Sample records for blowout preventers

  1. Blowout preventer; Utblaasningssikring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askeland, R.; Larsen, V.


    the invention relates to a blowout preventer particularly for use in drilling bore hole sections near the sea bed. It is adapted to prevent blowout of shallow gas in the bore hole. It consists of one annular flexibly expansible and contractible packing element, which by radially directed expansion is adapted to rest in a sealed condition against the wall of the bore hole and close the passage through the annular space of the same. The preventer comprises an inner sleeve element being limited telescopic displaceable in relation to the outer housing of the preventer and being spring loaded towards extended telescopic position when it is subjected to extra weight loading, and means which in the relative contracted telescopic position of the sleeve element and outer housing is adapted to close the passage through the inner cavity of the blowout preventer and established liquid connection to the packing element or elements for inflation thereof. 13 figs.

  2. A blowout preventer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' yev, N.I.; Khayrullin, B.Yu.; Nomin, V.I.; Ukdov, I.A.


    A blowout preventer is proposed which contains a body, blocks with rods, tops, hydraulic cylinders, spindles linked with the rods of the hydraulic cylinders and with the blocks which are installed in spindle stops and locking devices. To ensure the capability of backing up the hydraulic drive with a manual drive when using the preventer with traverse linked hydraulic cylinders installed on the body parallel to the axis of movement of the blocks, the spindles are linked with the rods of the blocks by a telescopic helical connection, are connected with the traverses with the capability of turning and are made with beads for interacting with the traverses when the preventer is closed. The stops are equal in length to the travel of the block for locking the spindles during opening of the preventer.

  3. 30 CFR 250.515 - Blowout prevention equipment. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blowout prevention equipment. 250.515 Section 250.515 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS... Blowout prevention equipment. (a) The BOP system and system components and related well-control...

  4. Emergency operation of a subsea drilling blowout preventer


    Kozel, Kiryl


    The world-scale disaster in the Gulf of Mexico on 20 April 2011 drew the attention of the authorities and oil and gas companies to the reliability of the blowout preventer systems. The efficiency of emergency preparedness to operate such systems was also in the spotlight due to several unsuccessful attempts to operate during the accident. Generally, there are three main methods and five sub-methods, which allow controlling the blowout preventer systems when the primary control system is not a...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1624 - Blowout prevention equipment. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blowout prevention equipment. 250.1624 Section 250.1624 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND... prevention equipment. (a) The BOP system and system components and related well-control equipment shall...

  6. Development of an automatic subsea blowout preventer stack control system using PLC based SCADA. (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen


    An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface.

  7. 30 CFR 250.516 - Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blowout preventer system tests, inspections, and maintenance. 250.516 Section 250.516 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and...

  8. 30 CFR 250.616 - Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blowout preventer system testing, records, and drills. 250.616 Section 250.616 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas...

  9. Availability analysis of subsea blowout preventer using Markov model considering demand rate (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Chung, Soyeon; Yang, Youngsoon


    Availabilities of subsea Blowout Preventers (BOP) in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (GoM OCS) is investigated using a Markov method. An updated β factor model by SINTEF is used for common-cause failures in multiple redundant systems. Coefficient values of failure rates for the Markov model are derived using the β factor model of the PDS (reliability of computer-based safety systems, Norwegian acronym) method. The blind shear ram preventer system of the subsea BOP components considers a demand rate to reflect reality more. Markov models considering the demand rate for one or two components are introduced. Two data sets are compared at the GoM OCS. The results show that three or four pipe ram preventers give similar availabilities, but redundant blind shear ram preventers or annular preventers enhance the availability of the subsea BOP. Also control systems (PODs) and connectors are contributable components to improve the availability of the subsea BOPs based on sensitivity analysis.

  10. Availability analysis of subsea blowout preventer using Markov model considering demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghee


    Full Text Available Availabilities of subsea Blowout Preventers (BOP in the Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (GoM OCS is investigated using a Markov method. An updated β factor model by SINTEF is used for common-cause failures in multiple redundant systems. Coefficient values of failure rates for the Markov model are derived using the β factor model of the PDS (reliability of computer-based safety systems, Norwegian acronym method. The blind shear ram preventer system of the subsea BOP components considers a demand rate to reflect reality more. Markov models considering the demand rate for one or two components are introduced. Two data sets are compared at the GoM OCS. The results show that three or four pipe ram preventers give similar availabilities, but redundant blind shear ram preventers or annular preventers enhance the availability of the subsea BOP. Also control systems (PODs and connectors are contributable components to improve the availability of the subsea BOPs based on sensitivity analysis.

  11. Application of Bayesian networks in quantitative risk assessment of subsea blowout preventer operations. (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen; Ji, Renjie


    This article proposes a methodology for the application of Bayesian networks in conducting quantitative risk assessment of operations in offshore oil and gas industry. The method involves translating a flow chart of operations into the Bayesian network directly. The proposed methodology consists of five steps. First, the flow chart is translated into a Bayesian network. Second, the influencing factors of the network nodes are classified. Third, the Bayesian network for each factor is established. Fourth, the entire Bayesian network model is established. Lastly, the Bayesian network model is analyzed. Subsequently, five categories of influencing factors, namely, human, hardware, software, mechanical, and hydraulic, are modeled and then added to the main Bayesian network. The methodology is demonstrated through the evaluation of a case study that shows the probability of failure on demand in closing subsea ram blowout preventer operations. The results show that mechanical and hydraulic factors have the most important effects on operation safety. Software and hardware factors have almost no influence, whereas human factors are in between. The results of the sensitivity analysis agree with the findings of the quantitative analysis. The three-axiom-based analysis partially validates the correctness and rationality of the proposed Bayesian network model.

  12. Control of an innovative super-capacitor-powered shape-memory-alloy actuated accumulator for blowout preventer (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Li, Peng; Song, Gangbing; Ren, Zhang


    The design of a super-capacitor-powered shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuated accumulator for blowout preventer (BOP) presented in this paper featured several advantages over conventional hydraulic accumulators including instant large current drive, quick system response and elimination of need for the pressure conduits. However, the mechanical design introduced two challenges, the nonlinear nature of SMA actuators and the varying voltage provided by a super capacitor, for control system design. A cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) feedforward plus PID controller was developed with the aim of compensation for these adverse effects. Experiments were conducted on a scaled down model and experimental results show that precision control can be achieved with the proposed configurations and algorithms.

  13. Simulation of hydraulic control system of deepwater subsea blowout preventer stacks%深水防喷器组液压控制系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛斐; 郭宏; 李博; 许征


    井喷是海洋石油安全钻探生产的重要威胁,人为操作失误或元器件失效都可能导致井喷。防喷器组(BOP)安装在水下井口头,是控制井喷的核心部件,一旦发生井喷,BOP控制系统驱动阀门关闭井口,保证油井的安全。研究了深水防喷器组包括其液压控制系统的功能,在系统仿真软件SimulationX中建立防喷器组的详细模型,包括环形防喷器和闸板防喷器及防喷器组的液压控制系统。仿真分析了1524 m水深下防喷器在不同操作顺序下的封井过程,验证了BOP阀门关闭所用时间符合API规范要求,仿真结果与平台实测数据基本吻合。%The oil and gas industry has been constantly affected by numerous blowouts since it was evolved.Blowout which is caused mainly by kick,leads to loss of valuable reserves and also causes property damage along with loss of life.Subsea blowout preventer (BOP)stack is the key equipment which ensures the safety of wel bore operation.Once the blowout occurs,the control system of BOP wil actuate the corresponding valve and close the preventer within a spec-ified time.This paper investigated the dynamic behavior of hydraulic control system of deepwater subsea BOP stacks.Mathematic simulation models of the ram and annular preventers are estab-lished by using SimulationX software.Different cases are studied to verify whether it is appropri-ate to be operated according to API requirements at the water depth of 1 524 m.

  14. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P.


    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  15. Blowouts are key to the survival of blowout penstemon (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This newspaper article summarizes ongoing conservation and management of blowout penstemon on federal land. The occurrence of this unique plant has never been...

  16. Sandy grassland blowouts in Hulunbuir,northeast China:geomorphology,distribution,and causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Altan MunkhDalai; FENG Zongwei; WANG Xiaoke; SUN Hongwei; ZHAO Jiaming; U Hurlee


    A sandy grassland blowout consists of an aeolian depression formed in top soil and the underlying sand deposit underlie,and the adjoining redeposit of sand derived from the depression. Research based on field survey and topographic mapping combined with aerophotograph interpretation reveals that: (1) All the three sand land tracts in Hulunbuir Grasslands are composed of blowout depressions and adjoining dunes, with interlaying remnants of sandy grasslands as background; (2) blowout depressions and their adjoining dunes can be classified according to their morphometric characteristics, development stages, and initiating factors; (3) blowouts develop mostly in the upper parts of sidelong aweather and sunward slopes inclining southwestward when west wind prevails; (4) initiation of blowouts is closely related with the coupling of extreme droughts and wide spread intense human disturbance to the fragile topsoil layer. The investigations indicate that key factors to prevent desertification are to protect grassland vegetation and topsoil.

  17. Blowout bifurcation of chaotic saddles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Kapitaniak


    Full Text Available Chaotic saddles are nonattracting dynamical invariant sets that can lead to a variety of physical phenomena. We describe the blowout bifurcation of chaotic saddles located in the symmetric invariant manifold of coupled systems and discuss dynamical phenomena associated with this bifurcation.

  18. Research on reliability of subsea blowout preventer based on Markov method%基于马尔可夫方法的水下防喷器可靠性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛鲁宁; 樊建春; 张来斌


    水下防喷器是保障海上钻井安全的关键设备,对其可靠性进行定量评价对井控作业有重要的指导意义.为了弥补现有水下防喷器可靠性评价方法的不足,将水下防喷器的工作状态分为四种,包括无故障可用、关井、井控关键失效及关井时失效.利用Markov方法建立了水下防喷器的Markov模型.通过水下防喷器系统的状态转换图找出了各工作状态的转换关系.通过分析墨西哥湾83口深水井水下防喷器的失效数据,定义了影响水下防喷器可靠性的井控关键失效,并对深水钻井水下防喷器防喷功能的可靠性进行了定量计算.将计算结果与不考虑关井期间的井控关键失效相比较发现,防喷器的防喷失效概率增加了65%.因此传统的定量评价方法可能会得出相对乐观的结论,应在实际生产中给予重视.%Subsea blowout preventer (BOP) is the crucial equipment to ensure offshore drilling safety. Quantitative assessment for its reliability is very meaningful to instruct field well control practice. To cover the limitations of existing reliability assessment methods for subsea BOP system, working states of subsea BOP system were divided into four, which included available with no failure, closed with no failure, failed with no demand, and failed when demanded. Markov model of subsea BOP was built based on Markov method. Markov transition program was presented to find out the transition relationships of the four working states. After analyzing failure statistics of subsea drilling BOP systems installed on 83 deepwater wells in Gulf of Mexico, the definition of well control critical failure for subsea BOP system was defined. Based on the statistics of well control critical failures, reliability of deepwater drilling BOP to prevent blowout was assessed quantitatively. Compared to the result which ignores failures after BOP closed, blowout prevention failure occurrence of subsea BOP system increased

  19. Experimental Research of the Acoustic Emission(AE) Characteristics during the Tensile Process of the Shell Material of Blowout Preventer%防喷器壳体材料拉伸过程的声发射特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊茹; 戴光; 姚鸿滨


    In this paper, the tensile damage process of the shell material ZG25GrNiMo of blowout preventer were researched using acoustic emission technique. Analyzed the acoustic emission characteristics in different damage phases of this material were analyzed using parameter analysis and waveform analysis. The result indicated that the acoustic emission characteristics were different in yielding, plastic distortion and rupture process. The differences of frequency spectrums of different damage modes were evident.%采用声发射技术研究了防喷器主壳体材料ZG25GrNiMo的拉伸破坏过程。运用声发射参数分析方法分析了该材料在不同破坏阶段的声发射特性。分析结果表明,在材料屈服、塑性变形及断裂过程中的声发射特性具有明显的不同,且不同损伤模式的信号频谱存在明显的差异。

  20. Development of Deep-water Simulation Experimental Device for Subsea Blowout Preventer Stack Control System%水下防喷器组控制系统深水模拟试验装置研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾和元; 侯国庆; 郭雪; 刘立兵


    Reliability of blowout preventer stack control system is highly concerned in subsea oil drilling industry all the time.The subsea stimulation test device for BOP control system and its valves function and reliability was designed and developed,which covers big high pressure cabin used in 3 000 meters deep water for original prototype,and small high pressure cabin used in 4 200 meters deep water for solenoid and deep water function and life test.The design principle of hydraulic system,electricity control system,subsea monitor system is introduced.The test result shows that the test device can meet the requirement for the subsea BOP stack in deep water.%防喷器组控制系统在深水环境的工作可靠性一直是海洋钻井业高度关注的问题.研制了用于水下防喷器组控制系统及其阀件功能测试和可靠性研究的深水模拟试验装置,包括模拟3 000m水深的大型高压舱,用于控制系统原理样机的深水模拟试验;模拟4 200 m水深的小型高压舱,用于深水电磁阀和深水液压阀的深水功能试验和寿命试验.介绍了该试验装置的液控系统、电控系统、水下监控系统的设计原理.试验结果表明:该试验装置能够满足深水防喷器组控制系统的测试要求.

  1. Retrobulbar Hematoma in Blow-Out Fracture after Open Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Seon Cheon


    Full Text Available Retrobulbar hemorrhage, especially when associated with visual loss, is a rare but significant complication after facial bone reconstruction. In this article, two cases of retrobulbar hematoma after surgical repair of blow-out fracture are reported. In one patient, permanent loss of vision was involved, but with the other patient, we were able to prevent this by performing immediate decompression after definite diagnosis. We present our clinical experience with regard to the treatment process and method for prevention of retrobulbar hematoma using a scalp vein set tube and a negative pressure drainage system.

  2. Evaluation of the Customer Satisfaction Index for Wellhead Blowout Preventers of China's Petroleum Industry--A new method based on PLS%中国石油井口防喷器用户满意指数测评 --基于偏最小二乘法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 胡启国; 韩侠; 张斌


    This paper establishes an evaluation model of the customer satisfaction index for the wellhead blowout preventers of China's petroleum industry based on evaluation models of the customer satisfaction index at home and aboard, and by considering the consuming situation in China and the features of the China's petroleum industry. For the existence of: (1) multiple correlations among the factors in the model; (2) the variables need to be explained, but that are hard to observe; (3) the customer satisfaction degree of observation variables appears the shape of skewness or two or three peaks, the correlations between the satisfaction index and its factors cannot be described by common multiple regression. This paper uses a partial least squares (PLS) method based on principal components and typical correlative analysis to solve the problem. When PLS is used in the model of the customer satisfaction index of the wellhead blowout preventers, the latent variables and the explanation degree coefficient of the manifest variable to the corresponding latent variables are estimated by PLS path analysis, and the influencing coefficient among the latent variables in the model is estimated by PLS regression analysis. PLS is also be used to calculate and analyze the model and disclose the correlations among the structural variables as well as the correlation between structural variables and its corresponding observation variables, evaluating results of which provide useful information for petroleum industry to improve the product quality and to the enhancement of the customer satisfaction to the product.

  3. 16 CFR 1507.6 - Burnout and blowout. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burnout and blowout. 1507.6 Section 1507.6... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.6 Burnout and blowout. The pyrotechnic chamber in fireworks devices shall be constructed in a manner to allow functioning in a normal manner without burnout or blowout....

  4. Surgical Timing of the Orbital "Blowout" Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Olaf Ehlers; Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius;


    OBJECTIVE: The orbital blowout fracture is a common facial injury, carrying with it a risk of visual impairment and undesirable cosmetic results unless treated properly. Optimal timing of the surgical treatment is still a matter of debate. We set out to determine whether a meta-analysis would bring...... us closer to an answer to this question. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched from January 1980 to August 2014. We applied the following inclusion criteria: isolated blowout fractures, presenting early and late surgery groups (14 days...

  5. Gas Well Blowout Kills 243 People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ At least 243 people have been killed and scores of others poisoned in a devastating blowout at a natural gas field in Southwest China's Chongqing municipality on December 24. The accident happened at the Chuandongbei gas field in Kaixian county of Chongqing municipality.

  6. Gastric blow-out: komplikation efter fedmekirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrens, Ayoe Sabrina; Born, Pernille Wolder; Naver, Lars


    Laparoscopic gastric bypass is the most common type of surgery for morbid obesity in Denmark. The most frequent late complications after gastric bypass are ulcer, internal hernia and stenosis. Two cases of stenosis of the bileopancreatic limb with gastric blow-out are described. Urgent diagnosis...... with computed tomography and acute surgical treatment is vital as the complication can lead to gastric necrosis, pancreatitis, biliary stasis, sepsis and multi-organ failure within a very short time. Prompt contact to specialized surgeons is advocated. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Nov...

  7. CT findings of orbital blow-out fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Yeol; Park, Jun Kyun; Lim, Woo Young; Rho, Kwang Suk; Ko, Yong Suk; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee [Chosun Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine


    To evaluate the usefulness and radiologic findings of CT in the diagnosis of orbital blow-out fracture. Forty-four patients with orbital blow-out fractures diagnosed by clinical findings and CT were evaluated retrospectively. On CT images, we evaluated the site and frequency of fracture, herniation of orbital fat, extraocular muscle abnormality, intraorbital hematoma, and intrasinus hemorrhage. CT is a useful diagnostic modality for the evaluation of orbital blow-out fracture and associated soft tissue abnormalities. (author). 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Determination of blowout pressures during electron beam welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunwoo, A


    During electron beam (EB) welding of developmental units, weld blowouts occurred. It is well documented that the presence of moisture causes the weld blowout. The detrimental effects of water vapor on the weld are experimentally proven [l]. The availability of water vapor in the melt increases the onset and severity of blowout and porosity. Because water vapor is insoluble in the molten metal, it will consequently form either bubbles or boil. On the other hand, hydrogen will react with other impurities present in the melt to form insoluble gas bubbles, which most likely will be entrapped in the fusion zone as porosity. This study attempts to answer the question of what is the critical weld blowout pressure, and to compare the experimental results to the estimated pressure values, so that validated calculations could be extended to other weld configurations.

  9. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of LANL Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Jason P. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  10. Impending Carotid Blowout Stabilization Using an LT-D Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Desuter


    Full Text Available Adequate stabilization of a patient presenting with a carotid blowout is one of the most challenging issues an on-call ENT surgeon can be confronted with. Reducing the bleeding and securing the airway are essential before more definitive management. We present the case of a 72-year-old patient with head and neck cancer who arrived at the emergency room with a carotid blowout and who was successfully stabilized using a King LT-D ventilation tube.

  11. Natural marine seepage blowout: Contribution to atmospheric methane



    The release of methane sequestered within deep-sea methane hydrates is postulated as a mechanism for abrupt climate change; however, whether emitted seabed methane reaches the atmosphere is debatable. We observed methane emissions for a blowout from a shallow (22 m) hydrocarbon seep. The emission from the blowout was determined from atmospheric plume measurements. Simulations suggest a 1.1% gas loss to dissolution compared to ∼ 10% loss for a typical low-flux bubble plume. Transfer to the atm...

  12. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.


    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  13. Stability Control of Vehicle Emergency Braking with Tire Blowout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Chen


    Full Text Available For the stability control and slowing down the vehicle to a safe speed after tire failure, an emergency automatic braking system with independent intellectual property is developed. After the system has received a signal of tire blowout, the automatic braking mode of the vehicle is determined according to the position of the failure tire and the motion state of vehicle, and a control strategy for resisting tire blowout additional yaw torque and deceleration is designed to slow down vehicle to a safe speed in an expected trajectory. The simulating test system is also designed, and the testing results show that the vehicle can be quickly stabilized and kept in the original track after tire blowout with the emergency braking system described in the paper.

  14. 30 CFR 250.615 - Blowout prevention equipment. (United States)


    ... secondary source of pneumatic supply, must be equipped with manual overrides, or alternately, other devices... first full-opening valve on the choke line and the kill line. (f) The minimum BOP-system components...

  15. Effects of Various Blowout Panel Configurations on the Structural Response of Los Alamos National Laboratory Building 16-340 to Internal Explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Jason P. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)


    The risk of accidental detonation is present whenever any type of high explosives processing activity is performed. These activities are typically carried out indoors to protect processing equipment from the weather and to hide possibly secret processes from view. Often, highly strengthened reinforced concrete buildings are employed to house these activities. These buildings may incorporate several design features, including the use of lightweight frangible blowout panels, to help mitigate blast effects. These panels are used to construct walls that are durable enough to withstand the weather, but are of minimal weight to provide overpressure relief by quickly moving outwards and creating a vent area during an accidental explosion. In this study the behavior of blowout panels under various blast loading conditions was examined. External loadings from explosions occurring in nearby rooms were of primary interest. Several reinforcement systems were designed to help blowout panels resist failure from external blast loads while still allowing them to function as vents when subjected to internal explosions. The reinforcements were studied using two analytical techniques, yield-line analysis and modal analysis, and the hydrocode AUTODYN. A blowout panel reinforcement design was created that could prevent panels from being blown inward by external explosions. This design was found to increase the internal loading of the building by 20%, as compared with nonreinforced panels. Nonreinforced panels were found to increase the structural loads by 80% when compared to an open wall at the panel location.

  16. Bow-tie model for offshore drilling blowout accident%海上钻井井喷事故的蝴蝶结模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛鲁宁; 樊建春; 张来斌


    blowout prevention and control or mitigation measures. Finally, by applying the Deepwater Horizon blowout accident into this model, its effectiveness on analyzing offshore drilling blowout accident was verified.

  17. On the ongoing multiple blowout in NGC 604

    CERN Document Server

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Pérez, E; Maíz-Appelániz, J; Medina-Tanco, G A


    Several facts regarding the structure of NGC 604 are examined here. The three main cavities, produced by the mechanical energy from massive stars which in NGC 604 are spread over a volume of 10$^6$ pc$^3$, are shown here to be undergoing blowout into the halo of M33. High resolution long slit spectroscopy is used to track the impact from massive stars while HST archive data is used to display the asymmetry of the nebula. NGC 604 is found to be a collection of photoionized filaments and sections of shells in direct contact with the thermalized matter ejected by massive stars. The multiple blowout events presently drain the energy injected by massive stars and thus the densest photoionized gas is found almost at rest and is expected to suffer a slow evolution.

  18. Carotid artery blowout producing massive hematemesis in the emergency department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harrison K Borno; Richard J Menendez; John C Chaloupka; Michael T Dalley; David A Farcy


    Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) is a rare and fatal complication which arises from patients who have been treated for head and neck cancer. The incidence of CBS is rare and not commonly seen by emergency physicians. We review a case of a 68-year-old woman with a history of laryngectomy and chemo-radiation therapy presenting with massive oral bleeding and hypotension. Her course and treatments are highlighted, literature referring to CBS are described and we reintroduce the approach of managing such a patient in the emergency department.

  19. Carotid artery blowout producing massive hematemesis in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison K. Borno


    Full Text Available Carotid blowout syndrome (CBS is a rare and fatal complication which arises from patients who have been treated for head and neck cancer. The incidence of CBS is rare and not commonly seen by emergency physicians. We review a case of a 68-year-old woman with a history of laryngectomy and chemo-radiation therapy presenting with massive oral bleeding and hypotension. Her course and treatments are highlighted, literature referring to CBS are described and we reintroduce the approach of managing such a patient in the emergency department.

  20. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture (United States)

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin


    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  1. Interaction of hydraulic and buckling mechanisms in blowout fractures. (United States)

    Nagasao, Tomohisa; Miyamoto, Junpei; Jiang, Hua; Tamaki, Tamotsu; Kaneko, Tsuyoshi


    The etiology of blowout fractures is generally attributed to 2 mechanisms--increase in the pressure of the orbital contents (the hydraulic mechanism) and direct transmission of impacts on the orbital walls (the buckling mechanism). The present study aims to elucidate whether or not an interaction exists between these 2 mechanisms. We performed a simulation experiment using 10 Computer-Aided-Design skull models. We applied destructive energy to the orbits of the 10 models in 3 different ways. First, to simulate pure hydraulic mechanism, energy was applied solely on the internal walls of the orbit. Second, to simulate pure buckling mechanism, energy was applied solely on the inferior rim of the orbit. Third, to simulate the combined effect of the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms, energy was applied both on the internal wall of the orbit and inferior rim of the orbit. After applying the energy, we calculated the areas of the regions where fracture occurred in the models. Thereafter, we compared the areas among the 3 energy application patterns. When the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms work simultaneously, fracture occurs on wider areas of the orbital walls than when each of these mechanisms works separately. The hydraulic and buckling mechanisms interact, enhancing each other's effect. This information should be taken into consideration when we examine patients in whom blowout fracture is suspected.

  2. Meso-scale aeolian transport of beach sediment via dune blowout pathways within a linear foredune (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Nicholas; Delgado-Fernandez, Irene; Jackson, Derek; Aplin, Paul; Marston, Christopher


    The evolution of coastal foredunes is largely controlled by sediment exchanges between the geomorphic sub-units of the nearshore, beach, foredune and dune field. Although blowouts are widely recognised as efficient sediment transport pathways, both event-scale and meso-scale quantification of their utility in transferring beach sediments landwards is limited. Foredunes characterised by multiple blowouts may be more susceptible to coastline retreat through the enhanced landwards transport of beach or foredune sediments. To date, a key constraint for investigations of such scenarios has been the absence of accurate blowout sediment transport records. Here we use the Sefton coast in north-west England as a study area where an unprecedented temporal coverage of LIDAR data is available between 1999 and 2015. Additionally, an extensive set of aerial photography also exists, dating back to 1945 allowing comparison of blowout frequency and magnitude together with the alongshore limits of coastline retreat. Digital terrain models are derived for each year that LIDAR data is available. Informed by LIDAR based topography and areas of bare sand (aerial photos) terrain models have been created containing individual blowouts. Differentials in 'z' values between each terrain model of each available year has identified topographic change and total levels of transport. Preliminary results have confirmed the importance of blowouts in transporting beach or foredune sediment landwards and thus potentially promoting coastline retreat. Repetition of processes across a larger number of blowout topographies will allow better identification of individual blowouts for 'event' scale field investigations to examine spatial and temporal variability of beach sediment transport via blowouts routes.

