminosities and sizes 2-3 times those of M32's bulge. Addi...

  18. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey. X. Properties of Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the M87, M49 and M60 Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengze; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordan, Andres; Mihos, J Christopher; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Munoz, Roberto P; Puzia, Thomas H; Lancon, Ariane; Gwyn, Stephen; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Blakeslee, John P; Boselli, Alessandro; Durrell, Patrick R; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Guhathakurta, Puragra; MacArthur, Lauren A; Mei, Simona; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Xu, Haiguang

    2015-01-01

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive, red-sequence galaxies M87, M49 and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color-color diagrams ($u^*iK_s$ or $u^*gz$). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ~3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters, and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ~85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf...

  19. The merger history, AGN and dwarf galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 59

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Fedotov, K; Durrell, P R; Tzanavaris, P; Hill, A R; Zabludoff, A I; Maier, M L; Elmegreen, D M; Charlton, J C; Johnson, K E; Brandt, W N; Walker, L M; Eracleous, M; Maybhate, A; Gronwall, C; English, J; Hornschemeier, A E; Mulchaey, J S

    2011-01-01

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8e13 Msun), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical o...

  20. Optically Selected Compact Stellar Regions and Tidal Dwarf Galaxies in (Ultra)-Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Miralles-Caballero, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This thesis work is devoted to the analysis of compact star forming regions (knots) in a representative sample of 32 (U)LIRGs. The project is based mainly on optical high angular resolution images taken with the ACS and WFPC2 cameras on board the HST telescope, data from a high spatial resolution simulation of a major galaxy encounter, and with the combination of optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) taken with the INTEGRAL (WHT) and VIMOS (VLT) instruments. A few thousand knots -a factor of more than one order of magnitude higher than in previous studies- are identified and their photometric properties are characterized as a function of the infrared luminosity of the system and of the interaction phase. These properties are compared with those of compact objects identified in simulations of galaxy encounters. Finally, and with the additional use of IFS data, we search for suitable candidates to tidal dwarf galaxies, setting up constraints on the formation of these objects for the (U)LIRG class. Knots in ...

  1. Gemini Spectroscopy of Ultra-Compact Dwarfs in the Fossil Group NGC 1132

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Juan P

    2013-01-01

    A spectroscopic follow up of Ultra-Compact Dwarf (UCD) candidates in the fossil group NGC 1132 is undertaken with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph (GMOS). These new Gemini spectra prove the presence of six UCDs in the fossil group NGC 1132 at a distance of D~100 Mpc and a recessional velocity of v_r = 6935 +/- 11 km/s. The brightest and largest member of the UCD population is an M32 analog with a size of 77.1 pc and a magnitude of M_V=-14.8 mag with the characteristics in between those of the brightest UCDs and compact elliptical galaxies. The ensemble of UCDs have an average radial velocity of = 6966 +/- 208 km/s and a velocity dispersion of sigma_v = 169 +/-18 km/s similar to the one of poor galaxy groups. This work shows that UCDs can be used as test particles to determine the dynamical properties of galaxy groups. The presence of UCDs in the fossil group environment is confirmed and thus the fact that UCDs can form across diverse evolutionary conditions.

  2. The Merger History, AGN and Dwarf Galaxies of Hickson Compact Group 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Gallagher, S. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Tzanavaris, P.; Hill, A. R.; Zabludoff, A. I.; Maier, M. L.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Charlton, J. C.; Johnson, K. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Walker, L. M.; Eracleous, M.; Maybhate, A.; Gronwall, C.; English, J.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Mulchaey, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Compact group galaxies often appear unaffected by their unusually dense environment. Closer examination can, however, reveal the subtle, cumulative effects of multiple galaxy interactions. Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 59 is an excellent example of this situation. We present a photometric study of this group in the optical (HST), infrared (Spitzer) and X-ray (Chandra) regimes aimed at characterizing the star formation and nuclear activity in its constituent galaxies and intra-group medium. We associate five dwarf galaxies with the group and update the velocity dispersion, leading to an increase in the dynamical mass of the group of up to a factor of 10 (to 2.8 x 10(exp 13) Stellar Mass), and a subsequent revision of its evolutionary stage. Star formation is proceeding at a level consistent with the morphological types of the four main galaxies, of which two are star-forming and the other two quiescent. Unlike in some other compact groups, star-forming complexes across HCG 59 closely follow mass-radius scaling relations typical of nearby galaxies. In contrast, the ancient globular cluster populations in galaxies HCG 59A and B show intriguing irregularities, and two extragalactic HII regions are found just west of B. We age-date a faint stellar stream in the intra-group medium at approx. 1 Gyr to examine recent interactions. We detect a likely low-luminosity AGN in HCG 59A by its approx. 10(exp 40) erg/s X-ray emission; the active nucleus rather than star formation can account for the UV+IR SED. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of galaxy evolution in dense environments.

  3. White dwarf-red dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis shows several studies on white dwarf - red dwarf binaries. White dwarfs are the end products of most stars and red dwarfs are normal hydrogen burning low-mass stars. White dwarf - red dwarf binaries are both blue (white dwarf) and red (red dwarf). Together with the fact that they are

  4. ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS AS MINIHALOS AND DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faerman, Yakov; Sternberg, Amiel [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: yakovfae@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present dark matter minihalo models for the Ultra-Compact, High-Velocity H I Clouds (UCHVCs) recently discovered in the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We assume gravitational confinement of 10{sup 4} K H I gas by flat-cored dark-matter subhalos within the Local Group. We show that for flat cores, typical (median) tidally stripped cosmological subhalos at redshift z = 0 have dark-matter masses of ∼10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} within the central 300 pc (independent of total halo mass), consistent with the 'Strigari mass scale' observed in low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. Flat-cored subhalos also resolve the mass discrepancy between simulated and observed satellites around the Milky Way. For the UCHVCs, we calculate the photoionization-limited hydrostatic gas profiles for any distance-dependent total observed H I mass and predict the associated (projected) H I half-mass radii, assuming the clouds are embedded in distant (d ∼> 300 kpc) and unstripped subhalos. For a typical UCHVC (0.9 Jy km s{sup –1}), we predict physical H I half-mass radii of 0.18 to 0.35 kpc (or angular sizes of 0.'6 to 2.'1) for distances ranging from 300 kpc to 2 Mpc. As a consistency check, we model the gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo T, for which there is a well-resolved H I column density profile and a known distance (420 kpc). For Leo T, we find that a subhalo with M{sub 300} = 8 (± 0.2) × 10{sup 6} M{sub ☉} best fits the observed H I profile. We derive an upper limit of P{sub HIM} ∼< 150 cm{sup –3} K for the pressure of any enveloping hot intergalactic medium gas at the distance of Leo T. Our analysis suggests that some of the UCHVCs may in fact constitute a population of 21 cm-selected but optically faint dwarf galaxies in the Local Group.

  5. The Most Massive Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxy in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengze; Toloba, Elisa; Mihos, J Christopher; Ferrarese, Laura; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Cunningham, Emily C; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, Stephen; Herczeg, Gregory; Lim, Sungsoon; Puzia, Thomas H; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Yin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report on the properties of the most massive ultra-compact dwarf galaxy (UCD) in the nearby Virgo Cluster of galaxies using imaging from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) and spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS. This object (M59-UCD3) appears to be associated with the massive Virgo galaxy M59 (NGC 4621), has an integrated velocity dispersion of 78 km/s, a dynamical mass of $3.7\\times10^8 M_\\odot$, and an effective radius ($R_e$) of 25 pc. With an effective surface mass density of $9.4\\times10^{10} M_\\odot/kpc^2$, it is the densest galaxy in the local Universe discovered to date, surpassing the density of the luminous Virgo UCD, M60-UCD1. M59-UCD3 has a total luminosity of $M_{g'}=-14.2$ mag, and a spectral energy distribution consistent with an old (14 Gyr) stellar population with [Fe/H]=0.0 and [$\\alpha$/Fe]=+0.2. We also examine deep imaging around M59 and find a broad low surface brightness stream pointing towards M59-UCD3, which may represent a tidal remnant of the UCD progenitor. This UCD, alo...

  6. Runaway accretion of metals from compact debris disks onto white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proposed that metal-rich white dwarfs (WDs) accrete their metals from compact debris disks found to exist around more than a dozen of them. At the same time, elemental abundances measured in atmospheres of some WDs imply vigorous metal accretion at rates up to $10^{11}$ g/s, far in excess of what can be supplied solely by Poynting-Robertson drag acting on such debris disks. To explain this observation we propose a model, in which rapid transport of metals from the disk onto the WD naturally results from interaction between this particulate disk and spatially coexisting disk of metallic gas. The latter is fed by evaporation of debris particles at the sublimation radius located at several tens of WD radii. Because of pressure support gaseous disk orbits WD slower than particulate disk. Resultant azimuthal drift between them at speed ~1 m/s causes aerodynamic drag on the disk of solids and drives inward migration of its constituent particles. Upon reaching the sublimation radius particles evapora...

  7. Ultra-Compact High Velocity Clouds as Minihalos and Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Faerman, Yakov; McKee, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    We present dark-matter minihalo models for the Ultra-Compact High Velocity HI Clouds (UCHVCs) recently discovered in the 21 cm ALFALFA survey. We assume gravitational confinement of 10^4 K HI gas by flat-cored dark-matter subhalos within the Local Group. We show that for flat cores, typical (median) tidally-stripped cosmological subhalos at redshift z=0 have dark-matter masses of ~10^7 M_{sun} within the central 300 pc (independent of total halo mass), consistent with the "Strigari mass scale" observed in low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. Flat-cored subhalos also resolve the mass-discrepancy between simulated and observed satellites around the Milky Way. For the UCHVCs we calculate the photoionization-limited hydrostatic gas profiles for any distance-dependent total observed HI mass and predict the associated (projected) HI half-mass radii, assuming the clouds are embedded in distant (d > 300 kpc) and unstripped subhalos. For a typical UCHVC (0.9 Jy km/s) we predict physical HI half-mass radii of 0.18 to 0.35 kp...

  8. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. X. PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS IN THE M87, M49, AND M60 REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-Xin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, Stephen; Blakeslee, John P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordán, Andrés; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg and CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAp, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boselli, Alessandro [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Durrell, Patrick R., E-mail: czliu@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); and others

    2015-10-10

    We use imaging from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) to present a comparative study of ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) galaxies associated with three prominent Virgo sub-clusters: those centered on the massive red-sequence galaxies M87, M49, and M60. We show how UCDs can be selected with high completeness using a combination of half-light radius and location in color–color diagrams (u*iK{sub s} or u*gz). Although the central galaxies in each of these sub-clusters have nearly identical luminosities and stellar masses, we find large differences in the sizes of their UCD populations, with M87 containing ∼3.5 and 7.8 times more UCDs than M49 and M60, respectively. The relative abundance of UCDs in the three regions scales in proportion to sub-cluster mass, as traced by X-ray gas mass, total gravitating mass, number of globular clusters (GCs), and number of nearby galaxies. We find that the UCDs are predominantly blue in color, with ∼85% of the UCDs having colors similar to blue GCs and stellar nuclei of dwarf galaxies. We present evidence that UCDs surrounding M87 and M49 may follow a morphological sequence ordered by the prominence of their outer, low surface brightness envelope, ultimately merging with the sequence of nucleated low-mass galaxies, and that envelope prominence correlates with distance from either galaxy. Our analysis provides evidence that tidal stripping of nucleated galaxies is an important process in the formation of UCDs.

  9. An ultra-compact dwarf around the Sombrero galaxy (M104): the nearest massive UCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, George K. T.; Spitler, Lee R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Strader, Jay; Mendel, J. Trevor; Brodie, Jean P.; Harris, William E.

    2009-03-01

    We report the discovery of an ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) associated with the Sombrero galaxy (M104). This is the closest massive UCD known and the first spectroscopically verified massive UCD which is located in a low-density environment. The object, we name SUCD1, was identified in Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging and confirmed to be associated with the Sombrero galaxy by its recession velocity obtained from Keck spectra. The light profile is well fitted by a Wilson model. We measure a half-light size of 14.7 +/- 1.4 pc, an absolute magnitude of MV = -12.3 mag (MK = -15.1 mag) and an internal velocity dispersion of 25.0 +/- 5.6 km s-1. Such values are typical of UCDs. From Lick spectral indices we measure a luminosity-weighted central age of 12.6 +/- 0.9 Gyr, [Fe/H] of -0.08 +/- 0.08 dex and [α/Fe] of 0.06 +/- 0.07 dex. The lack of colour gradients suggests these values are representative of the entire UCD. The derived stellar and virial masses are the same, within errors, at ~3.3 × 107Msolar. Thus, we find no strong evidence for dark matter or the need to invoke a non-standard initial mass function. We also report arguably the first X-ray detection of a bona fide UCD, which we attribute to the presence of low-mass X-ray binaries. The X-ray luminosity of LX = 0.56 × 1038 ergs-1 is consistent with the values observed for globular clusters (GCs) of the same metallicity. Overall, we find SUCD1 has properties similar to other known UCDs and massive GCs.

  10. Faint blue objects on the Hubble Deep Field North and South as possible nearby old halo white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez, R A

    1999-01-01

    Using data derived from the deepest and finest angular resolution images of the universe yet acquired by astronomers at optical wavelengths using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in two postage-stamp sections of the sky (Williams et al. 1996a,b), plus simple geometrical and scaling arguments, we demonstrate that the faint blue population of point-source objects detected on those two fields (Méndez et al. 1996) could actually be ancient halo white dwarfs at distances closer than about 2 kpc from the Sun. This finding has profound implications, as the mass density of the detected objects would account for about half of the missing dark matter in the Milky-Way (Bahcall and Soneira 1980), thus solving one of the most controversial issues of modern astrophysics (Trimble 1987, Ashman 1992). The existence of these faint blue objects points to a very large mass locked into ancient halo white dwarfs. Our estimate indicates that they could account for as much as half of the dark matter in our Galaxy, confirming the su...

  11. The Nature of Nearby Counterparts to Intermediate Redshift Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies II. CO Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, C A; Pisano, D J; Guzmán, R; Castander, F J; Brinkmann, J

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a single-dish beam-matched survey of the three lowest rotational transitions of CO in a sample of 20 local (D < 70 Mpc) Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs). These ~L*, blue, high surface brightness, starbursting galaxies were selected with the same criteria used to define LCBGs at higher redshifts. Our detection rate was 70%, with those galaxies having Lblue<7e9 Lsun no detected. We find the H2 masses of local LCBGs range from 6.6e6 to 2.7e9 Msun, assuming a Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Combining these results with our earlier HI survey of the same sample, we find that the ratio of molecular to atomic gas mass is low, typically 5-10%. Using a Large Velocity Gradient model, we find that the average gas conditions of the entire ISM in local LCBGs are similar to those found in the centers of star forming regions in our Galaxy, and nuclear regions of other galaxies. Star formation rates, determined from IRAS fluxes, are a few solar masses per year, much higher per unit d...

  12. The Host in Blue Compact Galaxies: Structural Properties and Scaling Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Amorín, Ricardo; Muñoz-Tuñón, C; Cairós, L M

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the underlying stellar host in a sample of 28 blue compact galaxies (BCGs), by fitting their 2D light distributions. Their structural parameters were related with galaxy properties such as colours and gas content. These properties were also compared with those of other galaxy types. All the BCG hosts but one show low Sersic indexes (0.5 =1.11$\\pm$0.74 kpc, and mean surface brightness = 22.59$\\pm$0.68 mag arcsec$^{-2}$. Host effective radii scale linearly with their luminosity, while n and $\\mu_{\\rm e}$ do not. In addition, host colours and structural parameters are not linearly correlated. Overall,the flux enhancement caused by the starburst is about 0.8 mag while their B-R colours decrease by about 0.2 mag. Galaxies with more luminous and extended hosts show larger and luminous starburst components. BCG hosts show B-R=0.95$\\pm$0.26 in median. Overall, BCG hosts are more compact (by a factor ~2) and have higher central surface brightnesses (by about ~2 mag) than dIs and most dEs. BCG ho...

  13. 3D Spectroscopy of Local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Kinematics of NGC 7673

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Gallego, J; Castillo-Morales, A; Castander, F J; Gallego, J; Garland, C A; Gruel, N; Pisano, D J; Sánchez, S F; Zamorano, J

    2009-01-01

    The kinematic properties of the ionized gas of local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy (LCBG) NGC 7673 are presented using three dimensional data taken with the PPAK integral field unit at the 3.5-m telescope in the Centro Astron\\'omico Hispano Alem\\'an. Our data reveal an asymmetric rotating velocity field with a peak to peak difference of 60 km s$^{-1}$. The kinematic centre is found to be at the position of a central velocity width maximum ($\\sigma=54\\pm1$ km s$^{-1}$), which is consistent with the position of the luminosity-weighted centroid of the entire galaxy. The position angle of the minor rotation axis is 168$^{\\circ}$ as measured from the orientation of the velocity field contours. At least two decoupled kinematic components are found. The first one is compact and coincides with the position of the second most active star formation region (clump B). The second one is extended and does not have a clear optical counterpart. No evidence of active galactic nuclei activity or supernovae galactic winds poweri...

  14. Tracing the star formation history of three Blue Compact galaxies through the analysis of their star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Adamo, Angela; Zackrisson, Erik; Hayes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a study of the compact star cluster populations in three local luminous blue compact galaxies: ESO 185-IG 013, ESO 350-IG 038 (a.k.a. Haro 11), and MRK 930. These systems show peculiar morphologies and the presence of hundreds of SCs that have been produced by the past, recent, and/or current starburst phases. We use a complete set of HST images ranging from the UV to IR for each galaxy. Deep images in V (WFPC2/f606w) and I (WFPC2/f814w) are used to capture most of the star cluster candidates up to the old ones (fainter) which have had, in the past, less possibility to be detected. The other bands are used in the SED fitting technique for constraining ages and masses. Our goals are to investigate the evolution of these three blue compact galaxies and the star cluster formation impact on their star formation history.

  15. Effects of dust abundance on the far-infrared colours of blue compact dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the FIR properties of a sample of BCDs observed by AKARI. By utilizing the data at wavelengths of $\\lambda =65 \\mu$m, 90 $\\mu$m, and 140 $\\mu$m, we find that the FIR colours of the BCDs are located at the natural high-temperature extension of those of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds. This implies that the optical properties of dust in BCDs are similar to those in the Milky Way. Indeed, we explain the FIR colours by assuming the same grain optical properties, which may be appropriate for amorphous dust grains, and the same size distribution as those adopted for the Milky Way dust. Since both interstellar radiation field and dust optical depth affect the dust temperature, it is difficult to distinguish which of these two physical properties is responsible for the change of FIR colours. Then, in order to examine if the dust optical depth plays an important role in determining the dust temperature, we investigate the correlation between FIR colour (dust temperature) and dust-to-gas ratio. W...

  16. Dispensability of the major coat protein of oat blue dwarf virus in genome replication: Substitution of the open reading frame with the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat blue dwarf virus (OBDV) is a representative marafivirus that infects monocots and a limited number of dicot species and is vectored propagatively by the leafhopper Macrosteles fascifrons.Recently, we reported the generation of clone pOBDV-2r, the first clone of a marafivirus from which infectiou...

  17. OFDM-based broadband underwater wireless optical communication system using a compact blue LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Aobo; Song, Yuhang; Yu, Xiangyu; Qu, Fengzhong; Han, Jun; Deng, Ning

    2016-06-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an IM/DD-OFDM-based underwater wireless optical communication system. We investigate the dependence of its BER performance on the training symbol number as well as LED's bias voltage and driving voltage. With single compact blue LED and a low-cost PIN photodiode, we achieve net bit rates of 225.90 Mb/s at a BER of 1.54×10-3 using 16-QAM and 231.95 Mb/s at a BER of 3.28×10-3 using 32-QAM, respectively, over a 2-m air channel. Over a 2-m underwater channel, we achieve net bit rates of 161.36 Mb/s using 16-QAM, 156.31 Mb/s using 32-QAM, and 127.07 Mb/s using 64-QAM, respectively. The corresponding BERs are 2.5×10-3, 7.42×10-4, and 3.17×10-3, respectively, which are all below the FEC threshold.

  18. Globular cluster clustering and tidal features around ultra compact dwarf galaxies in the halo of NGC1399

    CERN Document Server

    Voggel, Karina; Richtler, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to constrain the formation channels of Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxies (UCDs). This inhomogeneous class of objects of remnants of tidally stripped dwarf elliptical galaxies and high mass globular clusters. We use three methods to unravel their nature: 1) we analysed their surface brightness profiles, 2) we carried out a direct search for tidal features around UCDs and 3) we compared the spatial distribution of GCs and UCDs in the halo of their host galaxy. Based on FORS2 observations, we have studied the detailed structural composition of a large sample of 97 UCDs in the halo of NGC1399, the central galaxy of the Fornax cluster, by analysing theirsurface brightness profiles. We derived the structural parameters of 13 extended UCDs modelling them with a single Sersic function and decomposing them into composite King and Sersic profiles. We find evidence for faint stellar envelopes at mu=~26 mag\\arcsec^-2 surrounding the UCDs up to an extension of 90pc in radius. We also show new eviden...

  19. Kepler-445, Kepler-446 and the Occurrence of Compact Multiples Orbiting Mid-M Dwarf Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, Philip S; Vanderburg, Andrew; Morton, Timothy D; Kraus, Adam; Ireland, Michael; Swift, Jonathan J; Feiden, Gregory A; Gaidos, Eric; Gazak, J Zachary

    2015-01-01

    We confirm and characterize the exoplanetary systems Kepler-445 and Kepler-446: two mid-M dwarf stars, each with multiple, small, short-period transiting planets. Kepler-445 is a metal-rich ([Fe/H]=+0.25 $\\pm$ 0.10) M4 dwarf with three transiting planets, and Kepler-446 is a metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-0.30 $\\pm$ 0.10) M4 dwarf also with three transiting planets. Kepler-445c is similar to GJ 1214b: both in planetary radius and the properties of the host star. The Kepler-446 system is similar to the Kepler-42 system: both are metal-poor with large galactic space velocities and three short-period, likely-rocky transiting planets that were initially assigned erroneously large planet-to-star radius ratios. We independently determined stellar parameters from spectroscopy and searched for and fitted the transit light curves for the planets, imposing a strict prior on stellar density in order to remove correlations between the fitted impact parameter and planet-to-star radius ratio for short-duration transits. Combining Kep...

  20. Resolved H I observations of local analogs to z ~ 1 luminous compact blue galaxies: evidence for rotation-supported disks

    CERN Document Server

    Rabidoux, Katie; Garland, C A; Guzman, Rafael; Castander, Francisco J; Wolfe, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    While bright, blue, compact galaxies are common at $\\rm z \\sim 1$, they are relatively rare in the local universe, and their evolutionary paths are uncertain. We have obtained resolved H I observations of nine $\\rm z \\sim 0$ luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Very Large Array in order to measure their kinematic and dynamical properties and better constrain their evolutionary possibilities. We find that the LCBGs in our sample are rotating galaxies that tend to have nearby companions, relatively high central velocity dispersions, and can have disturbed velocity fields. We compare our measurements to those previously made with single dishes and find that single dish measurements tend to overestimate LCBGs' rotation velocities and H I masses. We also compare the ratio of LCBGs' rotation velocities to their velocity dispersions to those of other types of galaxies and find that LCBGs are strongly rotationally supported at large radii, similar to other types of disk...

  1. Continuum and line emission of flares on red dwarf stars: origin of the blue continuum radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Morchenko, E S

    2016-01-01

    There are two types of models that explain the appearance of the blue continuum radiation during the impulsive phase of stellar flares. Grinin and Sobolev (Astrophysics, vol. 13, 348, 1977) argue that this component of the optical continuum is formed in "the transition layer between the chromosphere and the photosphere". Katsova et al. (Astrophysics, vol. 17, 156, 1981) have "raised" the source of the white-light continuum up to the dense region in the perturbed chromosphere. In the present contribution (the main paper was submitted to journal "Astrophysics"), we show that the statement by Katsova et al. is erroneous.

  2. Compact High-Power Blue Light from a Diode-Pumped Intracavity-Doubled Nd:YAG Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德华; 李平雪; 张治国; 张世文

    2002-01-01

    We report an effcient continuous wave (cw) operation of 946 nm and 473nm laser beams generated from a diodepumped composite Nd: YAG rod. A very simple compact linear cavity was employed with cavity length of 35 mm.A composite Nd:YAG laser rod was used to release thermal effects. The maximum cw output of 3.3 W at 946nm was obtained with slope efficiency of 22% at incident pump power of 17.5 W. By intracavity doubling with an LBO crystal, as much as 590mW of single-ended blue output at 473nm was achieved with an optical-optical conversion e fffciency of 3.4%. The total blue output would be 1.06 W with overall conversion efficiency of 6.1% if the lasers emitted in both the directions were taken into account.

  3. Obtaining mass parameters of compact objects from red-blue shifts emitted by geodesic particles around them

    CERN Document Server

    Becerril, Ricardo; Nucamendi, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The mass parameters of compact objects such as Boson Stars, Schwarzschild, Reissner Nordstrom and Kerr black holes are computed in terms of the measurable redshift-blueshift (zred, zblue) of photons emitted by particles moving along circular geodesics around these objects and the radius of their orbits. We found bounds for the values of (zred, zblue) that may be observed. For the case of Kerr black hole, recent observational estimates of SrgA\\* mass and rotation parameter are employed to determine the corresponding values of these red-blue shifts.

  4. How elevated is the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio of the ultra-compact dwarf S999?

    CERN Document Server

    Janz, Joachim; Norris, Mark A; Strader, Jay; Penny, Samantha J; Fagioli, Martina; Romanowsky, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Here we present new Keck ESI high-resolution spectroscopy and deep archival HST/ACS imaging for S999, an ultra-compact dwarf in the vicinity of M87, which was claimed to have an extremely high dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio. Our data increase the total integration times by a factor of 5 and 60 for spectroscopy and imaging, respectively. This allows us to constrain the stellar population parameters for the first time (simple stellar population equivalent age $=7.6^{+2.0}_{-1.6}$ Gyr; $[Z/\\textrm{H}]=-0.95^{+0.12}_{-0.10}$; $[\\alpha/\\textrm{Fe}]=0.34^{+0.10}_{-0.12}$). Assuming a Kroupa stellar initial mass function, the stellar population parameters and luminosity ($M_{F814W}=-12.13\\pm0.06$ mag) yield a stellar mass of $M_*=3.9^{+0.9}_{-0.6}\\times10^6 M_{\\odot}$, which we also find to be consistent with near-infrared data. Via mass modelling, with our new measurements of velocity dispersion ($\\sigma_{ap}=27\\pm2$ km s$^{-1}$) and size ($R_e=20.9\\pm1.0$ pc), we obtain an elevated dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio...

  5. Spectroscopy of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies in Distant Clusters. I. Spectroscopic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Hon, Kimo

    2011-11-01

    We used the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II Telescope to obtain spectra of galaxies in the fields of five distant, rich galaxy clusters over the redshift range 0.5 reported in the literature, except for 11 targets which we believe were previously in error. Within our sample, we confirm the presence of 53 LCBGs in the five galaxy clusters. The clusters all stand out as distinct peaks in the redshift distribution of LCBGs with the average number density of LCBGs ranging from 1.65 ± 0.25 Mpc-3 at z = 0.55 to 3.13 ± 0.65 Mpc-3 at z = 0.8. The number density of LCBGs in clusters exceeds the field density by a factor of 749 ± 116 at z = 0.55; at z = 0.8, the corresponding ratio is E = 416 ± 95. At z = 0.55, this enhancement is well above that seen for blue galaxies or the overall cluster population, indicating that LCBGs are preferentially triggered in high-density environments at intermediate redshifts. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. A subtle IR excess associated with a young White Dwarf in the Edinburgh-Cape Blue Object Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Dennihy, E; Dunlap, B H; Dufour, P; Teske, Johanna K; Clemens, J C

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of a subtle infrared excess associated with the young white dwarf EC\\,05365--4749 at 3.35 and 4.6\\,$\\mu$m. Follow-up spectroscopic observations are consistent with a hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf of effective temperature 22\\,800\\,K and log [\\emph{g} (\\,cm\\,s$^{-2}$) ] = 8.19. High resolution spectroscopy reveals atmospheric metal pollution with logarithmic abundances of [Mg/H] = --5.36 and [Ca/H] = --5.75, confirming the white dwarf is actively accreting from a metal-rich source with an intriguing abundance pattern. We find that the infrared excess is well modeled by a flat, opaque debris disk, though disk parameters are not well constrained by the small number of infrared excess points. We further demonstrate that relaxing the assumption of a circular dusty debris disk to include elliptical disks expands the widths of acceptable disks, adding an alternative interpretation to the subtle infrared excesses commonly observed around young white dwarfs.

  7. 3D Spectroscopy of Local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Kinematic Maps of a Sample of 22 Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Gallego, J; Castillo-Morales, A; Gallego, J; Castander, F J; Garland, C A; Gruel, N; Pisano, D J; Zamorano, J

    2011-01-01

    We use three dimensional optical spectroscopy observations of a sample of 22 local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) to create kinematic maps. By means of these, we classify the kinematics of these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disk (RD), perturbed rotation (PR), and complex kinematics (CK). We find 48% are RDs, 28% are PRs, and 24% are CKs. RDs show rotational velocities that range between $\\sim50$ and $\\sim200 km s^{-1}$, and dynamical masses that range between $\\sim1\\times10^{9}$ and $\\sim3\\times10^{10} M_{\\odot}$. We also address the following two fundamental questions through the study of the kinematic maps: \\emph{(i) What processes are triggering the current starbust in LCBGs?} We search our maps of the galaxy velocity fields for signatures of recent interactions and close companions that may be responsible for the enhanced star formation in our sample. We find 5% of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10% of a minor merger, and 45% of a companion. This argues in favor...

  8. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; Johnson, K. E.; Tzanavaris, Panayiotis; Gronwall, C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  9. Are Ultra-long Gamma-Ray Bursts Caused by Blue Supergiant Collapsars, Newborn Magnetars, or White Dwarf Tidal Disruption Events?

    CERN Document Server

    Ioka, Kunihito; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    Ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (ulGRBs) are a new population of GRBs with an extreme duration $\\sim 10^{4}$ s. Leading candidates for their origin are blue supergiant Collapsars, magnetars, and white dwarf tidal disruption events (WD-TDEs) by massive black holes (BHs). Recent observations of supernova-like (SN-like) bumps associated with ulGRBs challenged both the WD-TDE and the blue supergiant models because of the detection of SNe and the absence of hydrogen lines, respectively. We propose that WD-TDEs can accommodate the observed SN-like bumps if the fallback WD matter releases energy into the unbound WD ejecta. The observed ejecta energy, luminosity, and velocity are explained by the gravitational energy, Eddington luminosity, and escape velocity of the formed accretion disk, respectively. We also show that the observed X-rays can ionize the ejecta, eliminating lines. The SN-like light curves (SN 2011kl) for the ulGRB 111209A are consistent with all three models, although a magnetar model is unnatural in whi...

  10. A Critical Review of the Evidence for M32 being a Compact Dwarf Satellite of M31 rather than a More Distant Normal Galaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Ke-shih Young; Malcolm J. Currie; Robert J. Dickens; A-Li Luo; Tong-Jie Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Since Baade's photographic study of M32 in the mid 1940s, it has been accepted as an established fact that M32 is a compact dwarf satellite of M31. The purpose of this paper is to report on the findings of our investigation into the nature of the existing evidence. We find that the case for M32 being a satellite of M31 rests upon Hubble Space Telescope (HST) based stellar population studies which have resolved red-giant branch (RGB) and red clump stars in M32 as well as other nearby galaxies. Taken in isolation, this recent evidence could be considered to be conclusive in favour of the existing view. However, the conventional scenario does not explain M32's anomalously high central velocity dispersion for a dwarf galaxy (several times that of either NGC 147, NGC 185 or NGC 205) or existing planetary nebula observations (which suggest that M32 is more than twice as distant as M31) and also requires an elaborate physical explanation for M32's inferred compactness. Conversely, we find that the case for M32 being a normal galaxy, of the order of three times as distant as M31, is supported by: (1) a central velocity dispersion typical of intermediate galaxies, (2) the published planetary nebula observations, and (3) known scaling relationships for normal early-type galaxies. However, this novel scenario cannot account for the high apparent luminosities of the RGB stars resolved in the M32 direction by HST observations. We are therefore left with two apparently irreconcilable scenarios, only one of which can be correct, but both of which suffer from potentially fatal evidence to the contrary. This suggests that current understanding of some relevant fields is still very far from adequate.

  11. Between a whale bone and the deep blue sea: the provenance of dwarf males in whale bone-eating tubeworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Noah K

    2008-10-01

    When researchers first caught a glimpse of the lush carpet of pink tubeworms covering the scattered bones of a dead grey whale 2900 m below the surface of Monterey Bay, the excitement onboard the Western Flyer (the mother ship of the remotely operated vehicle the Tiburon) must have been electrifying. The discovery of a new genus and several species of whale bone-eating Osedax tubeworms (Annelida, Siboglinidae) a mere 6 years ago from the deep sea was itself noteworthy. But what the researchers peering into the video monitors aboard the Western Flyer could not have known at that moment was that in the gelatinous tubes of those worms clung even more peculiar forms: harems of tiny, paedomorphic males of Osedax, numbering in the hundreds at times. Whereas female tubeworms bore into the marrow of whale bones (possibly via enzymes from their endosymbiotic bacteria), the dwarf males secondarily colonize the tubes of the resident females. The number of males in a female's tube increases over time in a curvilinear fashion. Dwarf males are known from all Osedax species examined to date, yet the origin of the males was an open question. In this issue, Vrijenhoek et al. provide compelling evidence that dwarf males found in the tubes of female Osedax worms are derived from a common larval pool and are unlikely to be the sons of host females or the progeny of females in the local genetic neighbourhood. This study provides an important foundation for future work on the ecology and evolution of extreme male dwarfism in Osedax and sexual size dimorphism more generally.

  12. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. II. Sensitivity of the survey and the atlas of synthetic dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccari, G.; Bellazzini, M.; Battaglia, G.; Ibata, R.; Martin, N.; Testa, V.; Cignoni, M.; Correnti, M.

    2016-06-01

    The searching for StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey is devoted to the search for stellar counterparts within ultra compact high velocity clouds that are candidate low-mass, low-luminosity galaxies. We present the results of a set of simulations aimed at the quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the survey as a function of the total luminosity, size, and distance of the stellar systems we are looking for. For all of our synthetic galaxies we assumed an exponential surface brightness profile and an old and metal-poor population. The synthetic galaxies are simulated both on the images and on the photometric catalogues, taking all the observational effects into account. In the fields where the available observational material is of top quality (≃36% of the SECCO fields), we detect synthetic galaxies as ≥5σ over-densities of resolved stars down to μV,h ≃ 30.0 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 1.5 Mpc, and down to μV,h ≃ 29.5 mag/arcsec2, for D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. In the field with the worst observational material of the whole survey, we detect synthetic galaxies with μV,h ≤ 28.8 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 1.0 Mpc, and those with μV,h ≤ 27.5 mag/arcsec2 out to D ≤ 2.5 Mpc. Dwarf galaxies with MV = -10.0, with sizes in the range spanned by known dwarfs, are detected by visual inspection of the images up to D = 5 Mpc independent of the image quality. In the best quality images, dwarfs are partially resolved into stars up to D = 3.0 Mpc and completely unresolved at D = 5 Mpc. As an independent test of the sensitivity of our images to low surface brightness galaxies, we report on the detection of several dwarf spheroidal galaxies probably located in the Virgo cluster with MV ≲ -8.0 and μV,h ≲ 26.8 mag/arcsec2. The nature of the previously discovered SECCO 1 stellar system, also likely located in the Virgo cluster, is rediscussed in comparison with these dwarfs. While specific for the SECCO survey, our study may also provide general

  13. Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies: I. Profiles and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Kimberly A; Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Radial surface brightness profiles of spiral galaxies are classified into three types: (I) single exponential, or the light falls off with one exponential to a break before falling off (II) more steeply, or (III) less steeply. Profile breaks are also found in dwarf disks, but some dwarf Type IIs are flat or increasing out to a break before falling off. Here we re-examine the stellar disk profiles of 141 dwarfs: 96 dwarf irregulars (dIms), 26 Blue Compact Dwarfs (BCDs), and 19 Magellanic-type spirals (Sms). We fit single, double, or even triple exponential profiles in up to 11 passbands: GALEX FUV and NUV, ground-based UBV JHK and H{\\alpha}, and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m. We find that more luminous galaxies have brighter centers, larger inner and outer scale lengths, and break at larger radii; dwarf trends with M_B extend to spirals. However, the V-band break surface brightness is independent of break type, M_B, and Hubble type. Dwarf Type II and III profiles fall off similarly beyond the breaks but have diff...

