WorldWideScience

Sample records for blown bitumens

  1. Mechanical Properties of the Blends of Recycled Polypropylene with Blown and Soft Bitumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hadadi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the mechanical properties of the blends of blown bitumen110/10, heavy vacuum slops (H.V.S, bitumen 60/70 penetration grade and isotactic polypropylene (iPP were studied for the first time. Our results showed that modulus varies non-linearly and at certain asphaltenes contents a peak appears. Considering these phenomena it is revealed that in the absence of iPP, interactions between the asphaltenes control the modulus of the blends. These interactions are dependent on the H.V.S and soft bitumen contents. The asphaltenes establish strong interactions with other asphaltene groups during dissolution in H.V.S or bitumen 60/70 (called solubility limit. At low percentges of iPP and high concentrations of asphaltenes a segregated network of asphaltenes is formed.Formation of this network increases the modulus of blends. At higher percentages of iPP and low asphaltenes concentration an interdiffusion-coalescence network is established. This network creates transition structures and increases the blend modulus. Finally, it is found that incorporation of iPPimproves the modulus of bituminous blends.

  2. Bitumen pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, G.; Noll, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  3. Bituminization process of radioactive liquid wastes by domestic bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, H.L.

    1977-11-01

    A study has been carried out of the incorporation of intermediate level wastes in bitumen. Two kinds of wastes: a) an evaporator concentrate from a PWR (containing boric acid), b) second cycle wastes from the Purex process (containing sodium salts), were satisfactorily incorporated into a mixture of straight and blown domestic bitumen, to yield a product containing 50wt% solids. The products were stable to radiation exposure of 5'8x10 8 rads. Leach rates were measured in both distilled and sea water over periods up to 200 days at 5 0 C and 25 0 C and at both 1 atm and 8 atm pressure. Results confirmed that long term storage of the products would be satisfactory

  4. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Harji, A.

    2002-01-01

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. Processing options for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harji, A.N.; Koppel, P.E.; Mazurek, W.L.; Meysami, P.

    2003-01-01

    It is estimated that 178 billion barrels of oil can be recovered from Alberta's vast heavy oil reserves. The challenge lies in the logistics of recovering, upgrading and transporting the oil to market. The Canadian Energy Research Institute conducted a recent study to determine market potential by 2007 for diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil produced from upgraded bitumen. The viability for a wide range of bitumen feedstocks was assessed along with the sensitivity of refinery demand to their prices. The 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen include PADD 2 in the United States, western Canada, and Ontario. Bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline and cannot be processed by most of the existing refineries. Therefore, in order to develop a mass market for the product, bitumen must undergo the energy intensive upgrading process at existing refineries. The factors impacting which method of upgrading is most suitable were discussed with particular attention to the impact that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may have on Alberta's bitumen resource in terms of costs of complying with greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. The authors emphasized that it is crucial to customize an upgrading project to meet site and market specific factors. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Prepare to be blown away

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 16 April, the TE-VSC team began identifying and repairing the LHC’s faulty radiofrequency fingers. Their main tool: an “RF ball” that will be – quite literally – blown through the beam pipe.   RF ball tests carried out in 2007. In the bellows of the LHC interconnects, you’ll find the vacuum pipe held together by some flexible metallic connectors known as “RF fingers”. These RF fingers maintain the electrical contact between the LHC magnets, ensuring the continuity of the beam pipe. As the magnets contract and expand when heated up and cooled down, the fingers preserve their connection by simply sliding over each other. However, experience has shown that the movement of the LHC magnets can cause the fingers to buckle. “It’s not a question of bad design,” explains Vincent Baglin, from TE's Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (TE-VSC) group. “Rather, there were slight non...

  7. Natural zeolite bitumen cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznicki, S.M.; McCaffrey, W.C.; Bian, J.; Wangen, E.; Koenig, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to demonstrate how low cost heavy oil upgrading in the field could reduce the need for diluents while lowering the cost for pipelining. Low cost field upgrading could also contribute to lowering contaminant levels. The performance of visbreaking processes could be improved by using disposable cracking agents. In turn, the economics of field upgrading of in-situ derived bitumen would be improved. However, in order to be viable, such agents would have to be far less expensive than current commercial cracking catalysts. A platy natural zeolite was selected for modification and testing due to its unique chemical and morphological properties. A catalyst-bearing oil sand was then heat-treated for 1 hour at 400 degrees C in a sealed microreactor. Under these mild cracking conditions, the catalyst-bearing oil sand produced extractable products of much lower viscosity. The products also contained considerably more gas oil and middle distillates than raw oil sand processed under the same conditions as thermal cracking alone. According to model cracking studies using hexadecane, these modified mineral zeolites may be more active cracking agents than undiluted premium commercial FCC catalyst. These materials hold promise for partial upgrading schemes to reduce solvent requirements in the field. tabs., figs.

  8. Selective extraction of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starshov, M.; Starshov, I.

    1991-01-01

    The work performed in the field of natural bitumen extraction is aimed at maximum separation of organic phase. On treating bituminous rocks with solvents, the associated metals are extracted together with the organic phase and may further exert a negative effect on refining of natural bitumen. the authors propose a simplified two stage technique for the extraction of bitumen which enables to utilize V and Ni contained in the concentrate of the second stage extraction (Table). At the first stage, negative bitumen is extracted with the summary content of metals not exceeding 0.005%. This allows to avoid de metallization of native bitumen and subject it to treatment by catalytic cracking. during this stage gasoline and kerosene fractions, different oil distillates and condensates can be used as solvents. at the second stage, aromatic and halo id compounds bearing wastes and by-products, i.e. cheap and non deficient reagents, serve as solvents. The technology was tested under laboratory conditions using Tatar bituminous sands. It is also possible to use one solvent only, however, on condition that at first the oil product with the summary metal content below 0.005%, and then the remaining product is extracted. The proposed technology has proved so universal that it can be applied to refining any type of raw material to be found in the territory of the Tatar republic, using surface extraction complexes. (author). 9 refs., tab

  9. Routine Testing of Bitumen Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holý Michal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of bituminous binders used in the construction and maintenance of road surfaces is currently assessed by empirical testing based on obtaining one value for specific boundary conditions, which were designed about 100 years ago. Basic empirical tests include the softening point and penetration, but the practice shows that these tests appear to be inadequate. The evaluation of changes of bitumen properties during the production and paving process of bituminous mixture is also important. The paper points out how the “traditional” tests as softening point and penetration and viscosity are sufficient to evaluate properties of bitumen binders.

  10. Routine Testing of Bitumen Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holý, Michal; Remišová, Eva

    2017-12-01

    The quality of bituminous binders used in the construction and maintenance of road surfaces is currently assessed by empirical testing based on obtaining one value for specific boundary conditions, which were designed about 100 years ago. Basic empirical tests include the softening point and penetration, but the practice shows that these tests appear to be inadequate. The evaluation of changes of bitumen properties during the production and paving process of bituminous mixture is also important. The paper points out how the "traditional" tests as softening point and penetration and viscosity are sufficient to evaluate properties of bitumen binders.

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  13. Bitumen performance and chemistry in solvent refined bitumen blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Glynn; Holleran, Irina; Wilson, Douglas J.

    2017-09-01

    In years gone past most oil companies in Australia and New Zealand (NZ) developed experts that bridged the divide between refining and paving. This was supported by laboratories in Australia and sometimes Asia. This is no longer the case and many refineries have ceased bitumen production or closed. With the market moving towards imports and control to supply companies disconnects on bitumen passing a national specification and performance on the road. This reduces both durability and increases costs. This has been addressed by development in NZ of a performance specification for hot mix asphalt binders (including modified) and work being done on sealing grades. This paper discusses the development of the HMA specification with respect to crude sources and the development of methodologies to assess imported binders for suitability in all applications including emulsion. The conclusion is that bitumen quality may be maintained by use of these methodologies that include, chromatographic analysis, measurement of thermodynamic internal stability (Heithaus), aging, and Dynamic Shear Rheometry testing and mix performance testing in the laboratory. This forms a regime capable of use in any context and this leads to better durability of surfaces and extended service life.

  14. Bitumen nanocomposites with improved performance

    KAUST Repository

    Kosma, Vasiliki

    2017-11-29

    Bitumen-clay nanocomposite binders with styrene-butadienestyrene triblock copolymer, SBS, and combinations of SBS and crumb rubber (CR) with different CR/SBS ratios have been synthesized and characterized. In addition to the binder, samples containing the binder and concrete sand (with a weight ratio 1:9) were prepared. The modified binders were studied in terms of filler dispersion, storage stability, mechanical performance and water susceptibility. We demonstrate that the samples containing nanoclays consistently outperform those based only on the polymer additives. We also find that nanocomposite samples based on a combination of SBS and CR are best, since in addition to other improvements they show excellent storage stability. Our work shows that substituting CR with SBS as a bitumen additive and combining it with inexpensive nanoclays leads to new materials with enhanced performance and improved stability for practical asphalt applications.

  15. Evaluate Aging Effect of SBS Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei

    2013-01-01

    One of the important factors of cracks on the asphalt pavements is bitumen aging that associated with the loss of volatile components and oxidation of asphalt binder. This paper is about effect of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) polymer on asphalt aging In order to decrease asphalt aging effects. For this purpose samples of base bitumen and SBS modified bitumen aged according to the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) and pressure aging vessel (PAV), respectively. Propert...

  16. Modification of bitumen using polyacrylic wig waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, M. N.; Aziz, M. A. A.; Jamin, N. F. M.; Salehan, N. A. M.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a study about the potential of polyacrylic wig waste (PAWW) as an additive in road micro surfacing (RMS). The idea is to mix the PAWW with bitumen to produce a polymer modified bitumen (PMB). The available highest quality grade of bitumen from the industry with the grade 80-100 mm penetration grade is the unmodified bitumen with PAWW or known as modacrylic fiber that has different percentages of Polyacrylic (PA) wig in each sample. In this study, 3 different ratios were tested which are 99:1, 96:4, and 93:7 %wt of unmodified bitumen to PAWW. The prepared samples were then tested by using the penetration test and softening point test. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the conventional properties such as penetration test and softening point test. The polyacrylic wig waste (PAWW) has potential to be used as additive in road micro surfacing (RMS).

  17. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of some Bitumens from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    natural bitumen resources and potentials for sustained production of bitumen in large quantity, but basic applicable ... Oxidized bitumens are used for pipe coating .... in February 2009 in Kaduna, Nigeria. Measurements were made to the thickness of the bitumen portion in each of the container every week for a period of five.

  18. Waste Plastic-Modified Bitumen: Rheological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abdel-Goad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bitumen blends were prepared for road applications by the introduction of 9% of waste Polyethylene by weight (9 wt%. The relaxation stress, relaxation and retardation spectrum and viscosity of bitumen blends were studied at different temperatures and compared to those of the original pure bitumen. These properties were tested using an ARESRheometer (Rheometric Scientific, Co. equipment. The measurements were performed in the dynamic mode, plate-plate geometry of 8 mm diameter over the temperature range from -10 to 60°C and angular frequency (ω varied from 10-1 to 102 radian/s. The relaxation stress and viscosity were modified by the addition of waste PE. The results also indicate that the incorporation of the waste PE enhances stability of the bitumen blends.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED BITUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erofeev Vladimir Trofimovich

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present time the most widely used type of road pavement is asphalt-concrete pavement produced on the basis of oil bitumen. One of the efficient ways to increase the quality and durability of asphalt-concrete pavement is modification of bitumen. Though Russian specialists still don’t have the global view of the ideal and real asphalt cement, the requirements to its quality and durability indicators in the composition of road structure haven’t yet formed. The authors present the investigation results of the properties of oil asphalt cement containing 0.5-2.0% of modifier “Olazol”. The physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the modified bitumen are determined. The dependences of the dynamic viscosity of the modified bitumen from the quantity of introduced modifier, shear rate and reheat temperature are analyzed.

  20. Upgrading of bitumen using supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayukawa, T. [JGC Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation outlined the technical and economic aspects of thermal cracking by supercritical water. Supercritical water (SCW) is a commonly used method for upgrading heavy oil to produce pipeline-transportable oil from high-viscous bitumen. The process uses water and does not require hydrogen nor catalysts. Pre-heated bitumen and water enter a vertical reactor with flows of counter current at the supercritical point of water. The upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) and pitch are obtained from the top of the reactor when the bitumen is thermally cracked. Bench-scale studies have shown that Canadian oil sands bitumen can be converted to 80 volume per cent of SCO and 20 volume per cent of pitch. The SCO has satisfied Canadian pipeline specifications in terms of API gravity and kinetic viscosity. The kinetic viscosity of the pitch has also satisfied boiler fuel specifications. tabs., figs.

  1. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  2. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.; Lauerman, V.; Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-02-01

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  3. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  4. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds in Agbabu natural bitumen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infrared spectral changes and gravimetric analysis from the preliminary biodegradability study carried out on Agbabu Natural Bitumen showed the vulnerability of the bitumen to some bacteria: Pseudomonas putrefaciens, Pseudomonas nigrificans, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas fragi and Achromobacter aerogenes.

  5. Characterization Of Penetration-Grade Bitumen Blended With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low penetration-grade bitumen is mixed with each of three lighter petroleum products (kerosene, diesel, and lubricating oil) to produce blended bitumen for priming the surface of road during construction of road pavement. The flash point, penetration, and viscosity, of the various bitumen blends are investigated ...

  6. Mechanical Properties of Non-Woven Polyester Fibers and Polymer-Modified Bitumen Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Hadadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blown bitumen (110/10 was mixed with heavy vacuum slops (H.V.S, 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and recycled isotactic polypropylene (iPP at different levels. The resulting resins were used to impregnate non-woven poly(ethylene terephthalate fibers to form composites. The modulus and penetration grade of the resulting bituminous resins were determined. It was found that these bituminous resins drastically affect the modulus of the composites formed by low-Young’s modulus fibers such as polyesters. Consequently, interactions between resin and fibers and the correlation length of asphalthenes (in absence of iPP and interdiffused coalescence and segregated network of asphalthenes (in presence of iPP result in a non-linear behavior of composite’s modulus. The behavior of the composites with or without iPP is controlled by resin toughness and resin interactions with the fiber through the viscosity. Comparison of the experimental composite modulus data with the theoretical modulus data revealed that the Takayanangi’s model best predicts the behavior of these composites. The adjustment factors of this model were reported and proposed as an indication of fiber-resin interaction. It was also found that the modulus of fibers is affected by toughness, viscosity and the iPP content of the bituminous resin.

  7. Investigation of two-stage air-blown and air-steam-blown entrained-flow coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Butakov, E. B.; Burdukov, A. P.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to compare effect of coal and steam supply to the second stage of the entrained-flow gasifiers on their main operating parameters. Two two-stage gasifiers of SB RAS Institute of Thermophysics were used as experimental units. The 5 MW unit has air-coal feeding to first and second stages (air-blown gasification). The 1 MW unit has air-coal feeding to first stage and steam feeding to second stage (air-steam-blown gasification). Experimental studies of air-blown and air-steam-blown gasification with various stoichiometric coefficients, flow rates, temperatures and supply points of secondary media (air-coal and steam) are carried out. Experimental and calculated (thermodynamic and CFD) methods have established that: in the air-blown gasification unit the increase of stoichiometric coefficients (secondary coal flow rate reduction) reduces the syngas heating value and increases the carbon conversion rate; in the air-steam-blown gasification unit the increase of the steam supply nozzle immersion to the gasifier leads to increase of the syngas heating value, the carbon conversion rate and decrease of the syngas H2/CO ratio.

  8. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Malabre, M.

    1961-01-01

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [fr

  9. Orinoco bitumen. Orimulsion; Tennen orinoko. Orimarujon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-20

    Orinoco bitumen is natural bitumen depositing underground over an area 50 thousand kilometer square in the north basin of Orinoco River in Venezuela, and this area zone is called Orinoco belt. It is said that origin deposit is about one trillion 200 million barrels (about 190 million tons), and minable deposit amount reaches about 267 billion barrels (about 42.4 billion tons) according to a recovery rate (22%) achievable by current mining technology, and this amount is equivalent to the crude oil deposit in Saudi Arabia. Orimulsion, which is formed by adding water (about 30%) and a trace quantity of a surfactant into orinoco bitumen (about 70%) and emulsifying the mixture, is used as a fuel for power generation. In this paper, a development plan of Venezuela government relating to natural bitumen resources, properties and handling methods of orimulsion, production process of orimulsion and present situation of commercialization of orimulsion are described. Total import quantity to Japan was 840 thousand tons in 1996. (NEDO)

  10. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs

  11. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, D.A. (Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority, Edmonton, AB (Canada))

    1993-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs.

  12. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  13. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschrich, H.

    1980-10-01

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  14. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  15. Modified bitumen for embedding of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, C.

    1984-11-01

    This work describes new possibilities of using polymer modified bitumen as matrix material for embedding of low- and medium level radioactive wastes. Epoxy resins, polyurethane resins and styrene-butadiene-copolymers with 20-40 weight per cent are used as modifying agents. Penetration and softening point (ring and ball) of modified samples have been measured. Further the resistance to toluene and leaching rate in n-heptane have been determined. Within these polymer bitumen combinations investigated, the epoxy resins having a high epoxid equivalent weight with dicarbooxylic acid anhydrid hardeners and tertiary amin accelerators give the most dense network, highest thermodimensional stability and lowest leaching rate in organic solvents. 71 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  16. The long-term stability of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.-H.

    1989-09-01

    Natural bitumen can be an aid in the assessment of the long-term behaviour of technical bitumen. Natural occurrences of bitumen usually have the drawback that the original material before alteration or degration began is not known. The present work applies an alternative approach: on the basis of the geology and stratigraphy at a site where bitumen samples have been taken, the existence of a gradient in the parameters of subaerial and microbial degradation processes may be assumed. Therefore relative variation in properties, composition and structure (bitumen content, volative fraction, elemental composition, chromatographic fractions, saturated hydrocarbons, trace metals, humic substances) at different locations within the deposit have been analysed. The bitumen impregnates a bed of porous Jurassic limestone which crops out at the surface and dips under sediments of various permeability. The quality of the bitumen is in compliance with standards for soft technical bitumen, although it can be characterized as highly biodegraded. It has probably not been affected to any marked degree by degradation since the Quarternary or possibly even late Tertiary, however, as observable variations in composition and properties are only minor and seem to exhibit no clear relation to the present geological setting. Only near the present outcrop do there seem to be signs of increased oxidation. Direct exposure to the weather at the surface leads to destruction of the bitumen within a very thin surface layer. Traces of humic substances probably originating from the decomposition of bitumen were found. The rate of bitumen degradation at outcrops seems to coincide with the rate of weathering and erosion of the host rock. It can be concluded from the results that the time scales necessary to achieve significant alteration of bitumen under the given conditions far exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of radionuclides in low- and medium-level radioactive waste

  17. Nasal blown secretion evaluation in specific occupational nasal challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatti, Patrizia; Pala, Gianni; Pisati, Marta; Perfetti, Luca; Banchieri, Gabriella; Moscato, Gianna

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the usefulness of nasal blown secretion evaluation during specific nasal provocation test (sNPT) in diagnosing occupational rhinitis (OR). To validate the method, nasal blown secretions from 103 healthy subjects and 30 allergic rhinitis patients were analyzed. Furthermore, we analyzed nasal blown secretions, collected before and after sNPT, of 29 subjects with work-related rhinitis symptoms (WRRS) who underwent the diagnostic pathway for OR. Rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score were used to define a positive sNPT. A total of 89.6% WRRS subjects provided suitable nasal secretions. Eosinophils significantly increased after positive sNPTs compared to negative ones (P = 0.006). Four percent and/or 1 x 10(4) eosinophils/ml was the cut-off for a significant post-sNPT eosinophil increase. A total of 4/13 (33%) WRRS subjects with negative sNPT, assessed by rhinoscopy and nasal symptom score, presented a significant post-sNPT nasal eosinophil increase, and were identified as possible OR. Eosinophil evaluation in nasal blown secretions is an important tool in monitoring the response to occupational specific nasal challenges.

  18. Controlling Blown Pack Spoilage Using Anti-Microbial Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rachael; Bolton, Declan; Tiuftin, Andrey A; Kerry, Joe P; Fanning, Séamus; Whyte, Paul

    2017-08-12

    Active (anti-microbial) packaging was prepared using three different formulations; Auranta FV; Inbac-MDA and sodium octanoate at two concentrations (2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the lowest concentration that will inhibit the visible growth of the organisms) against Clostridium estertheticum , DSMZ 8809). Inoculated beef samples were packaged using the active packaging and monitored for 100 days storage at 2 °C for blown pack spoilage. The time to the onset of blown pack spoilage was significantly ( p < 0.01) increased using Auranta FV and sodium octanoate (caprylic acid sodium salt) at both concentrations. Moreover, sodium octanoate packs had significantly ( p < 0.01) delayed blown pack spoilage as compared to Auranta FV. It was therefore concluded that Auranta FV or sodium octanoate, incorporated into the packaging materials used for vacuum packaged beef, would inhibit blown pack spoilage and in the case of the latter, well beyond the 42 days storage period currently required for beef primals.

  19. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on bitumen and bitumen-salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the generation of hydrogen and methane from bitumen B 45 during exposure to external cobalt-60 gamma-radiation, internal alpha-radiation by incorporated 210 Po, and internal beta-radiation by incorporated 90 Sr/ 90 Y as well as 137 Cs, respectively. Radiolytic methane generation was found to be independant of the type of radiation whereas the rates of hydrogen generation due to alpha- and beta-irradiation were more than double that due to gamma-irradiation. Addition of NaCl, NaNO 3 or Na 2 SO 4 to bitumen B 45 had no effect on the gamma-radiolytic formation of hydrogen and methane. From the results, conclusions have been drawn with respect to establishing activity limits for liquid radioactive wastes to be incorporated into bitumen. (author)

  1. Determination and content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, H.J.; Kaschani, D.T.

    1977-12-01

    The institut for Petrolium Research in Hanover has been engaged for some ten years on the analysis of bitumens. What is now known on the subject from the works of various authors is reviewed here. One of the points dealt with in the report is that, owing to its content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, bitumen is not a potential carcinogen. The analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their results, aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen vapours and their solubility in water from bitumens are dealt with.

  2. Innovative Additive for Bitumen Based on Processed Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak, Michał; Kosno, Jacek; Ratajczak, Maria; Zieliński, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Various additives, admixtures and modifiers are used to improve technical properties and strength characteristics of building materials. Manufacturers of waterproofing materials, concrete, ceramics and bitumen have to use innovative, increasingly complex and costly additives, admixtures or modifiers. As a result, simple and inexpensive substances have been replaced by complex, long chain polymers, multi component resins or plastics. For economic and ecological reasons waste materials are more frequently used as additives, admixtures and modifiers. Nowadays the most commonly used physical modifiers of bitumen belong to the group of polymers - large molecular organic compounds of natural origin or being the result of planned chemical synthesis. Polymers are substances that do not chemically react with bitumen, they act as fillers or create a spatial network within bitumen (the so called physical cross-linking). The development of organic chemistry has allowed the synthesis of a number of substances chemically modifying bitumen. The most promising are heterocyclic organic compounds belonging to the group of imidazolines. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to demonstrate the suitability of processed natural and post-refining fat waste (diamidoamine dehydrate) as bitumen modifier. This paper discusses the impact of adding technical imidazoline on selected bitumen characteristics. Samples of bitumen 160/220, which is most commonly used for the production of waterproofing products, were analysed. For base bitumen and bitumen modified with technical imidazoline the following measurements were taken: measurement of the softening point by Ball and Ring method, determination of the breaking point by Fraass method and needle penetration measurement at 25°C. Later the samples were aged using TFOT laboratory method and the basic characteristics were determined again. The results showed that a small amount of imidazoline improved bitumen thermoplastic parameters at

  3. Investigations of Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hassan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several road pavement distresses are related to rheological bitumen properties. Rutting and fatigue cracking are the major distresses that lead to permanent failures in pavement construction. Influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on rheological properties of bitumen binder such as improvement of high and intermediate temperatures is investigated in the binder’s fatigue and rutting resistance through physical-rheological changes in this research. The bitumen binders were aged by rolling thin film oven (RTFOT to simulate short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV to simulate long-term aging. The effects of aging on the rheological and physical properties of bitumen binders were studied conducting dynamic shear rheometer test (DSR, Brookfield viscometer test, softening point test, and penetration test. The results showed that the use of rubberised bitumen binder reduces the aging effect on physical and rheological properties of the bitumen binder as illustrated through lower aging index of viscosity, lower aging index of , and an increase in with crumb rubber modifier content increasing, indicating that the crumb rubber might improve the aging resistance of rubberised bitumen binder. In addition, the results showed that the softening point increment ( and penetration aging ratio (PAR of the rubberised bitumen binder decreased significantly due to crumb rubber modification. Furthermore, the higher crumb rubber content, the lower after PAV aging, which led to higher resistance to fatigue cracking bitumen.

