Sample records for blowoff

  1. Lean blowoff detection sensor (United States)

    Thornton, Jimmy; Straub, Douglas L.; Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Huckaby, David


    Apparatus and method for detecting incipient lean blowoff conditions in a lean premixed combustion nozzle of a gas turbine. A sensor near the flame detects the concentration of hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by combustion and the concentration monitored as a function of time are used to indicate incipient lean blowoff conditions.

  2. Correlation of Normal Gravity Mixed Convection Blowoff Limits with Microgravity Forced Flow Blowoff Limits (United States)

    Marcum, Jeremy W.; Olson, Sandra L.; Ferkul, Paul V.


    The axisymmetric rod geometry in upward axial stagnation flow provides a simple way to measure normal gravity blowoff limits to compare with microgravity Burning and Suppression of Solids - II (BASS-II) results recently obtained aboard the International Space Station. This testing utilized the same BASS-II concurrent rod geometry, but with the addition of normal gravity buoyant flow. Cast polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) rods of diameters ranging from 0.635 cm to 3.81 cm were burned at oxygen concentrations ranging from 14 to 18% by volume. The forced flow velocity where blowoff occurred was determined for each rod size and oxygen concentration. These blowoff limits compare favorably with the BASS-II results when the buoyant stretch is included and the flow is corrected by considering the blockage factor of the fuel. From these results, the normal gravity blowoff boundary for this axisymmetric rod geometry is determined to be linear, with oxygen concentration directly proportional to flow speed. We describe a new normal gravity 'upward flame spread test' method which extrapolates the linear blowoff boundary to the zero stretch limit in order to resolve microgravity flammability limits-something current methods cannot do. This new test method can improve spacecraft fire safety for future exploration missions by providing a tractable way to obtain good estimates of material flammability in low gravity.

  3. In situ window cleaning by laser blowoff through optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of a window cleaning system based on the laser blowoff technique is investigated to remove the impurity deposition on vacuum windows of the modified reversed field experiment fusion device. The laser pulse is sent to the window through a fused silica fiber optic (φ=1 mm), then focused on its internal surface, single shot ablating up to ∼5 mm2 of the impurity layer; the focused pulse is scanned across the window to clean its entire surface. The composition of the deposited layer is studied through the secondary ion mass spectrometry and profilometry techniques. Effectiveness of cleaning is analyzed in terms of quality of the cleaned spot, its dimension, repetition rate of the laser, and its wavelength. The energy damage threshold of the fiber optic is also investigated. Three different lasers (microjoule Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and ruby) are first tested directly on the window; then only the ruby laser beam is propagated through an optical fiber and tested.

  4. In situ window cleaning by laser blowoff through optical fibera) (United States)

    Alfier, A.; Barison, S.; Danieli, T.; Giudicotti, L.; Pagura, C.; Pasqualotto, R.


    The feasibility of a window cleaning system based on the laser blowoff technique is investigated to remove the impurity deposition on vacuum windows of the modified reversed field experiment fusion device. The laser pulse is sent to the window through a fused silica fiber optic (φ=1mm), then focused on its internal surface, single shot ablating up to ˜5mm2 of the impurity layer; the focused pulse is scanned across the window to clean its entire surface. The composition of the deposited layer is studied through the secondary ion mass spectrometry and profilometry techniques. Effectiveness of cleaning is analyzed in terms of quality of the cleaned spot, its dimension, repetition rate of the laser, and its wavelength. The energy damage threshold of the fiber optic is also investigated. Three different lasers (microjoule Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, and ruby) are first tested directly on the window; then only the ruby laser beam is propagated through an optical fiber and tested.

  5. The blow-off mechanism of a bluff-body stabilized laminar premixed flame

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    © 2014 The Combustion Institute. The objective of this work is to investigate the dynamics leading to blow-off of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on a confined bluff-body using high fidelity numerical simulations. We used unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. The flame-wall interaction between the hot reactants and the heat conducting bluff-body was accurately captured by incorporating the conjugate heat exchange between them. Simulations showed a shear-layer stabilized flame just downstream of the bluff-body, with a recirculation zone formed by the products of combustion. The flame was negatively stretched along its entire length, primarily dominated by the normal component of the strain. Blow-off was approached by decreasing the mixture equivalence ratio, at a fixed Reynolds number, of the incoming flow. A flame is stable (does not undergo blow-off) when (1) flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed and (2) the gradient of the flame displacement speed normal to its surface is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction. As the equivalence ratio is reduced, the difference between the former and the latter shrinks until the dynamic stability condition (2) is violated, leading to blow-off. Blow-off initiates at a location where this is first violated along the flame. Our results showed that this location was far downstream from the flame anchoring zone, near the end of the recirculation zone. Blow-off started by flame pinching separating the flame into an upstream moving (carried within the recirculation zone) and a downstream convecting (detached from the recirculation zone) flame piece. Within the range of operating conditions investigated, the conjugate heat exchange with the bluff-body had no impact on the flame blow-off.

  6. Electric fields effect on liftoff and blowoff of nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk


    The stabilization characteristics of liftoff and blowoff in nonpremixed laminar jet flames in a coflow have been investigated experimentally for propane fuel by applying AC and DC electric fields to the fuel nozzle with a single-electrode configuration. The liftoff and blowoff velocities have been measured by varying the applied voltage and frequency of AC and the voltage and the polarity of DC. The result showed that the AC electric fields extended the stabilization regime of nozzle-attached flame in terms of jet velocity. As the applied AC voltage increased, the nozzle-attached flame was maintained even over the blowout velocity without having electric fields. In such a case, a blowoff occurred directly without experiencing a lifted flame. While for the DC cases, the influence on liftoff was minimal. There existed three different regimes depending on the applied AC voltage. In the low voltage regime, the nozzle-detachment velocity of either liftoff or blowoff increased linearly with the applied voltage, while nonlinearly with the AC frequency. In the intermediate voltage regime, the detachment velocity decreased with the applied voltage and reasonably independent of the AC frequency. At the high voltage regime, the detachment was significantly influenced by the generation of discharges. © 2009 The Combustion Institute.

  7. Blow-off characteristics of turbulent premixed flames in curved-wall Jet Burner

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Morkous S.


    This study concerns the flame dynamics of a curved-wall jet (CWJ) stabilized turbulent premixed flame as it approaches blow-off conditions. Time resolved OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) delineated reaction zone contours and simultaneously stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) quantified the turbulent flow field features. Ethylene/air flames were stabilized in CWJ burner to determine the sequence of events leading to blowoff. For stably burning flames far from blowoff, flames are characterized with a recirculation zone (RZ) upstream for flame stabilization followed by an intense turbulent interaction jet (IJ) and merged-jet regions downstream; the flame front counterparts the shear layer vortices. Near blowoff, as the velocity of reactants increases, high local stretch rates exceed the extinction stretch rates instantaneously resulting in localized flame extinction along the IJ region. As Reynolds number (Re) increases, flames become shorter and are entrained by larger amounts of cold reactants. The increased strain rates together with heat loss effects result in further fragmentation of the flame, eventually leading to the complete quenching of the flame. This is explained in terms of local turbulent Karlovitz stretch factor (K) and principal flow strain rates associated with C contours. Hydrogen addition and increasing the RZ size lessen the tendency of flames to be locally extinguished.

  8. Sawtooth Activities During Impurity Injection by Laser Blow-off in HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Wei; LIU Yi; CUI Zhengying; DONG Yunbo; HUANG Yuan; ZHANG Peng; SUN Ping; FU Bingzhong


    In order to study impurity transport and their progression in the plasma,small amount of high-Z impurities were injected into HL-2A ohmic heated plasmas by laser blow-off and traced with good spatial temporal resolution by a soft X-ray camera.An analysis of the evolution of the impurities'radiation distribution in the plasma revealed that impurity transport in the central region was profoundly different from that outside of it.It was found that the sawteeth tended to be inverted on the central soft X-ray chord signals after the impurity injection and the soft X-ray profiles exhibited discontinuities during the movement of the impurities in the plasma central region.Detailed 2D visualization of the evolution of impurities'radiation using computer tomography has provided further understanding of the properties of impurity transport in the HL-2A plasma.

  9. Liftoff and blowoff of a diffusion flame between parallel streams of fuel and air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Tarrazo, Eduardo [I.N.T.A. Area de Propulsion-Edificio R02, Ctra. Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Vera, Marcos [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Linan, Amable [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Pza. Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    A numerical analysis is presented to describe the liftoff and blowoff of a diffusion flame in the mixing layer between two parallel streams of fuel (mainly methane diluted with nitrogen) and air emerging from porous walls. The analysis, which takes into account the effects of thermal expansion, assumes a one-step overall Arrhenius reaction, where the activation energy E is allowed to vary to reproduce the variations of the planar flame propagation velocity with the equivalence ratio. First, we describe the steady flame-front structure when stabilized close to the porous wall (attached flame regime). Then, we analyze the case where the flame front is located far away from the porous wall, at a distance x{sub f}' such that, upstream of the flame front, the mixing layer has a self-similar structure (lifted flame regime). For steady lifted flames, the results, given here in the case when the fuel and air streams are injected with the same velocity, relate U{sub f}'/S{sub L}, the front velocity (relative to the upstream flow) measured with the planar stoichiometric flame velocity, with the Damkohler number D{sub m}=({delta}{sub m}/{delta}{sub L}){sup 2}, based on the thickness, {delta}{sub m}, of the nonreacting mixing layer at the flame-front position and the laminar flame thickness, {delta}{sub L}. For large values of D{sub m}, the results, presented here for a wide range of dilutions of the fuel stream, provide values of the front propagation velocity that are in good agreement with previous experimental results, yielding well-defined conditions for blowoff. The calculated flame-front velocity can also be used to describe the transient flame-front dynamics after ignition by an external energy source.


    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik


    The flame stability is known to be significantly enhanced when the flame is attached to a bluff-body. The main interest of this study is on the stability of the flame in a meso-scale channel, considering applications such as combustion-based micro power generators. We investigate the dynamics of lean premixed hydrogen/air flames stabilized behind a square box in a two-dimensional meso-scale channel with high-fidelity numerical simulations. Characteristics of both non-reacting flows and reacting flows over the bluff-body are studied for a range of the mean inflow velocity. The flame stability in reacting flows is investigated by ramping up the mean inflow velocity step by step. As the inlet velocity is increased, the initially stable steady flames undergo a transition to an unsteady mode of regular asymmetric fluctuation. When the inlet velocity is further increased, the flame is eventually blown off. Between the regular fluctuation mode and blowoff limit, there exists a narrow range of the inlet velocity where the flames exhibit periodic local extinction and recovery. Approaching further to blowoff limit, the local extinction and recovery becomes highly transient and a failure of recovery leads blowoff and extinction of the flame kernel.

  11. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels (United States)

    Colorado, Andres

    : ignition; lean blowoff; and variable air to fuel ratio. Some remarkable results of this dissertation include: • At a fixed fire rate (117kW) the addition of hydrogen to NG raises the emission of NO x for the reactions stabilized with the LSB. Under the same conditions, the addition of H2 to NG will reduce the emission levels of the reactions stabilized with the SSCB. • It was found experimentally that nitrous oxide (N2O) is emitted during ignition and blowoff events. • Ammonia (NH3) is also emitted during ignition and blowoff events. • It was found experimentally that at high concentrations of hydrogen in NG (H2>70%), reactions aerodynamically stabilized with the LSB will emit significant amounts of N2O.

  12. 排污管裂口失效分析%Failure Analysis on the Blow-off Pipe Rip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫纪宪; 曹怀祥; 张号; 宋雪; 武晓; 宋明大; 申孝民


    某生物科技有限公司与溶剂罐相连的排污口发生破裂,导致介质泄露,引发爆炸事故。本文通过宏观检查、排污管化学成分分析、金相组织分析、扫描电镜观察、能谱分析、水质分析等方法,对排污管的破裂原因进行了分析。分析结果表明:生产过程中产生的有机酸和水进溶剂罐并在排污封头和排污管内聚集,形成酸性溶液,构成了电化学腐蚀环境。由于焊缝热影响区的自腐蚀电位较其他部位偏低,在电化学腐蚀环境中热影响区的金属作为电化学原电池的阳极,优先发生腐蚀,在焊缝两侧形成腐蚀沟槽,最终穿透管壁发生泄漏。%The blow-off pipe connected with solvent tank was fractured caused an explosion accident with the leak of media in the solvent tank. In this paper, the reason of rupture of blow-off pipe has been confirmed by the methods of macroscopic examination, chemical composition analysis, microstructure analysis, scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis, and water quality analysis. The result showed that electrochemical corrosion environment was constructed when the organic acid and water were stored in blow-off pipe. The metal of heat affected zone would be as anode of primary electrochemical and generated corrosion because that weld corrosion potential is lower than other parts. And the corrosion groove had been formed and led to organic solvent leakage at last.

  13. Mechanisms of stabilization and blowoff of a premixed flame downstream of a heat-conducting perforated plate

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    The objective of this work is to investigate the flame stabilization mechanism and the conditions leading to the blowoff of a laminar premixed flame anchored downstream of a heat-conducting perforated-plate/multi-hole burner, with overall nearly adiabatic conditions. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. Results show a bell-shaped flame stabilizing above the burner plate hole, with a U-shaped section anchored between neighboring holes. The base of the positively curved U-shaped section of the flame is positioned near the stagnation point, at a location where the flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed. This location is determined by the combined effect of heat loss and flame stretch on the flame displacement speed. As the mass flow rate of the reactants is increased, the flame displacement speed at this location varies non-monotonically. As the inlet velocity is increased, the recirculation zone grows slowly, the flame moves downstream, and the heat loss to the burner decreases, strengthening the flame and increasing its displacement speed. As the inlet velocity is raised, the stagnation point moves downstream, and the flame length grows to accommodate the reactants mass flow. Concomitantly, the radius of curvature of the flame base decreases until it reaches an almost constant value, comparable to the flame thickness. While the heat loss decreases, the higher flame curvature dominates thereby reducing the displacement speed of the flame base. For a stable flame, the gradient of the flame base displacement speed normal to the flame is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction, leading to dynamic stability. As inlet velocity is raised further, the former decreases while the latter increases until the stability condition is violated, leading to blowoff. The flame speed during blow off is determined by the feedback between the

  14. Investigation of impurity transport using laser blow-off technique in the HL-2A Ohmic and ECRH plasmas (United States)

    Kai, Zhang; Zheng-Ying, Cui; Ping, Sun; Chun-Feng, Dong; Wei, Deng; Yun-Bo, Dong; Shao-Dong, Song; Min, Jiang; Yong-Gao, Li; Ping, Lu; Qing-Wei, Yang


    Impurity transports in two neighboring discharges with and without electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) are studied in the HL-2A tokamak by laser blow-off (LBO) technique. The progression of aluminium ions as the trace impurity is monitored by soft x-ray (SXR) and bolometer detector arrays with good temporal and spatial resolutions. Obvious difference in the time trace of the signal between the Ohmic and ECRH L-mode discharges is observed. Based on the numerical simulation with one-dimensional (1D) impurity transport code STRAHL, the radial profiles of impurity diffusion coefficient D and convective velocity V are obtained for each shot. The result shows that the diffusion coefficient D significantly increases throughout the plasma minor radius for the ECRH case with respect to the Ohmic case, and that the convection velocity V changes from negative (inward) for the Ohmic case to partially positive (outward) for the ECRH case. The result on HL-2A confirms the pump out effect of ECRH on impurity profile as reported on various other devices.

  15. Impurities removal by laser blow-off from in-vacuum optical surfaces on RFX-mod experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfier, A.; Fassina, A.; Pasqualotto, R.; Cervaro, V.; Lotto, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Barison, S.; Fiameni, S. [Istituto per l' energetica e le interfasi, Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Giudicotti, L. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Electrical Engineering Department, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/A, 35131, Padova (Italy)


    An in situ window cleaning system by laser blow-off through optical fiber has been developed on the basis of a feasibility study previously presented. The beam generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is launched in a vacuum box into a high damage threshold optical fiber through a lens. The fiber output is focused on the impurities-coated surface of a vacuum window exposed to the plasma of the RFX-mod experiment, and it is remotely controlled with an xy motion system to scan the entire surface. We first investigate the energy density threshold necessary to ablate the deposited impurity substrate on removed dirty windows: above threshold, a single laser pulse recovers {approx}95% of the window transmission before its exposure to the plasma, while below it the efficiency of the cleaning process is too poor. The system so conceived was then used to clean the three collection windows of the Main Thomson scattering diagnostic on RFX-mod. We also present results obtained applying the same technique to the SiO-protected Al mirror used for the Z{sub eff} diagnostic: an energy threshold for efficient impurity removal without mirror damage is first identified, then ablation tests are executed and analyzed in terms of recovered reflectivity. The SIMS technique is used both with windows and mirror to study the composition of surfaces before and after the ablation.