  14. A Search for Low Surface Brightness Structure Around Compact Narrow Emission Line Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, E J; Bershady, M A; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Zee, Liese van; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2006-01-01

    As the most extreme members of the rapidly evolving faint blue galaxy population at intermediate redshift, the compact narrow emission line galaxies (CNELGs) are intrinsically luminous (-22 -18). Conversely, 15 are not blue enough to fade to low-luminosity dwarfs (M_B > -15.2). The majority of the CNELGs are consistent with progenitors of intermediate-luminosity dwarfs and low-luminosity spiral galaxies with small disks. CNELGs are a heterogeneous progenitor population with significant fractions (up to 44%) capable of fading into today's faint dwarfs (M_B > -15.2), while 15 to 85% may only experience an apparently extremely compact CNELG phase at intermediate redshift but remain more luminous galaxies at the present epoch.

  15. Maximum mass ratio of am CVn-type binary systems and maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact x-ray binaries (addendum - Serb. Astron. J. No. 183 (2011, 63

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbutina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We recalculated the maximum white dwarf mass in ultra-compact X-ray binaries obtained in an earlier paper (Arbutina 2011, by taking the effects of super-Eddington accretion rate on the stability of mass transfer into account. It is found that, although the value formally remains the same (under the assumed approximations, for white dwarf masses M2 >~0.1MCh mass ratios are extremely low, implying that the result for Mmax is likely to have little if any practical relevance.

  16. The red and blue galaxy populations in the GOODS field: evidence for an excess of red dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Salimbeni, S; Menci, N; Castellano, M; Fontana, A; Grazian, A; Pentericci, L; Trevese, D; Cristiani, S; Nonino, M; Vanzella, E

    2007-01-01

    We study the evolution of the galaxy population up to z\\sim3 as a function of its colour properties. In particular, luminosity functions and luminosity densities have been derived as a function of redshift for the blue/late and red/early populations. We use data from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue which have typical magnitude limits z<26 and Ks<23.5 for most of the sample. About 8% of the galaxies have spectroscopic redshifts; the remaining have well calibrated photometric redshifts derived from the extremely wide multi-wavelength coverage in 14 bands (from the U band to the Spitzer 8 \\mu m band). We have derived a catalogue of galaxies complete in rest-frame B-band, which has been divided in two subsamples according to their rest-frame U-V colour (or derived specific star formation rate, SSFR) properties. We confirm a bimodality in the U-V colour and SSFR of the galaxy sample up to z\\sim 3. This bimodality is used to compute the LFs of the blue/late and red/early subsamples. The LFs of the blue/late and tot...

  17. Lopsidedness in dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, A B; Almoznino, E; Van Zee, L; Salzer, J J; Heller, Ana B.; Brosch, Noah; Almoznino, Elchanan; Zee, Liese van; Salzer, John J.

    2000-01-01

    We quantify the amplitude of the lopsidedness, the azimuthal angular asymmetry index, and the concentration of star forming regions, as represented by the distribution of the H$\\alpha$ emission, in a sample of 78 late-type irregular galaxies. We bin the observed galaxies in two groups representing blue compact galaxies (BCDs) and low surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBs). The light distribution is analysed with a novel algorithm, which allows detection of details in the light distribution pattern. We find that while the asymmetry of the underlying continuum light, representing the older stellar generations, is relatively small, the H$\\alpha$ emission is very asymmetric and is correlated in position angle with the continuum light. We test a model of random star formation over the extent of a galaxy by simulating HII regions in artificial dwarf galaxies. The implication is that random star formation over the full extent of a galaxy may be generated in LSB dwarf-irregular galaxies but not in BCD galaxies.

  18. Today a Duo, But Once a Trio? The Double White Dwarf HS 2220$+$2146 May Be A Post-Blue Straggler Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jeff J; Brown, Warren R; Gosnell, Natalie M; Gianninas, A; Kilic, Mukremin; Koester, Detlev

    2016-01-01

    For sufficiently wide orbital separations {\\it a}, the two members of a stellar binary evolve independently. This implies that in a wide double white dwarf (DWD), the more massive WD should always be produced first, when its more massive progenitor ends its main-sequence life, and should therefore be older and cooler than its companion. The bound, wide DWD HS 2220$+$2146 ($a\\approx500$ AU) does not conform to this picture: the more massive WD is the younger, hotter of the pair. We show that this discrepancy is unlikely to be due to past mass-transfer phases or to the presence of an unresolved companion. Instead, we propose that HS 2220$+$2146 formed through a new wide DWD evolutionary channel involving the merger of the inner binary in a hierarchical triple system. The resulting blue straggler and its wide companion then evolved independently, forming the WD pair seen today. Although we cannot rule out other scenarios, the most likely formation channel has the inner binary merging while both stars are still o...

  19. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-Wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, their Star Clusters and Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, I S; Charlton, J C; Fedotov, K; Durrell, P R; Mulchaey, J S; English, J; Desjardins, T D; Gallagher, S C; Walker, L M; Johnson, K E; Tzanavaris, P; Gronwall, C

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, HCGs 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, HST, Spitzer) and ground-based (LCO, CTIO) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 'associates' (possible members) rad...

  20. In vitro effectiveness of 455-nm blue LED to reduce the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans biofilms in compact bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Luciano Pereira; da Silva, Francine Cristina; Viana, Magda Souza; Meira, Giselle Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 455-nm blue light-emitting diode (LED), at different application times, to reduce the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans biofilms applied to compact bone tissue. The microorganisms S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and C. albicans (ATCC 18804) were used to form biofilms on 160 specimens of compact bones that had been divided into eight experimental groups (n = 10) for each microorganism, according to the times of application of the 455-nm blue LED (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 10 min) with an irradiance of 75 mW/cm2. After LED application, decimal dilutions of microorganisms were performed, plated on BHI or Sabouraud agar and incubated for 24 h/35 °C to obtain CFU/mL counts. The findings were statistically analyzed using a ANOVA 5 %. For the group of S. aureus biofilms, all groups of 455-nm LED application differ compared with the control group (p albicans biofilms, only those samples receiving 3, 7, and 10 min of LED application presented a significant difference compared with the control group (p albicans biofilms, especially during 10 min of application.

  1. Self-consistent photometric and spectroscopic Star Formation Histories in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Benito, R.; Pérez, E.; Pérez-Montero, E.; González Delgado, R.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    This project aims to unify the spectroscopic and stellar photometric views by performing a comprehensive study of a sample of the nearest Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDs). We plan to derive Star Formation Histories (SFH) both by means of Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) from extant Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical imaging and with spectral fitting methods techniques using MUSE, allowing us to obtain state-of-the-art 2D stellar properties and abundances of the gas in BCDs.

  2. Relating basic properties of bright early-type dwarf galaxies to their location in Abell 901/902

    CERN Document Server

    Barazza, F D; Gray, M E; Jogee, S; Balogh, M; McIntosh, D H; Bacon, D; Barden, M; Bell, E F; Boehm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Haeussler, B; Heiderman, A; Heymans, C; van Kampen, K Jahnke E; Lane, K; Marinova, I; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Sánchez, S F; Taylor, A; Wisotzki, L; Zheng, X

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the population of bright early-type dwarf galaxies in the multiple-cluster system Abell 901/902. We use data from the STAGES survey and COMBO-17 to investigate the relation between the color and structural properties of the dwarfs and their location in the cluster. The definition of the dwarf sample is based on the central surface brightness and includes galaxies in the luminosity range -16 >= M_B <~-19 mag. Using a fit to the color magnitude relation of the dwarfs, our sample is divided into a red and blue subsample. We find a color-density relation in the projected radial distribution of the dwarf sample: at the same luminosity dwarfs with redder colors are located closer to the cluster centers than their bluer counterparts. Furthermore, the redder dwarfs are on average more compact and rounder than the bluer dwarfs. These findings are consistent with theoretical expectations assuming that bright early-type dwarfs are the remnants of transformed late-type disk galaxies involving pro...

  3. The Nature of Nearby Counterparts to Intermediate-Redshift Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies. III. Interferometric Observations of Neutral Atomic and Molecular Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, C A; Williams, J P; Guzmán, R; Castander, F J; Sage, L J

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a VLA and OVRO-MMA follow-up to our single-dish surveys of the neutral atomic and molecular gas in a sample of nearby Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs). These luminous, blue, high surface brightness, starbursting galaxies were selected using criteria similar to that used to define LCBGs at higher redshifts. The surveys were undertaken to study the nature and evolutionary possibilities of LCBGs, using dynamical masses and gas depletion time scales as constraints. Here we present nearly resolved VLA H I maps of four LCBGs, as well as results from the literature for a fifth LCBG. In addition, we present OVRO-MMA maps of CO(J=1-0) in two of these LCBGs. We have used the resolved H I maps to separate the H I emission from target galaxies and their companions to improve the accuracy of our gas and dynamical mass estimates. For this sub-sample of LCBGs, we find that the dynamical masses measured with the single-dish telescope and interferometer are in agreement. However, we find that w...

  4. The Nature of Nearby Counterparts to Intermediate Redshift Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies I. Optical/H I Properties and Dynamical Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, C A; Williams, J P; Guzmán, R; Castander, F J

    2004-01-01

    We present single-dish H I spectra obtained with the Green Bank Telescope, along with optical photometric properties from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, of 20 nearby (D < 70 Mpc) Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs). These ~L*, blue, high surface brightness, starbursting galaxies were selected with the same criteria used to define LCBGs at higher redshifts. We find these galaxies are gas-rich, with M(HI) ranging from 5*10^8 to 8*10^9 M_sun, and M(HI)/L_B ranging from 0.2 to 2 M_sun/L_sun, consistent with a variety of morphological types of galaxies. We find the dynamical masses (measured within R_25) span a wide range, from 3*10^9 to 1*10^11 M_sun. However, at least half have dynamical mass-to-light ratios smaller than nearby galaxies of all Hubble types, as found for LCBGs at intermediate redshifts. By comparing line widths and effective radii with local galaxy populations, we find that LCBGs are consistent with the dynamical mass properties of Magellanic (low luminosity) spirals, and the more massive ir...

  5. VCC 144 - a star-bursting dwarf galaxy in the Virgo Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Brosch, N.; Almoznino, E.; L. Hoffman

    1997-01-01

    We describe results of a multi-spectral study of a blue compact dwarf galaxy in Virgo. The object was observed with broad-band and H$\\alpha$ imaging, UV observations, and radio synthesis. Our data were combined with published optical observations, with HI single-beam observation and with FIR data, and were compared to results of evolutionary synthesis programs. The radio observations revealed a compact source of HI coincident with the optical galaxy, embedded in a diffuse, HI cloud which has ...

  6. The evolutionary status of high and extremely low surface brightness dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiecki, Steven

    2015-07-01

    Studying dwarf galaxies can shed light on the original building blocks of galaxy formation. Most large galaxies are thought to be built up over billions of years through the collisions and mergers of smaller galaxies. The dwarf galaxies we see today are the evolved remnants of those building blocks, and by understanding their nature and evolution, we can study the raw ingredients of galaxy formation. Blue Compact Dwarf galaxies (BCDs) and Almost Dark galaxies are at opposite extremes of today's population of dwarf galaxies. BCDs are exceptionally compact and host very intense starbursts, while Almost Dark galaxies are much more diffuse and have weak stellar populations. This work studies the evolutionary context of BCDs by using deep, high-resolution images to study the detailed structure of their components, and by fitting our multi-wavelength observations with models to describe the properties of their stars, gas, and dust. BCDs appear to have exceptionally compact old stellar populations and unusually large star formation rates, when compared to typical dwarf galaxies. By contrast, the optically faint, gas-dominated Almost Dark galaxies have extremely low star formation rates and weak stellar populations. In particular, one of the Almost Darks studied in this work has very unusual properties and is in disagreement with widely-studied scaling relations for large samples of galaxies. It appears to have too little stellar mass, a distribution of HI that is too extended to be supported by its modest rotation, and the highest well-measured gas mass-to-light ratio ever observed. These two extreme classes may represent evolutionary stages that all galaxies pass through, and appear to be extreme ends of the broad continuum of dwarf galaxy properties. In order to use today's dwarf galaxies as windows into the building blocks of early galaxy formation, these unusual states and evolutionary pathways must be understood.

  7. FIR extended emission from cold gas and dust in Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies: the anomalous cases of POX 186 and UM 461

    CERN Document Server

    Doublier, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    FIR observation of BCD galaxies with Herschel has revealed a wealth of new insights in these objects which are thought to resemble high-redshift forming galaxies. Dust and cold gas showed to be colder, in more or less quantities than expected and of uncertain origin. However, not unlike in the local universe, not all the dust or the cold gas is accounted for, making it more challenging. SPICA and its factor 10 to 100 in sensitivity will allow to image the faint extended cold gas/dusty disks in BCDGs in addition to detect faint C and O lines only marginally or not at all detected by Herschel/

  8. High-speed energy-resolved STJ photometry of the eclipsing dwarf nova IY UMa

    CERN Document Server

    Steeghs, D; Reynolds, A; Bruijne, J H J; Marsh, T; Dhillon, V S; Peacock, A

    2003-01-01

    We present high time-resolution photometry of the dwarf nova IY UMa using the S-Cam2 super-conducting tunnel junction device attached to the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Exploiting the well-defined white dwarf and hot spot eclipse features, we derive an updated orbital ephemeris for IY UMa and an orbital period of 0.07390897(5) days. A white dwarf ingress/egress duration of 31 +/- 2s along with the contact phases of the bright spot gives M_1=0.79 +/- 0.04 M_sun and M_2=0.10 +/- 0.01 Msun, corresponding to a mass ratio of q=0.125 +/- 0.008. The white dwarf eclipse width of 0.0637 then implies i=86.0 +/- 1 degrees. A curious rise with a duration of 30 +/- 2s is observed in the orbital lightcurves during all three observed eclipses. It occurs between the end of white dwarf ingress and hot spot ingress and is blue in colour. We suggest that the source of this light lies in the buried part of the gas stream, resulting in a compact, hot impact cavity.

  9. Red Dwarfs and the End of the Main Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. C.; Graves, G. J. M.; Laughlin, G.

    2004-12-01

    This paper celebrates the contributions of Peter Bodenheimer to our understanding of stellar evolution by focusing on the long term development of red dwarf stars. We show that these diminutive stellar objects remain convective over most of their lives, they continue to burn hydrogen for trillions of years, and they do not experience red giant phases in their old age. Instead, red dwarfs turn into blue dwarfs and finally white dwarfs. This work shows (in part) why larger stars do become red giants.

  10. High velocity blue-shifted FeII absorption in the dwarf star-forming galaxy PHL293B: Evidence for a wind driven supershell?

    CERN Document Server

    Terlevich, R; Bosch, G; Diaz, A I; Hagele, G; Cardaci, M; Firpo, V

    2014-01-01

    X-shooter and ISIS WHT spectra of the starforming galaxy PHL 293B also known as A2228-00 and SDSS J223036.79-000636.9 are presented in this paper. We find broad (FWHM = 1000km/s) and very broad (FWZI = 4000km/s) components in the Balmer lines, narrow absorption components in the Balmer series blueshifted by 800km/s, previously undetected FeII multiplet (42) absorptions also blueshifted by 800km/s, IR CaII triplet stellar absorptions consistent with [Fe/H] < -2.0 and no broad components or blushifted absorptions in the HeI lines. Based on historical records, we found no optical variability at the 5 sigma level of 0.02 mag between 2005 and 2013 and no optical variability at the level of 0.1mag for the past 24 years. The lack of variability rules out transient phenomena like luminous blue variables or SN IIn as the origin of the blue shifted absorptions of HI and FeII. The evidence points to either a young and dense expanding supershell or a stationary cooling wind, in both cases driven by the young cluster w...

  11. Spectroscopic and photometric studies of low-metallicity star-forming dwarf galaxies. I. SBS 1129+576

    CERN Document Server

    Guseva, N G; Izotov, Yu I; Green, R F; Fricke, K J; Thuan, T X; Noeske, K G

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopy and V,I CCD photometry of the dwarf irregular galaxy SBS 1129+576 are presented for the first time. The CCD images reveal a chain of compact H II regions within the elongated low-surface-brightness (LSB) component of the galaxy. Star formation takes place mainly in two high-surface-brightness H II regions. The mean (V-I) colour of the LSB component in the surface brightness interval between 23 and 26 mag/sq.arcsec is relatively blue ~0.56+/-0.03 mag, as compared to the (V-I)~0.9-1.0 for the majority of known dwarf irregular and blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies. Spectroscopy shows that the galaxy is among the most metal-deficient galaxies with an oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H)= 7.36+/-0.10 in the brightest H II region and 7.48+/-0.12 in the second brightest H II region, or 1/36 and 1/28 of the solar value, respectively. Hbeta and Halpha emission lines and Hdelta and Hgamma absorption lines are detected in a large part of the LSB component. We use two extinction-insensitive methods based on the equi...

  12. Magnetic Interaction in Ultra-compact Binary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Kinwah

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current works on ultra-compact double-degenerate binaries in the presence of magnetic interaction, in particular, unipolar induction. The orbital dynamics and evolution of compact white-dwarf pairs are discussed in detail. Models and predictions of electron cyclotron masers from unipolar-inductor compact binaries and unipolar-inductor white-dwarf planetary systems are presented. Einstein-Laub effects in compact binaries are briefly discussed.

  13. Magnetic interaction in ultra-compact binary systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kinwah WU

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current works on ultra-compact double-degenerate binaries in the presence of magnetic interaction, in particular, unipolar induction. The orbital dynamics and evolution of compact white-dwarf pairs are discussed in detail. Models and predictions of electron cyclotron masers from unipolar-inductor compact binaries and unipolar-inductor white-dwarf planetary systems are presented. Einstein-Laub effects in compact binaries are briefly discussed.

  14. Dwarfs in Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger poster version This false-color mosaic of the central region of the Coma cluster combines infrared and visible-light images to reveal thousands of faint objects (green). Follow-up observations showed that many of these objects, which appear here as faint green smudges, are dwarf galaxies belonging to the cluster. Two large elliptical galaxies, NGC 4889 and NGC 4874, dominate the cluster's center. The mosaic combines visible-light data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (color coded blue) with long- and short-wavelength infrared views (red and green, respectively) from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

  15. Mid-Infrared Colors of Dwarf Galaxies: Young Starbursts Mimicking Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Hainline, Kevin N; Greene, Jenny E; Stern, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Searching for active galactic nuclei (AGN) in dwarf galaxies is important for our understanding of the seed black holes that formed in the early Universe. Here, we test infrared selection methods for AGN activity at low galaxy masses. Our parent sample consists of ~18,000 nearby dwarf galaxies (M*< 3 x 10^9 Msun, $z<0.055$) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with significant detections in the first three bands of the AllWISE data release from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). First, we demonstrate that the majority of optically-selected AGNs in dwarf galaxies are not selected as AGNs using WISE infrared color diagnostics and that the infrared emission is dominated by the host galaxies. We then investigate the infrared properties of optically-selected star-forming dwarf galaxies, finding that the galaxies with the reddest infrared colors are the most compact, with blue optical colors, young stellar ages and large specific star formation rates. These results indicate that great care must be tak...

  16. Ecology of blue straggler stars

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni; Beccari, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The existence of blue straggler stars, which appear younger, hotter, and more massive than their siblings, is at odds with a simple picture of stellar evolution. Such stars should have exhausted their nuclear fuel and evolved long ago to become cooling white dwarfs. They are found to exist in globular clusters, open clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, OB associations and as field stars. This book summarises the many advances in observational and theoretical work dedicated to blue straggler stars. Carefully edited extended contributions by well-known experts in the field cover all the relevant aspects of blue straggler stars research: Observations of blue straggler stars in their various environments; Binary stars and formation channels; Dynamics of globular clusters; Interpretation of observational data and comparison with models. The book also offers an introductory chapter on stellar evolution written by the editors of the book.

  17. The StEllar Counterparts of COmpact high velocity clouds (SECCO) survey. II. Sensitivity of the survey and an Atlas of Synthetic Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Beccari, G; Battaglia, G; Ibata, R; Martin, N; Testa, V; Cignoni, M; Correnti, M

    2016-01-01

    SECCO is a survey devoted to the search for stellar counterparts within Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds. In this contribution we present the results of a set of simulations aimed at the quantitative estimate of the sensitivity of the survey as a function of the total luminosity, size and distance of the stellar systems we are looking for. For all our synthetic galaxies we assumed an exponential surface brightness profile and an old and metal-poor population. The synthetic galaxies are simulated both on the images and on the photometric catalogs, taking into account all the observational effects. In the fields where the available observational material is of the top quality we detect synthetic galaxies as >=5 sigma over-densities of resolved stars down to muV,h=30.0 mag/arcsec2, for D<=1.5 Mpc, and down to muV,h~29.5 mag/arcsec2, for D<=2.5 Mpc. In the field with the worst observational material of the whole survey we detect synthetic galaxies with muV,h<=28.8 mag/arcsec2 out to D<=1.0 Mpc, and ...

  18. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey VIII : Discovery of an Isolated Dwarf Galaxy in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, R; Herbst, H; Smith, R

    2014-01-01

    The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) has detected a nearby HI source at a heliocentric velocity of +363 km/s . The object was detected through its neutral hydrogen emission and has an obvious possible optical counterpart in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data (though it does not have an optical redshift measurement). We discuss three possible scenarios for the object : 1) It is within the Local Group, in which case its HI properties are comparable with recently discovered ultra-compact high velocity clouds; 2) It is just behind the Local Group, in which case its optical characteristics are similar to the newly discovered Leo P galaxy; 3) It is a blue compact dwarf galaxy within the local volume but not associated with the Local Group. We find the third possibility to be the most likely, based on distance estimates from the Tully-Fisher relation and its velocity relative to the Local Group.

  19. The Galactic M Dwarf Flare Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Eric J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Holtzman, Jon

    2010-01-01

    M dwarfs are known to flare on timescales from minutes to hours, with flux increases of several magnitudes in the blue/near-UV. These frequent, powerful events, which are caused by magnetic reconnection, will have a strong observational signature in large, time-domain surveys. The radiation and particle fluxes from flares may also exert a significant influence on the atmospheres of orbiting planets, and affect their habitability. We present a statistical model of flaring M dwarfs in the Galax...

  20. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 × faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R☉ (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M☉, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M☉. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R☉ (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%-0.05%+0.10% (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at relatively large orbital radii. Similar eclipsing binary

  1. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for White Dwarf Stars with polytropic matter in the weak field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze its stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to be close to the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predicts an average value of brane tension as: $\\langle\\lambda\\rangle\\gtrsim84.818\\;\\rm MeV^4$, with a standard deviation $\\sigma\\simeq82.021\\;\\rm MeV^4$ which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining above of cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  2. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  3. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  4. White Dwarfs Cosmological and Galactic Probes

    CERN Document Server

    Sion, Edward M; Vennes, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    The emphasis on white dwarf stars and cosmology arises from the most recent advances in cosmological and galactic structure research in which white dwarf stars are playing a very prominent role. Examples are Type Ia supernovae (i.e. white dwarf supernovae), the origin and evolution of the universe, the age of the galactic disk, cosmochronology using white dwarfs in globular clusters and galactic clusters, and the physics of accretion onto compact (very dense) stars. As an assisting guide to the reader, we have included, by invitation, comprehensive review articles in each of the four major areas of the book, white dwarf supernovae, cosmology, accretion physics and galactic structure. The reviews include introductory material that they build upon. The book is suitable and most useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and scientific professionals (e.g. astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, physicists).

  5. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... blues: Talk to your partner or a good friend about how you feel Get plenty of rest ...

  6. Young star clusters in the outer disks of LITTLE THINGS dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Deidre A; Gehret, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    We examine FUV images of the LITTLE THINGS sample of nearby dwarf irregular (dIrr) and Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies to identify distinct young regions in their far outer disks. We use these data, obtained with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite, to determine the furthest radius at which in situ star formation can currently be identified. The FUV knots are found at distances from the center of the galaxies of 1 to 8 disk scale lengths and have ages of <20 Myrs and masses of 20 to 1E5 Msolar. The presence of young clusters and OB associations in the outer disks of dwarf galaxies shows that dIrrs do have star formation taking place there in spite of the extreme nature of the environment. Most regions are found where the HI surface density is ~1 Msolar per pc2, although both the HI and dispersed old stars go out much further. This limiting density suggests a cutoff in the ability to form distinct OB associations and perhaps even stars. We compare the star formation rates in the FUV regions to the ave...

  7. A multiwavelength study of superoutbursts in dwarf novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarf novae are stellar systems consisting of two stars which orbit around each other within a few hours. In dwarf novae one of the stars, which is a bit smaller and less massive than our sun, loses matter to a very compact and degenerated star: a white dwarf. This white dwarf has nearly the same mass as our sun but its radius is about a hundred times smaller. The process of mass transport was studied on the basis of observations with the Exosat-satelite (European X-ray Observatory satelite). 397 refs.; 50 figs.; 21 tabs

  8. Globular clusters in the blue compact galaxy ESO 338-IG04 (Tol 1924-416), as tracers of the star formation history. Results from HST/WFPC2 observations

    CERN Document Server

    Östlin, G A; Rönnback, J; Bergvall, Nils; Rönnback, Jari

    1998-01-01

    Multicolour images of the starbursting metal poor blue compact galaxy ESO338-IG04 have been obtained with WFPC2/HST. In the images we find numerous point-like sources concentrated towards the main body of the galaxy, which we identify as globular cluster candidates. We show that these objects are physically associated with the galaxy and that they are spatially extended. Given their high intrinsic luminosities, these objects cannot be individual stars. Using photometric evolution models we show that the objects constitute a rich population of massive star clusters with ages ranging from a few Myr to 10 Gyr, and masses ranging from 10^4 to more than 10^7 solar masses. We show that these objects are most likely globular clusters of varying age. There are peaks in the age distribution of the clusters: at <30 Myr, ~100 Myr, ~600 Myr, 2.5-5 Gyr and ~10 Gyr. The youngest objects are found in the crowded starburst region. The galaxy presently appears to be involved in a merger, which is the probable cause of the ...

  9. Variable blue straggler stars in NGC 5466

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine variable blue stragglers have been found in the globular cluster NGC 5466. The six dwarf Cepheids in this cluster coexist in the instability strip with other nonvariable stars. The three eclipsing binaries are among the hottest of the blue stragglers. The hypothesis is discussed that all blue stragglers in this cluster have undergone mass transfer in close binaries. Under this hypothesis, rotation and spin-down play important roles in controlling the evolution of blue stragglers in old clusters and in affecting some of their observational properties. 14 refs

  10. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians ...

  11. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with this condition are happy most of the time. But compared to how she usually feels, the ... the "blues" usually lessens and goes away over time. What causes the baby blues? Medical experts believe ...

  12. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Postpartum care > The postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  13. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ... can you manage the baby blues? The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that women do ...

  14. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ... Feels sad Feels confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end ...

  15. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... postpartum blues The postpartum blues E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  16. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ... Medical experts believe that changes in the woman's hormones after delivery cause the postpartum blues. How can ...

  17. Building an Unusual White-Dwarf Duo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    stars.The authors proposed formation scenario for H220+2146. In this picture, the inner binary merges to form a blue straggler. This star and the remaining main-sequence star then evolve independently into white dwarfs, forming the system observed today. [Andrews et al. 2016]An Early MergerIn the model the authors propose for HS 2220+2146, the binary system began as a hierarchical triple system of main-sequence stars. The innermost binary then merged to form a large star known as a blue straggler a star that, due to the merger, will evolve more slowly than its larger mass implies it should.The blue straggler and the remaining main-sequence star, still in a wide orbit, then continued to evolve independently of each other. The smaller star ended its main-sequence lifetime and became a white dwarf first, followed by the more massive but slowly evolving blue straggler thus forming the system we observe today.If the authors model is correct, then HS 2220+2146 would be the first binary double white dwarf known to have formed through this channel. ESAs Gaia mission, currently underway, is expected to discover up to a million new white dwarfs, many of which will likely be in wide binary systems. Among these, we may well find many other systems like HS 2220+2146 that formed in the same way.CitationJeff J. Andrews et al 2016 ApJ 828 38. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/828/1/38

  18. Stark Broadening in Compact Stars: Xe VI Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Milan S. Dimitrijević; Zoran Simić; Andjelka Kovačević; Aleksandar Valjarević; Sylvie Sahal-Bréchot

    2015-12-01

    We will consider Stark broadening of non hydrogenic spectral lines in the impact approximation in compact stars: pre-white dwarf and white dwarf atmospheres. In order to show an example, Stark broadening parameters have been calculated, using the impact semiclassical perturbation approach for four Xe VI spectral lines. Obtained results have been used to demonstrate the influence of Stark broadening in DA and DB white dwarf atmospheres.

  19. Faint dwarfs in nearby groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speller, Ryan; Taylor, James E., E-mail: rspeller@uwaterloo.ca, E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-06-20

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to Δm{sub r} ≡ (m{sub r,} {sub sat} – m{sub r,} {sub main}) ∼ 6-8, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead, we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down to Δm{sub r} = 12, 4 mag fainter than most recent studies. We detect an overdensity of objects at separations <400 kpc, corresponding to about 4.6 ± 0.5 satellites per central galaxy, consistent with the satellite abundance expected from the Local Group, given our selection function. Although the sample of satellites detected is incomplete by construction, since it excludes the least and most compact dwarfs, this detection provides a lower bound on the average satellite luminosity function, down to luminosities corresponding to the faintest ''classical'' dwarfs of the Local Group.

  20. Atmospheres of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Brown Dwarfs are the coolest class of stellar objects known to date. Our present perception is that Brown Dwarfs follow the principles of star formation, and that Brown Dwarfs share many characteristics with planets. Being the darkest and lowest mass stars known makes Brown Dwarfs also the coolest stars known. This has profound implication for their spectral fingerprints. Brown Dwarfs cover a range of effective temperatures which cause brown dwarfs atmospheres to be a sequence that gradually changes from a M-dwarf-like spectrum into a planet-like spectrum. This further implies that below an effective temperature of < 2800K, clouds form already in atmospheres of objects marking the boundary between M-Dwarfs and brown dwarfs. Recent developments have sparked the interest in plasma processes in such very cool atmospheres: sporadic and quiescent radio emission has been observed in combination with decaying Xray-activity indicators across the fully convective boundary.

  1. The Missing Link: Early Methane ("T") Dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leggett, S. K.; Geballe, T. R.; Fan, Xiaohui

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of three cool brown dwarfs which fall in the effective temperature gap between the latest L dwarfs currently known, with no methane absorption bands in the 1-2.5um range, and the previously known methane (T) dwarfs, whose spectra are dominated by methane and water. The newly discovered objects were detected as very red objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging data and have JHK colors between the red L dwarfs and the blue Gl229B-like T dwarfs. They show both CO a...

  2. CENSUS OF BLUE STARS IN SDSS DR8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibelli, Samantha [Burnt Hills-Ballston Lake High School, 88 Lake Hill Road, Ballston, NY 12027 (United States); Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Yanny, Brian, E-mail: heidi@rpi.edu [Experimental Astrophysics Group, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ((g – r){sub 0} < –0.25) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies, and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise ratio, and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf-M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by eye, and diagnostic plots that show the positions, colors, apparent magnitudes, proper motions, etc., for each classification. Future surveys will be able to use templates similar to stars in each of the classes we identify to automatically classify blue stars, including rare types.

  3. A radio pulsing white dwarf binary star

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, T R; Hümmerich, S; Hambsch, F -J; Bernhard, K; Lloyd, C; Breedt, E; Stanway, E R; Steeghs, D T; Parsons, S G; Toloza, O; Schreiber, M R; Jonker, P G; van Roestel, J; Kupfer, T; Pala, A F; Dhillon, V S; Hardy, L K; Littlefair, S P; Aungwerojwit, A; Arjyotha, S; Koester, D; Bochinski, J J; Haswell, C A; Frank, P; Wheatley, P J

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but ~200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions, and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf / cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a delta-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56 hr period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 min. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco's optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 s, and they are detectable a...

  4. Gas Mass Fractions and the Evolution of LSB Dwarf Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Schombert, J.; McGaugh, S.; Eder, J.

    2001-01-01

    The optical and HI properties for a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies, cataloged from the Second Palomar Sky Survey, is presented. Gas mass fractions for LSB dwarfs reach the highest levels of any know galaxy type (f_g=95%) confirming that their low stellar densities are due to inefficient conversion of gas mass into stellar mass. Comparison with star formation models indicates that the blue optical colors of LSB dwarfs is not due to low metallicity or recent star formatio...

  5. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nandez, Jose L A; Lombardi, James C

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double-white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of a $\\sim1.5M_\\odot$ red giant star in a $\\sim 30$ day orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  6. Kind of Blue - Europa Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Tore; Kirkegaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget reflekterer over sammenhænge mellem to værker fra det musikalske og litterære område. Det drejer sig om Miles Davis' Kind of Blue fra 1959 og Arne Dahls krimi, Europa Blues fra 2001. Den grundlæggende indfaldsvinkel er det performative, den frie, men samtidigt disciplinerede musikalske...

  7. Census of blue stars in SDSS DR8

    CERN Document Server

    Scibelli, Samantha; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Yanny, Brian

    2014-01-01

    We present a census of the 12,060 spectra of blue objects ($(g-r)_0<-0.25$) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8 (DR8). As part of the data release, all of the spectra were cross-correlated with 48 template spectra of stars, galaxies and QSOs to determine the best match. We compared the blue spectra by eye to the templates assigned in SDSS DR8. 10,856 of the objects matched their assigned template, 170 could not be classified due to low signal-to-noise (S/N), and 1034 were given new classifications. We identify 7458 DA white dwarfs, 1145 DB white dwarfs, 273 rarer white dwarfs (including carbon, DZ, DQ, and magnetic), 294 subdwarf O stars, 648 subdwarf B stars, 679 blue horizontal branch stars, 1026 blue stragglers, 13 cataclysmic variables, 129 white dwarf - M dwarf binaries, 36 objects with spectra similar to DO white dwarfs, 179 QSOs, and 10 galaxies. We provide two tables of these objects, sample spectra that match the templates, figures showing all of the spectra that were grouped by ...

  8. The Observational Signature of Old White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, B M S

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of microlensing of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud has excited much interest in the nature of the lensing population. Detailed analyses indicate that the mass of these objects ranges from 0.3-0.8 solar masses, suggesting that they might be white dwarfs, the faint remnants of stellar evolution. The confirmation of such an hypothesis would yield profound insights into the early history of our galaxy and the early generations of stars in the universe. Previous attempts have been made to place theoretical constraints on this scenario, but were unduly pessimistic because they relied on inadequate evolutionary models. Here we present the first results from detailed evolutionary models appropriate for the study of white dwarfs of truly cosmological vintage. We find that the commonly held notion that old white dwarfs are red to hold only for helium atmosphere dwarfs and that hydrogen atmosphere dwarfs will be blue, with colours similar to those of the faint point sources found in the Hubble D...

  9. Compact stellar X-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.G. Lewin; M. van der Klis

    2006-01-01

    X-ray astronomy is the prime available window on astrophysical compact objects: black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. In the last ten years new observational opportunities have led to an explosion of knowledge in this field. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the astrophysics of c

  10. The evolution of helium white dwarfs: III. On the ages of millisecond pulsar systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenberner, D.; Driebe, T.; Bloecker, T.

    2000-01-01

    We employed recently computed evolutionary white-dwarf models with helium cores, supplemented by heavier models with carbon-oxygen cores, in order to investigate the ages of millisecond pulsar systems based on the cooling properties of the compact companions. Contrary to the behaviour of more massive white dwarfs, the evolutionary speed of low-mass white-dwarf models is substantially slowed down by ongoing hydrogen burning. By comparing the cooling ages of these models with the spin-down ages...