  4. Impact of fugitive bitumen on polymer-based flocculation of mature fine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, C; Harbottle, D; Alagha, L; Xu, Z

    2013-01-01

    In bitumen recovery from oil sands, a percentage of the bitumen is lost to tailings. The effect of fugitive bitumen on fines settling and consolidation in tailings ponds remains controversial. In the current study, the settling performance of mature fine tailings (MFT) in response to flocculant addition was considered by studying MFT of varying bitumen content. Bitumen content in the MFT was adjusted by controlled removal of bitumen using a Denver flotation cell. The initial settling rate of ...

  5. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, I.

    2000-01-01

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The μ-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  6. Improvement of polypropylene (PP)-modified bitumen through lignin addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanita, E.; Hendrasetyawan, B. E.; Firdaus, D. F.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is usually added to bitumen to improve its mechanical properties, however, both of them have different chemical properties. To achieve best mechanical properties of the mixture, coupling agent such as lignin is importantly required. Lignin is an amorphous biopolymer, has bipolar characteristic due to its distinct chemical function which has carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenol chemical function. Otherwise, bitumen and PP have polar and non-polar characteristic, respectively. In the previous research, it is found that lignin is potential to be used as coupling agent. In order to confirm the potential of lignin as a coupling agent, there are various compounds of lignin on PP-bitumen mixtures used in this research. This experiment consists of several stages, ranging from sample preparation, characterization of raw materials, mixing, and characterization of the PP-Modified Bitumen. This experiment used hot melt mixing to mix lignin, PP, and bitumen. The result of this experimental was analyzed by using FTIR and FESEM. The addition of lignin make Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) getting better mixing and increase mechanical properties. Furthermore, FESEM characterization indicated that the addition of lignin gave better mixing of PP-Bitumen. FTIR showed a new chemical structure due to the addition of lignin. From this experiment, the addition of lignin can improve mixing between PP and Bitumen. So, we can use lignin as coupling agent.

  7. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Five strains of bacteria; Pseudomonas fragi, Streptococcus zymogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus macerans, capable of utilizing bitumen as source of carbon and energy were isolated from water sample obtained from bitumen producing area, Agbabu, Ondo state,.

  8. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  9. Developments in the uses of foamed bitumen in road pavements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenkins, K.J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; De Groot, J.L.A.; Van de Ven, M.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Following the lapse in patent rights on foam-producing nozzles, the use of foamed bitumen for the improvement of road construction materials has become more accessible and as a result, it's use increased considerably in the 1990's. In addition, the applications of foamed bitumen process have

  10. Evaluation of properties of bitumen modified with waste tyre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigates the properties of bitumen modified with used tyre. Basic tests such as penetration, softening point, viscosity , flash and fire point and ductility test were carried out by using shredded waste tyre which varied from 0% to 20% by weight of 60/70 penetration grade bitumen at 1600C using dry mix ...

  11. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  12. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D’Angelo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB, designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance.

  13. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Thom, N.

    2017-01-01

    Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB), designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance. [es

  14. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements

  15. Extraction of Peace River bitumen using supercritical ethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jeffrey Lawrence

    2000-10-01

    As the supply of conventional crude oil continues to decline, petroleum companies are looking for alternative hydrocarbon sources. The vast reserves of heavy oil and bitumen located in northern Alberta are among the alternatives. The challenge facing engineers is to develop a process for recovering this oil which is economic, efficient and environmentally acceptable. Supercritical fluid extraction is one method being investigated which could potentially meet all of these criteria. In this study, Peace River bitumen was extracted using supercritical ethane. The bitumen was mixed with sand and packed into a semi-batch extractor. Ethane contacted the bitumen/sand mixture and the fraction of the bitumen soluble in the ethane was removed and subsequently collected in a two phase separator. The flow of ethane was such that the experiments were governed by equilibrium and not mass transfer. Experimental temperatures and pressures were varied in order to observe the effect of these parameters on the mass and composition of the extracted material. The extraction yields increased as the temperature decreased and pressure increased. Samples were collected at various time intervals to measure changes in the properties of the extracted bitumen over the duration of the process. As the extraction proceeded, the samples became heavier and more viscous. The bitumen feed was characterised and the experimental data was then modelled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The characterisation process involved the distillation of the bitumen into five fractions. The distillation curve and density of each fraction was measured and this data was used in conjunction with correlations to determine the critical properties of the bitumen. Interaction parameters in the equation of state were then optimised until the predicted composition of extracted bitumen matched the experimental results.

  16. Natural analogues of bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmuth, K.-H.

    1989-07-01

    Occurrences of natural bitumen provide possibilities to identify and assess materials, processes, phenomena and conditions in nature which can serve as model cases valid also with respect to a final repository. Natural bitumens meet the basic requirements for use as natural analogues. In natural sites, processes of bitumen formation and degradation often work simultaneously. The major processes are thermal alteration, evaporation, reaction with water, biodegradation, oxidation, weathering and radiation degradation. Progress in analytical organic geochemistry made during recent years has enabled a deeper understanding of the structural and compositional effects of these processes on bitumen. This is necessary in natural analogue applications. The time scales involved in degradation processes, as observed in natural occurrences, exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of most important fission products in low and medium level waste by orders of magnitude. Only exposure to the weather at the surface leads to a more rapid destruction of bitumen. Trace metals in bitumen arenot released until the matrix is completely destroyed. Products of radiation degradation and weathering of bitumen are able, to a certain degree, to delay migration of the metal ions released. Impregnation with bitumen may effectively reduce the microbial decomposition of easily destructable organic waste components, as can be deduced on the basis of the excellent preservation of fossils observed in bitumen. The complexity of all the natural sites described requires extensive understanding of the origin and kind of organic material in bitumen, its maturation, migration, alteration and degradation and of the geological and tectonic evolution of the site. The latter is used for establishing the time scale

  17. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  18. Studies on the incorporation of spent ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants into bitumen and cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevie-Svendsen, M.; Tallberg, K.; Aittola, P.; Tollbaeck, H.

    1976-01-01

    The joint Nordic incorporation experiments should provide technical data needed for the assessment of solidification techniques for wastes from nuclear reactors in the Nordic countries. Spent ion exchange resins are a main fraction of such wastes, and more knowledge about their incorporation is wanted. The effects of simulated and real ion exchange wastes on the quality of bitumen and cement incorporation products were studied. Blown and distilled bitumen and three Portland cement qualities were used. Product characterizations were based on properties relevant for safe waste management, storage, transport and disposal. The applicability and relevance of established and suggested tests is discussed. Up to 40-60% dry resin could be incorporated into bitumen without impairing product qualities. Products with higher resin contents were found to swell in contact with water. The products had a high leach resistance. Their form stability was improved by incorporated resins. Product qualities appeared to be less affected by physico-chemical variables than by mechanical process parameters. Pure resin-cement products tend to decompose in water. Product qualities were strongly affected by a variety of physico-chemical process parameters, and integer products were only obtained within narrow tolerance limits. Caesium was rapidly leached out. To attain integer products and improved leach resistance within technically acceptable tolerance limits it was necessary to utilize stabilizing and caesium-retaining additives such as Silix and vermiculite. Under the present conditions the water content of the resins limited the amounts that could be incorporated in 40-50wt% or about 70vol.% water-saturated (containing 20-40% dry) resin. (author)

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  20. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    Accomplishments are briefly described for the following tasks: environmental impact statement; coupled fluidized bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost examination study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; determine thickener requirements; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  1. Textural properties of chars as determined by petrographic analysis: comparison between air-blown, oxygen-blown and oxygen-enriched gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the textural properties of chars generated from a vitrinite, high ash coal in a fluidised bed gasifier under air-blown, oxygen-blown and oxygen-enriched conditions were determined by detailed petrographic analysis. The char samples...

  2. Alberta bitumen strategies and royalties delivered in kind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mike [Alberta Department of Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With North America's growing energy demands, Alberta's oil sands will provide a secure source of energy, especially considering the region's bitumen production growth potential for years to come. The Government of Alberta's provincial energy strategy is a guiding document for resource development, which includes bitumen production. Bitumen production policies developed under the strategy aim to support clean energy development, wise energy use, and sustained economic prosperity. Such policies include reducing CO2 emissions through carbon capture and storage projects, and improved monitoring, aligned regulations and efficient enforcement in the industry though a regulatory enhancement project. Bitumen Royalty in Kind (BRIK) has been one tool used to implement some aspects of the trategy, such as fostering value-added oil sands development, enhancing the bitumen market in Alberta, and sharing in the gains while working to mitigate the risks from processing bitumen into further value added products. Work continues on many policies and strategies involving BRIK that will impact bitumen development and markets.

  3. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen...... chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic...

  4. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Jasper F.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Michaels, Timothy I.; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-01-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This article presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devil...

  5. Dynamics and structure of water-bitumen mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Greenfield, Michael L.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough to counter......Systems of Cooee bitumen and water up to 4% mass are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The cohesive energy density of the system is shown to decrease with an increasing water content. This decrease is due mainly to an increase in the interaction energy which is not high enough...... droplets being more stable at the highest temperature simulated. The droplet is mainly located close to the saturates molecules in bitumen. Finally, it is shown that the water dynamics is much slower in bitumen than in pure water because it is governed by the diffusion of the droplet and not of the single...

  6. Bitumen immobilization of aqueous radwaste by thin-film evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Buckley, L.P.

    1996-05-01

    In the early 1980s, AECL built a Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) for managing low-level solid and aqueous liquid wastes for converting CANDU wastes. At present, two liquid waste streams are being treated at the WTC. The liquid waste streams are volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies. The concentrate produced from the TRO system and the volume-reduced MF backwash solutions are evaporated while simultaneously adding bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. A water-free product of chemical and radiochemical salts and bitumen is removed in 200-L galvanized steel drums for storage. The radiation field of product drums on contact typically has a value of 0.5 to 3 R/h depending upon the feed concentration of radioactivity to the evaporator. The total solids content in the 200-L drum ranges from 25 to 35%. Encapsulated in the bitumen matrix are a variety of nonradiochemical salts, which comprise the bulk of the total solids that are in the product drum. This report discusses the immobilization of the aqueous waste with bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. Simulated bituminized waste forms were leached in accordance with the ANS/ANSI 16.1 leach test. In this test, the waste form is immersed under water for an extended period of time, and the leachate is periodically removed and chemically analysed. The Leachability index varied between 7 and 9 for the emulsified bitumen waste forms produced at the WTC. Bitumen samples were unconfined and subjected to immersion and frequent leachate replenishment. The results of leach tests will be a lower bound for the performance of the bitumen waste product in an unsaturated environment. The Leachability indexes reported exceeds the USNRC minimum requirement for wasteform criteria. Adding protective overcoats of either Portland cement or oxidized bitumen enhanced the Leachability index. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  7. ELASTICITY OF BITUMEN BINDERS AND THE FACTORS CAUSING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of the initial bitumen penetration grade and different con-centrations of the mineral filler on the elasticity of the polymer-modified bitumen (PMB with 3 and 6 % of SBS type polymer. The dependences of elasticity of the PMB on the test conditions – such as the temperature and the stress state level are shown additionally.

  8. Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2014-09-01

    Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively.

  9. Optical and Mechanical Properties of Glass Blown In Vacuo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, andrew; Tucker, Dennis; Mooney, Theodore; Herren, Kenneth; Gregory, Don A.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretically, the strength of glass processed in vacuum should be higher due to outgassing of contaminants normally present in the glass, such as bulk water in the form of OH bonds that tends to weaken the glass structure. In this research, small discs of a few types of glass have been subjected to various temperatures for extended periods of time in vacuum. Their strength was then tested using a standard flexure technique, facilitated by a custom-designed test fixture, and the results were compared to glass tested in air using the same fixture. The purpose of the glass blowing investigation was to prove the basic feasibility of a high-level concept for in-space manufacture of optical elements. The central requirement was that the glass bubble had to be blown into a support structure such that the bubble could be handled by manipulation of the structure. The blown bubble attached itself to a mullite ring geometrically and mechanically, as a demonstration in the initial experiments described here, by expanding through and around it. The vacuum system used was custom made, as were most of the components of the system, such as the heating element, the glass and ring support structure, and the gas inlet system that provided the pressure needed to blow the glass.

  10. Rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen containing antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A; Omar, Husaini; Hamzah, M.O; Ismail, H.

    2009-01-01

    Rheology has become a useful tool in the characterization of the bitumen performance on the pavement. Visco-elastic properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen with antioxidants (CR30) were determined by the means of rheological measurement. This measurement led to a better knowledge of bitumen behavior that occurs when subjected to different thermal and mechanical conditions, as seen during road construction and services in the field. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) was used to characterize the rheology of the binders before and after oven aging. The binders were aged for 3 and 9 days. Results of a compatibility test showed that the addition of CR30 modified bitumen is compatible with the base bitumen. The results of unaged samples indicated that the addition of 1% CR30 and 5% CR30 modified binders caused an increase in G value as a result of the rheological changes. Results showed that aging has significant influence on bitumen rheology, by increasing complex modulus and decreasing phase angle. (author)

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  12. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Wu, Shaopeng; Liu, Gang; Li, Liping

    2015-07-03

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are an ultraviolet-light (UV) resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM). Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  13. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultraviolet-light (UV resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM. Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  14. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Breaking water-in-bitumen emulsions using polyoxyalkylated DETA demulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Wu, J.; Dabros, T.; Hamza, H. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre; Wang, S.; Bidal, M.; Venter, J. [Champion Technologies, Sherwood Park, AB (Canada); Tran, T. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-08-01

    The economic importance of bitumen and heavy oil in North America is growing as conventional oil reserves decline. It is estimated that there are 2.5 trillion barrels of oil reserves in northern Alberta, of which most exist as oil sands. Bitumen is currently produced from open pit oil sand mining combined with steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Bitumen is first liberated from the sand and then from a slurry called bitumen froth which contains about 60 per cent bitumen, 30 per cent water and 10 per cent solids by weight. Gravitational settling or centrifugation is used to further dilute the froth with light hydrocarbon solvents. Water-in-oil emulsions are broken down by adding emulsion breaking chemicals. In this study, experimental demulsifiers based on the diethylene triamine (DETA) series with various propylene oxide monomer (PO) and ethylene oxide monomer (EO) contents were manufactured and their relative solubility number (RSN) values were determined. A measurement of the dehydration efficiency of these demulsifiers suggests that some of the DETA products have the potential to perform as well as the demulsifiers currently used in a commercial plant. RSN values were well correlated with EO and PO numbers. Optimal dehydration efficiency also corresponded to the PO-to-EO ratio. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K. A.; Ikram, S.

    2016-01-01

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550–1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using 14C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644983

  17. The development of polyurethane modified bitumen emulsions for cold mix applications

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Páez, Virginia; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Bitumen emulsions stand for an alternative paving practice to the traditional hot-mix asphalts. In addition, modified bitumen emulsions show a better performance than unmodified ones. This work studies the feasibility of obtaining polyurethane modified bitumen emulsions, in which an isocyanate-functionalized polyol constitutes the bitumen modifier (in varying concentration from 1 to 4 wt.%). Storage stability and high in-service performance are evaluated by means of evolution of droplet size ...

  18. production and cost of cold patch road mats with bitumen extracted

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamiu

    The bitumen was mixed with rubber chips to produce rubberized bitumen for production of road mats. The unit ... road repair product manufactured on Kraft paper onto which a rubberized bitumen binder hold the pre- coated aggregates of various sizes. BRP road patch is supplied in sheets, at dimensions of 1.0 m by 0.75 m.

  19. Evaluation of bitumen-rubber asphalt manufactured from modified binder at lower viscosity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connell, Johannes S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available ', the viscosity of the bitumen-rubber binder inevitably falls below the minimum specification, and such binder is contractually unacceptable for use. A bitumen rubber asphalt mix was manufactured using a single aggregate grading and bitumen-rubber binder...

  20. Evaluation of Venezuela's Orinoco bitumen as an MHD fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.N.; Ziritt, J.L.; Jimenez, E.

    1992-01-01

    The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela contains huge deposits of a bitumen that is complex to handle and refine into lighter hydrocarbon fractions. These deposits are in the early commercialization stage, being marketed as an emulsion with 30% water as a boiler fuel. The fuel is similar to oil in heating value (about 18,100 BTU/lbm) and ash (less than 0.4%). It has an extremely high carbon to hydrogen ratio, a parameter that is important in MHD for electrical conductivity. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for this bitumen as a fuel for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. An experimental program to demonstrate the merit of the bitumen as an MHD fuel and validate the calculations is suggested

  1. Coating of evaporation concentrates with bitumen. Progress Report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Rodi, L.; Cudel, Y.

    1968-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been carried out on the coating by bitumen of evaporation concentrates having a free nitric acidity of 1 N or 2.5 N, and a high mineralization (400 gm/litre). In order to neutralize the free acidity and to trap the radio-elements, these concentrates have been subjected before coating to various treatments designed to decrease the solubility. As a result of these treatments, sludges were obtained which could be coated directly with the bitumen. By measuring the radioactive diffusion factors of the bitumen coated products immersed both in ordinary and sea water, it was possible to compare the efficiency of the processes developed and of the various types of bitumen used. On the whole the radioactive diffusion tests were satisfactory and the process using successive co-precipitations (hydroxides, nickel ferrocyanide, barium sulphate) was chosen. From the bitumens tried out, a straight - asphalt, Mexphalt 40/50 was selected for low and medium activity concentrates as it ensures good isolation of the radio-elements; an air-blowing asphalt, Mexphalte R 90/40, was chosen for concentrates of high activity because of its higher resistance to irradiation. As a result of this work, a simple coating technology was evolved and pilot experiments will soon begin. Briefly, it appears that although a method for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been defined, it will inevitably be necessary to devise a specific decontamination process each time that a new type of concentrate is encountered (composition, nature of the salts, radio-element distribution). (author) [fr

  2. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co 60 source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  3. Evaluation of bitumens for nuclear facilities radioactive waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Silva, Tania V. da; Loiola, Roberto; Monte, Lauro J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The activities developed at the Nuclear Technology Development Centre, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN/CNEN, include the research and development work of the radioactive wastes immobilization in different kind of bitumen. The present work describes the bituminization of simulated low level wastes of evaporator concentrates.Two types of bitumen are used for incorporation of the simulated wastes generated by nuclear power plants. Studies on rheological properties, leaching data, differential thermoanalysis and water content of the waste-products have been carried out. (author)

  4. The impact of bitumen exploration on the physical and chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of bitumen exploration on the physicochemical parameters of the Benin River in Delta State was assessed between May and November 2010. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the physico-chemical parameters of the study stations, except for total suspended solids (TSS), zinc and ...

  5. particle size distribution and control on bitumen saturation of some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vicadmin

    Sedimentological analysis of some Afowo oil sands was carried out with the aim of characterising the reservoirs vis-à-vis their bitumen saturation and recovery efficiencies. Fourty-four samples of tar sands of the Afowo formation (collected at three different localities namely; Idiobilayo, Idiopopo and. Igbotako) were subjected ...

  6. Mechanical properties of millet husk ash bitumen stabilized soil block

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, ...

  7. Rheological properties of nanofiltered Athabasca bitumen and Maya crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, M.D.A.; Fulem, Michal; Bazyleva, A.; Shaw, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2009), s. 5012-5021 ISSN 0887-0624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : viscosity * rheology * Athabasca bitumen * Maya crude oil * phase behavior * asphaltenes * nanofiltration Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2009

  8. Bitumen and heavy oil rheological properties: reconciliation with viscosity measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazyleva, A.B.; Hasan, M.D.A.; Fulem, Michal; Becerra, M.; Shaw, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 1389-1397 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Athabasca bitumen * Maya crude oil * rheological properties * viscosity measurements Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2010

  9. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement. M P S CHANDRAWAT†, T N OJHA and R N YADAV*. Department of Chemistry, R N Ruia Government College, Ramgarh-Shekhawati (Sikar) 331 024, India. †Department of Chemistry, R R Government College, ...

  10. Characterization of Bitumen Extracted from used Asphalt Pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the research were principally to characterize extracted bitumen from Used Asphalt Pavement (UAP) on twelve selected roads through the determination of engineering properties (penetration and viscosity) and establishment of appropriate mathematical relationship between principal parameters of the ...

  11. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Sorel's cement (oxychloride cement) discovered in 1867 has many properties superior to those of portland cement as observed by several researchers (Sorel 1867; Beaudin and Ramachandra 1975; Ved et al 1976; Beaudin et al. 1977; Matkovic et al 1977; Mathur 1986; Chandrawat and. Yadav 2000). The bitumen ...

  12. Article size distribution and control on Bitumen saturation of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedimentological analysis of some Afowo oil sands was carried out with the aim of characterising the reservoirs vis-à-vis their bitumen saturation and recovery efficiencies. Fourty-four samples of tar sands of the Afowo formation (collected at three different localities namely; Idiobilayo, Idiopopo and Igbotako) were subjected ...

  13. Improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through advanced froth treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, S.H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Dabros, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Advanced Separation Technologies Laboratory; Humphries, A. [Albemarle Catalysts Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is the dominant refinery conversion process for producing transportation fuels. Feed to the FCC unit is heavy gas oil (HGO). Its quality depends on the crude used and the processes involved. Bitumen-derived crude (BDC), including synthetic crude oil (SCO) is less superior to produce FCC feed than stocks from conventional sources. As a result, North American refiners have limited the use of BDC in their conventional FCC-based operations. This paper examined the improved cracking characteristics of bitumen through an advanced froth treatment process. This involved processing of the bitumen with paraffinic solvent in froth treatment with removal of some asphaltenes, CCR precursors, and metals. The paper discussed the experimental and subsequent results and discussion, including cracking characteristics; product quality; synergetic effect; and economic benefits. It was concluded that the poisoning effect by some deleterious components such as nitrogen compounds in feeds on the catalyst could be reduced or compensated for by higher C/O ratios (more catalyst per unit weight of feed). In addition, as conversion increased, sulfur in gasoline decreased slightly and linearly with more or less the same magnitude for the two bitumens. 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Environmental impact assessment of bitumen exploitation on animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the environmental impact of Bitumen exploitation on wildlife resources in Ode-Irele forest area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The result of the study showed that there are 9 orders and 40 species of mammals in the study area. Primates recorded the highest specie number (13,) and rodentia as ...

  15. Self-healing bitumen by microcapsules containing rejuvenator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, J.F.; Qiu, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Preservation and renovation bitumen of pavement is a big problem for the whole world. Traditionally, application rejuvenators is the only one method that can restore the original properties of the pavements. However, some puzzles still restrict its successful usage. Microencapsulation is a promising

  16. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA) and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples ... MHA as partial replacement of cement will provide an economic use of by-product and consequently produce a cheaper soil block ...

  17. Effect of nitrogen and phosphate limitation on utilization of bitumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degradation of bitumen was found to be associated with the production of carbon (IV) oxide, natural gas and oil. As a result of using nitrogen limited and phosphate limited media, 1750 and 1250 cm3 of gas and 0.95 and 0.85 g/l of oil were obtained respectively. Nitrogen and phosphate limitation have profound effect on ...