  16. Preliminary study of NO{sub x}, CO, and lean blowoff in a piloted-lean premixed combustor. Part 1: Experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.C.; Mello, J.P.; Mellor, A.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Combustion and Propulsion Group; Malte, P.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    In order to validate the models for NO{sub x}, CO, and lean blowoff discussed in part 2 of this paper, the development of an experimental datum base was initiated. Experimental data were collected from an industrial, piloted-lean premixed, natural gas fired, can combustor rig. The experiments were designed in order to minimize testing cost and time. Independent variations of inlet pressure (8 to 14 atm), inlet temperature (550 to 750 K), and residence time (13 and 23 ms) were performed in order to gain insight into the sensitivity of the emissions levels to changes in combustor operating conditions.

  17. Changes in Blow-Off Velocity Observed in Two Explosives at the Threshold for Sustained Ignition Using the Modified Gap Test (United States)

    Lee, R. J.; Forbes, J. W.; Tasker, D. G.; Orme, R. S.


    The Modified Gap Test was used to quantify different levels of partial reaction for various input stresses. This test configuration has been historically useful in highlighting thresholds for first reaction, sustained ignition, and detonation. Two different HMX based compositions were studied; a cast-cured composition with 87% HMX and a pressed composition with 92% HMX. Each explosive was prepared from large industrially produced batches consisting of different unreactive polymeric binder systems. Short samples (50.8 mm in diameter and 12.7 mm thick) were shock loaded using the standard large-scale gap test donor system. Product-cloud blow-off velocities at the opposite end of the sample were measured using a high-speed digital-camera. Velocity versus input pres sure plots provided changes in reactivity that had developed by the 12.7 mm run distance. Results appear consistent for the lower input stresses. In contrast, the results varied widely in a range of input stresses around the transition to detonation in both explosives. These results indicate that both explosives are subject to large variation in blow-off velocity in a range of input stresses near the threshold for prompt detonation. This is explained by localized variations of HMX particle size and density in industrially prepared samples. Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited, IHDIV Log No. 09-108.

  18. 含氨放射性废水吹脱法除氨研究%Treatment of Reactive Process Wastewater With High-Level Ammonia by Blow-off Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓彤; 权英; 王阳; 付亘娜; 刘兵; 唐亚平


    采用吹脱除氨工艺,对高温气冷堆燃料元件二氧化铀核芯颗粒生产中产生的含氨工艺放射性废液进行了除氨处理研究.分析了废水pH、加碱量、加热和吹脱时间等因素对吹脱除氨效果的影响,于80℃、吹脱3h后,废液的除氨效率可超过95%.对除氨后的废液体系进行了阴离子交换树脂吸附铀的静态实验,结果表明,树脂对铀吸附容量较未除氨时有明显提高.%The ceramic UO2 kernels for nuclear fuel elements of high temperature gas cooled reactors were prepared through sol-gel process with uranyl nitrate, which produces process wastewater containing high-level ammonia and uranium. The blow-off method on a bench scale was investigated to remove ammonia from reactive wastewater. Under the optimized operating conditions, the ammonia can be removed by more than 95%, with little reactive uranium distilled. The effects of pH, heating temperature and stripping time were studied. Static tests with ion-exchange resin indicate that ammonia removal treatment increases uranium accumulation in anion exchange resin.

  19. Giant Impact Induced Atmospheric Blow-Off


    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Shen, Andy H.; Ni, Sidao


    Previous calculations indicate that the Earth suffered impacts from objects up to Mars size. Such a giant impact may have produced a temporary ejecta-based ring that accreted to form the Moon. To simulate the surface waves from such events we approximated the cratering source as a buried pressurized sphere. For a 10^27 J impactor we calculated the resulting surface wave using the mode summation method of Sato et al.. For such an impact, the solid Earth free-surface velocity above, and antipod...

  20. Phase separator safety valve blow-off.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic


    The fast discharge of the CMS solenoid leads to a pressure rise in the phase separator. On August 28th, a fast discharge was triggered at a current level of 19.1 kA. The pressure in the phase separator increased up to the set pressure of the safety valve and some helium was discharged. In consequence of this and prevoious similar observations the liquid helium level in the phase separator has been reduced from 60% to 50% and later to 45% in order to reduce the helium inventory in the magnet.

  1. Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere `blow-off' (United States)


    Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ hi-res Size hi-res: 1096 kb Credits: ESA/Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) Oxygen and carbon discovered in exoplanet atmosphere ‘blow-off’ This artist’s impression shows an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball - of oxygen and carbon discovered around the well-known extrasolar planet HD 209458b. An international team of astronomers led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) observed the first signs of oxygen and carbon in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The atoms of carbon and oxygen are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen - like dust in a supersonic whirlwind - in a process called atmospheric ‘blow off’. Oxygen and carbon have been detected in the atmosphere of a planet beyond our Solar System for the first time. Scientists using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope have observed the famous extrasolar planet HD 209458b passing in front of its parent star, and found oxygen and carbon surrounding the planet in an extended ellipsoidal envelope - the shape of a rugby-ball. These atoms are swept up from the lower atmosphere with the flow of the escaping atmospheric atomic hydrogen, like dust in a supersonic whirlwind. The team led by Alfred Vidal-Madjar (Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France) reports this discovery in a forthcoming issue of Astrophysical Journal Letters. The planet, called HD 209458b, may sound familiar. It is already an extrasolar planet with an astounding list of firsts: the first extrasolar planet discovered transiting its sun, the first with an atmosphere, the first observed to have an evaporating hydrogen atmosphere (in 2003 by the same team of scientists) and now the first to have an atmosphere containing oxygen and carbon. Furthermore the ‘blow-off’ effect observed by the team during their October and November 2003 observations with Hubble had never been seen before. In honour of such a distinguished catalogue this extraordinary extrasolar planet has provisionally been dubbed 'Osiris'. Osiris was the Egyptian god who lost part of his body - like HD 209458b - after his brother killed and cut him into pieces to prevent his return to life. Oxygen is one of the possible indicators of life that is often looked for in experiments searching for extraterrestrial life (such as those onboard the Viking probes and the Spirit and Opportunity rovers), but according to Vidal-Madjar: “Naturally this sounds exciting - the possibility of life on Osiris - but it is not a big surprise as oxygen is also present in the giant planets of our Solar System, like Jupiter and Saturn.” What, on the other hand was surprising was to find the carbon and oxygen atoms surrounding the planet in an extended envelope. Although carbon and oxygen have been observed on Jupiter and Saturn, it is always in combined form as methane and water deep in the atmosphere. In HD 209458b the chemicals are broken down into the basic elements. But on Jupiter or Saturn, even as elements, they would still remain invisible low in the atmosphere. The fact that they are visible in the upper atmosphere of HD 209458b confirms that atmospheric ‘blow off’ is occurring. The scorched Osiris orbits ‘only’ seven million kilometres from its yellow Sun-like star and its surface is heated to about 1000 degrees Celsius. Whereas hydrogen is a very light element - the lightest in fact - oxygen and carbon are much heavier in comparison. This has enabled scientists to conclude that this phenomenon is more efficient than simple evaporation. The gas is essentially ripped away at a speed of more than 35 000 kilometres an hour. “We speculate that even heavier elements such as iron are blown off at this stage as well,” says team member Alain Lecavelier des Etangs (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, France). The whole evaporation mechanism is

  2. Water Supply Intakes, water blowoff, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'water...

  3. Application of light-initiated explosive for simulating x-ray blowoff impulse effects on a full scale reentry vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory nuclear effects testing allows the study of reentry vehicle response to simulated exoatmospheric x-ray encounters. Light-initiated explosive produces the nearly simultaneous impulse loading of a structure by using a spray painted coating of explosive which is detonated by an intense flash of light. A lateral impulse test on a full scale reentry vehicle is described which demonstrates that the light-initiated explosive technique can be extended to the lateral loading of very large systems involving load discontinuities. This experiment required the development of a diagnostic method for verifying the applied impulse, and development of a large light source for simultaneously initiating the explosive over the surface of the vehicle. Acceptable comparison between measured strain response and code predictions is obtained. The structural capability and internal response of a vehicle subjected to an x-ray environment was determined from a light-initiated explosive test

  4. Emission spectrum from an Al/Mg tracer in the blow-off region of a radiativelv ablated cansule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Yu-Dong; Chen Bo-Lun; Zhang Lu; Yang Jia-Min; Huang Tian-Xuan; Ding Yong-Kun


    A study of X-ray emissions from Al/Mg tracers buried at two different depths in a plastic shell is presented. The X-rays originating from the K-shell transitions of the Al/Mg ions begin to irradiate after the ablative heating wave has passed through the trace layer and are recorded with a streaked crystal spectrometer. Only emissions from the capsule with the trace layer buried at a smaller depth are observed. Hydrodynamic simulations and a collisional-radiative model including detailed atomic physics are used to investigate the measured spectrum. It is found that the effects of the radiative heating play important roles in the formation of the K-shell emission. The time correlation between the simulations and the measurements is obtained by comparing the measured time profile of the He a emission with the calculated one. The line ratio of Ly a to He a is also calculated and is found to be in fairly good agreement with the experimental data. Finally,the relation between the time profile of the He a emission and the ablation velocity is also discussed.

  5. Landfill Leachate Disposal Method Combined with Lime Coagulation, Blow-off and CO2 Aeration%石灰混凝+吹脱+CO2曝气联合对垃圾渗滤液的处理实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱江; 李清; 王时亮; 孙哲; 郑婷婷


    For the purpose of reducing the ammonia nitrogen and the organic pollutant with high concentration in the landfill leachate, this text used combination treatment with lime coagulation, blow off and CO2 aeration to pretreated the landfill leachate in order to lessen the pollutant load to the biochemical treatment in the later stage. This text used single-factor experiment to discuss the impact of different factors, such as dosing quantity of CaO, aeration time, temperature and the ratio of gas and solid, on the removal efficiency of the ammonia nitrogen, COD and UV254. It also discussed the most efficient reaction condition of the comprehensive treatment effect by orthogonal experiment. The experiment also aerate with CO2 after the orthogonal experiment as to reduce the high pH and the concentration of Ca2+. The results of this experiment indicated that, the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen had direct correlativity with each factors. That of COD and UV254 had positive relationship with the dosing quantity of CaO. With the most efficient experiment condition of coagulation-blow off which obtained from the orthogonal experiment, the removal rate of the ammonia nitrogen, COD and UV254 could get 98.8%, 60.2%, 68.7% respectively. After the further aeration with CO2, the pH of the garbage percolate fall to 6.8 from 12.1. The removal rate of the concentration of Ca2+ was 70.3% and that of COD was 65.7%.%为了有效降低垃圾渗滤液中高浓度的氨氮和有机污染物,以便降低后期生化处理的污染负荷,采用石灰混凝+吹脱+CO2曝气联合法对垃圾渗滤液进行预处理,通过单因素实验研究CaO投加量、曝气时间、反应温度及气液比等因素对渗滤液中氨氮、COD以及UV254的去除效果的影响;通过正交实验研究综合处理效果最好的反应条件,并在正交实验后进行CO2曝气,以期降低实验后较高的pH和钙离子浓度.结果表明:氨氮去除率与各单因素呈正相关关系,COD及UV254的去除率与CaO投加量相关性较大.在正交试验得出的最佳混凝吹脱条件下,氨氮、COD、UV254的去除率分别能达到98.8%、60.2%、68.7%.进一步CO2曝气后,垃圾渗滤液pH由12.1降至6.8,钙离子浓度降低70.3%,COD去除率可达65.7%.

  6. Effect of electric fields on the stabilization of premixed laminar bunsen flames at low AC frequency: Bi-ionic wind effect

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk


    The stabilization characteristics of laminar premixed bunsen flames have been investigated experimentally by applying AC electric fields at low frequency below 60. Hz together with DC in the single electrode configuration. The blowoff velocity has been measured for varying AC voltage and frequency. A transition frequency between low and high frequency regimes has been identified near 40-50. Hz, where AC electric fields have minimal effect on flame stabilization. In the low frequency regime, the blowoff velocity decreased linearly with AC voltage such that the flames became less stable. This was consistent with the DC result, implying the influence of the ionic wind effect. The variation of blowoff velocity with AC frequency showed a non-monotonic behavior in that the velocity decreased and then increased, exhibiting minimum blowoff velocity near 6-8. Hz. Based on the molecular kinetic theory, the developing degree of ionic wind was derived. By considering the ionic wind effects arising from both positive and negative ions in a flame zone, the bi-ionic wind effect successfully explained the non-monotonic behavior of blowoff velocity with AC frequency in the low frequency regime. © 2011 The Combustion Institute.

  7. Stability enhancement of ozone-assisted laminar premixed Bunsen flames in nitrogen co-flow

    KAUST Repository

    Vu, Tran Manh


    Ozone (O3) is known as one of the strongest oxidizers and therefore is widely used in many applications. Typically in the combustion field, a combination of non-thermal plasma and combustion systems have been studied focusing on the effects of ozone on flame propagation speeds and ignition characteristics. Here, we experimentally investigated the effects of ozone on blowoff of premixed methane/air and propane/air flames over a full range of equivalence ratios at room temperature and atmospheric pressure by using a co-flow burner and a dielectric barrier discharge. The results with ozone showed that a nozzle exit jet velocity at the moment of flame blowoff (blowoff velocity) significantly increased, and flammability limits for both fuel-lean and rich mixtures were also extended. Ozone had stronger effects of percent enhancement in the blowoff velocity for off-stoichiometric mixtures, while minimum enhancements could be observed around stoichiometric conditions for both fuels showing linear positive dependence on a tested range of ozone concentration up to 3810ppm. Through chemical kinetic simulations, the experimentally observed trends of the enhancement in blowoff velocity were identified as a result of the modification of the laminar burning velocity. Two ozone decomposition pathways of O3+N2→O+O2+N2 and O3+H→O2+OH were identified as the most controlling steps. These reactions, coupled with fuel consumption characteristics of each fuel determined the degree of promotion in laminar burning velocities, supporting experimental observations on blowoff velocities with ozone addition. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  8. 76 FR 16641 - Petitions for Modification of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards (United States)


    ... 19.2 SCFM @ 30 psig. (8) The uppermost spray nozzle will be located at a height of not more than 56... Mingo County, West Virginia. Regulation Affected: 30 CFR 75.1101-1(b) (Deluge-type water spray systems... blow-off dust covers for the spray nozzles of a deluge-type water spray system. The petitioner...

  9. Dynamics of bluff-body-stabilized premixed hydrogen/air flames in a narrow channel

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Bok Jik


    Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations were conducted for bluff-body stabilized flames of a lean hydrogen/air mixture at near-blowoff conditions in a meso-scale channel. Parametric simulations were conducted by incrementally varying the inflow velocity in the vicinity of the blowoff limit, and the corresponding flame response was monitored. The present study is a showcase of combustion DNS with embedded boundary representation, and full demonstration of the detailed visualization of the near-blowoff flame characteristics. As the inflow velocity approaches blowoff limit, the flame dynamics exhibit a complex sequence of events, such as periodic local extinction and recovery, and regrowth of the bulk flame by the flame segments attached behind the bluff-body. The total extinction is observed as the attached flames shrink down and are no longer able to regrow the bulk flames. Despite the disparity in the physical scale under study, the observed sequence of the extinction pathway shows a strong similarity with experimental observations at larger scale combustion systems. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  10. Simulation of Hohlraum Wall Texture for Improved Performance in Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Isaac Chartrand [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scott, John Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The performance of hohlraums for use in NIF (National Ignition Facility) is explored using Cassio: a LANL produced radiation hydrodynamics code that implements implicit Monte Carlo radiation transport. We examine the effect on blowoff of adding texture to the inside of the hohlraum wall. These new designs are compared in simulation against current designs and the data are analyzed for the possible use of such hohlraums in future high energy density physics experiments.