  11. Neutral Hydrogen in Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grcevich, Jana

    The gas content of the faintest and lowest mass dwarf galaxies provide means to study the evolution of these unique objects. The evolutionary histories of low mass dwarf galaxies are interesting in their own right, but may also provide insight into fundamental cosmological problems. These include the nature of dark matter, the disagreement between the number of observed Local Group dwarf galaxies and that predicted by lambda cold dark matter models, and the discrepancy between the observed census of baryonic matter in the Milky Way's environment and theoretical predictions. This thesis explores these questions by studying the neutral hydrogen (HI) component of dwarf galaxies. First, limits on the HI mass of the ultra-faint dwarfs are presented, and the HI content of all Local Group dwarf galaxies is examined from an environmental standpoint. We find that those Local Group dwarfs within 270 kpc of a massive host galaxy are deficient in HI as compared to those at larger galactocentric distances. Ram-pressure arguments are invoked, which suggest halo densities greater than 2-3 x 10-4 cm-3 out to distances of at least 70 kpc, values which are consistent with theoretical models and suggest the halo may harbor a large fraction of the host galaxy's baryons. We also find that accounting for the incompleteness of the dwarf galaxy count, known dwarf galaxies whose gas has been removed could have provided at most 2.1 x 108 M⊙ of HI gas to the Milky Way. Second, we examine the possibility of discovering unknown gas-rich ultra-faint galaxies in the Local Group using HI. The GALFA-HI Survey catalog is searched for compact, isolated HI clouds which are most similar to the expected HI characteristics of low mass dwarf galaxies. Fifty-one Local Group dwarf galaxy candidates are identified through column density, brightness temperature, and kinematic selection criteria, and their properties are explored. Third, we present hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies experiencing a

  12. The White Dwarf Binary Pathways Survey I: A sample of FGK stars with white dwarf companions

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Schreiber, M R; Gansicke, B T; Zorotovic, M; Ren, J J

    2016-01-01

    The number of white dwarf plus main-sequence star binaries has increased rapidly in the last decade, jumping from only ~30 in 2003 to over 3000. However, in the majority of known systems the companion to the white dwarf is a low mass M dwarf, since these are relatively easy to identify from optical colours and spectra. White dwarfs with more massive FGK type companions have remained elusive due to the large difference in optical brightness between the two stars. In this paper we identify 934 main-sequence FGK stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey in the southern hemisphere and the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey in the northern hemisphere, that show excess flux at ultraviolet wavelengths which we interpret as the likely presence of a white dwarf companion. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra for nine systems which confirmed that the excess is indeed caused, in all cases, by a hot compact companion, eight being white dwarfs and one ...

  13. Space distribution and physical properties of cool dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new study of the space density of red dwarfs based on a sample of red dwarfs in a field of 238 square degrees towards the South Galactic Pole is presented. A blink survey using red and blue copies of Mount Palomar Sky Survey plates of a six square degrees field centered on the South Galactic Pole was performed and the results (approximately 2500 red objects) and the discussion of these results are presented. The time that elapsed before a black dwarf becomes invisible is estimated and is suggested that low-velocity red dwarfs could be explained by contracting black dwarfs. Based on theoretical considerations it can be shown that the existence of a large number of low-velocity stars is in serious conflict with criteria for the stability of the galactic disk. It is shown that if one also takes into account all generations of black dwarfs that are already invisible and therfore old, the mean velocity of all black dwarfs is much higher so that there is no conflict with theory. Luminosity functions of red and black dwarfs in several photometric passbands are calculated. (Auth.)

  14. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day Your support helps babies We are determined to ... confused The postpartum blues peak three to five days after delivery. They usually end by the tenth ...

  15. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . After ... blues" is not really correct since women with this condition are happy most of the time. But ...

  16. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the baby ... compared to how she usually feels, the new mother: Is more irritable Cries more easily Feels sad ...

  17. Postpartum Blues

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses New parents Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... your dashboard . After the baby is born, many new mothers have the postpartum blues (also called the ...

  18. Construction and compression of Dwarf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Long-gang; FENG Yu-cai; GUI Hao

    2005-01-01

    There exists an inherent difficulty in the original algorithm for the construction of Dwarf, which prevents it from constructing true Dwarfs. We explained when and why it introduces suffix redundancies into the Dwarf structure. To solve this problem, we proposed a completely new algorithm called PID. It bottom-up computes partitions of a fact table, and inserts them into the Dwarf structure. Ifa partition is an MSV partition, coalesce its sub-Dwarf; otherwise create necessary nodes and cells. Our performance study showed that PID is efficient. For further condensing of Dwarf, we proposed Condensed Dwarf, a more compressed structure, combining the strength of Dwarf and Condensed Cube. By eliminating unnecessary stores of "ALL" cells from the Dwarf structure, Condensed Dwarf could effectively reduce the size of Dwarf, especially for Dwarfs of the real world, which was illustrated by our experiments. Its query processing is still simple and, only two minor modifications to PID are required for the construction of Condensed Dwarf.

  19. Localized Eruptive Blue Nevi after Herpes Zoster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, Fany; Arrese, Jorge E.; Nikkels, Arjen F.

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old White man presented with a dozen small, well-restricted, punctiform, asymptomatic, blue-gray macules on the left shoulder. A few months earlier, he had been treated with oral acyclovir for herpes zoster (HZ) affecting the left C7–C8 dermatomes. All the blue macules appeared over a short period of time and then remained stable. The patient had not experienced any previous trauma or had tattooing in this anatomical region. The clinical diagnosis suggested blue nevi. Dermatoscopy revealed small, well-limited, dark-blue, compact, homogeneous areas evoking dermal blue nevi. An excisional biopsy was performed and the histological examination confirmed a blue nevus. As far as we are aware of, this is the first report of eruptive blue nevi following HZ, and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of zosteriform dermatoses responding to an isotopic pathway. In addition, a brief review concerning eruptive nevi is presented. PMID:27462219

  20. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  1. Blue gods, blue oil, and blue people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, V F

    1994-09-01

    Studies of the composition of coal tar, which began in Prussia in 1834, profoundly affected the economies of Germany, Great Britain, India, and the rest of the world, as well as medicine and surgery. Such effects include the collapse of the profits of the British indigo monopoly, the growth in economic power of Germany based on coal tar chemistry, and an economic crisis in India that led to more humane tax laws and, ultimately, the independence of India and the end of the British Empire. Additional consequences were the development of antiseptic surgery and the synthesis of a wide variety of useful drugs that have eradicated infections and alleviated pain. Many of these drugs, particularly the commonly used analgesics, sulfonamides, sulfones, and local anesthetics, are derivatives of aniline, originally called "blue oil" or "kyanol." Some of these aniline derivatives, however, have also caused aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and methemoglobinemia (that is, "blue people"). Exposure to aniline drugs, particularly when two or three aniline drugs are taken concurrently, seems to be the commonest cause of methemoglobinemia today. PMID:8065194

  2. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S.O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Reindl, Nicole; Kleinman, Scot J.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Valois, A. Dean M.; Amaral, Larissa A.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultra-compact helium binary (AM...

  3. The link between mass distribution and starbursts in dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Skillman, Evan D; Dolphin, Andrew E; McGaugh, Stacy S; Williams, Benjamin F

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that starburst dwarf galaxies have steeply rising rotation curves in their inner parts, pointing to a close link between the intense star formation and a centrally concentrated mass distribution (baryons and dark matter). More quiescent dwarf irregulars typically have slowly rising rotation curves, although some "compact" irregulars with steep, inner rotation curves exist. We analyze archival Hubble Space Telescope images of two nearby "compact" irregular galaxies (NGC 4190 and NGC 5204), which were selected solely on the basis of their dynamical properties and their proximity. We derive their recent star-formation histories by fitting color-magnitude diagrams of resolved stellar populations, and find that the star-formation properties of both galaxies are consistent with those of known starburst dwarfs. Despite the small sample, this strongly reinforces the notion that the starburst activity is closely related to the inner shape of the potential well.

  4. DA White Dwarfs in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-meter, and Bok 2.3-meter telescopes. Using atmospheric models we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows: i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these eleven happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 days. ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation timescales.

  5. Dwarf-Galaxy Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.

  6. Juvenile Ultracool Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle; Barman, Travis; Looper, Dagny; Malo, Lison; Mamajek, Eric E; Metchev, Stanimir; Shkolnik, Evgenya L

    2011-01-01

    Juvenile ultracool dwarfs are late spectral type objects (later than ~M6) with ages between 10 Myr and several 100 Myr. Their age-related properties lie intermediate between very low mass objects in nearby star-forming regions (ages 1-5 Myr) and field stars and brown dwarfs that are members of the disk population (ages 1-5 Gyr). Kinematic associations of nearby young stars with ages from ~10-100 Myr provide sources for juvenile ultracool dwarfs. The lowest mass confirmed members of these groups are late-M dwarfs. Several apparently young L dwarfs and a few T dwarfs are known, but they have not been kinematically associated with any groups. Normalizing the field IMF to the high mass population of these groups suggests that more low mass (mainly late-M and possibly L dwarf) members have yet to be found. The lowest mass members of these groups, along with low mass companions to known young stars, provide benchmark objects with which spectroscopic age indicators for juvenile ultracool dwarfs can be calibrated and...

  7. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven; Dahlstrom, Michael

    2000-12-01

    A white dwarf is a very dense star: The earth-sized remains of a Sun-like star that has burned all of its nuclear fuel. Although it's unable to carry out the workaday activities of a living star, a white dwarf is still an interesting object to astronomers. For one thing, white dwarfs experience "starquakes"—gentle pulsations that allow astronomers to deduce certain physical qualities of the star, such as its mass, rate of rotation, its structure and the strength of its magnetic field. The authors have been studying the starquakes with a global network of instruments, collectively called the Whole Earth Telescope, which provide around-the-clock observations of a white dwarf's seismic activity. Kawaler and Dahlstrom discuss what we know about white dwarfs and their significance for questions concerning the age of our Galaxy and the composition of dark matter.

  8. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C.; Murphy, T.; Ravi, V.; Hobbs, G.; Lo, K.; Ward, C.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 Southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1-2)R*, magnetic field inclination 20°-80°, field strength ˜10-200 G, and power-law electron density ˜104-108 cm-3. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio frequencies to 222. Analysing general trends of the radio emission for this sample of 15 sources, we find that the radio activity increases for later spectral types and more rapidly rotating objects. Furthermore, comparing the ratio of the radio to X-ray luminosities for these sources, we find 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544 violate the Güdel-Benz relation by more than two orders of magnitude.

  9. Radio detections of southern ultracool dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, C; Ravi, V; Hobbs, G; Lo, K; Ward, C

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a volume-limited survey using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for transient and quiescent radio emission from 15 southern hemisphere ultracool dwarfs. We detect radio emission from 2MASSW J0004348-404405 increasing the number of radio loud ultracool dwarfs to 22. We also observe radio emission from 2MASS J10481463-3956062 and 2MASSI J0339352-352544, two sources with previous radio detections. The radio emission from the three detected sources shows no variability or flare emission. Modelling this quiescent emission we find that it is consistent with optically thin gyrosynchrotron emission from a magnetosphere with an emitting region radius of (1 - 2)$R_*$, magnetic field inclination 20$^{\\circ}$ - 80$^{\\circ}$, field strength $\\sim$10 - 200 G, and power-law electron density $\\sim$10$^4$ - 10$^8$ cm$^{-3}$. Additionally, we place upper limits on four ultracool dwarfs with no previous radio observations. This increases the number of ultracool dwarfs studied at radio freq...

  10. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetic fields within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics simulations show that in mergers in which the two white dwarfs have different masses a disc around the central compact object is formed. If the central object is magnetized it can interact with the disc through its magnetosphere. The torque applied by the disc changes the spin of the star, whereas the transferred angular momentum from the star to the disc determines the properties of the disc. In this work we build a model for the disc evolution under the effect of magnetic accretion, and for the angular momentum evolution of the star, which can be compared with the observations. Our model pre...

  11. M dwarfs: Theoretical work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Dermott J.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical work on the atmospheres of M dwarfs has progressed along lines parallel to those followed in the study of other classes of stars. Such models have become increasingly sophisticated as improvements in opacities, in the equation of state, and in the treatment of convection were incorporated during the last 15 to 20 years. As a result, spectrophotometric data on M dwarfs can now be fitted rather well by current models. The various attempts at modeling M dwarf photospheres in purely thermal terms are summarized. Some extensions of these models to include the effects of microturbulence and magnetic inhomogeneities are presented.

  12. Compact Lumps

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Menezes, R

    2015-01-01

    We study the presence of lumplike solutions in models described by a single real scalar field with standard kinematics in two-dimensional spacetime. The results show several distinct models that support the presence of bell-shaped, lumplike structures which may live in a compact space.

  13. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Reindl, Nicole; Kleinman, Scot J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Valois, A Dean M; Amaral, Larissa A

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultra-compact helium binary (AM CVn), one oxygen line dominated white dwarf, 15 hot DO/PG1159s, 12 new cataclysmic variables, 36 magnetic white dwarf stars, 54 DQs, 115 helium dominated white dwarfs, 148 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 236 metal polluted white dwarfs, 300 continuum spectra DCs, 230 hot subdwarfs, 2936 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars, and 2675 cool hydrogen dominated subdwarf stars. We calculate the mass distribution of all 5883 DAs with S/N>15 in DR12, including the ones in DR7 and DR10, with an average S/N=26, correc...

  14. Posthuman blues

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnies, Mac

    2013-01-01

    Posthuman Blues, Vol. I is first volume of the edited version of the popular weblog maintained by author Mac Tonnies from 2003 until his tragic death in 2009. Tonnies' blog was a pastiche of his original fiction, reflections on his day-to-day life, trenchant observations of current events, and thoughts on an eclectic range of material he culled from the Internet. What resulted was a remarkably broad portrait of a thoughtful man and the complex times in which he lived, rendered with intellige...

  15. White dwarf pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DA white dwarfs are those which show only the Stark-broadened lines of hydrogen in their spectra. They comprise about 80% of the total white dwarf population. A subset of the DA dwarfs, the ZZ Ceti stars, form a highly homogeneous class of nonradially pulsating variable stars. In this paper we shall review the observations from which both the physical properties of the stars and the characteristics of the pulsations have been derived. Data obtained since the last review of these variables (Robinson 1979) is stressed, as these data are forcing a somewhat revised understanding of the ZZ Ceti stars and their relationship to investigations of white dwarfs and to pulsating variable stars, in general. (orig.)

  16. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  17. M dwarfs: planet formation and long term evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. C.; Bodenheimer, P.; Laughlin, G.

    2005-12-01

    The first part of this paper discusses how planet formation proceeds in the disks orbiting M dwarf stars. These environments are different from those associated with solar-type stars in several ways: The planet forming clock (set by orbits) runs slower, the disks are more prone to evaporation, the supply of raw material is lower, the snowline is closer in, and planetary systems are more easily disrupted. Because of these considerations, red dwarfs are less likely to harbor giant planets, but can readily produce smaller planets. The second part of this paper describes stellar evolution calculations for M dwarfs, which live far longer than the current age of the universe. These diminutive stellar objects remain convective over most of their lives, continue to burn hydrogen for trillions of years, and do not experience red giant phases in their old age. Instead, red dwarfs turn into blue dwarfs and finally white dwarfs. This work also shows (in part) why larger stars become red giants.

  18. Evolutionary Status of Dwarf ``Transition'' Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia M.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Gallagher, John S., III

    1999-03-01

    We present deep B-band, R-band, and Hα imaging of three dwarf galaxies: NGC 3377A, NGC 4286, and IC 3475. Based on previous broadband imaging and H I studies, these mixed morphology galaxies have been proposed to be, respectively, a gas-rich low surface brightness Im dwarf, a nucleated dwarf that has lost most of its gas and is in transition from Im to dS0, N, and the prototypical example of a gas-poor ``huge low surface brightness'' early-type galaxy. From the combination of our broadband and Hα imaging with the published information on the neutral gas content of these three galaxies, we find that (1) NGC 3377A is a dwarf spiral, similar to those found by Schombert and coworkers and Matthews & Gallagher; (2) both NGC 3377A and NGC 4286 have comparable amounts of ongoing star formation, as indicated by their Hα emission, while IC 3475 has no detected H II regions to a very low limit; (3) the global star formation rates are at least a factor of 20 below those of 30 Doradus for NGC 3377A and NGC 4286; (4) while the amount of star formation is comparable, the distribution of star-forming regions is very different between NGC 3377A and NGC 4286, with Hα emission scattered over most of the optical face of NGC 3377A and all contained within the inner half of the optical disk of NGC 4286; (5) given their current star formation rates and gas contents, both NGC 3377A and NGC 4286 can continue to form stars for more than a Hubble time; (6) both NGC 3377A and NGC 4286 have integrated total B-R colors that are redder than the integrated total B-R color for IC 3475 and thus it is unlikely that either galaxy will ever evolve into an IC 3475 counterpart; and (7) IC 3475 is too blue to be a dE. We thus conclude that we have not identified potential precursors to galaxies such as IC 3475, and unless significant changes occur in the star formation rates, neither NGC 3377A nor NGC 4286 will evolve into a dwarf elliptical or dwarf spheroidal within a Hubble time. Furthermore

  19. Green Pea Galaxies and Cohorts: Luminous Compact Emission-line Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Guseva, Natalia G.; Thuan, Trinh X.

    2011-02-01

    We present a large sample of 803 star-forming luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) in the redshift range z = 0.02-0.63, selected from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The global properties of these galaxies are similar to those of the so-called green pea star-forming galaxies in the redshift range z = 0.112-0.360 and selected from the SDSS on the basis of their green color and compact structure. In contrast to green pea galaxies, our LCGs are selected on the basis of both their spectroscopic and photometric properties, resulting in a ~10 times larger sample, with galaxies spanning a redshift range gsim2 times larger. We find that the oxygen abundances and the heavy element abundance ratios in LCGs do not differ from those of nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxies. The median stellar mass of LCGs is ~109 M sun. However, for galaxies with high EW(Hβ), >= 100 Å, it is only ~7 × 108 M sun. The star formation rate in LCGs varies in the large range of 0.7-60 M sun yr-1, with a median value of ~4 M sun yr-1, a factor of ~3 lower than in high-redshift star-forming galaxies at z >~ 3. The specific star formation rates in LCGs are extremely high and vary in the range ~10-9-10-7 yr-1, comparable to those derived in high-redshift galaxies.

  20. Green Pea Galaxies and cohorts: Luminous Compact Emission-Line Galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Izotov, Y I; Thuan, T X

    2010-01-01

    We present a large sample of 803 star-forming luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) in the redshift range z = 0.02-0.63, selected from Data Release 7 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The global properties of these galaxies are similar to those of the so-called "green pea" star-forming galaxies, in the redshift range z=0.112-0.360 and selected from the SDSS on the basis of their green color and compact structure. In contrast to green pea galaxies, our LCGs are selected on the basis of both their spectroscopic and photometric properties, resulting in a ~10 times larger sample, with galaxies spanning a redshift range >2 times larger. We find that the oxygen abundances and the heavy element abundance ratios in LCGs do not differ from those of nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies. The median stellar mass of LCGs is ~1e9 Msun. However, for galaxies with high EW(Hbeta), >100A, it is only ~7x1e8 Msun. The star formation rate in LCGs varies in the large range of 0.7-60 Msun yr^{-1}, with a median...

  1. Compact NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemich, Bernhard; Haber-Pohlmeier, Sabina; Zia, Wasif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC)

    2014-06-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  2. Compact NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is the most popular method for chemists to analyze molecular structures, while Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for medical doctors that provides high-contrast images of biological tissue. In both applications, the sample (or patient) is positioned inside a large, superconducting magnet to magnetize the atomic nuclei. Interrogating radio-frequency pulses result in frequency spectra that provide the chemist with molecular information, the medical doctor with anatomic images, and materials scientist with NMR relaxation parameters. Recent advances in magnet technology have led to a variety of small permanent magnets to allow compact and low-cost instruments. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the practical use of compact NMR at a level nearly as basic as the operation of a smart phone.

  3. Hot C-rich white dwarfs: testing the DB-DQ transition through pulsations

    CERN Document Server

    Córsico, A H; Althaus, L G; García-Berro, E

    2009-01-01

    Hot DQ white dwarfs constitute a new class of white dwarf stars, uncovered recently within the framework of the SDSS project. Recently, three hot DQ white dwarfs have been reported to exhibit photometric variability with periods compatible with pulsation g-modes. Here, we present a nonadiabatic pulsation analysis of the recently discovered carbon-rich hot DQ white dwarf stars. One of our main aims is to test the convective-mixing picture for the origin of hot DQs through the pulsational properties. Our study relies on the full evolutionary models of hot DQ white dwarfs recently developed by Althaus et al. (2009), that consistently cover the whole evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Specifically, we present a stability analysis of white dwarf models from stages before the blue edge of the DBV instability strip until the domain of the hot DQ white dwarfs, including the transition DB --> hot DQ white dwarf. We found that at evolutionary phases in which the models are characteriz...

  4. A radio-pulsing white dwarf binary star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hümmerich, S.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Bernhard, K.; Lloyd, C.; Breedt, E.; Stanway, E. R.; Steeghs, D. T.; Parsons, S. G.; Toloza, O.; Schreiber, M. R.; Jonker, P. G.; van Roestel, J.; Kupfer, T.; Pala, A. F.; Dhillon, V. S.; Hardy, L. K.; Littlefair, S. P.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Arjyotha, S.; Koester, D.; Bochinski, J. J.; Haswell, C. A.; Frank, P.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2016-09-01

    White dwarfs are compact stars, similar in size to Earth but approximately 200,000 times more massive. Isolated white dwarfs emit most of their power from ultraviolet to near-infrared wavelengths, but when in close orbits with less dense stars, white dwarfs can strip material from their companions and the resulting mass transfer can generate atomic line and X-ray emission, as well as near- and mid-infrared radiation if the white dwarf is magnetic. However, even in binaries, white dwarfs are rarely detected at far-infrared or radio frequencies. Here we report the discovery of a white dwarf/cool star binary that emits from X-ray to radio wavelengths. The star, AR Scorpii (henceforth AR Sco), was classified in the early 1970s as a δ-Scuti star, a common variety of periodic variable star. Our observations reveal instead a 3.56-hour period close binary, pulsing in brightness on a period of 1.97 minutes. The pulses are so intense that AR Sco’s optical flux can increase by a factor of four within 30 seconds, and they are also detectable at radio frequencies. They reflect the spin of a magnetic white dwarf, which we find to be slowing down on a 107-year timescale. The spin-down power is an order of magnitude larger than that seen in electromagnetic radiation, which, together with an absence of obvious signs of accretion, suggests that AR Sco is primarily spin-powered. Although the pulsations are driven by the white dwarf’s spin, they mainly originate from the cool star. AR Sco’s broadband spectrum is characteristic of synchrotron radiation, requiring relativistic electrons. These must either originate from near the white dwarf or be generated in situ at the M star through direct interaction with the white dwarf’s magnetosphere.

  5. Mineralogy of crater Haulani on dwarf planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maia Teresa; Giacomo Carrozzo, Filippo; Ciarniello, Mauro; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Formisano, Michelangelo; Hoffmann, Martin; Krohn, Katrin; Longobardo, Andrea; McFadden, Lucy Ann; Y McSween, Harry; Nathues, Andreas; Palomba, Ernesto; Pieters, Carle; Stephan, Katrin; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol; Dawn/VIR Team

    2016-10-01

    On dwarf planet Ceres, several high-albedo units are visible at the local scale. Haulani crater, located in the equatorial quadrangle having the same name, is one of the notable bright units highlighted by the Dawn spacecraft since its first approach to Ceres in early 2015. Due to the images obtained by the Dawn Framing Camera, it was possible to reveal that Haulani's bright material displays a very small or even negative ("blue") spectral slope in the range from the visible to the near infrared light, which is a peculiar occurrence compared to the average surface of Ceres.Hyperspectral images returned by the Visible and InfraRed mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard Dawn enabled a detailed mineralogical analysis of the Haulani crater area. Already at the spatial resolution of the Survey phase (~1.1 km/px), and even more so during HAMO (~0.38 km/px) and LAMO (~0.10 km/px) mission phases, Haulani crater shows considerable spectral variability. The spectral features centered at 2.7 and 3.06 µm, respectively indicative of the presence of hydrous minerals and ammoniated phyllosilicates, show a decrease of band depth in the floor and in the bright ejecta corresponding to the blue spectral slope. Spectral signatures at 3.4 and ~4 µm, indicative of carbonates, also show a moderate variability. Finally, Haulani shows the highest thermal contrast over the entire surface of Ceres, which may be linked to the albedo and texture of the material excavated by the impact, combined with its compactness in specific areas such as pitted terrain.The application of a spectral unmixing model on VIR data acquired in Survey and HAMO suggests that the observed spectral variations might be due to substantial differences in grain size, rather than to significant variations in composition. However, a comprehensive analysis shall include LAMO data acquired at higher pixel resolution.AcknowledgementsThis work is supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). VIR was funded and coordinated by the

  6. Color vision: retinal blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jamie; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2012-08-21

    Two complementary studies have resolved the circuitry underlying green-blue color discrimination in the retina. A blue-sensitive interneuron provides the inhibitory signal required for computing green-blue color opponency.

  7. Halo dark clusters of brown dwarfs and molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Jetzer, Ph; Roncadelli, M; 10.1086/305692

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Objects (MACHOs) in microlensing experiments makes it compelling to understand their physical nature, as well as their formation mechanism. Within the present uncertainties, brown dwarfs are a viable candidate for MACHOs, and the present paper deals with this option. According to a recently proposed scenario, brown dwarfs are clumped along with cold molecular clouds into dark clusters -- in several respects similar to globular clusters -- which form in the outer part of the galactic halo. Here, we analyze the dynamics of these dark clusters and we address the possibility that a sizable fraction of MACHOs can be binary brown dwarfs. Moreover, we point out that Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption systems naturally fit within the present picture.

  8. An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Santisteban, Juan V.; Knigge, Christian; Littlefair, Stuart P.; Breton, Rene P.; Dhillon, Vikram S.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Marsh, Thomas R.; Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Southworth, John; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2016-05-01

    Interacting compact binary systems provide a natural laboratory in which to study irradiated substellar objects. As the mass-losing secondary (donor) in these systems makes a transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, it is also irradiated by the primary (compact accretor). The internal and external energy fluxes are both expected to be comparable in these objects, providing access to an unexplored irradiation regime. The atmospheric properties of donors are largely unknown, but could be modified by the irradiation. To constrain models of donor atmospheres, it is necessary to obtain accurate observational estimates of their physical properties (masses, radii, temperatures and albedos). Here we report the spectroscopic detection and characterization of an irradiated substellar donor in an accreting white-dwarf binary system. Our near-infrared observations allow us to determine a model-independent mass estimate for the donor of 0.055 ± 0.008 solar masses and an average spectral type of L1 ± 1, supporting both theoretical predictions and model-dependent observational constraints that suggest that the donor is a brown dwarf. Our time-resolved data also allow us to estimate the average irradiation-induced temperature difference between the dayside and nightside of the substellar donor (57 kelvin) and the maximum difference between the hottest and coolest parts of its surface (200 kelvin). The observations are well described by a simple geometric reprocessing model with a bolometric (Bond) albedo of less than 0.54 at the 2σ confidence level, consistent with high reprocessing efficiency, but poor lateral heat redistribution in the atmosphere of the brown-dwarf donor. These results add to our knowledge of binary evolution, in that the donor has survived the transition from the stellar to the substellar regime, and of substellar atmospheres, in that we have been able to test a regime in which the irradiation and the internal energy of a brown dwarf are

  9. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Kepler, S O; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Ourique, Gustavo; Pelisoli, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N > 15 pure DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12, fitted with Koester models for ML2/alpha=0.8, and with Teff > 10 000 K, and for DBs with S/N >10, fitted with ML2/alpha=1.25, for Teff > 16 000 K. These mass distributions are for log g > 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 Msun but very distinct shapes. From the estimated z-distances, we deduce a disk scale height of 300 pc. We also present 10 probable halo white dwarfs, from their galactic U, V, W velocities.

  10. Axions and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2010-01-01

    White dwarfs are almost completely degenerate objects that cannot obtain energy from the thermonuclear sources and their evolution is just a gravothermal process of cooling. The simplicity of these objects, the fact that the physical inputs necessary to understand them are well identified, although not always well understood, and the impressive observational background about white dwarfs make them the most well studied Galactic population. These characteristics allow to use them as laboratories to test new ideas of physics. In this contribution we discuss the robustness of the method and its application to the axion case.

  11. White dwarf planets

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor Amy; Veras Dimitri; Villaver Eva; Mustill Alexander J.; Wyatt Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙...

  12. GRMHD formulation of highly super-Chandrasekhar rotating magnetised white dwarfs: Stable configurations of non-spherical white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, Sathyawageeswar

    2015-01-01

    Here we extend the exploration of significantly super-Chandrasekhar magnetised white dwarfs by numerically computing axisymmetric stationary equilibria of differentially rotating magnetised polytropic compact stars in general relativity (GR), within the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime. We use a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) framework that describes rotating and magnetised axisymmetric white dwarfs, choosing appropriate rotation laws and magnetic field profiles (toroidal and poloidal). The numerical procedure for finding solutions in this framework uses the 3+1 formalism of numerical relativity, implemented in the open source XNS code. We construct equilibrium sequences by varying different physical quantities in turn, and highlight the plausible existence of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, with masses in the range of 2-3 solar mass, with central (deep interior) magnetic fields of the order of $10^{14}$ Gauss and differential rotation with surface time periods of about 1-10 seconds. We no...

  13. Formation of emission line dots and extremely metal-deficient dwarfs from almost dark galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bekki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations have discovered a number of extremely gas-rich very faint dwarf galaxies possibly embedded in low-mass dark matter halos. We investigate star formation histories of these gas-rich dwarf ("almost dark") galaxies both for isolated and interacting/merging cases. We find that although star formation rates (SFRs) are very low (<10^-5 M_sun/yr) in the simulated dwarfs in isolation for the total halo masses (M_h) of 10^8-10^9 M_sun, they can be dramatically increased to be ~ 10^{-4} M_sun/yr when they interact or merge with other dwarfs. These interacting faint dwarfs with central compact HII regions can be identified as isolated emission line dots ("ELdots") owing to their very low surface brightness envelopes of old stars. The remnant of these interacting and merging dwarfs can finally develop central compact stellar systems with very low metallicities (Z/Z_sun<0.1), which can be identified as extremely metal-deficient ("XMD") dwarfs. These results imply that although there would exist ma...

  14. Chandra grating spectroscopy of three hot white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Adamczak, J; Rauch, T; Schuh, S; Drake, J J; Kruk, J W

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB 1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG1159 (PG 1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD 246). The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB 1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD 246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. (abridged)

  15. A Brown Dwarf Census from the SIMP Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Jasmin; Artigau, Étienne; Lafrenière, David; Nadeau, Daniel; Doyon, René; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Simard, Corinne; Gagliuffi, Daniella C Bardalez; Burgasser, Adam J

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted a near-infrared (NIR) proper motion survey, the Sondage Infrarouge de Mouvement Propre (SIMP), in order to discover field ultracool dwarfs (UCD) in the solar neighborhood. The survey was conducted by imaging $\\sim28\\%$ of the sky with the Camera PAnoramique Proche-InfraRouge (CPAPIR) both in the southern hemisphere at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) 1.5-m telescope, and in the northern hemisphere at the Observatoire du Mont-M\\'egantic (OMM) 1.6-m telescope and comparing the source positions from these observations with the Two Micron All-Sky Survey Point Source Catalog (2MASS PSC). Additional color criteria were used to further discriminate unwanted astrophysical sources. We present the results of a NIR spectroscopic follow-up of 169 M, L and T dwarfs. Among the sources discovered are two young field brown dwarfs, six unusually red M and L dwarfs, twenty-five unusually blue M and L dwarfs, two candidate unresolved L+T binaries and twenty-four peculiar UCDs. Additionally, w...

  16. The Gobbling Dwarf that Exploded

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A unique set of observations, obtained with ESO's VLT, has allowed astronomers to find direct evidence for the material that surrounded a star before it exploded as a Type Ia supernova. This strongly supports the scenario in which the explosion occurred in a system where a white dwarf is fed by a red giant. ESO PR Photo 31a/07 ESO PR Photo 31a/07 Evolution of SN 2006X Spectrum Because Type Ia supernovae are extremely luminous and quite similar to one another, these exploding events have been used extensively as cosmological reference beacons to trace the expansion of the Universe. However, despite significant recent progress, the nature of the stars that explode and the physics that governs these powerful explosions have remained very poorly understood. In the most widely accepted models of Type Ia supernovae the pre-explosion white dwarf star orbits another star. Due to the close interaction and the strong attraction produced by the very compact object, the companion star continuously loses mass, 'feeding' the white dwarf. When the mass of the white dwarf exceeds a critical value, it explodes. The team of astronomers studied in great detail SN 2006X, a Type Ia supernova that exploded 70 million light-years away from us, in the splendid spiral Galaxy Messier 100 (see ESO 08/06). Their observations led them to discover the signatures of matter lost by the normal star, some of which is transferred to the white dwarf. The observations were made with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), mounted at ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope, on four different occasions, over a time span of four months. A fifth observation at a different time was secured with the Keck telescope in Hawaii. The astronomers also made use of radio data obtained with NRAO's Very Large Array as well as images extracted from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope archive. ESO PR Photo 31b/07 ESO PR Photo 31b/07 SN 2006X, before and after the Type Ia Supernova explosion "No Type Ia

  17. An irradiated brown-dwarf companion to an accreting white dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Santisteban, Juan V Hernández; Littlefair, Stuart P; Breton, Rene P; Dhillon, Vikram S; Gänsicke, Boris T; Marsh, Thomas R; Pretorius, Magaretha L; Southworth, John; Hauschildt, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant planets orbiting close to a host star are subjected to significant irradiation that can modify the properties of their atmospheres. In order to test the atmospheric models that are used to describe these systems, it is necessary to obtain accurate observational estimates of their physical properties (masses, radii, temperatures, albedos). Interacting compact binary systems provide a natural laboratory for studying strongly irradiated sub-stellar objects. As the mass-losing secondary in these systems makes a critical, but poorly understood transition from the stellar to the sub-stellar regime, it is also strongly irradiated by the compact accretor. In fact, the internal and external energy fluxes are both expected to be comparable in these objects, providing access to an unexplored irradiation regime. However, the atmospheric properties of such donors have so far remained largely unknown. Here, we report the direct spectroscopic detection and characterisation of an irradiated sub-stellar...

  18. Compact Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  19. The white dwarf luminosity function

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for $\\sim 10$ Gyr. Their observed properties provide information about the history of the Galaxy, its dark matter content and a host of other interesting astrophysical problems. Examples of these include an independent determination of the past history of the local star formation rate, identification of the objects responsible for the reported microlensing events, constraints on the rate of change of the gravitational constant, and upper limits to the mass of weakly interacting massive particles. To carry on these tasks the essential observational tools are the luminosity and mass functions of white dwarfs, whereas the theoretical tools are the evolutionary sequences of white dwarf progenitors, and the corresponding white dwarf cooling sequences. In particular, the observed white dwarf luminosity function is the key manifestation of the white dwarf cooling theory, although other...

  20. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    White dwarf and pre-white dwarf atmospheres are one of the best examples for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, due to plasma conditions very favorable for this line broadening mechanism. For example in hot hydrogen-deficient (pre-) white dwarf stars Teff = 75 000 K - 180 000 K and log g = 5.5-8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with typical effective temperatures of 10 000 K - 20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/), containing Stark broadening parameters needed for white dwarf spectra analysis and synthesis, as well as to the new search facilities which will provide the collective effort to develop Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center (VAMDC - http://vamdc.org/).

  1. Solidification of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The internal structure of white dwarfs is discussed. Highly correlated plasmas are reviewed. Implications for phase separation in the core of cooling white dwarfs are considered. The consequences for evolution of white dwarfs are addressed.

  2. Searching for Brown Dwarf Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Randich, S; Natta, A

    2009-01-01

    As outflow activity in low mass protostars is strongly connected to ac- cretion it is reasonable to expect accreting brown dwarfs to also be driving out- flows. In the last three years we have searched for brown dwarf outflows using high quality optical spectra obtained with UVES on the VLT and the technique of spectro-astrometry. To date five brown dwarf outflows have been discovered. Here the method is discussed and the results to date outlined.

  3. A MEGACAM SURVEY OF OUTER HALO SATELLITES. II. BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE LOWEST STELLAR DENSITY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Felipe A.; Munoz, Ricardo R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geha, Marla [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cote, Patrick; Stetson, Peter [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Djorgovski, S. G., E-mail: fsantana@das.uchile.cl, E-mail: rmunoz@das.uchile.cl [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across 10 outer halo globular clusters, 3 classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and 9 ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low-density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters, we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue stragglers and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers is well fit by a single trend with a smooth transition between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters; this result points to a common origin for these satellites' blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate regime spanned by our dwarf galaxies, and decreases with density and encounter rate in the range spanned by our globular clusters. We find that young stars can mimic blue stragglers in dwarf galaxies only if their ages are 2.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr and they represent {approx}1%-7% of the total number of stars, which we deem highly unlikely. These results point to mass-transfer or mergers of primordial binaries or multiple systems as the dominant blue straggler formation mechanism in low-density systems.

  4. Blue cures blue but be cautious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Sikka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methemoglobinemia is a disorder characterized by the presence of >1% methemoglobin (metHb in the blood. Spontaneous formation of methemoglobin is normally counteracted by protective enzyme systems, for example, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH methemoglobin reductase. Methemoglobinemia is treated with supplemental oxygen and methylene blue (1-2 mg/kg administered slow intravenously, which acts by providing an artificial electron acceptor for NADPH methemoglobin reductase. But known or suspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is a relative contraindication to the use of methylene blue because G6PD is the key enzyme in the formation of NADPH through pentose phosphate pathway and G6PD-deficient individuals generate insufficient NADPH to efficiently reduce methylene blue to leukomethylene blue, which is necessary for the activation of the NADPH-dependent methemoglobin reductase system. So, we should be careful using methylene blue in methemoglobinemia patient before G6PD levels.