  18. Chemical analysis of Agbabu Bitumen Exudate as potential refinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proportions of the constituents in the bitumen were 44.59 % cyclop-araffin, 28.61 % alkanes, 3.47 % monoaromatic hydrocarbons, 6.44 % alkenes, 3.23 % nitrogen compounds, 1.95 % sulphur compounds and 4.27 % oxygen compounds. The composition compared favourably to the resp-ective percent ranges in ...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Millet Husk Ash Bitumen Stabilized Soil Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Abdulwahab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation into the improvement of strength and durability properties of lateritic soil blocks using Millet Husk Ash (MHA and Bitumen as additives so as to reduce its high cost and find alternative disposal method for agricultural waste. The lateritic soil samples were selected and treated with 0%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of MHA by weight of laterite. The lateritic soil-MHA mixture was later admixed with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 14% cut-back bitumen solution by weight of laterite. Both the natural lateritic soil, lateritic and MHA, and the blend of Soil, MHA and Bitumen were first subjected to physical and chemical analysis using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF and Scanning Electromagnetic Machine (SEM to determine their engineering properties followed by the performance test on bricks cast with varying quantities of the additives. A total of one hundred and ninety two (192 cubes were tested for moisture absorption, erodability and compressive strength tests. The result of the test showed that MHA and Bitumen acted as pozzolana in performance test on the soil blocks. Up to 30% MHA – laterite and 20% MHA admixed with 8% laterite were found to give optimum compressive strength of 10.8N/mm2 and 10.9N/mm2 for the bricks produced. The result also showed that about 50% MHA blended with 14% Bitumen solution ensured water tight bricks. Thus the use of MHA as partial replacement of cement will provide an economic use of by-product and consequently produce a cheaper soil block construction without comprising its strength.

  20. Low-speed aerodynamics of the upper-surface blown jet flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Phelps, A. E., III

    1974-01-01

    Review of the results of recent wind-tunnel investigations conducted to provide fundamental aerodynamic information on the upper-surface blown jet-flap concept incorporating high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. The results of the investigations have shown the concept to have aerodynamic performance generally comparable to that of other externally blown high-lift systems. Some of the more critical problem areas associated with this concept are covered, and solutions which have been found for these problems are discussed.

  1. A water blown urethane insulation for use in cryogenic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) of NASA's Space Shuttle External Tank include polyurethane and polyisocyanurate modified polyurethane foam insulations. These insulations, currently foamed with CFC 11 blowing agent, serve to maintain cryogenic propellant quality, maintain the external tank structural temperature limits, and minimize the formation of ice and frost that could potentially damage the ceramic insulation on the space shuttle orbiter. During flight the external tank insulations are exposed to mechanical, thermal and acoustical stresses. TPS must pass cryogenic flexure and substrate adhesion tests at -253 C, aerothermal and radiant heating tests at fluxes up to approximately 14 kilowatts per square meter, and thermal conductivity tests at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. Due to environmental concerns, the polyurethane insulation industry and the External Tank Project are tasked with replacing CFC 11. The flight qualification of foam insulations employing HCFC 141b as a foaming agent is currently in progress; HCFC 141b blown insulations are scheduled for production implementation in 1995. Realizing that the second generation HCFC blowing agents are an interim solution, the evaluation of third generation blowing agents with zero ozone depletion potential is underway. NASA's TPS Materials Research Laboratory is evaluating third generation blowing agents in cryogenic insulations for the External Tank; one option being investigated is the use of water as a foaming agent. A dimensionally stable insulation with low friability, good adhesion to cryogenic substrates, and acceptable thermal conductivity has been developed with low viscosity materials that are easily processed in molding applications. The development criteria, statistical experimental approach, and resulting foam properties will be presented.

  2. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  3. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  4. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  5. Evaluation of Foaming Performance of Bitumen Modified with the Addition of Surface Active Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Mrugała, Justyna; Maciejewski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the analysis of the performance of foamed bitumen modified using surface active agents. Although, bitumen foaming permits production of asphalt concrete and other asphalt mix types without using chemical additives in significantly reduced temperatures, the decrease in processing temperatures still impacts the adhesion performance and bitumen coating of aggregates in final mixes. Therefore, in some cases it may be feasible to incorporate adhesion promoters and surface active agents into warm and half-warm mixes with foamed bitumen to increase their service life and resilience. Because of the various nature of the available surface active agents, varying bitumen compatibility and their possible impact on the rheological properties of bitumen, the introduction of surface active agents may significantly alter the bitumen foaming performance. The tests included basic performance tests of bitumen before and after foaming. The two tested bitumen were designated as 35/50 and 50/70 penetration grade binders, which were modified with a surface active agent widely used for improving mixture workability, compactibility and adhesion in a wide range of asphalt mixes and techniques, specifically Warm Mix Asphalt. Alongside to the reference unmodified bitumen, binders with 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% surface active agent concentration were tested. The analysis has shown a positive influence of the modifier on the foaming performance of both of the base bitumen increasing their maximum expansion ratio and bitumen foam halflife. In the investigations, it was found that the improvement was dependent on the bitumen type and modifier content. The improved expansion ratio and foam half-life has a positive impact on the aggregate coating and adhesion, which together with the adhesion promoting action of the modifier will have a combined positive effect on the quality of produced final asphalt mixes.

  6. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...

  7. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Lemarchand, Claire; Nielsen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component united-atom molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are carried out using graphic-processor-units based...... software in time spans in order of microseconds, which enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper also presents results of the model dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation...... the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear modulus are evaluated, showing a viscous response at frequencies below 100 MHz. The model predictions of viscosity and diffusivities are compared to experimental data, giving reasonable agreement. The model shows that the asphaltene, resin...

  8. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  9. Bitumen to refined products and petrochemicals : a preliminary assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purvin and Gertz is an energy consulting firm that provides advise to the energy sector. A review of western Canadian crude oil supply suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), bitumen and diluent. It is expected that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. This presentation reviewed the potential of Alberta's oil sands and presented a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. In particular, the author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. tabs., figs

  10. Extra heavy crudes and bitumens in the new EST technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanari, R.

    2001-01-01

    Strategic and market reasons dictate for the diversification of the supply sources. The huge reserves of extra heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen will provide the answer in this direction, but it is mandatory the availability of a suitable technology to process these poor quality feedstocks. EST Technology, developed by Snamprogetti and EniTecnologie, allows to get full conversion to produce high quality distillates [it

  11. Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oil. Phase I. Preliminary Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-09

    JP-4, upgrading, refining, tar sands, bitumen, 21 04 05 heavy crude oil, hydrotreating , hydrocracking, hydrovisbreak 07 01 03 ina. delayed coking...significant reserves of coal , shale, heavy crudes, and tar sands. Coal , because it is more hydrogen deficient than either shale oil or bitumen, is more...Bitumen from Santa Rosa tar sands was processed in a single case study (Zi) of high severity two-stage residual oil hydrotreating . Low ash and low metals

  12. Study on possible explosive reactions of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures initiated by a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Vasseur, C.

    1986-01-01

    Potential hazards of the mixture sodium nitrate-bitumen obtained by embedding in bitumen liquid radioactive effluents concentrated by evaporation are studied in case of accidental shock wave. A theoretical evaluation based on thermodynamical data show a low probability, nevertheless different from zero. No explosion occurred in tests realized in severe conditions. In conclusion there is no risk of detonation of large quantity of bitumen-nitrates stored in 200-liter drum in radioactive waste storage [fr

  13. First evaluation of the hydrogenation of primary bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1942-10-27

    This report evaluated and compared primary bitumens to coal tar pitch in the hydrogenation process. Bituminous coal extract from extractive hydrogenation hydrogenated better than a coal tar pitch with similar content of high-molecular-weight fractions. Direct hydrogenation to produce gasoline and middle oil over an iron catalyst was more advantageous than the two-step method. In this experiment, primary bitumens from extractive hydrogenation of Silesian bituminous coal were converted either to gasoline and middle oil or to heavy-oil excess with this iron catalyst. The results were compared with those from high-asphalt-containing coal tar residue. The bitumens gave better results than the pitch for producing heavy oil. Larger amounts of gas were then required to produce sufficient splitting effect in the separators. Experimentation was not complete for high temperatures. No favorable results were obtained from the pitch for gasoline and middle oil. For hydrogenation of coal itself to gasoline and middle oil, the direct method seemed to have the advantges of lower losses to gas and better yields, as opposed to the two-step process. But for the production of heavy-oil excess, it seemed that the two-step method might have advantages, especially in terms of losses to gas, if a sufficient yield could be obtained in the second step. 3 tables.

  14. Baseline air quality evaluation for the Venezuelan Orinoco Bitumen Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrocha, A.; Octavio, K.H.; Cedeno, A.L.; Sanhueza, E.

    1991-01-01

    To achieve a harmonic relationship between oil exploration and production activities and the environment, Petroleos de Venezuela and its affiliated companies conducted environmental evaluations of the physical and bionic media in the Orinoco Bitumen Belt. This region covers an area of approximately 42000 km 2 with estimated bitumen reserves on the order of 3 x 10 12 barrels, one of the largest bitumen reservoirs in the world. This paper presents the results of a study of baseline air quality conditions: an emissions inventory, surface and upper layer meteorological conditions and measurements of air quality parameters of interest (CO, HC, NO x , SO 2 , H 2 S and T.S.P.) taken by a network of automated air quality stations using standard international reference techniques. The temporal (hourly and daily basis) and spatial air quality variability and the variables/activities that might determine the observed trends are discussed. NO, NO 2 , SO 2 and H 2 S concentrations were lower than the detection limits of the analytical methods, while O 3 and CO 1-hour average levels ranged from 5-30 ppb and 0.5-1.8 ppm, respectively, and T.S.P. daily means varied from 10-50 μg/m 3 , all of which is close to natural background concentrations. Maximum hourly average reactive hydrocarbon concentrations of 0.37 ppm were found near a producing oil field

  15. Polyfunctional Modifiers for Bitumen and Bituminous Materials with High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Feizrakhmanovich Kemalov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade increase in capacity and the intensity of vehicular traffic has increased manifoldly, including heavy trucks, super singles, and higher tire pressures, resulting in significant increase of dynamic loads on the road surface which in turn lead to high quality requirements for bitumen in order to avoid premature wear and failure of asphalt concrete pavements. One of the possibilities to increase the quality of bitumen is to use special additives and modifiers that can provide a high adhesion to mineral filler and inhibit the aging and degradation processes in the asphalt coating. To achieve this, in the present study composite modifiers based on bisimidazolines derivatives were synthesized. The developed polyfunctional modifier (PFM of complex action provides enhanced thermal stability, significantly improves the adhesion between bitumen binder and aggregates, and also improves the physical-mechanical properties of the asphalt concrete. Based on the test results it is recommended to use the synthesized samples of the PFM additive with complex action in asphalt mixtures for road paving.

  16. Common ground : bitumen and gas producers come together to find gas-over-bitumen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2005-08-01

    The gas-over-bitumen issue has meant that hundreds of natural gas wells remain closed while regulatory hearings and research activities continue. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board should soon reach a final decision on the status of gas wells considered to be a threat to thermal extraction of underlying oil sands. This article discussed collaborative efforts by oil and gas companies to resolve these issues, including the use of fluid injection technology, low pressure Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and artificial lift. The objective of the Gas Reinjection and Production Experiment (GRIPE) is to reinject gas to displace natural gas being produced. The pilot project, conducted by Paramount Resources Ltd., consists of 2 injector wells, 4 producers and 12 observation wells that measure gas pressure in the reservoir. The project also includes a 2 stage compressor modified to handle flue gas. According to reservoir simulations, Paramount should be able to recover between 50 to 60 per cent of the remaining gas in place. Results from the pilot suggest that the technique could result in more than half the currently shut-in pools being re-opened. It was suggested that gas-by-gas displacement may result in higher recovery rates because there is usually more remaining gas in place. It was noted that EnCana Corporation has also been repressurizing a depleted natural gas pool by injecting compressed air rather than flue gas. Various other projects were reviewed, including the use of electric submersible pumps, low pressure SAGD and new SAGD well pair configurations. It was concluded that the artificial lift and low pressure SAGD technical sub-committee have now filed 10 applications for funding under the Alberta Energy Department's Innovative Energy Technology Program.

  17. Effect of different sizes of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) towards physical properties of modified bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Zulkefli, R. N. A.; Yaacob, H.; Putra Jaya, R.; Warid, M. N. M.; Hassan, N.; Hainin, M. R.; Idham, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    In the past decades, numerous numbers of studies have been carried out to find ways enhancing properties of bitumen. Other than using polymer, agricultural waste such as palm oil fuel ash (POFA) is one of the waste products that can be used to modify bitumen. In this study, the physical and rheological properties of POFA modified bitumen were examined based on different grinding hour and different percentage of POFA. The bitumen were mixed with different percentages of POFA (0, 5 and 7%) which passed through 0.075 mm sieve and grinded at different period (1 and 4 hour). The samples were then tested and compared to conventional bitumen. From TEM results, POFA grinded at 1 hour have sizes between 3-7 µm while POFA grinded for 4 hours have finer sizes between 500 nm to 3 µm. The results showed that fineness of POFA affect properties of bitumen significantly. Decreasing in penetration value and decreasing in softening temperature indicates that the modified bitumen becomes harder than conventional bitumen. Modified bitumen gives best results when added with 7% POFA sizes of 500 nm to 3 µm compared to 3 to 7 µm.

  18. On indicators of genetic relation between uranium-bearing bitumen with oil-like substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pen'kov, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    Mineralogical indicators are considered which confirm that uranium-bearing (containing pitchblende) solid carbon substrates in the process of their formation had a stage of liquid-viscous state, and were sedimented in a close association with solid oil bitumens. The following cases are studied: 1) in concentrated macroextracts of uranium-bearing bitumens fine relicts of coloured oreless bitumens, less oxidated and carbonizated, are found sporadically in the passing light; 2) indicators of the development of black uranium-bearing bitumen along separate extracts or joint agregates of kerito- and asphalt-like substrates are observed in passing light within the veinlets of solid bitumens being in carbonate rocks; 3) linses of solid bitumens of fragmentary rock have zone structure according to the observation in passing light. The direct relation between black uranium-bearing bitumens and solid hydrocarbons which can form out of oil-like substances. Initial substances for them were defferent; resinous bitumens in the first case, kerito- and asphalt-like substances - in the second one, and paraffin substances - in the third one. It shows the nonselective character of the formation out of them of black uranium-bearing bitumens due to the processes of oxidation and carbonization [ru

  19. Influence of the frontal joint of the bitumen sheet on the final strength of the joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachý Jan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the frequently discussed topic how to make the frontal joints of bitumen sheets with coarse-grained surface coating. Bitumen sheets have a spill in the place of these joints. Insufficient strength of the frontal joint is one of the possible faults in waterproofing using bitumen sheets. The paper compares different ways of performing these joints in terms of force stress based on surface treatment. Surface treatment is possible by immersing the sprinkle, scraping it into the bitumen sheet mass, or simply heating the surface and leaving it unpainted.

  20. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  1. Effects of Waste Plastic on the Physical and Rheological Properties of Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Asyiqin Ahmad, Nurul; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Yaacob, Haryati; Rosli Hainin, Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Plastic disposal is one of the major problems for developing countries like Malaysia, at the same time Malaysia needs a large network of roads for its smooth economic and social development. The limited source of bitumen needs a deep thinking to ensure fast road construction. Therefore, the use of plastic waste in road construction not only can help to protect environment but also able to help the road construction industry. The aims of this research are to study the effects of waste plastic on rheological properties of bitumen. Modified bitumen was prepared by using blending techniques. Bitumen was heated and plastic waste was slowly added. Rheological properties of bitumen were performance by penetration, softening point, viscosity and direct shear rheometer test. The results showed that when content of plastic waste increase, the penetration value, softening point and viscosity of bitumen also increase. Generally, plastic waste improves the performance of bitumen when it was added into bitumen. It can be said that the usage helps to improve the performance of the road pavement which also reduces the rutting effect.

  2. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  3. Impact of maltene and asphaltene fraction on mechanical behavior and microstructure of bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofko, B.; Eberhardsteiner, L.; Fussl, J.; Grothe, H.; Handle, F.; Hospodka, M.; Grossegger, D.; Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, A.

    2015-01-01

    As a widely accepted concept, bitumen consists of four fractions that can be distinguished by their polarity. Highly polar asphaltene micelles are dispersed in a viscous phase of saturates, aromatics and resins (maltene phase). Different concentrations of asphaltenes in the bitumen result in a range

  4. The use of bitumen for storing radioactive waste resulting from oil industry containing Ra-226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Shweikani, R.; Abdulhafiz, M.; Salman, M.

    2009-12-01

    The releases of radon gas from NORM waste contained in two different forms of bitumen samples have been investigated. The artificial NORM source samples were made by mixing NORM with bitumen. The sources surrounded by different thickness of bitumen layers to prepare the first form of samples. While, the NORM powder was put inside bitumen samples prepared as a cylindrical shape with different thickness. The results showed that the release of radon from the bitumen samples was different in case of sources and powder. The results illustrated that the release of radon from the bitumen samples was decrees linearly with the samples thicknesses (in both cases source and powder). On the other hand, the release from the cement samples was proportional inversely with the different thickness (for comparison). In addition, many other supporting experiments were performed, as γ-ray spectroscopy measurements showed that the cement is better than the bitumen in shielding process, while the bitumen is better than cement to prevent the releases of radon. (authors)

  5. TECHNOLOGY OF REPAIRING OPERATIONAL SUITABILITY BITUMEN-RUBEROID CARPET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MISHUK K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the article is presented the analysis of the existing technologies for the restoration of the operational usability of bitumen-polymeric carpet, which allowed to identify their disadvantages, suggested ways to solve problems and highlighted the results of the studies. Firstly, existing bitumen-ruberoid carpet has a residual hydro insulating capacity that can be effectively used. Secondly, the physical condition of the repaired carpet has different types of defects and damage without the proper removal of which is difficult to ensure the desired outcome. The applying of additional layers in conditions of moistening of the lower layers and other defects contributes to their conservation and accelerated loss of operational integrity.Removal of these impacts can be up to 40-50% of all work, can not provide the required effectiveness outcomes in terms of durability, reliability and cost. Therefore the problem is to find ways to achieve a longer after repairing operation with simultaneous reduction of consumables indicators. Purpose of the study is to develop technological solutions serviceability restoration of roofing using unrolling technologies on the principles to minimize the impact of negative factors and the maximum possible use and strengthen the remaining hydro potential of the insulating coating through the use of special impregnating - saturating compositions. Features such compositions are based on the ability to deeply penetrate the thick bitumen-ruberoid carpet and restore his lost components and provide increased water resistance. Conclusion. The article can be introduced in practice of repair-refurbishable works of soft roofing covering of buildings and constructions.

  6. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  7. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  8. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Valorization of phosphogypsum waste as asphaltic bitumen modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadri, A A; Navarro, F J; García-Morales, M; Bolívar, J P

    2014-08-30

    The accumulation of phosphogypsum waste from the fertilizer industries, which remain in regulated stacks occupying considerable land resources, is causing significant environment problems worldwide. In that sense, the scientific community is being pressured to find alternative ways for their disposal. In this research, we propose a novel application for phosphogypsum waste, as a modifier of bitumen for flexible road pavements. Viscous flow tests carried out on bitumen modified with a phosphogypsum waste and doped with sulfuric acid demonstrated an extraordinary increase in viscosity, at 60°C, when compared to a counterpart sample which had been modified with gypsum, the main component of phosphogypsum. Similarly, a significant improvement in the viscoelastic response of the resulting material at high temperatures was also found. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) scans provided evidences of the existence of chemical reactions involving phosphorus, as revealed by a new absorption band from 1060 to 1180cm(-1), related to COP vibrations. This result points at phosphorus contained in the phosphogypsum impurities to be the actual "modifying" substance. Furthermore, no COP band was observed in the absence of sulfuric acid, which seems to be the "promoting" agent of this type of bond. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  11. Bitumen modified with recycled polyurethane foam for employment in hot mix asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Salas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of modifiers have been applied to bitumen in order to enhance their properties and performance. Among them, polymers have been mainly used. The aim of this paper is to assess the use of polyurethane foam waste as a bitumen modifier for hot mix asphalts. The polyurethane foam is a by-product of the manufacturing of polyurethane for thermal insulation. From a bitumen with a penetration grade of 50/70, various samples with percentages of waste material in weight ranging from 1% to 5% were produced and tested. Samples with 5% of waste material or more became rough and were refused due to their poor workability. A bituminous mixture with modified bitumen with a 4% of polyurethane was manufactured and compared with a sample with the same aggregates and original bitumen. Results in Marshall test showed that a mix with polymer modified bitumen yielded improvements in stability and a lower deformability. This result suggests that the employment of polyurethane foam waste is a promising bitumen modifier, contributing also to recycle waste materials.

  12. Alternatives for Benzene in the Extraction of Bitumen Fume from Exposure Sample Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Benjamin; Ravera, Christel; Hussard, Caroline; Langlois, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is frequently used to extract collected bitumen fumes from personal sampler substrates. However, this solvent is particularly dangerous because of its carcinogenicity (group 1 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification). Therefore, to prevent the exposure of laboratory technicians to benzene during the fume extraction step from samplers, a compromise had to be found to identify a less toxic solvent with the same extraction capacity. To compare the extraction capacities of selected solvents, bitumen fumes were generated in the laboratory from three different batches of road surfacing bitumen collected on dedicated bitumen fume samplers. The samplers were then extracted by benzene and the solvents tested. Of 11 selected solvents less toxic than benzene and used in studies on bitumen and bitumen fume analyses, n-hexane and n-heptane were identified as alternatives to benzene. In particular, the results demonstrated that n-heptane was the best candidate solvent for benzene replacement, due to its extraction efficiency comparable to benzene for the three bitumen fumes tested and its low toxicity, which is highly compatible with benzene replacement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  13. THE IMPROVEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION OF BITUMEN FOR THE ROAD PAVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Belova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The oil (artificial bitumens, got by conversion of the oil cheese, are broadly used in the road construction. The track record of the development road covering, studies, bound with improvement their characteristic and development of the competitions among technology is presented in this article.Methods. Nowdays the modern developments in the field of production bitumen road marks are implemented using such technological-go acceptance as chemical actuated heavy oil cheese, which principles are based on regulation of the energybetween molecular interactions and optimization their dimensionality, allowing raise quality bitumen.Results. Adjusting the depth of recovery of the oxidized product, it is possible to obtain different composition, plasticity and heat resistance of the bitumen. The residual bitumen obtained by two-stage oxidation with subsequent vacuum distillation of the oxidized product comply with GOST 60/90. Vacuum gas oil in the production of residual bitumen corresponds to the motor fuel for marine installations.Conclusion. Today, the bitumen production leaves on positions packed-valuable segment oil processing industry. The Main customer roads - a state. Herewith important role as ideologues of the development of the culture road construction plays the Federal road agency, supporting developing competition amongst leading technology. Introduction new technology at conversion remaining component oils, founded on do active cheese to account physical and chemical of the influence, with using the modern equipment, including equipment, using subject to influence effects, ultrasonic and electro-magnetic fields, and others, allows to get the qualitative road bitumens from majority of the oils, scanned earlier unfit for production bitumen.

  14. Wind-blown sandstones cemented by sulfate and clay minerals in Gale Crater, Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Milliken, R. E.; Ewing, Ryan C.; Fischer, W. W.; Hurowitz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Gale Crater contains Mount Sharp, a ~5km thick stratigraphic record of Mars’ early environmental history. The strata comprising Mount Sharp are believed to be sedimentary in origin, but the specific depositional environments recorded by the rocks remain speculative. We present orbital evidence for the occurrence of eolian sandstones within Gale Crater and the lower reaches of Mount Sharp, including preservation of wind-blown sand dune topography in sedimentary strata—a phenomenon ...

  15. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O.

    2013-01-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository

  16. Photo-grafting polymerization, microstructure and hydrophilicity of spun-blown polypropylene nonwoven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Shi, X.; Pan, Z.; Fang, Y.; Wu, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The non-polarity and poor hygroscopicity of polypropylene (PP) impede its wide application. The polar monomers, glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and methacrylamido propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MAPTAC) were grafted onto the spun-blown polypropylene nonwoven fabric (SMS) under ultraviolet irradiation, and the subsequent functionalization of the grafted fabrics was implemented as well. The results show that both the monomer and the polymer of HEMA are hydrophilic and are grafted uniformly onto the fabric surface as well as into the melt-blown layer with the hydrophilicity being enhanced slightly, whereas the hydrophilic monomer yet the hydrophobic polymer of MAPTAC prefer to be grafted onto the melt-blown fibre with the wicking effect. Both the monomer and the polymer of GMA are hydrophobic and are favourably grafted into the meltblown layer with no hydrophilicity being improved. The grafting diminishes the fibre crystallinity and melting temperature, especially significant for the graftings of hydrophobic polymers, PGMA and PMAPTAC. All the grafting reduces the water flux of the grafted fabrics no matter what the grafting polymers are hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity not.