  3. Effects of Laser Pulse Heating of Copper Photocathodes on High-brightness Electron Beam Production at Blowout Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Lianmin; Tang, Chuanxiang; Gai, Wei


    Producing high-brightness and high-charge (>100 pC) electron bunches at blowout regime requires ultrashort laser pulse with high fluence. The effects of laser pulse heating of the copper photocathode are analyzed in this paper. The electron and lattice temperature is calculated using an improved two-temperature model, and an extended Dowell-Schmerge model is employed to calculate the thermal emittance and quantum efficiency. A time-dependent growth of the thermal emittance and the quantum efficiency is observed. For a fixed amount of charge, the projected thermal emittance increases with the decreasing laser radius, and this effect should be taken into account in the laser optimization at blowout regime. Moreover, laser damage threshold fluence is simulated, showing that the maximum local fluence should be less than 40 mJ/cm^2 to prevent damage to the cathode. The cryogenic effect on the laser pulse heating is studied, showing that the hazards caused by the laser pulse heating will be significantly mitigated ...

  4. Ethmoid sinus osteoma associated with blow-out fracture. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Jun, Young-Joon; Seo, Byung-Chul


    Osteoma is a benign tumor that is composed of compact or cancellous bone. It is the most common benign neoplasm of the paranasal sinus, and ethmoid sinuses are the second most common sites of paranasal sinus osteoma. The symptoms of ethmoid sinus osteoma can give rise to various kinds and extent of symptoms. In symptomatic cases, surgical management is necessary, but appropriate surgical approach to the ethmoid sinus is not clearly established. We describe 2 male patients with a diagnosis of blow-out fractures after trauma; ethmoid sinus osteoma on preoperative computed tomography scans was coincidentally found, and the surgical correction was done simultaneously. The purpose of this article was to present the successful surgical removal of ethmoid osteoma through lamina papyracea and transcaruncular approach, resulting in both successful surgical correction and good cosmetic outcome.

  5. The short bunch blow-out regime in RF photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, L. [INFN and Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133Milano (Italy)


    A new beam dynamics regime of RF Photoinjectors is presented here, dealing with a violent bunch elongation under the action of longitudinal space charge forces. It is shown that such a blow-out expansion of the electron bunch can lead to highly linear behaviors of both the longitudinal and the transverse space charge field, a well known prerequisite to achieve minimum emittance dilution in photoinjectors. If operated in the ultra-short pancake-like bunch regime, such an effect can be very beneficial to the emittance correction mechanism, making it effective also for ultra-short pancake like bunches. The anticipated performances are presented: kA peak current beams can be generated directly out of the photoinjector (10 to 20 MeV exit energy) with rms normalized emittances below 1mm{center_dot}mrad. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Blowout win : advances in BOP technology cut waste and make work safer for drilling crews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, G.


    With the advent of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), there has been significant improvement in the way that blowout prevention (BOP) equipment can be controlled and operated. The accumulator, which provides the energy to operate the BOP, usually includes compressed gas bottles, regulator valves, pumps, a hydraulic reservoir, a manifold, and control valves. PLCs have made the accumulator easier to operate since they have eliminated much of the cable that spans from the control panel to the rig control shack. The control unit currently consists of some computer chips and a printed circuit instead of miles of wires and cables. In addition to providing efficient BOP control, PLCs have enabled rig managers to readily identify and fix problems. Some manufacturers have included remote troubleshooting capability for the accumulator. Advances in BOP technology and controls have been driven by the challenges of drilling in harsh offshore environments. However, some operators in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin continue to use BOP systems that have been around for decades because of their reputation for reliability and low-maintenance requirements. 1 fig.

  7. Morphology and Sediment Transport Dynamics of a Trough-Blowout Dune, Bodega Marine Reserve, Northern California (United States)

    Jorgenson, D.; Dunleavy, C. J.; Smith, M. E.


    Blowout dunes are a primary mechanism for transporting sand within vegetated coastal dune systems. Understanding the fine-scale variation in sediment transport within these systems is critical to predicting their formation and migration. Previous investigations of a coastal dune system located at the Bodega Marine Reserve, on the Sonoma Coast of Northern California have indicated that aeolian sand flux in unvegetated sand is ~450x greater than in vegetated areas. To better understand sand flux and its relationship with wind speed, direction and precipitation, we deployed an array of 12 sand traps within a single blowout area adjacent to the BOON marine climatology station. The blowout is trough- shaped, approximately 50 meters long and 15 meters wide. Its main 'fairway' is 5-10 meters below the surrounding beach grass (Ammophila)-covered land surface. Surface sediment within the blowout is fine-grained to granule-sized lithic to sub-lithic sand, and is coarsest in the center. Dune sediment in the Bodega Marine Reserve has been transported by aeolian processes from Salmon Creek Beach to the NW. Within the blowout, typical bedforms include 15-25 cm-wavelength, ~10 cm high sinuous to lingoid ripples arranged perpendicularly to the dominant wind direction (~280 degrees). An 8-10 meter-high mound at the downwind end has accumulated due to the trapping of sand flux by vegetation. Sediment flux across the studied blowout was sampled monthly over a 10-month period of 2013-2014. Sand traps were constructed using modified PVC cylinders, and are 0.5 meter high and 0.3 meter in diameter, with a 0.74-micron mesh screen. Based on measured sand flux, the sites can be categorized into three groups-axial, medial, and peripheral. Rates increase downwind within the blowout. Inter-site sand flux variability within unvegetated locations of the blowout is greater than two orders of magnitude. Axial sites, which experience the greatest sand flux, occur on the edge of the blowout adjacent

  8. Three-dimensional æolian dynamics within a bowl blowout during offshore winds: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada (United States)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.


    This paper examines the æolian dynamics of a deep bowl blowout within the foredune of the Greenwich Dunes, on the northeastern shore or Prince Edward Island, Canada. Masts of cup anemometers and sonic anemometers were utilized to measure flow velocities and directions during a strong regional ESE (offshore) wind event. The flow across the blowout immediately separated at the upwind rim crest, and within the blowout was strongly reversed. High, negative vertical flows occurred down the downwind (but seaward) vertical scarp which projected into the separation envelope and topographically forced flow back into the blowout. A pronounced, accelerated jet flow existed near the surface across the blowout basin, and the flow exhibited a complex, anti-clockwise structure with the near-surface flow following the contours around the blowout basin and lower slopes. Significant æolian sediment transport occurred across the whole bowl basin and sediment was delivered by saltation and suspension out the blowout to the east. This study demonstrates that strong offshore winds produce pronounced topographically forced flow steering, separation, reversal, and more complex three-dimensional motions within a bowl blowout, and that such winds within a bowl blowout play a notable role in transporting sediment within and beyond deep topographic hollows in the foredune.

  9. Global properties of symmetric competition models with riddling and blowout phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giant-italo Bischi


    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of chaos synchronization, and the related phenomena of riddling, blowout and on–off intermittency, are considered for discrete time competition models with identical competitors. The global properties which determine the different effects of riddling and blowout bifurcations are studied by the method of critical curves, a tool for the study of the global dynamical properties of two-dimensional noninvertible maps. These techniques are applied to the study of a dynamic market-share competition model.

  10. Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang


    Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.

  11. Straightforward factors for predicting the prognosis of blow-out fractures. (United States)

    Higashino, Takuya; Hirabayashi, Shinichi; Eguchi, Tomoaki; Kato, Yuki


    In blow-out fractures, some nonoperative cases have a poor outcome, and a method for accurate prognosis is required. To address this need, we retrospectively reviewed blow-out fractures presenting at Teikyo University Hospital between July 2004 and May 2007 and conducted a survey regarding diplopia and enophthalmos for nonoperative cases. Computed tomographic scan findings were divided according to fracture width and the degree of protrusion of the inferior rectus muscle into the maxillary sinus. We had 106 patients presenting with blow-out fractures, and 89 patients had been treated nonoperatively. In medial orbital wall fractures, no patient had diplopia, and 1 patient had enophthalmos after nonoperative treatment. In punched-out orbital floor fractures, all cases had diplopia when the fracture width was less than half the diameter of the globe, and the protrusion of the inferior rectus muscle into the maxillary sinus was half or more of its section. Even if the fracture width was less than half the diameter of the globe, 2 of 3 patients had enophthalmos when the protrusion of the inferior rectus muscle into the maxillary sinus was half or more of its section. Among the linear orbital floor fractures, 1 case required an emergency operation. We suggest a new algorithm for treatment of blow-out fractures based on computed tomographic scan findings that can also contribute to making a prognosis.

  12. X-rays from superbubbles in the large magellanic cloud; 4, the blowout structure of N44

    CERN Document Server

    Magnier, E A; Hwang, U; Smith, R C; Magnier, Eugene A; Chu, You Hua; Hwang, Una; Smith, R Chris


    We have used optical echelle spectra along with ROSAT and ASCA X-ray spectra to test the hypothesis that the southern portion of the N44 X-ray bright region is the result of a blowout structure. Three pieces of evidence now support this conclusion. First, the filamentary optical morphology corresponding with the location of the X-ray bright South Bar suggests the blowout description (Chu et al 1993). Second, optical echelle spectra show evidence of high velocity (~90 km/sec) gas in the region of the blowout. Third, X-ray spectral fits show a lower temperature for the South Bar than the main superbubble region of Shell 1. Such a blowout can affect the evolution of the superbubble and explain some of the discrepancy discussed by Oey & Massey (1995) between the observed shell diameter and the diameter predicted on the basis of the stellar content and Weaver et al.'s (1977) pressure-driven bubble model.

  13. Helical Blowout Jets in the Sun: Untwisting and Propagation of Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, E J; Hood, A W


    We report on numerical experiment of the recurrent onset of helical "blowout" jets in an emerging flux region (EFR). We find that these jets are running with velocities of $\\sim 100-250\\,\\mathrm{kms^{-1}}$ and they transfer a vast amount of heavy plasma into the outer solar atmosphere. During their emission, they undergo an untwisting motion as a result of reconnection between the twisted emerging and the non-twisted pre-existing magnetic field in the solar atmosphere. For the first time in the context of blowout jets, we provide a direct evidence that their untwisting motion is associated with the propagation of torsional Alfv\\'en waves in the corona.

  14. Airflow and sediment movement within an inland blowout in Hulun Buir sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, China (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Hasi, Eerdun; Liu, Meiping; Du, Huishi; Guan, Chao; Tao, Binbin


    We measured wind flows and sediment transport rates through a blowout in Hulun Buir grassland, Inner Mongolia. Topography and the angle of incidence between the approaching wind and the blowout long-axis significantly affected the air flow. Flow separated and decelerated at the western wall and accelerated towards the east, until maximum wind speed occurred at the top of the depositional lobe, and then decelerated on the lee side. When airflow emerged on the eastern wall, resultant directions were always NW. When winds approached from directions within 17.5° of the blowout axis, both the northwestern and southwestern walls developed turbulent flow, and significant topographic steering occurred. The deceleration zone expanded eastwards from 10.3 to 12.8 m from the western rim. When the wind direction was more oblique than 17.5°, turbulent flow at the southwestern wall disappeared. 'S-shaped' flow intensified, causing more pronounced steering at the bottom, but topographic steering elsewhere was reduced, and the boundary of the deceleration moved to 10 m from the western rim. Minor sediment deposition occurred on the western wall, while other parts were eroded; maximum sediment transport occurred at the top of the depositional lobe. The approaching wind speed affected the sediment transport rate more than the direction; and spatial variability in sediment transport reflected differences in compaction, vegetation coverage, slope, aspect, and upwind sediment availability, resulting in asymmetrical development. Overall, flow-form interactions governed the flow structures and controlled the evolution of the blowout via sediment transport.

  15. Blowout Jets: Hinode X-Ray Jets that Don't Fit the Standard Model (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Falconer, David A.


    Nearly half of all H-alpha macrospicules in polar coronal holes appear to be miniature filament eruptions. This suggests that there is a large class of X-ray jets in which the jet-base magnetic arcade undergoes a blowout eruption as in a CME, instead of remaining static as in most solar X-ray jets, the standard jets that fit the model advocated by Shibata. Along with a cartoon depicting the standard model, we present a cartoon depicting the signatures expected of blowout jets in coronal X-ray images. From Hinode/XRT movies and STEREO/EUVI snapshots in polar coronal holes, we present examples of (1) X-ray jets that fit the standard model, and (2) X-ray jets that do not fit the standard model but do have features appropriate for blowout jets. These features are (1) a flare arcade inside the jet-base arcade in addition to the small flare arcade (bright point) outside that standard jets have, (2) a filament of cool (T is approximately 80,000K) plasma that erupts from the core of the jetbase arcade, and (3) an extra jet strand that should not be made by the reconnection for standard jets but could be made by reconnection between the ambient unipolar open field and the opposite-polarity leg of the filament-carrying flux-rope core field of the erupting jet-base arcade. We therefore infer that these non-standard jets are blowout jets, jets made by miniature versions of the sheared-core-arcade eruptions that make CMEs

  16. Tracking the Hercules 265 marine gas well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Romero, Isabel C.; Özgökmen, Tamay; Snyder, Susan; Schwing, Patrick; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Beron-Vera, Francisco J.; Olascoaga, Maria J.; Zhu, Ping; Ryan, Edward; Chen, Shuyi S.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Hollander, David; Murawski, Steven A.


    On 23 July 2013, a marine gas rig (Hercules 265) ignited in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The rig burned out of control for 2 days before being extinguished. We conducted a rapid-response sampling campaign near Hercules 265 after the fire to ascertain if sediments and fishes were polluted above earlier baseline levels. A surface drifter study confirmed that surface ocean water flowed to the southeast of the Hercules site, while the atmospheric plume generated by the blowout was in eastward direction. Sediment cores were collected to the SE of the rig at a distance of ˜0.2, 8, and 18 km using a multicorer, and demersal fishes were collected from ˜0.2 to 8 km SE of the rig using a longline (508 hooks). Recently deposited sediments document that only high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the rig suggesting higher pyrogenic inputs associated with the blowout. A similar trend was observed in the foraminifera Haynesina germanica, an indicator species of pollution. In red snapper bile, only HMW PAH metabolites increased in 2013 nearly double those from 2012. Both surface sediments and fish bile analyses suggest that, in the aftermath of the blowout, increased concentration of pyrogenically derived hydrocarbons was transported and deposited in the environment. This study further emphasizes the need for an ocean observing system and coordinated rapid-response efforts from an array of scientific disciplines to effectively assess environmental impacts resulting from accidental releases of oil contaminants.

  17. Stability and Blowout Behavior of Jet Flames in Oblique Air Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan N. Gomes


    Full Text Available The stability limits of a jet flame can play an important role in the design of burners and combustors. This study details an experiment conducted to determine the liftoff and blowout velocities of oblique-angle methane jet flames under various air coflow velocities. A nozzle was mounted on a telescoping boom to allow for an adjustable burner angle relative to a vertical coflow. Twenty-four flow configurations were established using six burner nozzle angles and four coflow velocities. Measurements of the fuel supply velocity during liftoff and blowout were compared against two parameters: nozzle angle and coflow velocity. The resulting correlations indicated that flames at more oblique angles have a greater upper stability limit and were more resistant to changes in coflow velocity. This behavior occurs due to a lower effective coflow velocity at angles more oblique to the coflow direction. Additionally, stability limits were determined for flames in crossflow and mild counterflow configurations, and a relationship between the liftoff and blowout velocities was observed. For flames in crossflow and counterflow, the stability limits are higher. Further studies may include more angle and coflow combinations, as well as the effect of diluents or different fuel types.

  18. 风蚀坑形态-动力学研究进展%A Review on Morphodynamic Processes of Blowouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙禹; 杜会石; 刘美萍; 哈斯


    Blowouts are depressions produced by wind erosion, which occur on sandy coasts or lake shores and sandy grasslands in arid and semi-arid rergions. Topographic steering changes the velocity and direction of air-flow within the blowout. Then a local difference in sediment transport exists, which changes the pattern of ero-sion and accumulation and reforms the morphology of the blowout. Topographic changing reacts on the near-surface airflow and forms the feedback and response mechanism between morphology and dynamics. This article briefly reviews the processes of morphodynamic and evolvement of blowouts, and analyzes its study trends, hoping to provide some reference for similar researches in the future. Although lots of progresses have been made in study of dynamic and evolvement of blowout, there are still many aspects need to be im-proved. First of all, airflow patterns in blowout are complicated, because of the limited field data, we often get an unreal construction and a poor understanding of airflow patterns. In order to aquire more sufficient field da-ta and precise analysis, more intense observation sites and continuous observations are needed. Secondly, tem-poral and spatial scales of previous researches in blowout are relatively small. Most of the research just fo-cused on the dynamics and evolvement of individual blowout, but ignored the others’in the same region;and limited observations to the current developmental situation, but ignored the processes or morphology in the past and future. In order to summarize a relatively complete evolutionary pattern of blowouts tentatively, the large-scale and long-term monitorings to the blowouts, which in variety of developmental phases are requisite. At last, compared with foreign researches which made certain achievements in coastal blowouts, domestic re-searches in evolutionary processes of inland blowouts which developed in different conditions and different genesises are deficient. Many blowouts which in

  19. ROV: improving remotely operated vehicle (ROV) intervention capabilities for blowout preventer override systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Stephen [Christopher S. Mancini, Tomball, TX (United States)


    Events during 2010 have focused attention on increased ROV/BOP Intervention capabilities and standardization of BOP/ROV interfaces in the oil and gas offshore industry. Currently no enforced set standards for ROV intervention panels or manifold types for use on BOP Override systems are specified. The industry offers multiple configurations at present. This abstract will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various configurations in existence, trending toward suggested industry standards taking shape as requirements in the near term. Standards for the offshore industry or a set specification must be made to increase safety and functionality of BOP control systems. To date, ROV override capabilities have been added to existing engineered BOP systems. BOP designed closing times were not a critical consideration, only that the access was there to allow for ROV override. Increased ROV flow and pressure capabilities: no current minimum flow requirements for Emergency BOP Override pumps are established. Based on stack valving and configuration, a minimum, 7 gpm may be required to shift valving fully to allow BOP operator function. IADC/API minimum requirements may be proposed at 10 gpm at 3000psi. Based on shear pressures exceeding 3000psi, pressures of 5000psi should be considered. Current intervention skids/pump capabilities will be required if ROVs must achieve API 16D BOP minimum closing times. Remote or isolated accumulation for increased intervention capabilities offers possibilities when ANY ROV of opportunity can trigger a function (such as small inspection type ROVs). Increased volumes will be required. This is critical in functioning stack rams with an ROV of opportunity to achieve API 16D closing times. We now understand that higher flows and pressures are required along with standardization of stab types. Current recommendations: API 17H Hi-Flow manifolds should be added to essential ROV overrides. ROV skids will have a minimum requirement of 10gpm at 3000psi, but should have capabilities to achieve 5000psi and carry enough fluid volume to perform sub sea BOP ram function. Also, any additional isolated accumulator volume would be tied to ANY ROV of opportunity to override the BOP in an emergency situation. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius STAN


    Full Text Available Best practice design and analysis of operational safety requires CAD modeling of these BOP.The primary objective for this paper was to design and select a suitable BOP system to meet the applications and proposing CAD solutions to improve the operation of the entire safe system. This paper presents and modes of BOP accident with investigation methods CAD

  1. Application of Fracture Operation MEDPORE Implant in Orbital Blowout%眼眶爆裂性骨折手术MEDPORE植入材料的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the MEDPORE surgery implant material application in the operation of orbital blowout fracture.Methods Retrospective analysis of January 2010 - December 2013 during the application of MEDPORE surgical implant the body material of clinical data of 48 cases of patients with ocular trauma fracture of the orbit.Results All the patients satisfaction after surgery, enophthalmos was corrected, different degrees of diplopia, eye movement to restore normal operation, does not affect vision, follow-up period did not appear the implant or rejection.Conclusion MEDPORE surgical implant material fracture operation is safe and effective in the application of orbital blowout, can effectively prevent postoperative enophthalmos, back and other complications, is the reconstruction of orbital wall ideal biological material.%目的 探讨MEDPORE外科植入体材料在眼眶爆裂性骨折手术中的应用.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月至2013年12月在本院应用MEDPORE外科植入体材料48例眼外伤眶骨骨折患者的临床资料.结果 全部患者术后效果满意,眼球内陷得到不同程度的矫正,复视消失,眼球运动恢复正常,手术不影响视力,出院随访期间未出现植入物脱出或排斥反应.结论 MEDPORE外科植入体材料在眼眶爆裂性骨折手术中的应用安全有效,可以有效防止术后发生眼球下陷、回退等并发症,是重建眶壁理想的生物材料.

  2. From Blowout to Stalemate——China's Housing Market in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ As 2007 comes to an end, China's housing market is preparing for another controversial year.Increasingly restrictive macro-control policies and growing public concern have pushed China's housing market through the initial rise in price over the last couple years, a price blowout at the middle of this year, and finally the current stalemate between sellers and buyers. The end of 2007 has witnessed falling house prices in major cities,like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. It seems that the inflexion of housing prices is right in front of us.Now, let's review some big events from 2007's housing market.

  3. Blowout jets and impulsive eruptive flares in a bald-patch topology (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Joshi, B.; Cristiani, G. D.; Cremades, H.; Pariat, E.; Nuevo, F. A.; Srivastava, A. K.; Uddin, W.


    Context. A subclass of broad extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray jets, called blowout jets, have become a topic of research since they could be the link between standard collimated jets and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Aims: Our aim is to understand the origin of a series of broad jets, some of which are accompanied by flares and associated with narrow and jet-like CMEs. Methods: We analyze observations of a series of recurrent broad jets observed in AR 10484 on 21-24 October 2003. In particular, one of them occurred simultaneously with an M2.4 flare on 23 October at 02:41 UT (SOLA2003-10-23). Both events were observed by the ARIES Hα Solar Tower-Telescope, TRACE, SOHO, and RHESSI instruments. The flare was very impulsive and followed by a narrow CME. A local force-free model of AR 10484 is the basis to compute its topology. We find bald patches (BPs) at the flare site. This BP topology is present for at least two days before to events. Large-scale field lines, associated with the BPs, represent open loops. This is confirmed by a global potential free source surface (PFSS) model. Following the brightest leading edge of the Hα and EUV jet emission, we can temporarily associate these emissions with a narrow CME. Results: Considering their characteristics, the observed broad jets appear to be of the blowout class. As the most plausible scenario, we propose that magnetic reconnection could occur at the BP separatrices forced by the destabilization of a continuously reformed flux rope underlying them. The reconnection process could bring the cool flux-rope material into the reconnected open field lines driving the series of recurrent blowout jets and accompanying CMEs. Conclusions: Based on a model of the coronal field, we compute the AR 10484 topology at the location where flaring and blowout jets occurred from 21 to 24 October 2003. This topology can consistently explain the origin of these events. The movie associated to Fig. 1 is available at

  4. Surgical Treatment of Orbital Blowout Fractures: Complications and Postoperative Care Patterns. (United States)

    Shew, Matthew; Carlisle, Michael P; Lu, Guanning Nina; Humphrey, Clinton; Kriet, J David


    Orbital fractures are a common result of facial trauma. Sequelae and indications for repair include enophthalmos and/or diplopia from extraocular muscle entrapment. Alloplastic implant placement with careful release of periorbital fat and extraocular muscles can effectively restore extraocular movements, orbital integrity, and anatomic volume. However, rare but devastating complications such as retrobulbar hematoma (RBH) can occur after repair, which pose a risk of permanent vision loss if not addressed emergently. For this reason, some surgeons take the precaution of admitting patients for 24-hour postoperative vision checks, while others do not. The incidence of postoperative RBH has not been previously reported and existing data are limited to case reports. Our aim was to examine national trends in postoperative management and to report the incidence of immediate postoperative complications at our institution following orbital repair. A retrospective assessment of orbital blowout fractures was undertaken to assess immediate postoperative complications including RBH. Only patients treated by a senior surgeon in the Department of Otolaryngology were included in the review. In addition, we surveyed AO North America (AONA) Craniomaxillofacial faculty to assess current trends in postoperative management. There were 80 patients treated surgically for orbital blowout fractures over a 9.5-year period. Nearly all patients were observed overnight (74%) or longer (25%) due to other trauma. Average length of stay was 17 hours for those observed overnight. There was one (1.3%) patient with RBH, who was treated and recovered without sequelae. Results of the survey indicated that a majority (64%) of responders observe postoperative patients overnight. Twenty-nine percent of responders indicated that they send patients home the same day of surgery. Performance of more than 20 orbital repairs annually significantly increased the likelihood that faculty would manage patients on

  5. Lean blowout limits of a gas turbine combustor operated with aviation fuel and methane (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Huang, Yong


    Lean blowout (LBO) limits is critical to the operational performance of combustion systems in propulsion and power generation. The swirl cup plays an important role in flame stability and has been widely used in aviation engines. Therefore, the effects of swirl cup geometry and flow dynamics on LBO limits are significant. An experiment was conducted for studying the lean blowout limits of a single dome rectangular model combustor with swirl cups. Three types of swirl cup (dual-axial swirl cup, axial-radial swirl cup, dual-radial swirl cup) were employed in the experiment which was operated with aviation fuel (Jet A-1) and methane under the idle condition. Experimental results showed that, with using both Jet A-1 and methane, the LBO limits increase with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-radial swirl cup, while LBO limits decrease with the air flow of primary swirler for dual-axial swirl cup. In addition, LBO limits increase with the swirl intensity for three swirl cups. The experimental results also showed that the flow dynamics instead of atomization poses a significant influence on LBO limits. An improved semi-empirical correlation of experimental data was derived to predict the LBO limits for gas turbine combustors.