  11. Flashback Analysis in Tangential Swirl Burners


    Valera-Medina A.; Syred N.; Abdulsada M.


    Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blowoff limits coupled with low NOx emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential s...

  12. Proton imaging of hohlraum plasma stagnation in inertial-confinement-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton radiography of the spatial structure and temporal evolution of plasma blowing off from a hohlraum wall reveals how the fill gas compresses the wall blow-off, inhibits plasma jet formation and impedes plasma stagnation in the hohlraum interior. The roles of spontaneously generated electric and magnetic fields in hohlraum dynamics and capsule implosions are demonstrated. The heat flux is shown to rapidly convect the magnetic field due to the Nernst effect, which is shown to be ∼10 times faster than convection by the plasma fluid from expanded wall blow-off (vN ∼ 10v). This leads to inhibition of heat transfer from the gas region in the laser beam paths to the surrounding cold gas, resulting in a local plasma temperature increase. The experiments show that interpenetration of the two materials (gas and wall) occurs due to the classical Rayleigh–Taylor instability as the lighter, decelerating ionized fill gas pushes against the heavier, expanding gold wall blow-off. This experiment provides physics insight into the effects of fill gas on x-ray-driven implosions, and would impact the ongoing ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. (paper)

  13. On the brightness variations of Comet Halley at large heliocentric distances (United States)

    Flammer, K. R.; Jackson, B.; Mendis, D. A.


    Sporadic variations of its intrinsic brightness of up to 500 percent, with time scales as short as a few hours, has been exhibited by Halley's comet at large heliocentric distances (11-8 AU). It is shown that many of these brightness enhancements are closely correlated to the encounter of high-speed solar wind streams by the comet. It is proposed that during such periods, the night side of the comet gets charged to numerically large negative electrostatic potentials, with consequent electrostatic levitation and blow-off of fine charged dust grains lying on it. This gives rise to the observed brightness variations.

  14. The brightness variations of Comet Halley at large heliocentric distances (United States)

    Flammer, K. R.; Jackson, B.; Houpis, H. L. F.; Mendis, D. A.


    The reasons for the intrinsic brightness variations of up to 500 percent on time scales as short as a few hours detected by Sekanina (1984) in Comet Halley between October 1982 and February 1984 are discussed. It is shown that solar wind-modulated electrostatic dust blowoff from the night side of the comet is consistent with the observed brightness variations. The variations coincide with the encounter of high-speed streams with the comet. The stream's propagation time to the comet and the sun's rotation during this transit were used to locate the stream origin on the coronal surface, and the results are shown.

  15. Analysis of Lean Premixed/Prevaporized Combustion with KIVA-2 (United States)

    Deur, J. M.; Kundu, K. P.; Darling, D. D.; Cline, M. C.; Micklow, G. J.; Harper, M. R.; Simons, T. A.


    Requirements to reduce the emissions of pollutants from gas turbines used in aircraft propulsion and ground based power generation have led to consideration of lean premixed/prevaporized (LPP) combustion concept. This paper describes some of the LPP flame tube analyses performed at the NASA Research Center with KIVA-2, a well-known multi-dimensional CFD code for problems including sprays, turbulence, and combustion. Modifications to KIVA-2's boundary condition and chemistry treatments have been made to meet the needs of the present study. The study itself focuses on two key aspects of the LPP concept, low emissions and flame stability (including flashback and lean blowoff.

  16. Effect of AC electric fields on the stabilization of premixed bunsen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk


    The stabilization characteristics of laminar premixed bunsen flames have been investigated experimentally for stoichiometric methane-air mixture by applying AC voltage to the nozzle with the single-electrode configuration. The detachment velocity either at blowoff or partial-detachment has been measured by varying the applied voltage and frequency of AC. The result showed that the detachment velocity increased with the applied AC electric fields, such that the flame could be nozzle-attached even over five times of the blowoff velocity without having electric fields. There existed four distinct regimes depending on applied AC voltage and frequency. In the low voltage regime, the threshold condition of AC electric fields was identified, below which the effect of electric fields on the detachment velocity is minimal. In the moderate voltage regime, the flame base oscillated with the frequency synchronized to AC frequency and the detachment velocity increased linearly with the applied AC voltage and nonlinearly with the frequency. In the high voltage regime, two different sub-regimes depending on AC frequency were observed. For relatively low frequency, the flame base oscillated with the applied AC frequency together with the half frequency and the variation of the detachment velocity was insensitive to the applied voltage. For relatively high frequency, the stabilization of the flame was significantly affected by the generation of streamers and the detachment velocity decreased with the applied voltage. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel spherical hohlraum with cylindrical laser entrance holes and shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, Ke [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Wudi [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)


    Our recent works [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014); K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 052704 (2014)] have shown that the octahedral spherical hohlraums are superior to the cylindrical hohlraums in both higher symmetry during the capsule implosion and lower backscatter without supplementary technology. However, both the coupling efficiency from the drive laser energy to the capsule and the capsule symmetry decrease remarkably when larger laser entrance holes (LEHs) are used. In addition, the laser beams injected at angles > 45° transport close to the hohlraum wall, thus the wall blowoff causes the LEH to close faster and results in strong laser plasma interactions inside the spherical hohlraums. In this letter, we propose a novel octahedral hohlraum with LEH shields and cylindrical LEHs to alleviate these problems. From our theoretical study, with the LEH shields, the laser coupling efficiency is significantly increased and the capsule symmetry is remarkably improved in the spherical hohlraums. The cylindrical LEHs take advantage of the cylindrical hohlraum near the LEH and mitigate the influence of the blowoff on laser transport inside a spherical hohlraum. The cylindrical LEHs can also be applied to the rugby and elliptical hohlraums.

  18. Counterflow diffusion flames of hydrogen, and hydrogen plus methane, ethylene, propane, and silane vs. air - Strain rates at extinction (United States)

    Pellett, G. L.; Northam, G. Burton; Wilson, L. G.


    Five coaxial tubular opposed jet burners (OJBs) with tube diameter D(T) of 1.8-10 mm and 5 mm conical nozzles were used to form dish-shaped counterflow diffusion flames centered by opposing laminar jets of nitrogen and hydrocarbon-diluted H2 versus air in an argon-purged chamber at 1 atm. Area-averaged air jet velocities at blowoff of the central flame, U(air), characterized extinction of the airside flame as functions of input H2 concentration on the fuelside. A master plot of extensive U(air) data at blowoff versus D(T) shows that U(air) varies linearly with D(T). This and other data sets are used to find that nozzle OJB results for U(air)/diameter average 4.24 + or - 0.28 times larger than tubular OJB results for the same fuel compositions. Critical radial velocity gradients consistent with one-dimensional stagnation point boundary theory and with plug flow inputs are estimated. The results compare favorably with published numerical results based only on potential flow.

  19. Dynamics and structure of stretched flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    This program aims to gain fundamental understanding on the structure, geometry, and dynamics of laminar premixed flames, and relate these understanding to the practical issues of flame extinction and stabilization. The underlying fundamental interest here is the recent recognition that the response of premixed flames can be profoundly affected by flame stretch, as manifested by flow nonuniformity, flame curvature, and flame/flow unsteadiness. As such, many of the existing understanding on the behavior of premixed flames need to be qualitatively revised. The research program consists of three major thrusts: (1) detailed experimental and computational mapping of the structure of aerodynamically-strained planar flames, with emphasis on the effects of heat loss, nonequidiffusion, and finite residence time on the flame thickness, extent of incomplete reaction, and the state of extinction. (2) Analytical study of the geometry and dynamics of stretch-affected wrinkled flame sheets in simple configurations, as exemplified by the Bunsen flame and the spatially-periodic flame, with emphasis on the effects of nonlinear stretch, the phenomena of flame cusping, smoothing, and tip opening, and their implications on the structure and burning rate of turbulent flames. (3) Stabilization and blowoff of two-dimensional inverted premixed and stabilization and determining the criteria governing flame blowoff. The research is synergistically conducted through the use of laser-based diagnostics, computational simulation of the flame structure with detailed chemistry and transport, and mathematical analysis of the flame dynamics.

  20. 西气东输站场放空天然气回收需求与工艺%Recovery and process of stations vent gas In West-to-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪喜; 孙盛; 吴中林; 关中原


    Gas venting in compressor station and offtake station in the long-distance gas pipeline mainly includes emergency venting and planned venting. The former has randomness with big volume gas venting in a turn, usually free of technical condition to recover, and the latter mainly refers to separator blow-off venting and periodic maintenance venting of compressors, with confirmed plans or periodicity and recovery economy. Statistics shows that the gas venting from compressor maintenance and separator blow-off accounts for more than 50% of the total venting volume in stations of West-to-East Gas Pipeline. Therefore, it is feasible and necessary to recover vented natural gas. To this end, a station vent natural gas recovery processing system with the core of CNG compressors is designed, which can recover the vented natural gas produced from equipment maintenance and blow-off in the station and re-inject it into the upstream pipeline, downstream pipeline or offtake pipeline to achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction.%天然气长输管道增压站和分输站放空主要包括紧急抢修放空和计划性放空,前者具有随机性,单次放空量大,不具备回收的技术条件,后者主要指分离器排污放空和压缩机定期检修放空,具有较强的计划性和一定的规律性,具有良好的回收基础条件和回收价值.西气东输管道站场压缩机检修和分离器排污两项放空量之和占总放空量的50%以上,对放空天然气进行回收是可行和必要的.为此,设计了一套以CNG压缩机为核心的站场放空天然气回收工艺系统,可对站场因设备维修、排污等产生的放空天然气进行回收并重新注入上游管道、下游管道或分输管道,达到节能减排的目的.

  1. Kuiper Prize Lecture - Escape of atmospheres, ancient and modern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunten, D.M. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA))


    A development history is presented for theories concerning planetary atmosphere gas-escape phenomena, which although firmly grounded in the kinetics of gases achieved truly productive results only after spacecraft remote sensing data for both the earth atmosphere and the planets became widely available. The most significant initial advances, encompassing diffusion-limited flow, nonthermal escape mechanisms, bound nonthermal coronas, and mass fractionation during early blowoff, followed from sounding rocket studies of the earth upper atmosphere, Mariner 5 results on hydrogen near Venus, and the nitrogen isotopic composition discovered by Viking in Mars. Attention has more recently been given to the xenon isotopic patterns in various atmospheres, as well as to the puzzling behavior of the Io atmosphere and plasma torus. 126 refs.

  2. Dust emission from comets at large heliocentric distances. I - The case of comet Bowell /1980b/ (United States)

    Houpis, H. L. F.; Mendis, D. A.


    Alternative processes of dust emission from comets at large heliocentric distances are considered, in order to explain the dust coma observed in comet Bowell (1980b) at a heliocentric distance as large as 7.17 AU. It is shown that the electrostatic blow-off of dust from a charged, H2O-dominated nucleus having a layer of loose, fine dust may be the formation process of the dust coma, with the coma size expected from the process being comparable to the observed value and the dust grain size being equal to or less than 0.4 microns in size. The upper limit for the total mass in the coma is 3.9 x 10 to the 8th g, and the spatial extension less than 10,000 km. The observed activity may alternatively be due to dust entrainment by the sublimating gas from a CO2-dominated nucleus.

  3. Transient behaviors of a flame over a Tsuji burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young-Da Chen; Da-Da Chen; Chiun-Hsun Chen


    The present study investigated numerically the physical mechanisms underlying the transient behaviors of the flame over a porous cylindrical burner. The numerical results showed that a cold flow structure at a fixed inflow velocity of Uin = 0.6 m/s in a wind tunnel could be observed in two co-existing recirculation flows. Flow variations occur repeatedly until t = 4.71 s, and then a vortex existed steadily behind the burner and no shading occurred. The ignition of flammable mixture led to a rapid rise in gas temperature and a sudden gas expansion. When it reached the stable envelope flame condition, Uin is adjusted to an assigned value. Two blow-off mechanisms were identified. It was also found in the study flame shapes with buoyancy effects agreed with the ones observed experimentally by Tsai. Furthermore, the lift-off flame would appear briefly between the envelopes and wake ones, and was stabilized as a wake flame.

  4. Radio chemistry as a diagnostic in laser fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear chemistry techniques have been employed in an attempt to measure the density of high compression laser fusion targets. Radioactive 28Al atoms formed in the 28Si(n,p)28Al reaction arising from the interaction of the 14 MeV neutrons with the silicon atoms in the glass microsphere have been counted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory using a β-γ coincidence method. The detection system that is employed allows activities corresponding to 100 aluminum atoms to be measured. From the observed number of activated atoms, neutron yields, and code calculations, information on the density of the compressed fuel can be obtained. This method is particularly valuable when the target compression becomes great enough to prohibit previously employed diagnostic techniques to be used. In addition, technique which utilizes a radioactive tracer to measure the isotropy of the target debris blowoff will also be discussed

  5. Lunar Dust and Dusty Plasma Physics (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.


    In the plasma and radiation environment of space, small dust grains from the Moon s surface can become charged. This has the consequence that their motion is determined by electromagnetic as well as gravitational forces. The result is a plasma-like condition known as "dusty plasmas" with the consequence that lunar dust can migrate and be transported by magnetic, electric, and gravitational fields into places where heavier, neutral debris cannot. Dust on the Moon can exhibit unusual behavior, being accelerated into orbit by electrostatic surface potentials as blow-off dust, or being swept away by moving magnetic fields like the solar wind as pick-up dust. Hence, lunar dust must necessarily be treated as a dusty plasma subject to the physics of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A review of this subject has been given before [1], but a synopsis will be presented here to make it more readily available for lunar scientists.

  6. Effect of NLTE Emissivity Models on NIF Ignition Hohlraum Power Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NLTE atomic physics model can significantly affect the power requirements and plasma conditions in ignition hohlraums. This is because the emissivity is a significant factor in determining the time dependent coronal temperature of the hot blow-off plasma filling ignition hohlraums, which, in turn, determines the total energy stored in that coronal plasma at any instant. Here we present best estimates of NLTE emissivity using the SCRAM model, including the range of uncertainty, and compare them with the emissivity of the model used to design NIF ignition hohlraums and set the NIF pulse shape, XSN NLTE. We then present pulse shapes derived from hohlraum simulations using an atomic physics model that approximates the SCRAM emissivities. We discuss the differences in coronal energetics and show how this affects the pulse shape and, in particular, the peak power requirement.

  7. Kuiper Prize Lecture - Escape of atmospheres, ancient and modern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A development history is presented for theories concerning planetary atmosphere gas-escape phenomena, which although firmly grounded in the kinetics of gases achieved truly productive results only after spacecraft remote sensing data for both the earth atmosphere and the planets became widely available. The most significant initial advances, encompassing diffusion-limited flow, nonthermal escape mechanisms, bound nonthermal coronas, and mass fractionation during early blowoff, followed from sounding rocket studies of the earth upper atmosphere, Mariner 5 results on hydrogen near Venus, and the nitrogen isotopic composition discovered by Viking in Mars. Attention has more recently been given to the xenon isotopic patterns in various atmospheres, as well as to the puzzling behavior of the Io atmosphere and plasma torus. 126 refs

  8. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum

  9. Reducing wall plasma expansion with gold foam irradiated by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu; Ding, Yongkun, E-mail:; Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail:; Yang, Jiamin; Li, Hang; Kuang, Longyu; Lin, Zhiwei; Jing, Longfei; Li, Liling; Deng, Bo; Yuan, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Yuan, Guanghui; Tan, Xiulan; Li, Ping [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900 (China)


    The experimental study on the expanding plasma movement of low-density gold foam (∼1% solid density) irradiated by a high power laser is reported in this paper. Experiments were conducted using the SG-III prototype laser. Compared to solid gold with 19.3 g/cc density, the velocities of X-ray emission fronts moving off the wall are much smaller for gold foam with 0.3 g/cc density. Theoretical analysis and MULTI 1D simulation results also show less plasma blow-off, and that the density contour movement velocities of gold foam are smaller than those of solid gold, agreeing with experimental results. These results indicate that foam walls have advantages in symmetry control and lowering plasma fill when used in ignition hohlraum.