  17. Statistical Investigation on Coherent Vortex Structure in Turbulent Drag Reducing Channel Flow with Blown Polymer Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitsuka, Shota; Motozawa, Masaaki; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Iwamoto, Kaoru; Ando, Hirotomo; Senda, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Coherent vortex structure in turbulent drag-reducing channel flow with blown polymer solution from the wall was investigated. As a statistical analysis, we carried out Galilean decomposition, swirling strength and linear stochastic estimation of the PIV data obtained by the PIV measurement in x – y plane. Reynolds number based on bulk velocity and channel height was set to 40000. As a result, the angle of shear layer that cleared up by using Galilean decomposition becomes small in the drag-reducing flow. Q3 events were observed near the shear layer. In addition, as a result of linear stochastic estimation (LSE) based on swirling strength, we confirmed that the velocity under the vortex core is strong in the water flow. This result shows Q2 (ejection) are dominant in the water flow. However, in the drag-reducing flow with blown polymer solution, the velocity above the vortex core become strong, that is, Q4 (sweep) events are relatively strong around the vortex core. This is the result of Q4 events to come from the channel center region because the polymer solution does not exist in this region. The typical structure like this was observed in the drag -reducing flow with blown polymer solution from the wall.

  18. Bitumen rubber asphalt mix testing for South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd has entered into a research and laboratory testing agreement with the CSIR to support the revision of the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). The research includes characterising a bitumen...

  19. Characterization and Behavior of Cold Lake Blend and Western Canadian Select Diluted Bitumen Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unconventional diluted bitumen (dilbit) oil products present an increasing environmental concern because of extensive transport in North America, recent spills into aquatic habitats, and limited understanding of environmental fate and toxicity. Dilbits are blends of highly weathe...

  20. High temperature transformation of tar-asphaltene components of oil sand bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanbayev Yerzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of high-molecular-weight compounds of oil sand natural bitumen under the heat treatment were studied in this work. For that purpose the natural bitumen isolated from oil sand taken from the Beke field (Kazakhstan was used as a substrate. Thermal processing of natural bitumen leads to a general change in the chemical composition of components and to an increase in the output of certain fractions. The contents of oil, tar and asphaltenes were determined and the elemental composition of tar-asphaltene compounds was evaluated. Molecular structures of the tar and asphaltene components of natural bitumen before and after cracking have been defined from the data of elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and molecular weight. The high molecular compounds were presented as giant molecules containing small aromatic islands some of which were linked by aliphatic chains, that was proved by infrared spectroscopy.

  1. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  2. Structural Evolution of Kerogen and Bitumen during Thermal Maturation examined by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, P. R.; Le Doan, T. V.; Pomerantz, A.

    2014-12-01

    Kerogen—the organic matter that is solid and insoluble in organic solvents—is a key component of organic-rich mudstones. The composition of kerogen affects the storage and transport of hydrocarbons in these unconventional resources and is known to change with thermal maturity. We report here using FTIR spectroscopy, the compositional characteristics of kerogen as a function of thermal maturity, together with the compositional characteristics of the organic phase, bitumen—the organic matter that is solid, but soluble in organic solvents. Kerogen is consumed during thermal maturation, whereas bitumen is an intermediary formed at low maturity from kerogen and consumed at higher maturities in formation of oil and gas. Bitumen relative to kerogen has higher aliphatic content, lower aromatic content, and lower abundance of oxygenated functions. At low maturity (vitrinite reflectance equivalent VRe ~ 0.5-0.9 %), the average length of aliphatic chains in bitumen increases during bitumen formation. At higher thermal maturities (VRe > 1.0-1.3 %), average aliphatic chain length decreases as bitumen is consumed. This evolution contrasts to that in kerogen, where aliphatic chain lengths shorten during all stages of maturation. Breakdown of kerogen appears to be driven by cleavage of oxygen functions at low maturity and removal of aliphatic carbons at higher maturities. These aliphatic-rich fragments may comprise the bitumen, and may in part explain the solubility of bitumen in organic solvents. Bitumen shows evidence of oxidation at low thermal maturity, a phenonemom not documented for kerogen. Bitumen maturation and degradation at higher thermal maturity is driven by cleavage and loss of aliphatic carbons, and is coincident with the maximum generation of oil and gas. The aromatic content of bitumen and of kerogen both increase during maturation as a consequence of the loss of aliphatic carbon. The oil and gas generation potential of the residual organic matter thus

  3. A study of the natural bitumen of the Mariel deposit (Republic of Cuba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platanov, V.V.; Ivleva, L.N.; Kalyavina, O.A.; Tabolenko, N.V.; Valdes, J.C.; Vol-Epsthein, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    The bitumen of the Mariel deposit, province of Havana, Republic of Cuba, and the products of its ozonolysis and thermal degradation have been studied by a group of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been shown that the organic part of the bitumen has an aromatic polycondensed structure with mainly short alkyl substituents and ketone, ester, phenol, and quinoid functional groups together with organic sulfur and nitrogen.

  4. High temperature air-blown woody biomass gasification model for the estimation of an entrained down-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobusuke; Tanaka, Miku; Piao, Guilin; Kobayashi, Jun; Hatano, Shigenobu; Itaya, Yoshinori; Mori, Shigekatsu

    2009-01-01

    A high temperature air-blown gasification model for woody biomass is developed based on an air-blown gasification experiment. A high temperature air-blown gasification experiment on woody biomass in an entrained down-flow gasifier is carried out, and then the simple gasification model is developed based on the experimental results. In the experiment, air-blown gasification is conducted to demonstrate the behavior of this process. Pulverized wood is used as the gasification fuel, which is injected directly into the entrained down-flow gasifier by the pulverized wood banner. The pulverized wood is sieved through 60 mesh and supplied at rates of 19 and 27kg/h. The oxygen-carbon molar ratio (O/C) is employed as the operational condition instead of the air ratio. The maximum temperature achievable is over 1400K when the O/C is from 1.26 to 1.84. The results show that the gas composition is followed by the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. Therefore, the air-blown gasification model is developed based on the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. The simple gasification model agrees well with the experimental results. From calculations in large-scale units, the cold gas is able to achieve 80% efficiency in the air-blown gasification, when the woody biomass feedrate is over 1000kg/h and input air temperature is 700K.

  5. Effect of black rice husk ash on the physical and rheological properties of bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romastarika, Raissa; Jaya, Ramadhansyah Putra; Yaacob, Haryati; Nazri, Fadzli Mohamed; Agussabti, Ichwana, Jayanti, Dewi Sri

    2017-08-01

    Black rice husk ash (BRHA) waste product is inexpensive and can be obtained from rice mills. Reuse of waste product is ideal to reduce pollution, because disposal is decreased or eliminated. The commercial value of BRHA has increased, and it is suitable for use in road construction. In this study, BRHA waste was ground using a grinding ball mill for 120 min to form fine powder. BRHA was then sieved to less than 75 µm. At the laboratory, BRHA was mixed with bitumen to replace 2%, 4%, and 6% of the total weight, whereas 0% represented the control sample. The penetration, softening point, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and rolling thin film oven (RTFO) were investigated in this study. Results showed that bitumen became harder, whereas the rate of penetration decreased when the replacement amount of BRHA increased. Softening point test of bitumen also revealed an increase. The short-term aging test revealed that modification of bitumen could relieve the effect of aging. BRHA waste added into bitumen improved the performance of bitumen. Therefore, the usage of BRHA could help improve the performance of road pavement and reduce the rutting effect.

  6. Bitumen casting of 14 C contaminated ion exchangers in view of final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsene, C.; Negoiu, D.

    2001-01-01

    After Cernavoda NPP commissioning in the frame of radioactive waste management the important issue of processing the ion organic resin exchangers occurred. This waste, generated in different processes of water purification, represents a source of low and intermediate level activity. 14 C occurs in important amounts during the purification of the moderator and transport primary circuit. To secure the environmental safety 14 C contaminating the ion exchangers must be immobilized into a monolithic block of cement, bitumen or organic polymers. Our studies indicated as optimal the immobilization in Romanian 160-70 type bitumen. The barrel containing the immobilized waste in bitumen is then cast in concrete into a stainless steel container. In this work the following stages were achieved: - establishing the technological process of 14 C contaminated ion exchangers conditioning; - conceiving, designing and building the pilot installation for 14 C contaminated ion exchangers conditioning; - conducting experiments of immobilization of the resins used in bitumen on the pilot installation to establish the optimal parameters of installation's operation; - choosing a method of retaining 14 C released in the bitumen incorporation process, in a material able of total absorption; - leaching studies on the bitumen-resin and cement-bituminated resin to determine the 14 C leaching rate

  7. Blown Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan

    2014-04-01

    On Aug. 13, 2011, at 8:45 p.m. country music fans were eagerly awaiting the band Sugarland to make its entry onto the main stage at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. Also competing for the fans' attention was an approaching storm. Sugarland never made their entrance. At 8:49 p.m. the stage rigging was hit by 59 mile/h (94 km/h) winds causing it to collapse, killing seven people and injuring 58. A simplified facsimile model of this collapse is presented here that can be used as a case study in applying fundamental physics concepts appropriate for an introductory class. It is a forensic physics/engineering investigation. Afterwards, key aspects of the actual investigation will be presented.

  8. Blown Away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    The number of students killed or injured by gunfire while at schools is increasing. The National Rifle Association, the nation's powerful gun lobby, has a gun safety program; however, children's advocates say stricter gun-control laws are necessary. Briefly cites 24 gun incidents and describes 4 semiautomatic pistols that were among the firearms…

  9. Improvement of compatibility and stability on polyethylene-modified bitumen by use of an aromatic extra as compatibilizer.

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Paez, Antonio; Sánchez Caba, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Bitumen modification by polyethylene addition usually improves the mechanical properties of the binder and, therefore, the behavior in service of the bituminous mix: thermal susceptibility and rutting can be diminished, whilst the resistance to low temperature cracking may increase. To achieve this improvement it is necessary a good compatibility between the base bitumen and the polyethylene. Low compatibility between bitumen and polyethylene can lead to phase separation: the polymer- asph...

  10. Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (% and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1. The results of Vb (%, LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.

  11. Mechanical behavior and essential work of fracture of starch-based blown films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottez, M.; Chaki, S.; Soulestin, J.; Lacrampe, M. F.; Krawczak, P.

    2015-05-01

    A fracture mechanics approach (Essential Work of Fracture, EWF) was applied to assess the toughness of novel partly starch-grafted polyolefin blown films, compared to that of a neat polyethylene reference. Tests were performed on double-end notched samples. The digital image correlation method was used to monitor the deformation field around the notch. Regular tensile and tear tests were also carried out. The specific essential work of fracture is a characteristic which is much more sensitive to materials structural modifications than the tensile or tear properties.

  12. Design of SBS-Modified Bitumen Stabilizer Powder Based on the Vulcanization Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the problem of the bad thermal storage stability of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene Block Copolymer Modified Bitumen (SBS-modified bitumen, the vulcanization reaction was selected as the basic mechanism for the research and development of the stabilizer. Sulfur, tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD, zinc oxide, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, kaolin (Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O and carbon-white (SiO2 were used as raw materials, and 32 kinds of components with different contents of raw materials were designed. The 48-h segregation softening point and other modified bitumen technical indicators, such as ductility, penetration, penetration index, viscosity, and so on, were tested and analyzed. The fluorescence microscope test was also conducted to explore the crosslinking situation based on the vulcanization reaction. The results show that the component with good performance of the SBS-modified bitumen stabilizer powder was S:TMTD:ZnO:BHT: Al2O3·2SiO2·2H2O = 60:16:4:20:1250 or S:TMTD:ZnO:BHT:SiO2 = 60:16:4:20:625. The optimum content of stabilizer powder was 0.9% (S/modified bitumen. The stabilizer was dry powder and can be directly put into bitumen. It can cross-link SBS and especially has an effect on preventing SBS segregation. The technical performance of SBS-modified bitumen with stabilizer powder, such as hot temperature performance, low temperature performance, anti-aging performance and thermal storage stability, all meet the relevant specifications.

  13. Analysis of disperse bitumens of the Western Harz and their geological interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, H.; Stoppel, D.; Wehner, H.

    1981-05-01

    The study of dispersed solid bitumens can yield information about the migration course of liquid hydrocarbons. The 45 samples come from 6 locations. They have been investigated by a new micro-photometry method and, partly, by organic-geochemical methods. Material found in fissures in the Wolfshagen diabase quarry shows the highest degree of bitumen metamorphism, it is a cata-impsonite. The most important source of solid to semisolid bitumens in the Harz Mountains is the Devonian reef limestone at Bad Grund. Two different stages of metamorphism occur there, (a) epi- and meso-impsonite and (b) asphalt, gilsonite, glance pitch. Impsonite in the transition range between meso- and cata-impsonite was demonstrated in the ''Adlersberg 1'' borehole near the town of Wildemann. Grahamite, albertite, and epi-impsonite intermediate bitumens are found sporadically in ore veins of the Western Harz (Grund mine). Meso-impsonite occurs, paragenetically associated with stratiform siliceous hematitic iron ore, in the diabase zone of the Upper Harz (= Oberharzer Diabaszug) near Lerbach. Some albertite is found together with other minerals in fissures in Tanne greywacke (Upper Devonian) in a quarry between Bad Lauterberg and Scharzfeld. The present investigations have demonstrated that traces of bitumen are sufficient to make concrete statements about its provenance and degree of metamorphism. But these bitumens cannot be used instead of vitrinite to analyze the degree of coalification. In the Western Harz, bitumens were found with reflectance values from <0.01 to 4.1% i. e. from asphalt to cata-impsonite. Samples of the Bad Grund reef limestone contain both gilsonite or asphalt and impsonite. Hence, two migration phases of petroleum have to be assumed for parts of the Western Harz.

  14. Effect of Waste Plastic as Bitumen Modified in Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohd Ezree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to investigate the engineering properties of the asphalt mixtures containing waste plastic at different percentages i.e. 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% by weight of bitumen. The experimental tests performed in the study were stability, tensile strength, resilient modulus and dynamic creep test. Results showed that the mixture with 4% plastic has the highest stability (184kN. However, the stability slightly decreases with the increase of plastic additive. On the other hand, the highest tensile strength among the modified asphaltic concrete is 1049kPa (8% plastic added. The modified asphalt mixture with 8% plastic has the highest resilient modulus, which is 3422 MPa (25°C and 494Mpa (40°C. Where the highest creep modulus recorded is 73.30Mpa at 8% plastic added. It can be concluded that the addition of 8% plastic gave the highest value properties of asphalt mixture. Finally, it can be said that 8% plastic is the optimum value adding.

  15. Polymer and bitumen modified OPC for the immobilisation of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.; Worrall, G.; Phillips, D.C.

    1986-05-01

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer:cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for 137 Cs, are obtained at p:c >= 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  16. Polymer-Modified Bitumen Production Based on Performance Grade for Application in Different Zones of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shahabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to performance grade  PG zonation of different parts in Iran and poor properties of 60/70 penetration grade bitumens for pavement applications, suitable  polymer modifed  bitumen was  produced.  To  fulfll  this  purpose, different PMBs samples were produced using 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and  various  percentages  of VB  (20  and  25%, with  different  percentages  of  SBS Calprene C501  (  4,  4.5,  5  and  5.5%,  in  a  high  shear  homogenizer  in  1  h mixing time at 160°C temperature. To determine the performance grade, aging effect, low temperature performance and rheological properties such as evaluation of rutting and fatigue factors some SHRPs measurements DSR, RV, RTFOT, PAV and BBR were conducted. The results showed that the sample with 5.5% SBS with 20 and 25% VB, at high temperatures presented good properties such as: the best performance grade 76°C, the highest resistance and elastic behavior in comparison with the other samples. These samples were subjected to rutting and fatigue tests for both aged bitumen in RTFOT and unaged bitumen. The results indicated that adding SBS to bitumen could not improve the performance at low temperatures, compared to 60/70 grade  bitumen,  but  it  did  improve  the  properties  of  polymer-modifed  bitumen  at similar  low  temperature (-18°C. So, samples with 4, 4.5 and 5% SBS with 20 and 25% VB, are suitable to be applied in provinces which 60/70 grade bitumens are not suitable. In some provinces such as Khoozestan, with a PG of 76, the compositions  with 5.5% SBS with 20 and 25% VB, are found to be suitable.

  17. Quantitative temperature-depending mapping of mechanical properties of bitumen at the nanoscale using the AFM operated with PeakForce TappingTM mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Stadler, H.; Erina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bitumen, such as elasticity/Young's modulus, stickiness/adhesion, hardness and energy loss, and sample deformation were acquired quantitatively and simultaneously with the topology at the microscale, discriminating clearly two separate phases within the bitumen.

  18. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Production of petroleum bitumen by oxidation of heavy oil residue with sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileuberdi, Ye.; Akkazyn, Ye. A.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Mansurov, Z. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper production of bitumen adding elemental sulfur at oxidation of oil residue are investigated. The objects of research were distilled residue of Karazhanbas crude oil and elemental sulfur. These oil residue characterized by a low output of easy fractions and the high content of tar-asphaltene substances, therefore is the most comprehensible feedstock for producing bitumen. The sulfur is one of the oil product collected in oil extraction regions. Oxidation process of hydrocarbons carried out at temperatures from 180 up to 210 °С without addition of sulfur and with the addition of sulfur (5-10 wt. %) for 4 hours. At 200 °С oxidation of hydrocarbons with 5, 7 and 10 wt.% sulfur within 3-4 h allows receiving paving bitumen on the mark BND 200/300, BND 130/200, BN 90/130 and BN 70/30. Physical and mechanical characteristics of oxidation products with the addition of 5-7 wt. % sulfur corresponds to grade of paving bitumen BND 40/60. At the given temperature oxidized for 2.5-3 h, addition of 10 wt. % sulfur gave the products of oxidation describing on parameters of construction grades of bitumen (BN 90/10).

  20. Estimation of diffusion coefficients in bitumen solvent mixtures as derived from low field NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.; Bryan, J.; Kantzas, A.

    2005-01-01

    Use of solvents for the extraction of heavy oil and bitumen appears to be an increasingly feasible technology. Both vapour extraction and direct solvent injection are considered for conventional exploration and production schemes, while solvent dilution of bitumen is a standard technique in oil sands mining. Mass transfer between solvent and bitumen is a poorly understood process. In some cases, it is totally ignored compared to viscous force effects. In other cases, phenomenological estimations of diffusion and dispersion coefficients are used. Low field NMR has been used successfully in determining both solvent content and viscosity reduction in heavy oil and bitumen mixtures with various solvents. As a solvent comes into contact with a heavy oil or bitumen sample, the mobility of hydrogen bearing molecules of both solvent and oil changes. These changes are detectable through changes in the NMR relaxation characteristics of both solvent and oil. Relaxation changes can then be correlated to mass flux and concentration changes. Based on Fick's Second Law, a diffusion coefficient, which is independent of concentration, was calculated against three oils and six solvents. (author)

  1. Effect of Recycled Waste Polymers, Natural Bitumen and HVS Cut on the Properties of Vacuum Bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Rasoulzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neat bitumen, an oil refining by-product, has its own inherent weakness under long-time loading at low and high temperatures. These performance limitations of neat bitumen have led researchers to modify its physical andmechanical properties. According to several studies, polymers can be used to modify the properties of bitumen. Due to much lower production costs and aiming to reduce environmental impacts, recycled waste polymers are preferred as compared with virgin polymers. In this study, the effect of recycled waste polymers including crumb rubber modifier (CRM, polyethylene and latex and non-polymeric materials such as natural bitumen (NB and heavy vacuum slops (HVS cut on physical and mechanical properties of vacuum bottom residue (VB of crude oil distillation was investigat-ed. Based on the results, recycled waste polyethylene and NB can improve the performance grade of VB at high temperatures and CRM, latex and HVS can improve the performance grade of VB at low temperatures. Thus, by designing various blends of these additives with VB, different modified bitumens can be directly obtained from VB without any need to air-blowing process.

  2. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.A.; Wilson, J.; Mawditt, J.M.; Hurt, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals incorporating adjacent blocks of swelling clay and bitumen. It is shown that the interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents water penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. A review of the swelling properties of highly compacted bentonite and magnesium oxide is presented, and the characteristic sealing properties of bituminous materials are described. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that bentonite is the preferred candidate material for use in composite clay/bitumen seals for intermediate-level radioactive waste repositories. However, it is thought that magnesium oxide may have other sealing applications for high-level waste repositories. A programme of laboratory experiments is described in which relevant swelling and intrusion properties of highly compacted bentonite blocks and the annealing characteristics of oxidised and hard-grade industrial bitumens are examined. The results of composite sealing experiments involving different water penetration routes are reported, and factors governing the mechanism of self-sealing are described. The validation of the sealing concept at a laboratory scale indicates that composite bentonite/bitumen seals could form highly effective barriers for the containment of radioactive wastes. Accordingly, recommendations are made concerning the development of the research, including the implementation of full-scale demonstration experiments to simulate conditions in an underground repository. 13 tabs., 41 figs., 62 refs

  3. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  4. Monitoring the petroleum bitumen characteristics changes during their interaction with the polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, P. S.; Mishchenko, S. V.; Belyaev, V. P.; Frolov, V. A.

    2017-08-01

    The subject of the study is the characteristics (penetration, softening temperature, ductility and elasticity) of a road binder based on petroleum bitumen. The work purpose is to monitor the changes in the characteristics of petroleum bitumen when it interacting with polymers: thermoplastic elastomer, low-density polyethylene, including the adhesive additive presence. To carry out the research a special laboratory facility was designed and manufactured with two blade mixers providing intensive turbulent mixing and the possibility to effect on the transition process of combining the components in a polymer-bitumen binder. To construct a mathematical model of the polymer-bitumen binder characteristics dependence from the composition, methods of statistical experiments planning were used. The possibility of the expensive thermoplastic elastomers replacement with polyethylene is established while maintaining acceptable polymer-bitumen binder quality parameters. The obtained results are proposed for use in road construction. They allow to reduce the roads construction cost with solving the problem of recycling long-term waste packaging from polyethylene.

  5. Characteristics of flue gases and ash in oxygen-blown pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Hasatan, M. [Nagoya University, Aichi (Japan). EcoTopia Science Institute

    2007-07-15

    A new coal combustion technology for a large-scale power plant is required to be applicable to various kinds of coal. An oxygen-blown pulverized coal combustion experiment was investigated with a bench scale apparatus to understand such characteristics as the combustion efficiency, NOx concentration, conversion from fuel-N, the unburned fraction and composition of mineral matter in the collected ash. The experiment was conducted in a down-fired, cylindrical and vertical furnace. The primary oxygen is injected into the ejector to carry coal particles to the burner, and the swirled secondary one is fed through an annulus. The CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas was much higher than that of air-coal combustion, and the value was eight out of ten. The results made a feasible condition for CO{sub 2} separation and sequestration. The NOx emission was ranged in concentrations from 1650 to 1800 ppm in the complete combustion region. The NOx concentration was much higher, however the NO, conversion ratio was about the same level as the case of air combustion. The decrease of low-boiling component such as Na, Mg, K and Ca was identified because the flame temperature of the oxygen-blown coal combustion was achieved about 3000 K. We suggested the vaporized calcium components in the fly ash have a potential of the furnace desulfurization and the effect of SOx attack to the heat exchanger was inhibited.