  5. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comins, N.F.

    1984-09-01

    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity.

  6. Chandra Grating Spectroscopy of Three Hot White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG1159 (PG1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD246). Aims. The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods. The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results. No metals could be identified in LB1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to T(sub eff) = 150 000 +/- 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GWVir class (PG1159-035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GWVir instability region

  7. Chandra grating spectroscopy of three hot white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2012-10-01

    Context. High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB 1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG 1159 (PG 1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD 246). Aims: The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB 1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD 246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG 1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods: The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results: No metals could be identified in LB 1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD 246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG 1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to Teff = 150 000 ± 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GW Vir class (PG 1159 - 035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GW Vir

  8. A search for white dwarfs in the Galactic plane: the field and the open cluster population

    CERN Document Server

    Raddi, R; Gaensicke, B T; Hermes, J J; Napiwotzki, R; Koester, D; Tremblay, P -E; Barentsen, G; Farnhill, J H; Mohr-Smith, M; Drew, J E; Groot, P J; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Parker, Q A; Steeghs, D; Zijlstra, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prospects for systematic searches of white dwarfs at low Galactic latitudes, using the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) H$\\alpha$ Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+). We targeted 17 white dwarf candidates along sightlines of known open clusters, aiming to identify potential cluster members. We confirmed all the 17 white dwarf candidates from blue/optical spectroscopy, and we suggest five of them to be likely cluster members. We estimated progenitor ages and masses for the candidate cluster members, and compared our findings to those for other cluster white dwarfs. A white dwarf in NGC 3532 is the most massive known cluster member (1.13 M$_{\\odot}$), likely with an oxygen-neon core, for which we estimate an $8.8_{-4.3}^{+1.2}$ M$_{\\odot}$ progenitor, close to the mass-divide between white dwarf and neutron star progenitors. A cluster member in Ruprecht 131 is a magnetic white dwarf, whose progenitor mass exceeded 2-3 M$_{\\odot}$. We stress that wider searches, and improved...

  9. On the Assembly of Dwarf Galaxies in Clusters and their Efficient Formation of Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mistani, Pouria A; Pillepich, Annalisa; Sanchez-Janssen, Ruben; Vogelsberger, Mark; Nelson, Dylan; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy clusters contain a large population of low mass dwarf elliptical galaxies whose exact origin is unclear: their colors, structural properties and kinematics differ substantially from those of dwarf irregulars in the field. We use the Illustris cosmological simulation to study differences in the assembly paths of dwarf galaxies (3e8 < M_*/M_sun < 1e10) according to their environment. We find that cluster dwarfs achieve their maximum total and stellar mass on average ~ 8 and ~ 4.5 Gyr ago, respectively, around the time of infall into the clusters. In contrast, field dwarfs not subjected to environmental stripping, reach their maximum mass at redshift z = 0. This different assembly history naturally produces a color bimodality, with blue isolated dwarfs and redder cluster dwarfs exhibiting negligible star-formation today. The cessation of star formation happens over median times 3.5-5 Gyr depending on stellar mass, and shows a large scatter (~ 1-8 Gyr), with the lower values associated with starburst...

  10. The Discovery of Y Dwarfs Using Data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, Michael C; Gelino, Christopher R; Griffith, Roger L; Skrutskie, Michael F; Mainzer, Amanda K; Marsh, Kenneth A; Beichman, Charles A; Burgasser, Adam J; Prato, Lisa A; Simcoe, Robert A; Marley, Mark S; Saumon, D; Freedman, Richard S; Eisenhardt, Peter R; Wright, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H_2O and CH_4 that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f_lambda, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH_3. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS J0722-0540 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spect...

  11. THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Bagnulo, S. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Kowalski, P. M. [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, D-14473 Potsdam (Germany); Shulyak, D. V. [Institute of Astrophysics, Georg-August-University, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Sterzik, M. F., E-mail: l.fossati@open.ac.uk, E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk, E-mail: M.R.Patel@open.ac.uk, E-mail: r.busuttil@open.ac.uk, E-mail: sba@arm.ac.uk, E-mail: kowalski@gfz-potsdam.de, E-mail: denis.shulyak@gmail.com, E-mail: msterzik@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2012-09-20

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for {approx}8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10{sup 2} (10{sup 4}) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

  12. The ELM Survey. VII. Orbital Properties of Low Mass White Dwarf Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Warren R; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2016-01-01

    We present the discovery of 15 extremely low mass (5 < log{g} < 7) white dwarf candidates, 9 of which are in ultra-compact double-degenerate binaries. Our targeted ELM Survey sample now includes 76 binaries. The sample has a lognormal distribution of orbital periods with a median period of 5.4 hr. The velocity amplitudes imply that the binary companions have a normal distribution of mass with 0.76 Msun mean and 0.25 Msun dispersion. Thus extremely low mass white dwarfs are found in binaries with a typical mass ratio of 1:4. Statistically speaking, 95% of the white dwarf binaries have a total mass below the Chandrasekhar mass and thus are not Type Ia supernova progenitors. Yet half of the observed binaries will merge in less than 6 Gyr due to gravitational wave radiation; probable outcomes include single massive white dwarfs and stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries.

  13. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia--Berro, E; Salaris, M; Torres, S

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  14. The inferred redshift distribution of the faint blue excess

    CERN Document Server

    Driver, S P; Phillipps, S; Windhorst, R A; Driver, Simon P; Couch, Warrick J; Phillipps, Steven; Windhorst, Rogier A

    1996-01-01

    We infer the redshift distribution of the faint blue galaxy excess (FBE) at B=23.5 by subtracting the predicted distribution of giant/normal galaxies from the observed N(z) distribution for all types. This is possible because of the recent deep {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} (HST) WFPC2 morphological number counts which have convincingly demonstrated that little evolution of the giant population is seen to B=26.0. The mean redshift of the FBE at B=23.5 is found to be _{FBE}=0.40 +/- 0.07 with upper and lower quartiles defined by z_{0.75}=0.58 +/- 0.05 and z_{0.25}=0.28 +/- 0.05, respectively. We compare this inferred FBE N(z) distribution to the predictions from three generic faint galaxy models: dwarf dominated (no evolution), pure luminosity evolution, and evolving dwarfs. The inferred FBE N(z) distribution strongly supports a hybrid evolving dwarf--rich model wherein a large population of dwarfs present at z=0.5 has subsequently faded to obscurity. The total integrated number density of dwarfs (down to M_{B}...

  15. Infrared Colors of Dwarf-Dwarf Galaxy Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Sandra; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, Kelsey; Patton, Dave; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2015-10-01

    We request Spitzer Warm Mission IRAC Channel 1 & 2 imaging for a sample of 60 isolated dwarf galaxy pairs as a key component of a larger, multi-wavelength effort to understand the role low-mass mergers play in galaxy evolution. A systematic study of dwarf-dwarf mergers has never been done, and we wish to characterize the impact such interactions have on fueling star formation in the nearby universe. The Spitzer imaging proposed here will allow us to determine the extent to which the 3.6 and 4.5 mum bands are dominated by stellar light and investigate a) the extent to which interacting pairs show IR excess and b) whether the excess is related to the pair separation. Second, we will use this IR photometry to constrain the processes contributing to the observed color excess and scatter in each system. We will take advantage of the wealth of observations available in the Spitzer Heritage Archive for 'normal' non-interacting dwarfs by comparing the stellar populations of those dwarfs with the likely interacting dwarfs in our sample. Ultimately, we can combine the Spitzer imaging proposed here with our current, ongoing efforts to obtain groundbased optical photometry to model the star formation histories of these dwarfs and to help constrain the timescales and impact dwarf-dwarf mergers have on fueling star formation. The sensitivity and resolution offered by Spitzer are necessary to determine the dust properties of these interacting systems, and how these properties vary as a function of pair separation, mass ratio, and gas fraction.

  16. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  17. Magnetized White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Terrero, D Alvear; Martínez, A Pérez

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to obtain more realistic equations of state to describe the matter forming magnetized white dwarfs, and use them to solve its structure equations. The equations of state are determined by considering the weak magnetic field approximation $Bdwarfs. Also, we consider the energy and pressure correction due to the Coulomb interaction of the electron gas with the ions located in a crystal lattice. Moreover, spherically symmetric Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff structure equations are solved independently for the perpendicular and parallel pressures, confirming the necessity of using axisymmetric structure equations, more adequate to describe the anisotropic system. Therefore, we study the solutions in cylindrical coordinates. In this case, the mass per longitude unit is obtained instead of the total mass of the whit...

  18. Beyond the Chandrasekhar limit: Structure and formation of compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    2011-07-01

    The concept of limiting mass, introduced by Chandrasekhar in case of white dwarfs, plays an important role in the formation and stability of compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes. Like white dwarfs, neutron stars have their own mass limit, and a compact configuration would progress from one family to the next, more dense one once a mass limit is crossed. The mass limit of neutron stars depends on the nature of nuclear forces at very high density, which has so far not been determined conclusively. This article reviews how observational determinations of the properties of neutron stars are starting to impose significant constraints on the state of matter at high density

  19. Radio Observations of Super Star Clusters in Dwarf Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, I R; Norris, R P; Stevens, Ian R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Ray P.

    2002-01-01

    We present new radio continuum observations of two dwarf starburst galaxies, NGC3125 and NGC5408, with observations at 4.80GHz (6cm) and 8.64GHz (3cm), taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Both galaxies show a complex radio morphology with several emission regions, mostly coincident with massive young star clusters. The radio spectral indices of these regions are negative (with alpha ~ -0.5 - -0.7), indicating that the radio emission is dominated by synchrotron emission associated with supernova activity from the starburst. One emission region in NGC5408 has a flatter index (alpha ~ -0.1) indicative of optically thin free-free emission, which could indicate it is a younger cluster. Consequently, in these galaxies we do not see regions with the characteristic positive spectral index indicative of optically obscured star-formation regions, as seen in other dwarf starbursts such as Hen 2-10.

  20. THE BROWN DWARF KINEMATICS PROJECT (BDKP). IV. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF 85 LATE-M AND L DWARFS WITH MagE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgasser, Adam J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Logsdon, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Gagné, Jonathan [Institute for Research on Exoplanets (iREx), Université de Montréal, Département de Physique, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Bochanski, John J. [Rider University, 2083 Lawrenceville Road, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Faherty, Jaqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); West, Andrew A. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Schmidt, Sarah J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cruz, Kelle L., E-mail: aburgasser@ucsd.edu [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10034 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Radial velocity measurements are presented for 85 late M- and L-type very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs obtained with the Magellan Echellette spectrograph. Targets primarily have distances within 20 pc of the Sun, with more distant sources selected for their unusual spectral energy distributions. We achieved precisions of 2–3 km s{sup −1}, and combined these with astrometric and spectrophotometric data to calculate UVW velocities. Most are members of the thin disk of the Galaxy, and velocity dispersions indicate a mean age of 5.2 ± 0.2 Gyr for sources within 20 pc. We find signficantly different kinematic ages between late-M dwarfs (4.0 ± 0.2 Gyr) and L dwarfs (6.5 ± 0.4 Gyr) in our sample that are contrary to predictions from prior simulations. This difference appears to be driven by a dispersed population of unusually blue L dwarfs which may be more prevalent in our local volume-limited sample than in deeper magnitude-limited surveys. The L dwarfs exhibit an asymmetric U velocity distribution with a net inward flow, similar to gradients recently detected in local stellar samples. Simulations incorporating brown dwarf evolution and Galactic orbital dynamics are unable to reproduce the velocity asymmetry, suggesting non-axisymmetric perturbations or two distinct L dwarf populations. We also find the L dwarfs to have a kinematic age-activity correlation similar to more massive stars. We identify several sources with low surface gravities, and two new substellar candidate members of nearby young moving groups: the astrometric binary DENIS J08230313–4912012AB, a low-probability member of the β Pictoris Moving Group; and 2MASS J15104786–2818174, a moderate-probability member of the 30–50 Myr Argus Association.

  1. PROPERTIES OF THE COOLEST DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SAUMON, DIDIER [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LEGGETT, SANDY K. [NON LANL; FREEDMAN, RICHARD S. [NON LANL; GEBALLE, THOMAS R. [NON LANL; GOLIMOWSKI, DAVID A. [NON LANL; LODIEU, NICOLAS [NON LANL; MARLEY, MARK S. [NON LANL; STEPHENS, DENISE [NON LANL; PINFIELD, DAVID J. [NON LANL; WARREN, STEPHEN J. [NON LANL

    2007-01-18

    Eleven years after the discovery of the first T dwarf, we have a population of ultracool L and T dwarfs that is large enough to show a range of atmospheric properties, as well as model atmospheres advanced enough to study these properties in detail. Since the last Cool Stars meeting, there have been observational developments which aid in these studies. they present recent mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope which confirms the prevalence of vertical mixing in the atmospheres of L and T dwarfs. Hence, the 700 K to 2200 K L and t dwarf photspheres require a large number of parameters for successful modeling: effective temperature, gravity, metallicity, grain sedimentation and vertical mixing efficiency. They also describe initial results of a search for ultracool dwarfs in the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey, and present the latest T dwarf found to date. They conclude with a discussion of the definition of the later-than-T spectral type, the Y dwarf.

  2. Compact star cooling by means of heat waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Falcón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Compact star cooling theory is revised using the Cattaneo law for the heat flux. It is shown changes in the energy transport equation, insinuates quasiperiodic pulses in the luminosity and predicts that the energy is spread by heat waves changing the cooling time. Applications in rapid variations in single white-dwarf oscillators and quasi periodic luminosity pulses of neutron stars are suggested.

  3. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  4. Chemical Evolution of Irregular and Blue Compact Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    L. Carigi; Colin, P.; Peimbert, M.; Sarmiento, A

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the chemical evolution of metal poor galaxies and conclude that their oxygen deficiency is not due to: the production of black holes by massive stars or a varying slope of the Initial Mass Function, IMF, at the high-mass end. A varying IMF at the low-mass end alone or in combination with: (a) an outflow of oxygen-rich material, (b) an outflow of well-mixed material, and (c) the presence of dark matter that does not participate in the chemical evolution process, is needed to explain...

  5. 3D spectroscopy of Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Gruel, N.

    2007-01-01

    Las galaxias luminosas compactas azules (LCBGs) son galaxias de elevado brillo superficial, más azules que una SBc tópica y más brillantes que 0:25L, que experimentan en la actualidad un violento brote de formación estelar. Las LCBGs representan el homólogo más cercano a la abundante población de galaxias starburst a z alto e intermedio, entre las que se incluyen las galaxias Lyman-break a z 2. Hemos seleccionado una muestra pequeña, aunque representativa, de 24 LCBGs de los catál...

  6. MOND and the seven dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom, Mordehai

    1995-01-01

    Gerhard had recently analyzed the data on seven dwarf spheroidals, and concluded that these disagree with the predictions of MOND. We contend that this conclusion is anything but correct. With new data for three of the dwarfs the observations of all dwarfs are in compelling agreement with the predictions of MOND. Gerhard found MOND M/L values that fall around a few solar units, as expected if MOND is a valid alternative to dark matter. His sole cause for complaint was that some of his MOND M/...

  7. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  8. Blue and White Pot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Many recent archaeological studies have proven that the earliest blue and white porcelain was produced from the kiln in Gongxian County, Henan Province in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). It was an important variety of porcelain available for export then. The early blue and white porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty appeared dark and gray. During the reign of Zhizheng, clear blue and white porcelain was produced, indicating

  9. Measuring M dwarf Winds with DAZ White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Debes, J H

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs with metal lines, so-called DAZs, show evidence for ongoing accretion of material onto their surfaces. Some DAZs are known to have unresolved M dwarf companions, which could account for the observed accretion through a stellar wind. I combine observed Ca abundances of the DAZs with information on the orbital separation of their M dwarf companions to infer the mass loss rate of the M dwarfs. I find that for three of the six known DAZs with M dwarf companions, a stellar wind can plausibly explain the observed accretion on the white dwarfs assuming Bondi-Hoyle accretion of solar abundance stellar winds on the order of 10$^{-14}-10^{-16}\\Msun$ yr$^{-1}$. The rest of the sample have companions with orbits $\\gtorder$ 1~AU, and require companion mass loss rates of $> 10^{-11}\\Msun$ yr$^{-1}$. I conclude that there must be an alternative explanation for accretion of material onto DAZs with widely separated companions. The inferred winds for two of the close binaries are orders of magn...

  10. Spectrophotometry of DWARF Novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrophotometry of seven dwarf novae was obtained from lambda lambda3800-5200 A three objects were observed during outburst and four near minimum. The Balmer lines in emission and absorption have similar widths (approx4540 km s-1). RU Peg, SS Cyg and AB Dra show weak C II lambda4227 in emission. EM Cyg shows strong He II lambda 4686 in emission during outburst. CY Lyr and UU Aq1 have, near maximum, equivalent widths comparable with those of a B3 III star. The emission line ratios from optically thin steady state accretion disc models are lower than the observed values. The latter are approx.3 times greater than Case B recombination values. The observed He I/H I flux ratios are consistent with the predicted values by Williams and Ferguson (1982) for models with high helium abundance. (author)

  11. Spectrophotometry of DWARF Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Costero, R.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrophotometry of seven dwarf novae was obtained from lambda lambda3800-5200 A three objects were observed during outburst and four near minimum. The Balmer lines in emission and absorption have similar widths (approx4540 km s/sup -1/). RU Peg, SS Cyg and AB Dra show weak C II lambda4227 in emission. EM Cyg shows strong He II lambda 4686 in emission during outburst. CY Lyr and UU Aq1 have, near maximum, equivalent widths comparable with those of a B3 III star. The emission line ratios from optically thin steady state accretion disc models are lower than the observed values. The latter are approx.3 times greater than Case B recombination values. The observed He I/H I flux ratios are consistent with the predicted values by Williams and Ferguson (1982) for models with high helium abundance.

  12. Antlia B: A faint dwarf galaxy member of the NGC 3109 association

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Crnojević, D; Hargis, J R; Willman, B; Strader, J; Grillmair, C J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of Antlia B, a faint dwarf galaxy at a projected distance of $\\sim$72 kpc from NGC 3109 ($M_{V}$$\\sim$$-$15 mag), the primary galaxy of the NGC 3109 dwarf association at the edge of the Local Group. The tip of the red giant branch distance to Antlia B is $D$=1.29$\\pm$0.10 Mpc, which is consistent with the distance to NGC 3109. A qualitative analysis indicates the new dwarf's stellar population has both an old, metal poor red giant branch ($\\gtrsim$10 Gyr, [Fe/H]$\\sim$$-$2), and a younger blue population with an age of $\\sim$200-400 Myr, analogous to the original Antlia dwarf, another likely satellite of NGC 3109. Antlia B has \\ion{H}{1} gas at a velocity of $v_{helio,HI}$=376 km s$^{-1}$, confirming the association with NGC 3109 ($v_{helio}$=403 km s$^{-1}$). The HI gas mass (M$_{HI}$=2.8$\\pm$0.2$\\times$10$^{5}$ M$_{\\odot}$), stellar luminosity ($M_{V}$=$-$9.7$\\pm$0.6 mag) and half light radius ($r_{h}$=273$\\pm$29 pc) are all consistent with the properties of dwarf irregular and dwarf ...

  13. Surface Brightness Profiles of Dwarf Galaxies: II. Color Trends and Mass Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Herrmann, Kimberly A; Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    In this second paper of a series, we explore the B-V, U-B, and FUV-NUV radial color trends from a multi-wavelength sample of 141 dwarf disk galaxies. Like spirals, dwarf galaxies have three types of radial surface brightness profiles: (I) single exponential throughout the observed extent (the minority), (II) down-bending (the majority), and (III) up-bending. We find that colors of (1) Type I dwarfs generally become redder with increasing radius unlike spirals that have a blueing trend that flattens beyond ~1.5 disk scale lengths, (2) Type II dwarfs come in six different "flavors," one of which mimics the "U" shape of spirals, and (3) Type III dwarfs have a stretched "S" shape where central colors are flattish, become steeply redder to the surface brightness break, then remain roughly constant beyond, similar to spiral TypeIII color profiles, but without the central outward bluing. Faint (-9 > M_B > -14) Type II dwarfs tend to have continuously red or "U" shaped colors and steeper color slopes than bright (-14...

  14. Discovery of a Possible Cool White Dwarf Companion from the AllWISE Motion Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio B; Schneider, Adam C; Cushing, Michael C; Stern, Daniel; Gelino, Christopher R; Bardalez-Gagliuffi, Daniella C; Kellogg, Kendra; Wright, Edward L

    2016-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of WISEA J061543.91$-$124726.8, which we rediscovered as a high motion object in the AllWISE survey. The spectra of this object are unusual; while the red optical ($\\lambda >$ 7,000 \\AA) and near-infrared spectra exhibit characteristic TiO, VO, and H$_{2}$O bands of a late-M dwarf, the blue portion of its optical spectrum shows a significant excess of emission relative to late-M type templates. The excess emission is relatively featureless, with the exception of a prominent and very broad Na I D doublet. We find that no single, ordinary star can reproduce these spectral characteristics. The most likely explanation is an unresolved binary system of an M7 dwarf and a cool white dwarf. The flux of a cool white dwarf drops in the optical red and near-infrared, due to collision-induced absorption, thus allowing the flux of a late-M dwarf to show through. This scenario, however, does not explain the Na D feature, which is unlike that of any known white dwarf, but wh...

  15. Dynamical friction in dwarf galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, X.; Gilmore, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    We present a simplified analytic approach to the problem of the spiraling of a massive body orbiting within the dark halo of a dwarf galaxy. This dark halo is treated as the core region of a King distribution of dark matter particles, in consistency with the observational result of dwarf galaxies having solid body rotation curves. Thus we derive a simple formula which provides a reliable and general first order solution to the problem, totally analogous to the one corresponding to the dynamic...

  16. White Dwarf Planets from GAIA

    OpenAIRE

    Silvotti, Roberto; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of high-precision astrometry with GAIA for detection of giant planetary companions to nearby white dwarfs. If one considers that, to date, no confirmed planets around single white dwarfs are known, the results from GAIA will be crucial to study the late-stage evolution of planetary systems and to verify the possibility that 2nd-generation planets are formed.

  17. Feeling blue? Blue phosphors for OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hungshin Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs has been revitalized, partly due to the debut of the OLED TV by SONY in 2008. While there is still plenty of room for improvement in efficiency, cost-effectiveness and longevity, it is timely to report on the advances of light emitting materials, the core of OLEDs, and their future perspectives. The focus of this account is primarily to chronicle the blue phosphors developed in our laboratory. Special attention is paid to the design strategy, synthetic novelty, and their OLED performance. The report also underscores the importance of the interplay between chemistry and photophysics en route to true-blue phosphors.

  18. Singing and dancing white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accreting white dwarfs have recently been shown to exhibit non-radial pulsations similar to their non-interacting counterparts. This allows us to probe the interior of the accreting white dwarf using seismology, and may be the only way to determine masses for non-eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Improving our understanding of accreting white dwarfs will have implications for models of supernovae Type Ia. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables are also useful in establishing the effects of accretion on pulsations. A search for nonradial pulsations among suitable candidates has led to the discovery of twelve such systems known to date. With the goal of establishing an instability strip (or strips) for these pulsating accretors, we acquired HST ultra-violet time-series spectroscopy of six pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables in 2007 and 2008. This approach enables us to measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf using the co-added spectrum, and to simultaneously characterize the pulsations. We also intended to constrain the pulsation mode identification by comparing the ultra-violet amplitudes to those from near-simultaneous ground-based photometry. Our preliminary results indicate a broad instability strip in the temperature range of 10500-15400 K.

  19. Singing and dancing white dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukadam, Anjum S; Szkody, Paula [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Gaensicke, Boris T [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nitta, Atsuko, E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.ed [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Accreting white dwarfs have recently been shown to exhibit non-radial pulsations similar to their non-interacting counterparts. This allows us to probe the interior of the accreting white dwarf using seismology, and may be the only way to determine masses for non-eclipsing cataclysmic variables. Improving our understanding of accreting white dwarfs will have implications for models of supernovae Type Ia. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables are also useful in establishing the effects of accretion on pulsations. A search for nonradial pulsations among suitable candidates has led to the discovery of twelve such systems known to date. With the goal of establishing an instability strip (or strips) for these pulsating accretors, we acquired HST ultra-violet time-series spectroscopy of six pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables in 2007 and 2008. This approach enables us to measure the effective temperature of the white dwarf using the co-added spectrum, and to simultaneously characterize the pulsations. We also intended to constrain the pulsation mode identification by comparing the ultra-violet amplitudes to those from near-simultaneous ground-based photometry. Our preliminary results indicate a broad instability strip in the temperature range of 10500-15400 K.

  20. Blue Willow Story Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  1. General Relativity and Compact Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the conceptual foundation of general relativity (GR) - equivalence principle, space-time geometry and special relativity, I train cross hairs on two characteristic predictions of GR - black holes and gravitational waves. These two consequences of GR have played a significant role in relativistic astrophysics, e.g. compact X-ray sources, quasars, blazars, coalescing binary pulsars, etc. With quantum theory wedded to GR, particle production from vacuum becomes a generic feature whenever event horizons are present. In this paper, I shall briefly discuss the fate of a `black hole atom' when Hawking radiation is taken into account. In the context of gravitational waves, I shall focus on the possible consequences of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from highly magnetized and rapidly spinning white dwarfs. The discovery of RX J0648.0-4418 system - a WD in a binary with mass slightly over 1.2 $ M_{\\odot}$, and rotating with spin period as short as 13.2 s, provides an impetus to revisit the pr...

  2. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate. PMID:20164924

  3. Hunting for Infrared Signatures of Supermassive Black Hole Activity in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Kevin; Reines, Amy; Greene, Jenny; Stern, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    In order to explore the origin of the relationship between the growth of a galaxy and its central supermassive black hole, evidence must be found for black holes in galaxies at a wide range in masses. Searching for supermassive black holes in dwarf galaxies is especially important as these objects have less complicated merger histories, and they may host black holes that are similar to early proposed ``seed'' black holes. However, this selection is complicated by the fact that star formation in these dwarf galaxies can often mask the optical signatures of supermassive black hole growth and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in these objects. The all-sky infrared coverage offered by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has been used to great success to select AGNs in more massive galaxies, but great care must be used when using infrared selection techniques on samples of dwarf galaxies. In particular, compact, highly star-forming dwarf galaxies can have infrared colors that may lead them to be erroneously selected as AGNs. In this talk, I will discuss recent work exploring infrared selection of AGN candidates in dwarf galaxies, and present a set of potential IR dwarf-galaxy AGN candidates. I will also outline the importance in these results with respect to future selection of AGNs in low-metallicity galaxies at high-redshift.

  4. From blue jeans to blue genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Laurence M; Vikkula, Miikka

    2009-03-01

    Cutaneous venous anomalies are common. They are blue and vary in size, number, and location and account for most consultations at specialized interdisciplinary clinics for vascular anomalies. Venous lesions are clinically important because they cause pain, dysfunction, destruction of adjacent tissues, and esthetic concern. Only resection and sclerotherapy are helpful, although not always curative. Understanding etiopathogenesis could help design animal models and develop novel therapeutic approaches. John B. Mulliken, MD, envisioned a project to uncover the genetic basis of an inherited form of venous malformation in a large New England family. Recruitment of 2 young fellows resulted in a collaborative project that unraveled the searched-for gene and its mutation. This was an opening for a new era in vascular anomalies. Two blue genes' mutations were discovered, which account for most, if not all, of the inherited forms of venous anomalies, but other genes as well, for rheologically diverse lesions. Differential diagnosis and management has improved, and animal models are being made. This was achieved through the help of Dr Mulliken, who inspired 2 young investigators in blue jeans to find 2 blue genes.

  5. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). IV. Radial Velocities of 85 Late-M and L dwarfs with MagE

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Gagne, Jonathan; Bochanski, John J; Faherty, Jaqueline K; West, Andrew A; Mamajek, Eric E; Schmidt, Sarah J; Cruz, Kelle L

    2015-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements are presented for 85 late M- and L-type very low mass stars and brown dwarfs obtained with the Magellan Echellette (MagE) spectrograph. Targets primarily have distances within 20 pc of the Sun, with more distant sources selected for their unusual spectral energy distributions. We achieved precisions of 2--3 km/s, and combined these with astrometric and spectrophotometric data to calculate $UVW$ velocities. Most are members of the thin disk of the Galaxy, and velocity dispersions indicate a mean age of 5.2$\\pm$0.2 Gyr for sources within 20 pc. We find significantly different kinematic ages between late-M dwarfs (4.0$\\pm$0.2 Gyr) and L dwarfs (6.5$\\pm$0.4 Gyr) in our sample that are contrary to predictions from prior simulations. This difference appears to be driven by a dispersed population of unusually blue L dwarfs which may be more prevalent in our local volume-limited sample than in deeper magnitude-limited surveys. The L dwarfs exhibit an asymmetric $U$ velocity distribution w...

  6. White dwarfs, red dwarfs and halo dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Berro, E; Torres, S; Camacho, J [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Escola Politecnica Superior de Castelldefels, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Av. del Canal Olimpic, s/n, 08860 Castelldefels (Spain); Isern, J, E-mail: garcia@fa.upc.ed [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai, CSIC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-06-01

    The nature of the microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the LMC still remains controversial. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than approx 1M{sub o-dot} have been ruled out, while stars of approx 0.5 M{sub o-dot} are the most probable candidates. This means that the microlenses should be either red or white dwarfs. Consequently, we assess jointly the relative contributions of both types of stars to the mass budget of the Galactic halo. We use a Monte Carlo code that incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of both red dwarfs and white dwarfs as well as detailed descriptions of both our Galaxy and the LMC and we compare the synthetic populations obtained with our simulator with the results obtained by the MACHO and EROS experiments. We find that the contribution of the red dwarf population is not enough to explain the number of events measured by the MACHO team. Even though, the optical depth obtained in our simulations almost doubles that obtained when taking into account the white dwarf population alone. Finally, we also find that the contribution to the halo dark matter of the entire population under study is smaller than 10%, at the 95% confidence level.

  7. A Megacam Survey of Outer Halo Satellites. II. Blue Stragglers in the Lowest Stellar Density Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Felipe A; Geha, Marla; Cote, Patrick; Stetson, Peter; Simon, Joshua D; Djorgovski, S G

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across ten outer halo globular clusters, three classical dwarf spheroidal and nine ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue straggler and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers are well fitted by single trends with smooth transitions between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters, which points to a common origin for their blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate reg...

  8. A Blue Tilt in the Globular Cluster System of the Milky Way-like Galaxy NGC 5170

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Duncan; Harris, William; Bailin, Jeremy; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean; Larsen, Soeren

    2009-01-01

    Here we present HST/ACS imaging, in the B and I bands, of the edge-on Sb/Sc galaxy NGC 5170. Excluding the central disk region region, we detect a 142 objects with colours and sizes typical of globular clusters (GCs). Our main result is the discovery of a `blue tilt' (a mass-metallicity relation), at the 3sigma level, in the metal-poor GC subpopulation of this Milky Way like galaxy. The tilt is consistent with that seen in massive elliptical galaxies and with the self enrichment model of Bailin & Harris. For a linear mass-metallicity relation, the tilt has the form Z ~ L^{0.42 +/- 0.13}. We derive a total GC system population of 600 +/- 100, making it much richer than the Milky Way. However when this number is normalised by the host galaxy luminosity or stellar mass it is similar to that of M31. Finally, we report the presence of a potential Ultra Compact Dwarf of size ~ 6 pc and luminosity M_I ~ -12.5, assuming it is physically associated with NGC 5170.

  9. An accurate geometric distance to the compact binary SS Cygni vindicates accretion disc theory

    CERN Document Server

    Miller-Jones, J C A; Knigge, C; Körding, E G; Templeton, M; Waagen, E O

    2013-01-01

    Dwarf novae are white dwarfs accreting matter from a nearby red dwarf companion. Their regular outbursts are explained by a thermal-viscous instability in the accretion disc, described by the disc instability model that has since been successfully extended to other accreting systems. However, the prototypical dwarf nova, SS Cygni, presents a major challenge to our understanding of accretion disc theory. At the distance of 159 +/- 12 pc measured by the Hubble Space Telescope, it is too luminous to be undergoing the observed regular outbursts. Using very long baseline interferometric radio observations, we report an accurate, model-independent distance to SS Cygni that places the source significantly closer at 114 +/- 2 pc. This reconciles the source behavior with our understanding of accretion disc theory in accreting compact objects.

  10. Andromeda IV, a solitary gas-rich dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Tully, R B; Makarova, L N; Sharina, M E; Begum, A; Rizzi, L

    2015-01-01

    Observations are presented of the isolated dwarf irregular galaxy And IV made with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope in the 21 cm HI line. We determine the galaxy distance of $7.17\\pm0.31$ Mpc using the Tip of Red Giant Branch method. The galaxy has a total blue absolute magnitude of -12.81 mag, linear Holmberg diameter of 1.88 kpc and an HI-disk extending to 8.4 times the optical Holmberg radius. The HI mass-to-blue luminosity ratio for And IV amounts $12.9~M_{\\odot}/L_{\\odot}$. From the GMRT data we derive the rotation curve for the HI and fit it with different mass models. We find that the data are significantly better fit with an iso-thermal dark matter halo, than by an NFW halo. We also find that MOND rotation curve provides a very poor fit to the data. The fact that the iso-thermal dark matter halo provides the best fit to the data supports models in which star formation feedback results in the formation of a dark matter core in dwarf galaxies...

  11. A Deep Study of the Dwarf Satellites Andromeda XXVIII & Andromeda XXIX

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, Colin T; Martin, Nicolas F; Tollerud, Erik J; Ho, Nhung

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a deep study of the isolated dwarf galaxies Andromeda XXVIII and Andromeda XXIX with Gemini/GMOS and Keck/DEIMOS. Both galaxies are shown to host old, metal-poor stellar populations with no detectable recent star formation, conclusively identifying both of them as dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). And XXVIII exhibits a complex horizontal branch morphology, which is suggestive of metallicity enrichment and thus an extended period of star formation in the past. Decomposing the horizontal branch into blue (metal poor, assumed to be older) and red (relatively more metal rich, assumed to be younger) populations shows that the metal rich are also more spatially concentrated in the center of the galaxy. We use spectroscopic measurements of the Calcium triplet, combined with the improved precision of the Gemini photometry, to measure the metallicity of the galaxies, confirming the metallicity spread and showing that they both lie on the luminosity-metallicity relation for dwarf satellites. ...

  12. The effects of host galaxy properties on merging compact binaries detectable by LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Brooks, Alyson; Shen, Sijing; Governato, Fabio; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of galaxy formation can produce present-day galaxies with a large range of assembly and star formation histories. A detailed study of the metallicity evolution and star formation history of such simulations can assist in predicting LIGO-detectable compact object binary mergers. Recent simulations of compact binary evolution suggest the compact object merger rate depends sensitively on the progenitor's metallicity. Rare low-metallicity star formation during galaxy assembly can produce more detected compact binaries than typical star formation. Using detailed simulations of galaxy and chemical evolution, we determine how sensitively the compact binary populations of galaxies with similar present-day appearance depend on the details of their assembly. We also demonstrate by concrete example the extent to which dwarf galaxies overabundantly produce compact binary mergers, particularly binary black holes, relative to more massive galaxies. We discuss the implications for transient multimes...

  13. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades. PMID:15559577

  14. Blue ocean strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  15. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; OUCHI, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  16. Progenitors of the Accretion-Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Kwiatkowski, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Recent calculations of accretion-induced collapse of an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf into a neutron star [Piro & Thompson 2014] allow for a potentially detectable transient electromagnetic signal. Motivated by these results, I present theoretical rates and physical properties of binary stars that can produce accretion-induced collapse. The rates are presented for various types of host galaxies (e.g. old ellipticals versus spirals) and are differentiated by the donor star type (e.g. large giant star versus compact helium-rich donor). Results presented in this thesis may help to guide near-future electromagnetic transient search campaigns to find likely candidates for accretion-induced collapse events. My predictions are based on binary evolution calculations that include the most recent updates on mass accretion and secular mass growth of white dwarfs. I find that the most likely systems that undergo accretion-induced collapse consist of an ONeMg white dwarf with a Hertzsprung gap star or a red giant ...