  6. The persistence of large-scale blowouts in largely vegetated coastal dune fields (United States)

    Delgado-Fernandez, Irene; Smyth, Thomas; Jackson, Derek; Davidson-Arnott, Robin; Smith, Alexander


    Coastal dunes move through natural phases of stability and instability during their evolution, displaying various temporal and spatial patterns across the dune field. Recent observations, however, have shown exceptionally rapid rates of stability through increased vegetative growth. This progressive vegetation colonisation and consequent loss of bare sand on coastal dune systems has been noted worldwide. Percentage reductions in bare sand of as much as 80% within just a few decades can been seen in examples from South Africa, Canada and Brazil as well as coastal dune sites across NW Europe. Despite these dramatic trends towards dune stabilisation, it is not uncommon to find particular examples of large-scale active blowouts and parabolic dunes within largely vegetated coastal dunes. While turbulence and airflow dynamics within features such as blowouts and other dune forms has been studied in detail within recent years, there is a lack of knowledge about what maintains dune mobility at these specific points in otherwise largely stabilized dune fields. This work explores the particular example of the 'Devil's Hole' blowout, Sefton Dunes, NW England. Approximately 300 m long by 100 m wide, its basin is below the water-table which leads to frequent flooding. Sefton Dunes in general have seen a dramatic loss of bare sand since the 1940s. However, and coinciding with this period of dune stabilisation, the 'Devil's Hole' has not only remained active but also grown in size at a rate of 4.5 m year-1 along its main axis. An exploration of factors controlling the maintenance of open bare sand areas at this particular location is examined using a variety of techniques including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) airflow modelling and in situ empirical measurements of (short-term experiments) of wind turbulence and sand transport. Field measurements of wind parameters and transport processes were collected over a 2 week period during October 2015. Twenty three 3D ultrasonic

  7. Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in a cross flow at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang


    The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow and pressure were investigated by a series of experiments conducted in an especially built wind tunnel in Lhasa, a city on the Tibetan plateau where the altitude is 3650 m and the atmospheric pressure condition is naturally low (64 kPa). These results were compared with results obtained from a wind tunnel at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in Hefei city (altitude 50 m). The size of the fuel nozzles used in the experiments ranged from 3 to 8 mm in diameter and propane was used as the fuel. It was found that the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow first increased (“cross flow dominant” regime) and then decreased (“fuel jet dominant” regime) as the fuel jet velocity increased in both pressures; however, the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow was much lower at sub-atmospheric pressure than that at standard atmospheric pressure whereas the domain of the blow-out limit curve (in a plot of the air speed of the cross flow versus the fuel jet velocity) shrank as the pressure decreased. A theoretical model was developed to characterize the blow-out limit of nonpremixed jet flames in a cross flow based on a Damköhler number, defined as the ratio between the mixing time and the characteristic reaction time. A satisfactory correlation was obtained at relative strong cross flow conditions (“cross flow dominant” regime) that included the effects of the air speed of the cross flow, fuel jet velocity, nozzle diameter and pressure.

  8. Large-Scale Elongated Gas Blowouts, Offshore Virginia/North Carolina: Process and Product (United States)

    Hill, J. C.; Driscoll, N. W.; Weissel, J. K.; Goff, J. A.


    A shipboard program conducted in May 2000 onboard the R/V Hatteras provided major new insight into the origin of the enigmatic "crack"-like features arranged in en-echelon fashion along a 40 km-long stretch of the outermost shelf off Virginia and North Carolina. High-resolution side-scan backscatter and chirp subbottom reflection data show the features are not simple normal faults, but appear to be large-scale excavations or craters resulting from massive expulsion of gas through the seafloor. Visualization of the dip- and strike-line sonar mosaics in three dimensions, along with co-registered seismic data, has improved the spatial resolution of the features and reveals a strong correlation between trapped gas and internally deformed, deltaic strata that drape the shelf edge. The geometry of the blowouts and their location along the outer shelf suggests a composite formation of the pockmark features, combining gas accumulation, down-slope creep of the deltaic strata and fluid expulsion. Shallow gas accumulation is seen clearly in the chirp profiles as bright, high amplitude reflections, obscuring any deeper reflectors. The gas is trapped beneath a thin veneer (few tens of meters) of stratified sediment draped across the outermost shelf/upper slope, which is interpreted as a shelf-edge delta, probably deposited since the last glacial maximum (LGM). The chirp data show clear evidence of internal deformation of the shelf-edge delta, including thickening and thinning of chaotic or transparent layers, segmentation and rotation of superjacent sections, and homoclinal contacts that emphasize contrasts between transparent and reflective intervals. The observed stratigraphic disturbance, most likely a result of downslope creep processes, is interpreted to create permeable pathways for upslope/updip gas migration and eventual expulsion. In summary, the new data 1) show that gas expulsion occurred after the deposition of a seaward-dipping wedge of sediments, which we suggest

  9. Formation dynamics of subsurface hydrocarbon intrusions following the Deepwater Horizon blowout (United States)

    Socolofsky, Scott A.; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.


    Hydrocarbons released following the Deepwater Horizon (DH) blowout were found in deep, subsurface horizontal intrusions, yet there has been little discussion about how these intrusions formed. We have combined measured (or estimated) observations from the DH release with empirical relationships developed from previous lab experiments to identify the mechanisms responsible for intrusion formation and to characterize the DH plume. Results indicate that the intrusions originate from a stratification-dominated multiphase plume characterized by multiple subsurface intrusions containing dissolved gas and oil along with small droplets of liquid oil. Unlike earlier lab measurements, where the potential density in ambient water decreased linearly with elevation, at the DH site it varied quadratically. We have modified our method for estimating intrusion elevation under these conditions and the resulting estimates agree with observations that the majority of the hydrocarbons were found between 800 and 1200 m.

  10. Computationally efficient methods for modelling laser wakefield acceleration in the blowout regime

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, B M; Beck, A; Davoine, X; Bunkers, K; Lifschitz, A F; Lefebvre, E; Bruhwiler, D L; Shadwick, B A; Umstadter, D P


    Electron self-injection and acceleration until dephasing in the blowout regime is studied for a set of initial conditions typical of recent experiments with 100 terawatt-class lasers. Two different approaches to computationally efficient, fully explicit, three-dimensional particle-in-cell modelling are examined. First, the Cartesian code VORPAL using a perfect-dispersion electromagnetic solver precisely describes the laser pulse and bubble dynamics, taking advantage of coarser resolution in the propagation direction, with a proportionally larger time step. Using third-order splines for macroparticles helps suppress the sampling noise while keeping the usage of computational resources modest. The second way to reduce the simulation load is using reduced-geometry codes. In our case, the quasi-cylindrical code CALDER-CIRC uses decomposition of fields and currents into a set of poloidal modes, while the macroparticles move in the Cartesian 3D space. Cylindrical symmetry of the interaction allows using just two mo...

  11. Guidelines for estimating blowout rates and duration for environmental risk analysis purposes; Retningslinjer for beregning av utblaasningsrater og -varighet til bruk ved analyse av miljoerisiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Thomas


    Risk assessment in relation to possible blowouts of oil and condensate is the main topic in this analysis. The estimated risk is evaluated against criteria for acceptable risk and is part of the foundation for dimensioning in oil spill preparedness. The report aims to contribute to the standardisation of the terminology, methodology and documentation for estimations of blowout rates, and thus to simplify communication of the analysis results and strengthen the decision makers' trust in these (ml)

  12. Computer simulation of reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout (United States)

    Hsieh, Paul


    This report describes the application of a computer model to simulate reservoir depletion and oil flow from the Macondo well following the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Reservoir and fluid data used for model development are based on (1) information released in BP's investigation report of the incident, (2) information provided by BP personnel during meetings in Houston, Texas, and (3) calibration by history matching to shut-in pressures measured in the capping stack during the Well Integrity Test. The model is able to closely match the measured shut-in pressures. In the simulation of the 86-day period from the blowout to shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure at the well face declines from the initial reservoir pressure of 11,850 pounds per square inch (psi) to 9,400 psi. After shut in, the simulated reservoir pressure recovers to a final value of 10,300 psi. The pressure does not recover back to the initial pressure owing to reservoir depletion caused by 86 days of oil discharge. The simulated oil flow rate declines from 63,600 stock tank barrels per day just after the Deepwater Horizon blowout to 52,600 stock tank barrels per day just prior to shut in. The simulated total volume of oil discharged is 4.92 million stock tank barrels. The overall uncertainty in the simulated flow rates and total volume of oil discharged is estimated to be + or - 10 percent.

  13. Minifilament Eruption as the Source of a Blowout Jet, C-class Flare, and Type-III Radio Burst (United States)

    Hong, Junchao; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayan; Li, Haidong; Xu, Zhe


    We report a strong minifilament eruption associated with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite C1.6 flare and WIND type-III radio burst. The minifilament, which lies at the periphery of active region 12259, is detected by Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope. The minifilament undergoes a partial and then a full eruption. Simultaneously, two co-spatial jets are successively observed in extreme ultraviolet images from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The first jet exhibits a typical fan-spine geometry, suggesting that the co-spatial minifilament is possibly embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine structure. However, the second jet displays blowout morphology when the entire minifilament erupts upward, leaving behind a hard X-ray emission source in the base. Differential emission measure analyses show that the eruptive region is heated up to about 4 MK during the fan-spine jet, while up to about 7 MK during the blowout jet. In particular, the blowout jet is accompanied by an interplanetary type-III radio burst observed by WIND/WAVES in the frequency range from above 10 to 0.1 MHz. Hence, the minifilament eruption is correlated with the interplanetary type-III radio burst for the first time. These results not only suggest that coronal jets can result from magnetic reconnection initiated by erupting minifilaments with open fields, but also shed light on the potential influence of minifilament eruption on interplanetary space.

  14. Self-Sealing Shells: Blowouts and Blisters on the Surfaces of Leaky Wind-Blown-Bubbles and Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Pittard, Julian


    Blowouts can occur when a dense shell confining hot, high pressure, gas ruptures. The venting gas inflates a blister on the surface of the shell. Here we examine the growth of such blisters on the surfaces of wind-blown-bubbles (WBBs) and supernova remnants (SNRs) due to shell rupture caused by the Vishniac instability. On WBBs the maximum relative size of the blister (R_bstall/R) is found to grow linearly with time, but in many cases the blister radius will not exceed 20 per cent of the bubble radius. Thus blowouts initiated by the Vishniac instability are unlikely to have a major effect on the global dynamics and properties of the bubble. The relative size of blisters on SNRs is even smaller than on WBBs, with blisters only growing to a radius comparable to the thickness of the cold shell of SNRs. The small size of the SNR blowouts is, however, in good agreement with observations of blisters in the Vela SNR. The difference in relative size between WBB and SNR blisters is due to the much higher speed at whic...

  15. Flame blowout and pollutant emissions in vitiated combustion of conventional and bio-derived fuels (United States)

    Singh, Bhupinder

    The widening gap between the demand and supply of fossil fuels has catalyzed the exploration of alternative sources of energy. Interest in the power, water extraction and refrigeration (PoWER) cycle, proposed by the University of Florida, as well as the desirability of using biofuels in distributed generation systems, has motivated the exploration of biofuel vitiated combustion. The PoWER cycle is a novel engine cycle concept that utilizes vitiation of the air stream with externally-cooled recirculated exhaust gases at an intermediate pressure in a semi-closed cycle (SCC) loop, lowering the overall temperature of combustion. It has several advantages including fuel flexibility, reduced air flow, lower flame temperature, compactness, high efficiency at full and part load, and low emissions. Since the core engine air stream is vitiated with the externally cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) stream, there is an inherent reduction in the combustion stability for a PoWER engine. The effect of EGR flow and temperature on combustion blowout stability and emissions during vitiated biofuel combustion has been characterized. The vitiated combustion performance of biofuels methyl butanoate, dimethyl ether, and ethanol have been compared with n-heptane, and varying compositions of syngas with methane fuel. In addition, at high levels of EGR a sharp reduction in the flame luminosity has been observed in our experimental tests, indicating the onset of flameless combustion. This drop in luminosity may be a result of inhibition of processes leading to the formation of radiative soot particles. One of the objectives of this study is finding the effect of EGR on soot formation, with the ultimate objective of being able to predict the boundaries of flameless combustion. Detailed chemical kinetic simulations were performed using a constant-pressure continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) network model developed using the Cantera combustion code, implemented in C++. Results have

  16. Trace element distributions in the water column near the Deepwater Horizon well blowout. (United States)

    Joung, DongJoo; Shiller, Alan M


    To understand the impact of the Deepwater Horizon well blowout on dissolved trace element concentrations, samples were collected from areas around the oil rig explosion site during four cruises in early and late May 2010, October 2010, and October 2011. In surface waters, Ba, Fe, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Co were relatively well correlated with salinity during all cruises, suggesting mixing with river water was the main influence on metal distributions in these waters. However, in deep oil/gas plumes (1000-1400 m depth), modestly elevated concentrations of Co and Ba were observed in late May, compared with postblowout conditions. Analysis of the oil itself along with leaching experiments confirm the oil as the source of the Co, whereas increased Ba was likely due to drilling mud used in the top kill attempt. Deep plume dissolved Mn largely reflected natural benthic input, though some samples showed slight elevation probably associated with the top kill. Dissolved Fe concentrations were low and also appeared largely topographically controlled and reflective of benthic input. Estimates suggest that microbial Fe demand may have affected the Fe distribution but probably not to the extent of Fe becoming a growth-limiting factor. Experiments showed that the dispersant can have some limited impact on dissolved-particulate metal partitioning.

  17. Blowout Jets and Impulsive Eruptive Flare in a Bald-Patch Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, R; Schmieder, B; Joshi, B; Cristiani, G D; Cremades, H; Pariat, E; Nuevo, F A; Srivastava, A K; Uddin, W


    Context: A subclass of broad EUV and X-ray jets, called blowout jets, have become a topic of research since they could be the link between standard collimated jets and CMEs.} Aim: Our aim is to understand the origin of a series of broad jets, some accompanied by flares and associated with narrow and jet-like CMEs. Methods: We analyze observations of a series of recurrent broad jets observed in AR 10484 on 21-24 October 2003. In particular, one of them occurred simultaneously with an M2.4 flare on 23 October at 02:41 UT (SOLA2003-10-23). Both events were observed by ARIES H-alpha Solar Tower-Telescope, TRACE, SOHO, and RHESSI instruments. The flare was very impulsive and followed by a narrow CME. A local force-free model of AR 10484 is the basis to compute its topology. We find bald patches (BPs) at the flare site. This BP topology is present for at least two days before. Large-scale field lines, associated with the BPs, represent open loops. This is confirmed by a global PFSS model. Following the brightest le...

  18. Pure orbital blowout fractures reconstructed with autogenous bone grafts: functional and aesthetic outcomes. (United States)

    Kronig, S A J; van der Mooren, R J G; Strabbing, E M; Stam, L H M; Tan, J A S L; de Jongh, E; van der Wal, K G H; Paridaens, D; Koudstaal, M J


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ophthalmic clinical findings following surgical reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts of pure blowout fractures. A retrospective review of 211 patients who underwent surgical repair of an orbital fracture between October 1996 and December 2013 was performed. Following data analysis, 60 patients who were followed up over a period of 1 year were included. A solitary floor fracture was present in 38 patients and a floor and a medial wall fracture in 22 patients. Comparing preoperative findings between these two groups, preoperative diplopia and enophthalmos were almost twice as frequent in the group with additional medial wall fractures: diplopia 8% and 14% and enophthalmos 18% and 55%, respectively. One year following surgery there was no diplopia present in either group. In the solitary floor fracture group, 3% still had enophthalmos. It can be concluded that at 1 year following the repair of pure orbital floor fractures using autogenous bone, good functional and aesthetic results can be obtained. In the group with both floor and medial wall fractures, no enophthalmos was found when both walls were reconstructed. When the medial wall was left unoperated, 29% of patients still suffered from enophthalmos after 1 year.

  19. Endovascular treatment paradigm of carotid blowout syndrome: Review of 8-years experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Wing Suet, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Lai, Vincent, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Lau, Hin Yue, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Wong, Yiu Chung, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Poon, Wai Lun, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong); Tan, Chong Boon, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Tuen Mun (Hong Kong)


    Objectives: Endovascular treatment is effective in treating carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). We reviewed our experience in addressing CBS over eight years and presented an account of the treatment paradigm and management algorithm. Method: All cases of CBS from 2003 to 2010 with endovascular treatment performed in our center were reviewed. 15 CBS in 14 patients were recruited. Based on our management algorithm, treatment regimen was stratified into deconstructive or constructive methods. Their clinical presentations, angiographic features, angiographic and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Results: 10 patients were treated with deconstructive method by means of permanent vessel occlusion (PVO) and 4 patients were treated with constructive method by means of placement of covered stent (n = 3) or flow diverting device (n = 1). Immediate hemostasis was achieved in all cases. 7 (50%) patients, in whom 5 treated with PVO and 2 with covered stent, had favorable outcomes and survived at a median follow-up period of 4 months (range: 1–84 months). Conclusion: Permanent vessel occlusion remains the gold standard of treatment and tends to show a favorable long-term outcome. Off-label use of covered stent and flow-diverting device can produce satisfactory results should balloon occlusion test fail, but long-term follow up would be required for definitive assessment.

  20. Periodic orbit analysis at the onset of the unstable dimension variability and at the blowout bifurcation. (United States)

    Pereira, R F; de S Pinto, S E; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R; Grebogi, C


    Many chaotic dynamical systems of physical interest present a strong form of nonhyperbolicity called unstable dimension variability (UDV), for which the chaotic invariant set contains periodic orbits possessing different numbers of unstable eigendirections. The onset of UDV is usually related to the loss of transversal stability of an unstable fixed point embedded in the chaotic set. In this paper, we present a new mechanism for the onset of UDV, whereby the period of the unstable orbits losing transversal stability tends to infinity as we approach the onset of UDV. This mechanism is unveiled by means of a periodic orbit analysis of the invariant chaotic attractor for two model dynamical systems with phase spaces of low dimensionality, and seems to depend heavily on the chaotic dynamics in the invariant set. We also described, for these systems, the blowout bifurcation (for which the chaotic set as a whole loses transversal stability) and its relation with the situation where the effects of UDV are the most intense. For the latter point, we found that chaotic trajectories off, but very close to, the invariant set exhibit the same scaling characteristic of the so-called on-off intermittency.

  1. SDO and Hinode observations of a blowout jet in a coronal hole

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Peter


    A blowout jet occurred within the south coronal hole on 2011 February 9 at 09:00 UT and was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board the Hinode satellite during coronal hole monitoring performed as part of Hinode Operations Program No. 177. Images from AIA show expanding, hot and cold loops from a small bright point with plasma ejected in a curtain up to 30 Mm wide. The initial intensity front of the jet has a projected velocity of 200 km/s, and line-of-sight velocities measured by EIS are between 100 and 250 km/s. The jet plasma has a density of 2.7 x 10^8 cm^-3, and a temperature of 1.4 MK. During the event a number of bright kernels are seen at the base of the bright point. The kernels have sizes of 1000 km, are variable in brightness, and have lifetimes of 1-15 mins. A XRT filter ratio yields temperatures of 1.5-3.0 MK for the kernels. The ...

  2. Observations of quasi-periodic phenomena associated with a large blowout solar jet

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, R J; Erdélyi, R


    A variety of periodic phenomena have been observed in conjunction with large solar jets. We aim to find further evidence for {(quasi-)}periodic behaviour in solar jets and determine what the periodic behaviour can tell us about the excitation mechanism and formation process of the large solar jet. Using the 304 {\\AA} (He-II), 171 {\\AA} (Fe IX), 193 {\\AA} (Fe XII/XXIV) and 131 {\\AA} (Fe VIII/XXI) filters on-board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), we investigate the intensity oscillations associated with a solar jet. Evidence is provided for multiple magnetic reconnection events occurring between a pre-twisted, closed field and open field lines. Components of the jet are seen in multiple SDO/AIA filters covering a wide range of temperatures, suggesting the jet can be classified as a blowout jet. Two bright, elongated features are observed to be co-spatial with the large jet, appearing at the jet's footpoints. Investigation of these features reveal they are defined by multip...

  3. Intrusion dynamics of particle plumes in stratified water with weak crossflow: Application to deep ocean blowouts (United States)

    Wang, Dayang; Adams, E. Eric


    We present an experimental study of particle plumes in ambient stratification and a mild current. In an inverted framework, the results describe the fate of oil droplets released from a deep ocean blowout. A continuous stream of dense glass beads was released from a carriage towed in a salt-stratified tank. Nondimensional particle slip velocity UN ranged from 0.1 to 1.9, and particles with UN ≤ 0.5 were observed to enter the intrusion layer. The spatial distributions of beads, collected on a bottom sled towed with the source, present a Gaussian distribution in the transverse direction and a skewed distribution in the along-current direction. Dimensions of the distributions increase with decreasing UN. The spreading relations can be used as input to far-field models describing subsequent transport of particles or, in an inverted framework, oil droplets. The average particle settling velocity, Uave, was found to exceed the individual particle slip velocity, Us, which is attributed to the initial plume velocity near the point of release. Additionally, smaller particles exhibit a "group" or "secondary plume" effect as they exit the intrusion as a swarm. The secondary effect becomes more prominent as UN decreases, and might help explain observations from the 2000 Deep Spill field experiment where oil was found to surface more rapidly than predicted based on Us. An analytical model predicting the particle deposition patterns was validated against experimental measurements, and used to estimate near-field oil transport under the Deepwater Horizon spill conditions, with/without chemical dispersants.

  4. Multiscale plume modeling of the Deepwater Horizon oil-well blowout for environmental impact assessment and mitigation (United States)

    Socolofsky, S. A.; Rezvani, M.


    The accidental blowout plume of the Deepwater Horizon (DH) oil well is an unprecedented event that will have far-reaching environmental, economic, and societal impact. The subsurface structure of the blowout plume, including its layered system of intrusions, conforms qualitatively to that predicted in the literature; however, new modeling tools are currently needed to produce highly-resolved predictions of such a complex plume in the stratified and flowing ocean. We present laboratory experiments of multiphase plumes in stratification and crossflow to understand the physical mechanisms that lead to separation among the buoyant dispersed phases (oil and gas) and the entrained and dissolved constituents in the continuous phase. Scale analysis indicates that the DH plume is stratification dominated, and observed locations of hydrocarbon intrusion layers agree well with the experimentally derived empirical scaling laws. New flow visualization measurements in gas plumes in stratification demonstrate that unsteady plume oscillation and detrainment events result from regular shedding of coherent structures on the order of the plume width and are not directly related to the stratification frequency. Similar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in weak crossflows characterize the transport mechanisms in the plume wake. The results of these experiments will be used in the context of a National Science Foundation RAPID grant to validate a nested large eddy simulations (LES) / Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model of the DH plume, and early results from this model demonstrate its feasibility to capture the unsteady and complex structure of the plume evolution.

  5. Well blowout rates and consequences in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005: Implications for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Preston; Jordan, Preston D.; Benson, Sally M.


    Well blowout rates in oil fields undergoing thermally enhanced recovery (via steam injection) in California Oil and Gas District 4 from 1991 to 2005 were on the order of 1 per 1,000 well construction operations, 1 per 10,000 active wells per year, and 1 per 100,000 shut-in/idle and plugged/abandoned wells per year. This allows some initial inferences about leakage of CO2 via wells, which is considered perhaps the greatest leakage risk for geological storage of CO2. During the study period, 9% of the oil produced in the United States was from District 4, and 59% of this production was via thermally enhanced recovery. There was only one possible blowout from an unknown or poorly located well, despite over a century of well drilling and production activities in the district. The blowout rate declined dramatically during the study period, most likely as a result of increasing experience, improved technology, and/or changes in safety culture. If so, this decline indicates the blowout rate in CO2-storage fields can be significantly minimized both initially and with increasing experience over time. Comparable studies should be conducted in other areas. These studies would be particularly valuable in regions with CO2-enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and natural gas storage.

  6. Was the extreme and widespread marine oil-snow sedimentation and flocculent accumulation (MOSSFA) event during the Deepwater Horizon blow-out unique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, S.M.; Hollander, D.J.; Murk, A.J.


    During the Deepwater Horizon blowout, thick layers of oiled material were deposited on the deep seafloor. This large scale benthic concentration of oil is suggested to have occurred via the process of Marine Oil Snow Sedimentation and Flocculent Accumulation (MOSSFA). This meta-analysis investigates

  7. 基于系统动力学的井喷事故仿真研究%Study on Simulation of Blowout Accidents Based on System Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉安民; 何沙


    In order to forecast the development process of blowout accident dynamically, a system simulation flow chart for blowout accident was built combined with the relevant principles of System Dynamic and based on the analysis of blowout accident main influential factors. The System Dynamic simulation software Vensim was used to simulate the overall process of blowout accident. Monitoring and early warning of oil and gas wells dynamically were achieved. The research results indicate that the blowout accident is caused by the cross-coupling functions of human factors, management factors, environmental factors, equipment factors, and laws and regulations factors.%为动态预测井喷事故发展过程,在分析导致井喷事故主要因素的基础上,结合系统动力学的相关原理,构建井喷事故系统仿真流图,并运用系统动力学仿真软件Vensim对井喷事故的整体流程进行仿真,实现了对油气井安全水平的动态监测和预警.结果表明:井喷事故的发生是由人为因素、管理因素、环境因素、设备因素和法律法规因素四大子系统的交叉耦合作用而导致整个油气井系统的安全水平低于井喷事故的安全临界点所造成的.

  8. Lateral cortex blowout during PFNA blade insertion in a subtrochanteric fracture -Should bone quality determine the type of nail used?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Gurpur Kini; Lai Choon Hin; Jikku Haniball


    Subtrochanteric fractures pose a therapeutic challenge to the surgeons.With the advent of proximal femoral nails, most of the cases are treated with nailing.Newer nails like proximal femoral nail ant-rotation (PFNA) require the blade to be directly hammered into the bone compared to older nails where the screws are drilled and tapped before insertion.We report one such case in a middle aged female that had intraoperative lateral cortex blowout during PFNA blade insertion in a sclerotic bone.This occurrence to the best of our knowledge is unreported in literature.It is therefore imperative to consider the quality of bone before a decision is made on the implant chosen.

  9. Driver model used in vehicle tire blow-out simulation%用于爆胎车辆仿真的驾驶员模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 郭孔辉


    分析了驾驶员模型在汽车爆胎仿真应用中存在的问题及爆胎后车辆响应特性的变化,指出爆胎后车辆响应特性发生改变是导致驾驶员模型不能控制爆胎后汽车回到原路径的根本原因。建立了考虑爆胎后车辆左、右转向特性不对称的驾驶员模型,并进行了仿真。最后在原驾驶员模型中加入状态参考器,并对不同车速下的状态参考器参数进行辨识。解决了驾驶员模型在汽车爆胎仿真中的应用问题,为进一步研究汽车爆胎后驾驶员的操作规律及爆胎后汽车的稳定性控制提供了参考。%The problem of application of the driver model in the vehicle tire blow-out simulation and the changes of the vehicle response behavior after the tire blow-out were analyzed,and it was found that vehicle response changes after the tire blow-out are the main cause leading to the problem that the driver model can not drive the vehicle back to the original trajectory.A new driver model considering the fact that the vehicle is characterized by unsymmetric leftward and rightward turning after the tire blow-out was built and its simulation was performed.A vehicle state reference module was embedded in the original driver model and its parameters were identified under different driving speeds.Thus the problem of application of the driver model in the vehicle tire blow-out was solved,providing a reference for the study of driver operation behavior and stability control of the vehicle after tire blow-out.