  6. High melt strength, tear resistant blown film based on poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Neil R.; Plimmer, Peter N.; Tanner, Chris

    2015-05-01

    A major problem associated with the commercial manufacture of thin films from PLA is inferior processing characteristics on blown film lines compared to low density polyethylene. PLA has poor melt strength (leading to bubble instability) and develops a permanent crease in the flattened film as it exits the tower of the film line. In addition, the thin film product has poor tear strength and an unacceptable `noise' level when converted into flexible packaging. Furthermore, fabricated articles based on PLA are known to show an unattractive tendency toward dimensional instability. This behaviour is associated with `cold crystallization', a phenomenon which also causes exudation of any plasticizer added for improving flexibility. Blow moulded articles based on PLA also exhibit dimensional sensitivity above 60°C. All of these issues have been overcome by the technology described in this paper. This has been accomplished without loss of the valuable compostability characteristic of PLA; this was confirmed by evaluation of film in a commercial composting operation. These results have been achieved through novel reactive compounding technology which: (a) Creates a PLA-rich structure containing long chain crosslinks, (b) generates a low glass transition temperature phase covalently bonded to the PLA structure, and (c) provides a material which performs like LDPE in a blown film manufacturing operation. The technology developed is covered by NZ Patent 580231 (3). The patent is held by UniServices Ltd, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

  7. Bio-Based Polyols from Seed Oils for Water-Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foam Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Ekkaphan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of water-blown rigid polyurethane (RPUR foams using bio-based polyols from sesame seed oil and pumpkin seed oil has been reported. Polyols synthesis involved two steps, namely, hydroxylation and alcoholysis reaction. FTIR, NMR, and ESI-MS were used to monitor the process of the synthesized polyols and their physicochemical properties were determined. The resulting polyols have OH number in the range of 340–351 mg KOH/g. RPUR foams blown with water were produced from the reaction of biopolyols with commercial polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI. The proper PUR formulations can be manipulated to produce the desired material applications. These seed oil-based RPUR foams exhibited relatively high compressive strength (237.7–240.2 kPa with the density in the range of 40–45 kg/m3. Additionally, the cell foam morphology investigated by scanning electron microscope indicated that their cellular structure presented mostly polygonal closed cells. The experimental results demonstrate that these bio-based polyols can be used as an alternative starting material for RPUR production.

  8. Influence of microcrystalline cellulose in thermoplastic starch/polyester blown films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract This work investigated the influence of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC in thermoplastic starch/poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate films produced by blown extrusion, using different MCC contents (4, 7 and 10 g.100 g-1. The films were characterised for their mechanical, structural and barrier properties. Increasing fibres concentration reduced the tensile strength (6.9 to 4.6 MPa, the elongation at break (568 to 147% and weight loss in water (12.8 to 11.1% of the films. The rigidity of the films increased from 19.8 MPa (without MCC to 79.2 MPa in the samples with 10 g.100 g-1 of MCC. SEM images showed the occurrence of some agglomerates in this sample. The water vapour permeability of the films was not affected by the presence of MCC. The production of starch/PBAT/MCC films by blown extrusion was successful; however some adjustments are necessary to improve the dispersion of the particles at the polymeric matrix.

  9. Measuring Density Profiles of Electrons and Heavy Particles in a Stable Axially Blown Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, J.; Stoller, P.; Galletti, B.; Doiron, C. B.; Sokolov, A.

    2017-08-01

    Two-color spatial carrier wave interferometry employing pulsed 532- and 671-nm lasers is used to measure the electron-density and heavy-particle-density profiles in the stagnation point of a stable, axially blown arc in argon for currents of 50 to 200 A and stagnation point pressures of 0.2 to 16 bar. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the free-electron contribution to the refractive index depends strongly on the wavelength, while that of the heavy particles does not. The high spatial resolution achieved allows the hot core of the arc to be readily distinguished from the surrounding boundary layer. A custom-built test device is used to ensure flow conditions that lead to a stable, axisymmetric arc; this permits the reconstruction of the density and temperature profiles using a single projection (interferometric image) of the refractive-index distribution through the arc (at two wavelengths). The arc radius determined from the heavy-particle density decreases with increasing stagnation pressure and increases with the current. These measurements are in good agreement with a simple axially blown arc model taking into account Ohmic heating, radiation losses, and enthalpy flow for core temperatures of approximately 16 500 K. The measured electron density at the center of the arc agrees well with a prediction based on local thermodynamic equilibrium.

  10. Review on fiber morphology obtained by bubble electrospinning and blown bubble spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we show an intriguing phenomenon in the bubble electrospinning process that the ruptured film might be stripped upwards by an electronic force to form a very thin and long plate-like strip, which might been received in the metal receiver as discontinuous backbone-like wrinkled materials, rather than smooth nano-fibers or microspheres. The processes are called the bubble electrospinning. The electronic force can be replaced by a blowing air, and the process is called as the blown bubble spinning. We demonstrate that the size and thickness of the ruptured film are the crucial parameters that are necessary to understand the various observations including beads and nanoporous materials. We identify the conditions required for a ruptured film to form discontinuous structure, and a critical width of the ruptured film to form a cylindrical fiber, above which a long and thin plate-like strip might be obtained, and a criterion for oscillatory jet diameter, which leads to bead morphology of the obtained fibers. The space of the adjacent beads depends on the fiber size. We anticipate our assay to be a starting point for more sophisticated study of the bubble electrospinning and the blown bubble spinning and for mass-production of both nanofibers and nanoscale discontinuous materials.

  11. Modification of an Amposta origin bitumen by using tlie Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluyiene-2,4-diisocyanate

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this works, we have modified a bitumen from Amposta by using the Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of aluminium trichloride, presenting as well as the characteristics of the original bitumen as the ones of the modification products. We have made technological test, aging of thin film, rheological test, thermical susceptibility and components analyses.

  12. A study of certain properties of bitumen compounds which determine the conditions for their storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhikharev, M.I.; Zakharova, K.P.; Polyakov, A.S.; Sobolev, I.A.

    1983-01-01

    The extent to which solidified radioactive waste is securely isolated in a repository is determined by the hydrogeological conditions at the site, the impermeability to water of the engineered barriers and the properties of the waste being stored. The main causes of radionuclide migration may include inadequate impermeability, explosion, fire or changes in the properties of the materials during storage. Radiation or microbiological processes may give rise to changes in the properties of the compounds. This paper sets forth the results of a study of the biological stability of bitumen compounds, the risk of explosion of bitumen compounds in storage, the fire hazard associated with the production and storage of bitumen compounds, and the possibility of extinguishing fires. (author)

  13. Waste reduction algorithm used as the case study of simulated bitumen production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste reduction algorithm - WAR is a tool helping process engineers for environmental impact assessment. WAR algorithm is a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI of a chemical process. In particular, the bitumen production process was analyzed following three stages: a atmospheric distillation unit, b vacuum distillation unit, and c bitumen production unit. Study was developed for the middle sized oil refinery with capacity of 5000000 tones of crude oil per year. Results highlight the most vulnerable aspects of the environmental pollution that arise during the manufacturing process of bitumen. The overall rates of PEI leaving the system (PEI/h - Iout PEI/h are: a 2.14105, b 7.17104 and c 2.36103, respectively. The overall rates of PEI generated within the system - Igen PEI/h are: a 7.75104, b -4.31104 and c -4.32102, respectively. Atmospheric distillation unit have the highest overall rate of PEI while the bitumen production unit have the lowest overall rate of PEI. Comparison of Iout PEI/h and Igen PEI/h values for the atmospheric distillation unit, shows that the overall rate of PEI generated in the system is 36.21% of the overall rate of PEI leaving the system. In the cases of vacuum distillation and bitumen production units, the overall rate of PEI generated in system have negative values, i.e. the overall rate of PEI leaving the system is reduced at 60.11% (in the vacuum distillation unit and at 18.30% (in the bitumen production unit. Analysis of the obtained results for the overall rate of PEI, expressed by weight of the product, confirms conclusions.

  14. Water-Blown Polyurethane Foams Showing a Reversible Shape-Memory Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zharinova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Water-blown polyurethane (PU foams are of enormous technological interest as they are widely applied in various fields, i.e., consumer goods, medicine, automotive or aerospace industries. The discovery of the one-way shape-memory effect in PU foams provided a fresh impetus for extensive investigations on porous polymeric actuators over the past decades. High expansion ratios during the shape-recovery are of special interest when big volume changes are required, for example to fill an aneurysm during micro-invasive surgery or save space during transportation. However, the need to program the foams before each operation cycle could be a drawback impeding the entry of shape-memory polymeric (SMP foams to our daily life. Here, we showed that a reversible shape-memory effect (rSME is achievable for polyurethane water-blown semicrystalline foams. We selected commercially available crystallizable poly(ε-caprolactone-diols of different molecular weight for foams synthesis, followed by investigations of morphology, thermal, thermomechanical and shape-memory properties of obtained compositions. Densities of synthesized foams varied from 110 to 180 kg∙m−3, while peak melting temperatures were composition-dependent and changed from 36 to 47 °C, while the melting temperature interval was around 15 K. All semicrystalline foams exhibited excellent one-way SME with shape-fixity ratios slightly above 100% and shape-recovery ratios from the second cycle of 99%. The composition with broad distribution of molecular weights of poly(ε-caprolactone-diols exhibited an rSME of about 12% upon cyclic heating and cooling from Tlow = 10 °C and Thigh = 47 °C. We anticipate that our experimental study opens a field of systematic investigation of rSMEs in porous polymeric materials on macro and micro scale and extend the application of water-blown polyurethane foams to, e.g., protective covers with zero thermal expansion or even cushions adjustable to a certain body

  15. Morphology, Microstructure and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Pasargad Bitumen, Modified by Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (EVA and Nanoclay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Ghaempour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the characteristics such as flexibility, adhesion, hydrophobicity and low price, bitumen is used in different construction and insulation industries. The major problem with the bitumen material is its restricted physico-mechanical properties, mainly high temperature rutting and low temperature cracking. The aim of this work was to modify bitumen, produced in Tabriz Pasargad Oil Company, and evaluation of its different properties to make it suitable for the weather conditions of North West of Iran. The physico-mechanical, morphological and rheological characteristics of EVA/Cloisite 15A modified bitumen were studied.Two different feeding instructions were used in the mixing of bitumen with modifiers.In the first method, EVA and Cloisite 15A nanoclay were simultaneously added into the molten bitumen and in the second method, EVA and Cloisite 15A were premixed in an internal mixer before adding the polymer/nanoclay nanocomposite into the molten bitumen. The results showed that addition of nanoclay and polymer into the bitumen, led increased softening point and a decrease in the penetration of base bitumen, in which the extent of changes, was higher for the samples prepared by masterbatch method. The rheological properties of the pre-mixed samples exhibited more improvement and these samples showed more elastic behavior. The results of optical microscopy showed that the pre-mixing of polymer and nanoclay led to a more uniform distribution of the swollen polymer phase at the base bitumen. These samples also showed higher morphology stability than those samples prepared in single step. These effects were related to the probable localization of nanoclay at the interface of the two phases.

  16. Remarkable preservation of microfossils and biofilms in mesoproterozoic silicified bitumen concretions from Northern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Huajian

    2017-01-01

    Prokaryotes, often generally referred to as “bacteria,” are the original and thus oldest life on Earth. They have shaped the chemical environment of the Earth, but they are difficult to find as ancient fossils due to their subtle structure. Here we report well-preserved fossilized microbial...... communities in silicified bitumen concretions from unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation (1.39 Ga) in northern China. The numerous silicified bitumen concretions are in a variety of forms including ellipsoidal, spindle, and pancake ones, with diameters of 1~16 cm and thicknesses of 0.5~3 cm. The principal planes...

  17. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, J.A.; Wilson, J.; Mawditt, J.M.; Hurt, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals comprising juxtaposed blocks of highly compacted bentonite clay and bitumen. It is shown that interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents weather penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. Factors affecting seal performance are examined by means of laboratory experiments, and implications for the design of repository backfilling and sealing systems are discussed. It is concluded that design principles and material specifications should be further developed on the basis of large scale experiments. (author)

  18. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2002-01-01

    % of the mass of airborne particulate tire debris have aerodynamic diameters smaller than 1 mum. The mean aerodynamic diameter is about I gm for the bitumen particles. This size range enables the possibility for far range transport and inhalation by humans. Soil concentrations in the vicinity of a highway...... indicate an approximate exponential decrease with increasing distance from the road. Constant values are reached after about 5 m for the tire particles and 10 m for the bitumen particles. Concentrations in soil that has not been touched for at least 30 years show a decrease in tire concentration...

  19. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  20. “Fringes blown by the wind”: High Hopes for Expanded Consciousness in Benjamin and Brecht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Hawley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fringes blown by the wind”: High Hopes for Expanded Consciousness in Benjamin and Brecht by Lauren Hawley. This article takes up destabilized notions of intoxication in order to refigure “sobriety” as a narcotized state of conventionality and intoxication as the means of awakening. Hawley argues that both Walter Benjamin and Bertolt Brecht use intoxication in order to achieve “euphoric expansion.” In this analysis, intoxication is no longer seen as a narcotized state into which one escapes from reality, but rather as a means of disrupting dangerous, “narcotized” habits of mind. Rather than producing an escapist comfort, intoxication creates discomfort, which can then “enhance one’s receptivity to thoughts, feelings, ideas, and objects that regimented patterns of consciousness tend to repress.”

  1. Wind-blown sandstones cemented by sulfate and clay minerals in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, R. E.; Ewing, R. C.; Fischer, W. W.; Hurowitz, J.

    2014-02-01

    Gale Crater contains Mount Sharp, a ~5 km thick stratigraphic record of Mars' early environmental history. The strata comprising Mount Sharp are believed to be sedimentary in origin, but the specific depositional environments recorded by the rocks remain speculative. We present orbital evidence for the occurrence of eolian sandstones within Gale Crater and the lower reaches of Mount Sharp, including preservation of wind-blown sand dune topography in sedimentary strata—a phenomenon that is rare on Earth and typically associated with stabilization, rapid sedimentation, transgression, and submergence of the land surface. The preserved bedforms in Gale are associated with clay minerals and elsewhere accompanied by typical dune cross stratification marked by bounding surfaces whose lateral equivalents contain sulfate salts. These observations extend the range of possible habitable environments that may be recorded within Gale Crater and provide hypotheses that can be tested in situ by the Curiosity rover payload.

  2. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaimov Nikolay A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI. The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR BLOWN BY WARM AIR HAND DRYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recai OÐUR; Omer Faruk TEKBAS; Osman HANCI; Umut OZCAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of air blown from warm air hand dryers, and to compare findings with the microbiological characteristics of indoor air in which the dryer settled. Air samples was taken from different public places (shopping centers, restaurants and hospitals and investigated for total viable counts, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and enteric pathogens. There were differences between sampling indoor places for some of the microorganisms, but all of the air samples taken from dryers contained more microorganisms than indoor air, and the differences between hand dryers and indoor air were statistically significant (p<0.05 except for enteric pathogens. As a result it could be said that warm air hand dryers could be microbiological contamination sources in restrooms or the other places that they are used. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 1-7

  4. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, Nikolay A.; Ryzhkov, Alexander F.

    2017-10-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE) and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C) steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  5. Unicystic plexiform ameloblastoma with mural proliferation: a full-blown lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchlia, Sonal; Bahl, Sumit; Vyas, Siddharth; Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar

    2016-04-06

    Ameloblastoma is the most common aggressive benign odontogenic tumour of the jaws and has received considerable attention due to its frequency, clinical subtypes and high tendency to infiltrate and recur. There are various types of this tumour and confusion still exists among clinicians as to its correct classification. Multicystic ameloblastoma is the most frequent subtype while unicystic ameloblastoma can be considered a variant of the solid or multicystic subtype. Unicystic ameloblastoma is considered a less aggressive tumour with a variable recurrence rate. However, its frequency is often underestimated. Ameloblastoma is often asymptomatic, presenting as a slowly enlarging facial swelling or an incidental finding on radiograph. It is seen in all age groups but is most commonly diagnosed in the third and fourth decades. We report a case of unusual unicystic ameloblastoma and present its clinical, radiological and full-blown histological changes and treatment modalities, providing new insights into ameloblastomas. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Supernova blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Seifried, D.; Mackey, J.; Gatto, A.

    2016-08-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n0 [cm- 3] ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers M from 1to100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n(r) ˜ r-2 (for n(r) > nfloor) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density nfloor and compares to nuni = nfloor. However, in turbulent ambient media with lognormal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as p_{turb}/{p_{{0}}} =23.07 (n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-0.12} + 0.82 (ln (1+b2{M}2))^{1.49}(n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-1.6}. The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.

  7. ANTARES application for cogeneration: oil recovery from bitumen and upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecomte, Michel [FRAMATOME ANP SAS (France); Gosset, Jerome [Ecole des Mines de Paris (France); Younsi, Houria [ENSEM, Nancy (France)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: High Temperature Reactors have raised a lot of interest in the past few years because of their specific passive safety characteristics and their potential for high energy conversion efficiency. While most works emphasize the electricity production, HTRs have unique and broad range capabilities in process heat production. Recent interest for their very high temperature capabilities emphasize their use for hydrogen production through advanced high temperature processes, whether electrolytic or chemical. These are in the development stage for long term availability. Meanwhile, HTRs are quite capable to bring highly efficient cogeneration processes to fruition in a short term for low and medium temperature needs. ANTARES, the AREVA HTR development program, is based on an 850 deg. C nuclear heat source linked to a combined cycle power conversion system which brings high efficiency, over 46 %, in its electricity production version without any major new development except an Intermediate Heat exchanger (IHX)[1]. Description of the actual work A particular feature of this design is to be readily adaptable to low and medium process heat delivery, up to 550 deg. C, while still producing a significant amount of electricity. This design is therefore particularly amenable to cogeneration of process heat and electricity. The present paper describes industrial heat delivered at 100 Bar and 310 deg. C together with electricity. Such process heat production is typical of the needs for bitumen recovery from oil sands using the SAGD process. In order to optimize the process, heat must be removed from the cycle at the best location. The computer program THERMOPTIM, developed at the Ecole des Mines de Paris [2], has been designed specifically for that purpose and has been used to calculate the new performance and to help locate the process heat extraction points. Results With such optimization, up to 80% of the nuclear heat is converted into useful

  8. The effect of vegetation on wind-blown mass transport at the regional scale: A wind tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, I.F.; Visser, S.M.; Karssenberg, D.; Erpul, G.; Cornelis, W.M.; Gabriels, D.; Poortinga, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wind erosion is a global environmental problem. Re-vegetating land is a commonly used method to reduce the negative effects of wind erosion. However, there is limited knowledge on the effect of vegetation pattern on wind-blown mass transport. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect

  9. The effect of vegetation patterns on wind-blown mass transport at the regional scale: A wind tunnel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Youssef, F.; Visser, S.; Karssenberg, D.J.; Erpul, G.; Cornelis, W.M.; Gabriels, D.; Poortinga, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Wind erosion is a global environmental problem. Re-vegetating land is a commonly used method to reduce the negative effects of wind erosion. However, there is limited knowledge on the effect of vegetation pattern on wind-blown mass transport. The objective of this study was to investigate

  10. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a reparative fracture-healing process under different temperatures. It was found that these samples had tensile strength values larger than the data of pure bitumen samples under the same conditions after the four tensile fracture-healing cycles. Fracture morphology investigation and mechanism analysis indicated that the self-healing process was a process consisting of microcapsules being broken, penetrated and diffused. Moreover, the crack healing of bitumen can be considered as a viscosity driven process. The self-healing ability partly repaired the damage of bitumen during service life by comparing the properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen.

  11. Influence of Polyphosphoric Acid on the Consistency and Composition of Formulated Bitumen: Standard Characterization and NMR Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Varanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the recent years, bitumen modification with polymers, acids, or mineral fillers has gained relevance to adjust its performance properties. This work reports the use of polyphosphoric acid (PPA for the modification of formulated bitumen. With this objective, an in-depth literature review on PPA modification was firstly performed. Subsequently, five individual refinery components were selected for the preparation of bitumen blends, namely, asphaltic residue, vacuum residue, and three lube oils extracts. Seven binary/ternary bitumen blends were prepared and then treated with PPA. Afterwards, the five components and the unmodified and PPA-modified bitumen were characterized by standard methods (penetration, softening point, and penetration index, SARA analysis, elemental analysis, and 31P and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The results evidenced higher asphaltenes and lower saturates/resins contents in PPA-modified bitumen. The NMR data suggest that the paraffinic chains became longer, the content of condensed aromatics increased, more substituted aromatic structures appeared, and α-hydrogen in aromatic structures diminished. These findings disclosed the improved consistency and oxidation stability of PPA-modified bitumen blends.

  12. Solidification of low and medium level wastes in bitumen at Barsebaeck nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfors, C.

    1979-01-01

    Operating experience is presented from 4 years of bitumen solidification of wastes coming from two boiling water reactors. Methods used to sample, analyse and document the wastes are described. Transport and storage methods without remote handling have been adopted. The risk of fire is discussed and a description is given of the measures taken for fire protection. (author)

  13. Rheological Behaviour of a Bitumen Modified with Metal Oxides Obtained by Regeneration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Giuffrè

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one important challenge is to demonstrate an innovative and integrated approach for the sustainable construction of roads considering the whole life cycle of the infrastructure. Road pavements with multiple asphalt layers generally undergo prolonged environmental exposure and the alternation between solar irradiation and low temperatures. As a result, relaxation or progressive removal of the material with a negative impact on the resistance to plastic deformation occur, also leading to the formation of slits and to dimensional variations, which are commonly defined as thermal cracking. This suggests the use of suitable bitumen modifiers. For these, important parameters are the optimal mixing time and mixing temperature, in order to reduce problems related to the stability of the bitumen. Therefore, the behaviour, upon changing the temperature, of bituminous mixtures containing (as fillers a series of metal oxides coming, as secondary products, from spent acid solutions regeneration processes, was investigated. This is intended in order to recover and reuse those otherwise dangerous wastes coming from several industrial (especially, metallurgical processes. The study was aimed at evaluating the properties of bituminous blends by performing rheological tests under dynamic shear regime. More specifically, five different bitumen matrices were prepared (70/100 bitumen and blends with metal oxides and/or SBS copolymer. Results showed that the addition of iron oxides leads to an increase of the softening point and the complex modulus. The increase is even more emphasized when SBS is added to the blend.

  14. Microstructural Changes in Bitumen at the onset of Damage-healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Kasbergen, C.; Schitter, G; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Self-healing of bitumen is a property that positively contributes to the sustainability, maintenance requirements and cost effectiveness of asphalt pavements. Ideally one would like to design an asphalt mix with a well-defined healing potential. Although substantial research efforts have been

  15. Environmental impact of Bitumen on soil, water and plant in Lodasa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of bitumen in Lodasa soil is fast eroding soil fertility in the area and has contributed immensely to low yield of Agricultural products. The use of organic fertilizer to boost soil fertility, relocation and resettlement of farmers to areas with high soil fertility and appropriate legislation to protect the rights of the native settlers are ...

  16. Chemical modification of bitumen heavy ends and their non-fuel uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bitumen asphaltenes undergo a variety of simple chemical conversions. For example, asphaltenes can be oxidized, sulfonated, sulfomethylated, halogenated, and phosphorylated. The net result is the introduction of functional entities into the asphaltene structure which confers interesting properties on the products for which a variety of uses are proposed.

  17. Application of foam bitumen in cold recycling and hydrated lime in airport pavement strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hashemian

    2014-01-01

    A full recycling program was planned including sub-grade and sub-base stabilization with lime in widening areas and base strengthening with foam bitumen and cement slurry in both existing and new constructed sections. The mix design for the foam bitumen cement bonded mix was performed using both Indirect Tensile (ITS and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS Testing. To avoid extra stiffening of foam-bitumen cement slurry stabilized layer that could lead to formation of fatigue cracking, Marshall Quotient was established to obtain the optimum cement content. The results showed that CBR values of the sub-grade and sub-base layers were increased appreciably by adding 4% hydrated lime powder, hence the local material was successfully used to construct these layers. In addition, foam-bitumen cement treated base layer was gained ITS and UCS strength values well above the specification requirement. Using the mentioned stabilization and recycling methods resulted in protection of the environment and savings in construction time and virgin materials.