  10. Premixing quality and flame stability: A theoretical and experimental study (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K.; Heywood, J. B.; Tabaczynski, R. J.


    Models for predicting flame ignition and blowout in a combustor primary zone are presented. A correlation for the blowoff velocity of premixed turbulent flames is developed using the basic quantities of turbulent flow, and the laminar flame speed. A statistical model employing a Monte Carlo calculation procedure is developed to account for nonuniformities in a combustor primary zone. An overall kinetic rate equation is used to describe the fuel oxidation process. The model is used to predict the lean ignition and blow out limits of premixed turbulent flames; the effects of mixture nonuniformity on the lean ignition limit are explored using an assumed distribution of fuel-air ratios. Data on the effects of variations in inlet temperature, reference velocity and mixture uniformity on the lean ignition and blowout limits of gaseous propane-air flames are presented.

  11. Edge Thomson Scattering in RFX-mod: Operation and first measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfier, A; Fassina, A; Pasqualotto, R; Dal Bello, S; Cervaro, V; Lotto, L; Tollin, M, E-mail: alessandro.fassina@igi.cnr.i [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35157 Padova (Italy)


    During the 2009 experimental campaign the Edge Thomson Scattering System started the operations, after a commissioning period. The main modification has been the adoption of interferential filters spectrometers with APD detectors, similar to those used on the main TS. Other improvements were the optimization of the laser input path and of the collection optics, which increased the signal level of about 50 %. With the present setup, temperature and density measures show good compatibility with those of the main TS diagnostic; density data have been calculated after Rotational Raman Scattering calibration, a method which is not affected by impurity deposition on the collection window. Present operational limits of the diagnostic are discussed as well as short terms planned operations, focusing in particular on laser multi-pulse issues and laser sharing with the impurity injection system by laser blow-off.

  12. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: depostion physics and other discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical work on heavy-ion deposition physics continues at several US laboratories. For example, simulations of charge-state evolution during initial phases of beam-target interactions are suggestive that equilibrium charge is reached only after a substantial fraction of the ion range. Thus we expect reduced interactions and energy loss to the blow-off plasma and also to the tampers in the case of tamped targets. Studies of plasma effects of beam-target interactions are still relevant. But recent result of high current density experiments (250 kA/cm2) with a deuteron beam at the Naval Research Laboratory are indicative of classical deposition for finite temperature plasmas. Moreover, presently we expect heavy-ion beams to have even more stable beam-target interactions than deuterons. Further experimental and accompanying theoretical studies would be very useful

  13. Comparison of soil pollution concentrations determined using AAS and portable XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past mining activities in the area of Silvermines, Ireland, have resulted in heavily polluted soils. The possibility of spreading pollution to the surrounding areas through dust blow-offs poses a potential threat for the local communities. Conventional environmental soil and dust analysis techniques are very slow and laborious and consequently there is a need for fast and accurate analytical methods, which can provide real-time in situ pollution mapping. Laboratory-based aqua regia acid digestion of the soil samples collected in the area followed by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) analysis confirmed very high pollution, especially by Pb, As, Cu, and Zn. In parallel, samples were analyzed using portable X-ray fluorescence radioisotope and miniature tube powered (XRF) NITON instruments and their performance was compared. Overall, the portable XRF instrument gave excellent correlation with the laboratory-based reference AAS method.

  14. Diffusion Flame Stabilization (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath R.


    Diffusion flames are commonly used for industrial burners in furnaces and flares. Oxygen/fuel burners are usually diffusion burners, primarily for safety reasons, to prevent flashback and explosion in a potentially dangerous system. Furthermore, in most fires, condensed materials pyrolyze, vaporize, and burn in air as diffusion flames. As a result of the interaction of a diffusion flame with burner or condensed-fuel surfaces, a quenched space is formed, thus leaving a diffusion flame edge, which plays an important role in flame holding in combustion systems and fire spread through condensed fuels. Despite a long history of jet diffusion flame studies, lifting/blowoff mechanisms have not yet been fully understood, compared to those of premixed flames. In this study, the structure and stability of diffusion flames of gaseous hydrocarbon fuels in coflowing air at normal earth gravity have been investigated experimentally and computationally. Measurements of the critical mean jet velocity (U(sub jc)) of methane, ethane, or propane at lifting or blowoff were made as a function of the coflowing air velocity (U(sub a)) using a tube burner (i.d.: 2.87 mm) (Fig. 1, left). By using a computational fluid dynamics code with 33 species and 112 elementary reaction steps, the internal chemical-kinetic structures of the stabilizing region of methane and propane flames were investigated (Fig. 1, right). A peak reactivity spot, i.e., reaction kernel, is formed in the flame stabilizing region due to back-diffusion of heat and radical species against an oxygen-rich incoming flow, thus holding the trailing diffusion flame. The simulated flame base moved downstream under flow conditions close to the measured stability limit.

  15. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  16. Experimental study of the inverse diffusion flame using high repetition rate OH/acetone PLIF and PIV

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.


    Most previous work on inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) has focused on laminar IDF emissions and the soot formation characteristics. Here, we investigate the characteristics and structure of methane IDFs using high speed planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) images of OH, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and acetone PLIF imaging for non-reacting cases. First, the flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux) but with varying airflow rates, yielding a central air jet Reynolds number (Re) of 1,000 to 6,000 (when blow-off occurs). Next, it was investigated a fixed central air jet Re of 4500, but with varied methane mass flux such that the global equivalence ratio spanned 0.5 to 4. It was observed that at Re smaller than 2000, the inner air jet promotes the establishment of an inverse diffusion flame surrounded by a normal diffusion flame. However, when the Re was increased to 2500, two distinct zones became apparent in the flame, a lower entrainment zone and an upper mixing and combustion zone. 10 kHz OH-PLIF images, and 2D PIV allow the identification of the fate and spatial flame structure. Many flame features were identified and further analyzed using simple but effective image processing methods, where three types of structure in all the flames investigated here: flame holes or breaks; closures; and growing kernels. Insights about the rate of evolution of these features, the dynamics of local extinction, and the sequence of events that lead to re-ignition are reported here. In the lower entrainment zone, the occurrence of the flame break events is counterbalanced by closure events, and the edge propagation appears to control the rate at which the flame holes and closures propagate. The rate of propagation of holes was found to be statistically faster than the rate of closure. As the flames approach blow-off, flame kernels become the main mechanism for flame re-ignition further downstream. The simultaneous OH-PLIF/Stereo PIV

  17. Combustion Characteristics of Butane Porous Burner for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Mustafa


    Full Text Available The present study explores the utilization of a porous burner for thermoelectric power generation. The porous burner was tested with butane gas using two sets of configurations: single layer porcelain and a stacked-up double layer alumina and porcelain. Six PbSnTe thermoelectric (TE modules with a total area of 54 cm2 were attached to the wall of the burner. Fins were also added to the cold side of the TE modules. Fuel-air equivalence ratio was varied between the blowoff and flashback limit and the corresponding temperature, current-voltage, and emissions were recorded. The stacked-up double layer negatively affected the combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.20 to 0.42, but single layer porcelain shows diminishing trend in the equivalence ratio of 0.60 to 0.90. The surface temperature of a stacked-up porous media is considerably higher than the single layer. Carbon monoxide emission is independent for both porous media configurations, but moderate reduction was recorded for single layer porcelain at lean fuel-air equivalence ratio. Nitrogen oxides is insensitive in the lean fuel-air equivalence ratio for both configurations, even though slight reduction was observed in the rich region for single layer porcelain. Power output was found to be highly dependent on the temperature gradient.

  18. Responses of wind erosion to disturbance in a desert scrub grassland: grass vs. bush cover, and a snapshot into recovery (United States)

    Baddock, M.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; van Pelt, S.; Ravi, S.; Over, T. M.; Bhattachan, A.


    The mixture of grass and bush vegetation that typifies many desert scrublands is a distinctive feature of the northern Chihuahuan Desert, where it represents a change in land cover driven by shrub encroachment. In such environments, the redistribution of nutrients by aeolian transport has been recognized as an important biophysical process, with a role in sustaining shrub presence. Investigation of disturbances in these landscapes (e.g. fire and grazing) will enable better understanding of their dust emission behavior with changing climate, perturbance regime and management scenarios. Here we use a portable wind tunnel to investigate the impact of fire and animals on soil erodibilty and dust emissions from different vegetation types in the Sevilleta Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico. Plots were selected that were a) predominantly creosote bush or b) predominantly grass covered. Dust emission was measured for these surfaces both before and after a prescribed burn was conducted. The grass plots were also clipped and artificially trampled to simulate grazing. PM10 concentrations and emission rates from the test surfaces are shown for initial blow-off experiments as the wind tunnel flow accelerates to a target velocity, plus the steady state emission flux produced under constant wind flow with an added abrader sand. An adjacent area burned 8 months previously also allowed investigation of the change in erodibility of the soil for a known time after fire. Our preliminary results indicate the extent that dust emission is changed by the introduced disturbances, and their differing effect on creosote bush and grass dominated covers.

  19. Dynamic-Stability Characteristics of Premixed Methane Oxy-Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Shroll, Andrew P.


    This work explores the dynamic stability characteristics of premixed CH 4/O 2/CO 2 mixtures in a 50 kW swirl stabilized combustor. In all cases, the methane-oxygen mixture is stoichiometric, with different dilution levels of carbon dioxide used to control the flame temperature (T ad). For the highest T ad\\'s, the combustor is unstable at the first harmonic of the combustor\\'s natural frequency. As the temperature is reduced, the combustor jumps to fundamental mode and then to a low-frequency mode whose value is well below the combustor\\'s natural frequency, before eventually reaching blowoff. Similar to the case of CH 4/air mixtures, the transition from one mode to another is predominantly a function of the T ad of the reactive mixture, despite significant differences in laminar burning velocity and/or strained flame consumption speed between air and oxy-fuel mixtures for a given T ad. High speed images support this finding by revealing similar vortex breakdown modes and thus similar turbulent flame geometries that change as a function of flame temperature. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  20. Laser cutting of bone tissue under bulk water with a pulsed ps-laser at 532 nm. (United States)

    Tulea, Cristian-Alexander; Caron, Jan; Gehlich, Nils; Lenenbach, Achim; Noll, Reinhard; Loosen, Peter


    Hard-tissue ablation was already investigated for a broad variety of pulsed laser systems, which cover almost the entire range of available wavelengths and pulse parameters. Most effective in hard-tissue ablation are Er:YAG and CO2 lasers, both utilizing the effect of absorption of infrared wavelengths by water and so-called explosive vaporization, when a thin water film or water–air spray is supplied. The typical flow rates and the water layer thicknesses are too low for surgical applications where bleeding occurs and wound flushing is necessary. We studied a 20 W ps-laser with 532 nm wavelength and a pulse energy of 1 mJ to effectively ablate bones that are submerged 14 mm under water. For these laser parameters, the plasma-mediated ablation mechanism is dominant. Simulations based on the blow-off model predict the cut depth and cross-sectional shape of the incision. The model is modified considering the cross section of the Gaussian beam, the incident angle, and reflections. The ablation rate amounts to 0.2  mm3/s, corresponding to an increase by at least 50% of the highest values published so far for ultrashort laser ablation of hard tissue.

  1. Impurity transport in ohmically heated TFTR plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, B.C.; Fonck, R.J.; Hulse, R.A.; Ramsey, A.T.; Timberlake, J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.W.


    Impurity transport in ohmically heated TFTR plasmas is studied by computer modeling of VUV line emissions from impurities injected using the laser-blowoff technique. The results are sensitive to uncertainties in the ionization and recombination rates used in the modeling; as a result, only a spatially averaged diffusion coefficient and parameterized convective velocity can be measured. Measurements of these transport parameters are presented for deuterium and helium discharges with I/sub p/ = 0.8-2.5 MA, /bar n/sub e// = 0.6-6.0/times/10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/, and Z/sub eff/ = 2-6. Diffusion coefficients are found to be in the 0.5-1.5 m/sup 2//s range, considerably larger than neoclassical values. Nonzero inward convective velocities are necessary to fit the data in most cases. No dependence of the diffusion coefficient on injected element, working gas species, or plasma current is found, but at a given current, the diffusion coefficient is smaller by approximately a factor of two in plasmas near the density limit than in discharges with /bar n/sub e//<3/times/10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/. 31 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Transport experiments in Alcator-C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwald, M.; Boivin, R.L.; Bonoli, P.; Christensen, C.; Fiore, C.; Garnier, D.; Goetz, J.; Golovato, S.; Graf, M.; Granetz, R.; Horne, S.; Hsu, T.; Hubbard, A.; Hutchinson, I.; Irby, J.; Kurz, C.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Luke, T.; Marmar, E.; McCracken, G.; Niemczewski, A.; O`Shea, P.; Porkolab, M.; Rice, J.; Reardon, J.; Schachter, J.; Snipes, J.; Stek, P.; Takase, Y.; Terry, J.; Umansky, M.; Watterson, R.; Wolfe, S. [Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bombarda, F. [ENEA-Frascati, Frascati (Italy); May, M. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Welch, B. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    A series of transport experiments has been carried out in Alcator-C-Mod. [Phys Plasmas {bold 1}, 1511 (1994)]. Data from both Ohmic and ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequencies) heated plasmas can be fitted with an L-mode (low mode) scaling law. The Ohmic {tau}{sub {ital E}}`s show no scaling with density in any regime and can reach values of 2--3 times neo-Alcator. Impurity confinement has been studied with the laser blow-off technique with {tau}{sub {ital I}} showing nearly linear scaling with plasma current. Ohmic and ICRF H modes are obtained over a wide range of discharge parameters, extending the range in the international database for {ital nB}, by almost a factor of 10. The power threshold for ELM-free (edge localized mode) discharges is in rough agreement with the scaling {ital P}/{ital S}=0.044{ital nB}. Energy diffusivities of Ohmic and ICRF heated plasmas have been measured from local analysis of plasma profiles and power fluxes. The same analysis produces a value for plasma resistivity which lies between the Spitzer and neoclassical calculations. Analysis of plasma transients have yielded values for particle diffusivity and convection velocity.

  3. Predictive analysis of optical ablation in several dermatological tumoral tissues (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, A.; Salas-García, I.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.


    Optical techniques for treatment and characterization of biological tissues are revolutionizing several branches of medical praxis, for example in ophthalmology or dermatology. The non-invasive, non-contact and non-ionizing character of optical radiation makes it specially suitable for these applications. Optical radiation can be employed in medical ablation applications, either for tissue resection or surgery. Optical ablation may provide a controlled and clean cut on a biological tissue. This is particularly relevant in tumoral tissue resection, where a small amount of cancerous cells could make the tumor appear again. A very important aspect of tissue optical ablation is then the estimation of the affected volume. In this work we propose a complete predictive model of tissue ablation that provides an estimation of the resected volume. The model is based on a Monte Carlo approach for the optical propagation of radiation inside the tissue, and a blow-off model for tissue ablation. This model is applied to several types of dermatological tumoral tissues, specifically squamous cells, basocellular and infiltrative carcinomas. The parameters of the optical source are varied and the estimated resected volume is calculated. The results for the different tumor types are presented and compared. This model can be used for surgical planning, in order to assure the complete resection of the tumoral tissue.

  4. Magnetic reconnection in high-energy-density plasmas in the presence of an external magnetic field (United States)

    Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Fiksel, G.; Nilson, P.; Hu, S.; Chang, P.-Y.; Barnak, D.; Betti, R.


    Magnetic reconnection has recently been observed and studied in high-energy-density, laser-produced plasmas. These experiments are interesting both for obtaining fundamental data on reconnection, and may also be relevant for inertial fusion, as this magnetic reconnection geometry, with multiple, colliding, magnetized plasma bubbles, occurs naturally inside ICF hohlraums. We present initial results of experiments conducted on the OMEGA EP facility on magnetic reconnection between colliding, magnetized blowoff plasmas. While in previous experiments the magnetic fields were self-generated in the plasma by the Biermann battery effect, in these experiments the seed magnetic field is generated by pulsing current through a pair of external foils using the MIFEDS current generator (Magneto-Inertial Fusion Electrical Discharge System) developed at LLE. Time-resolved images of the magnetic fields and plasma dynamics are obtained from proton radiography and x-ray self-emission, respectively. We present initial results of the experiments, including comparison to ``null'' experiments with zero MIFEDS magnetic field, and associated modeling using the radiation-hydro code DRACO and the particle-in-cell code PSC.