  10. Modeling the key factors that could influence the diffusion of CO2 from a wellbore blowout in the Ordos Basin, China. (United States)

    Li, Qi; Shi, Hui; Yang, Duoxing; Wei, Xiaochen


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) blowout from a wellbore is regarded as a potential environment risk of a CO2 capture and storage (CCS) project. In this paper, an assumed blowout of a wellbore was examined for China's Shenhua CCS demonstration project. The significant factors that influenced the diffusion of CO2 were identified by using a response surface method with the Box-Behnken experiment design. The numerical simulations showed that the mass emission rate of CO2 from the source and the ambient wind speed have significant influence on the area of interest (the area of high CO2 concentration above 30,000 ppm). There is a strong positive correlation between the mass emission rate and the area of interest, but there is a strong negative correlation between the ambient wind speed and the area of interest. Several other variables have very little influence on the area of interest, e.g., the temperature of CO2, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and stability class values. Due to the weather conditions at the Shenhua CCS demonstration site at the time of the modeled CO2 blowout, the largest diffusion distance of CO2 in the downwind direction did not exceed 200 m along the centerline. When the ambient wind speed is in the range of 0.1-2.0 m/s and the mass emission rate is in the range of 60-120 kg/s, the range of the diffusion of CO2 is at the most dangerous level (i.e., almost all Grade Four marks in the risk matrix). Therefore, if the injection of CO2 takes place in a region that has relatively low perennial wind speed, special attention should be paid to the formulation of pre-planned, emergency measures in case there is a leakage accident. The proposed risk matrix that classifies and grades blowout risks can be used as a reference for the development of appropriate regulations. This work may offer some indicators in developing risk profiles and emergency responses for CO2 blowouts.

  11. Scientific basis for safely shutting in the Macondo Well after the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout. (United States)

    Hickman, Stephen H; Hsieh, Paul A; Mooney, Walter D; Enomoto, Catherine B; Nelson, Philip H; Mayer, Larry A; Weber, Thomas C; Moran, Kathryn; Flemings, Peter B; McNutt, Marcia K


    As part of the government response to the Deepwater Horizon blowout, a Well Integrity Team evaluated the geologic hazards of shutting in the Macondo Well at the seafloor and determined the conditions under which it could safely be undertaken. Of particular concern was the possibility that, under the anticipated high shut-in pressures, oil could leak out of the well casing below the seafloor. Such a leak could lead to new geologic pathways for hydrocarbon release to the Gulf of Mexico. Evaluating this hazard required analyses of 2D and 3D seismic surveys, seafloor bathymetry, sediment properties, geophysical well logs, and drilling data to assess the geological, hydrological, and geomechanical conditions around the Macondo Well. After the well was successfully capped and shut in on July 15, 2010, a variety of monitoring activities were used to assess subsurface well integrity. These activities included acquisition of wellhead pressure data, marine multichannel seismic profiles, seafloor and water-column sonar surveys, and wellhead visual/acoustic monitoring. These data showed that the Macondo Well was not leaking after shut in, and therefore, it could remain safely shut until reservoir pressures were suppressed (killed) with heavy drilling mud and the well was sealed with cement.

  12. Evaluation of the Biodegradable Plates (PG910/PDO) for Reconstruction of Various Sizes of Orbital Floor Defects in the Blow-Out Fractures. (United States)

    Tabrizi, Reza; Langner, Nicole J; Pouzesh, Ayatollah; Arabion, Hamidreza


    The aim of our study was to evaluate the biodegradable plates (PG910/PDO) for reconstruction of various sizes of the orbital floor defects in the blow-out fractures. We included patients who had an impure blow-out fracture. All patients had a recent trauma and also the surgical intervention was done between 1 and 10 days after trauma. The amount of the orbital floor defect was measured in each case through computed tomography scan. In the surgical intervention, a biodegradable plate was used for the reconstruction of the orbital floor defect along with titanium miniplates used for bone fixation in orbital rim. Due to aesthetic reasons, all patients underwent secondary surgery including removal of titanium miniplates after 18 months. The orbital floor was reevaluated during the removal of the miniplates. The clinical evaluation of remnant defects and biodegradable plates (presence of complete or partial resorption) were documented for each patient. In our study a total of 15 patients (10 males and 5 females) underwent the orbital floor reconstruction using biodegradable miniplates. The size of the orbital floor defects was meanly 3.51 ± 1.29 cm(2). Results demonstrated that 4 out of 15 patients had a remnant defect after resorption of the biodegradable plate. In 10 out of 15 patients, the biodegradable plates completely replaced with fibrous tissues after 18 months. Remaining five patients had partial resorption of plates. There was not any relationship between the defect size and the remnant defects (p > 0.05). A significant relationship was seen between the defect size and the plates' resorption rate (p biodegradable plates is an appropriate option for reconstruction of the orbital floor defects. The defect size does not have any effect on the stability of the plate. However, incomplete plate resorption increases the risk of remnant defects in the orbital floor. The larger defects lead to slow degradation of biodegradable plates.

  13. 深水防喷器组及控制系统实验教学平台研制%Development of experimental teaching platform of subsea blow out preventer stacks and control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宝平; 刘永红; 艾白布·阿不力米提; 于示林; 王龙庭; 董欣



  14. Preventing stroke (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... something that increases your chance of having a stroke. You cannot change some risk factors for stroke. ...

  15. Applications to marine disaster prevention spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system

    CERN Document Server


    This book focuses on the recent results of the research project funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23226017) from FY 2011 to FY 2015 on an autonomous spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system and its applications to marine disaster prevention systems from a scientific point of view. This book spotlights research on marine disaster prevention systems related to incidents involving oil tankers and offshore platforms, approaching these problems from new scientific and technological perspectives. The most essential aspect of this book is the development of a deep-sea underwater robot for real-time monitoring of blowout behavior of oil and gas from the seabed and of a new type of autonomous surface vehicle for real-time tracking and monitoring of oil spill spread and drift on the sea surface using an oil sensor. The mission of these robots is to provide the simulation models for gas and oil blowouts or spilled oil drifting on the sea surface w...

  16. Blue foot: a second case of "tattoo blow-out" pigment spread successfully treated with the QS-Nd:YAG laser. (United States)

    Khetarpal, Shilpi; Molenda, Matthew; Seiger, Eric; Pui, John; Obagi, Suzan


    The "tattoo blow-out" phenomenon occurs when tattoo pigments spread outside the border of a tattoo. It is thought to occur when ink is injected too deeply. A healthy 36-year-old female presented to a dermatologist with diffuse spread of tattoo pigment outside the original tattoo that occurred within one day of the placement of a professional tattoo on the dorsum of her foot. The patient was seeking treatment six weeks after the tattoo was placed because she thought the discoloration would improve or resolve on its own, but it worsened. Two punch biopsies were obtained for histology. The biopsy results confirmed granular black pigment consistent with a tattoo in the dermis and subcutaneous fat. The location of pigment was deeper than expected. Due to the success of the QS-Nd:YAG laser in a prior patient, the same treatment was recommended for this patient. The patient received nine laser sessions using the Q-switched laser at 1064 nm, 4 mm, 10 Hz, with gradually increasing energy from 4.5 to 6.0 J/cm2. The pigment outside of the original tattoo borders faded and is barely perceptible. It is important that physicians be made aware of tattoo complications so they can advise patients in regards to the associated risks.

  17. High quality electron bunch generation using a longitudinal density-tailored plasma-based accelerator in the three-dimensional blowout regime

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X L; An, W; Yu, P; Lu, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B


    The generation of very high quality electron bunches (high brightness and low energy spread) from a plasma-based accelerator in the three-dimensional blowout regime using self-injection in tailored plasma density profiles is analyzed theoretically and with particle-in-cell simulations. The underlying physical mechanism that leads to the generation of high quality electrons is uncovered by tracking the trajectories of the electrons as they cross the sheath and are trapped by the wake. Details on how the intensity of the driver and the density scale-length of the plasma control the ultimate beam quality are described. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that this concept has the potential to produce beams with peak brightnesses between $10^{20}$ and $10^{21}$ $\\mathrm{A}/\\mathrm{m}^2/\\mathrm{rad}^2$and with absolute projected energy spreads of $\\sim 0.3~\\mathrm{MeV}$ using existing lasers or electron beams to drive nonlinear wakefields.

  18. Successful rescue from cardiac arrest in a patient with postinfarction left ventricular blow-out rupture: "extra-pericardial aortic cannulation" for establishment total cardiopulmonary bypass. (United States)

    Ohira, Suguru; Yaku, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Akihiko


    We report a quick and simple technique to establish cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a left ventricular (LV) blow-out rupture. A 74-year-old woman with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction suddenly collapsed and lost consciousness. A venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) device was inserted by femoral cannulation. Emergent median sternotomy was performed. The pericardium was not opened first, and the thymus was divided to expose the ascending aorta just above the pericardial reflection. After placing two purse-string sutures on the distal ascending aorta, a 7-mm aortic cannula (Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) was inserted. The pericardium was then incised. A large volume of blood was expelled from the pericardial space, and CPB was initiated with suction drainage. A two-stage venous drainage cannula was then inserted from the right atrial appendage without hemodynamic collapse. After cardiac arrest, closure of ruptured LV wall and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting were performed. The patient was weaned from CPB with an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and the previously inserted venous-arterial ECMO. Extra-pericardial aortic cannulation is an effective and reproducible method to prepare for CPB in emergent cases of LV rupture.

  19. Rape prevention (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. ...

  20. Prevent Cyberbullying (United States)

    ... Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ... More Than a Bystander GET HELP NOW Home > Cyber Bullying > Prevent Cyberbullying CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent ...

  1. 眼眶爆裂性骨折早期立体视觉改变的观察%The stereoscopic vision change in patients with orbital blowout fracture at early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯洁; 吕学森; 王志安; 胡伟; 王月训; 王盟; 叶青


    目的 观察眼眶爆裂性骨折患者早期立体视觉状况.方法 应用计算机断层扫描(CT)测量和计算机软件,对28例眼眶爆裂性骨折进行眼眶扫描,并测量眼眶容积及眼球突出度,采用颜少明《立体视觉检查图》检测其立体视锐度以及同视机三级功能的检测.结果 患眼眼眶容积比对侧健眼眼眶容积增加,其增加量与眼球内陷度呈正相关.早期眼眶爆裂性骨折患者立体视觉有不同程度的下降.结论 眼眶骨折的手术适应证除了考虑眼球内陷、复视等因素之外,立体视锐度的损伤也是手术考量的因素之一.%Objective To observe the stereoscopic vision changes in patients with orbital blowout fracture at early stage.Methods The orbital volume and enophthalmos were measured and calculated with CT measurements and computer software in 28 patients of orbital blowout fracture.The stereoscopic vision of them were examined with stereogram designed by YAN Shao-ming and synoptophone Ⅲ.Results The orbital volume on the damaged side was bigger than the undamaged side.The increase in the amount of orbital volume was positively correlated with amount of eyeball wall invagination.The stereoscopic vision of patients of orbital blowout fracture at early stage would decline at different degrees.Conclusion The extra attention should be paid to the changes of stereopsis during the treatment of orbital blowout fracture.Besides endophthalmos and diplopia,the changes of stereopsis should be one of the indicators for surgeries.

  2. Drowning Prevention (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drowning Prevention: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Drowning ... in very cold water for lengthy periods. Drowning Prevention: Know the Warning Signs These signs may signal ...

  3. Salmonella Prevention (United States)

    ... FDA) USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service Follow Salmonella RSS Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick Tips for Preventing Salmonella Cook poultry, ground beef, and eggs thoroughly. Do ...

  4. Dengue Prevention (United States)

    ... there are no specific medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ... If someone in your house is ill with dengue, take extra precautions to prevent mosquitoes from biting the patient and going on ...

  5. 多级旋流燃烧室贫油熄火特性的实验研究和数值分析%Numerical Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Lean Blowout Performance in A Multi-Swirled Gas Turbine Combustor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楷雨; 杨金虎; 刘富强; 刘存喜; 穆勇; 徐纲


    Lean blowout is one of the most important parameter to evaluate the performance of the gas turbine combustor.This paper fo-cusing on a multi-swirled gas turbine combustor, verify and improve the classical lean blowout model advanced by A.H.Lefebrve.The influence of swirled atomization on the lean blowout is taken into account to make the improved model more exact and pertinent.A tri-ple-swirled single-sector test combustor is designed for the lean blowout test at atmospheric pressure.The test verifies the improved lean blowout model.Then the character of near lean blowout in the recirculation zone is studied numerically.The study sums up the variety of the character to assist analysis of the lean blowout.%贫油熄火极限是衡量航空发动机燃烧室性能的重要参数之一. 针对多级旋流燃烧室,对经典的Lefebrve熄火模型进行了验证,加入旋流雾化对熄火的影响,结合旋流雾化的燃油平均滴径公式使得计算熄火极限更简便. 设计了一套三级旋流燃烧室单头部实验件,搭建实验台并进行常压熄火实验,结合实验结果对改进的熄火模型进行了验证. 同时对临近熄火过程中燃烧室流场进行了数值模拟,重点对熄火过程中回流区核心内关键特征参数进行了研究,总结了这些特征参数的变化规律,辅助分析燃烧室的贫油熄火极限.

  6. 深水钻井井喷事故情景构建及应急能力评估%Scenario design of blowout accidents in deepwater drilling and emergency capacity assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷志明; 张红生; 周建良; 李迅科


    Deepwater oil and gas development faces enormous risks and challenges. Especially when blowout out of control ac-cident occurs in the development process, the emergency rescue will be very dififcult. Scenario design approach for major accidents is used to build blowout scenarios in the drilling of a deepwater exploratory well in the South China Sea, covering the whole process from overlfow to blowout out of control, ifre and explosion of platform, platform overturn and sinking, underwater emergency well shut-in and relief well digging, spilled oil recycling and ecological restoration. The demands for engineering technology, equipment and staff for the emergency rescue are analyzed and evaluated and suggestions on the research of emergency rescue technology in the next stage in China are provided. The research results can be a reference for the independent building of emergency rescue engineering technique system in well control of deepwater drilling in China.%深水油气开发面临着巨大的风险和挑战,尤其是在油气开发过程中如果发生井喷失控事故,应急救援将十分困难。采用重大事故情景构建方法,建立南中国海某深水探井在钻井期间发生井喷失控事故情景,包括从溢流发生到井喷失控、平台发生火灾爆炸、平台倾覆沉没、水下应急封井及打救援井、溢油回收处理及生态恢复,并对应急救援必须的工程技术、设备、人员等需求进行分析和评估,对我国下一阶段开展应急救援技术研究提出建议。研究结果对我国自主建立深水钻井井控应急救援工程技术体系有一定参考意义。

  7. 计算机辅助快速成型钛网在眼眶爆裂骨折整复中的应用%Orbital blowout fracture reconstruction using titanium mesh pre-bent with computer-aided rapid prototy-ping technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翔; 陈伟; 曹罡; 董震; 徐金科; 刘秉尧; 罗婷苑; 马娟; 张森林


    Objective This study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of orbital blowout fracture repair using the individual titanium mesh bent by computer-aided rapid prototyping . Methods The CT imaging data of 11 cases of orbital blowout fracture were analyzed.The subciliary approach was used for the exposure of the fractures .An appropriate 3D-printed titanium mesh pre-bent by computer-aided rapid prototyping was selected and implanted according to the characteristics of a given defect .The surgical results were analyzed by evaluating diplopia , eyeball movement , enophthalmos , and the position of the titanium mesh and comparing the orbital vol-ume before and after surgery . Results All the operations were successfully accomplished .No remolding or trimming was needed for the pre-bent titanium mesh and implanted titanium mesh was tightly fixed to the orbital wall .The patients were followed up for 3 -12 months, which revealed no symptoms of diplopia in any of the patients . Volumetric analysis showed a significantly reduced orbital volume difference from (2.60 ±0.43) mL preoperatively to (-0.07 ±0.62) mL postoperatively (P<0.01).Enophthalmos was desirably correc-ted, with the enophthalmos difference decreased from (2.35 ±0.81)mm preoperatively to (-0.10 ±0.52) mm postoperatively (P<0.01).No extra-ocular muscle limitation was observed . Conclusion The individual titanium mesh bent with computer-aided rapid prototyping technology can be applied to orbital blowout fracture repair , which may achieve a high success rate of anatomic restoration of the orbital volume and effective prevention of enophthalmos .%目的:由于眶下壁和眶内侧壁的形态不规则,且衬垫的钛网通常是在术中由医师根据经验手工弯制和塑形,难以精确恢复眶壁的原有形态,故整复效果难以得到保障。本研究分析应用计算机辅助快速成型技术预弯的钛网修复眼眶爆裂骨折的临床疗效。方法根据11例眼眶爆裂骨折患

  8. Poison Prevention (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  9. Preventive Medicine. (United States)

    Jozwiak, Dick


    Argues the importance of regularly inspecting thermoplastic roofs to avoid costly repairs. Preventive measures such as access restriction and the use of protective mats and pads to prevent third-party accidents are discussed as is the importance of checking for drain blockages. (GR)

  10. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  11. Bullying Prevention (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice


    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  12. HIV Prevention (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... your partners. Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  13. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  14. Hess area ratio and the postoperative diplopia in patients undergoing surgery for orbital floor blowout fracture%Hess屏面积比与眶底爆裂性骨折患者术后复视的预后评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏庆; 周军; 傅涛; 卢炜; 王京辉


    Objective To investigate the value of the Hess area ratio (HAR%) in predicting postoperative diplopia in patients undergoing surgery for orbital floor blowout fracture.Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 19 patients with orbital floor blow-out fractures.All patients had diplopia and underwent surgical reconstruction with incision under the eyelashes which was performed by one surgeon within 1 month after injury except 1 case within 2 month.Manual Hess screen test was measured before and 3 months after surgery.Diplopia was checked and the severity was recorded accordingly.Results The postoperative HAR% was significantly improved compared with preoperative HAR% in patients who underwent repair surgery (P < 0.05).All patients with preoperative HAR% > 85% had no postoperative diplopia.Five of 6 (83.33%) patients having a preoperative HAR% < 65% had postoperative diplopia,including 3 patients of Grade Ⅲ diplopia.For the patients with HAR% between 65% and 85%,6 of 8 (75%) had postoperative diplopia,with one of them having Grade Ⅲ diplopia.Conclusions It is effective using the HAR% to convert Hess graphic representation to a numerical value,and feasible to predict surgical outcomes of diplopia in patients undergoing surgery for orbital floor blowout fractures.%目的 探讨Hess屏面积比(HAR%)在评估眶底爆裂性骨折患者术后复视的预后价值.方法 眶底爆裂性骨折19例,手术前均有复视,18例于外伤后1个月内行眶底骨折整复手术,手术由同一术者施行,采用经下睑睫毛下切口.于手术前和手术后3个月分别进行Hess屏检查计算HAR%,并记录复视的程度.结果 各组患者的手术前和手术后的HAR%差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).在手术后3个月,术前HAR%>85%的患者在眶壁骨折整复术后没有复视;术前HAR%<65%的患者5例(83.33%)术后有复视,其中3例(50%)是Ⅲ级复视;HAR%介于65%和85

  15. Cholera Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention Control Topics Six Basic Cholera Prevention Messages I nfection ...

  16. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (United States)

    ... About Suicide Prevention We Can All Prevent Suicide Mental Health & Suicide Prevention Glossary Stories of Hope and Recovery Get Involved Participate Social Media Hub Promote National Suicide Prevention Month Providers & Professionals ...

  17. Lung Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  19. Risk Factors and Prevention (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  20. Skin Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  1. Operational verification of a blow out preventer utilizing fiber Bragg grating based strain gauges (United States)

    Turner, Alan L.; Loustau, Philippe; Thibodeau, Dan


    Ultra-deep water BOP (Blowout Preventer) operation poses numerous challenges in obtaining accurate knowledge of current system integrity and component condition- a salient example is the difficulty of verifying closure of the pipe and shearing rams during and after well control events. Ascertaining the integrity of these functions is currently based on a manual volume measurement performed with a stop watch. Advances in sensor technology now permit more accurate methods of BOP condition monitoring. Fiber optic sensing technology and particularly fiber optic strain gauges have evolved to a point where we can derive a good representation of what is happening inside a BOP by installing sensors on the outside shell. Function signatures can be baselined to establish thresholds that indicate successful function activation. Based on this knowledge base, signal variation over time can then be utilized to assess degradation of these functions and subsequent failure to function. Monitoring the BOP from the outside has the advantage of gathering data through a system that can be interfaced with risk based integrity management software and/or a smart monitoring system that analyzes BOP control redundancies without the requirement of interfacing with OEM control systems. The paper will present the results of ongoing work on a fully instrumented 13-½" 10,000 psi pipe ram. Instrumentation includes commonly used pressure transducers, accelerometers, flow meters, and optical strain gauges. Correlation will be presented between flow, pressure, acceleration signatures and the fiber optic strain gauge's response as it relates to functional verification and component level degradation trending.

  2. Prevention and Control of Cryptosporidiosis (United States)

    ... Email Address Submit Button What's this? Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention & Control Topics Prevention & Control - General Public Prevention & Control - ...

  3. [Prevention of dementia]. (United States)

    Urakami, Katsuya


    The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention).

  4. Reflections on preventive medicine. (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S


    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection.

  5. Jet lag prevention (United States)

    ... Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  6. Men's Health: Violence Prevention (United States)

    ... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in your ... help. Return to top More information on Violence prevention for men Explore other publications and websites Are ...

  7. Home Injury Prevention (United States)

    ... fax • HOME INJURY PREVENTION Home Injur y Prevention A helpful guide for patients and their caregivers. General cont’d. •Be alert ...

  8. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... the treatments? Are there complications? Does it affect pregnancy? How is it prevented? NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Can vaginitis be prevented? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content These steps can ...

  9. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  10. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D


    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...

  11. Marine Pollution Prevention Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  12. Prevent Bite Wounds (United States)

    ... Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Prevention > Prevent Bite Wounds ... animals or other humans. Consider the following statistics: there are about 4.5 million dog bites reported annually in the United States, along ...

  13. Prevention of Food Poisoning. (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  14. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  15. Chickenpox Prevention and Treatment (United States)

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Shingles Prevention & Treatment Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... by Your Doctor Español: Prevención y tratamiento Prevention The best way to prevent chickenpox is to ...

  16. Sustainability of prevention. (United States)

    Swisher, J D; Clayton, R


    This paper outlines the guidelines for sustaining prevention and makes suggestions for getting from the field's current status to greater levels of permanence for prevention. The paper begins by reviewing the status of prevention, then focuses on major considerations for achieving sustainability, including two processes of institutionalization, comprehensive programming and professionalism.

  17. Preventive Medicine Redefined. (United States)

    Moore, George


    Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

  18. Use of SLAB View for simulation of natural gas diffusion in blowouts of sour gas well%SLAB View 软件在含硫天然气井井喷泄漏扩散模拟中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗钦; 赵煜晖; 廖柯熹; 向方倩; 周东


    This paper describes the SLAB heavy gas dispersion modeling and uses SLAB View to simulate the H2 S diffusion process and hazardous areas in a sour gas well blowouts .It identifies the influence range of H2 S cloud cluster at specified concentration averaging time ,the time w hen the H2 S cloud cluster of specified concentration reaches the furthest distance ,and the furthest diffuse distance in wind direction .The comparison shows that SLAB View offers an easier and faster option to simu‐late leakage and diffusion process during sour gas well blowouts on flat terrains ,and therefore it is a useful tool for the prediction of the diffusion consequence and influence range .%介绍了SLAB重气泄漏扩散模型,并运用SLAB View 软件模拟了某含硫气井发生井喷事故 H2 S云团的扩散过程和危害区域,得出了H2 S云团在指定浓度平均时间下的影响范围,以及指定浓度 H2 S云团出现在最远距离的时间和最远下风向扩散距离。结果表明,SLAB View 软件能方便、快速地模拟平坦地形下含硫天然气井喷泄漏扩散过程,预测事故泄漏扩散后果和影响范围。

  19. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D


    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  20. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    to abating such tax evasion has been reformed and a new mix-method approach adopted. This approach combines a proactive strategy—Preventing Financial Crime—with a reactive inspection strategy. During one a month of intensive fieldwork in Sweden, I studied the daily work in Preventing Financial Crime. Based......This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... in the preventive work as there is no legal base to support the preventive measures. All the preventive work must be organised on a voluntary basis. This requires exceptional persuasive abilities on the side of the tax officials as they need to get their agenda on top of the external partners’ agenda. The analysis...

  1. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep


    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  2. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  3. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.


    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  4. Child Maltreatment Prevention (United States)

    ... Violence Data LGB Suicidal Thoughts & Experiences Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ...

  5. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention (United States)

    ... Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco Treatments Injuries & ...

  6. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  7. Prevention of High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  8. Prevention de la Poliomyelite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baltazard


    Full Text Available In Iran, the prevention of poliomyelitis is practically limited to vaccinatton This paper, however, gives a detailed account of the preventive measures attempting to check the spread of the infection and of those aiming at the reduction of the frequency of the paralytic manifestation

  9. Prevention dependence of marihuana


    VOJTĚCHOVÁ, Jiřina


    This diploma thesis finds out, confronts knowledge and experience with drugs at the pupils. It characterizes drug addiction, its emergence and reasons. It deals with the problems of drug prevention, their possibilities and practices applied at schools. It describes laws about using drugs. And the survey shows that the primary prevention of using marihuana cannot be underestimated.

  10. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention. (United States)

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul


    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  11. Can I Prevent Acne? (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? A A A en español ¿Puedo ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Why Do I Get Acne? Myths About Acne Should I Pop ...