  17. Atypical Thermonuclear Supernovae from Tidally Crushed White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Rosswog, S; Hix, W R

    2007-01-01

    Suggestive evidence has accumulated that intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) exist in some globular clusters. As stars diffuse in the cluster, some will inevitable wander sufficiently close to the hole that they suffer tidal disruption. An attractive feature of the IMBH hypothesis is its potential to disrupt not only solar-type stars but also compact white dwarf stars. Attention is given to the fate of white dwarfs that approach the hole close enough to be disrupted and compressed to such extent that explosive nuclear burning may be triggered. Precise modeling of the dynamics of the encounter coupled with a nuclear network allow for a realistic determination of the explosive energy release, and it is argued that ignition is a natural outcome for white dwarfs of all varieties passing well within the tidal radius. Although event rates are estimated to be significantly less than the rate of normal Type Ia supernovae, such encounters may be frequent enough in globular clusters harboring an IMBH to warrant a sear...

  18. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  19. Mechanics of tissue compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlier, Hervé; Maître, Jean-Léon

    2015-12-01

    During embryonic development, tissues deform by a succession and combination of morphogenetic processes. Tissue compaction is the morphogenetic process by which a tissue adopts a tighter structure. Recent studies characterized the respective roles of cells' adhesive and contractile properties in tissue compaction. In this review, we formalize the mechanical and molecular principles of tissue compaction and we analyze through the prism of this framework several morphogenetic events: the compaction of the early mouse embryo, the formation of the fly retina, the segmentation of somites and the separation of germ layers during gastrulation.

  20. Isolated compact elliptical galaxies: Stellar systems that ran away

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Compact elliptical galaxies form a rare class of stellar system (~30 presently known) characterized by high stellar densities and small sizes and often harboring metal-rich stars. They were thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors, until two isolated objects were discovered where massive galaxies performing the stripping could not be identified. By mining astronomical survey data, we have now found 195 compact elliptical galaxies in all types of environment. They all share similar dynamical and stellar population properties. Dynamical analysis for nonisolated galaxies demonstrates the feasibility of their ejection from host clusters and groups by three-body encounters, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Hence, isolated compact elliptical and isolated quiescent dwarf galaxies are tidally stripped systems that ran away from their hosts.

  1. The magnetosphere of the ultracool dwarf DENIS 1048-3956

    CERN Document Server

    Ravi, V; Hobbs, G; Champion, D J

    2011-01-01

    Ultracool dwarfs, the least-massive contributors to the stellar mass function, exhibit striking magnetic properties that are inconsistent with trends for more massive stars. Here, we present the widest-band radio observations to date of an ultracool dwarf, DENIS-P J104814.9-395604, in four 2 GHz bandwidths between wavelengths of 1 cm and 10 cm. These data were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array using the new Compact Array Broadband Backend instrument. We detected a stable negatively-sloped power-law spectrum in total intensity, with spectral index alpha=1.71+-0.09. Circular polarization fractions between 0.25 and 0.4 were found at the low-frequency end of our detection band. We interpret these results as indicative of gyrosynchrotron emission. We suggest that the radio emission originates from beyond the co-rotation radius, R_C, of the star. Adopting this model, we find R_C between 1.2-2.9 R_*, and a non-thermal electron density and magnetic field strength between 10^(5)-10^(7.2) cm^(-3) and ...

  2. Blue Ribbon Panel Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  3. New York Blue

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — New York Blue is used cooperatively by the Laboratory and Stony Brook University as part of the New York Center for Computation Sciences. Ranked as the 28th fastest...

  4. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  5. Faint Dwarfs in Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Speller, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to $\\Delta m_r \\equiv ({m}_{r,\\, {\\rm sat}} -\\, {m}_{r,\\, {\\rm main}}) \\sim 6$-$8$, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs, and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down...

  6. The rotation of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Aleks

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of low-mass stars is their propensity to shed large amounts of angular momentum throughout their evolution. This distinguishs them from brown dwarfs which remain fast rotators over timescales of gigayears. Brown dwarfs with rotation periods longer than a couple of days have only been found in star forming regions and young clusters. This is a useful constraint on the mass dependency of mechanisms for angular momentum regular in stars. Rotational braking by disks and winds become highly inefficient in the substellar regime. In this short review I discuss the observational evidence for the fast rotation in brown dwarfs, the implications, and the link to the spin-mass relation in planets.

  7. Stellar Populations and Chemical Evolution of Late--Type Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2001-01-01

    Some aspects of the chemical evolution of late-type dwarf galaxies are reviewed, together with their implications on three issues of cosmological relevance: similarity to primeval galaxies, derivation of the primordial helium abundance, contribution to the excess of faint blue galaxies. A more detailed approach to model their evolution is suggested. The importance of deriving the star formation history in these systems by studying their resolved stellar populations is emphasized.

  8. Compaction properties of isomalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Gerad K.; Engelhart, Jeffrey J. P.; Eissens, Anko C.

    2009-01-01

    Although other polyols have been described extensively as filler-binders in direct compaction of tablets, the polyol isomalt is rather unknown as pharmaceutical excipient, in spite of its description in all the main pharmacopoeias. In this paper the compaction properties of different types of ispoma

  9. A comparative analysis of the observed white dwarf cooling sequence from globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, Fabíola; Romero, A D; Kepler, S O; Ourique, G; Costa, J E S; Bonatto, C J; Winget, D E; Montgomery, M H; Pacheco, T A; Bedin, L R

    2015-01-01

    We report our study of features at the observed red end of the white dwarf cooling sequences for three Galactic globular clusters: NGC\\,6397, 47\\,Tucanae and M\\,4. We use deep colour-magnitude diagrams constructed from archival Hubble Space Telescope (ACS) to systematically investigate the blue turn at faint magnitudes and the age determinations for each cluster. We find that the age difference between NGC\\,6397 and 47\\,Tuc is 1.98$^{+0.44}_{-0.26}$\\,Gyr, consistent with the picture that metal-rich halo clusters were formed later than metal-poor halo clusters. We self-consistently include the effect of metallicity on the progenitor age and the initial-to-final mass relation. In contrast with previous investigations that invoked a single white dwarf mass for each cluster, the data shows a spread of white dwarf masses that better reproduce the shape and location of the blue turn. This effect alone, however, does not completely reproduce the observational data - the blue turn retains some mystery. In this contex...

  10. Gravitational Radiation from Compact Binary Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, John

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding question in modern Physics is whether general relativity (GR) is a complete description of gravity among bodies at macroscopic scales. Currently, the best experiments supporting this hypothesis are based on high-precision timing of radio pulsars. This chapter reviews recent advances in the field with a focus on compact binary millisecond pulsars with white-dwarf (WD) companions. These systems - if modeled properly - provide an unparalleled test ground for physically motivated alternatives to GR that deviate significantly in the strong-field regime. Recent improvements in observational techniques and advances in our understanding of WD interiors have enabled a series of precise mass measurements in such systems. These masses, combined with high-precision radio timing of the pulsars, result to stringent constraints on the radiative properties of gravity, qualitatively very different from what was available in the past.

  11. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2004-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  12. A PATCHY CLOUD MODEL FOR THE L TO T DWARF TRANSITION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One mechanism suggested for the L to T dwarf spectral type transition is the appearance of relatively cloud-free regions across the disk of brown dwarfs as they cool. The existence of partly cloudy regions has been supported by evidence for variability in dwarfs in the late L to early T spectral range, but no self-consistent atmosphere models of such partly cloudy objects have yet been constructed. Here, we present a new approach for consistently modeling partly cloudy brown dwarfs and giant planets. We find that even a small fraction of cloud holes dramatically alter the atmospheric thermal profile, spectra, and photometric colors of a given object. With decreasing cloudiness objects briskly become bluer in J - K and brighten in J band, as is observed at the L/T transition. Model spectra of partly cloudy objects are similar to our models with globally homogenous, but thinner, clouds. Hence, spectra alone may not be sufficient to distinguish partial cloudiness although variability and polarization measurements are potential observational signatures. Finally, we note that partial cloud cover may be an alternative explanation for the blue L dwarfs.

  13. The Blues of David Lynch

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, David

    2009-01-01

    This article is an attempt to elaborate a typology of the color blue in the color films of David Lynch up to and including Mulholland Drive (2001). The color blue is considered alternately as light, matter or verbal language. The author studies the use, function, value and meaning of blue lighting, divided into static and flashing light, and of the blue objects in Blue Velvet (1986) and Mulholland Drive. The author shows how Lynch appropriates connotations Western culture, under the influence...

  14. A large spectroscopic sample of L and T dwarfs from UKIDSS LAS: peculiar objects, binaries, and space density

    CERN Document Server

    Marocco, F; Day-Jones, A C; Pinfield, D J; Lucas, P W; Burningham, B; Zhang, Z H; Smart, R L; Gomes, J I; Smith, L

    2015-01-01

    We present the spectroscopic analysis of a large sample of late-M, L, and T dwarfs from UKIDSS. Using the YJHK photometry from ULAS and the red-optical photometry from SDSS we selected a sample of 262 brown dwarf candidates and we followed-up 196 of them using X-shooter on the VLT. The large wavelength coverage (0.30-2.48 $\\mu$m) and moderate resolution (R~5000-9000) of X-shooter allowed us to identify peculiar objects including 22 blue L dwarfs, 2 blue T dwarfs, and 2 low gravity M dwarfs. Using a spectral indices-based technique we identified 27 unresolved binary candidates, for which we determined the spectral type of the potential components via spectral deconvolution. The spectra allowed us to measure the equivalent width of the prominent absorption features and to compare them to atmospheric models. Cross-correlating the spectra with a radial velocity standard, we measured the radial velocity for our targets, and we determined the distribution of the sample, which is centred at -1.7$\\pm$1.2 km s$^{-1}$ ...

  15. Photometric study of DWARF novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echevarria, J.; Jones, D.

    1983-01-01

    A catalogue of UBVRI photoelectric photometry of dwarf novae available in the literature is presented. A comparison with theoretical colour-colour diagrams from steady state discs is made. A correlation of V magnitude with the depth of the Balmer discontinuity is discussed.

  16. Pulsating Helium Atmosphere White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Judith; Montgomery, Michael H.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Shipman, Harry; Nitta, Atsuko; Whole Earth Telescope Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars currently on the main sequence as well as those from earlier generations will or have ended their stellar lives as white dwarf stars. White dwarfs are rich forensic laboratories linking the history and future evolution of our Galaxy. Their structure and atmospheric composition provide evidence of how the progenitors lived, how they evolved, and how they died. This information reveals details of processes governing the behavior of contemporary main sequence stars. Combined with their distribution in luminosity/temperature, white dwarfs strongly constrain models of galactic and cosmological evolution.GD358 is among the brightest (mv =13.7) and best studied of the pulsating white dwarfs. This helium atmoshere pulsator (DBV) has an extensive photometric database spanning 30 years, including nine multisite Whole Earth Telescope campaigns. GD358 exhibits a range of behaviors, from drastic changes in excited pulsation modes to variable multiplet splittings. We use GD358 as a template for an examination of the DBV class, combining photometric results with recent COS spectroscopy. The results present new questions concerning DB formation and evolution.

  17. The scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies across a range of environments

    CERN Document Server

    Penny, Samantha J; Forbes, Duncan A; Benson, Andrew J; Mould, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a Keck-ESI study of dwarf galaxies across a range of environment: the Perseus Cluster, the Virgo Cluster, the NGC 1407 group, and the NGC 1023 group. Eighteen dEs are targeted for spectroscopy, three for the first time. We confirm cluster membership for one Virgo dE, and group membership for one dE in the NGC 1023 group, and one dE in the NGC 1407 group for the first time. Regardless of environment, the dEs follow the same size-magnitude and $\\sigma$-luminosity relation. Two of the Virgo dwarfs, VCC 1199 and VCC 1627, have among the highest central velocity dispersions ($\\sigma_{0}$ = 58.4 km s$^{-1}$ and 49.2 km s$^{-1}$) measured for dwarfs of their luminosity ($M_{R}\\approx -17$). Given their small sizes ($R_{e} < 300$ pc) and large central velocity dispersions, we classify these two dwarfs as compact ellipticals rather than dEs. Group dEs typically have higher mean dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios than the cluster dEs, with $M_{dyn}/M_{\\star} = 5.1\\pm0.6$ for the group dwarfs,...

  18. Finding gas-rich dwarf galaxies betrayed by their ultraviolet emission

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jennifer Donovan; Putman, Mary; Grcevich, Jana

    2015-01-01

    We present ultraviolet (UV) follow-up of a sample of potential dwarf galaxy candidates selected for their neutral hydrogen (HI) properties, taking advantage of the low UV background seen by the GALEX satellite and its large and publicly available imaging footprint. The HI clouds, which are drawn from published GALFA-HI and ALFALFA HI survey compact cloud catalogs, are selected to be galaxy candidates based on their spatial compactness and non-association with known high-velocity cloud complexes or Galactic HI emission. Based on a comparison of their UV characteristics to those of known dwarf galaxies, half (48%) of the compact HI clouds have at least one potential stellar counterpart with UV properties similar to those of nearby dwarf galaxies. If galaxies, the star formation rates, HI masses, and star formation efficiencies of these systems follow the trends seen for much larger galaxies. The presence of UV emission is an efficient method to identify the best targets for spectroscopic follow-up, which is nec...

  19. Small Valdivia compact spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Kubi's, W; Kubi\\'s, Wieslaw; Michalewski, Henryk

    2005-01-01

    We prove a preservation theorem for the class of Valdivia compact spaces, which involves inverse sequences of ``simple'' retractions. Consequently, a compact space of weight $\\loe\\aleph_1$ is Valdivia compact iff it is the limit of an inverse sequence of metric compacta whose bonding maps are retractions. As a corollary, we show that the class of Valdivia compacta of weight at most $\\aleph_1$ is preserved both under retractions and under open 0-dimensional images. Finally, we characterize the class of all Valdivia compacta in the language of category theory, which implies that this class is preserved under all continuous weight preserving functors.

  20. Compact boson stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Betti [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany); Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Schaffer, Isabell, E-mail: i.schaffer@jacobs-university.de [School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University, Postfach 750 561, D-28725 Bremen (Germany)

    2012-07-24

    We consider compact boson stars that arise for a V-shaped scalar field potential. They represent a one parameter family of solutions of the scaled Einstein-Gordon equations. We analyze the physical properties of these solutions and determine their domain of existence. Along their physically relevant branch emerging from the compact Q-ball solution, their mass increases with increasing radius. Employing arguments from catastrophe theory we argue that this branch is stable, until the maximal value of the mass is reached. There the mass and size are on the order of magnitude of the Schwarzschild limit, and thus the spiraling respectively oscillating behaviour, well known for compact stars, sets in.

  1. Little Dwarf Galaxies survive within Bigger Dwarfs: Why Some Dwarfs Go Dark and Others Stay Luminous

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, George

    2008-01-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) was the largest galaxy in a group of galaxies that entered the Milky Way (MW) system at late times. Seven of the 11 brightest dwarf galaxies of the MW may have been part of this system. The association of dwarfs with the plane of the LMCs orbit has been used to argue that they are formed from tidal debris from LMC and SMC (Kroupa et al 2005). Instead, we find that they owe to the tidal breakup of the Magellanic Group. The Cold Dark Matter (CDM) paradigm suffers from the small-scale structure problem where 500 galaxies as massive as Draco and Ursa Minor are expected, but only 11 are seen. If seven of the 11 observed were part of the LMC group, the substructure in this group is close to CDM predictions. There are other likely nearby dwarf groups, including a second Milky Way group associated with Fornax (Lynden-Bell 1982), great circles of satellites in M31 (Koch & Grebel 2006) and groupings of otherwise isolated dwarfs (Tully et al. 2006). For the first time, we build he ci...

  2. Beyond Deep Blue

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2011-01-01

    More than a decade has passed since IBM's Deep Blue computer stunned the world by defeating Garry Kasparov, the world chess champion at that time. Beyond Deep Blue tells the continuing story of the chess engine and its steady improvement. The book provides analysis of the games alongside a detailed examination of the remarkable technological progress made by the engines - asking which one is best, how good is it, and how much better can it get. Features: presents a total of 118 games, played by 17 different chess engines, collected together for the first time in a single reference; details the

  3. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  4. The Blue Collar Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVan Orden

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue collar role compared to the white collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  5. Roller compaction of theophylline

    OpenAIRE

    Hadzovic, Ervina

    2008-01-01

    1. Summary Direct compaction requires a very good flowability and compressibility of the materials. Those parameters become even more critical if the formulation contains large amount of active substance. To overcome these problems, several alternatives have been used. Roller compaction is a very attractive technology in the pharmaceutical industry. It is a fast and efficient way of producing granules, especially suitable for moisture sensitive materials. The intention of this work was to ...

  6. AR Sco: A White Dwarf Synchronar

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    2016-01-01

    The emission of the white dwarf-M dwarf binary AR Sco is driven by the rapid synchronization of its white dwarf, rather than by accretion. This requires a comparatively large magnetic field $\\sim 100$ gauss at the M dwarf and $\\sim 10^8$ gauss on the white dwarf, larger than the fields of most intermediate polars but within the range of fields of known magnetic white dwarfs. The spindown power is dissipated in the atmosphere of the M dwarf by magnetic reconnection, accelerating particles that produce the observed synchrotron radiation. The displacement of the optical maximum from conjunction may be explained either by dissipation in a bow wave as the white dwarf's magnetic field sweeps past the M dwarf or by a misaligned white dwarf's rotation axis and oblique magnetic moment. In the latter case the rotation axis precesses with a period of decades, predicting a drift in the orbital phase of maximum. Binaries whose emission is powered by synchronization may be termed synchronars, in analogy to magnetars.

  7. Blue-green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for 6 months relieves allergy symptoms in adults. Arsenic poisoning. Early research shows that taking a combination of blue-green algae and zinc by mouth twice daily for 12 weeks reduces arsenic levels and its effects on the skin in ...

  8. The Blue Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    This paper makes an important contribution to the discussion about knowledge based localised externalities in the context of shipping and the maritime sector in Denmark. In the paper we ask if there is a national, knowledge‐based maritime cluster configured around the shipowners in Denmark. This ...... talk about The Blue Denmark....

  9. The "Blue Banana" Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This essay is about the “Blue Banana”. Banana is the name given subsequently by others to a Dorsale européenne (European backbone) identified empirically by Roger Brunet. In a background study to the Communication of the European Commission ‘Europe 2000’, Klaus Kunzmann and Michael Wegener put forwa

  10. [The study of M dwarf spectral classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhen-Ping; Pan, Jing-Chang; Luo, A-Li

    2013-08-01

    As the most common stars in the galaxy, M dwarfs can be used to trace the structure and evolution of the Milky Way. Besides, investigating M dwarfs is important for searching for habitability of extrasolar planets orbiting M dwarfs. Spectral classification of M dwarfs is a fundamental work. The authors used DR7 M dwarf sample of SLOAN to extract important features from the range of 600-900 nm by random forest method. Compared to the features used in Hammer Code, the authors added three new indices. Our test showed that the improved Hammer with new indices is more accurate. Our method has been applied to classify M dwarf spectra of LAMOST. PMID:24159887

  11. a Faint and Lonely Brown Dwarf in the Solar Vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Discovery of KELU-1 Promises New Insights into Strange Objects Brown Dwarfs are star-like objects which are too small to become real stars, yet too large to be real planets. Their mass is too small to ignite those nuclear processes which are responsible for the large energies and high temperatures of stars, but it is much larger than that of the planets we know in our solar system. Until now, very few Brown Dwarfs have been securely identified as such. Two are members of double-star systems, and a few more are located deep within the Pleiades star cluster. Now, however, Maria Teresa Ruiz of the Astronomy Department at Universidad de Chile (Santiago de Chile), using telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory, has just discovered one that is all alone and apparently quite near to us. Contrary to the others which are influenced by other objects in their immediate surroundings, this new Brown Dwarf is unaffected and will thus be a perfect object for further investigations that may finally allow us to better understand these very interesting celestial bodies. It has been suggested that Brown Dwarfs may constitute a substantial part of the unseen dark matter in our Galaxy. This discovery may therefore also have important implications for this highly relevant research area. Searching for nearby faint stars The story of this discovery goes back to 1987 when Maria Teresa Ruiz decided to embark upon a long-term search (known as the Calan-ESO proper-motion survey ) for another type of unusual object, the so-called White Dwarfs , i.e. highly evolved, small and rather faint stars. Although they have masses similar to that of the Sun, such stars are no larger than the Earth and are therefore extremely compact. They are particularly interesting, because they most probably represent the future end point of evolution of our Sun, some billions of years from now. For this project, the Chilean astronomer obtained large-field photographic exposures with the 1-m ESO Schmidt telescope at

  12. Molecular mapping of genes for compact growth habit and fruit spine color in cultivated cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compact (dwarf) plant architecture and fruit spine color are two important traits in cucumber breeding, which are controlled by simply inherited recessive (cp) and dominant (B) genes, respectively. In the present study, linkage analysis of molecular markers with the two traits was conducted with...

  13. Charged Condensate and Helium Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2008-01-01

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen or heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, whi...

  14. Observational Constraints on Red and Blue Helium Burning Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Holtzman, Jon; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F

    2011-01-01

    We derive the optical luminosity, colors, and ratios of the blue and red helium burning (HeB) stellar populations from archival Hubble Space Telescope observations of nineteen starburst dwarf galaxies and compare them with theoretical isochrones from Padova stellar evolution models across metallicities from Z=0.001 to 0.009. We find that the observational data and the theoretical isochrones for both blue and red HeB populations overlap in optical luminosities and colors and the observed and predicted blue to red HeB ratios agree for stars older than 50 Myr over the time bins studied. These findings confirm the usefulness of applying isochrones to interpret observations of HeB populations. However, there are significant differences, especially for the red HeB population. Specifically we find: (1) offsets in color between the observations and theoretical isochrones of order 0.15 mag (0.5 mag) for the blue (red) HeB populations brighter than M_V ~ -4 mag, which cannot be solely due to differential extinction; (2...

  15. Microlensing, Brown Dwarfs and GAIA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2014-01-01

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telescopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion ($>300$ mas yr$^{-1}$) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of a hundred. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Ein...

  16. Magnetars and White Dwarf Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Lobato, Ronaldo V; Coelho, Jaziel G

    2016-01-01

    The Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely $B\\gtrsim10^{14}$ G, and for that reason are known as Magnetars. However, in the last years some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields $B\\sim(10^{12}-10^{13})$ G have been detected, challenging the Magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-Ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on white dwarfs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized white dwarfs can have surface magnetic field $B\\sim 10^{7}-10^{10}$ G and rotate very fast with frequencies $\\Omega\\sim 1$ rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods $P\\sim (2-12)$ s.

  17. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  18. Rare White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, P.; Liebert, James; Fontaine, G.; Behara, N.

    2007-01-01

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 msun and 8-10 msun, where msun is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for ~80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs...

  19. White dwarf cooling sequences and cosmochronology

    CERN Document Server

    Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This means that their luminosity function, i.e. the number of white dwarfs per unit bolometric magnitude and unit volume as a function of bolometric magnitude, is a monotonically increasing function that decreases abruptly as a consequence of the finite age of the Galaxy. The precision and the accuracy of the white dwarf luminosity functions obtained with the recent large surveys together with the improved quality of the theoretical models of evolution of white dwarfs allow to feed the hope that in a near future it will be possible to reconstruct the history of the different Galactic populations.

  20. Compactness theorems of fuzzy semantics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The relationship among diverse fuzzy semantics vs. the corresponding logic consequence operators has been analyzed systematically. The results that compactness and logical compactness of fuzzy semantics are equivalent to compactness and continuity of the logic consequence operator induced by the semantics respectively have been proved under certain conditions. A general compactness theorem of fuzzy semantics have been established which says that every fuzzy semantics defined on a free algebra with members corresponding to continuous functions is compact.

  1. Old globular clusters in magellanic-type dwarf irregular galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Iskren Y; Puzia, Thomas H; Hilker, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of the old globular clusters (GC) using archival F606W and F814W HST/ACS images of 19 Magellanic-type dwarf Irregular (dIrr) galaxies found in nearby (2 - 8 Mpc) associations of only dwarf galaxies. All dIrrs have absolute magnitudes fainter than or equal to the SMC (Mv = -16.2 mag). We detect 50 GC candidates in 13 dIrrs, of which 37 have (V-I) colors consistent with "blue" (old, metal-poor) GCs (bGC). The luminosity function (LF) of the bGCs in our sample peaks at Mv = -7.41 +/- 0.22 mag, consistent with other galaxy types. The width of the LF is sigma = 1.79 +/- 0.31 which is typical for dIrrs, but broader than the typical width in massive galaxies. The half-light radii and ellipticities of the GCs in our sample (rh ~ 3.3 pc, e ~ 0.1) are similar to those of old GCs in the Magellanic Clouds and to those of "Old Halo" (OH) GCs in our Galaxy, but not as extended and spherical as the Galactic "Young Halo" (YH) GCs (rh ~ 7.7 pc, e ~ 0.06). The e distribution shows a turnover rather than a po...

  2. Red-green-blue laser emission from cascaded polymer membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Tianrui; Wang, Yonglu; Chen, Li; Wu, Xiaofeng; Li, Songtao; Zhang, Xinping

    2015-11-01

    Red-green-blue polymer laser emission is achieved in a free-standing membrane device consisting of three distributed feedback cavities. The polymer membrane is fabricated via interference lithography and a simple lift-off process. Multilayer structures can be assembled by cascading several polymer membranes. Thus optically pumped, simultaneous, red-green-blue laser emission is obtained from a three-layer cascaded membrane structure. This simple and low-cost fabrication technique can be used for compact, integrated laser sources.Red-green-blue polymer laser emission is achieved in a free-standing membrane device consisting of three distributed feedback cavities. The polymer membrane is fabricated via interference lithography and a simple lift-off process. Multilayer structures can be assembled by cascading several polymer membranes. Thus optically pumped, simultaneous, red-green-blue laser emission is obtained from a three-layer cascaded membrane structure. This simple and low-cost fabrication technique can be used for compact, integrated laser sources. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05965h

  3. Compact Dynamical Foliations

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, Pablo D

    2011-01-01

    According to the work of Dennis Sullivan, there exists a smooth flow on the 5-sphere all of whose orbits are periodic although there is no uniform bound on their periods. The question addressed in this article is whether such an example can occur in the partially hyperbolic context. That is, does there exist a partially hyperbolic diffeomorphism of a compact manifold such that all the leaves of its center foliation are compact although there is no uniform bound for their volumes. We will show that the previous question has negative answer under very natural hypothesis as one-dimensional center foliation, transitivity or in the volume preserving case. Moreover we study the dynamical properties of partially hyperbolic maps preserving a compact center foliation. We prove in particular that if the number of center leaves with non-trivial holonomy is finite then the map is plaque expansive.

  4. Preon stars: a new class of cosmic compact objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, J. [Department of Physics, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: c.johan.hansson@ltu.se; Sandin, F. [Department of Physics, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea (Sweden)]. E-mail: fredrik.sandin@ltu.se

    2005-06-09

    In the context of the standard model of particle physics, there is a definite upper limit to the density of stable compact stars. However, if a more fundamental level of elementary particles exists, in the form of preons, stability may be re-established beyond this limiting density. We show that a degenerate gas of interacting fermionic preons does allow for stable compact stars, with densities far beyond that in neutron stars and quark stars. In keeping with tradition, we call these objects 'preon stars', even though they are small and light compared to white dwarfs and neutron stars. We briefly note the potential importance of preon stars in astrophysics, e.g., as a candidate for cold dark matter and sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and a means for observing them.

  5. Preon stars: a new class of cosmic compact objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, J

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the standard model of particle physics, there is a definite upper limit to the density of stable compact stars. However, if a more fundamental level of elementary particles exists, in the form of preons, stability may be re-established beyond this limiting density. We show that a degenerate gas of interacting fermionic preons does allow for stable compact stars, with densities far beyond that in neutron stars and quark stars. In keeping with tradition, we call these objects "preon stars", even though they are small and light compared to white dwarfs and neutron stars. We briefly note the potential importance of preon stars in astrophysics, e.g., as a candidate for cold dark matter and sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and a means for observing them.

  6. Preon stars: a new class of cosmic compact objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, J.; Sandin, F.

    2005-06-01

    In the context of the standard model of particle physics, there is a definite upper limit to the density of stable compact stars. However, if a more fundamental level of elementary particles exists, in the form of preons, stability may be re-established beyond this limiting density. We show that a degenerate gas of interacting fermionic preons does allow for stable compact stars, with densities far beyond that in neutron stars and quark stars. In keeping with tradition, we call these objects “preon stars”, even though they are small and light compared to white dwarfs and neutron stars. We briefly note the potential importance of preon stars in astrophysics, e.g., as a candidate for cold dark matter and sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and a means for observing them.

  7. The Blue Emu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descalzi, Doug; Gillett, John; Gordon, Carlton; Keener, ED; Novak, Ken; Puente, Laura

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal in designing the Blue Emu was to provide an airline with a cost efficient and profitable means of transporting passengers between the major cities in Aeroworld. The design attacks the market where a demand for inexpensive transportation exists and for this reason the Blue Emu is an attractive investment for any airline. In order to provide a profitable aircraft, special attention was paid to cost and economics. For example, in manufacturing, simplicity was stressed in structural design to reduce construction time and cost. Aerodynamic design employed a tapered wing which reduced the induced drag coefficient while also reducing the weight of the wing. Even the propulsion system was selected with cost effectiveness in mind, yet also to maintain the marketability of the aircraft. Thus, in every aspect of the design, consideration was given to economics and marketability of the final product.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Globular Cluster Candidates in Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sharina, M E; Makarov, D I; Sharina, Margarita E.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2005-01-01

    Fifty-seven nearby low surface brightness dwarf galaxies were searched for globular cluster candidates (GCCs) using Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 imaging in V and I. The sample consists of 18 dwarf spheroidal (dSph), 36 irregular (dIrr), and 3 "transition" type (dIrr/dSph) galaxies with angular sizes less than 3.7 kpc situated at distances 2-6 Mpc in the field and in the nearby groups: M81, Centaurus A, Sculptor, Canes Venatici I cloud. We find that ~50% of dSph, dIrr/dSph, and dIrr galaxies contain GCCs. The fraction of GCCs located near the center of dwarf spheroidal galaxies is >2 times higher than that for dIrrs. The mean integral color of GCCs in dSphs, V-I = 1.04+/-0.16 mag, coincides with the corresponding value for Galactic globular clusters and is similar to the blue globular cluster sub-populations in massive early-type galaxies. The color distribution for GCCs in dIrrs shows a clear bimodality with peaks near V-I = 0.5 and 1.0 mag. Blue GCCs are presumably young with ages t -6.5 mag in both dSph an...

  9. Accretion-ejection connection in the young brown dwarf candidate ISO-Cha1 217

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, E T; Bacciotti, F; Nisini, B; Bonito, R; Antoniucci, S; Stelzer, B; Biazzo, K; D'Elia, V; Ray, T P

    2014-01-01

    As the number of observed brown dwarf outflows is growing it is important to investigate how these outflows compare to the well studied jets from young stellar objects. A key point of comparison is the relationship between outflow and accretion activity and in particular the ratio between the mass outflow and accretion rates ($\\dot{M}_{out}$/$\\dot{M}_{acc}$). The brown dwarf candidate ISO-ChaI 217 was discovered by our group, as part of a spectro-astrometric study of brown dwarfs, to be driving an asymmetric outflow with the blue-shifted lobe having a position angle of $\\sim$ 20$^{\\circ}$. The aim here is to further investigate the properties of ISO-ChaI 217, the morphology and kinematics of its outflow, and to better constrain ($\\dot{M}_{out}$/$\\dot{M}_{acc}$). The outflow is spatially resolved in the $[SII]\\lambda \\lambda 6716,6731$ lines and is detected out to $\\sim$ 1\\farcs6 in the blue-shifted lobe and ~ 1" in the red-shifted lobe. The asymmetry between the two lobes is confirmed although the velocity as...

  10. Synthesizing a Blue Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Vester, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this Master thesis was to determine how electronic musical instrument companies could utilize innovation strategies to add value to their products and create new business markets beyond their core. The theoretical framework was established by outlining competitive strategies suitable for adoption by electronic musical instrument companies. The Blue Ocean Strategy was compared to traditional competitive strategies such as Porter’s Five Forces, and subsequently chosen because of ...

  11. Type Ia Supernovae from Merging White Dwarfs I. Prompt Detonations

    CERN Document Server

    Moll, Rainer; Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, Stan

    2013-01-01

    Merging white dwarfs are a possible progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). While it is not entirely clear if and when an explosion is triggered in such systems, numerical models suggest that a detonation might be initiated before the stars have coalesced to form a single compact object. Here we study such "peri-merger" detonations by means of numerical simulations, modeling the disruption and nucleosynthesis of the stars until the ejecta reach the coasting phase. Synthetic light curves and spectra are generated for comparison with observations. Three models are considered with primary masses 0.96 Msun, 1.06 Msun, and 1.20 Msun. Of these, the 0.96 Msun dwarf merging with an 0.81 Msun companion, with a Ni56 yield of 0.58 Msun, is the most promising candidate for reproducing common SNe Ia. The more massive mergers produce unusually luminous SNe Ia with peak luminosities approaching those attributed to "super-Chandrasekhar" mass SNe Ia. While the synthetic light curves and spectra of some of the models resemb...

  12. Comparing the White Dwarf Cooling Sequences in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Richer, Harvey B; Heyl, Jeremy; Hurley, Jarrod; Dotter, Aaron; Kalirai, Jason S; Woodley, Kristin A; Fahlman, Gregory G; Rich, R Michael; Shara, Michael M

    2013-01-01

    Using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, color-magnitude diagrams are constructed for the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6397. As expected, because of its lower metal abundance, the main sequence of NGC 6397 lies well to the blue of that of 47 Tuc. A comparison of the white dwarf cooling sequences of the two clusters, however, demonstrates that these sequences are indistinguishable over most of their loci - a consequence of the settling out of heavy elements in the dense white dwarf atmosphere and the near equality of their masses. Lower quality data on M4 continues this trend to a third cluster whose metallicity is intermediate between these two. While the path of the white dwarfs in the color-magnitude diagram is nearly identical in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397, the numbers of white dwarfs along the path are not. This results from the relatively rapid relaxation in NGC 6397 compared to 47 Tuc and provides a cautionary note that simply counting objects in star clusters in random locations as a method of testing s...

  13. Comparing the white dwarf cooling sequences in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Harvey B.; Goldsbury, Ryan; Heyl, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hurley, Jarrod [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dotter, Aaron [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Woodley, Kristin A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fahlman, Gregory G. [National Research Council, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Rich, R. Michael [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shara, Michael M., E-mail: richer@astro.ubc.ca, E-mail: rgoldsb@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: jhurley@swin.edu.au, E-mail: dotter@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu, E-mail: kwoodley@ucolick.org, E-mail: greg.fahlman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, color-magnitude diagrams are constructed for the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6397. As expected, because of its lower metal abundance, the main sequence of NGC 6397 lies well to the blue of that of 47 Tuc. A comparison of the white dwarf cooling sequences of the two clusters, however, demonstrates that these sequences are indistinguishable over most of their loci—a consequence of the settling out of heavy elements in the dense white dwarf atmosphere and the near equality of their masses. Lower quality data on M4 continues this trend to a third cluster whose metallicity is intermediate between these two. While the path of the white dwarfs in the color-magnitude diagram is nearly identical in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397, the numbers of white dwarfs along the path are not. This results from the relatively rapid relaxation in NGC 6397 compared to 47 Tuc and provides a cautionary note that simply counting objects in star clusters in random locations as a method of testing stellar evolutionary theory is likely dangerous unless dynamical considerations are included.

  14. The Deepest Constraints on Radio and X-ray Magnetic Activity in Ultracool Dwarfs from WISE J104915.57-531906.1

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, R A; Stelzer, B; Bannister, K W; Radigan, J; Burgasser, A J; Wolszczan, A; Luhman, K L

    2015-01-01

    We report upper limits to the radio and X-ray emission from the newly discovered ultracool dwarf binary WISE J104915.57$-$531906.1 (Luhman 16AB). As the nearest ultracool dwarf binary (2 pc), its proximity offers a hefty advantage to studying plasma processes in ultracool dwarfs which are more similar in gross properties (radius, mass, temperature) to the solar system giant planets than stars. The radio and X-ray emission upper limits from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Chandra observations, each spanning multiple rotation periods, provide the deepest fractional radio and X-ray luminosities to date on an ultracool dwarf, with $\\log{(L_{\\rm r,\

  15. Tachyons in Compact Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Suyama, T

    2005-01-01

    We discuss condensations of closed string tachyons localized in compact spaces. Time evolution of an on-shell condensation is naturally related to the worldsheet RG flow. Some explicit tachyonic compactifications of Type II string theory is considered, and some of them are shown to decay into supersymmetric theories known as the little string theories.