  5. Soft x-ray tomography during ELMs and impurity injection in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft x-ray diagnostic at JET views the plasma from six directions with a total of 215 lines of sight. The good coverage of the plasma makes it possible to make detailed tomographic reconstructions of the soft x-ray emission during various conditions. We discuss one of the tomography methods applied at JET: a grid-based constrained optimization method that uses anisotropic smoothness on flux surfaces as regularization. This method has made it possible to study in detail the transport of heavy trace impurities injected into the plasma by laser blow-off. Impurity injection experiments in hot-ion H mode and optimized-shear plasmas are presented and discussed. The addition of a number of features to the algorithm, notably a non-negativity constraint, has made it possible to reconstruct very localized soft x-ray emission from the wall during ELMs. The detectors suffer damage from the neutrons produced in DD fusion reactions. This damage influences the sensitivity of the detectors, which makes it necessary to cross-calibrate the cameras. A method based on tomographic reconstructions has been developed to achieve the cross-calibration. (author)

  6. Soft X ray tomography during ELMs and impurity injection in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft X ray diagnostic at JET views the plasma from six directions with a total of 215 lines of sight. The good coverage of the plasma makes it possible to make detailed tomographic reconstructions of the soft X ray emission during various conditions. One of the tomography methods applied at JET is discussed: a grid based constrained optimization method that uses anisotropic smoothness on flux surfaces as regularization. This method has made it possible to study in detail the transport of heavy trace impurities injected into the plasma by laser blow-off. Impurity injection experiments in hot ion H mode and optimized shear plasmas are presented and discussed. The addition of a number of features to the algorithm, notably a non-negativity constraint, has made it possible to reconstruct very localized soft X ray emission from the wall during edge localized modes (ELMs). The detectors suffer damage from the neutrons produced in deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion reactions. This damage influences the sensitivity of the detectors, which makes it necessary to cross-calibrate the cameras. A method based on tomographic reconstructions has been developed to achieve the cross-calibration. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John L. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra


    In the U.S. natural gas is distributed through more than one million miles of high-pressure transmission pipelines. If all leaks and infringements could be detected quickly, it would enhance safety and U.S. energy security. Only low frequency acoustic waves appear to be detectable over distances up to 60 km where pipeline shut-off valves provide access to the inside of the pipeline. This paper describes a Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) developed to record and identify acoustic signals characteristic of: leaks, pump noise, valve and flow metering noise, third party infringement, manual pipeline water and gas blow-off, etc. This PAMP consists of a stainless steel 1/2 inch NPT plumbing tree rated for use on 1000 psi pipelines. Its instrumentation is designed to measure acoustic waves over the entire frequency range from zero to 16,000 Hz by means of four instruments: (1) microphone, (2) 3-inch water full range differential pressure transducer with 0.1% of range sensitivity, (3) a novel 3 inch to 100 inch water range amplifier, using an accumulator with needle valve and (4) a line-pressure transducer. The weight of the PAMP complete with all accessories is 36 pounds. This includes a remote control battery/switch box assembly on a 25-foot extension chord, a laptop data acquisition computer on a field table and a sun shield.

  8. Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement (United States)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Lee, Sungchil; Kim, Sehwan; Chou, Pai H.


    Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate and the pressure change propagates through the pipeline. From the measurement of pipe vibration the rupture can be detected. In this paper, the field test results and observations are provided for implementing next generation of SCADA system for pipeline rupture detection. Two field tests were performed on real buried plastic and metal pipelines for rupture detection. The rupture was simulated by introducing sudden water pressure drop caused by water blow-off and valve control. The measured acceleration data at the pipe surfaces were analyzed in both time and frequency domain. In time domain, the sudden narrow increase of acceleration amplitude was used as an indication of rupture event. For the frequency domain analysis, correlation function and the short time Fourier Transform technique were adopted to trace the dominant frequency shift. The success of rupture detection was found to be dependent on several factors. From the frequency analysis, the dominant frequency of metal water pipe was shifted by the water pressure drop, however, it was hard to identify from the plastic pipeline. Also the influence of existing facility such as airvac on pipe vibrations was observed. Finally, several critical lessons learned in the viewpoint of field measurement are discussed in this paper.

  9. Photo-ionization of planetary winds: case study HD209458b

    CERN Document Server

    Schneiter, E M; D'Angelo, C S Villarreal; Velazquez, P F; Raga, A C; Costa, A


    Close-in hot Jupiters are exposed to a tremendous photon flux that ionizes the neutral escaping material from the planet leaving an observable imprint that makes them an interesting laboratory for testing theoretical models. In this work we present 3D hydrodynamic simulations with radiation transfer calculations of a close-in exoplanet in a blow-off state. We calculate the Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption and compare it with observations of HD 209458b an previous simplified model results.Our results show that the hydrodynamic interaction together with a proper calculation of the photoionization proccess are able to reproduce the main features of the observed Ly-$\\alpha$ absorption, in particular at the blue-shifted wings of the line. We found that the ionizing stellar flux produce an almost linear effect on the amount of absorption in the wake. Varying the planetary mass loss rate and the radiation flux, we were able to reproduce the $10\\%$ absorption observed at $-100~\\mathrm{km~s^{-1}}$.

  10. Active Control for Statistically Stationary Turbulent PremixedFlame Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.B.; Day, M.S.; Grcar, J.F.; Lijewski, M.J.


    The speed of propagation of a premixed turbulent flame correlates with the intensity of the turbulence encountered by the flame. One consequence of this property is that premixed flames in both laboratory experiments and practical combustors require some type of stabilization mechanism to prevent blow-off and flashback. The stabilization devices often introduce a level of geometric complexity that is prohibitive for detailed computational studies of turbulent flame dynamics. Furthermore, the stabilization introduces additional fluid mechanical complexity into the overall combustion process that can complicate the analysis of fundamental flame properties. To circumvent these difficulties we introduce a feedback control algorithm that allows us to computationally stabilize a turbulent premixed flame in a simple geometric configuration. For the simulations, we specify turbulent inflow conditions and dynamically adjust the integrated fueling rate to control the mean location of the flame in the domain. We outline the numerical procedure, and illustrate the behavior of the control algorithm on methane flames at various equivalence ratios in two dimensions. The simulation data are used to study the local variation in the speed of propagation due to flame surface curvature.

  11. Impurity accumulation in plasma regimes with high energy confinement (United States)

    Ran, L. B.; Roberts, D. E.; Yang, H. R.; Dodel, G.; Gentle, K.; Von Goeler, S.; Holzhauer, E.; Hübner, K.; Keilhacker, M.; Korotkov, A.; Luce, T. C.; Miura, Y.; Tsois, N.; Würz, H.; Fussmann, G.; Hofmann, J.; Janeschitz, G.; Krieger, K.; Müller, E. R.; Nolte, R.; Röhr, H.; Steuer, K. H.; Becker, G.; Bomba, B.; Bruhns, H.; Büchl, K.; Carlson, A.; Eberhagen, A.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Giannone, L.; Von Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Herrmann, H.; Kaesdorf, S.; Karger, F.; Kaufmann, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lang, R.; Lee, P.; Lisitano, G.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Murmann, H.; Neuhauser, J.; Niedermeyer, H.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Poschenrieder, W.; Preis, R.; Rapp, H.; Rudyj, A.; Sandmann, W.; Schneider, F.; Schnider, U.; Siller, G.; Simmet, E.; Speth, E.; Söldner, F.; Stäbler, A.; Steinmetz, K.; Stroth, U.; Vollmer, O.; Zasche, D.


    Investigations of impurity accumulation phenomena in ASDEX are reviewed. There are four different operating regimes where pronounced accumulation is observed and these regimes are also characterized by improved energy confinement. In particular, medium-Z metallic ions are involved in accumulation processes whereas low-Z ions appear almost unaffected. The rapid accumulation observed in the case of metallic ions may be explained by neoclassical inward drifts if we assume that the anomalous diffusion is sufficiently suppressed, some indication of this being found from laser blow-off studies. The present results, however, can only be partly explained by neoclassical theory, according to which accumulation of low-Z impurities should also occur. The temporal behaviour of accumulation and the retarding effect of proton dilution for collision dominated transport are also discussed. Finally, we conclude that the full benefits of improved energy confinement can be achieved only if the impurity influxes are kept to a sufficiently low level. Expressed in terms of concentrations under low confinement conditions we have to postulate, for ASDEX, concentrations ≲ 10 -4 for metals and ≲ 2% for all light impurities.

  12. 带侧边微孔射流扰动火焰结构特性%Flame Structure of a Jet Flame with Penetration of Side Micro-jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉春; 吴金星; 米建春; 周钰


    In this paper, an innovative jet lifted flame with side micro-jets has been proposed and its effects on the flame structure have also been investigated. Due to the changes of the initial combustion conditions, mixing and aerodynamics which resulted from the perturbation of the side micro-jets, such a lifted jet flame has different flame structure compared with the common premixed flame. Results demonstrate that use of the micro-jets can control, to a certain extent, the flame structure, including the flame length, lift-off distance and blow-off limit. With the same fuel and air flow rate, the flame length with the side micro-jets will decrease about 5% 40% as the air volume ratio a increases from 58%-76%. Compared with the common diffusion flame, the jet flame with the side micro-jets demonstrates to be easier to be a momentum-dominated flame. The flame length with 2 micro-jets is about 5% less than with 6 micro-jets under the same fuel and air flow rate. With the same α, the fewer number of the controlled jets lead to the flame with relatively shorter length, not easier to be blown off and higher NOx emission. With certain fuel flow rate, the critical air volume ratio is largest for the flame with 3 micro-jets, which is more difficult to be blown off than the cases with 2,4 or 6 micro-jets.

  13. Mechanisms of microgravity flame spread over a thin solid fuel - Oxygen and opposed flow effects (United States)

    Olson, S. L.


    Microgravity tests varying oxygen concentration and forced flow velocity have examined the importance of transport processes on flame spread over very thin solid fuels. Flame spread rates, solid phase temperature profiles and flame appearance for these tests are measured. A flame spread map is presented which indicates three distinct regions where different mechanisms control the flame spread process. In the near-quenching region (very low characteristic relative velocities) a new controlling mechanism for flame spread - oxidizer transport-limited chemical reaction - is proposed. In the near-limit, blowoff region, high opposed flow velocities impose residence time limitations on the flame spread process. A critical characteristic relative velocity line between the two near-limit regions defines conditions which result in maximum flammability both in terms of a peak flame spread rate and minimum oxygen concentration for steady burning. In the third region, away from both near-limit regions, the flame spread behavior, which can accurately be described by a thermal theory, is controlled by gas-phase conduction.

  14. Outgassing History and Escape of the Martian Atmosphere and Water Inventory

    CERN Document Server

    Lammer, H; Karatekin, Ö; Morschhauser, A; Niles, P B; Mousis, O; Odert, P; Möstl, U V; Breuer, D; Dehant, V; Grott, M; Gröller, H; Hauber, E; Pham, L B S


    The evolution and escape of the martian atmosphere and the planet's water inventory can be separated into an early and late evolutionary epoch. The first epoch started from the planet's origin and lasted $\\sim$500 Myr. Because of the high EUV flux of the young Sun and Mars' low gravity it was accompanied by hydrodynamic blow-off of hydrogen and strong thermal escape rates of dragged heavier species such as O and C atoms. After the main part of the protoatmosphere was lost, impact-related volatiles and mantle outgassing may have resulted in accumulation of a secondary CO$_2$ atmosphere of a few tens to a few hundred mbar around $\\sim$4--4.3 Gyr ago. The evolution of the atmospheric surface pressure and water inventory of such a secondary atmosphere during the second epoch which lasted from the end of the Noachian until today was most likely determined by a complex interplay of various nonthermal atmospheric escape processes, impacts, carbonate precipitation, and serpentinization during the Hesperian and Amazon...

  15. Spectroscopic measurement of impurity transport coefficients and penetration efficiencies in Alcator C-Mod plasmas (United States)

    Graf, M. A.; Rice, J. E.; Terry, J. L.; Marmar, E. S.; Goetz, J. A.; McCracken, G. M.; Bombarda, F.; May, M. J.


    Impurity transport coefficients and the penetration efficiencies of intrinsic and injected impurities through the separatrix of diverted Alcator C-Mod discharges have been measured using x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectroscopic diagnostics. The dominant low Z intrinsic impurity in C-Mod is carbon which is found to be present in concentrations of less than 0.5%. Molybdenum, from the plasma facing components, is the dominant high Z impurity and is typically found in concentrations of about 0.02%. Trace amounts of medium and high Z nonrecycling impurities can be injected at the midplane using the laser blow-off technique and calibrated amounts of recycling, gaseous impurities can be introduced through fast valves either at the midplane or at various locations in the divertor chamber. A five chord crystal x-ray spectrometer array with high spectral resolution is used to provide spatial profiles of high charge state impurities. An absolutely calibrated, grazing incidence VUV spectrograph with high time resolution and a broad spectral range allows for the simultaneous measurement of many impurity lines. Various filtered soft x-ray diode arrays allow for spatial reconstructions of plasma emissivity. The observed brightnesses and emissivities from a number of impurity lines are used together with the mist transport code and a collisional-radiative atomic physics model to determine charge state density profiles and impurity transport coefficients. Comparisons of the deduced impurity content with the measured Zeff and total radiated power of the plasma are made.

  16. Single-pulse laser effects measurements at 248 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured induced impulse and mass loss from exposures of a number of materials to 50 ns, KrF (0.248 μm) laser pulses as a function of incident laser fluence, ambient atmospheric pressure, and angle of incidence. The energy on target was normally about 100 J but was varied down to about 10 J and the beam diameter on target was varied from about 0.1 to 38 mm providing incident laser fluences of from about 104 J/m2 to about 1010 J/m2. Calculations indicate that for fluences in these experiments below about 107 J/m2, the blowoff hydrodynamics is predominately one dimensional. The ambient atmospheric pressure was varied from about 105 Pa of dry air to a vacuum of less than 10-2 Pa; the angle of incidence was varied from normal incidence to 100 from grazing incidence. In a few cases, the pressure was measured as a function of time, sometimes concurrently with impulse. A number of plasma physics measurements were also performed concurrently

  17. Investigating the hohlraum radiation properties through the angular distribution of the radiation temperature (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Yang, D.; Song, P.; Zou, S.; Zhao, Y.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Guo, L.; Wang, F.; Zheng, W.; Gu, P.; Pei, W.; Zhu, S.; Jiang, S.; Ding, Y.


    The symmetric radiation drive is essential to the capsule implosion in the indirect drive fusion but is hard to achieve due to the non-uniform radiation distribution inside the hohlraum. In this work, the non-uniform radiation properties of both vacuum and gas-filled hohlraums are studied by investigating the angular distribution of the radiation temperature experimentally and numerically. It is found that the non-uniform radiation distribution inside the hohlraum induces the variation of the radiation temperature between different view angles. The simulations show that both the angular distribution of the radiation temperature and the hohlraum radiation distribution can be affected by the electron heat flux. The measured angular distribution of the radiation temperature is more consistent with the simulations when the electron heat flux limiter f e = 0.1 . Comparisons between the experiments and simulations further indicate that the x-ray emission of the blow-off plasma is overestimated in the simulations when it stagnates around the hohlraum axis. The axial position of the laser spot can also be estimated by the angular distribution of the radiation temperature due to their sensitive dependence. The inferred laser spot moves closer to the laser entrance hole in the gas-filled hohlraum than that in the vacuum hohlraum, consisting with the x-ray images taken from the framing camera. The angular distribution of the radiation temperature provides an effective way to investigate the hohlraum radiation properties and introduces more constraint to the numerical modeling of the hohlraum experiments.