  12. Preventing High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  13. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  14. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen


    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  15. Prevention of hip fractures. (United States)

    Meunier, P J


    For a 50-year old Caucasian woman today, the risk of a hip fracture over her remaining life-time is about 17%. Tomorrow the situation will clearly be worse because the continuous increase in life expectancy will cause a three-fold increase in worldwide fracture incidence over the next 60 years. Through diagnostic bone mass measurements at the hip and assessment of biochemical parameters, a great deal has been learned in recent years about reduction of hip fracture risk. Preventive strategies are based on prevention of falls, use of hip protectors, and prevention of bone fragility. The latter includes the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood, postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and also late prevention consisting in reversing senile secondary hyperparathyroidism, which plays an important role in the decrease of skeletal strength. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, which results from both vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake, is preventable with vitamin D3 and calcium supplements. They have recently been shown capable of providing effective prevention of hip fractures in elderly women living in nursing homes, with a reduction of about 25% in the number of hip fractures noted in a 3-year controlled study in 3,270 women (intention-to-treat analysis). In conclusion, it is never too early to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and never too late to prevent hip fractures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna


    Full Text Available Life style factors are contributing significantly in cancer prevention. With the intake of proper and balanced diet ,cancer prevention is possible. Many foods are associated either with incidence or prevention of cancer. Plant based foods like fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains rich in fiber, b-carotene, vitamins and antioxidants can prevent cancer. Fiber rich foods increase bowel movement, decreasing the absorption of cholesterol. Pumpkin, carrots contain b-carotenes. Leafy vegetables, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, peas and beans are rich in fiber and stimulate cancer preventing enzyme induction. Vitamin C rich citrus fruits can stimulate immune system. Garlic and onions can stimulate enzymes that can suppress tumor growth. Turmeric used in cooking can prevent colorectal cancer. Topical application of turmeric can prevent breast cancer in women. On the other hand, certain foods can cause cancer. Refined foods, high fat foods, deep fried foods, processed foods and low fiber foods increase cancer risk. Red meat, processed meat and barbeques contain a carcinogen called acrylamide. Foods prepared with hydrogenated fats contain transfats which increase risk for breast, ovarian, cervical and lung cancer. Consumption of alcohol increasing the risk for cancers of digestive system. LET US EAT RIGHT FOODS AND AVOID WRONG FOODS.

  17. Prevention of lipohypertrophy. (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Kumar, Arun; Gupta, Yashdeep


    Lipohypertrophy is an important insulin injection site reaction, which has clinically significant sequelae, including a greater risk of glycaemic variability and higher insulin dose requirement. This article describes the prevention of lipohypertrophy, using the concept of levels of prevention. It enumerates methods of primordial, primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary prevention of lipohypertrophy. Focus on patient education, site rotation, avoidance of needle reuse, and dose titration when shifting from injection in lipohypertrophic lesions to normal subcutaneous tissue, helps minimize the development and impact of lipohypertrophy.

  18. Primary Prevention With Statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... prevention of ASCVD with statins was superior to the trial-based and hybrid approaches. Our results indicate that the ACC/AHA guidelines will prevent more ASCVD events than the trial-based and hybrid approaches, while treating fewer people compared with the trial-based approach....

  19. 钛网植入治疗眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折眼球内陷%Titanium mesh implantation for the treatment of enophthalmos caused by blow-out fractures of orbital medial and inferior walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金国; 张静楷; 陈松; 韩琪; 颜华


    目的 探讨钛网植入治疗眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折后眼球内陷的效果.方法 回顾性分析11例(11只眼)眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折行钛网植入手术的临床资料.术前眼球内陷4.0 ~6.5mm,伴双眼复视者2例,眼球下移位者4例.手术入路为下睑缘切口联合鼻侧皮肤切口,分别于骨膜下植入钛网覆盖眶内壁及下壁骨折缺损区.结果 术后随访7~11个月,眼球内陷均矫正至1 mm以内,2例复视完全消失,4例眼球移位均完全矫正.术后无感染、植人物脱出、排斥或移位等并发症.结论 单纯应用钛网治疗眼眶内下壁爆裂性骨折引起的眼球内陷安全有效,重建眶腔特殊解剖形态、完全还纳脱出的眶内容物是治疗的关键.%Objective To evaluate the effect of titanium mesh implantation for enophthalmos secondary to blow-out fractures of orbital medial and inferior walls.Methods The surgical effects of 11 cases (11 eyes) of blow-out fractures of orbital medial and inferior walls who received titanium mesh implantation for orbital reconstruction were analyzed retrospectively.Preoperatively,all cases showed 4.0 to 6.5mm enophthalmos among whom 2 cases had diplopia and 4 cases had apparent vertical globe dystopia.For all the cases,inferior subciliary approach combined with nasal lateral approach were performed,and 2 titanium mesh plates were implanted under the periosteum to cover the area of the inferior and medial orbital wall fracture respectively in order to reconstruct the normal orbital cavity.Results Postoperatively,after a followed up period of 7-11 months,the enophthalmos of all cases was corrected to less than l mm successfully,the preoperative diplopia disappeared in all the 2 cases,the vertical globe dystopia of 4 cases disappeared totally,and no complication such as infection,extrusion,rejection or migration of the implants occurred.Conclusion Titanium mesh plates implantation only is safe and effective to correct the enophthalmos

  20. Histoplasmosis Risk and Prevention (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets histoplasmosis? Anyone can get histoplasmosis if they’ve been ...

  1. Preventing pressure ulcers (United States)

    ... page: // Preventing pressure ulcers To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pressure ulcers are also called bedsores, or pressure sores. They ...

  2. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh


    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  3. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  4. Infection Prevention in Transplantation. (United States)

    Pergam, Steven A


    The number of patients undergoing hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation are increasing every year, as are the number of centers both transplanting and caring for these patients. Improvements in transplant procedures, immunosuppressive regimens, and prevention of transplant-associated complications have led to marked improvements in survival in both populations. Infections remain one of the most important sources of excess morbidity and mortality in transplant, and therefore, infection prevention strategies are a critical element for avoiding these complications in centers caring for high-risk patients. This manuscript aims to provide an update of recent data on prevention of major healthcare-associated infections unique to transplantation, reviews the emergence of antimicrobial resistant infections, and discusses updated strategies to both identify and prevent transmission of these pathogens in transplant recipients.

  5. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Bone ... with osteoporosis need to take care not to fall down. Falls can break bones. Some reasons people ...

  6. Scabies: Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Error processing SSI file Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  7. Prevention of Hepatitis B (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn


    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034

  8. Prevention in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul


    for the conference, collected materials from scribes during the conference and additional resources collated in advance of the meeting, authors agreed on the summary document. RESULTS: The Prevention in Practice conference aimed to collate information about which diseases could be prevented in practice, how diseases...... and that the use of effective skill mix would be key to realizing efficiencies. The evidence base for prevention of caries and periodontal disease has been available for many years, as have the tools and techniques to detect, diagnose and stage the diseases appropriately. Dentistry finds itself in a enviable...... position with respect to its ability to prevent, arrest and reverse much of the burden of disease, however, it is clear that the infrastructure within primary care must be changed, and practitioners and their teams appropriately supported to deliver this paradigm shift from a surgical to a medical model....

  9. Pollution prevention through chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J.J.; Anastas, P.T.; Hassur, S.M.; Tobin, P.S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics


    Prosperity without pollution, and the consideration of how to achieve this economic and environmental imperative, has become the fundamental environmental theme of the 1990s. The new strategy--pollution prevention--will serve s the keystone of federal, state, and local environmental policy. The challenge is to switch from two decades of environmental policy based on pollution controls and government-mandated regulations to a future environmental policy based on pollution prevention, source reduction, recycling, and waste minimization. To make this change will require a new social compact among environmental, industrial, and regulatory interests. This chapter focuses on the role of chemistry and the contributions of synthetic and process analytical chemists. It also describes the implementation of pollution prevention concepts into the premanufacturing notice review process mandated by Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and discusses the implications of pollution prevention for chemical safety. 55 refs.

  10. Prevent Back Pain (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or ...

  11. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D;


    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... ozone therapy and probiotics; measures to increase enamel resistance to demineralization, including laser treatment of enamel, and a novel 'hybrid' technique for the treatment of primary molar caries which involves 'overlapping' of secondary and tertiary prevention--the Hall technique. Although many...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  12. Polyp Prevention Trial (United States)

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  13. Preventing Knee Injuries (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  14. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  15. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel


    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  16. 75 FR 54370 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0183, Information Requirements for Exploration Plans... (United States)


    ... techniques sufficient to prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires... review the data submitted to analyze future activities under Exploration Plans (EPs), Development...

  17. Prevention of running injuries. (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C


    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  18. Nutrition and melanoma prevention. (United States)

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P


    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention.

  19. Prevention of COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter


    Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is evidence......-based, it is clear that patients differ regarding the nature of exacerbations and are likely to benefit differently from different types of treatment. In this short review, we wish to highlight this, suggest a first step in differentiating pharmacological exacerbation prevention and call for more studies...... in this area. Finally, we wish to highlight that there are perhaps easier ways of achieving similar success in exacerbation prevention using nonpharmacological tools....

  20. Prevention of food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S


    Development of a food allergy appears to depend on both genetic factors and exposure-especially in early infancy-to food proteins. In prospective studies, the effect of dietary allergy prevention programmes has only been demonstrated in high-risk infants, i.e. infants with at least one first degree...... relative with documented atopic disease. High-risk infants feeding exclusively on breast milk and/or extensively hydrolysed formula (eHF) combined with avoidance of cow's milk proteins and solid foods during at least the first 4 months of life are found to have a significant reduction in the cumulative...... incidence of food allergy, especially cow's milk protein allergy/intolerance (CMPA/CMPI), in the first 4 years of life. As no studies have been conducted pertaining to the preventive effect of avoidance of milk and other foods after the age of 4-6 months, recommendation of preventive elimination diets...

  1. Probiotics for allergy prevention. (United States)

    West, C E


    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  2. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  3. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education. (United States)

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela – Corina Chersan


    Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

  5. Pediatric transplantation: preventing thrombosis. (United States)

    Robertson, J D


    Due to progressive advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive therapies, and supportive care, outcomes from both solid organ transplantation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation continue to improve. Thrombosis remains a challenging management issue in this context, with implications for both graft survival and long-term quality of life. Unfortunately, there remains a general paucity of pediatric-specific data regarding thrombosis incidence, risk stratification, and the safety or efficacy of preventative strategies with which to guide treatment algorithms. This review summarizes the available evidence and rationale underlying the spectrum of current practices aimed at preventing thrombosis in the transplant recipient, with a particular focus on risk factors, pathophysiology, and described antithrombotic regimens.

  6. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian


    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  7. Malaria prevention in travelers. (United States)

    Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie


    A common approach to malaria prevention is to follow the "A, B, C, D" rule: Awareness of risk, Bite avoidance, Compliance with chemoprophylaxis, and prompt Diagnosis in case of fever. The risk of acquiring malaria depends on the length and intensity of exposure; the risk of developing severe disease is primarily determined by the health status of the traveler. These parameters need to be assessed before recommending chemoprophylaxis and/or stand-by emergency treatment. This review discusses the different strategies and drug options available for the prevention of malaria during and post travel.

  8. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  9. Preventing Violence in Schools. (United States)

    Walker, Dean


    Elementary school principals are in a key position to prevent school violence. This document reviews five publications that feature strategies administrators and teachers can use to create a safe school. In "Creating Safe Environments for Learning in North Carolina's Public Schools," Tanya M. Suarez reviews the literature on school safety and…

  10. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner


    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  11. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  12. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming. (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  13. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  14. Statins and Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? NCI is developing a phase II placebo-controlled trial to evaluate whether lovastatin can reverse ...

  15. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention. (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia


    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  16. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom


    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  17. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  18. Probiotics for preventive health. (United States)

    Minocha, Anil


    Gut flora and probiotics have potential to affect health and disease far beyond the gut. There is increasing evidence that probiotics have beneficial effects in preventing a wide range of conditions and improving health. Randomized, double-blind studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics for preventing various diarrheal illnesses as well as allergic disorders. Evidence for their efficacy for use in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections is also mounting. In addition, probiotics may be useful for preventing respiratory infections, dental caries, necrotizing enterocolitis, and certain aspects of inflammatory bowel disease. Data also suggest that probiotics may promote good health in day care and work settings, and may enhance growth in healthy as well as ill and malnourished children. Results from meta-analyses and systematic reviews that combine results of studies from different types of probiotics to examine the effects in any disease state should be interpreted with caution. Specific strains are effective in specific disease states. No 2 probiotics are exactly alike; we should not expect reproducible results from studies that employ different species or strains, variable formulations, and diverse dosing schedules.

  19. Preventing Giardia Infection. (United States)

    Beer, W. Nicholas


    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narra Gopal


    Full Text Available Operation or any invasive procedure is a stressful event involving risks and complications. We should be able to offer a guarantee that the right procedure will be done on right person in the right place on their body. “Never events” are definable. These are the avoidable and preventable events. The people affected from consequences of surgical mistakes ranged from temporary injury in 60%, permanent injury in 33% and death in 7%”.World Health Organization (WHO [1] has earlier said that over seven million people across the globe suffer from preventable surgical injuries every year, a million of them even dying during or immediately after the surgery? The UN body quantified the number of surgeries taking place every year globally 234 million. It said surgeries had become common, with one in every 25 people undergoing it at any given time. 50% never events are preventable. Evidence suggests up to one in ten hospital admissions results in an adverse incident. This incident rate is not acceptable in other industries. In order to move towards a more acceptable level of safety, we need to understand how and why things go wrong and have to build a reliable system of working. With this system even though complete prevention may not be possible but we can reduce the error percentage2. To change present concept towards patient, first we have to change and replace the word patient with medical customer. Then our outlook also changes, we will be more careful towards our customers.

  1. Preventive medicine in 2030. (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas


    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role.

  2. Preventing School Violence (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena


    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  3. | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Building in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens


    Health interventions can be seen as initiatives that seek to prevent the emergence and development of impaired public health. Initiatives made in the area of prophylaxis can be experienced as anything from direct invasions of personal freedom to small traffic bumps on the roads. In this spectrum ...

  5. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria


    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....

  6. Rural Wellness and Prevention (United States)

    ... governors of U.S. states have implemented wellness and prevention programs in their states in the last few years. The programs generally promote healthy habits, understanding of risks associated with lifestyles, disease management practices, and regular physical activity. Worksites provide ...

  7. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary. (United States)

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  8. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget;


    Acute malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality risk. When episodes are prolonged or frequent, acute malnutrition is also associated with poor growth and development, which contributes to stunting Nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies to prevent...... undernutrition during the first 1,000 days from conception to 24 months of age can reduce the risks of wasting, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies. Under circumstances that exacerbate the underlying causes of undernutrition and increase the incidence of wasting, such as food insecurity related to lean...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...

  9. [Depression and suicide prevention]. (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsuhiko


    Suicide is a major public health problem and the number of suicide victims has exceeded 30,000 a year since 1998 in Japan. The rates of depression are extremely high in suicide victims. Social and environmental factors, such as the slow recovery of Japanese economy, could have a strong effect on depression and suicide, especially in middle-aged men. To reduce the number of suicide victims, we need to use both population-based and high-risk approaches, targeting individuals with high psychological and socioeconomic risks of suicide, especially depressed patients. On the other hand, the role of antidepressants in suicide prevention is a major question given the high prevalence of both depression and depression-related suicidality. Because treatment and prevention of suicide are complex and encompass many factors, success will need multi-sector collaboration.

  10. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget;


    undernutrition during the first 1,000 days from conception to 24 months of age can reduce the risks of wasting, stunting, and micronutrient deficiencies. Under circumstances that exacerbate the underlying causes of undernutrition and increase the incidence of wasting, such as food insecurity related to lean...... seasons or emergencies, or increased incidence of illness, such as diarrhea or measles, additional efforts are required to prevent and treat wasting. Special nutritious foods directly meet the increased nutrient requirements of children at risk for wasting; assistance to vulnerable households, in the form...... of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific interventions...

  11. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack TIMOFTE


    Full Text Available The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  12. Can Metformin Prevent Cancer?


    Jakubowicz, Salomón; Hospital Universitario de Caracas


    The drug metformin is widely used for 50 years by diabetics and patients with obesity. It has recently been found to prevent various cancers and reduces the aggressiveness of some tumors. El medicamento metformina es ampliamente utilizado desde hace cincuenta años por diabéticos y pacientes con obesidad. Recientemente se ha descubierto que previene varios tipos de cáncer y disminuye la agresividad de algunos tumores.

  13. Prevention of urological cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Ansari


    Full Text Available Objectives: Many urological cancers like prostate and bladder have protracted course and maybe ideal for chemoprevention strategies. This article reviews the biol-ogy, epidemiology and possible preventive strategies for the various urological cancers. Methods: The author reviewed the relevant articles published in the last 20 years and studied the biology of the various urological cancers. An attempt is made to identify the various dietary, nutritional and occupation-related factors implicated in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. The various interventions and clinical trial results are described to prove the relevance of these factors. Results: Epidemiological reports provide the strongest evidence of protective role for dietary agents in cancer of prostate, bladder and kidney. Cancers of prostate and blad-der are uniquely suitable for chemopreventive strategies. For prostate cancer strong evidence exists for a preven-tive effect of reduced fat intake, vitamin E, selenium, lycopene and soya proteins. Vitamin A administration shows a strong inverse relation to bladder cancer. Better prevention is seen with combination of high doses of vita-mins A, C, E and B6. High-energy intake is related to the higher incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC. While vitamins D and E supplementation has resulted in lower incidence of RCC. Conclusions: Numerous studies implicate dietary and nutritional factors in the onset and progression of various urological cancers. Hence, it is possible that bioactive compounds (anti-oxidants like vits. A, D, C, and E, min-erals like selenium and carotenoids like lycopene along with reduction of animal fat in diet can be a part of pre-ventive strategies for various urological cancers.

  14. Prevention of foot blisters. (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J


    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet.

  15. [Preventing cervical cancer]. (United States)

    Simon, P; Noël, J-C


    The incidence of cervical cancer has hopefully been dropping down in our industrialized countries since the introduction of both primary and secondary prevention. Nevertheless, it is still lethal in one out of two affected women though the introduction of cytological screening has dramatically reduced the mortality. Progressive diffusion of anti-HPV vaccination, the broadening of the viral types concerned, its association with existing screening measures and finally the introduction of viral detection as a screening tool must optimize the results already obtained.





    Currently, business ethics and integrity of top managers and employees are often under a big question, so we cannot rely on them. Non-compliant behavior of top management and employees related to fraud and corrupt practices lead to huge financial losses, loss of reputation and litigations. Incidents of internal fraud and embezzlement are happening in every business imaginable. Fraud prevention solutions we recommend are the fundamental for corporate financial compliance. All stakeholders must...

  17. Guidelines for prevention in psychology. (United States)


    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Preventing Ophthalmia Neonatorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy L Moore


    Full Text Available The use of silver nitrate as prophylaxis for neonatal ophthalmia was instituted in the late 1800s to prevent the devastating effects of neonatal ocular infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. At that time – during the preantibiotic era – many countries made such prophylaxis mandatory by law. Today, neonatal gonococcal ophthalmia is rare in Canada, but ocular prophylaxis for this condition remains mandatory in some provinces/ territories. Silver nitrate drops are no longer available and erythromycin, the only ophthalmic antibiotic eye ointment currently available for use in newborns, is of questionable efficacy. Ocular prophylaxis is not effective in preventing chlamydial conjunctivitis. Applying medication to the eyes of newborns may result in mild eye irritation and has been perceived by some parents as interfering with mother-infant bonding. Physicians caring for newborns should advocate for rescinding mandatory ocular prophylaxis laws. More effective means of preventing ophthalmia neonatorum include screening all pregnant women for gonorrhea and chlamydia infection, and treatment and follow-up of those found to be infected. Mothers who were not screened should be tested at delivery. Infants of mothers with untreated gonococcal infection at delivery should receive ceftriaxone. Infants exposed to chlamydia at delivery should be followed closely for signs of infection.

  19. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  20. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  1. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  2. Clinical Observation on Vertebrae Implantation via Vertebral Arch Combined with Xugu Huoxue Decation in Treating Thoracolumbar blow-out Fracture%经椎弓根植骨椎体成形内服续骨活血汤治疗胸腰椎爆裂性骨折22例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志宏; 洪启东


    目的:观察经椎弓根椎体成形内服续骨活血汤治疗胸腰椎爆裂性骨折的临床疗效.方法:自2006年7月至2010年3月期间采用后路椎弓根螺钉固定加经椎弓根植骨椎体成形内服续骨活血汤治疗胸腰椎爆裂性骨折共22例,随访时间为3~20个月,平均12个月,观察术前术后椎体高度、Cobb角及椎管矢状径变化情况.结果:22例患者术后随访未见内固定物失败,椎体矫正度丢失经分析无统计学意义.结论:经椎弓根植骨椎体成形配合续骨活血汤内服能在椎管减压和恢复椎体高度的同时重建了椎体的前中柱,使椎体重获生物学稳定,有效减少内固定应力,降低内固定的松动、断裂和远期椎体高度的丢失,促进骨折的愈合.%Objective: To observe the effects of vertebrae implantation through vertebral arch and Xugu Huoxue Decoction for treatment of thoracolumbar blow-out fracture. Methods: From the July of 2006 to the March of 2009, 22 patients with thoracolumbar blow-out fracture, underwent fixation of posterior vertebral arch by pedicle screw and implantation vertebrae through vertebral arch and took Xugu Huoxue Decoction. They were followed up time between 3 to 20 months, with an average of 12months. The vertebral height before and after the operation, the angle of Cobb, and the changing of the sagittal diameter of vertebral canal were observed. Results: No fixture failure is seen in the 22 patients after operation during the follow-up time. There was no statistical significance in terms of the loss of the vertebral correction. Conclusion: Implantation vertebrae through vertebral arch and Xugu Huoxue Decoction can reconstruct the anterior and middle column, and decompress the vertebral canal and rebuild the vertebral height. As a result, the vertebrae regains its biological stability. Moreover, this treatment has efficiently reduced the internal fixation stress, the risk of the looseness and break of internal fixture and

  3. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccines Two vaccines are available to prevent pneumococcal ... Vaccination Web page. Other ways to help prevent pneumonia You also can take the following steps to ...

  4. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets (United States)

    ... of ticks in the environment Prevents tickborne disease Cons: Tick bites can cause a painful wound and ... wounds and possible resulting infections Prevents tickborne disease Cons: Will not reduce the number of ticks in ...

  5. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention (United States)

    ... Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating and ... top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from A Lifetime of ...

  6. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...

  7. How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... Topics » Bronchitis » How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented? Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  8. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Ovarian Cancer Be Prevented? Most women have one or more ... strategies for women with a family history of ovarian cancer or BRCA mutation If your family history suggests ...

  9. Body Lice Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Body lice ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  10. Head Lice: Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  11. Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment (United States)

    ... the genetic terms used on this page Genetics, Disease Prevention and Treatment Overview How can learning about my family's health history help me prevent disease? How can I learn about my family's health ...

  12. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention (United States)

    ... Monitoring of People Being Evaluated for Ebola Virus Disease Prevention Cleaning and Decontamination Guidance for the U.S. Residence ... updated: July 22, 2015 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  13. Exercises to help prevent falls (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing features on this page, ... even more serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ...

  14. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis


    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  15. Preventing and diagnosing dementia. (United States)

    Keenan, Bernie; Jenkins, Catharine; Ginesi, Laura

    While dementia is an umbrella term for a range of degenerative brain disorders, many share similar presentations. Nurses are ideally placed to identify those at risk and empower them to access treatment and plan and prepare for their future needs--as such, they need up-to-date knowledge of the signs and symptoms of the different types of dementia to identify risk factors and make an informed diagnosis. This article, the third in a four-part series on dementia, examines the risk factors, signs, symptoms and diagnosis of dementia, as well as outlining lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise that may help to prevent the development of the condition.

  16. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  17. Preventing undernutrition in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick

    The first 1000 days (from conception to 24 months) of a child’s life are critical for long-term mental and physical development. This period is clearly marked as the optimal period of preventing malnutrition and named the “window of opportunity”. The first phase of complementary feeding (about 6...... and propose a need for further studies from low-income countries on how nutrition intake influence body composition, but also how changes in body composition in early life influence growth, development and long term health. In Paper III, we assessed the possibilities of using linear programming (LP...

  18. Preventing cervical cancer globally. (United States)

    Schmeler, Kathleen M


    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer and cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. More than 85% of cases and deaths occur in the developing world where the availability of effective screening is limited. In this issue of the journal, Pierce and colleagues (beginning on page 1273) describe a novel technique using a high-resolution microendoscope (HRME) to diagnose cervical dysplasia. This perspective reviews the limitations of existing cervical cancer screening methods currently in use in low-resource settings and the potential for HRME imaging to contribute to cervical cancer prevention in the developing world.

  19. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev


    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  20. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education. (United States)

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.


    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  1. Biorepositories- | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  2. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  3. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.


    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  4. Economic Study on Hydrate Prevention Strategies of Natural Gas-Condensate Multi-Phase Flow Pipeline%天然气-凝析液混输管道水合物防控策略经济性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗建; 郑新; 王凯; 付峻


    When the natural gas multi-phase flow pipeline is shutdown,the risk of gas hy-drate is relative high and the blowout or/and methanol, which can be used to prevent the hydrate effectively, have different costs. For the shutdown operation of the subsea pipeline of natural gas field in South China Sea with practical constraints, the amounts of gas venting and methanol injecting of different pressures levels are studied, and the cost model is pro-posed to analyze the optimal costs and related factors. The results show that there are signifi-cant differences among the costs of different strategies, and any one of the two strategies of blowout and methanol is likely to be economically optimal when they are used separately, rather than together. The best strategy depends on the amount of the assembled water in the pipeline and the methanol and natural gas prices as well.%天然气多相混输管道停输后,水合物生成风险较高,采用泄压放空、加注甲醇或两者联合使用均能有效地防控水合物生成,但其经济性不同。针对南海某气田海底管道停输工况,在充分考虑平台操作实际约束的前提下,研究了联合运用泄压与注剂措施,并提出了经济成本计算模型,分析了不同防控策略的经济性及其影响因素。结果表明,不同策略之间的经济成本差异显著,单纯注剂法和单纯放空法均有可能成为经济性最佳的水合物防控策略,而“注剂-泄压”联合策略的经济性较差;具体的最佳防控策略与管道积水量、甲醇和天然气价格密切相关。

  5. [Cellulite - causes, prevention, treatment ]. (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Tomikowska, Anna


    Cellulite is a multifactorial etiology ailment. It changes the skin topography by the formation of the skin surface's appearance, changes described as "orange peel". This prob- lem concerns 85-98% of women, and for them it is one of the most intolerable aesthetic imperfections. In the past few years the interest of scientists in this problem has clearly increased. Several theories on the pathophysiology of cel- lulite have been produced A number of different thera- peutic regimens have been developed using modern tech- nology. However, despite the many treatment options for cellulite, it is extremely important that patients should be aware that only multidirectional treatment can bring sat- isfactory results. The aim of this review was to describe the causes of cellulite, and its prevention and treatment.