  16. Metals and ionizing photons from dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Ferrara, A.; Zaroubi, S.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the potential contribution of M <10(9)M(circle dot) dwarf galaxies to the reionization and early metal enrichment of the Milky Way environment, or circum-Galactic medium. Our approach is to use the observed properties of ancient stars ()under tilde>12 Gyr old) measured in nearby dwarf ga

  17. The Metamorphosis of Tidally Stirred Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, L; Colpi, M; Moore, B; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J; Lake, J S G; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio; Colpi, Monica; Moore, Ben; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James; Lake, Joachim Stadel & George

    2001-01-01

    We present results from high-resolution N-Body/SPH simulations of rotationally supported dwarf irregular galaxies moving on bound orbits in the massive dark matter halo of the Milky Way.The dwarf models span a range in disk surface density and the masses and sizes of their dark halos are consistent with the predictions of cold dark matter cosmogonies. We show that the strong tidal field of the Milky Way determines severe mass loss in their halos and disks and induces bar and bending instabilities that transform low surface brightness dwarfs (LSBs) into dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and high surface brightness dwarfs (HSBs) into dwarf ellipticals (dEs) in less than 10 Gyr. The final central velocity dispersions of the remnants are in the range 8-30 km/s and their final $v/\\sigma$ falls to values $< 0.5$, matching well the kinematics of early-type dwarfs. The transformation requires the orbital time of the dwarf to be $\\simlt 3-4$ Gyr, which implies a halo as massive and extended as predicted by hierarchical mod...

  18. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing ...

  19. Disks and Planets Around Massive White Dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Livio, M.; Pringle, J. E.; Wood, K.

    2005-01-01

    We predict the existence of dusty disks and possibly CO planets around massive white dwarfs. We show that the thermal emission from these disks should be detectable in the infrared. The planets may also be detectable either by direct IR imaging, spectroscopy, or using the pulsations of the white dwarfs.

  20. Magnetic White Dwarfs with Heavy Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, François; Jordan, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Using our newly developed model atmosphere code appropriate for magnetic white dwarfs with metal lines in the Paschen-Back regime, we study various magnetic white dwarfs and explore the effects of various parameters such as the field geometry and the convective efficiency

  1. Activity cycles of M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.

    2012-09-01

    We have determined activity cycles for coolest M dwarfs using photometry from the ASAS survey. The time scales of brightness variations were determined for the program stars using calculated amplitude power spectra and wavelet spectra. Most of ther program stars display periodicities in their light-curve variations, with periods from hundreds of days to years. Analysis of diagrams plotting P cyc/ P rot versus 1/ P rot in logarithmic coordinates shows that the data for all our program objects fit the general relation quite well. No differences in the activity cycles are found for our sample stars, which have different masses and thus internal structures, some having convective envelopes and others being totally convective. Our analysis indicates that the slope i of this relation is close to unity, regardless of whether it is determined from all data, from data for the shortest cycles, or from data for the longest cycles. This value of i differs from values in the literature for stars of other spectral types. Our analysis of the P cyc- P rot relation indicates that the activity cycles for the studied sample of M dwarfs do not depend on the rotation periods of these objects. The data for the studied objects do not agree with any of the relations for relatively young (active) stars or older (less active) stars. The studied M dwarfs probably form another branch of low-mass stars that display more random, irregular magnetic activity on their surfaces, which is generated and supported by the distributed dynamo mechanism or a small-scale dynamo mechanism.

  2. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs. PMID:27034367

  3. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, S. O.; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs.

  4. On the Formation of Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Lin, D N C; Jiang, Ing-Guey

    2006-01-01

    The observational properties of brown dwarfs pose challenges to the theory of star formation. Because their mass is much smaller than the typical Jeans mass of interstellar clouds, brown dwarfs are most likely formed through secondary fragmentation processes, rather than through the direct collapse of a molecular cloud core. In order to prevent substantial post-formation mass accretion, young brown dwarfs must leave the high density formation regions in which they form. We propose here that brown dwarfs are formed in the optically thin outer regions of circumbinary disks. Through post-formation dynamical interaction with their host binary stars, young brown dwarfs are either scattered to large distance or removed, with modest speed, from their cradles.

  5. Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Joergens, V; Liu, Y; Pascucci, I; Whelan, E; Alcala, J; Biazzo, K; Costigan, G; Gully-Santiago, M; Henning, Th; Natta, A; Rigliaco, E; Rodriguez-Ledesma, V; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Tottle, J; Wolf, S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the properties of young brown dwarfs are important to constraining the formation of objects at the extreme low-mass end of the IMF. While young brown dwarfs share many properties with solar-mass T Tauri stars, differences may be used as tests of how the physics of accretion/outflow and disk chemistry/dissipation depend on the mass of the central object. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions during the splinter session on 'Disks, accretion and outflows of brown dwarfs' held at the CoolStars17 conference in Barcelona in June 2012. Recent results in the field of brown dwarf disks and outflows include the determination of brown dwarf disk masses and geometries based on Herschel far-IR photometry (70-160 um), accretion properties based on X-Shooter spectra, and new outflow detections in the very low-mass regime.

  6. Dwarf elliptical galaxies as ancient tidal dwarf galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dabringhausen, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The formation of tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) is triggered by the encounters of already existing galaxies. Their existence is predicted from numerical calculations of encountering galaxies and is also well documented with observations. The numerical calculations on the formation of TDGs furthermore predict that TDGs cannot contain significant amounts of non-baryonic dark matter. In this paper, the first exhaustive sample of TDG-candidates from observations and numerical calculations is gathered from the literature. These stellar systems are gas-rich at the present, but they will probably evolve into gas-poor objects that are indistinguishable from old dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) based on their masses and radii. Indeed, known gas-poor TDGs appear as normal dEs. According to the currently prevailing cosmological paradigm, there should also be a population of primordial galaxies that formed within haloes of dark matter in the same mass range. Due to their different composition and origin, it would be expected...

  7. The luminosities of the coldest brown dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, UNSW Australia, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington DC 20005 (United States); Kirkpatrick, J. Davy [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cushing, Mike [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wright, Edward L., E-mail: c.tinney@unsw.edu.au [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    In recent years, brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500 K and masses in the range of 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own solar system (at around 130 K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures in the range of 1500-1000 K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T-dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric color. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these Y-dwarf absolute magnitudes. This is also the case for WISE0855-0714, the coldest and closest brown dwarf to the Sun, which shows evidence for water ice clouds. However, there are also some outstanding exceptions, which suggest either binarity or the presence of condensate clouds. The former is readily testable with current adaptive optics facilities. The latter would mean that the range of cloudiness in Y dwarfs is substantial with most hosting almost no clouds—while others have dense clouds, making them prime targets for future variability observations to study cloud dynamics.

  8. Incoherent transient radio emission from stellar-mass compact objects in the SKA era

    OpenAIRE

    Corbel, S.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Fender, R. P.; Gallo, E.; Maccarone, T. J.; O'Brien, T. J.; Paragi, Z.; Rupen, M P; Rushton, A.P.; Sabatini, S; Sivakoff, G. R.; J. Strader(Michigan State University); Woudt, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    The universal link between the processes of accretion and ejection leads to the formation of jets and outflows around accreting compact objects. Incoherent synchrotron emission from these outflows can be observed from a wide range of accreting binaries, including black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs. Monitoring the evolution of the radio emission during their sporadic outbursts provides important insights into the launching of jets, and, when coupled with the behaviour of the source a...

  9. Estruturas fundamentais no blues

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rafael Palmeira da

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objeto de estudo a aplicação e adaptação da teoria de Schenker como ferramenta analítica aplicada ao jazz, tendo em vista a possibilidade de encontrar estruturas fundamentais distintas na música popular. Tendo como base as análises feitas por Larson (1998; 2009), Forte (2011) e Stock (1993) a pesquisa abordará, em um primeiro momento, as origens do jazz (blues e ragtime) como parte essencial para sua abordagem analítica, através da ótica etno-schenkeriana propos...

  10. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  11. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets. PMID:24956870

  13. Blue ocean leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2014-05-01

    Ten years ago, two INSEAD professors broke ground by introducing "blue ocean strategy," a new model for discovering uncontested markets that are ripe for growth. In this article, they apply their concepts and tools to what is perhaps the greatest challenge of leadership: closing the gulf between the potential and the realized talent and energy of employees. Research indicates that this gulf is vast: According to Gallup, 70% of workers are disengaged from their jobs. If companies could find a way to convert them into engaged employees, the results could be transformative. The trouble is, managers lack a clear understanding of what changes they could make to bring out the best in everyone. Here, Kim and Mauborgne offer a solution to that problem: a systematic approach to uncovering, at each level of the organization, which leadership acts and activities will inspire employees to give their all, and a process for getting managers throughout the company to start doing them. Blue ocean leadership works because the managers' "customers"-that is, the people managers oversee and report to-are involved in identifying what's effective and what isn't. Moreover, the approach doesn't require leaders to alter who they are, just to undertake a different set of tasks. And that kind of change is much easier to implement and track than changes to values and mind-sets.

  14. Blue emitting undecaplatinum clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Indranath; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Bhat, Shridevi; Pradeep, T.

    2014-07-01

    A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents.A blue luminescent 11-atom platinum cluster showing step-like optical features and the absence of plasmon absorption was synthesized. The cluster was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) suggest a composition, Pt11(BBS)8, which was confirmed by a range of other experimental tools. The cluster is highly stable and compatible with many organic solvents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of experimental procedures, instrumentation, chromatogram of the crude cluster; SEM/EDAX, DLS, PXRD, TEM, FT-IR, and XPS of the isolated Pt11 cluster; UV/Vis, MALDI MS and SEM/EDAX of isolated 2 and 3; and 195Pt NMR of the K2PtCl6 standard. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02778g

  15. Compactly Generated Domain Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Battenfeld, Ingo; Schröder, Matthias; Simpson, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We propose compactly generated monotone convergence spaces as a well-behaved topological generalisation of directed-complete partial orders (dcpos). The category of such spaces enjoys the usual properties of categories of 'predomains' in denotational semantics. Moreover, such properties are retained if one restricts to spaces with a countable pseudobase in the sense of E. Michael, a fact that permits connections to be made with computability theory, realizability semantics and recent work on ...

  16. Energy report compact 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Report compact 2015 from the Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector and the State Office for Statistics Baden-Wuerttemberg provides an overview on the energy sector developments in Baden-Wuerttemberg in 2013. It contains numerous information on the energy consumption in Baden-Wuerttemberg, the energy productivity, the share of renewable energy sources, power generation and the energy-related CO2 emissions.

  17. Compact Quantum Groupoids

    OpenAIRE

    Landsman, N.P.

    1999-01-01

    Quantum groupoids are a joint generalization of groupoids and quantum groups. We propose a definition of a compact quantum groupoid that is based on the theory of C*-algebras and Hilbert bimodules. The essential point is that whenever one has a tensor product over the complex numbers in the theory of quantum groups, one now uses a certain tensor product over the base algebra of the quantum groupoid.

  18. Compact Torsatron configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations can be realized by using torsatron winding. Plasmas with aspect ratios in the range of 3.5 to 5 can be confined by these Compact Torsatron configurations. Stable operation at high Β should be possible in these devices, if a vertical field coil system is adequately designed to avoid breaking of the magnetic surfaces at finite Β. 17 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  19. The nature of the companion of PSR J1719-1438:a white dwarf or an exotic object?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.E.Horvath

    2012-01-01

    We raise the possibility that the very dense,compact companion of PSR J1719-1438,which has a Jupiter-like mass,is an exotic quark object rather than a light helium or carbon white dwarf.The exotic hypothesis naturally explains some of the observed features,and provides quite strong predictions for this system,to be confirmed or refuted in feasible future studies.

  20. Orbit of a Giant and a Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-11-01

    The binary system Procyon, located a mere 11 light-years away, consists of a bright, subgiant star and a faint white dwarf presenting a distinct challenge for astronomers to observe. But careful analysis of two decades of precise measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope has now finally revealed some of its secrets.Challenging ObservationsPerturbations were detected as early as 1844 in the orbit of Procyon, originally thought to be a single star. Astronomers of the time suspected that this wobbling was due to the pull of a companion orbiting Procyon, but it wasnt until five decades later that the companion was first detected visually.Why? Because the subgiant Procyon A is the 8th brightest star in the sky. Its companion, on the other hand, is a white dwarf thats fainter (in visual wavelengths) by a factor of nearly 16,000! And the two stars are separated by an angular distance of less than 5.Due to the difficulty observing the system, the measurements of its motion and resulting estimates of the masses of the two stars have been a subject of debate for the better part of the last century.Led by Howard Bond (Pennsylvania State University and the Space Telescope Science Institute), a team of astronomers has now analyzed two decades of Hubble observations of the system, combined with historical, ground-based observations dating back to the 19th century. Bond and collaborators used these data to precisely measure the orbital elements of Procyon and obtain dynamical masses of the two stars.Surprising MixingRelative orbit of Procyon B around Procyon A. The red curve is the authors fit to the orbit, and the open blue circles are positions predicted by the orbital elements found. The black dots are the HST observations of Procyon B. The open green and turquoise circles are the (significantly less precise!) historical, ground-based observations. [Bond et al. 2015]The team reports that this system orbits once every 40.8 years. They find masses for the two stars of 1

  1. Postpartum Blues and Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Ö et al.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum blues which is seen during the postpartum period is a transient psychological state. Most of the mothers experience maternity blues in postpartum period. It remains usually unrecognized by the others. Some sensitive families can misattribute these feelings as depression. In this article, we tried to review the characteristics of maternity blues and its differences from depression. We defined depression and presented the incidence and diagnostic criteria, of major depression as well as the risk factors and clinic findings of postpartum depression. Thus, especially at primary care we aimed to prevent misdiagnosis of both maternity blues and depression

  2. The Luminosities of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tinney, C G; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cushing, Mike; Morley, Caroline V; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    In recent years brown dwarfs have been extended to a new Y-dwarf class with effective temperatures colder than 500K and masses in the range 5-30 Jupiter masses. They fill a crucial gap in observable atmospheric properties between the much colder gas-giant planets of our own Solar System (at around 130K) and both hotter T-type brown dwarfs and the hotter planets that can be imaged orbiting young nearby stars (both with effective temperatures of in the range 1500-1000K). Distance measurements for these objects deliver absolute magnitudes that make critical tests of our understanding of very cool atmospheres. Here we report new distances for nine Y dwarfs and seven very-late T dwarfs. These reveal that Y dwarfs do indeed represent a continuation of the T dwarf sequence to both fainter luminosities and cooler temperatures. They also show that the coolest objects display a large range in absolute magnitude for a given photometric colour. The latest atmospheric models show good agreement with the majority of these ...

  3. White dwarf constraints on a varying $G$

    CERN Document Server

    García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G; Córsico, Alejandro H; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Romero, Alejandra D; Isern, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    A secular variation of $G$ modifies the structure and evolutionary time scales of white dwarfs. Using an state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary code, an up-to-date pulsational code, and a detailed population synthesis code we demonstrate that the effects of a running $G$ are obvious both in the properties of individual white dwarfs, and in those of the white dwarf populations in clusters. Specifically, we show that the white dwarf evolutionary sequences depend on both the value of $\\dot G/G$, and on the value of $G$ when the white dwarf was born. We show as well that the pulsational properties of variable white dwarfs can be used to constrain $\\dot G/G$. Finally, we also show that the ensemble properties of of white dwarfs in clusters can also be used to set upper bounds to $\\dot G/G$. Precisely, the tightest bound --- $\\dot G/G \\sim -1.8 10^{-12}$ yr$^{-1}$ --- is obtained studying the population of the old, metal-rich, well populated, open cluster NGC 6791. Less stringent upper limits can be obtained compari...

  4. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill

    2005-01-01

    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  5. The chemical composition of donors in AM CVn stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries: observational tests of their formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nelemans, G.A.; Yungelson, L. R.; Van Der Sluys, M. V.; Tout, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the formation of ultra-compact binaries (AM CVn stars and ultra-compact X-ray binaries) with emphasis on the surface chemical abundances of the donors in these systems. Hydrogen is not convincingly detected in the spectra of these systems. Three different proposed formation scenarios involve different donor stars, white dwarfs, helium stars or evolved main-sequence stars. Using detailed evolutionary calculations we show that the abundances of helium WD donors and evolved main-sequenc...

  6. Brown Dwarfs at the Exoplanet Mass Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Cruz, K. L.; Rice, E. L.; Riedel, A.

    2014-10-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. Our team has assigned >30 brown dwarfs to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups. In so doing, we have discovered important diversity among this extremely low-mass (10 - 30 M_{Jup}) age-calibrated sample indicating that cloud properties play a critical role in their observables.

  7. Simulations of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Patick; Staff, Jan; Marcello, Dominic; Clayton, Geoffrey; Frank, Juhan

    2016-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of double white dwarf mergers initiated by mass transfer instability. In particular, we are interested in the possible connection between such double degenerate mergers and the peculiar irregular variable R Corona Borealis stars. For the merger of a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf with a Helium white dwarf, the degree to which Carbon from the accreting star is dredged up plays a crucial role in the appearance of the rejuvenated, merged object. We explore the amount of dredge up in the accreting star and its influence in stellar evolution models initialized from the merged object resulting from dynamical evolutions.

  8. Young Brown Dwarfs as Giant Exoplanet Analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Rice, Emily L; Riedel, Adric

    2013-01-01

    Young brown dwarfs and directly-imaged exoplanets have enticingly similar photometric and spectroscopic characteristics, indicating that their cool, low gravity atmospheres should be studied in concert. Similarities between the peculiar shaped H band, near and mid-IR photometry as well as location on color magnitude diagrams provide important clues about how to extract physical properties of planets from current brown dwarf observations. In this proceeding we discuss systems newly assigned to 10-150 Myr nearby moving groups, highlight the diversity of this uniform age-calibrated brown dwarf sample, and reflect on their implication for understanding current and future planetary data.

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  10. Instant BlueStacks

    CERN Document Server

    Judge, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A fast-paced, example-based approach guide for learning BlueStacks.This book is for anyone with a Mac or PC who wants to run Android apps on their computer. Whether you want to play games that are freely available for Android but not your computer, or you want to try apps before you install them on a physical device or use it as a development tool, this book will show you how. No previous experience is needed as this is written in plain English

  11. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, J Craig

    2012-01-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) have gotten increasingly tight. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the limits on the companions of SNIa in SNR 0509-67.5 and SN1572 are M dwarfs. M dwarfs have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNIa: they have small but finite magnetic fields, and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SNIa progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide an adequate rate of explosions. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a "magnetic bottle" connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate...

  12. Pluto: Planet or "Dwarf Planet"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; de Araújo, M. S. T.

    2010-09-01

    In August 2006 during the XXVI General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), taken place in Prague, Czech Republic, new parameters to define a planet were established. According to this new definition Pluto will be no more the ninth planet of the Solar System but it will be changed to be a "dwarf planet". This reclassification of Pluto by the academic community clearly illustrates how dynamic science is and how knowledge of different areas can be changed and evolves through the time, allowing to perceive Science as a human construction in a constant transformation, subject to political, social and historical contexts. These epistemological characteristics of Science and, in this case, of Astronomy, constitute important elements to be discussed in the lessons, so that this work contributes to enable Science and Physics teachers who perform a basic education to be always up to date on this important astronomical fact and, thereby, carry useful information to their teaching.

  13. Magnetars and white dwarf pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, Manuel; Coelho, Jaziel G.

    2016-07-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely B ≳ 1014G, and for that reason are known as magnetars. However, in the last years, some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields B ˜ (1012-1013)G have been detected, challenging the magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on WDs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized WDs can have surface magnetic field B ˜ 107-1010 G and rotate very fast with frequencies Ω ˜ 1rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods P ˜ (2-12)s.

  14. Dyson Spheres around White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Semiz, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    A Dyson Sphere is a hypothetical structure that an advanced civilization might build around a star to intercept all of the star's light for its energy needs. One usually thinks of it as a spherical shell about one astronomical unit (AU) in radius, and surrounding a more or less Sun-like star; and might be detectable as an infrared point source. We point out that Dyson Spheres could also be built around white dwarfs. This type would avoid the need for artificial gravity technology, in contrast to the AU-scale Dyson Spheres. In fact, we show that parameters can be found to build Dyson Spheres suitable --temperature- and gravity-wise-- for human habitation. This type would be much harder to detect.

  15. Compact Q-balls

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Marques, M A; Menezes, R; da Rocha, R

    2016-01-01

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space-time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  16. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  17. Compact LINAC for deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, J F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.

  18. Giant planet and brown dwarf formation

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrier, G; Janson, M; Rafikov, R

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dominant brown dwarf and giant planet formation processes, and finding out whether these processes rely on completely different mechanisms or share common channels represents one of the major challenges of astronomy and remains the subject of heated debates. It is the aim of this review to summarize the latest developments in this field and to address the issue of origin by confronting different brown dwarf and giant planet formation scenarios to presently available observational constraints. As examined in the review, if objects are classified as "Brown Dwarfs" or "Giant Planets" on the basis of their formation mechanism, it has now become clear that their mass domains overlap and that there is no mass limit between these two distinct populations. Furthermore, while there is increasing observational evidence for the existence of non-deuterium burning brown dwarfs, some giant planets, characterized by a significantly metal enriched composition, might be massive enough to ignite deuterium bur...

  19. Shell Galaxies, Dynamical Friction, and Dwarf Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrova, Ivana; Canalizo, Gabriela; Bennert, Nicola; Jilkova, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Using N-body simulations of shell galaxies created in nearly radial minor mergers, we investigate the error of collision dating, resulting from the neglect of dynamical friction and of gradual disruption of the cannibalized dwarf.

  20. Magnetic white dwarfs with debris disks

    CERN Document Server

    Külebi, Baybars; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    It has long been accepted that a possible mechanism for explaining the existence of magnetic white dwarfs is the merger of a binary white dwarf system, as there are viable mechanisms for producing sustainable magnetism within the merger product. However, the lack of rapid rotators in the magnetic white dwarf population has been always considered a problematic issue of this scenario. In order to explain this discrepancy we build a model in which the interaction between the magnetosphere of the star and the disk induces angular momentum transfer. Our model predicts that the magnetospheric interaction of magnetic white dwarfs with their disks results in a significant spin down, and we show that the observed rotation period of REJ 0317-853, which is suggested to be a product of a double degenerate merger, can be reproduced.

  1. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Winget, D E

    2008-01-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  2. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  3. The Physics of crystallizing white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Mochkovitch, R.; García--Berro, E.; Hernanz, Margarita

    1997-01-01

    White dwarfs can be used as galactic chronometers and, therefore, provide important information about galactic evolution if good theoretical models of their cooling are available. Consequently, it is natural to wonder if all the sources or sinks of energy are correctly taken into account. One of these sources is partial differentiation of the chemical components of the white dwarf upon crystallization. In this paper we use a new formalism to show that if there is a redistribution of the eleme...

  4. Dwarf Galaxies, MOND, and Relativistic Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur Kosowsky

    2010-01-01

    MOND is a phenomenological modification of Newton's law of gravitation which reproduces the dynamics of galaxies, without the need for additional dark matter. This paper reviews the basics of MOND and its application to dwarf galaxies. MOND is generally successful at reproducing stellar velocity dispersions in the Milky Way's classical dwarf ellipticals, for reasonable values of the stellar mass-to-light ratio of the galaxies; two discrepantly high mass-to-light ratios may be explained by tid...

  5. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  6. Resonant stripping as the origin of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onghia, Elena; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most dark matter dominated systems in the nearby Universe and their origin is one of the outstanding puzzles of how galaxies form. Dwarf spheroidals are poor in gas and stars, making them unusually faint, and those known as ultra-faint dwarfs have by far the lowest measured stellar content of any galaxy. Previous theories require that dwarf spheroidals orbit near giant galaxies like the Milky Way, but some dwarfs have been observed in the outskirts of the Local Group. Here we report simulations of encounters between dwarf disk galaxies and somewhat larger objects. We find that the encounters excite a process, which we term ``resonant stripping'', that can transform them into dwarf spheroidals. This effect is distinct from other mechanisms proposed to form dwarf spheroidals, including mergers, galaxy-galaxy harassment, or tidal and ram pressure stripping, because it is driven by gravitational resonances. It may account for the observed properties of dwarf spheroidals in the Lo...

  7. Spectroscopy of Hyades L dwarf candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Lodieu, N; Bejar, V J S

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of photometric, astrometric, and spectroscopic follow-up of L dwarf candidates identified in the Hyades cluster by Hogan et al. (2008). We obtained low-resolution optical spectroscopy with the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio de Canarias for all 12 L dwarf candidates as well as new J-band imaging for a subsample of eight to confirm their proper motion. We also present mid-infrared photometry from the Wise Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for the Hyades L and T dwarf candidates and estimate their spectroscopic distances, effective temperatures, and masses. We confirm the cool nature of several L dwarf candidates and confirm astrometrically their membership, bridging the gap between the coolest M dwarfs and the two T dwarfs previously reported in the Hyades cluster. These members represent valuable spectral templates at an age of 625 Myr and slightly super solar metallicity (Fe/H=+0.13). We update the Hyades mass function across the hydrogen-burning limit and in the substel...

  8. ON THE EVOLUTION OF MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, P.-E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C. P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Freytag, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy at Uppsala University, Regementsvägen 1, Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ludwig, H.-G. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Steffen, M. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Wedemeyer, S., E-mail: tremblay@stsci.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-10

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-β parameter, the thermal-to-magnetic-pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1–50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1–1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B ≳ 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (T{sub eff}) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection due to the convective coupling between the outer layers and the degenerate reservoir of thermal energy. Since no magnetic white dwarfs are currently known at the low temperatures where this coupling significantly changes the evolution, the effects of magnetism on cooling rates are not expected to be observed. This result contrasts with a recent suggestion that magnetic white dwarfs with T{sub eff} ≲ 10,000 K cool significantly slower than non-magnetic degenerates.

  9. Comparison of theoretical white dwarf cooling timescales

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; García-Berro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    An accurate assessment of white dwarf cooling times is paramount to place white dwarf cosmochronology of Galactic populations on more solid grounds. This issue is particularly relevant in view of the enhanced observational capabilities provided by the next generation of Extremely Large Telescopes, that will offer more avenues to employ white dwarfs as probes of Galactic evolution and test-beds of fundamental physics. We estimate for the first time the consistency of results obtained from two independent and widely used evolutionary codes (BaSTI and LPCODE) for white dwarf models with fixed mass and chemical stratification, when the same input physics is employed in both codes. We considered 0.55Msun white dwarf models with both pure carbon and uniform carbon-oxygen (50/50 mass fractions) core. We have assessed for the first time the maximum possible accuracy in the current estimates of white dwarf cooling times, resulting only from the different implementations of the stellar evolution equations and homogeneo...

  10. Microlensing Binaries with Candidate Brown Dwarf Companions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Gould, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing......-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured...... masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 ± 0.01 M⊙ and 0.019 ± 0.002 M⊙ for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events...

  11. A compact SADM family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Vincent; Le Quintrec, Cyrille; Jeandot, Xavier; Chaix, Alain; Grain, Eric; Roux, Jerome

    2005-07-01

    Alcatel Space has developed a new SADM family driven by cost, modularity, mass and performances. The modularity concept is based on separating the rotation drive function from the electrical transfer function. The drive actuator has been designed for various applications where pointing and reliability is needed. It can be associated with high dissipative rotary devices (SA collectors, RF joints..). The design goal was to minimize the number of parts in order to reach the most simple and compact mechanism. Mass reduction was achieved by reducing as much as possible the load path between the Solar Array interface and the spacecraft interface. Following these guidelines, the drive actuator was developed and qualified on ATV SADM (part od Alcatel Space Solar Array Drive Sub System for ATV). Further more a high power integrated collector was qualified inside the SADM for Geo-stationary telecom satellite (SPACEBUS platforms). Fine thermal and mechanical modeling was necessary to predict SADM behaviors for the numerous thermal environments over the missions (steady and transient cases). These modeling were well correlated through mechanical and thermal balances qualification tests. The challenging approach of thermal dissipation in a compact design leads to a family of 3 SADM capabilities form 2kW up to 15kW per SADM weighing less than 4.5 kg each.

  12. Spectroscopic analyses of the blue hook stars in NGC 2808:A more stringent test of the late hot flasher scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Moehler, S.; Sweigart, A. V.; Landsman, W. B.; Hammer, N. J.; Dreizler, S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent UV observations of the globular cluster NGC 2808 (Brown et al. 2001) show a significant population of hot stars fainter than the zero-age horizontal branch ("blue hook" stars), which cannot be explained by canonical stellar evolution. Their results suggest that stars which experience unusually large mass loss on the red giant branch and which subsequently undergo the helium core flash while descending the white dwarf cooling curve could populate this region. Theory predicts that these ...

  13. Soil compaction in forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    TURGUT, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Soil compaction is a widespread degradation process in forest sites. Soil degradation occurring on the structural formation of a natural soil system by rainfall or mechanical outer forces generally results in soil particles to be rearranged tighter than its previous status. In this case, soil compaction -defined as the increase in bulk density of soil- develops with negative effects on soil-plant-water relations. With the compaction, the density of soil increases while the porosity rate decre...

  14. Compaction properties of agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    TANG, Anh Minh; CUI, Yu Jun; Eslami, Javad; DEFOSSEZ BERTHOUD, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The compaction of field soils due to repeated rolling of agricultural vehicles is one of the main reasons for the agricultural soil degradation. A good understanding of the compaction properties of these soils is essential for an optimum organisation of agricultural activities, and therefore for environmental protection in terms of nitrate migrations. In the present work, the compaction properties of agricultural soils from four sites in France are studied after experimental data ...

  15. OLD GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN MAGELLANIC-TYPE DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed a search for old globular clusters (GCs) using archival F606W and F814W Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images of 19 Magellanic-type dwarf Irregular (dIrr) galaxies. Those dIrrs reside in nearby (2-8 Mpc) associations of dwarf galaxies only. All dIrrs have absolute magnitudes fainter than or equal to that of the SMC (MV = -16.2 mag). We detect in total 50 GC candidates in 13 dIrrs, of which 37 have (V - I) colors consistent with 'blue' (old, metal-poor) GCs (bGCs). The luminosity function (LF) of the bGC candidates in our sample shows a turnover magnitude of MV = -7.41 ± 0.22 mag, consistent with other galaxy types. The width of the LF is σ = 1.79 ± 0.31, which is typical for dIrrs, but broader than the typical width in massive galaxies. The half-light radii and ellipticities of the GCs in our sample are similar to those of old GCs in the Magellanic Clouds and to those of 'old halo' (OH) GCs in our Galaxy, but not as extended and spherical as the Galactic 'young halo' (YH) GCs. The ε distribution shows a turnover rather than a power law as observed for the Galactic GCs. This might suggest that GCs in dIrrs are kinematically young and not yet fully relaxed. The present-day specific frequencies of GCs (SN ) in the galaxies in our sample span a broad range: 0.3 N N values would increase by a factor of 2.5-16, comparable with values for early-type dwarfs (dE/dSphs). A bright central GC candidate, similar to nuclear clusters of dEs, is observed in one of our dIrrs: NGC 1959. This nuclear GC has luminosity, color, and structural parameters similar to that of ω Cen and M 54, suggesting that the latter might have their origin in the central regions of similar Galactic building blocks as the dIrrs in this study. A comparison between properties of bGCs and Galactic YH GCs, suspected to have originated from similar dIrrs, is performed.

  16. Exploring the Extended Structure of the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, K. B.; Ostheimer, J. C.; Frinchaboy, P. M.; Patterson, R. J.; Majewski, S. R.; Kunkel, W. E.

    2000-12-01

    We have undertaken a large area (>3 deg2) survey of the Sculptor dSph using the 1-m Swope telescope. The region surveyed includes roughly 1 deg2 centered on the Sculptor core, with the remaining survey area extending to the east and stretching to almost twice the tidal radius (rt=76.5m) to the northeast and southeast. We have imaged in the Washington M,T2 and DDO51 filters, a combination that allows us to discriminate dwarf and giant stars based on the gravity sensitivity of DDO51. The extended structure of Sculptor can be mapped via those stars selected both as giant stars and as having a combination of M and M-T2 consistent with the red giant branch of Sculptor. We also make use of the areal distribution of blue horizontal branch stars, which delineate the extended structure of Sculptor relatively well in this field at high Galactic latitude. Using the HYDRA spectrograph on the Blanco 4-m, we have obtained more than a dozen radial velocities for candidate Sculptor stars that we have identified well outside (1) the core radius, and (2) the radii explored by previous surveys. A preliminary conclusion from our work so far is that Sculptor does not show as extensive a population of extratidal stars as we have identified in similar work we have conducted around the Carina (Majewski et al. 2000, AJ, 119, 760) and Ursa Minor (Palma et al. 2000, BAAS) dwarf galaxies. Indeed, if a lack of significant extended material around Sculptor is borne out by further study over more area and other position angles, then an interesting correlation begins to emerge: Among four galaxies we have surveyed in this way (Car, UMi, Leo II, and Scl), the relative fraction of the dSph's found outside the nominal tidal radius appears to correlate with the published values of M/L. This may suggest that the derived masses for the dwarf spheroidals may be systematically overestimated to a degree set by the amount of dynamical non-equilibrium in the system. This work was supported by NSF, NASA, the

  17. Mapping out the origins of compact stellar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Romanowsky, Aaron J; SAGES, the

    2015-01-01

    We present a suite of extragalactic explorations of the origins and nature of globular clusters (GCs) and ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs), and the connections between them. An example of GC metallicity bimodality is shown to reflect underlying, distinct metal-poor and metal-rich stellar halo populations. Metallicity-matching methods are used to trace the birth sites and epochs of GCs in giant E/S0s, pointing to clumpy disk galaxies at z ~ 3 for the metal-rich GCs, and to a combination of accreted and in-situ formation modes at z ~ 5-6 for the metal-poor GCs. An increasingly diverse zoo of compact stellar systems is being discovered, including objects that bridge the gaps between UCDs and faint fuzzies, and between UCDs and compact ellipticals. Many of these have properties pointing to origins as the stripped nuclei of larger galaxies, and a smoking-gun example is presented of an omega Cen-like star cluster embedded in a tidal stream.

  18. Two formation channels of UCDs in Hickson Compact Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Da Rocha, C; Georgiev, I Y; Hilker, M; Ziegler, B L; de Oliveira, C Mendes

    2010-01-01

    The formation of ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) is believed to be interaction driven, and UCDs are abundant in the cores of galaxy clusters, environments that mark the end-point of galaxy evolution. Nothing is known about the properties of UCDs in compact groups of galaxies, environments where most of galaxy evolution and interaction is believed to occur and where UCDs in intermediate state of evolution may be expected. The main goal of this study is to detect and characterize, for the first time, the UCD population of compact groups. For that, 2 groups in different evolutionary stages, HCG 22 and HCG 90, were targeted with VLT/FORS2/MXU. We detect 16 and 5 objects belonging to HCG 22 and HCG 90, respectively, covering the magnitude range -10.0 > M_R > -11.5 mag. Their colours are consistent with old ages covering a broad range in metallicities. Photometric mass estimates put 4 objects in HCG 90 and 9 in HCG 22 in the mass range of UCDs (>2x10^6 M_Sun) for an assumed age of 12 Gyr. These UCDs are on aver...

  19. Local Volume TiNy Titans: gaseous dwarf-dwarf interactions in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sarah; Besla, Gurtina; Putman, Mary E.; Lutz, Katharina A.; Fernández, Ximena; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Patton, David R.; Kim, Jinhyub; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Johnson, Kelsey; Sung, Eon-Chang

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Local Volume TiNy Titans sample (LV-TNT), which is a part of a larger body of work on interacting dwarf galaxies: TNT . This LV-TNT sample consists of 10 dwarf galaxy pairs in the Local Universe (supply channel until accretion by a more massive host.