  18. Flashback Analysis in Tangential Swirl Burners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera-Medina A.


    Full Text Available Premixed lean combustion is widely used in Combustion Processes due to the benefits of good flame stability and blowoff limits coupled with low NOx emissions. However, the use of novel fuels and complex flows have increased the concern about flashback, especially for the use of syngas and highly hydrogen enriched blends. Thus, this paper describes a combined practical and numerical approach to study the phenomenon in order to reduce the effect of flashback in a pilot scale 100 kW tangential swirl burner. Natural gas is used to establish the baseline results and effects of different parameters changes. The flashback phenomenon is studied with the use of high speed photography. The use of a central fuel injector demonstrates substantial benefits in terms of flashback resistance, eliminating coherent structures that may appear in the flow channels. The critical boundary velocity gradient is used for characterization, both via the original Lewis and von Elbe formula and via analysis using CFD and investigation of boundary layer conditions in the flame front.

  19. Optimization of a premixed low-swirl burner for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was motivated by recent tests results showing that a 5cm i.d. low-swirl burner (LSB) stabilizes ultra-lean premixed turbulent flames up to 600kW. A parametric study has been performed to determine the optimum ultra-lean LSB configuration, i.e. one that will achieve low NOx and flame stability, for thermal input between 15kW to 150kW. Using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), non-reacting centerline velocity and rms fluctuation profiles were measured, and were found to show self-similar behavior. This self-similarity may explain why the flame remains stationary relative to the burner exit despite a change in bulk flow velocity from 5 to 90m/s. The recess distance of the swirler affects the shape of the mean and rms velocity profiles. Lean blow-off limits were also determined for various recess distances, and an optimum exit length was found that provides stable operation for ultra-lean flames

  20. Water Environment Protection in Yangzhou Section of Yangtze River%长江扬州段水环境保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华迎春; 陈勤; 任晓梅; 高荣


    It is an urgent task at present to utilize resources of Yangtze River scientifically and reasonably and implement continuous development in the economic region along the river.This paper makes a special research on the status and evolution trend of water environment in Yangzhou section of the Yangtze River and puts forward a measure concerned to bring it under control by total amount control,especially make a breakthrough on pollution analysis and control countermeasure for non-point source based on a vast amount of monitoring data and basic material collected.The evaluation and forecast methods,determination of patternin flow & water quality and design condition,calculation on pollution effect in key section and mixed area of blowoff port etc.used in this paper have higher learning and practical value.It is significant for the protection of water environment and ecological environment,and provides basis for the research on water environment protection of Yangtze River and inspiration for water quality protection.This technology has good value in application and dissemination.

  1. Density clamping phenomena in electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas on Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle transport and related phenomena are investigated in currentless electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas. It is observed that during the initial phase the density stops rising and then starts to decay, in spite of continuous gas puffing. The delay time between the breakdown time and the time at which the density starts to decay depends inversely on rf power. The density profile changes drastically, becoming flat or hollow at this time. This density profile change becomes more significant as the rf power is increased. In order to sustain the density at some level the external particle source should be increased with increasing rf power. Here it is found that the particle confinement time decreases with increasing power. The substantial increase in the particle outflux from the main plasma causes the scrape-off plasma to have a steep gradient. As a result, the amplitudes of density and magnetic fluctuations are enhanced with increasing rf power. When the cyclotron resonance layer is shifted outside the half radius, it is found that the density profile changes from hollow to centrally peaked. This result shows that the density profile is a function of the power deposition profile. It is also shown that the behavior of impurity ions (injected by the laser blow-off technique) is similar to that of the bulk particles. (author)

  2. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis


    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  3. Characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted flames in heated coflow jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul


    The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  4. Changes in Run Distance Observed in two explosives at the threshold for sustained ignition using the Modified Gap Test (United States)

    Lee, Richard; Forbes, Jerry; Tasker, Douglas; Orme, Rebecca


    The Modified Gap Test was used to quantify different levels of partial reaction for various input stresses. This test configuration has been historically useful in highlighting thresholds for first reaction, sustained ignition, and detonation. Two different HMX based compositions were studied; a cast-cured composition with 88% HMX and a pressed composition with 92% HMX. The final ingredients of each comprised different unreactive polymeric binder systems. Short samples (50.8 mm in diameter and 12.7 mm thick) were shock loaded using the standard large scale gap test donor system. Product-cloud blow-off velocities at the opposite end of the sample were measured using a high-speed digital-camera. Velocity versus input pressure plots provided changes in reactivity that had developed by the 12.7 mm run distance. Results were fairly consistent for the lower input pressures. In contrast, the results varied widely in a range of input stresses around the transition threshold for sustained ignition in both explosives. These results indicate that both explosives are subject to variation in run to detonation distance in a range of input stresses just prior to prompt detonation.

  5. Impurity transport in ohmically heated TFTR plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impurity transport in ohmically heated TFTR plasmas is studied by computer modeling of VUV line emissions from impurities injected using the laser-blowoff technique. The results are sensitive to uncertainties in the ionization and recombination rates used in the modeling; as a result, only a spatially averaged diffusion coefficient and parameterized convective velocity can be measured. Measurements of these transport parameters are presented for deuterium and helium discharges with I/sub p/ = 0.8-2.5 MA, /bar n/sub e// = 0.6-6.0/times/1019 m-3, and Z/sub eff/ = 2-6. Diffusion coefficients are found to be in the 0.5-1.5 m2/s range, considerably larger than neoclassical values. Nonzero inward convective velocities are necessary to fit the data in most cases. No dependence of the diffusion coefficient on injected element, working gas species, or plasma current is found, but at a given current, the diffusion coefficient is smaller by approximately a factor of two in plasmas near the density limit than in discharges with /bar n/sub e//19 m-3. 31 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Lightweight Target Generates Bright, Energetic X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A


    solid targets is only a fraction of 1 percent. Solid targets have low efficiencies because much of the laser energy is deposited far from the target's x-ray emitting region, and the energy is carried by the relatively slow process of thermal conduction. ''The laser beam ablates material from the massive target, and that material moves away from the target's surface'', says Fournier. With a nanosecond pulse or longer, the laser interacts with the blow-off plasma rather than the remaining bulk sample. As a result, much of the laser's energy goes into the kinetic energy of the blow-off material, not into heating the bulk of the foil.

  7. HXD2型机车风源净化系统的合理配置浅析%Analysis of Reasonable Allocation of Wind Source Purifying System of HXD2 Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映晨; 宋瑶; 黄思俊


      The reasonable allocation of internal parts of locomotive wind source purifying system has a directly impact on air quality of loco⁃motive wind source purifying system. The article described that allocation and selection of internal parts of locomotive wind source purifying system such as filter, blow-off valve, dryer etc which affect the air quality. Dryer selection and regeneration air consumption rate was de⁃scribed particularly. Through the results of dryer type test, improving that the allocation of HXD2 locomotive wind source system is reason⁃able, and the existing air quality of wind source system meet the air using requirements.%  机车风源净化系统内各部件的配置合理性,直接影响机车风源空气质量的好坏。介绍了影响空气质量的机车风源系统内各部件(如过滤器、排污阀、干燥器等)的布局原则与选择方法,侧重介绍空气干燥器的选型和再生耗气率计算。通过HXD2机车干燥器的型式试验结果,验证了其风源净化系统的配置合理性,并能满足HXD2机车的空气质量要求。

  8. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  9. Mechanisms of suppressing cup-burner flame with water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The mechanisms of suppressing a laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flame formed on a cup burner with water vapor have been studied experimentally and numerically. The methane burned in a steel cup surrounded by a glass chimney. A mist generator produced fine droplets delivered though the glass chimney with air. These droplets were heated into water vapor when they went though the diffuser. The extinguishing limit was obtained by gradually increasing the amount of water vapor to replace the air in the coflowing oxidizer stream. Results showed that the agent concentration required for extinguishment was constant over a wide range of the oxidizer velocity, i.e., a so-called "plateau region". The measured extinguishing mass fractions of the agents were: (16.7 ± 0.6)% for H2O, (15.9 ± 0.6)% for CO2, and (31.9 ± 0.6)% for N2. The computation used the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) de- veloped by the NIST. The numerical simulations showed that the predicted water vapor extinguishing limits and the flickering frequency were in good agreements with the experimental observations and, more importantly, revealed that the sup- pression of cup-burner flames occurred via a partial extinction mechanism (in which the flame base drifts downstream and then blows off) rather than the global extinction mechanism of typical counter-flow diffusion flames. And the flame-base oscillation just before the blow-off was the key step for the non-premixed flame extinction in the cup burner.

  10. Mechanisms of suppressing cup-burner flame with water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG BeiHua; LIAO GuangXuan


    The mechanisms of suppressing a laminar methane-air co-flow diffusion flame formed on a cup burner with water vapor have been studied experimentally and numerically. The methane burned in a steel cup surrounded by a glass chimney. A mist generator produced fine droplets delivered though the glass chimney with air. These droplets were heated into water vapor when they went though the diffuser. The extinguishing limit was obtained by gradually increasing the amount of water vapor to replace the air in the coflowing oxidizer stream. Results showed that the agent concentration required for extinguishment was constant over a wide range of the oxidizer velocity, i.e., a so-called "plateau region". The measured extinguishing mass fractions of the agents were: (16.7±0.6)% for H2O, (15.9±0.6)% for CO2, and (31.9±0.6)% for N2. The computation used the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) de-veloped by the NIST. The numerical simulations showed that the predicted water vapor extinguishing limits and the flickering frequency were in good agreements with the experimental observations and, more importantly, revealed that the sup-pression of cup-burner flames occurred via a partial extinction mechanism (in which the flame base drifts downstream and then blows off) rather than the global extinction mechanism of typical counter-flow diffusion flames. And the flame-base oscillation just before the blow-off was the key step for the non-premixed flame extinction in the cup burner.

  11. EUPDF: Eulerian Monte Carlo Probability Density Function Solver for Applications With Parallel Computing, Unstructured Grids, and Sprays (United States)

    Raju, M. S.


    The success of any solution methodology used in the study of gas-turbine combustor flows depends a great deal on how well it can model the various complex and rate controlling processes associated with the spray's turbulent transport, mixing, chemical kinetics, evaporation, and spreading rates, as well as convective and radiative heat transfer and other phenomena. The phenomena to be modeled, which are controlled by these processes, often strongly interact with each other at different times and locations. In particular, turbulence plays an important role in determining the rates of mass and heat transfer, chemical reactions, and evaporation in many practical combustion devices. The influence of turbulence in a diffusion flame manifests itself in several forms, ranging from the so-called wrinkled, or stretched, flamelets regime to the distributed combustion regime, depending upon how turbulence interacts with various flame scales. Conventional turbulence models have difficulty treating highly nonlinear reaction rates. A solution procedure based on the composition joint probability density function (PDF) approach holds the promise of modeling various important combustion phenomena relevant to practical combustion devices (such as extinction, blowoff limits, and emissions predictions) because it can account for nonlinear chemical reaction rates without making approximations. In an attempt to advance the state-of-the-art in multidimensional numerical methods, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center extended our previous work on the PDF method to unstructured grids, parallel computing, and sprays. EUPDF, which was developed by M.S. Raju of Nyma, Inc., was designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase and/or spray solvers. EUPDF can use an unstructured mesh with mixed triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral elements. The application of the PDF method showed favorable results when applied to several supersonic

  12. A Fragment-Cloud Approach for Modeling Atmospheric Breakup of Asteroids with Varied Internal Structures (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; NASA Engineering Risk Assessment Team, NASA Asteroid Threat Assessment Project


    As an asteroid descends toward Earth, it deposits energy in the atmosphere through aerodynamic drag and ablation. Asteroid impact risk assessments rely on energy deposition estimates to predict blast overpressures and ground damage that may result from an airburst, such as the one that occurred over Chelyabinsk, Russia in 2013. The rates and altitudes at which energy is deposited along the entry trajectory depend upon how the bolide fragments, which in turn depends upon its internal structure and composition. In this work, an analytic asteroid fragmentation model has been developed to model the atmospheric breakup and resulting energy deposition of asteroids with a range of internal structures. The modeling approach combines successive fragmentation of larger independent pieces with aggregate debris clouds released with each fragmentation event. The model can vary the number and masses of fragments produced, the amount of mass released as debris clouds, and the size-strength scaling used to increase the robustness of smaller fragments. The initial asteroid body can be seeded with a distribution of independent fragment sizes amid a remaining debris mass to represent loose rubble pile conglomerations, or can be defined as a monolith with an outer regolith layer. This approach enables the model to represent a range of breakup behaviors and reproduce detailed energy deposition features such as multiple flares due to successive burst events, high-altitude regolith blow-off, or initial disruption of rubble piles followed by more energetic breakup of the constituent boulders. These capabilities provide a means to investigate sensitivities of ground damage to potential variations in asteroid structure.

  13. High precision laser sclerostomy (United States)

    Góra, W. S.; Urich, A.; McIntosh, L.; Carter, R. M.; Wilson, C. G.; Dhillon, B.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.


    Ultrafast lasers offer a possibility of removing soft ophthalmic tissue without introducing collateral damage at the ablation site or in the surrounding tissue. The potential for using ultrashort pico- and femtosecond pulse lasers for modification of ophthalmic tissue has been reported elsewhere and has resulted in the introduction of new, minimally invasive procedures into clinical practice. Our research aims to define the most efficient parameters to allow for the modification of scleral tissue without introducing collateral damage. Our experiments were carried out on hydrated porcine sclera in vitro. Porcine sclera, which has similar collagen organization, histology and water content (~70%) to human tissue was used. Supporting this work we present a 2D finite element blow-off model which employs a one-step heating process. It is assumed that the incident laser radiation that is not reflected is absorbed in the tissue according to the Beer-Lambert law and transformed into heat energy. The experimental setup uses an industrial picosecond laser (TRUMPF TruMicro 5x50) with 5.9 ps pulses at 1030 nm, with pulse energies up to 125 μJ and a focused spot diameter of 35 μm. Use of a beam steering scan head allows flexibility in designing complicated scanning patterns. In this study we have demonstrated that picosecond pulses are capable of removing scleral tissue without introducing any major thermal damage which offers a possible route for minimally invasive sclerostomy. In assessing this we have tested several different scanning patterns including single line ablation, square and circular cavity removal.

  14. Field Effects of Buoyancy on Lean Premixed Turbulent Flames (United States)

    Cheng, R. K.; Johnson, M. R.; Greenberg, P. S.; Wernet, M. P.


    The study of field effects of buoyancy on premixed turbulent flames is directed towards the advancement of turbulent combustion theory and the development of cleaner combustion technologies. Turbulent combustion is considered the most important unsolved problem in combustion science and laboratory studies of turbulence flame processes are vital to theoretical development. Although buoyancy is dominant in laboratory flames, most combustion models are not yet capable to consider buoyancy effects. This inconsistency has impeded the validation of theories and numerical simulations with experiments. Conversely, the understanding of buoyancy effects is far too limited to help develop buoyant flame models. Our research is also relevant to combustion technology because lean premixed combustion is a proven method to reduce the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). In industrial lean premixed combustion systems, their operating conditions make them susceptible to buoyancy thus affecting heat distribution, emissions, stability, flashback and blowoff. But little knowledge is available to guide combustion engineers as to how to avoid or overcome these problems. Our hypothesis is that through its influence on the mean pressure field, buoyancy has direct and indirect effects on local flame/turbulence interactions. Although buoyancy acts on the hot products in the farfield the effect is also felt in the nearfield region upstream of the flame. These changes also influence the generation and dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy inside the flame brush and throughout the flowfield. Moreover, the plume of an open flame is unstable and the periodic fluctuations make additional contributions to flame front dynamics in the farfield. Therefore, processes such as flame wrinkling, flow acceleration due to heat release and flame- generated vorticity are all affected. Other global flame properties (e.g. flame stabilization limits and flame speed) may all be coupled to buoyancy. This

  15. Midlatitude Cirrus Clouds Derived from Hurricane Nora: A Case Study with Implications for Ice Crystal Nucleation and Shape (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Arnott, W. Patrick; OCStarr, David; Mace, Gerald G.; Wang, Zhien; Poellot, Michael R.