  6. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin


    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making....... Comprehensive planning: This should combine the overall land use policies and the more detailed land-use regulations into one planning document covering the total jurisdiction. Presentation of political aims and objectives as well as problems and preconditions, should then justify the detailed land-use planning...

  7. Prevention of postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H


    Postoperative ileus (PI) is a major contributor to postoperative morbidity and prolonged convalescence after major surgical procedures. The pathophysiology of PI is multifactorial, including activation of the stress response to surgery, with inhibitory sympathetic visceral reflexes and inflammatory...... mediators. We update evidence on the advances in the prevention and treatment on PI. As single interventions, continuous thoracic epidural analgesia with local anesthetics and minimally invasive surgery are the most efficient interventions in the reduction of PI. The effects of pharmacological agents have...... generally been disappointing with the exception of cisapride and the introduction of the new selective peripherally acting m-opioid antagonists. Presently, introduction of a multi-modal rehabilitation programme (including continuous epidural analgesia with local anesthetics, early oral feeding and enforced...

  8. Prevention of low birthweight. (United States)

    Alam, Dewan S


    Globally an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birthweight (LBW), of those over 18 million are born in developing countries. These LBW infants are at a disproportionately higher risk of mortality, morbidity, poor growth, impaired psychomotor and cognitive development as immediate outcomes, and are also disadvantaged as adults due to their greater susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Maternal malnutrition prior to and during pregnancy manifested by low bodyweight, short stature, inadequate energy intake during pregnancy and coexisting micronutrient deficiency are considered major determinants in developing countries where the burden is too high. LBW is a multifactorial outcome and its prevention requires a lifecycle approach and interventions must be continued for several generations. So far, most interventions are targeted during pregnancy primarily due to the increased nutritional demand and aggravations of already existing inadequacy in most women. Several individually successful interventions during pregnancy include balanced protein energy supplementation, several single micro-nutrients or more recently a mix of multiple micronutrients. Nutrition education has been successful in increasing the dietary intake of pregnant women but has had no effect on LBW. The challenge is to identify a community-specific intervention package. Current evidence supports intervention during pregnancy with increased dietary intakes including promotions of foods rich in micronutrients and micronutrient supplementation, preferably with a multiple micronutrient mix. Simultaneously a culturally appropriate educational component is required to address misconceptions about diet during pregnancy and childbirth including support for healthy pregnancy with promotion of antenatal and perinatal care services. While further research is needed to identify more efficacious interventions, an urgent public health priority would be to select and

  9. The 2010 Oil Spill: MMS/BOEMRE and NEPA (United States)


    of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 19 AUG 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010...Research Service 8 The Multisale EIS includes a discussion of blowouts as a Loss of Well Control (LWC), of which a blowout is the most severe form...the project involves a subsea blowout preventer. Congressional Attention to Categorical Exclusions Congress has also focused on the use of CEs for

  10. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs. (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A


    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention.

  11. [Prevention of bicycle accidents]. (United States)

    Zwipp, H; Barthel, P; Bönninger, J; Bürkle, H; Hagemeister, C; Hannawald, L; Huhn, R; Kühn, M; Liers, H; Maier, R; Otte, D; Prokop, G; Seeck, A; Sturm, J; Unger, T


    For a very precise analysis of all injured bicyclists in Germany it would be important to have definitions for "severely injured", "seriously injured" and "critically injured". By this, e.g., two-thirds of surgically treated bicyclists who are not registered by the police could become available for a general analysis. Elderly bicyclists (> 60 years) are a minority (10 %) but represent a majority (50 %) of all fatalities. They profit most by wearing a helmet and would be less injured by using special bicycle bags, switching on their hearing aids and following all traffic rules. E-bikes are used more and more (145 % more in 2012 vs. 2011) with 600,000 at the end of 2011 and are increasingly involved in accidents but still have a lack of legislation. So even for pedelecs 45 with 500 W and a possible speed of 45 km/h there is still no legislative demand for the use of a protecting helmet. 96 % of all injured cyclists in Germany had more than 0.5 ‰ alcohol in their blood, 86 % more than 1.1 ‰ and 59 % more than 1.7 ‰. Fatalities are seen in 24.2 % of cases without any collision partner. Therefore the ADFC calls for a limit of 1.1 ‰. Some virtual studies conclude that integrated sensors in bicycle helmets which would interact with sensors in cars could prevent collisions or reduce the severity of injury by stopping the cars automatically. Integrated sensors in cars with opening angles of 180° enable about 93 % of all bicyclists to be detected leading to a high rate of injury avoidance and/or mitigation. Hanging lamps reduce with 35 % significantly bicycle accidents for children, traffic education for children and special trainings for elderly bicyclists are also recommended as prevention tools. As long as helmet use for bicyclists in Germany rates only 9 % on average and legislative orders for using a helmet will not be in force in the near future, coming up campaigns seem to be necessary to be promoted by the Deutscher

  12. HIV treatment for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosioni Juan


    Full Text Available Abstract "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated

  13. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Zhang


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to examine preschool teachers’ knowledge of, attitudes about, and training related to child sexual abuse (CSA prevention in Beijing, China. Two hundred and forty-five preschool teachers were administered the 16-item questionnaire that contained questions on CSA prevention knowledge, attitudes, and teacher training. Results showed that Chinese preschool teachers had limited knowledge on CSA prevention (M = 4.86, SD = 2.12. Less than 5% of the teachers ever attended CSA prevention training programs. Preschool teachers’ training on CSA prevention was the significant factor for their knowledge and attitudes. To help protect children against sexual abuse, there is an urgent need to develop appropriate prevention training programs for preschool teachers in China.

  14. Challenges in pressure ulcer prevention. (United States)

    Dealey, Carol; Brindle, C Tod; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan; Clark, Michael


    Although this article is a stand-alone article, it sets the scene for later articles in this issue. Pressure ulcers are considered to be a largely preventable problem, and yet despite extensive training and the expenditure of a large amount of resources, they persist. This article reviews the current understanding of pressure ulcer aetiology: pressure, shear and microclimate. Individual risk factors for pressure ulceration also need to be understood in order to determine the level of risk of an individual. Such an assessment is essential to determine appropriate prevention strategies. The main prevention strategies in terms of reducing pressure and shear and managing microclimate are studied in this article. The problem of pressure ulceration related to medical devices is also considered as most of the standard prevention strategies are not effective in preventing this type of damage. Finally, the possibility of using dressings as an additional preventive strategy is raised along with the question: is there enough evidence to support their use?

  15. Accounting fraud detection and prevention




    The purpose, of my thesis, was to extend results of my previous thesis concerning ethics in accounting. Mainly in the field of accounting fraud detection and prevention. First, I referred to ethics in accounting, financial fraud, risks resulting from its insufficient sentencing and specific types of fraud. Secondly, I described methods of accounting fraud detection and prevention. Among others internal audit, whistleblowing, software, preventive controls, confirmation of work history and educ...

  16. Workplace harassment prevention in Finland


    Lorek, Angelika


    The proposed research concerns the engagement of companies operating in Finland in prevention of workplace harassment. The main target of the thesis is to understand the importance of the prevention of workplace harassment in the work environment. Research analyses what measures companies take in order to prevent workplace harassment and how is it monitored. As a primary research, interview findings of four Finnish companies (“Company X”, DHL Finland, ISS Palvelut and Management Institute...

  17. The justice of preventive war


    Stephenson, Henry Alan


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions including preventive war. Prevention, undertaken in the absence of an act of aggression or an imminent threat, is prohibited by modern conceptions of just war and international law. Many critics of the strategy fear that any legitimization of preventive war would e...

  18. [Doping: effectiveness, consequences, prevention]. (United States)

    Guezennec, C Y


    The use of doping is linked with the history of sports. Doping abuse escalated until the mid sixties when government and sports authorities responded with antidoping laws and drug testing. Today, the details of substances detected in controls give a good indication on the importance of doping use. Three classes of pharmaceuticals account for most of the positive controls. They are anabolic steroids, stimulants and narcotics. Their use can be related with the goal of the athletes. Anabolic steroids are mainly used in sports such as bodybuilding or weight lifting in order to develop strength. Stimulants are used in sports were speed favors performance. All the products that enhance blood oxygen transportation are used in endurance sports, their efficacy is not scientifically demonstrated, but their use does result in real risks. Several studies have evidenced the medical problems resulting from prolonged doping. Doping control is impaired by the fact that many products now used, e.g. EPO or rhGH, are not detectable. Regular medical examination of athletes could help prevent use of doping.

  19. Preventive self-governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturloni Giancarlo


    Full Text Available No field of western society has remained untouched by the events of September 11. Lastly, science and science communication are also bearing the consequences. During the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Denver, Colorado, on February 15, 2003, the major international scientific magazines, faced with the bioterrorism alarm and the fear of seeing important information fall in the wrong hands, announced their intention to resort to an unprecedented security measure: preventive self-governance.1 They consider the Statement on Scientific Publication and Security as a manifesto of the sense of responsibility that the scientific community feels about global terror. In part four, after recalling the 9/11tragedy, the 32 publishers, scientific associations and scientists who signed the Statement (among which also the directors of Nature and Science stated that “On occasion an editor may conclude that the potential harm of publication outweighs the potential societal benefits. Under such circumstances, the paper should be modified, or not be published ”


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranab Jyoti


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Rabies is a zoonotic disease and its magnitude of problem is underestimated due to lack of surveillance. In spite of hundred percent fa tality, the optimistic view is that it is totally and absolutely preventable with the aid of effective post-exposure prophylaxis. It is prevalent mainly in the developing countries like Africa and A sia. Wild carnivorous animals act as reservoir and domestic/peridomestic warm blooded ani mals transmit the virus to the human population. It is popularly known as “Hydrophobia” in h uman and children are at particularly risk. More than 3.3 billion people live in regions w here rabies is enzootic. Dog bite is the principal mode of infection in India and lower limb i s the most common site of injury. Ineffective surveillance, shortage of TCV and Immunoglobulin ma nufacturer and its high cost, peoples ignorance of first aid measures after bite and the importance of compliance of PEP, uncontrolled street dog population etc. are the key issues which should be addressed to tackle this problem.

  1. Calcification prevention tablets (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.


    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  2. Prevention of Foodborne Listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Farber


    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium which, although recognized in the medical literature as an opportunistic pathogen for the past 60 years, has only recently gained prominence as an important foodborne pathogen. Factors which make this organism unique among foodborne pathogens include its ability both to survive in foods under a variety of adverse conditions and to grow at low refrigeration temperatures. The organism is very widespread in the environment and can be found in a wide variety of foods. At least four major outbreaks definitively linked to the consumption of food containing L monocytogenes have occurred. In addition there have been a number of recent sporadic cases of listeriosis linked to the consumption of meat, fish and dairy products. The primary concern of the Health Protection Branch is contaminated foods in which L monocytogenes can grow well, and which would not normally be heated prior to consumption. Worldwide, the disease appears to be increasing in incidence, but definite links to foods are difficult to make. In most cases, individuals who come down with listeriosis include the immunocompromised, the elderly (older than 65 years and pregnant women and their fetuses. Primary manifestations of the disease include meningitis, spontaneous abortion and septicemia. Mortality rates in foodborne listeriosis outbreaks are approximately 30%. Diagnosis of listeriosis usually requires isolation of the organism from sterile sites such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, placenta and meconium and gastric aspirates from neonates. The recommended drug of choice is high dose intravenous ampicillin. Advice to physicians concerning measures to prevent foodborne listeriosis in high risk groups is reviewed. Included among these recommendations is avoidance of consumption of potentially hazardous foods such as soft cheese and raw products of animal origin.

  3. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention]. (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger


    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  4. Get Real about Diabetes Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/15/2007.

  5. Preventing and Treating Blood Clots (United States)

    ... of blood clots. Heparin is recommended to treat DVT and PE for the first five to ten days, as well as for preventing blood clots ... risk of bleeding. For patients who develop a deep vein thrombosis, and/or a ... blood clot prevention will be included in your overall treatment plan, ...

  6. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens;


    of 485 surgeries when intracameral antibiotics were not used. The relative risk (95% CI) of endophthalmitis was reduced to 0.12 (0.08; 0.18) when intracameral antibiotics were used. The difference was highly significant (p therapy is the best choice for preventing...... endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. We did not find evidence to conclude that topical antibiotic therapy prevents endophthalmitis....

  7. Major Depression Can Be Prevented (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan


    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  8. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others


    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  9. Primary prevention of Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal screening has the capacity to detect more than 90% of Down's syndrome pregnancies leading to therapeutic abortion. Successes in recent years with such so-called 'secondary' prevention have not been matched with progress in primary prevention. Despite considerable research over many decades the principle cause of the disorder is unknown. Methods: This paper considers three potential primary prevention strategies, (1 avoiding reproduction at advanced maternal age, (2 pre-implantation genetic diagnosis for couples who are at high risk of Down's syndrome, and (3 folic acid supplementation. The principle aetiological hypotheses are also reviewed. Interpretation: A strategy of completing the family before a maternal age of 30 could more than halve the birth prevalence of this disorder. Women with a high a priori risk should have access to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, which can lead to a reasonably high pregnancy rate with an extremely low risk of a Down's syndrome. The evidence suggesting an aetiological role for defective folate and methyl metabolism is not sufficient to justify an active preventative strategy of folic acid supplementation without performing a large clinical trial. Current supplementation policies designed to prevent neural tube defects may incidentally prevent Down's syndrome, provided a sufficiently high dose of folic acid is used. Further progress in primary prevention is hampered by limited aetiological knowledge and there is an urgent need to refocus research in that direction.

  10. Hamstring injuries: Prevention and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A review was conducted to present current views and effectiveness of prevention and rehabilitation methods of hamstring injuries. Methods: a review searching on the electronic data bases, including Proquest, Medline, Sport Discus, Cinahl plus, Health source Nursing / Academic edition, Academic search complete, Pub med and Scholar Google. Only randomized control studies (RCT'S were included which contained the intervention and control groups concerning either the prevention or rehabilitation of hamstrings. Results: fourteen randomized control studies were included. Twelve concerned the prevention and two the rehabilitation of hamstring injuries. From the analysis of the articles concerning prevention we concluded that stretching, especially static and warm up program named "The 11" did not show any benefits in preventing hamstring injuries whilst strength training exercises with eccentric contraction (Nordic exercises and warm-up program "The 11+" containing eccentric exercises of hamstring showed significant differences regarding the prevention. It is postulated that the effectiveness of this may be due to the fact that the researchers had targeted the progressive increase in the intensity and frequency of eccentric exercises. Conclusions: eccentric exercises seem (based on the findings included in this study to have an important role in the prevention and strengthening immediately after hamstring injury and also significantly role on reducing the risk of reinjury. A rehabilitation program that includes mainly stretching exercises with eccentric loading of hamstrings muscles and secondly an exercise program which includes core stability and progressive agility exercises were found to be the most effective for recovery after hamstrings injury.

  11. Safety and efficacy analysis of the treatment of orbital blowout fracture with eye movement disorders by Acupuncture%爆裂性眶壁骨折伴眼球运动障碍经针刺治疗的安全性及疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵嫦莹; 黄春荣; 朱彬彬


    Objective To explore the clinical effect of eye-acupuncture on eye movement disorders caused by orbital blowout fracture and its security. Methods 70 eyes movement disorder patients with burst orbital wall fracture treated in our hospital from October 201 3 to September of 201 5 were selected and divided into two groups,each group contains 35 cases.The routine group was given routine drug treatment,beside this,we gave the therapy of eye-acupuncture for 30 minutes to the acu-puncture group according to the type to select the corresponding extraocular muscle holes.Both with 1 5 days was for a course of treatment.After two courses,compared the eye movement disorder level changes and the limbus range of movement of the two groups before and after treatment,we evaluated the efficacy based on efficacy standard. Results After treatment,the corneal limbus range of movement were significantly improved of both groups,and the acupuncture group were better than that of the rou-tine group (P <0.05);after treatment,the eye movement disorder rating of the acupuncture group was as follows:the number of level 0,1 ,2,3 was 1 4,1 5,3,3,respectively,among which the number of level 0 was significantly higher than that of the routine group (P <0.05);The total effective rate of the acupuncture group was 91 .43 %,which was significantly higher than that of the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05). Conclusion Eye-acupuncture may im-prove the corneal limbus range of movement in patients with eye movement disorders caused by orbital blowout fracture.It could promote the recovery of extraocular muscles function and thus lower the level of eye movement disorders.It significantly improves the total efficiency and is worthy of popularization and application clinically.%目的:探讨经针刺治疗爆裂性眶壁骨折伴眼球运动障碍的临床疗效及安全性。方法选取2013年10月—2015年9月在我院接受治疗的70例(70只眼)爆裂性眶

  12. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi


    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  13. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention (United States)

    ... from foods Uric Acid Stones Limit animal protein Reduce sodium Talk with a health care professional about how ... MSG sodium alginate sodium nitrate or nitrite To reduce sodium to help prevent kidney stones, avoid processed and ...

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Melanoma Communities Play a Vital Role Language: English Español ( ... and use of indoor tanning by minors. Problem Melanoma is increasing. Melanoma skin cancer is common and ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Martsevich


    Full Text Available Importance of the stroke as one of the main reason of population mortality and invalidity is considered. Stroke risk factors including arterial hypertension are described. The main pharmacotherapy ways of primary and secondary stroke prevention are discussed.

  16. [Pseudomembranous colitis: pathogenesis, prevention, treatment]. (United States)

    Zakharova, N V; Fil', T S


    The article reviews a pathogenesis of Pseudomembranous colitis. Questions of prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile--associated diarrhea are shown by the Evidence-based medicine. There is an accent on the rational prescription of antibiotics.

  17. Latex Allergy: A Prevention Guide (United States)

    ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH Latex Allergy A Prevention Guide Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... proteins that cause allergic reactions. What is latex allergy? Latex allergy is a reaction to certain proteins ...

  18. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  19. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers (United States)

    ... and parasites that can cause diseases like chikungunya, dengue, Zika, and malaria. If you are traveling to an area where malaria is found, talk to your healthcare provider about malaria prevention medication that may be available. Protect yourself and ...

  20. Glossary of Suicide Prevention Terms (United States)

    ... origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. Psychology – the science concerned with the individual behavior of ... contribute to decisions, consultations and policies. Stigma – an object, idea, or label associated with disgrace or reproach. ...

  1. Choking Prevention and Rescue Tips (United States)

    ... out, would you know what to do? The Heimlich Maneuver If a person is coughing forcefully, encourage continued ... will use abdominal thrusts, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, to prevent suffocation. The procedure is not recommended ...

  2. News | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    News about scientific advances in cancer prevention, program activities, and new projects are included here in NCI press releases and fact sheets, articles from the NCI Cancer Bulletin, and Clinical Trial News from the NCI website.

  3. Insurance and prevention: ethical aspects. (United States)

    Dubois, Mikael


    In recent decades, prevention policies--i.e., insurance policies constructed to give incentives to investments in prevention and thereby reduce reliance on insurance--have been much discussed both with regard to different kinds of market insurance and, albeit primarily within a European context and in relation to an ongoing discussion about the need for a shift towards an "active" welfare state, with regard to social insurance. The present contribution identifies normative issues that deserve attention in relation to a general introduction of prevention policies in market insurance and social insurance. It is argued that the importance of these normative issues suggests that arguments and distinctions drawn from moral and political philosophy should play a more prominent role both in the debate on the shift towards an active welfare state and the use of prevention policies in market insurance.

  4. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht


    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, pre-biotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope...

  5. Preventing hepatitis B or C (United States)

    ... page: // Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling ...

  6. Can Kaposi Sarcoma Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... infections that commonly occur in people with weakened immunity also reduces the likelihood of developing problems with ... from cancer. Help make it a reality. DONATE Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics Signs & Symptoms ...

  7. TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention (United States)

    ... Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury TBI Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... turn Javascript on. Photo courtesy of ABC News Symptoms Mild: Person may remain conscious or be briefly ...

  8. Discovery – Preventing Skin Cancer (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  9. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  10. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  11. Breast Cancer Screening and Prevention. (United States)

    Nattinger, Ann B; Mitchell, Julie L


    This issue provides a clinical overview of breast cancer screening and prevention, focusing on risk assessment, screening, prevention, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  12. Hamstring injuries: Prevention and rehabilitation




    A review was conducted to present current views and effectiveness of prevention and rehabilitation methods of hamstring injuries. Methods: a review searching on the electronic data bases, including Proquest, Medline, Sport Discus, Cinahl plus, Health source Nursing / Academic edition, Academic search complete, Pub med and Scholar Google. Only randomized control studies (RCT'S were included) which contained the intervention and control groups concerning either the prevention or rehabilitation ...

  13. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger


    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.

  14. [Prevention of nephrolithiasis: a review]. (United States)

    Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Lombardi, Gianmarco; Gambaro, Giovanni


    Nephrolithiasis is a very common condition, with a prevalence of about 8% in the general population. Genetic as well as environmental factors are thought to contribute to its pathogenesis. Environmental and especially dietary factors are important in primary as well as in secondary prevention. We review the relevant literature of factors associated with an increased risk of stones that might be object of medical prevention for nephrolithiasis.

  15. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014. (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht; Eigenmann, Philippe; Halken, Susanne; Hedlin, Gunilla; Høst, Arne; Hourihane, Jonathan; Just, Jocelyne; Lack, Gideon; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria; Muraro, Antonella; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Roberts, Graham; Simpson, Angela; Valovirta, Erkka; Weidinger, Stephan; Wickman, Magnus; Mazon, Angel


    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy. This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas in high-risk infants reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis, while there is for now not enough evidence to recommend other dietary modifications, prebiotics, probiotics, or other microbial products. Pharmacologic agents used until now for prevention have not proved useful, while there is hope that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention of these disorders lies on their complexity, which involves many genetic, epigenetic, and environmental interactions. There is a need to identify target populations, involved mechanisms and interactions, and the best interventions. These must be effective, feasible, implementable, and affordable.

  16. Prevention and dental health services. (United States)

    Widström, Eeva


    There has been, and still is a firm belief that regular use of dental services is beneficial for all. Thus governments in most European countries have shown some interest in training oral health care professionals, distributing the dental workforce and cost sharing. Constantly evolving treatment options and the introduction of new methods make dental clinicians feel uncertain as to which treatments are most useful, who would benefit from them, and which treatments will achieve cost-effective health gain. Although there is a considerable quantity of scientific literature showing that most available preventive measures are effective, and the number of sensible best-practice guidelines in prevention is growing, there are few studies on cost-efficiency of different methods and, secondly, the prevention and treatment guidelines are poorly known among general practitioners. In the eyes of the public, it is obvious that preventive methods practised by patients at home have been eclipsed by clinical procedures performed in dental clinics. Reliance on an increasingly individualistic approach to health care leads to the medicalisation of issues that are not originally health or medical problems. It is important to move general oral disease prevention back to the people who must integrate this in their daily routines. Prevention primarily based on healthy lifestyles, highlighted in the new public health strategy of the European Union (EU), is the key to future health policy.

  17. 76 FR 14980 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0185, Increased Safety Measures for Oil and Gas... (United States)


    ... Measures for Oil and Gas Drilling, Well-Completion, and Well-Workover Operations. OMB Control Number: 1010... sufficient to prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages... certain drilling requirements. This includes requirements related to subsea and surface blowout...

  18. Prevention Neuroscience: A new frontier for preventive medicine. (United States)

    Hall, Peter A


    Prevention neuroscience may be defined as follows: an interdisciplinary field concerned with the neurobiological factors that influence susceptibility to preventable disease, disability or mortality. It includes, but is not limited to: examination of brain health as an outcome, brain activity as a predictor of health outcomes, brain structures/systems as causal determinants of health outcomes (e.g., health behaviours), and the brain as a mediator of other causal influences (e.g., social conditions) on health outcomes. This commentary describes concepts, theory and research illustrating each of these scenarios using exercise, smoking cessation, dietary behaviour, and health disparities as examples. It is argued that neuroscience may provide both concepts and methods that may be possible (even fruitful) to incorporate into preventive medicine research and health promotion practise. Although public health practitioners and cognitive neuroscientists have not traditionally crossed paths outside of the context of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and other dementias, it is easy to envision a future where many common disease prevention activities involve collaboration between the two disciplines, and the cache of tools available to the preventive medicine expert includes neuroimaging and neuromodulation techniques.

  19. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach


    Hayward, Joshua; Felice N Jacka; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven


    Background Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Discussion Obesity prevention research since the 1970’s represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet an...

  20. PREVENT Cancer Preclinical Drug Development Program (PREVENT) | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The PREVENT program provides a structure for the introduction of new agents, drugs and vaccines to inhibit, retard or reverse the cancer process. The program was designed to optimize translational opportunities from discovery to the clinic, and provide a mechanism to identify and study efficacy and pharmacodynamics biomarkers that will help in phase II trials to evaluate drug effects.  | Research pipeline for new prevention interventions and biomarkers headed toward clinical trials.

  1. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? (United States)

    ... Talk to your doctor about whether you have osteoporosis. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements ...

  2. Deep-sea benthic footprint of the deepwater horizon blowout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Montagna

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon (DWH accident in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurred on April 20, 2010 at a water depth of 1525 meters, and a deep-sea plume was detected within one month. Oil contacted and persisted in parts of the bottom of the deep-sea in the Gulf of Mexico. As part of the response to the accident, monitoring cruises were deployed in fall 2010 to measure potential impacts on the two main soft-bottom benthic invertebrate groups: macrofauna and meiofauna. Sediment was collected using a multicorer so that samples for chemical, physical and biological analyses could be taken simultaneously and analyzed using multivariate methods. The footprint of the oil spill was identified by creating a new variable with principal components analysis where the first factor was indicative of the oil spill impacts and this new variable mapped in a geographic information system to identify the area of the oil spill footprint. The most severe relative reduction of faunal abundance and diversity extended to 3 km from the wellhead in all directions covering an area about 24 km(2. Moderate impacts were observed up to 17 km towards the southwest and 8.5 km towards the northeast of the wellhead, covering an area 148 km(2. Benthic effects were correlated to total petroleum hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and barium concentrations, and distance to the wellhead; but not distance to hydrocarbon seeps. Thus, benthic effects are more likely due to the oil spill, and not natural hydrocarbon seepage. Recovery rates in the deep sea are likely to be slow, on the order of decades or longer.