  20. Blue-sky thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global environmental problems - such as the greenhouse effect, the depletion of natural resources and the accumulation of wastes - have been recognized as common international issues affecting humanity since the 1990s. Sustainable development on a global scale is now sought, for instance, with the establishment of the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, and with the adoption of the Declaration on Sustainable Development at the 2002 Johannesburg Summit. Honda launched the slogan 'Blue Sky for Children' in the 1960s when environmental pollution became a highly visible issue. During that decade we started an aggressive approach aimed at substantial environmental improvement, and unveiled the Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion (CVCC) engine - which used unique low-emission technology - in the United States and Japan. Since then, we have developed the Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electric Control System (VTEC) and the i-VTEC series with innovative engine technology, permitting global production of vehicles that combine high performance with state-of-the-art low-emission technologies. And we continued to work to preserve the global environment by releasing a hybrid vehicle, the Insight, which achieved the most efficient fuel consumption in the world at the time of its introduction in 1998

  1. Dwarf Cepheids in the Carina Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mateo, M; Nemec, J; Mateo, Mario; Hurley-Keller, Denise; Nemec, James

    1998-01-01

    We have discovered 20 dwarf Cepheids (DC) in the Carina dSph galaxy from the analysis of individual CCD images obtained for a deep photometric study of the system. These short-period pulsating variable stars are by far the most distant (~100 kpc) and faintest (V ~ 23.0) DCs known. The Carina DCs obey a well-defined period-luminosity relation, allowing us to readily distinguish between overtone and fundamental pulsators in nearly every case. Unlike RR Lyr stars, the pulsation mode turns out to be uncorrelated with light-curve shape, nor do the overtone pulsators tend towards shorter periods compared to the fundamental pulsators. Using the period-luminosity (PL) relations from Nemec et al. (1994 AJ, 108, 222) and McNamara (1995, AJ, 109, 1751), we derive (m-M)_0 = 20.06 +/- 0.12, for E(B-V) = 0.025 and [Fe/H] = -2.0, in good agreement with recent, independent estimates of the distance/reddening of Carina. The error reflects the uncertainties in the DC distance scale, and in the metallicity and reddening of Cari...

  2. Blue Man袭东京

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naomi Saeki; 李宝怡

    2008-01-01

    <正>20年前在美国曼克顿风靡一时的Blue Man Group,最近在东京出现,马上成为城中话题。在东京,每年有不少舞台剧演出,但是像Blue Man Group这样备受注目的,近年罕见。Blue Man Group in Tokyo于上年12月开始公演·1个月的门票早在9月中旬

  3. Blue Angel for green electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher-Tiedemann, C.; Jacobs, B. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The Blue Angel was the first eco-label worldwide. It has been in existence for 26 years. For the last 12 years, modern electronic office and communications equipment has been among the products that are eligible for award of the Blue Angel. The Blue Angel eco-label is an important element of integrated product policy and is aimed towards environmentally sound product design. In addition, health aspects are increasingly being taken into account in criteria development. The use of the label gives innovative companies better market opportunities for products so labelled. For consumers and for purchasers in businesses and public administrations, it gives valuable guidance for product purchase. (orig.)

  4. Cold Brown Dwarfs with WISE: Y Dwarfs and the Field Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2012-01-01

    Why study Brown Dwarf stars? They re the lowest mass byproducts of star formation.. They provide time capsules across the age of the Galaxy.. They show what low-T(sub eff) atmospheres look like.. They may be some of our closest neighbors in space..WISE is a 40cm Earth-orbiting telescope. There are 211 stars and only 33 brown dwarfs in this volume.. This means that stars outnumber brown dwarfs by a factor of 6:1 currently.. The number of brown dwarfs will continue to increase if:: (a) more nearby Y dwarf candidates are confirmed, or (b) our distances to known Y s are overestimated, or (c) there are colder BDs invisible to WISE..

  5. Observational constraints on dwarf galaxy evolution: a retrospective of lequeux et al. (1979)

    OpenAIRE

    Evan D. Skillman

    2002-01-01

    Las contribuciones de los Peimbert han sido fundamentales para establecer ideas concernientes tanto a las propiedades como a la evoluci on de las galaxias enanas. Revisar e brevemente estas ideas dentro del contexto de una retrospectiva del art culo hist orico \\Chemical Composition and Evolution of Irregular and Blue Compact Galaxies" de Lequeux, Peimbert, Rayo, Serrano, & Torres-Peimbert, 1979, A&A, 80, 155. Este art culo aport o observaciones espectrosc opicas pioneras de regi...

  6. A Population of Compact Elliptical Galaxies Detected with the Virtual Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, Igor; Revaz, Yves; Dodonov, Serguei; Durand, Daniel; Durret, Florence; Micol, Alberto; Slezak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Compact elliptical galaxies are characterized by small sizes and high stellar densities. They are thought to form through tidal stripping of massive progenitors. However, only a handful of them were known, preventing us from understanding the role played by this mechanism in galaxy evolution. We present a population of 21 compact elliptical galaxies gathered with the Virtual Observatory. Follow-up spectroscopy and data mining, using high-resolution images and large databases, show that all the galaxies exhibit old metal-rich stellar populations different from those of dwarf elliptical galaxies of similar masses but similar to those of more massive early-type galaxies, supporting the tidal stripping scenario. Their internal properties are reproduced by numerical simulations, which result in compact dynamically hot remnants resembling the galaxies in our sample.

  7. The Baryon Cycle of Dwarf Galaxies: Dark, Bursty, Gas-Rich Polluters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Sijing; Conroy, Charlie; Governato, Fabio; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a fully cosmological, very high-resolution, LCDM "zoom-in" simulation of a group of seven field dwarf galaxies with present-day virial masses in the range M_vir=4.4e8-3.6e10 Msun. The simulation includes a blastwave scheme for supernova feedback, a star formation recipe based on a high gas density threshold, metal-dependent radiative cooling, a scheme for the turbulent diffusion of metals and thermal energy, and a uniform UV background that modifies the ionization and excitation state of the gas. The properties of the simulated dwarfs are strongly modulated by the depth of the gravitational potential well. All three halos with M_vir 1e9 Msun dwarfs have blue colors, low star formation efficiencies, high cold gas to stellar mass ratios, and low stellar metallicities. Their bursty star formation histories are characterized by peak specific star formation rates in excess of 50-100 1/Gyr, far outside the realm of normal, more massive galaxies, and in agreement with observations of extreme...

  8. Compact SPS - Power delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospisil, M.; Pospisilova, L.

    1982-09-01

    The power deliverable by a compact solar Space Power Station (SPS) is a function of its outer surface shape. Methods of fitting the power delivery curve of such a system to different patterns of daily power demand are considered that involve the appropriate choice of the number of satellites, their maximal power, height to width ratio and the shift of longitude with respect to the receiving station. Changes in the daily delivery curve can be made by altering the longitudes and orientations of the satellites. Certain limitations to the choice of parameters exist, such as: the height to width ratio should be near 1.2, and the sum of longitude and orientation changes will probably not be greater than 50 deg. The optimization of the peak to average power ratio is also discussed.

  9. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  10. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  11. Helium-Core White Dwarfs in the Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Strickler, R R; Anderson, J; Cohn, H N; Lugger, P M; Serenelli, A M

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a study of the central regions of NGC 6397 using Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys, focusing on a group of 24 faint blue stars that form a sequence parallel to, but brighter than, the more populated sequence of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs). Using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters with the Wide Field Channel we show that these stars, 18 of which are newly discovered, have magnitudes and colors consistent with those of helium-core white dwarfs (He WDs) with masses ~ 0.2-0.3 Msun. Their H-alpha--R625 colors indicate that they have strong H-alpha absorption lines, which distinguishes them from cataclysmic variables in the cluster. The radial distribution of the He WDs is significantly more concentrated to the cluster center than that of either the CO WDs or the turnoff stars and most closely resembles that of the cluster's blue stragglers. Binary companions are required to explain the implied dynamical masses. We show that the companions cannot be main-sequence stars ...

  12. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  13. China Mobile: Expanding "Blue Ocean"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Driving force is crucial for realizing high-speed growth. The strong driving force from "Blue Ocean Strategy" is an important advantage for China Mobile to realize harmonious and leap-forward development.

  14. Manganese in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    North, P; Jablonka, P; Hill, V; Shetrone, M; Letarte, B; Lemasle, B; Venn, K A; Battaglia, G; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M J; Primas, F; Francois, P

    2012-01-01

    We provide manganese abundances (corrected for the effect of the hyperfine structure) for a large number of stars in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Sculptor and Fornax, and for a smaller number in the Carina and Sextans dSph galaxies. Abundances had already been determined for a number of other elements in these galaxies, including alpha and iron-peak ones, which allowed us to build [Mn/Fe] and [Mn/alpha] versus [Fe/H] diagrams. The Mn abundances imply sub-solar [Mn/Fe] ratios for the stars in all four galaxies examined. In Sculptor, [Mn/Fe] stays roughly constant between [Fe/H]\\sim -1.8 and -1.4 and decreases at higher iron abundance. In Fornax, [Mn/Fe] does not vary in any significant way with [Fe/H]. The relation between [Mn/alpha] and [Fe/H] for the dSph galaxies is clearly systematically offset from that for the Milky Way, which reflects the different star formation histories of the respective galaxies. The [Mn/alpha] behavior can be interpreted as a result of the metal-dependent Mn yields of type II and ...

  15. A large spectroscopic sample of L and T dwarfs from UKIDSS LAS: peculiar objects, binaries, and space density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocco, F.; Jones, H. R. A.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Pinfield, D. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Zhang, Z. H.; Smart, R. L.; Gomes, J. I.; Smith, L.

    2015-06-01

    We present the spectroscopic analysis of a large sample of late-M, L, and T dwarfs from the United Kingdom Deep Infrared Sky Survey. Using the YJHK photometry from the Large Area Survey and the red-optical photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey we selected a sample of 262 brown dwarf candidates and we have followed-up 196 of them using the echelle spectrograph X-shooter on the Very Large Telescope. The large wavelength coverage (0.30-2.48 μm) and moderate resolution (R ˜ 5000-9000) of X-shooter allowed us to identify peculiar objects including 22 blue L dwarfs, 2 blue T dwarfs, and 2 low-gravity M dwarfs. Using a spectral indices-based technique, we identified 27 unresolved binary candidates, for which we have determined the spectral type of the potential components via spectral deconvolution. The spectra allowed us to measure the equivalent width of the prominent absorption features and to compare them to atmospheric models. Cross-correlating the spectra with a radial velocity standard, we measured the radial velocity of our targets, and we determined the distribution of the sample, which is centred at -1.7 ± 1.2 km s-1 with a dispersion of 31.5 km s-1. Using our results, we estimated the space density of field brown dwarfs and compared it with the results of numerical simulations. Depending on the binary fraction, we found that there are (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 to (1.00 ± 0.64) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L4-L6.5 range, (0.73 ± 0.47) × 10-3 to (0.85 ± 0.55) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the L7-T0.5 range, and (0.74 ± 0.48) × 10-3 to (0.88 ± 0.56) × 10-3 objects per cubic parsec in the T1-T4.5 range. We notice that there seems to be an excess of objects in the L-T transition with respect to the late-T dwarfs, a discrepancy that could be explained assuming a higher binary fraction than expected for the L-T transition, or that objects in the high-mass end and low-mass end of this regime form in different environments, i.e. following

  16. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andrew; Stel, André; Thurik, Roy

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increasing profits. The authors conclude that the blue-ocean strategy or innovation approach is sustainable.

  17. The Meaning of a Compact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasescha, Anna

    2016-01-01

    To mark the 30th anniversary of "Campus Compact," leaders from across the network came together in the summer of 2015 to reaffirm a shared commitment to the public purposes of higher education. Campus Compact's 30th Anniversary Action Statement of Presidents and Chancellors is the product of that collective endeavor. In signing the…

  18. The Finslerian compact star model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook; Paul, Nupur [Jadavpur University, Department of Mathematics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); De, S.S. [University of Calcutta, Department of Applied Mathematics, Kolkata (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Jafry, M.A.K. [Shibpur Dinobundhoo Institution, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2015-11-15

    We construct a toy model for compact stars based on the Finslerian structure of spacetime. By assuming a particular mass function, we find an exact solution of the Finsler-Einstein field equations with an anisotropic matter distribution. The solutions are revealed to be physically interesting and pertinent for the explanation of compact stars. (orig.)

  19. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-01

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids. PMID:21217688

  20. White dwarfs with hydrogen-deficient atmospheres and the dark matter content of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S; Isern, J; Garcia-Berro, E

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the several microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is still a subject of debate. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than ~M_{sun} have been ruled out as major components of a Massive Astrophysical Compact Halo Object (MACHO) Galactic halo, while stars of half a solar mass seem to be viable candidates. Main sequence stars have been already discarded, and there are tight restrictions on the role played by white dwarfs with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. In this paper we evaluate the contribution to the dark matter content of the Galaxy of white dwarfs with hydrogen-deficient atmospheres. For this purpose we use a Monte Carlo simulator which incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres. We also take into account detailed descriptions of the thick disk and the halo of our Galaxy as well as of a reliable model of the LMC. We find that the contribution of whit...

  1. Infrared accretion disc mapping of the dwarf nova V2051 Ophiuchi in outburst and in quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcikiewicz, E.; Baptista, R.

    2014-10-01

    Dwarf novae are compact binaries where a late-type star (the secondary) fills its Roche lobe and transfers matter to a companion white dwarf (the primary) via an accretion disc. They show outbursts which recur on timescales of weeks to years, where the accretion disc brightens by factors 20 to 100 either due to a thermal-viscous instability in the disc (DI model) or to a burst of enhanced mass-transfer from the secondary (MTI model). We report time-series of fast photometry of the dwarf nova V2051 Oph in the J and H bands, obtained with the CAMIV at the 1.6 m telescope of Observatório Pico dos Dias/Brazil, during the decline of an outburst in 2005 June, and in 2008 when the object was in quiescence. We modeled the ellipsoidal variations caused by the secondary to infer its contribution to the J and H fluxes, and fitted stellar atmosphere models to find a photometric parallatic distance of d = (111± 14)pc. Front-back brightness asymmetries in J and H-band eclipse maps along the decline from the 2005 outburst suggest that the accretion disc had a non-negligible opening angle which decreased as the disc cooled down. The time evolution of the disc radial temperature distribution along the outburst decline shows a cooling wave which accelerates as is travels inwards - in contradiction to a basic prediction from the DI model.

  2. A Candidate Massive Black Hole in the Low-metallicity Dwarf Galaxy Pair Mrk 709

    CERN Document Server

    Reines, Amy; Russell, Thomas; Mezcua, Mar; Condon, James; Sivakoff, Gregory; Johnson, Kelsey

    2014-01-01

    The incidence and properties of present-day dwarf galaxies hosting massive black holes (BHs) can provide important constraints on the origin of high-redshift BH seeds. Here we present high-resolution X-ray and radio observations of the low-metallicity, star-forming, dwarf-galaxy system Mrk 709 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These data reveal spatially coincident hard X-ray and radio point sources with luminosities suggesting the presence of an accreting massive BH (M_BH ~ 10^5-10^7 Msun). Based on imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that Mrk 709 consists of a pair of compact dwarf galaxies that appear to be interacting with one another. The position of the candidate massive BH is consistent with the optical center of the southern galaxy (Mrk 709 S), while no evidence for an active BH is seen in the northern galaxy (Mrk 709 N). We derive stellar masses of M ~ 2.5 x 10^9 Msun and M ~ 1.1 x 10^9 Msun for Mrk 709 S and Mrk 709 N, respectively, and...

  3. Supernova Type Ia progenitors from merging double white dwarfs: Using a new population synthesis model

    CERN Document Server

    Toonen, Silvia; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2012-01-01

    The study of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) has lead to greatly improved insights into many fields in astrophysics, however a theoretical explanation of the origin of these events is still lacking. We investigate the potential contribution to the SNIa rate from the population of merging double carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. We aim to develope a model that fits the observed SNIa progenitors as well as the observed close double white dwarf population. We differentiate between two scenarios for the common envelope (CE) evolution; the alpha-formalism based on the energy equation and the gamma-formalism that is based on the angular momentum equation. In one model we apply the alpha-formalism always. In the second model the gamma-formalism is applied, unless the binary contains a compact object or the CE is triggered by a tidal instability for which the alpha-formalism is used. The binary population synthesis code SeBa was used to evolve binary systems from the zero-age main sequence to the formation of double white dwarfs...

  4. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-01

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  5. Warm compacting behavior of stainless steel powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖志瑜; 柯美元; 陈维平; 召明; 李元元

    2004-01-01

    The warm compacting behaviors of four different kinds of stainless steel powders, 304L, 316L, 410L and 430L, were studied. The results show that warm compaction can be applied to stainless steel powders. The green densities and strengths of compacts obtained through warm compaction are generally higher than those obtained through cold compaction. The compacting behaviors in warm compaction and cold compaction are similar.Under the compacting pressure of 700 MPa, the warm compacted densities are 0. 10 - 0.22 g/cm3 higher than the cold compacted ones, and the green strengths are 11.5 %-50 % higher. The optimal warm compacting temperature is 100 - 110 ℃. In the die wall lubricated warm compaction, the optimum internal lubricant content is 0.2%.

  6. White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P; Liebert, J; Fontaine, G; Behara, N

    2007-11-22

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 and 8-10, where is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for approximately 80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs therefore have been traditionally found to belong to one of two categories: those with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere (the DA spectral type) and those with a helium-rich atmosphere (the non-DAs). Here we report the discovery of several white dwarfs with atmospheres primarily composed of carbon, with little or no trace of hydrogen or helium. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric parameters found for these stars do not fit satisfactorily in any of the currently known theories of post-asymptotic giant branch evolution, although these objects might be the cooler counterpart of the unique and extensively studied PG 1159 star H1504+65 (refs 4-7). These stars, together with H1504+65, might accordingly form a new evolutionary sequence that follows the asymptotic giant branch. PMID:18033290

  7. Water Clouds in Y Dwarfs and Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Caroline V; Fortney, Jonathan J; Lupu, Roxana; Saumon, Didier; Greene, Tom; Lodders, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The formation of clouds affects brown dwarf and planetary atmospheres of nearly all effective temperatures. Iron and silicate condense in L dwarf atmospheres and dissipate at the L/T transition. Minor species such as sulfides and salts condense in mid-late T dwarfs. For brown dwarfs below Teff=450 K, water condenses in the upper atmosphere to form ice clouds. Currently over a dozen objects in this temperature range have been discovered, and few previous theoretical studies have addressed the effect of water clouds on brown dwarf or exoplanetary spectra. Here we present a new grid of models that include the effect of water cloud opacity. We find that they become optically thick in objects below Teff=350-375 K. Unlike refractory cloud materials, water ice particles are significantly non-gray absorbers; they predominantly scatter at optical wavelengths through J band and absorb in the infrared with prominent features, the strongest of which is at 2.8 microns. H2O, NH3, CH4, and H2 CIA are dominant opacity source...

  8. New cooling sequences for old white dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Renedo, Isabel; Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Romero, Alejandra D; Corsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, Rene D; Garcia-Berro, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarfs. This is done by evolving white dwarf progenitors from the zero age main sequence, through the core hydrogen burning phase, the helium burning phase and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. Complete evolutionary sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and for two different metallicities: Z=0.01, which is representative of the solar neighborhood, and Z=0.001, which is appropriate for the study of old stellar systems, like globular clusters. During the white dwarf cooling stage we compute self-consistently the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important, the diffusive evolution of the elements in the outer layers and, finally, we also take into account all the relevant energy sources in the deep interior of the white dwarf, like the release of latent heat and the release of gravitational energy due to carbon-oxygen phase separation upon crystall...

  9. Tidal Dwarf Galaxies and Missing Baryons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Bournaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tidal dwarf galaxies form during the interaction, collision, or merger of massive spiral galaxies. They can resemble “normal” dwarf galaxies in terms of mass, size, and become dwarf satellites orbiting around their massive progenitor. They nevertheless keep some signatures from their origin, making them interesting targets for cosmological studies. In particular, they should be free from dark matter from a spheroidal halo. Flat rotation curves and high dynamical masses may then indicate the presence of an unseen component, and constrain the properties of the “missing baryons,” known to exist but not directly observed. The number of dwarf galaxies in the Universe is another cosmological problem for which it is important to ascertain if tidal dwarf galaxies formed frequently at high redshift, when the merger rate was high, and many of them survived until today. In this paper, “dark matter” is used to refer to the nonbaryonic matter, mostly located in large dark halos, that is, CDM in the standard paradigm, and “missing baryons” or “dark baryons” is used to refer to the baryons known to exist but hardly observed at redshift zero, and are a baryonic dark component that is additional to “dark matter”.

  10. The Potential of White Dwarf Cosmochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Bergeron, P.

    2001-04-01

    In the light of recent significant progress on both the observational and theoretical fronts, we review the status of white dwarf stars as cosmochronometers. These objects represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, can be used to constrain the ages of various populations of evolved stars in the Galaxy. For example, the oldest white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood (the remnants of the very first generation of intermediate-mass stars in the Galactic disk) are still visible and can be used, in conjunction with cooling theory, to estimate the age of the disk. More recent observations suggest the tantalizing possibility that a population of very old white dwarfs inhabits the Galactic halo. Such a population may contribute significantly to baryonic ``dark'' matter in the Milky Way and may be used to obtain an independent estimate of the age of the halo. In addition, white dwarf cosmochronology is likely to play a very significant role in the coming era of giant 8-10 m telescopes when faint white dwarf populations should be routinely discovered and studied in open and globular clusters. Based, in part, on the C. S. Beals Lecture presented by G. Fontaine at the Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Astronomical Society held in Vancouver (2000 May).

  11. Boundaries of flat compact surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røgen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem: ``Which knots or links in 3-space bound flat (immersed) compact surfaces?''. In a previous paper by the author it was proven that: Any simple closed space curve can be deformed until it bounds a flat orientable compact (Seifert) surface. The main results...... of this paper are: There exist knots that do not bound any flat compact surfaces. The lower bound of total curvature of a knot bounding an orientable non-negatively curved compact surface can, for varying knot type, be arbitrarily much greater than the infimum of curvature needed for the knot to have its knot...... type. The number of $3$-singular points (points of zero curvature or if not then of zero torsion) on the boundary of a flat immersed compact surface is greater than or equal to twice the absolute value of the Euler characteristic of the surface. A set of necessary and, in a weakened sense, sufficient...

  12. A Massive Pulsar in a Compact Relativistic Binary

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, John; Wex, Norbert; Tauris, Thomas M; Lynch, Ryan S; van Kerkwijk, Marten H; Kramer, Michael; Bassa, Cees; Dhillon, Vik S; Driebe, Thomas; Hessels, Jason W T; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kondratiev, Vladislav I; Langer, Norbert; Marsh, Thomas R; McLaughlin, Maura A; Pennucci, Timothy T; Ransom, Scott M; Stairs, Ingrid H; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Verbiest, Joris P W; Whelan, David G; 10.1126/science.1233232

    2013-01-01

    Many physically motivated extensions to general relativity (GR) predict significant deviations in the properties of spacetime surrounding massive neutron stars. We report the measurement of a 2.01 +/- 0.04 solar mass pulsar in a 2.46-hr orbit with a 0.172 +/- 0.003 solar mass white dwarf. The high pulsar mass and the compact orbit make this system a sensitive laboratory of a previously untested strong-field gravity regime. Thus far, the observed orbital decay agrees with GR, supporting its validity even for the extreme conditions present in the system. The resulting constraints on deviations support the use of GR-based templates for ground-based gravitational wave detectors. Additionally, the system strengthens recent constraints on the properties of dense matter and provides insight to binary stellar astrophysics and pulsar recycling.

  13. A Search for Fine Wines: Discovering Close Red Dwarf-White Dwarf Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Mark; Finch, C. T.; Hambly, N. C.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.; Riedel, A. R.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    Like fine wines, stars come in both red and white varieties. Here we present initial results of the Fine Wines Project that targets red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. The two scientific goals of Fine Wines are (1) to develop methods to estimate ages for red dwarfs based on the cooling ages of the white dwarfs, and (2) to identify suitable pairs for dynamical mass determinations of white dwarfs to probe their interior structures. Here we focus on the search for Fine Wines, including sample selection, elimination of false positives, and initial reconnaissance. The sample was extracted via color-color plots from a pool of more than 30,000 proper motion systems examined during the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) and UCAC3 Proper Motion (UPM) surveys. The initial sample of 75 best candidates is being observed for BVRI photometry and 3500-9500 A spectroscopy to confirm whether or not the systems are red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. Early results indicate that roughly 50% of the candidates selected are indeed Fine Wine systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST 09-08402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  14. An observer's guide to the (Local Group) dwarf galaxies: predictions for their own dwarf satellite populations

    CERN Document Server

    Dooley, Gregory A; Yang, Tianyi; Willman, Beth; Griffen, Brendan F; Frebel, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A recent surge in the discovery of new ultrafaint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way has inspired the idea of searching for faint satellites, $10^3\\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}99\\%$ chance that at least one satellite with stellar mass $M_*> 10^5 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ exists around the combined five Local Group field dwarf galaxies with the largest stellar mass. When considering satellites with $M_*> 10^4 \\, \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$, we predict a combined $5-25$ satellites for the five largest field dwarfs, and $10-50$ for the whole Local Group field dwarf population. Because of the relatively small number of predicted dwarfs, and their extended spatial distribution, a large fraction each Local Group dwarf's virial volume will need to be surveyed to guarantee discoveries. We compute the predicted number of satellites in a given field of view of specific Local Group galaxies, as a function of minimum satellite luminosity, and explicitly obtain such values for the Solitary Local dwarfs survey. Uncertainties in abundance matc...

  15. Searching for benchmark systems containing ultra-cool dwarfs and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinfield D.J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We have used the 2MASS all-sky survey and WISE to look for ultracool dwarfs that are part of multiple systems containing main sequence stars. We cross-matched L dwarf candidates from the surveys with Hipparcos and Gliese stars, finding two new systems. We consider the binary fraction for L dwarfs and main sequence stars, and further assess possible unresolved multiplicity within the full companion sample. This analysis shows that some of the L dwarfs in this sample might actually be unresolved binaries themselves. We have also identified a sample of common proper motion systems in which a main sequence star has a white dwarf as wide companion. These systems can help explore key issues in star evolution theory, as the initial-final mass relationship of white dwarfs, or the chromospheric activity-age relationship for stars still in the main sequence. Spectroscopy for 50 white dwarf candidates, selected from the SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, was obtained. We have also observed 6 of the main sequence star companions, and have estimated their effective temperatures, rotational and microturbulent velocities and metallicities.

  16. 21 CFR 73.50 - Ultramarine blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultramarine blue. 73.50 Section 73.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.50 Ultramarine blue. (a) Identity. The color additive ultramarine blue is a blue pigment obtained...

  17. A case study for a tidal interaction between dwarf galaxies in UGC 6741

    CERN Document Server

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, C H

    2015-01-01

    We present a case study of the tidal interaction between low mass, star-forming, galaxies initially found exploring the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images and further analyzed with SDSS spectroscopy and UV GALEX photometry. With a luminosity of M$_{r}$ = $-$17.7 mag and exhibiting a prominent tidal filament, UGC 6741 appears as a scale down version of massive gas--rich interacting systems and mergers.The stellar disk of the smaller companion, UGC 6741_B, which is three times less massive, has likely been already destroyed. Both galaxies, which are connected by a 15 kpc long stellar bridge, have a similar oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)$\\sim$8.3. Several knots of star-forming regions are identified along the bridge, some with masses exceeding $\\sim$10$^{7}$ M$_{\\sun}$. The most compact of them, which are unresolved, may evolve into globular clusters or Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies (UCDs). This would be the first time progenitors of such objects are detected in mergers involving dwarf galaxies. UGC 6741 has...

  18. A Compact Ring Design with Tunable Momentum Compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; /SLAC

    2012-05-17

    A storage ring with tunable momentum compaction has the advantage in achieving different RMS bunch length with similar RF capacity, which is potentially useful for many applications, such as linear collider damping ring and predamping ring where injected beam has a large energy spread and a large transverse emittance. A tunable bunch length also makes the commissioning and fine tuning easier in manipulating the single bunch instabilities. In this paper, a compact ring design based on a supercell is presented, which achieves a tunable momentum compaction while maintaining a large dynamic aperture.

  19. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates

  20. Understanding dwarf galaxies as galactic building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of a general discussion held during the third EuroConference on galaxy evolution. Various observational features of the stellar populations in present--day dwarf galaxies were presented to introduce the discussion on the possibility that these systems be the main building blocks of spiral and elliptical galaxies. Many people in the audience turned out to think that the inconsistencies among the observed properties of large and dwarf galaxies are too many to believe that the former are built up only by means of successive accretions of the latter. However, theorists of hierarchical galaxy formation suggested that present--day dwarfs are not representative of the galactic building blocks, which may be completely invisible nowadays. Some of them suggested that, contrary to what is usually assumed in hierarchical modelling, the actual building blocks were still fully gaseous systems when their major mergers occurred. If this is the case, then most of the inconsistencies can be overcome, and the ...

  1. Charged condensate and helium dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen and heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose–Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat—the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal

    CERN Document Server

    Grillmair, C J; Holtzmann, J A; Worthey, G; Ballester, G E; Burrows, C J; Clarke, J T; Crisp, D; Evans, R W; Gallagher, J S; Griffiths, R E; Hester, J J; Hössel, J G; Scowen, P A; Stapelfeldt, K R; Trauger, J T; Watson, A M; Westphal, J A; Grillmair, Carl.J.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Worthey, Guy

    1997-01-01

    We present an F606W-F814W color-magnitude diagram for the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images. The luminosity function is well-sampled to 3 magnitudes below the turn-off. We see no evidence for multiple turnoffs and conclude that, at least over the field of the view of the WFPC2, star formation was primarily single-epoch. If the observed number of blue stragglers is due to extended star formation, then roughly 6% (upper limit) of the stars could be half as old as the bulk of the galaxy. The color difference between the red giant branch and the turnoff is consistent with an old population and is very similar to that observed in the old, metal-poor Galactic globular clusters M68 and M92. Despite its red horizontal branch, Draco appears to be older than M68 and M92 by 1.6 +/- 2.5 Gyrs, lending support to the argument that the ``second parameter'' which governs horizontal branch morphology must be something other than age. Draco's observed luminosity function is very similar...

  3. WFPC2 Observations of the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Mighell, K J; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Burke, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    We present our analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations in F555W (~V) and F814W (~I) of the central region of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The V versus V-I color-magnitude diagram features a sparsely populated blue horizontal branch, a steep thin red giant branch, and a narrow subgiant branch. The main sequence reaches ~2 magnitudes below the main-sequence turnoff (V_TO ~ 23.27 +- 0.11 mag) of the median stellar population. We compare the fiducial sequence of Ursa Minor with the fiducial sequence of the Galactic globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). The excellent match between Ursa Minor and M92 confirms that the median stellar population of the UMi dSph galaxy is metal poor ([Fe/H]_UMi ~ [Fe/H]_M92 ~ -2.2 dex) and ancient (age_UMi ~ age_M92 ~ 14 Gyr). The B-V reddening and the absorption in V are estimated to be E(B-V) = 0.03 +- 0.01 mag and A_V = 0.09 +- 0.03 mag. A new estimate of the distance modulus of Ursa Minor, (m-M)_0 = 19.18 +- 0.12 mag, ha...

  4. A DOUBLE WHITE-DWARF COOLING SEQUENCE IN {omega} CENTAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Cassisi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Bedin, L. R. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, v.co dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Piotto, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' Galileo Galilei' , Universita di Padova, v.co dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Bergeron, P., E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    We have applied our empirical-point-spread-function-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of {omega} Cen, and found a well-defined split in the bright part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of {approx}2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along the cluster main sequence. The blue WDCS is populated by the evolved stars of the He-normal component ({approx}0.55 M{sub Sun} CO-core DA objects), while the red WDCS hosts the end products of the He-rich population ({approx}0.46 M{sub Sun} objects, and {approx}10% CO-core and {approx}90% He-core WDs). The He-core WDs correspond to He-rich stars that missed the central He ignition, and we estimate their fraction by analyzing the population ratios along the cluster horizontal branch.

  5. A Double White-Dwarf Cooling Sequence in {\\omega} Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, A; Salaris, M; Cassisi, S; Bedin, L R; Piotto, G; Bergeon, P

    2013-01-01

    We have applied our empirical-PSF-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of {\\omega} Cen, and found a well-defined split in the right part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of ~2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along the cluster main sequence. The blue WDCS is populated by the evolved stars of the He-normal component (~0.55 Msun CO-core DA objects) while the red WDCS hosts the end-products of the He-rich population (~0.46 Msun objects, ~10% CO-core and ~90% He-core WDs). The He-core WDs correspond to He-rich stars that missed the central He-ignition, and we estimate their fraction by analyzing the population ratios along the cluster horizontal branch.

  6. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  7. HISTOLOGIC, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL, AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A MALIGNANT IRIDOPHOROMA IN A DWARF BEARDED DRAGON (POGONA HENRYLAWSONI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brot, Simone; Sydler, Titus; Nufer, Lisbeth; Ruetten, Maja

    2015-09-01

    A dwarf bearded dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) was presented with a white subcutaneous mandibular mass and multiple nodules in the oral mucosa, heart, liver, kidney, intestine, and visceral fat. Histologically, the tumor consisted of densely packed spindle-shaped cells with brow intracytoplasmic pigment that exhibited white-blue birefringence with polarized light. Immunohistochemical staining was negative for S-100 and weakly positive with melan A. Electron microscopic examination revealed cytoplasmic irregular and oblong empty spaces, laminated and often arranged into short stacks, compatible with reflecting platelet profiles typically seen in iridophores. However, in unstained ultrathin sections, electron-dense crystalline material was present, which filled the empty spaces described for stained sections before. Based on histology, immunohistochemistry, and biologic behavior, a malignant iridophoroma was diagnosed. To the authors' knowledge, iridophoromas in lizards have rarely been characterized by using electronic microscopy. Moreover, this is the first description of an iridophoroma in a dwarf bearded dragon. PMID:26352965

  8. KECK/LRIS SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF COMA CLUSTER DWARF GALAXY MEMBERSHIP ASSIGNMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck/LRIS multi-object spectroscopy has been carried out on 140 of some of the lowest and highest surface brightness faint (19 < R < 22) dwarf galaxy candidates in the core region of the Coma Cluster. These spectra are used to measure redshifts and establish membership for these faint dwarf populations. The primary goal of the low surface brightness sample is to test our ability to use morphological and surface brightness criteria to distinguish between Coma Cluster members and background galaxies using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Candidates were rated as expected members, uncertain, or expected background. From 93 spectra, 51 dwarf galaxy members and 20 background galaxies are identified. Our morphological membership estimation success rate is ∼100% for objects expected to be members and better than ∼90% for galaxies expected to be in the background. We confirm that low surface brightness is a very good indicator of cluster membership. High surface brightness galaxies are almost always background with confusion arising only from the cases of the rare compact elliptical (cE) galaxies. The more problematic cases occur at intermediate surface brightness. Many of these galaxies are given uncertain membership ratings, and these were found to be members about half of the time. Including color information will improve membership determination but will fail for some of the same objects that are already misidentified when using only surface brightness and morphology criteria. cE galaxies with B-V colors ∼0.2 mag redward of the red sequence in particular require spectroscopic follow up. In a sample of 47 high surface brightness, ultracompact dwarf candidates, 19 objects have redshifts which place them in the Coma Cluster, while another 6 have questionable redshift measurements but may also prove to be members. Redshift measurements are presented and the use of indirect means for establishing cluster membership is

  9. A Candidate Massive Black Hole in the Low-metallicity Dwarf Galaxy Pair Mrk 709

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Russell, Thomas D.; Mezcua, Mar; Condon, James J.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.

    2014-06-01

    The incidence and properties of present-day dwarf galaxies hosting massive black holes (BHs) can provide important constraints on the origin of high-redshift BH seeds. Here we present high-resolution X-ray and radio observations of the low-metallicity, star-forming, dwarf-galaxy system Mrk 709 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. These data reveal spatially coincident hard X-ray and radio point sources with luminosities suggesting the presence of an accreting massive BH (M BH ~ 105-7 M ⊙). Based on imaging from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that Mrk 709 consists of a pair of compact dwarf galaxies that appear to be interacting with one another. The position of the candidate massive BH is consistent with the optical center of the southern galaxy (Mrk 709 S), while no evidence for an active BH is seen in the northern galaxy (Mrk 709 N). We derive stellar masses of M sstarf ~ 2.5 × 109 M ⊙ and M sstarf ~ 1.1 × 109 M ⊙ for Mrk 709 S and Mrk 709 N, respectively, and present an analysis of the SDSS spectrum of the BH host Mrk 709 S. At a metallicity of just ~10% solar, Mrk 709 is among the most metal-poor galaxies with evidence for an active galactic nucleus. Moreover, this discovery adds to the growing body of evidence that massive BHs can form in dwarf galaxies and that deep, high-resolution X-ray and radio observations are ideally suited to reveal accreting massive BHs hidden at optical wavelengths.

  10. The 2MASS Wide-Field T Dwarf Search. III. Seven New T Dwarfs and Other Cool Dwarf Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Kirkpatrick, J D; McElwain, M W; Reid, I N; Tinney, C G; Burgasser, Adam J.; Elwain, Michael W. Mc; Cruz, Kelle L.; Tinney, Chris G.