  18. In situ analytical pyrolysis of coal macerals and solid bitumens by laser micropyrolysis GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, P.F.; George, S.C.; Pickel, W. [CSIRO Petroleum, PO Box 136, NSW 1670 N. Ryde (Australia); Zhu, Y. [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, 434102 Hubei (China); Zhong, N. [Applied Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Petroleum, Changping, 102200 Beijing (China)

    2001-04-01

    Specific macerals in coals and distinct solid organic bitumens within limestones from northern China were separately analysed in situ by laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major pyrolysates from the resinite and cutinite macerals included aromatic hydrocarbons such as alkylnaphthalenes, alkylbenzenes, alkyltetralins (in the resinite) and alkylphenols (in the cutinite), and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alk-1-enes, n-alkanes, pristane and phytane. The same classes of hydrocarbons were also detected in co-occurring vitrinites, including very similar relative distributions of alkylnaphthalenes in the case of the resin-rich coal. Several observed quantitative differences are consistent with previous molecular data from maceral concentrates. The qualitative similarity of the maceral data suggest (1) extensive assimilation of free hydrocarbons by all macerals within the coals; or (2) inefficient targeting of the macerals by the laser, although microscopic observation showed that the laser craters were generally constrained within surface boundaries of the maceral. The organic composition of a solid bitumen within a Carboniferous limestone was characterised by a distinctive distribution of C{sub 0}-C{sub 4} alkyldibenzofurans, as well as alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes and a low molecular weight distribution of n-alk-1-enes and n-alkanes. These data suggest the solid bitumen comprises a strongly aromatic matrix with terrestrially-derived oxygen functionality and alkyl linkages. The same aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon products were also detected in the morphologically homogenous carbonates hosting the solid bitumens, indicating the presence of sub-microscopic organic moieties throughout the limestone.

  19. How Thermal Fatigue Cycles Change the Rheological Behavior of Polymer Modified Bitumen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaoui, B.; Merbouh, M.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Chailleux, E.; Youcefi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of thermal fatigue cycles phenomenon, which affects the performance of flexible pavement. The purpose of the paper is to extent the knowledge on the rheology of polymer modified bitumen which was affected by cycles of thermal fatigue. The aim of this research is to

  20. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 10 8 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +60 0 ) to -30 0 C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  1. Phase-Separation Characteristics of Bitumen and their Relation to Damage-Healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    During the service life of flexible asphalt pavements, asphalt concrete degrades due to traffic loading and environmental conditions like temperature, rain, oxidation, ultraviolet-radiation from the sun. All these environmental factors have adverse effects on the performance of bitumen, which is the

  2. Remarkable Preservation of Microfossils and Biofilms in Mesoproterozoic Silicified Bitumen Concretions from Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes, often generally referred to as “bacteria,” are the original and thus oldest life on Earth. They have shaped the chemical environment of the Earth, but they are difficult to find as ancient fossils due to their subtle structure. Here we report well-preserved fossilized microbial communities in silicified bitumen concretions from unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation (1.39 Ga in northern China. The numerous silicified bitumen concretions are in a variety of forms including ellipsoidal, spindle, and pancake ones, with diameters of 1~16 cm and thicknesses of 0.5~3 cm. The principal planes of the concretions are at low angle or directly parallel to the depositional plane level, showing obvious depositional characteristics. The concretions are silicified with abundant bitumen inside. Many different kinds of microbial fossils are found in the bitumen, including spherical forms, rods, and filaments, and some of the microbes are aggregated together in the forms of multicellular structures. These concretions preserve a delicate Mesoproterozoic biotic community.

  3. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  4. Incorporation of bitumen and calcium silicate in cement and lime stabilized soil blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, W. H.; Cheah, C. B.; Ramli, M.; Al-Sakkaf, Y. K.

    2017-04-01

    Providing affordable housing is the most critical problem in many of the developing countries. Using earth materials in building construction is one of the feasible methods to address this issue and it can be a way towards sustainable construction as well. However, the published information on the stabilized soil blocks is limited. Therefore, the present study is conducted to examine the characterization of the soils and engineering properties of the stabilized soil blocks. Four types of stabilizer were used in the study, namely; cement, slaked lime, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate. Cement and slaked lime were added at different percentages in the range of 5% to 15%, with interval of 2.5%. The percentage was determined based on weight of soil. Meanwhile, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate were incorporated at various percentages together with 10% of cement. Dosage of bitumen emulsion is in the range of 2% to 10% at interval of 2% while calcium silicate was incorporated at 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%, 1.25%, 1.50% and 2.00%. Results show that cement is the most viable stabilizer for the soil block among all stabilizers in this study. The bulk density, optimum moisture content and compressive strengths were increased with the increasing cement content. The most suitable cement content was 10% added at moisture content of 12%. Lime, bitumen and calcium contents were recommended at 5.0%, 6.0% and 1.25%, respectively.

  5. Complexation of Cu2+, Ni2+ and UO22+ by radiolytic degradation products of bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loon, L.R. Van; Kopajtic, Z.

    1990-05-01

    The radiolytic degradation of bitumen was studied under conditions which reflect those which will exist in the near field of a cementitious radioactive waste repository. The potential complexation capacity of the degradation products was studied and complexation experiments with Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and UO 2 2+ were performed. In general 1:1 complexes with Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and UO 2 2+ , with log K values of between 5.7 and 6.0 for Cu 2+ , 4.2 for Ni 2+ and 6.1 for UO 2 2+ , were produced at an ionic strength of 0.1 M. The composition of the bitumen water was analysed by GC-MS and IC. The major proportion of the bitumen degradation products in solution were monocarboxylic acids (acetic acid, formic acid, myric acid, stearic acid ...), dicarboxylic acids (oxalic acid, phthalic acid) and carbonates. The experimentally derived log K data are in good agreement with the literature and suggest that oxalate determines the speciation of Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and UO 2 2+ in the bitumen water below pH=7. However, under the high pH conditions typical of the near field of a cementitious repository, competition with OH-ligands will be large and oxalate, therefore, will not play a significant role in the speciation of radionuclides. The main conclusion of the study is that the radiolytic degradation products of bitumen will have no influence on radionuclide speciation in a cementitious near field and, as such, need not to be considered in the appropriate safety assessment models. (author) 12 figs., 11 tabs., 31 refs

  6. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  7. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  8. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  9. Radial patterns of bitumen dykes around Quaternary volcanoes, provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbold, Peter R.; Ruffet, Gilles; Leith, Leslie; Loseth, Helge; Rodrigues, Nuno; Leanza, Hector A.; Zanella, Alain

    2014-12-01

    Where the Neuquén Basin of Argentina abuts the Andes, hundreds of veins of solid hydrocarbon (bitumen) are visible at the surface. Many of these veins became mines, especially in the last century. By consensus, the bitumen has resulted from maturation of organic-rich shales, especially the Vaca Muerta Fm of Late Jurassic age, but also the Agrio Fm of Early Cretaceous age. To account for their maturation, recent authors have invoked regional subsidence, whereas early geologists invoked magmatic activity. During 12 field seasons (since 1998), we have tracked down the bitumen localities, mapped the veins and host rocks, sampled them, studied their compositions, and dated some of them. In the provinces of northern Neuquén and southernmost Mendoza, the bitumen veins are mostly sub-vertical dykes. They tend to be straight and continuous, crosscutting regional structures and strata of all ages, from Jurassic to Palaeocene. Most of the localities lie within 70 km of Tromen volcano, although four are along the Rio Colorado fault zone and another two are at the base of Auca Mahuida volcano. On both volcanic edifices, lavas are of late Pliocene to Pleistocene age. Although regionally many of the bitumen dykes tend to track the current direction of maximum horizontal tectonic stress (ENE), others do not. However, most of the dykes radiate outward from the volcanoes, especially Tromen. Thicknesses of dykes tend to be greatest close to Tromen and where the host rocks are the most resistant to fracturing. Many of the dykes occur in the exhumed hanging walls of deep thrusts, especially at the foot of Tromen. Here the bitumen is in places of high grade (impsonite), whereas further out it tends to be of medium grade (grahamite). A few bitumen dykes contain fragments of Vaca Muerta shale, so that we infer forceful expulsion of source rock. At Curacó Mine, some shale fragments contain bedding-parallel veins of fibrous calcite (beef) and these contain some bitumen, which is

  10. Quality of bitumens in asphalt hot-mixes with emphasis on the durability of constructed premix surfacings.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Assen, EJ

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available time. Asphalt technologists' ultimate quest is for performance-related specifications that will ensure the procurement of quality bitumens which could produce asphalts with desirable performance during construction, and which will resist physical...

  11. FT-IR microspectroscopic study of shot formation in melt-blown webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W C; Bresee, R R

    2003-06-01

    We used Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to investigate the chemical nature of fibers and defects called "shot" in melt-blown webs. Spectral differences were observed and evaluated in light of known thermal and oxidative degradation reactions for conditions comparable to those we used for melt blowing. Three different isotactic polypropylene polymers were evaluated in terms of the amount of shot produced and the amount of oxidative degradation exhibited by fibers and shot particles from each polymer. Little oxidative degradation was observed in fibers and the amount of degradation in fibers varied little for the three polymers we evaluated. Substantially more degradation was observed in shot particles, and the amount of degradation varied among the three polymers. Compared to polymer bound for fibers, we concluded that high temperature and mechanical shear in the extruder may introduce more chain scission in polymer bound for shot particles. Autoxidation reactions may occur after melt exits the die, and our data indicated that more oxidative degradation occurred in polymer that became shot particles than polymer that became fibers. The most favorable site for oxidation seemed to be tertiary rather than methylene hydrogen. Overall, the thermal history of polymer that becomes shot particles may be significantly different than the thermal history of polymer that becomes fibers, and this difference may have influenced shot formation.

  12. Wake Measurement Downstream of a Hybrid Wing Body Model with Blown Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Westra, Bryan W.; Collins, Scott W.; Zeune, Cale H.

    2010-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were obtained in the wake of a full-span Hybrid Wing Body model with internally blown flaps. The test was performed at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at low speeds. Off-body measurements were obtained with a 7-hole probe rake survey system. Three model configurations were investigated. At 0deg angle of attack the surveys were completed with 0deg and 60deg flap deflections. At 10deg angle of attack the wake surveys were completed with a slat and a 60deg flap deflection. The 7-hole probe results further quantified two known swirling regions (downstream of the outboard flap edge and the inboard/outboard flap juncture) for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Flowfield results and the general trends are very similar for the two blowing cases at nozzle pressure ratios of 1.37 and 1.56. High downwash velocities correlated with the enhanced lift for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Jet-induced effects are the largest at the most inboard station for all (three) velocity components due in part to the larger inboard slot height. The experimental data are being used to improve computational tools for high-lift wings with integrated powered-lift technologies.

  13. Summary of low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown jet-flap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of recent wind tunnel investigations to provide fundamental information on the upper surface blown (USB) jet flap concept demonstrated that the USB concept provides good high-lift performance. It is shown that the low speed performance is dependent upon the jet turning angle and turning efficiency and on the use of proper leading and trailing edge treatment to prevent premature flow separation. The best means of achieving good turning performance in any particular USB application must be determined from overall operational considerations in which high speed performance, structures and noise, as well as low speed performance, are evaluated. The large diving moments generated at high lift coefficients can be trimmed satisfactorily with a large, conventional horizontal tail; a high tail position is best from longitudinal stability considerations. Large rolling and yawing moments are introduced with the loss of an engine, but these moments can be trimmed satisfactorily through the use of asymmetrical boundary layer control and through the use of spoiler and rudder deflection as needed.

  14. Computational modelling of the complex dynamics of chemically blown polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireka, I. E.; Niedziela, D.; Schäfer, K.; Tröltzsch, J.; Steiner, K.; Helbig, F.; Chinyoka, T.; Kroll, L.

    2015-11-01

    This study presents computational analysis of the complex dynamics observed in chemically blown polyurethane foams during reaction injection molding process. The mathematical formulation introduces an experimentally motivated non-divergence free setup for the continuity equations which reflects the self expanding behaviour observed in the physical system. The foam growth phenomena which is normally initiated by adequate pre-mixing of necessary reactant polymers, leading to an exothermic polymerization reaction, bubble nucleation, and gas formation, is captured numerically. We assume the dependence of material viscosity on the degree of cure/polymerization, gas volume fraction, and temperature as well as non-dependence of mixture density on pressure. The set of unsteady nonlinear coupled partial differential equations describing the dynamics of the system are solved numerically for state variables using finite volume techniques such that the front of the flow is tracked with high resolution interface capturing schemes. Graphical representation of the foam volume fraction, evolution of foam heights, and temperature distributions is presented. Results from our simulations are validated with experimental data. These results show good quantitative agreement with observations from experiments.

  15. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Modification of an Amposta origin bitumen by using tlie Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluyiene-2,4-diisocyanate

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this works, we have modified a bitumen from Amposta by using the Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of aluminium trichloride, presenting as well as the characteristics of the original bitumen as the ones of the modification products. We have made technological test, aging of thin film, rheological test, thermical susceptibility and components analyses.

    En el presente trabajo se ha modificado un betún procedente de Amposta por reacción...

  17. Coagulation of bitumen with kaolinite in aqueous solutions containing Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+: effect of citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing; Liu, Qi

    2008-08-01

    Heterocoagulation experiments of kaolinite with solvent-diluted-bitumen were carried out to investigate the effect of hydrolyzable metal cations and citric acid on the liberation of bitumen from kaolinite. The adsorption of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on kaolinite, and zeta potentials of kaolinite and bitumen droplets in solutions containing 10(-3)mol/L of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+) with or without citric acid were also measured. It was found that the heterocoagulation of bitumen with kaolinite was enhanced in the presence of the metal cations from pH 7 to pH 10.5, accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of the zeta potentials and an increase in the adsorption of the metal cations on kaolinite and possibly on bitumen droplets. The addition of 5 x 10(-4)mol/L citric acid reduced the degree of coagulation from 90% to less than 40% in the presence of 10(-3)mol/L Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations at pH approximately 10, and at pH approximately 8 for Fe(3+). It was found that hydrolyzable metal cations enhanced bitumen-kaolinite interactions through electrical double layer compression and specific adsorption of the metal hydrolysis species on the surface of kaolinite. The effect of metal cations was removed by citric acid through formation of metal-citrate complexes and/or the adsorption of citrate anions, which restored the zeta potentials of both kaolinite and bitumen. Therefore, electrostatic attraction or repulsion was responsible for the coagulation or dispersion of kaolinite particles from bitumen droplets in the tested system.

  18. Effect of Gamma-Irradiated Recycled Low-Density Polyethylene on the High- and Low-Temperature Properties of Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perviz Ahmedzade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes polymer modification of bitumen with gamma-irradiated recycled (γ-LDPER low-density polyethylene. The recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPER was obtained from greenhouse films exposed to sunlight at least one year. The surface of the LDPER was treated by gamma beam irradiation that provided formation of free radicals and some functional groups that may contribute to the creation of strong chemical bonds between polymer modifier and bitumen. Five different samples of bitumen/γ-LDPER compositions with the modifier content, wt. %: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, were prepared. The effects of the γ-LDPER on original and aged bitumen were investigated by means of morphological, chemical, and physical testing program, including FTIR spectroscopy, conventional tests, rotational viscosity (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests. Superior performing asphalt pavements (Superpave specifications were used to analyze mechanical test results as well as to determine the performance grades (PG of the binders. Optimum usage of the γ-LDPER as modifier in bitumen were suggested after testing program. The results reveal the stiffening effect of the γ-LDPER on bitumen that provide enhanced temperature susceptibility and also promise better performance grades (PG with γ-LDPER polymer modification.

  19. A Review on the Effect of Crumb Rubber Addition to the Rheology of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crumb rubber modification has been proven to enhance the properties of pure bitumen. This paper looks at some of the international standards for producing crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB and reviews the effect of crumb rubber to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen. The review shows that the rheology of CRMB depends on internal factors such as crumb rubber quantity, particle size, and pure bitumen composition, and external factors such as the mixing time, temperature, and also the modification technique. These factors govern the swelling process of crumb rubber particles that lead to the increase of viscosity of the modified bitumen. However, the mixing temperature and duration can cause rubber particles to depolymerize and subsequently cause loss of viscosity. Crumb rubber modification also improves the properties of bitumen by increasing the storage and loss modulus and enhancing the high and low temperature susceptibility. The effect of crumb rubber to aging properties of CRMB is also discussed. Finally several techniques of chemical modification to terminal blends of CRMB and the subsequent improvement to the settling property of CRMB are explained.

  20. Towards improved correlations between bitumen properties and rutting resistance of bituminous mixtures - FunDBitS literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Fátima A.; Hofko, Bernhard; De Visscher, Joëlle; Tanghe, Tine; da Costa, Margarida Sá

    2017-09-01

    Bitumen is the most common binder used in the production of bituminous mixtures for road paving, having a fundamental influence on the performance of the pavement. However, it is not yet fully understood which bitumen properties have a significant influence on the behaviour of bituminous mixtures. In this context, the FunDBitS project was developed. Its main objective was to prepare recommendations on the properties of the bitumen to be specified in order to obtain suitable bituminous mixtures, namely in what concerns to its resistance to permanent deformation (rutting), stiffness, low temperature cracking, fatigue cracking and binder/aggregate interaction. In this framework, the research studies that have become internationally available since the BiTVal project were reviewed in order to assess performance-based bitumen characteristics, which may be introduced into bitumen specification standards. This paper specifically presents the main conclusions regarding the properties of bitumen related to the behaviour to permanent deformation of bituminous mixtures. It was concluded that the most promising test is the “non-recoverable creep compliance” (Jnr) from the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test method, although Zero/Low Shear Viscosity (ZSV/LSV) by creep or oscillation test method can also give good correlations with permanent deformation of bituminous mixtures.

  1. Analysis of the Influence of the Modernized Bitumen Batching System on the Composition of the Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Bražiūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The weighted mass of a binder in the bucket of the bitumen batcher of a batch-type asphalt plant should be such that its percentage of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture lot would comply with the design amount of the job-mix formula in all mix batches. A bitumen batcher does not always weigh bitumen portions precisely. Their mass deviations from the amount determined by the project and its variation impair HMA composition and performance. The paper provides data on a statistical evaluation of bitumen batcher modernization performed at Lithuanian enterprise „LL“. The article analyzes differences in the structures of reconstructed and not reconstructed bitumen batching systems and presents methods for determining modernization effectiveness. The paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the batching system, determining deviations from bitumen content in subsamples taken and extracted everyday during two seasons (before and after batcher‘s modernization of producing HMA from the value of job-mix formula and comparing them to the values of tolerances.Article in Lithuanian

  2. Development of paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites with additions of B2O3 for thermal neutron shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyen, Donruedee; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak

    2017-01-01

    In this work, paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites with additions of boron oxide (B 2 O 3 ) were prepared to evaluate the viscosity, flexural, and thermal neutron shielding properties for uses as thermal neutron shielding materials. The results showed that the addition of 3 wt% or 9 wt% bitumen to paraffin increased the overall flexural properties with the content of 9 wt% bitumen having the highest values. The improvement in flexural properties made the composites less brittle, stiffer, and longer-lasting. Furthermore, different contents of B 2 O 3 (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 wt%) were added to paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites to investigate the effects of the B 2 O 3 contents. The results indicated that an increase in B 2 O 3 contents improved the shielding properties but slightly reduced the flexural properties. Specifically for 5-mm paraffin and 5-mm paraffin/bitumen samples with 35 wt% of B 2 O 3 , both samples could reduce neutron flux by more than 70%. The overall results suggested that the paraffin and paraffin/bitumen composites with additions of B 2 O 3 showed improved properties for utilization as effective thermal neutron shielding materials. (author)

  3. Application of Solution-blown 20-50 nm Nanofibers in Filtration of Nanoparticles: The Efficient van der Waals Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Ray, Sumit; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2015-11-01

    Filtration efficiency of commercially available filter media with fiber/pore sizes on the scale of 10 μm can be dramatically increased by adding a layer of ultrafine supersonically-blown 20-50 nm nanofibers. Different commercial filters were modified with (i) electrospun nanofibers alone, (ii) solution-blown 20-50 nm alone, and (iii) the dual coating with electrospun nanofibers deposited first and the solution-blown 20-50 nm nanofibers deposited on top of them. Detailed observations of nanoparticle removal revealed that the above-mentioned modified filters, especially those with the dual nanofiber coating with the 20-50 nm nanofibers deposited on top, are the most effective in removing the below-200 nm Cu nanoparticles/clusters from aqueous suspensions, in particular at the lowest concentrations of 0.2-0.5 ppm. The theory developed in the present work dealing with convective transport of nanoparticles in the fluid flow along with diffusion of nanoparticles and the van der Waals attraction explains and describes how the smallest solution-blown nanofibers introduce a novel physical mechanism of nanoparticle interception (the attractive van der Waals forces) and become significantly more efficient collectors compared to the larger electrospun nanofibers. The theory also elucidates the morphology of the nanoparticle clusters being accumulated at the smallest nanofiber surfaces, including the clusters growing at the windward side, or in some cases also on the leeward side of a nanofiber. This work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC), grant No. 12-144SB.

  4. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed.

  5. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  6. Influence of Antioxidant-Enhanced Polymers in Bitumen Rheology and Bituminous Concrete Mixtures Mechanical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Dessouky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of polymer enhancement with antioxidant in the rheological properties of bitumen and mechanical properties of bituminous concrete mixture (BCM. In this study, two antioxidant-enhanced polymers were utilized in mitigating bitumen hardening due to aging. The rheological testing consists of temperature sweep using Dynamic Shear Rheometer at various aging conditions. Critical stiffness temperature data from the sweep test suggested that enhanced polymer exhibits less long-term hardening and brittleness compared to standard polymer. The mechanical testing consists of dynamic modulus, indirect tensile, flow number, and beam fatigue tests on BCM exposed to short-term aging. Hamburg wheel tracking test was also performed to assess moisture-damage susceptibility. It is found that the enhanced-polymer BCM exhibited higher modulus, higher tensile strength ratio, improved rutting resistance, lower moisture-damage susceptibility, and slightly increased fatigue life as compared to standard-polymer BCM.

  7. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  8. Experimental study of simultaneous Athabasca bitumen recovery and upgrading using ultradispersed catalysts injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, R.; Pereira, P. [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the demand for oil is continuously increasing, the need for unconventional resources is rising. Oil extraction from bitumen and heavy oil reservoirs requires advanced techniques in order to decrease the viscosity of the oil. To increase the recovered original oil in place (OOIP) of a reservoir and decrease refining costs, new techniques to upgrade oil in situ are being developed. The current study investigates the use of ultra-dispersed (UD) submicronic catalysts to decrease oil viscosity. The experiment involved the injection of the catalyst and hydrogen gas in a sand pack saturated with Athabasca bitumen. Analysis was carried out by building recovery curves, and by comparing the oil recovery from the catalyzed process with that of catalyst-free processes. The study demonstrated that the oil recovered from the new technique had higher API gravity and lower viscosity, indicating the success of the in situ upgrading process.

  9. Sulphur incorporation in Jurassic marine mudrocks and their bitumens at low thermal maturity, Cleveland Basin, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Michael J.; Hill, Alan F. M.; Fallick, Anthony E.; Ecuvillon, Severine

    1996-11-01

    The distribution of sulphur between pyrite, kerogen, elemental sulphur, and the aromatic fraction of mudrock bitumens has been quantitated in two cored sections of immature marine Kimmeridgian strata which have experienced different levels of thermal stress. Strata in the two boreholes (Ebberston and Reighton) were deposited in different basinal settings (basinal marine and platform, respectively) and occasional euxinic (laminated) horizons are present at Ebberston, otherwise dysoxic deposition was the norm at both localities. Pyrite, the dominant sulphur carrier in all the mudrocks, has a sulphur isotopic composition consistent with mineralisation in a system mainly open to sulphate diffusion. Kerogens are mostly low sulphur (atomic S/C Kerogen sulphur is closely correlated with TOC and highest in laminated mudrocks consistent with most effective sulphurization of kerogen under anoxic conditions. Although kerogen compositions in both cores vary with organic richness, no systematic differences in organic input between the borehole localities are recognised geochemically. Some thermal effects on sulphur geochemistry are, therefore, interpreted from a comparison of stratigraphically equivalent sections from the two cores. Bitumen yields and abundances of aromatic sulphur in the more thermally-stressed Ebberston section, although variable, are generally much higher than in the Reighton section and are partly related to kerogen sulphur content. This is tentatively attributed to thermal release of additional extractable bitumen from macromolecules. Elemental sulphur (S 0) in bitumen is unrelated in abundance to other sulphur species and isotopically heavier than coexisting pyrite. Overprinting of minor preserved diagenetic S 0 by secondary oxidation of pyrite appears likely. The distributions of individual sulphur-aromatic compound classes have features related both to maturity and stratigraphy.