    Hurricane Nora traveled up the Bala Peninsula coast in the unusually warm El Nino waters of September 1997, until rapidly decaying as it approached Southern California on 24 September. The anvil cirrus blowoff from the final surge of tropical convection became embedded in subtropical flow that advected the cirrus across the western US, where it was studied from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing (FARS) in Salt Lake City, Utah. A day later, the cirrus shield remnants were redirected southward by midlatitude circulations into the Southern Great Plains, providing a case study opportunity for the research aircraft and ground-based remote sensors assembled at the Clouds and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in northern Oklahoma. Using these comprehensive resources and new remote sensing cloud retrieval algorithms, the microphysical and radiative cloud properties of this unusual cirrus event are uniquely characterized. Importantly, at both the FARS and CART sites the cirrus generated spectacular optical displays, which acted as a tracer for the hurricane cirrus, despite the limited lifetimes of individual ice crystals. Lidar polarization data indicate widespread regions of uniform ice plate orientations, and in situ particle masticator data show a preponderance of pristine, solid hexagonal plates and columns. It is suggested that these unusual aspects are the result of the mode of cirrus particle nucleation, presumably involving the lofting of sea-salt nuclei in thunderstorm updrafts into the upper troposphere. This created a reservoir of haze particles that continued to produce halide-saltcontaminated ice crystals during the extended period of cirrus cloud maintenance. The reference that marine microliters are embedded in the replicas of ice crystals collected over the CART site points to the longevity of marine effects. Various nucleation scenarios proposed for cirrus clouds based on this and other studies, and the implications for understanding cirrus radiative

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and plant samples from the vicinity of an oil refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, M.I.; Koerselman, J.W.; Kolloeffel, C. [Transport Physiology Research Group, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80084, NL 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands); Casado, B.; Tolls, J. [Research Institute of Toxicology (RITOX), Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80058, NL 3508 TB Utrecht (Netherlands)


    Soil samples, and samples of leaves of Plantago major (great plantain) and grass (mixed species) were collected from the vicinity of an oil refinery in Zelzate, Belgium, and analysed for seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The samples from the site adjacent to the refinery (site 1) contained very high total PAH-concentrations: namely 300, 8 and 2 {mu}g/g dry wt. for soil, P. major and grass, respectively. Concentrations in samples from more remote sites (up to 4 km from the refinery) were a factor of 10-30 lower than those from site 1, but between them the differences were small. The PAH-profiles of the plant samples, in contrast with those of the soil samples, appeared to shift to higher contributions of gaseous PAHs with increasing distance from the refinery. This can be explained by particle-bound PAHs being deposited closer to the source than gaseous PAHs. It is suggested that particle-bound deposition is relatively more important for deposition to soil than to plants, due to blow-off and wash-off of the compounds from the leaves. The total PAH-concentrations in the leaves of P. major were higher than those measured in the grass samples, probably due to differences in aerodynamic surface roughness, leaf orientation and/or leaf age. However, the concentration ratios of P. major/grass were not constant for the different sites, varying from 1.2 to 8.8. Therefore, it appears that a precise prediction of PAH-concentrations for one plant species from known concentrations of another species is not possible. When errors in predicted concentrations need to be smaller than a factor of approximately 10, the sampling strategy has to be focussed on all species of interest.

  17. Flame macrostructures, combustion instability and extinction strain scaling in swirl-stabilized premixed CH4/H2 combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Shanbhogue, S.J.


    © 2015 The Combustion Institute. In this paper, we report results from an experimental investigation on transitions in the average flame shape (or microstructure) under acoustically coupled and uncoupled conditions in a 50 kW swirl stabilized combustor. The combustor burns CH4/H2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure and temperature for a fixed Reynolds number of 20,000 and fixed swirl angle. For both cases, essentially four different flame shapes are observed, with the transition between flame shapes occurring at the same equivalence ratio (for the same fuel mixture) irrespective of whether the combustor is acoustically coupled or uncoupled. The transition equivalence ratio depends on the fuel mixture. For the baseline case of pure methane, the combustor is stable close to the blowoff limit and the average flame in this case is stabilized inside the inner recirculation zone. As the equivalence ratio is raised, the combustor transitions to periodic oscillations at a critical equivalence ratio of φ=0.65. If hydrogen is added to the mixture, the same transition occurs at lower equivalence ratios. For all cases that we investigated, flame shapes captured using chemiluminescence imaging show that the transition to harmonic oscillations in the acoustically coupled cases is preceded by the appearance of the flame in the outer recirculation zone. We examine the mechanism associated with the transition of the flame between different shapes and, ultimately, the propagation of the flame into the outer recirculation zone as the equivalence ratio is raised. Using the extinction strain rates for each mixture at different equivalence ratios, we show that these transitions in the flame shape and in the instability (in the coupled case) for different fuel mixtures collapse as a function of a normalized strain rate : κextDU∞. We show that the results as consistent with a mechanism in which the flame must overcome higher strains prevailing in the outer recirculation zone, in order

  18. Simulations and experiments on the ignition probability in turbulent premixed bluff-body flames (United States)

    Sitte, Michael Philip; Bach, Ellen; Kariuki, James; Bauer, Hans-Jörg; Mastorakos, Epaminondas


    The ignition characteristics of a premixed bluff-body burner under lean conditions were investigated experimentally and numerically with a physical model focusing on ignition probability. Visualisation of the flame with a 5 kHz OH* chemiluminescence camera confirmed that successful ignitions were those associated with the movement of the kernel upstream, consistent with previous work on non-premixed systems. Performing many separate ignition trials at the same spark position and flow conditions resulted in a quantification of the ignition probability Pign, which was found to decrease with increasing distance downstream of the bluff body and a decrease in equivalence ratio. Flows corresponding to flames close to the blow-off limit could not be ignited, although such flames were stable if reached from a richer already ignited condition. A detailed comparison with the local Karlovitz number and the mean velocity showed that regions of high Pign are associated with low Ka and negative bulk velocity (i.e. towards the bluff body), although a direct correlation was not possible. A modelling effort that takes convection and localised flame quenching into account by tracking stochastic virtual flame particles, previously validated for non-premixed and spray ignition, was used to estimate the ignition probability. The applicability of this approach to premixed flows was first evaluated by investigating the model's flame propagation mechanism in a uniform turbulence field, which showed that the model reproduces the bending behaviour of the ST-versus-u‧ curve. Then ignition simulations of the bluff-body burner were carried out. The ignition probability map was computed and it was found that the model reproduces all main trends found in the experimental study.

  19. Large eddy simulations of partially premixed ethanol dilute spray flames using the flamelet generated manifold model (United States)

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.; Braun, Markus; Masri, Assaad R.


    The paper presents Large Eddy Simulations (LESs) for the Sydney ethanol piloted turbulent dilute spray flames ETF2, ETF6, and ETF7. The Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) approach is employed to predict mixing and burning of the evaporating fuel droplets. A methodology to match the experimental inflow spray profiles is presented. The spray statistical time-averaged results show reasonable agreement with mean and RMS data. The Particle Size Distribution (PSD) shows a good match downstream of the nozzle exit and up to x/D = 10. At x/D = 20 and 30 the PSD is under-predicted for droplets with mean diameter D10 > 20μm and over-predicted for the smaller size droplets. The simulations reasonably predict the reported mean flame structure and length. The effect of increasing the carrier velocity (ETF2-ETF7) or decreasing the liquid fuel injection mass flow rate (ETF2-ETF6) is found to result in a leaner, shorter flame and stronger spray-flow interactions. Higher tendency to local extinction is observed for ETF7 which is closer to blow-off compared to ETF2 and has higher scalar dissipation rates, higher range of Stokes number, and faster droplet response. The possible sources of LES-FGM deviations from the measurements are discussed and highlighted. In particular, the spray time-averaged statistical error contribution is quantified and the impact of the inflow uncertainty is studied. Sensitivity analysis to the pre-vaporized nozzle fuel mass fraction show that such small inflow perturbations (by ± 2% for the ETF2 flame) have a strong impact on the flame structure, and the droplets' dynamics. Conditional scatter plots show that the flame exhibits wide range of mixing conditions and bimodal mixing lines particularly at upstream locations (x/D < 20), where the injected droplets are still penetrating the centerline. This is relaxed further downstream as droplets gradually evaporate and burn in a diffusion like mode.

  20. Effects of radiation on direct-drive laser target interaction (United States)

    Colombant, D. G.


    Radiation may be useful for reducing laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth in direct-drive target pellets. We will discuss the important role of radiation in a proposed direct-drive X-ray preheated target concept(S.Bodner et al., Phys. Plasmas 5,1901(1998)). In this design, a high-Z coating surrounds a thin plastic coat, over a DT-wicked foam and on top of the DT fuel. Radiation effects will be examined and discussed in the context of this design. The soft X-ray radiation emitted during the foot of the laser pulse - at a few 10^12W/cm^2- preheats the foam ablator which contributes to the reduction of the RT instability. The ablator also stops the radiation, allowing the fuel to stay on a low adiabat. Radiation in the blow-off corona of the target establishes a long scalelength plasma. This separates the ablation region from the laser absorption region where the remaining defects in laser uniformity/pellet surface finish constitute the seed for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, when the pulse intensity rises, the pressure generated by the laser in combination with the changing opacity of the plasma causes the plasma to be pushed back toward the ablator. This is called a Radiative Plasma Structure (RPS)(J.Dahlburg et al., J.Q.S.R.T. 54,113(1995)). These RPS's are a potential problem because they may carry with them the imprint which was present in the low-density corona. We will show and discuss these various effects, as well as some of the experimental work(C.Pawley et al., this conference) under way in connection with this program. These experiments are essential in order to validate both the design concepts and the numerical models, which include on-line state-of-the-art atomic physics modeling(M.Klapisch et al.,Phys. Plasmas 5,1919(1998)).

  1. XUV-exposed, non-hydrostatic hydrogen-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part I: atmospheric expansion and thermal escape. (United States)

    Erkaev, Nikolai V; Lammer, Helmut; Odert, Petra; Kulikov, Yuri N; Kislyakova, Kristina G; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Güdel, Manuel; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Biernat, Helfried


    The recently discovered low-density "super-Earths" Kepler-11b, Kepler-11f, Kepler-11d, Kepler-11e, and planets such as GJ 1214b represent the most likely known planets that are surrounded by dense H/He envelopes or contain deep H₂O oceans also surrounded by dense hydrogen envelopes. Although these super-Earths are orbiting relatively close to their host stars, they have not lost their captured nebula-based hydrogen-rich or degassed volatile-rich steam protoatmospheres. Thus, it is interesting to estimate the maximum possible amount of atmospheric hydrogen loss from a terrestrial planet orbiting within the habitable zone of late main sequence host stars. For studying the thermosphere structure and escape, we apply a 1-D hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model that solves the equations of mass, momentum, and energy conservation for a planet with the mass and size of Earth and for a super-Earth with a size of 2 R(Earth) and a mass of 10 M(Earth). We calculate volume heating rates by the stellar soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) and expansion of the upper atmosphere, its temperature, density, and velocity structure and related thermal escape rates during the planet's lifetime. Moreover, we investigate under which conditions both planets enter the blow-off escape regime and may therefore experience loss rates that are close to the energy-limited escape. Finally, we discuss the results in the context of atmospheric evolution and implications for habitability of terrestrial planets in general. PMID:24251443


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivin


    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.

  3. Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor Testing in a Thermal Barrier Coated Combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorpening, B.T.; Dukes, M.G.; Robey, E.H.; Thornton, J.D.


    The combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) continues to be developed as an in-situ combustion sensor, with immediate application to natural gas fired turbines. In-situ combustion monitoring is also expected to benefit advanced power plants of the future, fueled by coal-derived syngas, liquified natural gas (LNG), hydrogen, or hydrogen blend fuels. The in-situ monitoring that CCADS provides can enable the optimal operation of advanced, fuel-flexible turbines for minimal pollutant emissions and maximum efficiency over the full operating range of an advanced turbine. Previous work has demonstrated CCADS as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff, in experimental combustors without thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Since typical TBC materials are electrical insulators at room temperature, and CCADS operation requires conduction of electrical current to the walls of the combustor, a TBC on the combustion liner was identified as a potential barrier to CCADS operation in commercial application. This paper reports on CCADS experiments in a turbulent lean premixed combustor with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on the combustor wall. The tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa (1 atm), with a 15V excitation voltage on the CCADS electrodes. The results confirm that for a typical thermal barrier coating, CCADS operates properly, and the total measured average resistance is close to that of an uncoated combustor. This result is consistent with previous materials studies that found the electrical resistance of typical TBC materials considerably decreases at combustor operating temperatures.

  4. Fouling Process and Control Measures for 50 MW Turbo Generator Set of Combined Heat and Power%热电联供50 MW汽轮发电机组结垢处理及管理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      介绍了自备发电站热电联供装置50 MW汽轮发电机组汽轮机叶片结垢的原因和危害,采用低温低压饱和湿蒸汽清洗去除叶片结垢,在生产运行中加强蒸汽、凝结水品质监督,使热电联供发电机组汽轮机叶片结垢、积盐情况得到了明显改善,因蒸汽、凝结水品质原因引起的非计划停机、停炉、停电等设备事故没有发生,提高了热电联供汽轮发电机组的运行效率,保障了机组高效、安全、稳定、经济运行。%  Introduction was made to the cause and harm of steam turbine blade fouling of 50 MW turbo generator set of combined heat and power providing for power plant. Low-temperature and low-saturation moist steam was adopted to remove the blade foul-ing. During production run, the quality supervision of steam and condensation water was strengthened to improve the situation of steam turbine blade fouling and salt accumulating of 50 MW turbo generator set of combined heat and power, so that there was no equipment breakdown such as unplanned shut-down, blow-off and power failure caused by the quality of steam and condensation water, which raised the operating efficiency of turbo generator set of combined heat and power, and ensured high-efficiency, safe, stable and economic operation.

  5. LLE review, Volume 77. Quarterly report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regan, S.P. [ed.


    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period October--December 1998, includes two articles addressing issues applicable to direct-drive ICF on the National Ignition Facility (NIF): laser-plasma interactions and laser-irradiation uniformity. Additional highlights of the research presented in this issue are: (1) P.B. Radha and S. Skupsky present a novel charged-particle diagnostic that performs simultaneous {rho}R measurements of the fuel, shell, and ablator regions of a compressed ICF target, consisting of an inner DT fuel region, a plastic (CH) shell, and an ablator (CD), by measuring the knock-on deuteron spectrum. (2) F. Dahmani, S. Burns, J. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, and A. Schmid report results from stress-inhibited laser-driven crack propagation and stress-delayed damage-initiation experiments in fused silica at 351 nm. Research is underway presently to determine the ramifications of these findings for large-aperture systems, such as OMEGA. (3) V. Goncharov presents an analytic theory of the ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, which shows that the main stabilizing mechanism of the ablation-front perturbations is the dynamic overpressure of the blowoff plasma with respect to the target material. The perturbation evolution during the shock transit time is studied to determine the initial conditions for the Rayleigh-Taylor phase of the instability and to analyze the level of laser imprint on ICF direct-drive targets. (4) J.M. Larkin, W.R. Donaldson, T.H. Foster, and R.S. Knox examine the triplet state of rose bengal, a dye used in photodynamic therapy, that is produced by 1,064-nm excitation of T{sub 1}. (5) R. Adam, M. Currie, R. Sobolewski, O. Harnack, and M. Darula report measurements of the picosecond photoresponse of a current-biased YBCO microbridge coupled to a bicrystal YBCO Josephson junction.