  3. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  4. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (United States)

    ... Patient Safety Healthy People healthfinder The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Our Work The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) leads efforts to improve ...

  5. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori


    Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

  6. Prevention of diseases after menopause. (United States)

    Lobo, R A; Davis, S R; De Villiers, T J; Gompel, A; Henderson, V W; Hodis, H N; Lumsden, M A; Mack, W J; Shapiro, S; Baber, R J


    Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern. Prevention strategies at menopause have to begin with screening and careful assessment for risk factors, which should also include molecular and genetic diagnostics, as these become available. Identification of certain risks will then allow directed therapy. Evidence-based prevention for the diseases noted above include lifestyle management, cessation of smoking, curtailing excessive alcohol consumption, a healthy diet and moderate exercise, as well as mentally stimulating activities. Although the most recent publications from the follow-up studies of the Women's Health Initiative do not recommend menopause hormonal therapy as a prevention strategy, these conclusions may not be fully valid for midlife women, on the basis of the existing data. For healthy women aged 50-59 years, estrogen therapy decreases coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality; this interpretation is entirely consistent with results from other randomized, controlled trials and observational studies. Thus. as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic disease after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered as part of the armamentarium.

  7. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny


    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance...... and the main results of this study are to a great extent supported by international research. A multifactor intervention has shown a great effect in the prevention of falls, and we suggest this to be a part of the prevention work in nursing homes. A multifactor intervention is essential in the prevention...... effect on the elderly’s mobility and engagement in physical activities. Being immobile has been found to be the cause of an early dead. In Denmark there is a general lack of studies about the frail elderly. Statistics shows that the number of elderly people over 85 of age is rising, this means...

  8. Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection (United States)

    Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad


    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection. PMID:26110171

  9. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy. (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A


    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  10. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    2016 Keynote Lecture Polyvalent Vaccines Targeting Oncogenic Driver Pathways A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI Summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 21, 2016 at 1:30pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD. |

  11. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Health promotion and prevention strategies. (United States)

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen


    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations.

  13. [Prevention of the refeeding syndrome]. (United States)

    Martínez Núñez, Maria E; Hernández Muniesa, B


    The refeeding syndrome can be defined as the metabolic alterations developed by the rapid nutrition repletion (oral, enteral as well as parenteral feeding) of severaly malnourished patients. Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal clinical condition and it is often underdiagnosed on non-specialized nutrition units. The most important key for its prevention is to identify patients at high risk for developing refeeding syndrome, before nutrition repletion. The present case describes the steps to prevent the refeeding syndrome as well as the clinical recommendations to restart nutrition support.

  14. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  15. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A


    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......The development of food allergy depends on several factors, including genetic factors and early exposure to allergenic proteins in the diet, food protein uptake and handling, and the development of tolerance. Many hypotheses, as regards the possible causal relationships, have been raised during...

  16. Prevention (United States)

    ... your heart and what you can do to live a better life. Get My Assessment Error processing SSI file Connect Million Hearts on Facebook @MillionHeartsUS on Twitter CDC Streaming Health on YouTube News & Media Watch videos, find news, or download a badge. Learn more > ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    930203 Immune response to hepatitis B revac-cination in children.QIU Yunqing(裘雲庆),etal.Instit Infect Dis,Zhejing Med Univ,Hangzhou.Chin J Epidemiol 1992;13(5):278—280.In this report,we investigated the efficacy ofrevaccination with hepatitis B vaccine in thirty-eight children after primary immunization Theresults showed that anti-HBs immune responsedeveloped in 37 children after revaccination,with a response rate of 97.4%(37/38).The ge-ometric mean titres(GMTs)of anti-HBs at3rd weeks 3rd and 6th month after the boosterdose reached 824.1,407.7 and 193.6 IU/L.

  18. Prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    950429 Implementation of national tuberculosis con-trol programme(focus on registration,case-manage-ment and treatment).QIAN Yuanfu(钱元福),et al.Nation Tuberc Contr Center.Public Health Ministr,Beijing,101149.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1995;18(1):16-18.The results of three nationwide epidemiological sur-veys on tuberculosis showed that the declination in theincidence of tuberculosis from 1979 to 1990 was slowThe rates of case registration and new case registrationrates within ten years(1982~1991) were graduallyincreasing year by year and came to a climax in 1988.

  19. Vaccine Preventable Disease on Campus. (United States)

    Bart, Kenneth J.


    While morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases have declined, some college students remain susceptible to measles, rubella, diptheria, tetanus, or polio. Colleges and universities have the opportunity to ensure protection of students, faculty, and employees by establishing and enforcing immunization requirements. (Author/DF)

  20. Can the Tomato Prevent Cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    难度:★★★★☆字数:368建议时间:5分钟Apurple tomato genetically engineered to con-tain nutrients more commonly seen in dark berries helped prevent cancer in mice,British researchers said on Sunday.The finding,published in

  1. [Nutritional factors in preventing osteoporosis]. (United States)

    Martín Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Consuegra Moya, Belkis; Martín Jiménez, María Teresa


    Osteoporosis, main risk factor for suffering fragility fractures, is an important public health problem which has undoubted social, health and economic impact; but mainly causes pain, functional limitation and severe alterations in the patient's quality of life. Its current prevalence is very high and a further increase is expected due to a higher life expectancy and the progressive ageing of the population. In the prevention of osteoporosis, the main goal is to prevent fragility fractures; for this reason, it is necessary to: 1) promote bone formation in youth, to get sufficient bone mass peak, 2) reduce bone loss in adulthood, especially after menopause, 3) maintain bone health throughout life, and 4) prevent falls. There is enough evidence that multifactorial strategies (assessment of risk factors, healthy lifestyle habits, smoking cessation, moderation in alcohol consumption, physical exercise, outdoor activity with prudent exposure to sunlight, and a varied and balanced diet), are effective in the population at risk. Regarding factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, current recommendations are: increased consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride; provide adequate vitamin D (even with fortified food if necessary); consumption of foods rich in omega-3 acids; reduction of salt and prepared ready meals; sufficient but moderate intake of protein and, in the absence of intolerance, promote the consumption of milk and dairy products, especially yogurt and fermented milk products.

  2. Carotenoids and lung cancer prevention (United States)

    Understanding the molecular actions of carotenoids is critical for human studies involving carotenoids for prevention of lung cancer and cancers at other tissue sites. While the original hypothesis prompting the beta-carotene intervention trials was that beta-carotene exerts beneficial effects thro...

  3. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi


    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  4. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  5. Preventing Crime through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.


    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  6. Preventing Crime Through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.


    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit quasi-

  7. Preventing head and neck injury. (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P


    A wide range of head and neck injury risks are present in sport, including catastrophic injury. The literature since 1980 on prevention of head and neck injury in sport was reviewed, focusing on catastrophic and brain injury and identifying the range of injury prevention methods in use. There have been few formal evaluations of injury prevention methods. Approaches that are considered, or have been proven, to be successful in preventing injury include: modification of the baseball; implementation of helmet standards in ice hockey and American football and increased wearing rates; use of full faceguards in ice hockey; changes in rules associated with body contact; implementation of rules to reduce the impact forces in rugby scrums. Helmets and other devices have been shown to reduce the risk of severe head and facial injury, but current designs appear to make little difference to rates of concussion. Research methods involving epidemiological, medical, and human factors are required in combination with biomechanical and technological approaches to reduce further injury risks in sport.

  8. Fostering Hope: A Prevention Process. (United States)

    Antonucci, Frank; Baker, Mona; Burke, Karen; Duffey, Tim; Gatchell, Judy; Graves, Laurel; Lahti, Michel; Macklin, Ethel; Forbush, Ed; Foster, Joni; Parks, Susan; Primmerman, Bill; Johnson, Ruth; Rumery, Karen; Richards, Roger; Wilbur, Katherine; Medwid, Jo Ann

    This booklet is designed to assist people in implementing strategies to prevent negative outcomes for children. The process starts with the individual, acknowledging an inside-out approach to change. The next component in the model is a set of research-based facts that promote resilience by focusing on strengths instead of deficits. What follows…

  9. Optimal strategies for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijgenraam, Carel; Brekelmans, Ruud; den Hertog, Dick; Roos, C.


    Flood prevention policy is of major importance to the Netherlands since a large part of the country is below sea level and high water levels in rivers may also cause floods. In this paper we propose a dike height optimization model to determine economically efficient flood protection standards. We i

  10. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention. (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  11. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann


    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  12. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control]. (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan


    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  13. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War. (United States)

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  14. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  15. How Can Angina Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... can help prevent or delay angina and heart disease. To adopt a healthy lifestyle, you can: Quit smoking and avoid secondhand smoke ... a healthy diet Be physically active Maintain a healthy ... and controlling heart disease risk factors, visit the Diseases and Conditions Index ...

  16. Prevention: What You Can Do (United States)

    ... Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Prevention: What You Can Do Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Live a Healthy Lifestyle Eat a healthy diet. Choosing healthful meal and ...

  17. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet (United States)

    ... Commemorative Giving Employment at AAP Advertise with AAP Advertising on Advertising on AAP Journals & Publications AAP Mailing and eMail ... Help/Feedback a a a print email share Facebook Twitter 2017 Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet 3/ ...

  18. Praktek Preventive untuk Menanggulangi Karies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Hartini Sundoro


    Full Text Available Treatment that emphasize preventive aspects and less invasive has been recommended by the WHO since 1992. Therefore with the advancement of science and technology of caries treatment this recommendation should be developed. Clinical and radiological examination to determine the diagnosis of caries lesion, evaluation of risk f actors, treatment of caries lesion and maintenance programme will be reviewed.

  19. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention. (United States)

    Casari, Ilaria; Falasca, Marco


    Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  20. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  1. 48 CFR 836.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 836... prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 852.236-87, Accident Prevention, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the clause at FAR 52.236-13, Accident Prevention....

  2. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating...

  3. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T


    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be

  4. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention]. (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori


    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  5. Overweight prevention in adolescents and children (behavioural and environmental prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas, Sabine


    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between

  6. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay


    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  7. Nutritional rickets: pathogenesis and prevention. (United States)

    Pettifor, John M


    Nutritional rickets remains a public health concern in many areas of the world despite cheap and effective means of preventing the disease. The roles of vitamin D deficiency, low dietary calcium intakes and the interrelationships between the two in the pathogenesis of the disease are discussed. It is now recognized that vitamin D deficiency in the pregnant and lactating mother predisposes to the development of rickets in the breastfed infant, and that cultural and social factors are important in the pathogenesis of the disease during the adolescent growth spurt. Prevention of rickets is dependent on the awareness of the medical profession and the general public of the need to ensure adequate intakes of vitamin D in at-risk populations, and of the importance of increasing dietary intakes of calcium using locally available and inexpensive foods in communities in which dietary calcium deficiency rickets is prevalent.

  8. Prevention and rehabilitation of osteoporosis. (United States)

    Kerschan-Schindl, Katharina


    Osteoporosis is a frequent disease in postmenopausal women. Despite the fact that fragility fractures cause many problems, osteoporosis is still underdiagnosed and undertreated. This manuscript outlines the topics diagnosis of osteoporosis, fracture risk prevention, and therapy after fracture. Regular physical activities, a sufficient intake of calcium, and a normal vitamin D level are important for bone health. Depending on the personal fracture risk, the patient may also be prescribed bone-specific medication to prevent fragility fractures. In case of a prevalent osteoporotic fracture, the initiation or adaptation of bone-specific therapy is indispensable. Since most osteoporotic fractures occur during a fall, fall risk reduction is an important measure to inhibit a new fracture. Rehabilitation of patients with fragility fractures varies with different localizations of the fracture and should be performed by a multidisciplinary team.

  9. Cheating prevention in visual cryptography. (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Ming; Tzeng, Wen-Guey


    Visual cryptography (VC) is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image. Shares are usually presented in transparencies. Each participant holds a transparency. Most of the previous research work on VC focuses on improving two parameters: pixel expansion and contrast. In this paper, we studied the cheating problem in VC and extended VC. We considered the attacks of malicious adversaries who may deviate from the scheme in any way. We presented three cheating methods and applied them on attacking existent VC or extended VC schemes. We improved one cheat-preventing scheme. We proposed a generic method that converts a VCS to another VCS that has the property of cheating prevention. The overhead of the conversion is near optimal in both contrast degression and pixel expansion.

  10. Precision prevention of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. (United States)

    Vaughan, Thomas L; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C


    The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has risen rapidly over the past four decades. Unfortunately, treatments have not kept pace; unless their cancer is identified at a very early stage, most patients will not survive a year after diagnosis. The beginnings of this widespread problem were first recognized over 25 years ago, yet rates have continued to rise against a backdrop of much improved understanding and management of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We estimate that only ∼7% of the 10,000 cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma diagnosed annually in the USA are identified through current approaches to cancer control, and trace pathways by which the remaining 93% are 'lost'. On the basis of emerging data on aetiology and predictive factors, together with new diagnostic tools, we suggest a five-tier strategy for prevention and control that begins with a wide population base and triages individuals into progressively higher risk strata, each with risk-appropriate prevention, screening and treatment options.

  11. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe



    AIM: To describe the burden of interpersonal violence, risk factors and discuss the need for evidence based action to reduce the public health threat of interpersonal violence. METHODS: Global Health Estimates data were used to describe the mortality and meta-analyses from previous reports were used to describe the prevalence of the different types of interpersonal violence and to discuss the options for evidence informed prevention programmes.  RESULTS: In the 53 countries of the WHO...

  12. Malignant hypertension: a preventable emergency. (United States)

    van der Merwe, Walter; van der Merwe, Veronica


    The Waitemata Hypertension Clinic Database 2009-2012 (Auckland, New Zealand) was searched for patients meeting the definition of Malignant Hypertension. Eighteen of 565 patients met the criteria. All patients had essential hypertension which was either undiagnosed, untreated or undertreated. Most cases responded satisfactorily to standard drug therapy, but a number were left with significant chronic kidney disease. Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening disease which should be entirely preventable with regular blood pressure checks in primary care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Napalkov


    Full Text Available Stroke secondary prevention in internist practice is discussed in accordance with up to date guidelines. Modern pharmacotherapy includes antiaggregants or anticoagulants, statins, and antihypertensive drugs. The choice of drugs is mostly founded on the rules of evidence based medicine, which allow adjusting individual treatment depending on clinical conditions. The composition of perindopril and indapamide is a preferred nowadays combination of antihypertensive drugs.

  14. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))


    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  15. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood (United States)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.


    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  16. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches


    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan


    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  17. Preventing Teen Pregnancy PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  18. A performative definition of waste prevention. (United States)

    Corvellec, Hervé


    The increasing importance being placed on waste prevention in European waste governance raises the question of how waste prevention is defined in practice. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a sample of fifty-one Swedish waste prevention initiatives with the purpose of identifying which kind of actions are imagined, promoted, and set into motion under the label of waste prevention. The analysis shows that despite their apparent variety, the initiatives in the sample boil down to three main types of actions: raising awareness about the need to prevent waste, increasing material efficiency, and developing sustainable consumption. In contradistinction to the formal definition of waste prevention in the European Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), what emerges from analyzing the initiatives in the sample is a performative definition of waste prevention as something heterogeneous, contradictory, and evolving. Such a definition of waste prevention in practice provides an understanding of the organizational dynamics of waste prevention.

  19. Prevention of restenosis future directions. (United States)

    Bauters, C; Van Belle, E; Meurice, T; Letourneau, T; Lablanche, J M; Bertrand, M E


    Restenosis remains the major limitation of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Restenosis after balloon angioplasty is due to vascular remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. In spite of encouraging results in animal models, most of the pharmacological trials of prevention of restenosis in humans have produced negative results. This has prompted interest in the potential role of locally delivered drugs and various balloon catheter systems that are now available to achieve local delivery of therapeutic agents at the site of arterial injury. In 1997, implantation of a coronary stent in conjunction with balloon angioplasty is performed in an increasing number of patients. Randomized studies have shown that coronary stenting may reduce the risk of restenosis. In addition, restenosis after coronary stenting is mainly due to neointimal hyperplasia. Restenosis within coronary stents might thus be much more sensitive to therapies designed to inhibit neointimal hyperplasia than restenosis after balloon angioplasty. Thus, the future prevention of restenosis might well be the combination of a mechanical device that produces the widest possible lumen and prevents vessel constriction with a pharmacologic approach to inhibit the proliferative process. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:90-94). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  20. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar


    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  2. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Muralidhara Krishna


    Full Text Available Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis", culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM. Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, ′patchy′ or ′lobular′ destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow′s milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies

  3. Educators' views of eating disorder prevention programs. (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J; Parr, Francoise; O'Grady, Megan A; Savoy, Sarah


    Further understanding of educators' views of eating disorder prevention can further engage them in this effort. No previous studies of educators have used acceptability methodology or compared eating disorder prevention to other prevention efforts. Educators (n = 135) rated the acceptability of five sample programs and provided their opinions about eating disorder and other prevention programs. The results indicated primarily psychoeducational and general well-being programs were most acceptable. Educators-specified trained professionals should implement programs during school hours to male and female junior high students. Although eating disorder prevention was perceived as important, it was not rated as vital as other programs, such as substance abuse prevention.

  4. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence. (United States)

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius


    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs.

  5. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (United States)

    ... Public Comment In an effort to make the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations clearer and ... Current as of: May 2016 Internet Citation: Home . U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. August 2016. https://www. ...

  6. How Can Heart Disease be Prevented? (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Heart Disease Be Prevented? Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay coronary heart disease (CHD). Your risk for CHD increases with the ...

  7. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries ... Your doctor will outline a program to help prevent the development of blood clots after your surgery. ...

  8. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  9. Impetigo: Tips for Treatment and Prevention (United States)

    ... to Healthy Living Impetigo: Tips for Treatment and Prevention The symptoms of impetigo are honey-colored, crusty ... or anything that person has touched. Treatment and Prevention Even though impetigo is not dangerous, complications can ...

  10. What Do We Know About Preventing Alzheimer's? (United States)

    ... or not things like exercise, diet, and "brain games" can help delay or prevent Alzheimer's disease and ... the Signs of Alzheimer's Disease? / Preventing Alzheimer's Disease / Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease / Treatment Winter 2015 Issue: Volume 9 ...

  11. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain (United States)

    ... DO Video Library Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain Page Content A n estimated 50 million Americans ... natural tendency toward self-healing. Tips to Minimize Back Pain Here are some tips for preventing or minimizing ...

  12. About DCP | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) is the primary unit of the National Cancer Institute devoted to cancer prevention research. DCP provides funding and administrative support to clinical and laboratory researchers, community and multidisciplinary teams, and collaborative scientific networks. |

  13. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Food Allergies Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... available treatments only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments ...

  14. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  15. Heart Disease Prevention: Does Oral Health Matter? (United States)

    ... oral health isn't a key to heart disease prevention, it's important to take care of your teeth ... and cleanings. If you're concerned about heart disease prevention, ask your doctor about proven ways to reduce ...

  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)

    ... to site content En español Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Teen Pregnancy A Key Role for Health Care Providers Language: ... The Federal government is Supporting efforts to prevent teen pregnancy by providing affordable family planning services. Developing clinical ...

  18. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Great Help for Older Americans ... on National Pepper Center website. Read More "Preventing Falls" Articles Preventing Falls / Great Help for Older Adults / ...

  19. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Falls Prevention Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... and Muscle Strengthening Exercises As part of your fall prevention program, you should follow an exercise program ...

  20. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Behavioral Counseling ...

  1. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT&E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT&E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact.

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Therapy and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hubert E Blum


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. The major etiologies and risk factors for the development of HCC are well defined and some of the multiple steps involved in hepatocarcinogenesis have been elucidated in recent years. Despite these scientific advances and the implementation of measures for the early detection of HCC in patients at risk, patient survival has not improved during the last three decades. This is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of clinical presentation and limited therapeutic options. The therapeutic options fall into five main categories: surgical interventions including tumor resection and liver transplantation, percutaneous interventions including ethanol injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation, transarterial interventions including embolization and chemoembolization, radiation therapy and drugs as well as gene and immune therapies. These therapeutic strategies have been evaluated in part in randomized controlled clinical trials that are the basis for therapeutic recommendations. Though surgery, percutaneous and transarterial interventions are effective in patients with limited disease (1-3 lesions, <5 cm in diameter) and compensated underlying liver disease (cirrhosis Child A), at the time of diagnosis more than 80% patients present with multicentric HCC and advanced liver disease or comorbidities that restrict the therapeutic measures to best supportive care. In order to reduce the morbidity and mortality of HCC, early diagnosis and the development of novel systemic therapies for advanced disease, including drugs, gene and immune therapies as well as primary HCC prevention are of paramount importance. Furthermore, secondary HCC prevention after successful therapeutic interventions needs to be improved in order to make an impact on the survival of patients with HCC. New technologies, including gene expression profiling and proteomic analyses, should allow to further

  3. Management and Prevention of Dystocia. (United States)

    Funnell, Bethany J; Hilton, W Mark


    Dystocia is an inevitable challenge in the livestock industries, particularly with primiparous female animals. Prevention and appropriate management will decrease cow and calf morbidity and mortality, which will improve the economic status of the beef or dairy operation. Early identification and proper intervention improves outcomes, and the use of selection tools to decrease the potential for dystocia will have positive returns. Assisted reproductive technologies present a unique set of challenges to the calving process that both the producer and practitioner should be prepared to address.

  4. Oral cleft prevention program (OCPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehby George L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral clefts are one of the most common birth defects with significant medical, psychosocial, and economic ramifications. Oral clefts have a complex etiology with genetic and environmental risk factors. There are suggestive results for decreased risks of cleft occurrence and recurrence with folic acid supplements taken at preconception and during pregnancy with a stronger evidence for higher than lower doses in preventing recurrence. Yet previous studies have suffered from considerable design limitations particularly non-randomization into treatment. There is also well-documented effectiveness for folic acid in preventing neural tube defect occurrence at 0.4 mg and recurrence with 4 mg. Given the substantial burden of clefting on the individual and the family and the supportive data for the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation as well as its low cost, a randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of high versus low dose folic acid for prevention of cleft recurrence is warranted. Methods/design This study will assess the effect of 4 mg and 0.4 mg doses of folic acid, taken on a daily basis during preconception and up to 3 months of pregnancy by women who are at risk of having a child with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without palate (NSCL/P, on the recurrence of NSCL/P. The total sample will include about 6,000 women (that either have NSCL/P or that have at least one child with NSCL/P randomly assigned to the 4 mg and the 0.4 mg folic acid study groups. The study will also compare the recurrence rates of NSCL/P in the total sample of subjects, as well as the two study groups (4mg, 0.4 mg to that of a historical control group. The study has been approved by IRBs (ethics committees of all involved sites. Results will be disseminated through publications and presentations at scientific meetings. Discussion The costs related to oral clefts are high, including long term psychological and socio-economic effects. This study

  5. Diabetes Mellitus amp Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KusumaNeela Bolla


    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes Mellitus has been known for centuries as a disease related to sweetness. even though several million people all over the world are effected with diabetes not all are well informed about the nature of the disease. in diabetes there is excessive glucose in blood and urine due to inadequate production of insulin or insulin resistance. diabetics can lead a normal life provided they take prescribed durgs and make certain changes in their lifestyle particularly in their diet and physical activity. uncontrolled diabetes leads to some of the complication so some of the home remedies also play a major role to prevent the diabetes.

  6. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freedman, Ben; Potpara, Tatjana S; Lip, Gregory Y H


    Atrial fibrillation is found in a third of all ischaemic strokes, even more after post-stroke atrial fibrillation monitoring. Data from stroke registries show that both unknown and untreated or under treated atrial fibrillation is responsible for most of these strokes, which are often fatal...... or debilitating. Most could be prevented if efforts were directed towards detection of atrial fibrillation before stroke occurs, through screening or case finding, and treatment of all patients with atrial fibrillation at increased risk of stroke with well-controlled vitamin K antagonists or non-vitamin K...

  7. Green tea and cancer prevention. (United States)

    Yang, Chung S; Wang, Xin


    Extracts of green tea and green tea polyphenols have exhibited inhibitory effects against the formation and development of tumors at different organ sites in animals. These include animal models for skin, lung, oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, bladder, mammary gland, and prostate cancers. In addition to suppressing cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and modulating signaling transduction, green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also inhibit cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of green tea polyphenols, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between green tea consumption and human cancer risk.

  8. Does prevention for Alzheimer's disease exist?


    Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki


    Abstract The prevention of Alzheimer's disease is a growing public health concern amidst an ageing population. Meanwhile, there is no effective or curative treatment available where prevention could greatly reduce health costs. This review was based on reports of potential preventive factors, including modifiable lifestyle factors, as well as preventive pharmacological strategies. Although the present review was not systematic, the reports selected from PubMed using "Alzheimer's disease" and ...

  9. Clinical Trials Management | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials. Protocol Information Office The central clearinghouse for clinical trials management within the Division of Cancer Prevention.Read more about the Protocol Information Office. | Information for researchers about developing, reporting, and managing NCI-funded cancer prevention clinical trials.

  10. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8577 of October 1, 2010 Fire Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of fire... consequences. Fire Prevention Week also calls our attention to the lifesaving work our firefighters perform...

  11. 77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention... Prevention Week, we resolve to protect ourselves, our families, and our communities from fires, and we honor... fire prevention and preparedness. Those who live in regions prone to wildfire can take action...

  12. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36.513 Section 36.513 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL... prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention,...

  13. 48 CFR 1836.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Accident prevention. 1836... 1836.513 Accident prevention. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 1852.223-70, Safety and Health, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, and its Alternate I....

  14. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards. (1) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.352 Section 1926.352 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Welding and Cutting § 1926.352 Fire prevention. (a... prevention precautions are not sufficient, additional personnel shall be assigned to guard against fire...

  17. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention



    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  18. Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses (United States)

    Keyes, Lee


    Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

  19. Suicide Prevention with Diverse College Students (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah


    Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…

  20. A Framework for Engaging Parents in Prevention (United States)

    Randolph, Karen A.; Fincham, Frank; Radey, Melissa


    The literature on engaging families in prevention programs is informed by the Health Beliefs Model (HBM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Family Systems theory. Although useful, these frameworks have not facilitated the development of prevention-based practice strategies that recognize different levels of prevention (i.e., universal,…

  1. Data Analytics in Procurement Fraud Prevention (United States)


    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT DATA ANALYTICS IN PROCUREMENT FRAUD PREVENTION By...2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DATA ANALYTICS IN PROCUREMENT FRAUD PREVENTION 5. explore the viability of detecting anomalies through using data analytics software as a tool in procurement fraud prevention and to analyze its

  2. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  3. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme (United States)

    Thomas, Paul


    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  4. Health Issues for Lesbians: Prevention First (United States)

    ... 2014. How can people prevent HPV? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed July 13, 2014. Aug. 20, 2014 Original article: ...