  10. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  11. Experimental data on compressive strength and durability of sulfur concrete modified by styrene and bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehestani, M; Teimortashlu, E; Molaei, M; Ghomian, M; Firoozi, S; Aghili, S

    2017-08-01

    In this data article experimental data on the compressive strength, and the durability of styrene and bitumen modified sulfur concrete against acidic water and ignition are presented. The percent of the sulfur cement and the gradation of the aggregates used are according to the ACI 548.2R-93 and ASTM 3515 respectively. For the styrene modified sulfur concrete different percentages of styrene are used. Also for the bitumen modified sulfur concrete, different percentages of bitumen and the emulsifying agent (triton X-100) are utilized. From each batch three 10×10×10 cm cubic samples were casted. One of the samples was used for the compressive strength on the second day of casting, and one on the twenty-eighth day. Then the two samples were put under the high pressure flame of the burning liquid gas for thirty seconds and their ignition resistances were observed. The third sample was put into the acidic water and after twenty eight days immersion in water was dried in the ambient temperature. After drying its compressive strength has been evaluated.

  12. Study of the equilibrium of air-blown gasification of biomass to coal evolution fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Equilibrium model validated for coals, torrefied/green biomasses, in different gasifiers. • Maps of syngas composition, LHV and CGE for ER = 0–0.6, T = 500–2000 K, EBP = 0.004–0.158. • Effect of unconverted carbon, fuel moisture and overoxidation quantified. • Parameters for the maximum efficiency determined as functions of EBP. • EBP proven to be a good parameter for the quantitative comparison of different fuels. - Abstract: A non-stoichiometric equilibrium model based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy was used to study the isothermal and adiabatic air-blown gasification of solid fuels on a carbonization curve from fossil (hard/brown coals, peat) to renewable (green biomasses and cellulose) fuels, including torrefied biofuels. The maps of syngas composition, heating value and process efficiency were provided as functions of equivalent ratio (oxygen-to-fuel ratio) in the range 0–0.6, temperature in 500–2000 K, and a fuel parameter, which allowed different cases to be quantitatively compared. The effect of fuel moisture, unconverted carbon and conditions to limit the tar formation was also studied. Cold gas efficiency >0.75 can be achieved for coals at high temperature, using entrained beds (which give low unconverted carbon), and improved by moisture/added steam. The bigger efficiency of green biomasses is only potential, as the practical limits (high temperature required to limit tar formation, moisture content and unconverted carbon in small gasifiers) strongly reduce the gasification performance. Torrefied biomasses (and plastics having an intermediate fuel parameter between coals and green biomasses) can attain high efficiency also in real conditions. The results shown in this work can be useful to evaluate the most promising feedstock (depending on its composition and possible pre-treatment/upgrading), define the operating conditions for maximizing the syngas heating value or the global efficiency, assess the

  13. Compression set in gas-blown condensation-cured polysiloxane elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Mogon; Chinn, Sarah; Maxwell, Robert S.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    2010-12-01

    Accelerated thermal ageing studies on foamed condensation cured polysiloxane materials have been performed in support of life assessment and material replacement programmes. Two different types of filled hydrogen-blown and condensation cured polysiloxane foams were tested; commercial (RTV S5370), and an in-house formulated polysiloxane elastomer (Silfoam). Compression set properties were investigated using Thermomechanical (TMA) studies and compared against two separate longer term ageing trials carried out in air and in dry inert gas atmospheres using compression jigs. Isotherms measured from these studies were assessed using time-temperature (T/t) superposition. Acceleration factors were determined and fitted to Arrhenius kinetics. For both materials, the thermo-mechanical results were found to closely follow the longer term accelerated ageing trials. Comparison of the accelerated ageing data in dry nitrogen atmospheres against field trial results showed the accelerated ageing trends over predict, however the comparison is difficult as the field data suffer from significant component to component variability. Of the long term ageing trials reported here, those carried out in air deviate more significantly from field trials data compared to those carried out in dry nitrogen atmospheres. For field return samples, there is evidence for residual post-curing reactions influencing mechanical performance, which would accelerate compression set. Multiple quantum-NMR studies suggest that compression set is not associated with significant changes in net crosslink density, but that some degree of network rearrangement has occurred due to viscoelastic relaxation as well as bond breaking and forming processes, with possible post-curing reactions at early times.

  14. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  15. Predicting the fibre diameter of melt blown nonwovens: comparison of physical, statistical and artificial neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Li, Liqing; Huang, Xiubao

    2005-06-01

    Physical, statistical and artificial neural network (ANN) models are established for predicting the fibre diameter of melt blown nonwovens from the processing parameters. The results show that the ANN model yields a very accurate prediction (average error of 0.013%), and a reasonably good ANN model can be achieved with relatively few data points. Because the physical model is based on the inherent physical principles of the phenomena of interest, it can yield reasonably good prediction results when experimental data are not available and the entire physical procedure is of interest. This area of research has great potential in the field of computer assisted design in melt blowing technology.

  16. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  17. Effect of waste plastic as modifier on thermal stability and degradation kinetics of bitumen/waste plastics blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naskar, M.; Chaki, T.K.; Reddy, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Different modified bituminous binders are used in pavement construction for improved durability and for enhanced performance in resisting cracking and permanent deformation of bituminous layers. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern, have been used successfully for modifying bitumen. This paper reports the thermogravimetric studies conducted on waste plastic modified bituminous binders. Modified bituminous binders prepared using different plastic contents (0-7 wt% by weight of bitumen) were investigated. The activation energies were determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data using Kissinger and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, which do not require knowledge of the reaction mechanism. Modified bitumen (WPMB5) with 5 wt% plastic was found to have the highest thermal stability compared to other binders investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out to find crystalline melting temperature and fusion enthalpy. Rheological parameters of modified binders prepared with different plastic contents also suggest that the 5 wt% plastic content is expected to yield optimal performance.

  18. INTER-PHASE CONTACTS IN BITUMEN-MINERAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR STRENGTHENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. N. Kovalev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently bitumen-mineral materials (including asphalt-concrete comprise nearly 98 % for construction of expensive road pavement. Large resources of local minerals (quartz sand and industrial wastes in the form of used molding sand (foundry by-product are widely applied for reduction of their cost. Such approach is economically and ecologically reasonable but it requires its justification because an adhesion interaction in the bitumen-quartz substrate system (with SiO2 more than 95 % is rather poor in natural state and due to water action it is still more decreasing. In this connection an objective necessity arises to modify significantly technology of bitumen-mineral compositions for ensuring reliability of road pavements while using silicon components.All the ideas pertaining to strengthening of adhesion bonds in the “quartz mineral substrate - bitumen” system are traditionally of physical and chemical nature and they presuppose mainly usage of colloidal chemistry methods. The paper considers the matter on the basis of molecular kinetic theory of matter taking into account the fact that there is absence of generally accepted calculations for intermolecular interactions of components in the SiO2 - organic matrix material system.As a theoretical supposition the following well-known regulatory principle in physics is used: as every atom or molecular have its own electromagnetic field then action of external electromagnetic fields initiates their interaction that leads to excitement of electrons, deformations and rupture of chemical bonds. Literature analysis shows that the existing electric bonds between components of the SiO2 - organic matrix material system provide the possibility to apply various electro-physical methods having an effect on these components with the purpose to strengthen their adhesion interaction.The paper investigates matters for determination of bond energy during physical adsorption and adhesion in the SiO2 - organic

  19. A study of crumb rubber modified bitumen used in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available and Pavement Design, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2014.910130 A study of crumb rubber modified bitumen used in South Africa Georges A.J. Mturi (a), Johan O’Connell (a), Salah E. Zoorob (b) and Morris De Beer (a) (a)Transport Infrastructure... Engineering, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; (b)Department of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia (Received 3 December 2013; accepted 25 March 2014...

  20. Application of thermodynamics to the estimation of the biodegradation of bitumen wastes package underground stored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B.

    2001-01-01

    A modelling approach to evaluate microbial activity in a geological system is adopted. It focusses upon the availability of key nutrients (C, H, O, N, P, S) and energy sources required for bacterial growth. The model is applied to determine the possible consequences of such microbiological activity in the presence of bitumen embedded waste in a repository for low - and intermediate - level waste. Taking into account this particular environment, thermodynamic and experimental results are given in terms of gas and organic complexant production. (authors)

  1. Study of the diffusion of the radioactivity of glasses and bitumen-coated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Marichal, M.; Benoit, R.; Niezborala, F.; Le Bouhellec, J.

    1969-01-01

    Glass pellets obtained from concentrated fission product solutions are subjected to the action of water, in conditions which are as close as possible to those of natural surroundings: still water, renewed water, running water. The retention by a given type of soil of the contamination in waters used for lixiviation is also studied. A comparison is made between various coating processes (bitumen or cement) and vitrification from the point of view of the behaviour in the soil of residues thus treated. The overall results make it possible to choose between the different modes of storage as a function of the activity of the residues to be processed. (authors) [fr

  2. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...... system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  3. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 1. Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    04 Z 1 2L z 0 U. 40c z 0 U wW qcM x U, > -(FHW ic x Z J Z M 300 z 4c 00 U AO U2 o g II. us us . . . .’we TABLE 26 WESTKEN OIL COST OF...Miller, J. D., M. Misra, "Concentration of Utah Tar Sands by on Ambient Temperature Flotation Process,"International Journal of Mineral...34Bitumen Recovery from Tar Sands Sludge - by Flotation using Promotor Additive," Canadian Patent #1146-897, (July 8, 1980). Sun Corporation Inc

  4. Impact of the Ageing on Viscoelastic Properties of Bitumen with the Liquid Surface Active Agent at Operating Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwański, Marek; Cholewińska, Malgorzata; Mazurek, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the influence of the ageing on viscoelastic properties of the bitumen at road pavement operating temperatures. The ageing process of bituminous binders causes changes in physical and mechanical properties of the bitumen. This phenomenon takes place in all stages of bituminous mixtures manufacturing, namely: mixing, storage, transport, placing. Nevertheless, during the service life it occurs the increase in stiffness of asphalt binder that is caused by the physical hardening of bitumen as well as the influence of oxidation. Therefore, it is important to identify the binder properties at a high and low operating temperatures of asphalt pavement after simulation of an ageing process. In the experiment as a reference bitumen, the polymer modified bitumen PMB 45/80-65 was used. The liquid surface active agent FA (fatty amine) was used as a bitumen viscosity-reducing modifier. It was added in the amount of 0,2%, 0,4% and 0,6% by the bitumen mass. All binder properties have been determined before ageing (NEAT) and after long-term ageing simulated by the Pressure Ageing Vessel method (PAV). To determine the binder properties at high temperatures the dynamic viscosity at 60°C was tested. On the basis of test results coming from the dynamic viscosity test it was calculated the binder hardening index. The properties at a low temperature were determined by measuring the creep modulus using Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR) at four temperatures: -10°C, -16°C, -22°C and -28°C. The stiffness creep modulus “S” and parameter “m” were determined. On the basis of dynamic viscosity test it was found that the ageing process caused a slight decrease in a dynamic viscosity. The level of a hardening index considerably increased at 0.6% fatty amine content. The long-term ageing process had a minor effect on stiffening of a polymer modified bitumen with FA additive regardless of a low temperature and an amount of fatty amine content.

  5. Technology of Anticorrosive Protection of Steel Constructions by Coatings Based on Rapid-Hardening Bitumen-Latex Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykyforchyn, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recipes of rapid-hardening bitumen-latex emulsions and coatings on its base are created, in-laboratory tests of their physical, chemical and anticorrosive properties are carried out. The technology of anticorrosive protection and the installation technical documentation for making of aqueous bitumen-latex emulsion is developed, installation is mounted and a pilot lot of rapid-hardening emulsion is produced. Experimental-industrial approbation of the technology of coating formation on pipes in oil and gas industry is carried out.

  6. R and D works on immobilization of radioactive wastes in bitumen matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, Marcia F.R.; Seles, Sandro R.N.; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Oliveira, Tania V.S.; Jordao, Elizabete

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian research center CDTN - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - has been carrying out research on the incorporation of radioactive wastes in different types of bitumen. The bituminization conditioning technique provides a wasteform with a high percentage of waste immobilized that is mechanically, physically and radiologically stable for the subsequent stages of radioactive waste management including disposal. This paper presents the preliminary results of research campaigns carried out with Brazilian bitumen with softening point of 90 deg C, to be used as matrix for the incorporation of simulated evaporator concentrates waste from nuclear power plant. The experimental work has been carried out in a pilot plant of continuous flow, consisting of a screw-extruder with production capacity of 1 kg/h. The percentages of waste incorporated in the matrix varied from 30 to 40 wt %. The obtained products were evaluated according to national and international standards by means of thermodiferential analysis and specific tests to assess the softening point, flash point, penetration, water content and homogeneity. The leaching rate, an important parameter in the analysis of the wasteform, has been evaluated according to the standard ISO-6961 in order to prevent or delay the release of hazardous material into the environment when it contacts with water. This paper presents the leaching rate results of 150 days and also the rheological properties of the obtained waste forms in the established concentrations. These data should attend the acceptance criteria established by the regulatory body authorities. (author)

  7. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  8. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertron, A.; Ranaivomanana, H.; Jacquemet, N.; Erable, B.; Sablayrolles, C.; Escadeillas, G.; Albrecht, A.

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  9. Wind-blown sand movement periods on the Nyírség alluvial fan, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buró, Botond; Lóki, József; Sipos, György; Négyesi, Gábor; Andrási, Bence; Jakab, Attila; Félegyházi, Enikő; Molnár, Mihály

    2017-04-01

    Wind-blown sand movement periods on the Nyírség alluvial fan, Hungary The Nyírség is an alluvial fan, was built by rivers, which were flown down from the NE Carpathians. When the weather was dry, wind-blown sand was blowed out and the wind started to develop the aeolian landforms. The first significant sand movements in the Nyírség was in the Upper plenniglacial and the Late glacial. The main landforms of the Nyírség were developed at this time. The aeolic transformation of the land was not completed in the Nyírség at the end of the Pleistocene. In the Holocene the sand moved within small area, mainly by anthropogenic impact. Our aim is clarify the age of the wind-blown sand movements period, with different absolute (Radiocarbon dating method, OSL), and relative (Archaeological finds, Pollen analyses) dating methods. We have collected for the age determining charcoal from many sand quarry (Gégény, Kántorjánosi, Nyíradony, Nagyvarsány, Máriapócs and Lövőpetri) which contain fossil soil layer. For the OSL measurements samples were collected from Baktalórántháza, Gégény and Kántorjánosi sand quarries. We collected samples from 5 places for the pollen analyses (Nyírtanya, Máriapócs, Nyírbéltek-Nyírlúgos, Nyírábrány, Vámospércs), and also from an archaeological excavation (Nyíregyháza- Oros). The new age dates show us, that in the Nyírség the first significant sand movements were in the cold and drier period of the Upper pleniglacial and Late glacial (Baktalórántháza, Nyírtanya, Vámospércs). At the end of the Pleistocene the sand movements not competed in the Nyírség (Gégény, Kántorjánosi, Nyírábrány). In the Holocene there were many little sand movement periods, mainly caused by anthropogenic impact (Nyíradony, Nyíregyháza-Oros). The research was supported by the European Union and the State of Hungary, co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund in the project of GINOP-2.3.2.-15-2016-00009 'ICER

  10. Sulfur species in source rock bitumen before and after hydrous pyrolysis determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Trudy B.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Hill, Ronald J.; Grayson, Michael B.; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Bake, Kyle D.; Craddock, Paul R.; Abdallah, Wael; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The sulfur speciation of source rock bitumen (chloroform-extractable organic matter in sedimentary rocks) was examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy for a suite of 11 source rocks from around the world. Sulfur speciation was determined for both the native bitumen in thermally immature rocks and the bitumen produced by thermal maturation of kerogen via hydrous pyrolysis (360 °C for 72 h) and retained within the rock matrix. In this study, the immature bitumens had higher sulfur concentrations than those extracted from samples after hydrous pyrolysis. In addition, dramatic and systematic evolution of the bitumen sulfur moiety distributions following artificial thermal maturation was observed consistently for all samples. Specifically, sulfoxide sulfur (sulfur double bonded to oxygen) is abundant in all immature bitumen samples but decreases substantially following hydrous pyrolysis. The loss in sulfoxide sulfur is associated with a relative increase in the fraction of thiophene sulfur (sulfur bonded to aromatic carbon) to the extent that thiophene is the dominant sulfur form in all post-pyrolysis bitumen samples. This suggests that sulfur moiety distributions might be used for estimating thermal maturity in source rocks based on the character of the extractable organic matter.

  11. Rheological and chemical evaluation on the ageing properties of SBS polymer modified bitumen: From the laboratory to the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Nielsen, E.; Komacka, J.; Greet, L.; Ven, M.V.D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ageing properties of the styrene-butadiene- styrene polymer modified bitumen (SBS PMB) from the laboratory to the field. The virgin SBS PMB had been kept for 23 years and its field-aged binder was extracted from the reclaimed stone matrix asphalt (SMA) after the 22-year

  12. Fluxing as a new tool for bitumen rheological characterization and the use of time-concentration shift factor (ac)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zoorob, SE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available . By applying time-concentration superposition to each flux content, it was possible to shift horizontally (ac) each set of complex modulus data measured at each test temperature, so that all sets superimpose onto the master curve of the base bitumen at a...

  13. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro's estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  14. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaomeng; Gates, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced

  15. Cooee bitumen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes...

  16. Program to stimulate graduate training in the field of aeroacoustics. [cross correlation of flow fields of a jet-blown flap with far fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment is reported to cross correlate the output of hot film probes located at various points in the flow field of a jet-blown flap with the output of microphones in the acoustic far field. Fluid dynamic measurements of the flow fields of the test configuration are reported.

  17. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen; Conditionnement des dechets radioactifs par le bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Scheidhauer, J.; Malabre, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1961-07-01

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author) [French] L'isolement de boues radioactives et de dechets par le bitume est etudie. Les resultats de divers essais portant sur la lixiviation par l'eau du produit fini en fonction du pH, du temps et de la composition sont exposes. Les conditions de realisation de l'enrobage sont controlees au point de vue du risque radioactif. (auteur)

  18. Radiolysis and temperature effects in case of undeground storage of bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Diefenbacher, W.; Korthaus, E.; Comper, W.

    1976-01-01

    On conservative assumptions limit values were determined for the specific activity in the bitumen products, which safely avoid under the conditions of storage in a non-ventilated prototype cavity both the formation of an ignitable radiolytic gas/air mixture and intolerable heating of wastes products over the entire storage time. Depending on the filling factor of the cavity and on the age of fixed fission products, the limit values of the specific activity in the waste products allowing to avoid an ignitable gas/air mixture in the cavity range from 0.09 Ci/l to 0.78 Ci/l. The respective limit values of specific activity allowing to avoid intolerable heating of wastes (> 70 0 C) range from 0.3 Ci/l to 0.7 Ci/l, depending on the age of fission products and on the type of storage

  19. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-01-01

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450[degree], over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  20. Fluidized bed pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone at sub-atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, J.V.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-03-01

    A 15.2 cm diameter fluidized bed reactor was designed, built, and operated to study the pyrolysis of oil sands at pressures slightly less than atmospheric. Fluidizing gas flow through the reactor was caused by reducing the pressure above the bed with a gas pump operating in the vacuum mode. Pyrolysis energy was supplied by a propane burner, and the hot propane combustion gases were used for fluidization. The fluidized bed pyrolysis at reduced pressure using combustion gases allowed the reactor to be operated at significantly lower temperatures than previously reported. At 450{degree}, over 80% of the bitumen fed was recovered as a liquid product, and the spent sand contained less than 1% coke. The liquid product recovery system, by design, yielded three liquid streams with distinctly different properties.

  1. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chacón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and ammonia (NH3 in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H2/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H2S on HDS and NH3 on HDN.

  2. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  3. Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.

    1969-01-01

    The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors) [fr

  4. Improving of Water Resistance of Asphalt Concrete Wearing Course Using Latex-Bitumen Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Henri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that presence of water in a bituminous mix is a critical factor which can lead to premature failure of flexible pavements. This requires solutions one of which is to formulate an asphalt mix that has a high resistance to moisture and one way to do this is to mix latex with the asphalt mix. The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effect of water on Marshall stability of asphalt concrete wearing course (ACWC made with a latex-bitumen binder. Latex-bitumen was mixed with aggregate and four levels of latex content were investigated in this study, namely, 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% respectively by weight of asphalt. Wet procces was used in the blending of mixtures. The procedure used to obtain the optimum binder contents conformed to the Marshall procedure (SNI 06-2489-1991. Six Marshall specimens at optimum binder content were prepared for each binder mix investigated. Three of six specimens from each group were tested under Marshall standards. The remaining specimens were tested by immersion in a bath at 60°C for 24 hours. The Marshall index of retained stability was used to evaluate the effect of water on the Marshall stability of ACWC. The results indicated that the addition of up to 4% latex to ACWC mix increased the retained Marshall stability, whereas the addition of latex above 4% decreased the retained stability of the mixture. The addition of 4% CRM significantly improved the retained stability of the mixture and was the best latex – ACWC mix.

  5. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2013-06-23

    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical response based on macroindentation experiments with a cylindrical indenter. A finite element simulation was performed in the second stage to compute the mechanical response corresponding to a viscoelasticity model described by three mechanical parameters. The comparison between the experimental and numerical responses showed a perfect matching. In addition, the identification procedure helped to discriminate between different bitumens characterized by different asphaltene and maltene contents. Finally, the developed procedure could be used as an efficient tool to characterize the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic materials, thanks to the quantified relationship between the viscoleastic parameters and the force-penetration response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3440-3450, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Evolution of sulfur speciation in bitumen through hydrous pyrolysis induced thermal maturation of Jordanian Ghareb Formation oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Bake, Kyle D.; Bolin, Trudy B.; Craddock, Paul R.; Forsythe, Julia C.; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies on the distribution of bulk sulfur species in bitumen before and after artificial thermal maturation using various pyrolysis methods have indicated that the quantities of reactive (sulfide, sulfoxide) and thermally stable (thiophene) sulfur moieties change following consistent trends under increasing thermal stress. These trends show that sulfur distributions change during maturation in ways that are similar to those of carbon, most clearly illustrated by the increase in aromatic sulfur (thiophenic) as a function of thermal maturity. In this study, we have examined the sulfur moiety distributions of retained bitumen from a set of pre- and post-pyrolysis rock samples in an organic sulfur-rich, calcareous oil shale from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation. Samples collected from outcrop in Jordan were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (HP). Sulfur speciation in extracted bitumens was examined using K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The most substantial changes in sulfur distribution occurred at temperatures up to the point of maximum bitumen generation (∼300 °C) as determined from comparison of the total organic carbon content for samples before and after extraction. Organic sulfide in bitumen decreased with increasing temperature at relatively low thermal stress (200–300 °C) and was not detected in extracts from rocks subjected to HP at temperatures above around 300 °C. Sulfoxide content increased between 200 and 280 °C, but decreased at higher temperatures. The concentration of thiophenic sulfur increased up to 300 °C, and remained essentially stable under increasing thermal stress (mg-S/g-bitumen basis). The ratio of stable-to-reactive+stable sulfur moieties ([thiophene/(sulfide+sulfoxide+thiophene)], T/SST) followed a sigmoidal trend with HP temperature, increasing slightly up to 240 °C, followed by a substantial increase between 240 and 320 °C, and approaching a constant value (∼0.95) at

  7. Biomarkers and C and S Isotopes of the Permian to Triassic Solid Bitumen and Its Potential Source Rocks in NE Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunfang Cai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential parent source rocks except from Upper Permian Dalong Formation (P3d for Upper Permian and Lower Triassic solid bitumen show high maturity to overmaturity with equivalent vitrinite reflectance (ERo from 1.7% to 3.1% but have extractable organic matter likely not contaminated by younger source rocks. P3d source rocks were deposited under euxinic environments as indicated by the pyrite δ34S values as light as -34.5‰ and distribution of aryl isoprenoids, which were also detected from the Lower Silurian (S1l source rock and the solid bitumen in the gas fields in the west not in the east. All the solid bitumen not altered by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR has δ13C and δ34S values similar to part of the P3l kerogens and within the S1l kerogens. Thus, the eastern solid bitumen may have been derived from the P3l kerogens, and the western solid bitumen was likely to have precracking oils from P3l kerogens mixed with the S1l or P3d kerogens. This case-study tentatively shows that δ13C and δ34S values along with biomarkers have the potential to be used for the purpose of solid bitumen and source rock correlation in a rapidly buried basin, although further work should be done to confirm it.