  6. Report on the NOK's request for the removal of time limits on the licence for the operation of the Beznau II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    concerned, no significant effect can be expected because of the distance of at least 6 km. As far as the analyses of possible incidents are concerned, the scenario 'rupture of a fresh steam pipe' leads to the highest radiological exposition in the neighbourhood. The worst case is the destruction of the fresh steam blow-off system and damage to components with radioactive contents. Its source term was estimated and the dose on the neighbour German regions was calculated. Even in the worst case, the legal dose limit of the German radiological ordinance was not exceeded

  7. Experimental analysis of a porous burner operating on kerosene–vegetable cooking oil blends for thermophotovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Blends of kerosene–VCO fuels are successfully demonstrated for TPV power system. • Axial temperature distributions inside the combustion chamber are discussed. • Efficiencies are greatly affected by the change in fuel–air equivalence ratio. • CO and NOx emissions are affected by a change in fuel–air equivalence ratio. - Abstract: An experimental work was conducted to evaluate the performance and combustion characteristics of a porous burner for the cogeneration of heat and TPV applications. The main component comprised a novel tubular combustor that is designed to operate on several mixtures of gravity-fed liquid fuels and is integrated into an array of gallium antimonide (GaSb) TPV cells. Four mixtures of kerosene–vegetable cooking oil (VCO) were prepared and evaluated, as follows: 100% kerosene (100 kerosene), 90%/10% kerosene–VCO (90/10 KVCO), 75%/25% kerosene–VCO (75/25 KVCO), and 50%/50% kerosene–VCO (50/50 KVCO). The fuel–air equivalence ratios were varied from the rich blow-off condition to the lean region, and the corresponding electrical output and combustion characteristics were assessed. The maximum electrical efficiency of 1.03% was achieved using 50/50 KVCO, but the maximum radiant efficiency of 31.5% was obtained by using 100 kerosene. Experimental results indicated that increased fuel–air equivalence ratio adversely affected thermal efficiency. However, this shortcoming offsets the achievement of radiant power and efficiency. The thermal efficiency peaked at around stoichiometric mixture for all tested fuel blends. The combustion characteristics of the burner were clarified by analyzing the axial temperature profiles and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The temperature at the surface of the porous alumina was significantly higher than the developed flame temperature and the temperature at the exit of the burner. The CO emission fluctuated between 220 and 380 ppm in the lean region

  8. Testing a Simple Recipe for Estimating Thermal Hydrodynamic Escape Rates in Primitive Terrestrial Atmospheres (United States)

    Friedson, A. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Chen, P.


    During the first billion years of the Sun's history, the emission of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation varied from ~100 to ~6 times greater than its present level. The absorption of this intense radiation in the upper atmospheres of the terrestrial planets is believed to have driven rapid hydrodynamic escape, either in the form of energy-limited escape or transonic blow-off. The calculation of escape rates under these circumstances, and in particular the nature of the correct condition to apply at the upper boundary, depends on whether or not the flow remains subsonic below the exobase. If the flow remains subsonic, the kinetic Jeans equations may be applied at the exobase; otherwise, the radius of the sonic point must be located and then appropriate boundary conditions applied at this radius. This seems to suggest that the full hydrodynamic escape problem needs to be solved iteratively to determine where the sonic radius falls and the type of boundary conditions that should be applied. Such an arduous undertaking is generally impractical for standard application in chemical evolution models or related studies. Fortunately, a much easier but still accurate approach to determining whether the flow remains subsonic below the exobase for a given amount of energy deposition has been provided by Johnson et al. (2013, Ap. J. Lett. 768:L4), who base their results on rigorous Discrete Simulation Monte Carlo models. Their model provides the ratio of the escape rate to the energy-limited value as a function of the total XUV heating. The XUV heating, however, is itself coupled to the escape rate through the radial structure of the upper atmosphere, which can become greatly distended for large heating rates. Here we present a simple recipe for estimating the hydrodynamic escape rate that includes the coupling between the escape rate, the radial structure, and the XUV heating while avoiding the use of demanding numerical calculations. The approach involves an iterative semi

  9. Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.


    This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary from 8.3 to 66.5. Starting from Vr = 20.7, the flame is commonly characterized by three distinct zones. The length of the lower fuel entrainment region is inversely proportional to Vr. The flames investigated resemble a string shear layer confining this zone, and converging into the second distinct region, the flame neck zone. The third region is the rest of the flame, which spreads in a jet-like manner. The inverse diffusion flames exhibit varying degrees of partial premixing, depending upon on the velocity ratio Vr, and this region of partial premixing evolves into a well-mixed reaction zone along the flame centerline. The OH distribution correlated with the changes in the mean characteristics of the flow through reduction in the local Reynolds number due to heat release. The existence of a flame suppresses or laminarizes the turbulence at early axial locations and promotes fluctuations at the flame tip for flames with Vr < 49.8. In addition, the flame jet width can be correlated to the OH distribution. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks in OH are counterbalanced by flame closures and are governed by edge flame propagation. These local extinctions were found to occur at locations where large flow structures were impinging on the flame and are associated with a locally higher strain rate or correlated to the local high strain rates at the flame hole edges without this flow impinging. Another contributor to re-ignition was found to be growing flame kernels. As the flames approach global blow-off, these kernels become the main mechanism for re-ignition further downstream of the flames. At low Vr, laminarization within the early regions of the flame provides an effective shield, preventing the jet flow from

  10. Unusual occurrences during the whole operation of BN-250 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unusual occurrences during the whole operation BN-350 NPP. 1. Oil ingress in high pressure receiver for the not reveled reason, 12.05.1994. 2. lncrease of water radioactivity of circulating water supply system due to heat exchanger leak of spent fuel assembly washing out system, 17.09.1993. 3. Lack of passableness of sodium drain header of primary circuit reveled during inspection on scheduled preventative maintenance, 28.11.1996. 4. Destruction of the blow-off line of MCP-6 due to corrosion damage of the pipeline while unit was being operated at rated power, 23.04.1993. 5. Lack of passableness of blow-down pipeline connecting reactor gas cover with gas-type pressurizer while unit was being operated at rated power, 17.11.1994. 6. Sodium ingress in blow-down pipeline of loop-5 intermediate heat exchanger while loop-5 was being fed of sodium during scheduled preventative maintenance, 27.06.1994. 7. Resistance deterioration of electro heating zones of loop-4 due to heat exchanger leak and water ingress in air-pipeline of primary circuit boxes recirculating air system, 02.05.1997. 8. Resistance deterioration of electro heating zones of sodium drain header of secondary circuit was sopped in the water for the extinguishing the fire of blowing ventilation oil-strainer, 23.12.1994. 9. Sodium ingress in gas-type pressurizer through pipeline of primary sodium cleanup system and blow-down pipeline of failed MCP-2 while primary sodium cleanup system was being connected to the primary circuit, 17.08.1976. As a rule, the main reactor systems are scrutinized more carefully than the auxiliary reactor systems and the order actions are existed for eliminating and mitigating of consequences of main reactor system fails. Therefore the auxiliary reactor system fails may impact on the main reactor systems through places of its contact in significant measure. The influence of auxiliary reactor system fails on main reactor systems and its possible consequences for behavior of the main

  11. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen/air mixture in a micro-combustor with cavities%微型凹腔燃烧器内氢气/空气的预混燃烧特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建龙; 程哲; 范爱武; 刘伟


    Premixed combustion of a hydrogen/air mixture in a planar micro-channel with cavities was numerically simulated by FLUENT with detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The equivalence ratio of the mixture was 0. 5. Effects of the inlet mixture velocity and length-depth ratio of the cavities on the temperature field, combustion efficiency and exhaust gas temperature were investigated. The results show that with the increase of inlet velocity, the flame front shifts downstream and becomes longer and narrower, and the temperature of outer wall becomes more uniform. Moreover, for the same length-depth ratio, the combustion efficiency decreases with the increase of inlet velocity; however, the exhaust gas temperature first increases and then decreases with the increase of inlet velocity. Furthermore, the blow-off limit is extended as the length-depth ratio is increased from 1 to 3, and then remained unchanged when width-depth ratio is raised from 3 to 4.%使用计算流体动力学软件FLUENT,并采用详细的化学反应机理,对当量比为0.5的氢气/空气预混气在带凹腔的平板型微通道内的燃烧特性进行了数值模拟.探讨了进气速度和凹腔的长深比对微通道内的温度场、燃烧效率和排烟温度的影响.计算结果表明:随着进气速度的增大,火焰被吹向下游,并且使火焰变得狭长,这会使得壁温分布更加均匀;在同一长深比下,燃烧效率随着进气速度的增加而降低,而排烟温度随着进气速度的增大先升高后降低;当长深比从1增大到3时,增大凹腔的长深比能拓展吹熄极限;长深比从3增大到4时,其吹熄极限相同.

  12. Novel method for determining DDT in vapour and particulate phases within contaminated indoor air in a malaria area of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naude, Yvette, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Rohwer, Egmont R., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a novel denuder for the determination of DDT in contaminated indoor air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single step concentration of vapour phase on PDMS, particulate phase on filter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-free green technique, sample extraction not required. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ratios of airborne p,p Prime -DDD/p,p Prime -DDT and of o,p Prime -DDT/p,p Prime -DDT are unusual. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insecticidal efficacy of technical DDT may be compromised. - Abstract: The organochlorine insecticide DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) is still used for malaria vector control in certain areas of South Africa. The strict Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) allows spraying on the inside of traditional dwellings with DDT. In rural villages contaminated dust presents an additional pathway for exposure to DDT. We present a new method for the determination of DDT in indoor air where separate vapour and particulate samples are collected in a single step with a denuder configuration of a multi-channel open tubular silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) trap combined with a micro quartz fibre filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap section of the denuder concentrates vapour phase insecticide whereas particle associated insecticide is transferred downstream where it is collected on a micro-fibre filter followed by a second multi-channel PDMS trap to capture the blow-off from the filter. The multi-channel PDMS trap and filter combination are designed to fit a commercial thermal desorber for direct introduction of samples into a GC-MS. The technique is solvent-free. Analyte extraction and sample clean-up is not required. Two fractions, vapour phase and particulate phase p,p Prime -DDT, o,p Prime -DDT; p,p Prime -DDD, o,p Prime -DDD; p,p Prime -DDE and o,p Prime -DDE in 4 L contaminated indoor air, were each quantitatively analysed by GC-MS using

  13. Experiment on screening of suitable filler for detergent wastewater treated by biological aerated filter%BAF处理洗涤剂废水适宜填料的筛选试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许行翔; 纪桂霞; 杨继柏; 周步轩; 司大伟


    通过生物陶粒、稀土瓷砂、普通陶粒对洗涤剂废水中难达标的LAS、TP的吸附与生物挂膜实验,结果表明,3种填料对LAS、TP的吸附等温式符合Langmuir模型.生物陶粒对LAS、Tp的吸附去除率分别达到23.2%、27.2%,比稀土瓷砂、普通陶粒有更好的吸附性能,且对污水中污染物LAS、TP的浓度变化有很好的适应性,耐污染冲击负荷性能高于稀土瓷砂、普通陶粒,生物陶粒挂膜速度快,挂膜后处理水的COD达54 mg/L< 60 mg/L,对COD处理效果好.因此,生物陶粒适于呈碱性洗涤剂废水的处理,是BAF处理洗涤剂废水的适宜填料.生物陶粒用作BAF填料处理洗涤剂废水,能有效提高COD、LAS和TP的去除率,使洗涤剂废水能处理达排放标准,这对于保护水环境具有重要意义.%Through the experiments of bio-ceramic,rare earth porcelain sand,normal-ceramic adsorption of LAS,TP in detergent wastewater and handing bio-film,the results show that the three kinds of fillers adsorption isotherm on LAS,TP conform to Langmuir model.The adsorption removal rate of bio-ceramic on LAS,TP reaches 23.2%,27.2% respectively,bio-ceramic has better adsorption properties than rare earth porcelain sand and normal-ceramic,and has very good adaptability on the changes of LAS and TP concentration,bio-ceramic has stronger pollution impact load resistant performance and quick speed of bio-film forming,The COD dilution is 54mg/L witch is less then 60 mg/L after bio-membrane hanging.Bio-ceramic has good treatment effect on COD.Therefore,bio-ceramic is a suitable filler to BAF treatment for the alkaline detergent wastewater.Bio-ceramic used as BAF to treat detergent wastewater can efficiently improve the removal rate of COD、LAS and TP and make the treatment of detergent wastewater meet the blowoff standard,witch is important to the protection of water environment.

  14. Effects of Buoyancy on Laminar and Turbulent Premixed V-Flame (United States)

    Cheng, Robert K.; Bedat, Benoit


    Turbulent combustion occurs naturally in almost all combustion systems and involves complex dynamic coupling of chemical and fluid mechanical processes. It is considered as one of the most challenging combustion research problems today. Though buoyancy has little effect on power generating systems operating under high pressures (e.g., IC engines and turbines), flames in atmospheric burners and the operation of small to medium furnaces and boilers are profoundly affected by buoyancy. Changes in burner orientation impacts on their blow-off, flash-back and extinction limits, and their range of operation, burning rate, heat transfer, and emissions. Theoretically, buoyancy is often neglected in turbulent combustion models. Yet the modeling results are routinely compared with experiments of open laboratory flames that are obviously affected by buoyancy. This inconsistency is an obstacle to reconciling experiments and theories. Consequently, a fundamental understanding of the coupling between turbulent flames and buoyancy is significant to both turbulent combustion science and applications. The overall effect of buoyancy relates to the dynamic interaction between the flame and its surrounding, i.e., the so-called elliptical problem. The overall flame shape, its flowfield, stability, and mean and local burning rates are dictated by both upstream and downstream boundary conditions. In steady propagating premixed flames, buoyancy affects the products region downstream of the flame zone. These effects are manifested upstream through the mean and fluctuating pressure fields to influence flame stretch and flame wrinkling. Intuitively, the effects buoyancy should diminish with increasing flow momentum. This is the justification for excluding buoyancy in turbulent combustion models that treats high Reynolds number flows. The objectives of our experimental research program is to elucidate flame-buoyancy coupling processes in laminar and turbulent premixed flames, and to

  15. Turbulent Jet Flames Into a Vitiated Coflow. PhD Thesis awarded Spring 2003 (United States)

    Holdeman, James D. (Technical Monitor); Cabra, Ricardo


    Examined is the vitiated coflow flame, an experimental condition that decouples the combustion processes of flows found in practical combustors from the associated recirculating fluid mechanics. The configuration consists of a 4.57 mm diameter fuel jet into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean premixed flame. The 210 mm diameter coflow isolates the jet flame from the cool ambient, providing a hot environment similar to the operating conditions of advanced combustors; this important high temperature element is lacking in the traditional laboratory experiments of jet flames into cool (room) air. A family of flows of increasing complexity is presented: 1) nonreacting flow, 2) all hydrogen flame (fuel jet and premixed coflow), and 3) set of methane flames. This sequence of experiments provides a convenient ordering of validation data for combustion models. Laser Raman-Rayleigh-LIF diagnostics at the Turbulent Diffusion Flame laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories produced instantaneous multiscalar point measurements. These results attest to the attractive features of the vitiated coflow burner and the well-defined boundary conditions provided by the coflow. The coflow is uniform and steady, isolating the jet flame from the laboratory air for a downstream distance ranging from z/d = 50-70. The statistical results show that differential diffusion effects in this highly turbulent flow are negligible. Complementing the comprehensive set of multiscalar measurements is a parametric study of lifted methane flames that was conducted to analyze flame sensitivity to jet and coflow velocity, as well as coflow temperature. The linear relationship found between the lift-off height and the jet velocity is consistent with previous experiments. New linear sensitivities were found correlating the lift-off height to coflow velocity and temperature. A blow-off study revealed that the methane flame blows off at a common coflow temperature (1260 K), regardless of

  16. Periglacial landforms on Mars as evidence of undersurface ice (United States)

    Sik, A.

    1. Introduction By the methods of comparative planetology we can acquire new information not only from other planets, but from the Earth as well. The purpose of my research is to compare the periglacial environment of Mars and Earth, their forms and geomorphological processes. Hereby we might could refine our understanding of the paleoclimatic changes on these two planets, the history of near-surface water on Mars and the possibility of Martian life. I used the high resolution narrow angle images of Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Oriber Camera [1] to define landforms and the profiles of Mars Oriber Laser Altimeter [2] to characterize the relief on the examined terrains. Because of the "difficulties" of real field work on the surface of Mars, I obtained these kind of data during a periglacial research expedition of my university, carried out in the summer of 2000. 2. Short history of water on Mars After the formation of the planet, Mars had a stable and thick atmosphere, probably dominated by carbon-dioxide, water-vapour and nitrogen. So during the first part of its history, called "wet Mars period", planet Mars had active water-cycle and as a part of it, water-related erosion landforms had taken shape. This can be the explanation of the seashore-like, regionally identical altitude lines which separates different surface regions, the river channels and the inner crater pond sediments widely general on the surface. But as a result of more mechanisms, about 3,5 billion years ago this era ended. The main reasons probably were some giant impact events, produced a kind of atmospheric blow-off and resulted huge impact forms, like Hellas- and Argyre- basins. Another factor of it was the loss of global magnetic field, so the charged particles of solar wind was able to erode the outer part of the atmosphere. Besides, the low escape velocity caused by the small mass of the planet enabled gas molecules of the Martian atmosphere to leave for the interplanetary space. For all these