    2004-01-01

    We present the discovery of seven new T dwarfs identified in the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Low-resolution (R$\\sim$150) 0.8--2.5 micron spectroscopy obtained with the IRTF SpeX instrument reveal the characteristic H$_2$O and CH$_4$ bands in the spectra of these brown dwarfs. Comparison to spectral standards observed with the same instrument enable us to derive classifications of T3 to T7 for the objects in this sample. Moderate-resolution (R$\\sim$1200) near-infrared spectroscopy for a subset of these discoveries reveal K I line strengths consistent with previously observed trends with spectral type. Follow-up imaging observations provide proper motion measurements for these sources, ranging from $<$ 0$\\farcs$1 to 1$\\farcs$55 yr$^{-1}$. One object, 2MASS 0034+0523, has a spectrophotometric distance placing it within 10 pc of the Sun. This source also exhibits a depressed K-band peak reminiscent of the peculiar T dwarf 2MASS 0937+2931, and may be a metal-poor or old, high-mass brown dwarf. We also present lo...

  11. On the r-process Enrichment of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph; Linden, Tim

    2016-07-01

    Recent observations of Reticulum II have uncovered an overabundance of r-process elements compared to similar ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UFDs). Because the metallicity and star formation history of Reticulum II appear consistent with all known UFDs, the high r-process abundance of Reticulum II suggests enrichment through a single, rare event, such as a double neutron star (NS) merger. However, we note that this scenario is extremely unlikely, as binary stellar evolution models require significant supernova natal kicks to produce NS–NS or NS–black hole (BH) mergers, and these kicks would efficiently remove compact binary systems from the weak gravitational potentials of UFDs. We examine alternative mechanisms for the production of r-process elements in UFDs, including a novel mechanism wherein NSs in regions of high dark matter (DM) density implode after accumulating a BH-forming mass of DM. We find that r-process proto-material ejection by tidal forces, when a single NS implodes into a BH, can occur at a rate matching the r-process abundance of both Reticulum II and the Milky Way. Remarkably, DM models which collapse a single NS in observed UFDs also solve the missing pulsar problem in the Milky Way Galactic Center. We propose tests specific to DM r-process production which may uncover or rule out this model.

  12. On the R-Process Enrichment of Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bramante, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of Reticulum II have uncovered an overabundance of r-process elements, compared to similar ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies (UFDs). Because the metallicity and star formation history of Reticulum II appear consistent with all known UFDs, the high r-process abundance of Reticulum II suggests enrichment through a single, rare event, such as a double neutron star (NS) merger. However, we note that this scenario is extremely unlikely, as binary stellar evolution models require significant supernova natal kicks to produce NS-NS or NS-black hole mergers, and these kicks would efficiently remove compact binary systems from the weak gravitational potentials of UFDs. We examine alternative mechanisms for the production of r-process elements in UFDs, including a novel mechanism wherein NSs in regions of high dark matter density implode after accumulating a black-hole-forming mass of dark matter. We find that r-process proto-material ejection by tidal forces, when a single neutron star implodes ...

  13. Compact Grism Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, S. W.

    2003-05-01

    Many observatories and instrument builders are retrofitting visible and near-infrared spectrometers into their existing imaging cameras. Camera designs that reimage the focal plane and have the optical filters located in a pseudo collimated beam are ideal candidates for the addition of a spectrometer. One device commonly used as the dispersing element for such spectrometers is a grism. The traditional grism is constructed from a prism that has had a diffraction grating applied on one surface. The objective of such a design is to use the prism wedge angle to select the desired "in-line" or "zero-deviation" wavelength that passes through on axis. The grating on the surface of the prism provides much of the dispersion for the spectrometer. A grism can also be used in a "constant-dispersion" design which provides an almost linear spatial scale across the spectrum. In this paper we provide an overview of the development of a grism spectrometer for use in a near infrared camera and demonstrate that a compact grism spectrometer can be developed on a very modest budget that can be afforded at almost any facility. The grism design was prototyped using visible light and then a final device was constructed which provides partial coverage in the near infrared I, J, H and K astronomical bands using the appropriate band pass filter for order sorting. The near infrared grism presented here provides a spectral resolution of about 650 and velocity resolution of about 450 km/s. The design of this grism relied on a computer code called Xspect, developed by the author, to determine the various critical parameters of the grism. This work was supported by a small equipment grant from NASA and administered by the AAS.

  14. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  15. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge.

  16. Chemical substructure and inhomogeneous mixing in Local Group dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, K. A.

    Evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the Carina, Draco, and Sculptor dwarf galaxies is examined from chemical abundance patterns. Inhomogeneous mixing at early times is indicated in the classical dwarf galaxies, though cannot be ascertained in ultra faint dwarfs. Mixing efficiencies can affect the early metallicity distribution function, the pre-enrichment levels in globular clusters, and also have an impact on the structure of dwarf systems at early times. Numerical models that include chemical evolution explicitly do a better job in reproducing the observations, and make interesting predictions for the nature of dwarf galaxies and their first stars at the earliest times.

  17. Two Extraordinary Substellar Binaries at the T/Y Transition and the Y-Band Fluxes of the Coolest Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Michael C; Bowler, Brendan P; Leggett, S K; Best, William M J

    2012-01-01

    Using Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging, we have found that the T9 dwarf WISE J1217+1626 and T8 dwarf WISE J1711+3500 are exceptional binaries, with unusually wide separations (~0.8 arcsec, 8-15 AU), large near-IR flux ratios (~2-3 mags), and small mass ratios (~0.5). Keck/NIRSPEC H-band spectra give a spectral type of Y0 for WISE J1217+1626B, and photometric estimates suggest T9.5 for WISE J1711+3500B. The WISE J1217+1626AB system is very similar to the T9+Y0 binary CFBDSIR J1458+1013AB; these two systems are the coldest known substellar multiples, having secondary components of ~400 K and being planetary-mass binaries if their ages are <~1 Gyr. Both WISE J1217+1626B and CFBDSIR J1458+1013B have strikingly blue Y-J colors compared to previously known T dwarfs, including their T9 primaries. Combining all available data, we find that Y-J color drops precipitously between the very latest T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. The fact that this is seen in (coeval, mono-metallicity) binaries demonstrates that...

  18. Why Do Proteins Glow Blue?

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Sohini; Hazra, Partha; Mandal, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Recent literatures reported blue-green emission from amyloid fibril as exclusive signature of fibril formation. This unusual visible luminescence is regularly used to monitor fibril growth. Blue-green emission has also been observed in crystalline protein and in solution. However, the origin of this emission is not known exactly. Our spectroscopic study of serum proteins reveals that the blue-green emission is a property of protein monomer. Evidences suggest that semiconductor-like band structure of proteins with the optical band-gap in the visible region is possibly the origin of this phenomenon. We show here that the band structure of proteins is primarily the result of electron delocalization through the peptide chain, rather than through the hydrogen bond network in secondary structure.

  19. The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). III. Parallaxes for 70 Ultracool Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Walter, Frederick M.; Van der Bliek, Nicole; Shara, Michael M.; Cruz, Kelle L.; West, Andrew A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem

    2012-06-01

    We report parallax measurements for 70 ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) including 11 late-M, 32 L, and 27 T dwarfs. In this sample, 14 M and L dwarfs exhibit low surface gravity features, 6 are close binary systems, and 2 are metal-poor subdwarfs. We combined our new measurements with 114 previously published UCD parallaxes and optical-mid-IR photometry to examine trends in spectral-type/absolute magnitude, and color-color diagrams. We report new polynomial relations between spectral type and MJHK . Including resolved L/T transition binaries in the relations, we find no reason to differentiate between a "bright" (unresolved binary) and a "faint" (single source) sample across the L/T boundary. Isolating early T dwarfs, we find that the brightening of T0-T4 sources is prominent in MJ where there is a [1.2-1.4] mag difference. A similar yet dampened brightening of [0.3-0.5] mag happens at MH and a plateau or dimming of [-0.2 to -0.3] mag is seen in MK . Comparison with evolutionary models that vary gravity, metallicity, and cloud thickness verifies that for L into T dwarfs, decreasing cloud thickness reproduces brown dwarf near-IR color-magnitude diagrams. However we find that a near constant temperature of 1200 ±100 K along a narrow spectral subtype of T0-T4 is required to account for the brightening and color-magnitude diagram of the L-dwarf/T-dwarf transition. There is a significant population of both L and T dwarfs which are red or potentially "ultra-cloudy" compared to the models, many of which are known to be young indicating a correlation between enhanced photospheric dust and youth. For the low surface gravity or young companion L dwarfs we find that 8 out of 10 are at least [0.2-1.0] mag underluminous in MJH and/or MK compared to equivalent spectral type objects. We speculate that this is a consequence of increased dust opacity and conclude that low surface gravity L dwarfs require a completely new spectral-type/absolute magnitude polynomial for analysis.

  20. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  1. Compact energy conversion module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  2. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a compact UV laser ?based sensor for Earth science and planetary atmosphere exploration....

  3. Countably determined compact abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dikranjan, Dikran

    2008-01-01

    For an abelian topological group G let G^* be the dual group of all continuous characters endowed with the compact open topology. A subgroup D of G determines G if the restriction homomorphism G^* --> D^* of the dual groups is a topological isomorphism. Given a scattered compact subset X of an infinite compact abelian group G such that |X|compact abelian group determined by its countable subgroup must be metrizable. This gives a negative answer to questions of Comfort, Hernandez, Macario, Raczkowski and Trigos-Arrieta, as well as provides short proofs of main results established in three manuscripts by these authors.

  4. Compact, Airborne Multispecies Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer to benefit Earth science research activities. To...

  5. The effect of gravitational tides on dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nichols, Matthew; Jablonka, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the local environment on the evolution of dwarf spheroidal galaxies is poorly understood. We have undertaken a suite of simulations to investigate the tidal impact of the Milky Way on the chemodynamical evolution of dwarf spheroidals that resemble present day classical dwarfs using the SPH code GEAR. After simulating the models through a large parameter space of potential orbits the resulting properties are compared with observations from both a dynamical point of view, but also from the, often neglected, chemical point of view. In general, we find that tidal effects quench the star formation even inside gas-endowed dwarfs. Such quenching, may produce the radial distribution of dwarf spheroidals from the orbits seen within large cosmological simulations. We also find that the metallicity gradient within a dwarf is gradually erased through tidal interactions as stellar orbits move to higher radii. The model dwarfs also shift to higher $\\langle$[Fe/H]$\\rangle$/L ratios, but only when losing $>$$20...

  6. Two distinct sequences of blue straggler stars in the globular cluster M30

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Sills, A; Rood, R T; Pecci, F Fusi; Karakas, A I; Miocchi, P; Bovinelli, S; 10.1038/nature08607

    2010-01-01

    Stars in globular clusters are generally believed to have all formed at the same time, early in the Galaxy's history. 'Blue stragglers' are stars massive enough that they should have evolved into white dwarfs long ago. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed for their formation: mass transfer between binary companions and stellar mergers resulting from direct collisions between two stars. Recently, the binary explanation was claimed to be dominant. Here we report that there are two distinct parallel sequences of blue stragglers in M30. This globular cluster is thought to have undergone 'core collapse', during which both the collision rate and the mass transfer activity in binary systems would have been enhanced. We suggest that the two observed sequences arise from the cluster core collapse, with the bluer population arising from direct stellar collisions and the redder one arising from the evolution of close binaries that are probably still experiencing an active phase of mass transfer.

  7. The blue-collar brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  8. Compact Massive Object in Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Melo, I Tosta e

    2016-01-01

    The central regions of galaxies show the presence of super massive black holes and/or very dense stellar clusters. Both objects seem to follow similar host-galaxy correlations, suggesting that they are members of the same family of Compact Massive Objects. We investigate here a huge data collection of Compact Massive Objects properties to correlate them with absolute magnitude, velocity dispersion and mass of their host galaxies.

  9. A precision study of two eclipsing white dwarf plus M dwarf binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, S G; Gänsicke, B T; Rebassa-Mansergas, A; Dhillon, V S; Littlefair, S P; Copperwheat, C M; Hickman, R D G; Burleigh, M R; Kerry, P; Koester, D; Gómez-Morán, A Nebot; Pyrzas, S; Savoury, C D J; Schreiber, M R; Schmidtobreick, L; Schwope, A D; Steele, P R; Tappert, C

    2011-01-01

    We use a combination of X-shooter spectroscopy, ULTRACAM high-speed photometry and SOFI near-infrared photometry to measure the masses and radii of both components of the eclipsing post common envelope binaries SDSS J1212-0123 and GK Vir. For both systems we measure the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf and combine it with light curve model fits to determine the inclinations, masses and radii. For SDSS J1212-0123 we find a white dwarf mass and radius of 0.439 +/- 0.002 Msun and 0.0168 +/- 0.0003 Rsun, and a secondary star mass and radius of 0.273 +/- 0.002 Msun and 0.306 +/- 0.007 Rsun. For GK Vir we find a white dwarf mass and radius of 0.564 +/- 0.014 Msun and 0.0170 +/- 0.0004 Rsun, and a secondary star mass and radius of 0.116 +/- 0.003 Msun and 0.155 +/- 0.003 Rsun. The mass and radius of the white dwarf in GK Vir are consistent with evolutionary models for a 50,000K carbon-oxygen core white dwarf. Although the mass and radius of the white dwarf in SDSS J1212-0123 are consistent with carbon-oxyge...

  10. The "Living with a Red Dwarf" Program

    CERN Document Server

    Guinan, Edward F

    2009-01-01

    Red Dwarfs (main-sequence / dwarf M or dM) stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy. These cool, faint, low mass stars comprise over 75% of all stars. Because of their low luminosities (~0.0008-0.06 of the Sun's luminosity), the circumstellar habitable zones (HZs) of dM stars are located within ~0.05-0.4 AU of the host star. Nevertheless, the prospect of life on a planet located within the HZ of a red dwarf is moderately high, based on the longevity of these stars (>50 Gyr), their constant luminosities and high space densities. Here we describe the aims and early results of the "Living with a Red Dwarf" Program - a study of dM stars that we have been carrying out over the last few years. The primary focus of our research on dM stars is the study of their magnetic dynamos and resulting star spots & coronal X-ray and chromospheric UV emissions as a function of age, rotation and spectral type. This program will provide datasets that can be used as inputs for the study of all aspects of dM stars, along w...

  11. Star formation history in forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczik, P.; Kravchuk, S. G.

    The processes of formation and evolution of isolated dwarf galaxies over the Hubble timescale is followed by means of SPH techniques. As an initial protogalaxy perturbation we consider an isolated, uniform, solid -- body rotated sphere involved into the Hubble flow and made of dark and baryonic matter in a 10:1 ratio. The simulations are carried out for the set of models having spin parameters lambda in the range from 0.01 to 0.08 and the total mass of dark matter 1011 M_odot . Our model includes gasdynamics, radiative processes, star formation, supernova feedback and simplified chemistry. The application of modified star formation criterion which accounts for chaotic motions and the time lag between initial development of suitable conditions for star formation and star formation itself (Berczik P.P, Kravchuk S.G. 1997, Ap.Sp.Sci.) provides the realistic description of the process of galaxy formation and evolution. Two parameters: total mass and initial angular momentum of the dwarf protogalaxy play the crucial role in its star formation activity. After the 15 Gyr of the evolution the rapidly rotated dwarf galaxies manifest themselves as an extremly gasrich, heavy element deficient objects showing the initial burst of star formation activity in several spatially separated regions. Slowly rotating objects manifest themselves finally as typical evolved dwarf galaxies.

  12. A photometric study of DWARF novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalogue of UBVRI photoelectric photometry of dwarf novae available in the literature is presented. A comparison with theoretical colour-colour diagrams from steady state discs is made. A correlation of V magnitude with the depth of the Balmer discontinuity is discussed. (author)

  13. A dominant semi dwarf mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the winter of 1997, a semi dwarf mutant was found in the F6 population of M9056/ R8018 xuan in Hainan Province. In the spring of 1998, the seeds were sown in Hefei, Anhui Province and the plant height of the population was measured at maturity.

  14. On The Evolution of Magnetic White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Tremblay, P -E; Freytag, B; Steiner, O; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Wedemeyer, S; Brassard, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the first radiation magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the atmosphere of white dwarf stars. We demonstrate that convective energy transfer is seriously impeded by magnetic fields when the plasma-beta parameter, the thermal to magnetic pressure ratio, becomes smaller than unity. The critical field strength that inhibits convection in the photosphere of white dwarfs is in the range B = 1-50 kG, which is much smaller than the typical 1-1000 MG field strengths observed in magnetic white dwarfs, implying that these objects have radiative atmospheres. We have then employed evolutionary models to study the cooling process of high-field magnetic white dwarfs, where convection is entirely suppressed during the full evolution (B > 10 MG). We find that the inhibition of convection has no effect on cooling rates until the effective temperature (Teff) reaches a value of around 5500 K. In this regime, the standard convective sequences start to deviate from the ones without convection owing to the convective cou...

  15. The surprising inefficiency of dwarf satellite quenching

    CERN Document Server

    Wheeler, Coral; Cooper, Michael C; Boylan-Kolchin, Mike; Bullock, James S

    2014-01-01

    We study dwarf satellite galaxy quenching using observations from the Geha et al. (2012) NSA/SDSS catalog together with LCDM cosmological simulations to facilitate selection and interpretation. We show that fewer than 30% of dwarfs (M* ~ 10^8.5-10^9.5 Msun) identified as satellites within massive host halos (Mhost ~ 10^12.5-10^14 Msun) are quenched, in spite of the expectation from simulations that half of them should have been accreted more than 6 Gyr ago. We conclude that whatever the action triggering environmental quenching of dwarf satellites, the process must be highly inefficient. We investigate a series of simple, one-parameter quenching models in order understand what is required to explain the low quenched fraction and conclude that either the quenching timescale is very long (> 9.5 Gyr, a "slow starvation" scenario) or that the environmental trigger is not well matched to accretion within the virial volume. We discuss these results in light of the fact that most of the low mass dwarf satellites in ...

  16. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Soeren S

    2015-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies can have very high globular cluster specific frequencies, and the GCs are in general significantly more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars. In some dwarfs, such as Fornax, WLM, and IKN, the fraction of metal-poor stars that belong to GCs can be as high as 20%-25%, an order of magnitude higher than the 1%-2% typical of GCs in halos of larger galaxies. Given that chemical abundance anomalies appear to be present also in GCs in dwarf galaxies, this implies severe difficulties for self-enrichment scenarios that require GCs to have lost a large fraction of their initial masses. More generally, the number of metal-poor field stars in these galaxies is today less than what would originally have been present in the form of low-mass clusters if the initial cluster mass function was a power-law extending down to low masses. This may imply that the initial GC mass function in these dwarf galaxies was significantly more top-heavy than typically observed in present-day star forming environments.

  17. Cooling compact stars and phase transitions in dense QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedrakian, Armen [J.W. Goethe University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We report new simulations of cooling of compact stars containing quark cores and updated fits to the Cas A fast cooling data. Our model is built on the assumption that the transient behaviour of the star in Cas A is due to a phase transition within the dense QCD matter in the core of the star. Specifically, the fast cooling is attributed to an enhancement in the neutrino emission triggered by a transition from a fully gapped, two-flavor, red-green color-superconducting quark condensate to a superconducting crystalline or an alternative gapless, color-superconducting phase. The blue-colored condensate is modeled as a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type color superconductor with spin-one pairing order parameter. We study the sensitivity of the fits to the phase transition temperature, the pairing gap of blue quarks and the timescale characterizing the phase transition (the latter modelled in terms of a width parameter). Relative variations in these parameter around their best-fit values larger than 10{sup -3} spoil the fit to the data. We confirm the previous finding that the cooling curves show significant variations as a function of compact star mass, which allows one to account for dispersion in the data on the surface temperatures of thermally emitting neutron stars. (orig.)

  18. The AIMSS Project - III. The stellar populations of compact stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Joachim; Norris, Mark A.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Huxor, Avon; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Frank, Matthias J.; Escudero, Carlos G.; Faifer, Favio R.; Forte, Juan Carlos; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Maraston, Claudia; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Thompson, Bradley R.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, a growing zoo of compact stellar systems (CSSs) have been found whose physical properties (mass, size, velocity dispersion) place them between classical globular clusters (GCs) and true galaxies, leading to debates about their nature. Here we present results using a so far underutilized discriminant, their stellar population properties. Based on new spectroscopy from 8-10m telescopes, we derive ages, metallicities, and [α/Fe] of 29 CSSs. These range from GCs with sizes of merely a few parsec to compact ellipticals (cEs) larger than M32. Together with a literature compilation, this provides a panoramic view of the stellar population characteristics of early-type systems. We find that the CSSs are predominantly more metal rich than typical galaxies at the same stellar mass. At high mass, the cEs depart from the mass-metallicity relation of massive early-type galaxies, which forms a continuous sequence with dwarf galaxies. At lower mass, the metallicity distribution of ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs) changes at a few times 107 M⊙, which roughly coincides with the mass where luminosity function arguments previously suggested the GC population ends. The highest metallicities in CSSs are paralleled only by those of dwarf galaxy nuclei and the central parts of massive early types. These findings can be interpreted as CSSs previously being more massive and undergoing tidal interactions to obtain their current mass and compact size. Such an interpretation is supported by CSSs with direct evidence for tidal stripping, and by an examination of the CSS internal escape velocities.

  19. Peculiar compact stellar systems in the Fornax cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Carolin; Pasquali, Anna; Hilker, Michael; Grebel, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    We search for hints to the origin and nature of compact stellar systems in the magnitude range of ultracompact dwarf galaxies in deep wide-field imaging data of the Fornax cluster core. We visually investigate a large sample of 355 spectroscopically confirmed cluster members with V-band equivalent magnitudes brighter than -10 mag for faint extended structures. Our data reveal peculiar compact stellar systems, which appear asymmetric or elongated from their outer light distribution. We characterize the structure of our objects by quantifying their core concentration, as well as their outer asymmetry and ellipticity. For the brighter objects of our sample we also investigate their spatial and phase-space distribution within the cluster. We argue that the distorted outer structure alone that is seen for some of our objects, is not sufficient to decide whether these systems have a star cluster or a galaxy origin. However, we find that objects with low core concentration and high asymmetry (or high ellipticity) ar...

  20. Radiative Levitation in Hot White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayer, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.

    1994-12-01

    We present the results of detailed calculations of radiative levitation in hot white dwarfs using the extensive and homogeneous atomic data given in TOPBASE. Radiative accelerations and equilibrium abundances have been computed for C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe on grids of pure hydrogen and pure helium stellar envelope models. The DA model grid has log g = 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5, and spans the range of effective temperature 100,000 >= Teff >= 20,000 K in steps of 2,500 K. The DO/DB grid is similar but extends to Teff = 130,000 K. We discuss at some length the input physics used in order to provide a good physical understanding of radiative levitation under white dwarf conditions. We also discuss the depth dependence and the morphology of the reservoirs of levitating elements created by an equilibrium between the radiative acceleration and the local effective gravity in various stellar envelopes. The important role played in the morphology of the reservoirs by dominant ionization states in closed-shell electronic configurations is emphasized. Our central results are presented in the form of figures showing the behavior of the expected photospheric abundance of each element as a function of effective temperature and surface gravity. While only a handful of abundances are available from the few analyses of observations that have been carried out, we are nevertheless able to infer through a detailed comparison that equilibrium radiative levitation theory fails to explain the observed abundance patterns of heavy elements in hot white dwarfs. At least one other mechanism must be competing with radiative levitation and gravitational settling in the atmospheres/envelopes of hot white dwarfs. Finally, we indicate promising avenues for further progress in spectral evolution theory for white dwarfs. This work has been supported by NASA contract NAS5-30180.

  1. The Blue Revolution in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid; Jespersen, Karen Sau;

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...

  2. Liquid biofuels from blue biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Jensen, Annette Eva; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Marine (blue) biomasses, such as macroalgaes, represent a huge unexploited amount of biomass. With their various chemical compositions, macroalgaes can be a potential substrate for food, feed, biomaterials, pharmaceuticals, health care products and also for bioenergy. Algae use seawater as a growth...

  3. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  4. Blue Ocean vs. Five Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Burke (Andrew); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe article reports on the authors' research in the Netherlands which focused on a profit model in Dutch retail stores and a so-called blue-ocean approach which requires a new market that attracts consumers and increases profits. Topics include the competitive strategy approach to increa

  5. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian

    Nuclear reactions play a key role in the accretion disks and outflows associated with the merger of binary compact objects and the central engines of gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. The proposed research program will investigate the impact of nucleosynthesis on these events and their observable signatures by means of analytic calculations and numerical simulations. One focus of this research is rapid accretion following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a neutron star (NS) or black hole (BH) binary companion. Tidal disruption shreds the WD into a massive torus composed of C, O, and/or He, which undergoes nuclear reactions and burns to increasingly heavier elements as it flows to smaller radii towards the central compact object. The nuclear energy so released is comparable to that released gravitationally, suggesting that burning could drastically alter the structure and stability of the accretion flow. Axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of the torus including nuclear burning will be performed to explore issues such as the mass budget of the flow (accretion vs. outflows) and its thermal stability (steady burning and accretion vs. runaway explosion). The mass, velocity, and composition of outflows from the disk will be used in separate radiative transfer calculations to predict the lightcurves and spectra of the 56Ni-decay powered optical transients from WD-NS/WD-BH mergers. The possible connection of such events to recently discovered classes of sub-luminous Type I supernovae will be assessed. The coalescence of NS-NS/NS-BH binaries also results in the formation of a massive torus surrounding a central compact object. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of such accretion disks will be performed, which for the first time follow the effects of weak interactions and the nuclear energy released by Helium recombination. The nucleosynthetic yield of disk outflows will be calculated using a detailed

  6. Compact boson stars in K field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, C.; Grandi, N.; Klimas, P.; Sánchez-Guillén, J.; Wereszczyński, A.

    2010-11-01

    We study a scalar field theory with a non-standard kinetic term minimally coupled to gravity. We establish the existence of compact boson stars, that is, static solutions with compact support of the full system with self-gravitation taken into account. Concretely, there exist two types of solutions, namely compact balls on the one hand, and compact shells on the other hand. The compact balls have a naked singularity at the center. The inner boundary of the compact shells is singular, as well, but it is, at the same time, a Killing horizon. These singular, compact shells therefore resemble black holes.

  7. Compact boson stars in K field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, C; Klimas, P; Sánchez-Guillén, J; Wereszczynski, A

    2009-01-01

    We study a scalar field theory with a non-standard kinetic term minimally coupled to gravity. We establish the existence of compact boson stars, that is, static solutions with compact support of the full system with self-gravitation taken into account. Concretely, there exist two types of solutions, namely compact balls on the one hand, and compact shells on the other hand. The compact balls have a naked singularity at the center. The inner boundary of the compact shells is singular, as well, but it is, at the same time, a Killing horizon. These singular, compact shells therefore resemble black holes.

  8. Anomalous Blue Colors in Extremely Isolated Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Highly isolated systems provide a baseline for assessing the role of interactions within galaxy evolution. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 1 - 5 to identify extremely isolated early-type galaxies (IEGs) in the nearby universe. Redshifts derived from the SDSS spectra permit a robust three-dimensional assessment of the local environment surrounding candidate IEGs. Isolated galaxies are chosen utilizing a projected physical separation of 2.5 Mpc from any neighboring non-dwarf galaxy brighter than M$_{V}$ = $-$16.5. A minimum redshift separation of 350 km s$^{-1}$ between a candidate galaxy and a neighboring was imposed to further insure the candidate's isolation. The IEG sample contains 33 galaxies that exhibit a number of unexpected features. Through the use of a bulge/disk decomposition technique using standard surface photometry, brightness profiles and model-subtracted images were created. Radial profiles of eccentricity, position angle, and surface brightness were employed with the model images to constrain the merger and interaction histories of the IEGs. The presence of shell and fan structures, signatures of recent mergers, were detected in approximately 12% of the sample. Dominant features of the IEG sample are blue colors and active star formation, atypical of normal early-type galaxies. The IEGs would require a substantial reservoir of neutral gas to fuel the levels of on-going star formation observed. We speculate that some of the IEGs may be the remains of a coalesced group of gas-rich dwarf galaxies. Three sample galaxies have red colors and undisturbed morphologies expected of a pristine isolated early-type galaxy formed early in cosmic time. We acknowledge support from NASA's Astrophysical Data Program; grant #NNG05C53G, the GALEX Guest Investigator program, and a Texas Space Grant Consortium Fellowship.

  9. Co-compact Gabor Systems on Locally Compact Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    characterization results via the Zak transform. From these results we derive non-existence results for critically sampled continuous Gabor frames. We obtain general characterizations in time and in frequency domain of when two Gabor generators yield dual frames. Moreover, we prove the Walnut and Janssen......-compact subgroups. Our results only rely on the assumption that either one of the translation and modulation group (in some cases both) are co-compact subgroups of the time and frequency domain. This presentation offers a unified approach to the study of continuous and the discrete Gabor frames....

  10. Viral RNAs are unusually compact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaykumar Gopal

    Full Text Available A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly.

  11. Flavour production of Stilton blue cheese microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    In the blue cheese Stilton the starter mould Penicillium roqueforti grows and sporulates during the ripening period and is considered to be responsible for the unique blue cheese aroma. However, the sporulation of the mould, which results in the formation of blue veins, takes place in a fraction of the Stilton matrix which overall is very heterogeneous. Most blue cheeses develop a secondary microflora of yeasts which may affect their aroma. The aim of this study was to investigate the yeast f...

  12. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations......, an operational perspective discussing the composition and impact of its participants, as well as a governance perspective discussing the constraints and opportunities of the initiative as an institutionalized arena for addressing global governance gaps. The authors contrast these three perspectives and identify...... key empirical as well as conceptual scholarly contributions. The remainder of this article contains focused summaries of the articles selected for this Special Issue. All articles are introduced and evaluated against the background of the three research perspectives....

  13. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  14. All-solid-state narrow-linewidth 455-nm blue laser based on Ti: sapphire crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shankui Rong; Xiaolei Zhu; Weibiao Chen

    2009-01-01

    A compact, all-solid-state, narrow-linewidth, pulsed 455-nm blue laser based on Ti:sapphire crystal is developed. Pumped by a 10-Hz, frequency-doubled all-solid-state Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded by an external cavity laser diode, the narrow-linewidth 910-nm laser with pulse width of 20 ns is obtained from a Tirsapphire laser. 3.43-mJ blue laser can be obtained from the laser system by frequency-doubling with BBO crystal. This research is very useful to determine the roadmap of developing the practical, high power blue laser. This kind of laser will have potential application for underwater communication.

  15. OGLE-2014-BLG-0257L: A Microlensing Brown Dwarf Orbiting a Low-mass M Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Han, C; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Bozza, V; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Poleski, R; Kozłowski, S; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the discovery of a binary composed of a brown dwarf and a low-mass M dwarf from the observation of the microlensing event OGLE-2014-BLG-0257. Resolution of the very short-lasting caustic crossing combined with the detection of subtle continuous deviation in the lensing light curve induced by the Earth's orbital motion enable us to precisely measure both the Einstein radius \\theta_E and the lens parallax pi_E, which are the two quantities needed to unambiguously determine the mass and distance to the lens. It is found that the companion is a substellar brown dwarf with a mass 0.036 +/- 0.005 Msun (37.7 +/- 5.2\\ M_J) and it is orbiting an M dwarf with a mass 0.19 +/- 0.02 Msun. The binary is located at a distance 1.25 +/- 0.13 kpc toward the Galactic bulge and the projected separation between the binary components is 0.61 +/- 0.07 AU. The separation scaled by the mass of the host is 3.2 AU/Msun. Under the assumption that separations scale with masses, then, the discovered brown dwarf is...

  16. Binarity in Brown Dwarfs T Dwarf Binaries Discovered with the Hubble Space Telescope WPFC2

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, A J; Reid, I N; Brown, M E; Miskey, C L; Gizis, J E; Burgasser, Adam J.; Brown, Michael E.; Miskey, Cherie L.; Gizis, John E.

    2003-01-01

    (abridged) We present the discovery of two T dwarf binaries, 2MASS 1225-2739AB and 2MASS 1534-2952AB, identified in a sample of ten T dwarfs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The separations of the two binary systems are 0{\\farcs}282$\\pm$0{\\farcs}005 and 0{\\farcs}065$\\pm$0{\\farcs}007, implying projected separations of 3.17$\\pm$0.14 and 1.0$\\pm$0.3 AU, respectively. The observed binary fraction of our HST sample, 20$^{+17}_{-7}$%, is consistent with results obtained for late-M and L field dwarfs, and implies a bias-corrected binary fraction of 9$^{+15}_{-4}$% for $a \\gtrsim 1$ AU and $q \\gtrsim 0.4$, significantly lower than the binary fractions of F--G and early-type M dwarf stars. Neither of the T binaries have separations $a \\gtrsim 10$ AU, consistent with results from other brown dwarf binary searches. We conclude that tidal disruption by passing stars or Giant Molecular Clouds, which limits the extent of wide stellar binaries, plays no role in eliminating wide brown dwa...

  17. The contribution of red dwarfs and white dwarfs to the halo dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, S; Isern, J; García-Berro, E

    2008-01-01

    The nature of the several microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the LMC still remains controversial. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than ~1 M_{sun} have been ruled out as major components of a MACHO galactic halo, while stars of half solar masses are the most probable candidates. In this paper we assess jointly the relative contributions of both red dwarfs and white dwarfs to the mass budget of the galactic halo. In doing so we use a Monte Carlo simulator which incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of both red dwarfs and white dwarfs as well as detailed descriptions of our Galaxy and of the LMC. We explore the complete mass range between 0.08 and 1 M_{sun} as possible microlensing candidates and we compare the synthetic populations obtained with our simulator with the results obtained by the MACHO and EROS experiments. Our results indicate that, despite that the contribution of the red dwarf population increases by a factor of 2 the value of the optical dept...

  18. Local Volume TiNy Titans: Gaseous Dwarf-Dwarf Interactions in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Pearson, Sarah; Putman, Mary E; Lutz, Katharina A; Fernandez, Ximena; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Patton, David R; Kim, Jinhyub; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Johnson, Kelsey; Sung, Eon-Chang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Local Volume TiNy Titans sample (LV-TNT), which is a part of a larger body of work on interacting dwarf galaxies: TNT (Stierwalt et al. 2015). This LV-TNT sample consists of 10 dwarf galaxy pairs in the Local Universe (< 30 Mpc from Milky Way), which span mass ratios of M_(*,1)/M_(*,2) < 20, projected separations < 100 kpc, and pair member masses of log(M_*/M_Sun) < 9.9. All 10 LV-TNT pairs have resolved synthesis maps of their neutral hydrogen, are located in a range of environments and captured at various interaction stages. This enables us to do a comparative study of the diffuse gas in dwarf-dwarf interactions and disentangle the gas lost due to interactions with halos of massive galaxies, from the gas lost due to mutual interaction between the dwarfs. We find that the neutral gas is extended in the interacting pairs when compared to non-paired analogs, indicating that gas is tidally pre-processed. Additionally, we find that the environment can shape the HI dist...

  19. A Survey for H-alpha Emission from Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, J Sebastian; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Cotter, Garret; Kao, Melodie M; Mooley, Kunal

    2016-01-01

    Recently, studies of brown dwarfs have demonstrated that they possess strong magnetic fields and have the potential to produce radio and optical auroral emissions powered by magnetospheric currents. This emission provides the only window on magnetic fields in the coolest brown dwarfs and identifying additional benchmark objects is key to constraining dynamo theory in this regime. To this end, we conducted a new red optical (6300 - 9700 Angstrom) survey with the Keck telescopes looking for H-alpha emission from a sample of late L dwarfs and T dwarfs. Our survey gathered optical spectra for 29 targets, 18 of which did not have previous optical spectra in the literature, greatly expanding the number of moderate resolution (R~2000) spectra available at these spectral types. Combining our sample with previous surveys, we confirm an H-alpha detection rate of 9.2 (+3.5/-2.1) % for L and T dwarfs in the optical spectral range of L4 - T8. This detection rate is consistent with the recently measured detection rate for ...

  20. Tidal Stirring of Disky Dwarfs with Shallow Dark Matter Density Profiles: Enhanced Transformation into Dwarf Spheroidals

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Mayer, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) The origin of dSphs in the Local Group (LG) remains an enigma. The tidal stirring model posits that late-type, rotationally-supported dwarfs resembling present-day dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies can transform into dSphs via interactions with Milky Way-sized hosts. Using collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate for the first time how tidal stirring depends on the dark matter (DM) density distribution in the central stellar region of the progenitor disky dwarf. Specifically, we explore various asymptotic inner slopes gamma of the dwarf DM density profiles (rho \\propto r^{-gamma} as r -> 0). For a given orbit inside the primary, rotationally-supported dwarfs embedded in DM halos with core-like density distributions (gamma = 0.2) and mild density cusps (gamma = 0.6) demonstrate a substantially enhanced likelihood and efficiency of transformation into dSphs compared to their counterparts with steeper DM density profiles (gamma = 1). Such shallow DM distributions are akin to those of observed dI...