  5. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First (United States)

    ... 2014. How can people prevent HPV? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed July 13, 2014. Aug. 15, 2014 Original article: ...

  6. New Campus Crime Prevention Resources Available (United States)

    Campus Law Enforcement Journal, 2012


    The Campus Crime Prevention Committee has compiled a list of university and college crime prevention agencies and resources, which includes contact information, links to agency crime prevention web pages, and a list of resources they offer (i.e., brochures, guides, PowerPoint programs, videos, etc.) as well as a spreadsheet showing organizations…

  7. 7 CFR 2902.44 - Corrosion preventatives. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrosion preventatives. 2902.44 Section 2902.44... Items § 2902.44 Corrosion preventatives. (a) Definition. Products designed to prevent the deterioration (corrosion) of metals. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred procurement product must have a...

  8. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell JA


    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  9. Prevention of pelvic radiation disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo; Fuccio; Leonardo; Frazzoni; Alessandra; Guido


    Pelvic cancers are among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Treatment of patients requires a multidisciplinary approach that frequently includes radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal(GI) radiation-induced toxicity is a major complication and the transient or long-term problems, ranging from mild to very severe, arising in non-cancerous tissues resulting from radiation treatment to a tumor of pelvic origin, are actually called as pelvic radiation disease. The incidence of pelvic radiation disease changes according to the radiation technique, the length of follow up, the assessmentmethod, the type and stage of cancer and several other variables. Notably, even with the most recent radiation techniques, i.e., intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the incidence of radiation-induced GI side effects is overall reduced but still not negligible. In addition, radiation-induced GI side effects can develop even after several decades; therefore, the improvement of patient life expectancy will unavoidably increase the risk of developing radiation-induced complications. Once developed, the management of pelvic radiation disease may be challenging. Therefore, the prevention of radiation-induced toxicity represents a reasonable way to avoid a dramatic drop of the quality of life of these patients. In the current manuscript we provide an updated and practical review on the best available evidences in the field of the prevention of pelvic radiation disease.

  10. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H


    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  11. Thermoplastic film prevents proppant flowback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Parker, M.A.; King, D.G. [Halliburton Energy Services, Duncan, OK (United States)


    Thermoplastic film added to proppants is effective and economical for preventing proppant flowback after an hydraulic fracturing treatment. Most other methods, such as resin-coated proppant and fiber, for controlling proppant flowback have drawbacks that added to treatment costs by requiring long downtime, costly additives, or frequent equipment replacement. Thermoplastic film does not react chemically with fracturing fluids. After the proppant is placed in the fracture, the film strips intertwine with the proppant grains or at higher temperatures, the strips become adhesive and shrink forming consolidated clusters that hold open the newly created fractures and prevent proppant from flowing back. The low cost of the film means that the strips can be used throughout the fracturing job or in selected stages. The strips are compatible with fracturing fluid chemistry, including breakers and crosslinkers, and can be used in wells with a wide range of bottom hole temperatures. The end result is a well that can be brought back on-line in a short time with little proppant flowback. This paper reviews the cost benefits and performance of these proppants.

  12. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  13. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  14. Preventive and Community Medicine in Primary Care. Teaching of Preventive Medicine Vol. 5. (United States)

    Barker, William H., Ed.

    This monograph is the result of a conference on the role of preventive and community medicine in primary medical care and education. The following six papers were presented at the conference: (1) Roles of Departments of Preventive Medicine; (2) Competency-Based Objectives in Preventive Medicine for the Family Physician; (3) Preventive Medicine…

  15. 75 FR 18848 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health...

  16. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete


    Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population......; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus...... on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  17. 75 FR 54363 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0142, Decommissioning Activities, Extension of a... (United States)


    ... information. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, subpart Q, Decommissioning Activities. OMB Control... prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires, spillages, physical... equipment and subsea protective covering; or other departures. Subtotal 50 responses 150...

  18. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez


    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  19. Technological changes in cancer prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbein, L. (International Life Sciences Institute, Washington (United States). Risk Science Institute)


    Exposures and technologies in the workplace are changing due to a variety of factors, including newly developed technologies, mechanization and automation, and improvements in industrial hygiene primarily effected in many developed countries. In addition substitution and removal of carcinogenic constituents in the workplace and general environment are increasing in a number of instances, particularly in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and they are being accompanied as well by remediation either by source reduction, recycling, or compliance to more stringent national and international regulations and standards. This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological ages in cancer prevention and cites examples in source reduction, changes in formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management

  20. Community capacity for cancer prevention. (United States)

    Ransom, Pamela E; Wei, Ying; Stellman, Steven D


    We pilot-tested a street-level study of availability of physical resources to assess ethnic disparities in community capacity for cancer prevention in forty Brooklyn, NY, census tracts with high proportions of White, African American, or Jamaican immigrant populations. Interns with GIS maps made street-level inventories of food retailers, fast-food restaurants, and commercial exercise facilities. Availability was quantified as resources per capita or square mile. Median income-adjusted number of supermarkets, greengrocers and fast-food restaurants per square mile was significantly higher in Jamaican than in African American or White tracts. Bodegas per capita was greatest in African American tracts, with no significant differences among the population groups in availability of health food stores, or commercial exercise venues.

  1. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber


    Full Text Available Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke, migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

  2. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking]. (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio


    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The speech is a tool for accurate communication of ideas. When we talk about speech prevention as a practical realization of the language, we are referring to the fact that it should be comprised of the elements of the criteria as viewed from the perspective of the standards. This criteria, in the broad sense of the word, presupposes an exact realization of the thought expressed between the speaker and the recipient.The absence of this criterion catches the eye through the practical realization of the language and brings forth consequences, often hidden very deeply in the human psyche. Their outer manifestation already represents a delayed reaction of the social environment. The foundation for overcoming and standardization of this phenomenon must be the anatomy-physiological patterns of the body, accomplished through methods in concordance with the nature of the body.

  4. City planning as preventive medicine. (United States)

    Corburn, Jason


    The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change.

  5. Skin tears: prevention and treatment. (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R


    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  6. Technological changes in cancer prevention. (United States)

    Fishbein, L


    Exposures and technologies in the workplace are changing due to a variety of factors, including newly developed technologies, mechanization and automation, and improvements in industrial hygiene primarily effected in many developed countries. In addition substitution and removal of carcinogenic constituents in the workplace and general environment are increasing in a number of instances, particularly in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and they are being accompanied as well by remediation either by source reduction, recycling, or compliance to more stringent national and international regulations and standards. This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological changes in cancer prevention and cites examples in source reduction, changes in formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management.

  7. Prevention is better than cure

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure.   This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...

  8. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention. (United States)

    Haffner, D; Casey, S


    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  9. Primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Yu, S Z


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major cancers in China. Accordingly, the mortality rates in 1990 (per 100,000) were 20.10 in certain cities and 24.32 in certain counties. More than 90% of HCC cases and 70% of controls were infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10-50). In the same group of patients, 8-27% of those with HCC and 0-11% of the healthy controls were also infected with hepatitis C (HCV) (OR = 2.11-17.29). There appears to be some correlation between HBV markers and the OR. The government requires that 85% of infants be immunized with HBV vaccine. In 1992, there were 3 million infants inoculated with HB vaccines. Aflatoxins have been found as contaminants in food, particularly in corn, peanut oil, soya sauce and fermented soya beans. The intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by people of ten different villages correlated with HCC mortality rates (r = 0.55; P aflatoxins. These adducts are higher in hyperendemic HCC areas and cases. Most people have now changed their staple food and eat rice instead of corn. Six large epidemiological studies have confirmed that people who drink pond-ditch water experience higher HCC mortality rates than people who drink deep-well water. Recent research has found that the blue-green algal toxin microcystin (MCYST) was a contaminant of pond-ditch water. MCYST is a strong promoter of HCC and will induce severe intrahepatic haemorrhages and liver necrosis. More than 80% of people in Qidong County have already changed their sources of water from pond-ditches to deep wells. Therefore, a combined strategy of the prevention of hepatitis, control of crops and control of drinking water is advocated for the primary prevention of HCC in China.

  10. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  11. Prevention Of Chronic Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejzi Alushi


    Full Text Available It is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it. This postulate is a foundation stone of the contemporary medicine, furthermore its mission. The Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD, amongst them the Chronic Pyelonephrites (CP and the mass kidney reduction  take an important  place in human pathologies in general, and in particular in renal ones. The Chronic Pyelonephrites  are chronic renal pathologies, which on one side are of various causes and on the other side are multi systemic. At the same time they tend, earlier or later, depending on their course, to bring the patient towards the Chronic Kidney Insufficiency  in stage of uremia, consequently in need of substitution therapies e.g. dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant. It is worthy to emphasize that from the prevention and correct cure of CP make profit the patients, the family, the state and in the last analyses  the entire society, because in that way the budget expense destined for the fore going substitution cures, dialysis, peritoneum dialysis or transplant, is considerably  reduced. The same should be mentioned  in relation to the CP and the mass kidney reduction, speaking about our country, which are still at the first place as the very cause of Chronic Kidney  Insufficiencies (CRI, later on advancing toward uremia and terminal uremia along with its grave consequences. In general  the very foundation of the CP is on  the  infections of urinary roads, in particular on the complicated ones, among them it should be mentioned-congenital kidney anomalies, renal calculosis  so much present in our country, and pathologies of segment or vesical-ureteral reflux, and rarely the pathologies of prostate.

  12. Workplace prevention and promotion strategies. (United States)

    Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Brisson, Chantal; Trudel, Louis


    Psychosocial factors refer to all organizational factors and interpersonal relationships in the workplace that may affect the health of the workers. Currently, two psychosocial risk models are universally recognized for producing solid scientific knowledge regarding the vital link between social or psychological phenomena at work and the development of several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases or depression. The first is the "job demand-contro-support" model, which was defined by Karasek and to which the concept of social support has been added; the second is the "effort/reward imbalance" model defined by Siegrist. The public health perspective calls for theoretical models based on certain psychosocial attributes of the work environment for which there is empirical evidence of their pathogenic potential for exposed workers. Not only do these models reduce the complexity of the psychosocial reality of the work to components that are significant in terms of health risks, but they also facilitate the development and implementation of workplace interventions. Psychosocial risk intervention strategies currently implemented by companies are predominantly individual-oriented and aim chiefly at reducing the effects of stressful work situations by improving individual ability to adapt to the situation and manage stress. Like personal protection equipment for exposure to physical or chemical risks, these secondary prevention measures are commendable but insufficient, because they aim to reduce only the symptoms and not the cause of problems. Any intervention program for these risks should necessarily include a primary prevention component with a view to eliminating, or at least reducing, the psychosocial pathogenic agents in the workplace. Several authors have suggested that well-structured organizational approaches are most effective and should generate more important, longer-lasting effects than individual approaches. However, the evidence should be strengthened by

  13. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    knowledge about crime and prevention that can strengthen crime prevention professionals in their work. The collaboration consists of nine projects and focuses on burglaries and home robberies, violence and vandalism in public spaces as well as sexual assaults among youth.......This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...

  14. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a “High-tech” waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a “Low-tech” waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling...... and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative......Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider...

  15. Preventive Effects of Catechins on Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiang Chen


    Full Text Available Catechins are polyphenolic phytochemicals with many important physiological activities that play a multifaceted health care function in the human body, especially in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this paper, various experimental and clinical studies have revealed the role of catechins in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders, and we review the preventive effects of catechins on cardiovascular disease from the following aspects: Regulating lipid metabolism, regulating blood lipid metabolism, vascular endothelial protection, and reducing blood pressure.

  16. Fraud prevention in the system of payments


    Foglar, Martin


    The work deals with fraud perpetrated on non-cash payments. There is characterized the most common forms of non-cash payment fraud. It deals with the prevention of fraud in three main areas: financial literacy and education, law and institutions. It is a comparison of the effectiveness of these areas of prevention of fraud perpetrated on the territory of the Czech Republic and the EU for a certain period. There is also explained exactly how to prevent fraud.

  17. Battling Obesity : efforts in preventing knee osteoarthritis


    Vos, Bastiaan


    markdownabstractThis thesis describes the results of the first preventive randomized controlled trial worldwide in the field of knee osteoarthritis. The preventive effectiveness of a tailor-made lifestyle intervention, consisting of diet and exercise, is described in detail. Short-term results are briefly discussed, but the focus is on long-term results and the achieved behavioural changes in lifestyle. Additionally, the preventive effect of oral glucosamine sulfate on incident knee osteoarth...

  18. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires. (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa


    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring.

  19. Preventing and managing skin tears: a review. (United States)

    Roberts, Mary J


    Skin tears are an increasingly common problem in frail elders, and the wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nurse must be knowledgeable regarding both prevention and management of these lesions. A literature review was conducted to identify current concepts regarding management of skin tears. Articles reviewed provided numerous suggested interventions and protocols. Recurring themes were prevention of skin tears whenever possible and management of existing lesions with products that manage the exudate, maintain a moist surface, and prevent additional trauma.

  20. Piracy prevention methods in software business


    Korhonen, J


    There are various forms of piracy in software business, and many prevention techniques have been developed against them. Forms of software piracy are, for example, cracks and serials, softlifting and hard disk loading, internet piracy and software counterfeiting, mischanneling, reverse engineering, and tampering. There are various prevention methods that target these types of piracy, although all of these methods have been broken. The piracy prevention measures can be divided into ethical, l...

  1. Stereotype threat prevents perceptual learning. (United States)

    Rydell, Robert J; Shiffrin, Richard M; Boucher, Kathryn L; Van Loo, Katie; Rydell, Michael T


    Stereotype threat (ST) refers to a situation in which a member of a group fears that her or his performance will validate an existing negative performance stereotype, causing a decrease in performance. For example, reminding women of the stereotype "women are bad at math" causes them to perform more poorly on math questions from the SAT and GRE. Performance deficits can be of several types and be produced by several mechanisms. We show that ST prevents perceptual learning, defined in our task as an increasing rate of search for a target Chinese character in a display of such characters. Displays contained two or four characters and half of these contained a target. Search rate increased across a session of training for a control group of women, but not women under ST. Speeding of search is typically explained in terms of learned "popout" (automatic attraction of attention to a target). Did women under ST learn popout but fail to express it? Following training, the women were shown two colored squares and asked to choose the one with the greater color saturation. Superimposed on the squares were task-irrelevant Chinese characters. For women not trained under ST, the presence of a trained target on one square slowed responding, indicating that training had caused the learning of an attention response to targets. Women trained under ST showed no slowing, indicating that they had not learned such an attention response.

  2. [Preventive vaccinations for medical personnel]. (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Goedecke, Marcel; Wulf, Hinnerk


    Vaccinations are among the most efficient and important preventive medical procedures. Modern vaccines are well tolerated. In Germany there are no longer laws for mandatory vaccinations, either for the general public or for medical personnel. Vaccinations are now merely "officially recommended" by the top health authorities on the basis of recommendations from the Standing Committee on Vaccinations (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) according to § 20 para 3 of the Protection against Infection law (IfSG). The management of vaccine damage due to officially recommended vaccinations is guaranteed by the Federal States. Whereas vaccinations in childhood are generally considered to be a matter of course, the willingness to accept them decreases markedly with increasing age. In the medical sector vaccinations against, for example, hepatitis B are well accepted while other vaccinations against, for example, whooping cough or influenza are not considered to be so important. The fact that vaccinations, besides offering protection for the medical personnel, may also serve to protect the patients entrusted to medical care from nosocomial infections is often ignored.

  3. Preventing thefts and wilful damage

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit


    The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody’s interest we advise the following precautions: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly “safe” hiding places such as drawers, even locked, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS Offices, workshops and meeting-rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. VANDALISM If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. REPORTING INCIDENTS Every misdemeanour solved increases the chances of others be...

  4. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo


    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  5. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives. (United States)

    Russell, Jeffrey A


    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes - muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness - all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers.

  6. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet


    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  7. Corrosion Preventive Compounds Lifetime Testing (United States)

    Hale, Stephanie M.; Kammerer, Catherine C.; Copp, Tracy L.


    Lifetime Testing of Corrosion Preventive Compounds (CPCs) was performed to quantify performance in the various environments to which the Space Shuttle Orbiter is exposed during a flight cycle. Three CPCs are approved for use on the Orbiter: RD Calcium Grease, Dinitrol AV-30, and Braycote 601 EF. These CPCs have been rigorously tested to prove that they mitigate corrosion in typical environments, but little information is available on how they perform in the unique combination of the coastal environment at the launch pad, the vacuum of low-earth orbit, and the extreme heat of reentry. Currently, there is no lifetime or reapplication schedule established for these compounds that is based on this combination of environmental conditions. Aluminum 2024 coupons were coated with the three CPCs and exposed to conditions that simulate the environments to which the Orbiter is exposed. Uncoated Aluminum 2024 coupons were exposed to the environmental conditions as a control. Visual inspection and Electro- Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) were performed on the samples in order to determine the effectiveness of the CPCs. The samples were processed through five mission life cycles or until the visual inspection revealed the initiation of corrosion and EIS indicated severe degradation of the coating.

  8. Poliomyelitis--prevention in travellers. (United States)

    Mayer, Cora A; Neilson, Amy A


    This article is the second in a series providing a summary of prevention strategies and vaccination for infections that may be acquired by travellers. The series aims to provide practical strategies to assist general practitioners in giving travel advice, as a synthesis of multiple information sources which must otherwise be consulted. Poliomyelitis is a potentially fatal viral illness, which may cause acute flaccid paralysis and permanent central nervous system damage. Ongoing global efforts to eradicate poliomyelitis have been under way since 1988. Travellers are at risk of infection in countries with endemic wild poliomyelitis virus or imported cases, and can spread the infection to areas where poliomyelitis has been eradicated. While all adults should be immune to poliomyelitis, it is important that at-risk travellers are vaccinated appropriately. Vaccine options and regions currently reporting poliomyelitis are presented from a number of sources, which may facilitate the process of giving travel advice in a general practice setting, although it is also important to seek up-to-date epidemiological information.

  9. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.


    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  10. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li


    Full Text Available Background: Robotic vehicles such as straddle carriers represent a popular form of cargo handling amongst container terminal operators.Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers.Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier.Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles.Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young T.PARK; Jing SUN


    Most of the spare ordering policies treated up to now have assumed that preventive and corrective replacement costs are equal, which implies in essential that there is no significant need for preventive replacement. This paper presents an ordering policy for preventive age replacement with minimal repair. Introducing the replacement, repair, inventory holding and shortage costs, the expected cost rate is derived. A procedure to determine jointly the ordering time for a spare and the preventive replacement time for the operating unit so as to minimize the expected cost rate is proposed. To explain the ordering policy and the optimization procedure, a numerical example is also included.

  12. Preventing Illegitimate Teenage Pregnancy Through Systems Interaction (United States)

    Jarvis, D. L.


    Social workers, Cooperating with doctors, nurses, hospital social workers and educators in other helping systems, conducted a demonstration project described here, aimed at preventing illegitimate teenage pregnancy. (Author)

  13. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset Metadata (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  14. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  15. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]. (United States)

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J


    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  16. Workplace Bullying Prevention: A Critical Discourse Analysis (United States)

    JOHNSON, Susan L.


    Aim To analyze the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Background Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behavior may be more effective than efforts to stop the behavior. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. Design This was a qualitative study. Method Critical discourse analysis and Foucault’s writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyze data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n=15) and organizational documents (n=22). Data were collected in 2012. Findings The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centered around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviors and controlling behaviors. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Conclusion Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviors of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations’ discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. PMID:26010268

  17. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  18. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  19. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ankle Neck & Back Health Centers Broken Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & Surgeries ...

  20. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Prevention (United States)

    ... Program Unexplained Respiratory Disease Outbreaks (URDO) European Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Network (ELDSNet) Prevention Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  2. Preventing Blood Clots After Orthopaedic Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Foot & Ankle Neck & Back Health Centers Broken Bones & Injuries Diseases & Conditions Arthritis Tumors Sports Injuries & Prevention Children Bone Health Health & Safety Treatment Treatments & ...

  3. Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Burton


    Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  4. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  5. 75 FR 30041 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and..., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  6. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B


    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  7. Preventing disruptive behavior in early elementary schoolchildren: impact of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.C. van Lier (Pol)


    textabstractKnowledge about the development of children with disruptive behaviors, leading to disruptive disorders and related poor outcomes, guides prevention research in the development and evaluation of preventive interventions. The overview of effective interventions in this chapter showed that

  8. Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, Jens


    This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.......This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries....

  9. Modeling preventive maintenance using subjective data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Presents the optimal preventive maintenance model establishedwith the target function given through technical economic analysis, and failure rate and delay time distribution estimated from subjective data, which describes the relationship between the total downtime and the preventive maintenance and can be used to determine the rational inspection interval and to minimize the total expected downtime per unit time.

  10. 78 FR 62305 - Fire Prevention Week, 2013 (United States)


    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9034 of October 4, 2013 Fire Prevention... communities, and they cost our Nation billions of dollars each year. During Fire Prevention Week, we pay... rapidly and poisonous, disorienting smoke moves even quicker, families should design plans that allow...

  11. 50 Ways to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message tailored for African Americans.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/18/2007.

  12. It's Never Too Late To Prevent Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message tailored for older adults.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/20/2007.

  13. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  14. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents (United States)

    Sussman, Steve


    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  15. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents. (United States)

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.


    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  16. 45 CFR 96.125 - Primary prevention. (United States)


    ...) Classroom and/or small group sessions (all ages); (ii) Parenting and family management classes; (iii) Peer... prevention strategies directed at individuals not identified to be in need of treatment. The comprehensive... abuse. (b) In implementing the prevention program the State shall use a variety of strategies,...

  17. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P


    Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention.

  18. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials. (United States)

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  19. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge


    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  20. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Simonetti, R G


    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  1. Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Simonetti, Rosa G


    Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.......Oxidative stress may cause gastrointestinal cancers. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in preventing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory....

  2. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.


    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth (

  3. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam


    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  4. Making a Difference through Prevention and Treatment. (United States)

    Jackman, Robbie M.


    Discusses the related nature of prevention and treatment of drug abuse and alcohol abuse. For both prevention and treatment, the focus must be on outreach, culturally specific needs, and community-based needs. Treatment modalities that have been most effective are those that put the basic needs of the client first. (SLD)

  5. Governance Structure | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  6. Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Andrea; Schmitt, Jochen; Bennett, Cathy; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Elsner, Peter; English, John; Williams, Hywel C.


    Background Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. Different preventive measures are in place but it is not clear how effective these are. Objectives To assess the effect of interventions for preventing OIHD in healthy people who wo

  7. Prevention and Treatment of Reproductive Tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Reproductive tract infections (RTIs) prevention and treatment is one of the three major projects organized by the National Population and Family Planning Commission. The author, based on the practice of this project and the China/UNFPA reproductive health and family planning project, made some suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of the efforts made to prevent and treat RTIs.

  8. Battling Obesity : efforts in preventing knee osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. de Vos (Bastiaan)


    markdownabstractThis thesis describes the results of the first preventive randomized controlled trial worldwide in the field of knee osteoarthritis. The preventive effectiveness of a tailor-made lifestyle intervention, consisting of diet and exercise, is described in detail. Short-term results are

  9. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.


    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  10. Training the Navy Preventive Medicine Technician (United States)

    Janoski, Tom


    This article gives the history and purpose of the Navy Preventive Medicine Technician (PMT) School, overviews the program's goals, and summarizes the program of study. PMT students receive 26 weeks of intensive didactic and practical instruction in preventive medicine and environmental health. Graduates receive 421/2 semester hours of college…

  11. Preventive Medicine 2000: Changing Contexts and Opportunities. (United States)

    McClary, Alicia M.; Marantz, Paul; Taylor, Margaret H.


    A survey of 142 U.S. and Canadian medical schools compared medical school curricula since 1991, especially in schools moving to the new interdisciplinary format. Thirty- five schools had retained preventive medicine teaching as a separate course; 25 schools integrated preventive medicine concepts into many courses; and 10 schools appeared to have…

  12. School Violence: Prevalence, Precursors, and Prevention. (United States)

    Juvonen, Jaanna


    Reviews types of school violence students confront, including a frequent precursor thereto: bullying. Discusses positive and negative aspects of current approach to school violence prevention such as surveillance, zero-tolerance policies, anti-bullying programs. Describes components of model school violence-prevention program. (Contains 38…

  13. Prevention of comorbid mental and physical disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, C.M.H.


    This chapter aims to explore the possibilities of preventing comorbid mental and physical disorders. It presents a framework of optional preventive strategies based on four explanatory models of comorbidity and six strategic dimensions. Addressing common early risk factors is discussed as one of the

  14. Suicide Prevention in the Pacific War (WWII). (United States)

    Suzuki, Peter T.


    During war against Japan, there were two facets of U.S. program to prevent suicide among the Japanese: research component in Foreign Morale Analysis Division of Office of War Information and a suicide prevention program itself put into effect toward the end of the war in battles of Saipan and Okinawa and undertaken by U.S. GIs. (Author/NB)

  15. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  16. Teaching Prevention in Internal Medicine Clerkships. (United States)

    Kinsinger, Linda


    Reviews the rationale for including prevention in the clinical medicine clerkship. Summarizes current guidelines, presents examples of curricula in several medical schools, and proposes a future direction that stresses integrating teaching preventive medicine into internal medicine clerkships and across the entire four-year medical curriculum. (DB)

  17. Prevention of organised crime : A situational approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, H.G. van de; Schoot, C.R.A. van der


    The goal of this analysis is to reveal the interfaces between the legitimate and illegitimate environments and to generate possibillities for preventive action. These indications for possible preventive interventions are called 'red flags' from the four national reports and examines four selected to

  18. Design for Heart Disease Prevention Programs. (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    In this teaching and curriculum guide for community health education, a design is suggested for a course that could help prevent premature deaths due to heart disease. The course communicates facts regarding the causes of cardiovascular diseases, and outlines opportunities for attaining the degree of physical conditioning essential to prevention.…

  19. Preventing Older Adult Falls and TBI

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast provides tips on how older adults can prevent falls and related injuries, such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI).  Created: 3/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/7/2008.

  20. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose


    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…