  8. An NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Investigation of the Chemical Association and Molecular Dynamics in Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand Ore and Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, D. A.; Coover, P. T.

    1987-09-01

    Preliminary studies on tar sand bitumen given in this report have shown that the reassociation of tar sand bitumen to its original molecular configuration after thermal stressing is a first-order process requiring nearly a week to establish equilibrium. Studies were also conducted on the dissolution of tar sand bitumen in solvents of varying polarity. At a high-weight fraction of solute to solvent the apparent molecular weight of the bitumen molecules was greater than that of the original bitumen when dissolved in chloroform-d{sub 1} and benzene-d{sub 6}. This increase in the apparent molecular weight may be due to micellar formation or a weak solute-solvent molecular complex. Upon further dilution with any of the solvents studied, the apparent molecular weight of the tar sand bitumen decreased because of reduced van der Waals forces of interaction and/or hydrogen bonding. To define the exact nature of the interactions, it will be necessary to have viscosity measurements of the solutions.

  9. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  10. Influence of the prepolymer molecular weight and free isocyanate content on the rheology of polyurethane modified bitumens

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Páez, Virginia; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate-based modification is lately gaining acceptance as a successful way to give added value to bitumen, a crude oil refining by-product. In order to study the influence of prepolymer type on the rheological properties of the resulting binders, six prepolymers synthesized from polypropylene-glycols (PPG) with varying molecular weight (between 440 and 2425) and different molar excess of a polymeric MDI (4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) were used. Two modification procedures, either inv...

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene Non-woven Fabrics Prepared by Melt-blown Spinning for Filtration Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Konghee; Park, Mira; Kim, Hakyong [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Fanlong; Park, Soojin [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    PP non-woven fabrics were prepared by melt-blown spinning, followed by heat and plasma treatments. After heat treatment, the PP non-woven fabrics displayed decreased water flux, increased tensile strength, decreased elongation, and an average pore size of 0.7 μm. The hydrophilicity of the PP non-woven fabrics was improved by plasma treatment. The water flux of the PP non-woven fabrics increased about two fold after the plasma treatment. The particle removal efficiency was determined to be 97.2-99.4% for 1-3 μm sized particles, demonstrating a high particle removal efficiency. Polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabrics have been widely used as filtration membranes in wastewater purification with industrial applications due to their low cost, good mechanical strength, and high thermal and chemical stability. The membrane fouling behavior depends strongly on the physical and mechanical properties of the membrane, including pore size, porosity, morphology, and hydrophilicity. In general, PP non-woven fabrics have poor hydrophilicity; this has limited their application in the biomedical field. It is therefore necessary to develop PP non-woven fabrics with improved surface hydrophilicity to increase the scope of their use. Plasma treatment, an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional chemical activation, only changes the uppermost atomic layers of a membrane surface without affecting the bulk properties of the polymer.

  12. Lifting Thor's Helmet: An X-ray/infrared Archival Study Of The Wind-blown Bubble NGC 2359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Marcus; Kastner, J.; Montez, R.; Rappaport, S.

    2012-05-01

    We present a combined X-ray/IR study of NGC 2359, a wind-blown bubble around a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, with the goals of providing insight into the distribution of dust within the nebula and ascertaining its source(s) of X-ray emission. We are analyzing Spitzer and WISE infrared data in conjunction with Swift and ROSAT X-ray observations acquired from the Spitzer Heritage Archive, NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, and NASA’s High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive. Utilizing Spitzer and WISE data, we generated temperature and mass maps of the dust within the region. These maps reveal large dust concentrations in the main bubble, at the central WR star (WR 7), and along the southern bar of the nebula. From the archival X-ray data, we have determined that an X-ray source that was previously attributed to WR 7 is actually associated with a 2MASS source well displaced from (57" due W of) the star, while WR 7 itself is not detected. We analyze the spectral energy distribution of the NGC 2359 X-ray source, and consider potential alternatives for its origin.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene Non-woven Fabrics Prepared by Melt-blown Spinning for Filtration Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Konghee; Park, Mira; Kim, Hakyong; Jin, Fanlong; Park, Soojin

    2014-01-01

    PP non-woven fabrics were prepared by melt-blown spinning, followed by heat and plasma treatments. After heat treatment, the PP non-woven fabrics displayed decreased water flux, increased tensile strength, decreased elongation, and an average pore size of 0.7 μm. The hydrophilicity of the PP non-woven fabrics was improved by plasma treatment. The water flux of the PP non-woven fabrics increased about two fold after the plasma treatment. The particle removal efficiency was determined to be 97.2-99.4% for 1-3 μm sized particles, demonstrating a high particle removal efficiency. Polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabrics have been widely used as filtration membranes in wastewater purification with industrial applications due to their low cost, good mechanical strength, and high thermal and chemical stability. The membrane fouling behavior depends strongly on the physical and mechanical properties of the membrane, including pore size, porosity, morphology, and hydrophilicity. In general, PP non-woven fabrics have poor hydrophilicity; this has limited their application in the biomedical field. It is therefore necessary to develop PP non-woven fabrics with improved surface hydrophilicity to increase the scope of their use. Plasma treatment, an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional chemical activation, only changes the uppermost atomic layers of a membrane surface without affecting the bulk properties of the polymer

  14. Filtration of sludge residue from chamber 804 during production of primary bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfirrmann

    1942-02-23

    The filtration experiments and three common types of filter in use in coal liquefaction plants are described. The types of filter were the Kerzenfilter (candle filter), the Dorr filter, and the Scholven filter. The process for production of bitumen operated at 300 atm. pressure 25.5 millivolts temperature, and throughput of 0.5 kg/liter of reaction space/hr. The residue was thinned with middle oil and tested for filterability in a small pressure filter (2-kg samples) which gave results agreeing with the results obtained in industrial-size filter installations. The Kerzenfilter operated under 5 atm. nitrogen pressure and alternated between periods of filtration and of blowing off acumulated filter cake by 8 to 10 atm. reverse nitrogen pressure. The disadvantages of this type were that the yield of filtrate diminished greatly through time because of clogging up of the stone filter plate, rips in the plate often let excessive amounts of ash through, and the blowing off of filter cake caused losses of oil and damage to workers and surroundings. The Dorr filter was an almost continuously-operating filter which used Kieselgur (diatomaceous earth) suspended in middle oil over an asbestos cloth base as the filter. It worked very well, but had the disadvantages of operating under vacuum instead of under pressure (greater oil losses to vaporization) and the expense of the Kieselgur; experiments were underway to minimize both disadvantages. The Scholven filter was not satisfactory because its metal filter plate stopped up almost completely.

  15. Experimental optimization of catalytic process in-situ for heavy oil and bitumen upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, A.; Fishwick, R.P.; Leeke, G.A.; Wood, J. [Birmingham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rigby, S.P.; Greaves, M. [Bath Univ., Bath (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Peak crude oil production is expected to occur in the second decade of this century, followed by a phase of permanent decline in conventional crude oil production. However, very large resources of heavy oil and bitumen exist throughout the world, most notably in Canada and Venezuela. The high viscosity and density of these non-conventional crude oils require more energy intensive operations for production and upgrading, and also for transportation. As such, they are more costly to extract. This paper described some of the technological innovations that are being considered to extract heavier oil supplies with reduced environmental impact. The toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) process and its catalytic added-on (CAPRI) process combine in-situ combustion with catalytic upgrading using an annular catalyst packed around a horizontal producer well. Results of an experimental study concerning optimization of catalyst type and operating conditions showed that CAPRI can effect further upgrading of partially upgraded THAI oil, with upgrading levels of viscosity and API gravity dependent upon temperature and flow rate. 20 refs., 8 tabs., 10 figs.

  16. Polymer and bitumen-modified OPC for the immobilization of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.I.; Worrall, G.; Phillips, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer: cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for Cs 137 , are obtained at p:c > 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer-modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. 20 refs, 20 tabs, 10 figs

  17. Experience with The Use of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives in Bitumen Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cápayová, Silvia; Unčík, Stanislav; Cihlářová, Denisa

    2018-03-01

    In most European countries, Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) technology is still being used as the standard for the production and processing of bituminous mixtures. However, from the perspective of environmental acceptability, global warming and greenhouse gas production, Slovakia is making an effort to put into practice modern technology, which is characterized by lower energy consumption and reducing negative impacts on the environment. Warm mix asphalt technologies (WMA), which have been verified at the Department of Transportation Engineering laboratory, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology (FCE, SUT) can provide the required mixture properties and can be used not only for the construction of new roads, but also for their renovation and reconstruction. The paper was created in cooperation with the Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, which also deals with the addition of additives to asphalt mixtures and binders. It describes a comparison of the impact of some organic and chemical additives on the properties of commonly used bitumen binders in accordance with valid standards and technical regulations.

  18. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R.; Canale, A.; Bouza, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transporte. Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sanchez, Y. [Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas. Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H{sub 2}/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H{sub 2}S on HDS and NH{sub 3} on HDN. (author)

  19. Experience with The Use of Warm Mix Asphalt Additives in Bitumen Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cápayová Silvia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In most European countries, Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA technology is still being used as the standard for the production and processing of bituminous mixtures. However, from the perspective of environmental acceptability, global warming and greenhouse gas production, Slovakia is making an effort to put into practice modern technology, which is characterized by lower energy consumption and reducing negative impacts on the environment. Warm mix asphalt technologies (WMA, which have been verified at the Department of Transportation Engineering laboratory, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Slovak University of Technology (FCE, SUT can provide the required mixture properties and can be used not only for the construction of new roads, but also for their renovation and reconstruction. The paper was created in cooperation with the Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic, which also deals with the addition of additives to asphalt mixtures and binders. It describes a comparison of the impact of some organic and chemical additives on the properties of commonly used bitumen binders in accordance with valid standards and technical regulations.

  20. Novel Chemical Methodology for Identifying Origin of Archeological Bitumen: Chasing the Trade Routes along the Japanese Archipelago and Sakhalin Island in Prehistory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, M.; Kato, K.

    2009-04-01

    We invented a novel methodology for identifying origin of archaeological bitumen by use of field-ionization mass spectrometry (FI-MS). In the FI-MS method, fragmentation of molecular ions is minimal and there is a unit charge on each molecule. Thus, the observed mass spectra directly reflect the distribution of the molecular weights of the alkane components in bitumen. The distribution could be a molecular criterion for characterizing the bitumen sources from which each bitumen sample was derived. Actually, we decomposed the FI-MS spectra by Z-numbers into several components: the Z-number refers to z in the formula CnH2n+z and 2n-z is equivalent to the deficit number of H atoms when compared to the corresponding saturated hydrocarbon, which, in turn, is correlated to the ring number in alkanes. The integrated intensities of the component spectra corresponding to the Z-number were compared to each other. The difference in the observed spectra is reflected by the difference in concentration of alkane groups with different Z-number. In this way, the intensities data of the component spectra were used as indexes to search for the origin of the bitumen. FI-MS measurements were performed on 67 samples from five different bitumen sources and 41 bitumen samples excavated from archaeological sites in Honshu and Hokkaido, the largest and the second largest island in Japan, and Sakhalin island in Russia. By use of the spectral intensities of the seven alkane components in each sample, multiple discriminant analysis was employed for the data of raw bitumen samples and excavated samples from archaeological sites. The GC-MS chromatograms obtained from the archaeological samples from the Honshu area were all consistent with the results obtained by multivariate analysis, and thus the validity of the newly developed Z-number analysis was confirmed. As for the archaeological bitumen samples in Hokkaido, It was found that bitumen from Niigata, one of the main sources in Honshu

  1. Cold Lake Blend diluted bitumen toxicity to the early development of Japanese medaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Barry N; Hodson, Peter V; Langlois, Valerie S

    2017-06-01

    Diluted bitumen (dilbit) from Alberta oil sands (Canada) is transported across major continental watersheds, yet little is known about its toxicity to fish if spilled into aquatic environments. The toxicity of Cold Lake (CLB) dilbit was assessed for medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes) exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) and chemically-enhanced WAF (CEWAF) using Corexit ® EC9500A as dispersant. The effects of CLB toxicity were similar to conventional crude oils and Access Western Blend (AWB) dilbit. The prevalence of malformations and cyp1a mRNA synthesis in hatched fish increased monotonically with concentration during WAF and CEWAF treatments and provided a novel indicator of dilbit PAH toxicity. Apart from nfe2 (an antioxidant transcription factor), there were no statistically significant monotonic exposure-responses of ahr, arnt2, cat, sod, gpx, gst, gsr, g6pdh, p53, and hsp70 transcripts at total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) concentrations bracketing EC50s for embryotoxicity (WAF ≅ 3 μg/L; CEWAF ≅ 0.1 μg/L TPAH). Based on measured TPAH concentrations in exposure test solutions, CLB dilbit was 6-10 fold more toxic to medaka than AWB during chronic exposures. Lack of direct monotonic gene transcription responses to increasing oil concentrations during exposures that were embryotoxic suggests that the capacity of the oxidative stress response is limited in earlier lifestages or that differences exist among species in mechanisms of toxicity. This study provides a comparative framework for identifying suitable biomarkers and toxicity methods for those fish species in sensitive lifestages at highest risk of Canadian oil sands dilbit exposure following a spill in the freshwater environment. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fate of oxygenated intermediates in solar irradiated diluted bitumen mixed with saltwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeyu; Zhang, Gong; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Yang, Chun; Lambert, Patrick; Wang, Zhendi; Landriault, Mike; Shah, Keval

    2017-12-01

    Two types of diluted bitumen (dilbit) and a light crude oil spiked onto the surface of saltwater were irradiated with natural solar light in Ottawa to assess the impact of sunlight to the fate of oxygenated intermediates. Oxygenated components, including carbonyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acidic polar fractions (naphthenic acid fraction compounds, NAFCs), were identified after periods of solar exposure under both winter and summer conditions. Carbonyl PAHs and NAFCs were formed in both seasons; however, light crude and summer irradiation produced higher abundance of them than dilbits and winter exposure. The formed NAFCs were abundant with the congeners containing a heteroatom of oxygen only (O o species), accompanied by the minor amounts of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing acids. The produced O o species were predominant with the congeners with light molecular weight, high degree of saturation and heavy oxygen numbers. For both carbonyl PAHs and NAFCs, their abundance continually increased throughout the period of winter exposure. In the summer, some carbonyl PAHs and all O o species increased during the early exposure period; then they decreased with continued exposure for most oils, illustrating their transitional nature. Oxygenated intermediates thus appear to have been created through the photo-oxidation of non-to medium-polar petroleum hydrocarbons or the intermediates of aldehydes or ketones (O 1 ). Oil properties, the duration of exposure, exposure season and the chemical structure of these intermediates are critical factors controlling their fate through photo-oxidation. The observed chemical changes highlight the effects of sunlight on the potential behavior, fate and impact of spilled oil, with the creation of new resin group compounds and the reduction of aromatics and saturates. These results also imply that the ecological effects of spilled oil, after ageing in sunlight, depend on the specific oil involved and the environmental

  3. Should Alberta upgrade oil sands bitumen? An integrated life cycle framework to evaluate energy systems investment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choquette-Levy, Nicolas; MacLean, Heather L.; Bergerson, Joule A.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs in energy systems investment decision-making requires the development of a framework that accounts for GHG and economic tradeoffs. This paper develops such a framework by integrating partial cost–benefit analysis with life cycle assessment to explore the question of whether bitumen should be upgraded in the Canadian province of Alberta to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO), or blended with light hydrocarbons to produce lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit). The net present value (NPV) of these options is calculated from the stakeholder perspectives of the oil sands industry, the Alberta public, and a climate-concerned Alberta resident. This calculation includes monetized GHG emissions costs stemming from a hypothetical economy-wide GHG price, and a sensitivity analysis explores the effects of variations in technical and economic conditions on stakeholders’ preferences. We find that under most plausible sets of conditions, industry would prefer the dilution option, while the climate-concerned Alberta resident would prefer the upgrading option. In contrast, the preferences of the general Alberta public depend on the values of key variables (e.g., the SCO-dilbit price differential). Key drivers of differences among stakeholders’ preferences include different perceptions of risks and responsibilities for life cycle GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We develop a novel integrated partial cost-benefit analysis/LCA framework. • We consider stakeholder perspectives, and technical and GHG price variations. • Upgrading is typically less GHG-intensive than dilution per barrel of bitumen. • Dilution is typically less GHG-intensive than upgrading per mega joule of gasoline. • Even stringent GHG prices may not align preferences on energy systems investment decisions

  4. Irritative effects of fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways: results of a cross-shift study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Kappler, Martin; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans Peter; Merget, Rolf; Bruening, Thomas [Institut der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Schott, Klaus [Berufsgenossenschaft der Bauwirtschaft (BG BAU), Munich (Germany); Preuss, Ralf; Angerer, Juergen [Universitaet Erlangen, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (IPASUM), Erlangen (Germany); Hahn, Jens Uwe [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitsschutz (BGIA), Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Possible health hazards of fumes and aerosols of bitumen are in discussion, and data on their adverse effects on human airways under current exposure conditions are limited. To assess the irritative effects of exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways, a cross-sectional cross-shift study was conducted including external and internal exposure measurements, spirometry and especially non-invasive methods like nasal lavage collection and induction of sputum in order to identify and evaluate more precisely inflammatory process in the upper and lower airways. The cross-shift study comprised 74 mastic asphalt workers who were exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen and 49 construction workers without this exposure as reference group. Questionnaire, spirometry, ambient monitoring and urinary analysis were performed. Humoral and cellular parameters were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum. For data analysis, a mixed linear model was performed on the different outcomes with exposure group, time of measurement (pre-, post-shift), current smoking, German nationality and age as fixed factors and subjects as random factor. Based on personal exposure measurements during shift, mastic asphalt workers were classified into a low ({<=}10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 46) and a high (>10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 28) exposure group. High exposure was accompanied by significant higher urinary post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes. Acute respiratory symptoms were reported more frequently in the high exposure group after shift. Significant cross-shift declines in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1} (% predicted)] and forced vital capacity [FVC (% predicted)]) were measured in mastic asphalt workers. Pre-shift FEV{sub 1} (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted) were higher in the low exposure group. In pre- and post-shift NALF samples, interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-, IL-8- and total protein concentrations

  5. Quantifying wind blown landscapes using time-series airborne LiDAR at White Sands Dune Field, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Wind blown landscapes are a default geomorphic and sedimentary environment in our solar system. Wind sand dunes are ubiquitous features on the surfaces of Earth, Mars and Titan and prevalent within the aeolian rock records of Earth and Mars. Dunes are sensitive to environmental and climatic changes and a complete understanding of this system promises a unique, robust and quantitative record of paleoclimate extending to the early histories of these worlds. However, our understanding of how aeolian dune landscapes evolve and how the details of the wind are recorded in cross-strata is limited by our lack of understanding of three-dimensional dune morphodynamics related to changing boundary conditions such as wind direction and magnitude and sediment source area. We use airborne LiDAR datasets over 40 km2 of White Sands Dune Field collected from June 2007, June 2008, January 2009, September 2009 and June 2010 to quantify 1) three-dimensional dune geometries, 2) annual and seasonal patterns of erosion and deposition across dune topography, 3) spatial changes in sediment flux related to position within the field, 4) spatial changes in sediment flux across sinuous crestlines and 5) morphologic changes through dune-dune interactions. In addition to measurements, we use the LiDAR data along with wind data from two near-by weather stations to develop a simple model that predicts depositional and stratigraphic patterns on dune lee slopes. Several challenges emerged using time series LiDAR data sets at White Sands Dune Field. The topography upon which the dunes sit is variable and rises by 16 meters over the length of the dune field. In order to compare individual dune geometries across the field and between data sets a base surface was interpolated from local minima and subtracted from the dune topography. Co-registration and error calculation between datasets was done manually using permanent vegetated features within the active dune field and structures built by the

  6. Metabolites of the PAH diol epoxide pathway and other urinary biomarkers of phenanthrene and pyrene in workers with and without exposure to bitumen fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Anne; Pesch, Beate; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Raulf, Monika; Welge, Peter; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Breuer, Dietmar; Gabriel, Stefan; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Brüning, Thomas; Seidel, Albrecht

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the diol epoxide pathway of phenanthrene (PHE) together with phenolic metabolites of PHE and pyrene (PYR) in workers with and without exposure to bitumen fumes. The metabolite concentrations were determined in urine samples collected from 91 mastic asphalt workers and 42 construction workers as reference group before and after shift. During shift, vapours and aerosols of bitumen were measured according to a German protocol in the workers' breathing zone. The median concentration of vapours and aerosols of bitumen in mastic asphalt workers was 6.3 mg/m 3 . Metabolite concentrations were highest in post-shift urines of smokers with bitumen exposure and showed an increase during shift. The Spearman correlations between the creatinine-adjusted concentrations of metabolites and vapours and aerosols of bitumen in non-smokers were weak (e.g. sum of Di-OH-PYR: 0.28) or negligible (e.g. 1,2-PHE-diol: 0.08; PHE-tetrol: 0.12). Metabolites from the diol epoxide pathway of PHE were excreted in higher concentrations than phenolic metabolites (post-shift, non-smoking asphalt workers: 1,2-PHE-diol 2.59 µg/g crea vs. sum of all OH-PHE 1.87 µg/g crea). 1,2-PHE-diol was weakly correlated with PHE-tetrol (Spearman coefficient 0.30), an endpoint of the diol epoxide pathway. By contrast, we found a close correlation between the sum of 1,6-DiOH-PYR and 1,8-DiOH-PYR with 1-OH-PYR (Spearman coefficient 0.76). Most urinary PAH metabolites were higher after shift in bitumen-exposed workers, although the association with bitumen was weak or negligible likely due to the small PAH content. The additional metabolites of PHE and PYR complete the picture of the complex metabolic pathways. Nevertheless, none of the PAH metabolites can be considered to be a specific biomarker for bitumen exposure.

  7. Modification of an Amposta origin bitumen by using tlie Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluyiene-2,4-diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, M.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available In this works, we have modified a bitumen from Amposta by using the Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of aluminium trichloride, presenting as well as the characteristics of the original bitumen as the ones of the modification products. We have made technological test, aging of thin film, rheological test, thermical susceptibility and components analyses.

    En el presente trabajo se ha modificado un betún procedente de Amposta por reacción de Friedei y Crafts con 4-metil-1,3-bencenodiisocianato, en presencia de tricloruro de aluminio. Se han determinado las características del betún original así como las de los productos obtenidos en la modificación. Se han llevado a cabo ensayos de tipo tecnológico, envejecimiento en película delgada, propiedades reológicas, susceptibilidad térmica y análisis de componentes.

  8. The use of Crumb Rubber as Substitute of Fine Aggregate for Hot Asphalt Mixture using Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, A.; Nugroho, S. K.; Irsyad, A. M.; Mutaqo, H. F.; Ramadhan, P.; Sumarsono, A.; Pramesti, F. P.

    2018-03-01

    The development of road pavement to fulfilled the need of modern life is not only focused on heavy duty road, but also a light duty road for the convenience of road users according to its function. For example the use of pavement on the jogging track, rail crossing, playground and so on. Due to the need of an alternative and the innovation of a comfortable pavement layer, but sufficiently strong in holding the load on the layer. The alternative innovation that can be used for the respective requirement is the utilization of waste old tires as substitute material in pavement construction. In this case the use of crumb rubber made from old tire rubber as an 100% fine aggregate substitute on the asphalt mixtures is investigated. To improve the strength and durability of the mixtures, the addition of polymer modified bitumen was incorporated. The two types of asphalt mixture selected in this study by using a continuous gradation of asphalt concrete and a gap gradation of hot roll asphalt. Testing to be implemented in this research is volumetric characteristics, Marshall characteristics, resistance to abrasion and impact and permeability. Replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber on asphalt concrete mixture with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and polymer modified asphalt SBS E-55 in this research are expected to be an alternative in improving the quality of pavement and overcoming the environmental problems by reuse the waste materials.

  9. Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

    2014-05-01

    The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed.

  10. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  11. Microbial processes in the final repository, the silo part. Theoretical approach and preliminary experiments on the biodegradation of bitumen. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffey, R.; Hjalmarsson, K.

    1984-01-01

    On Commission of SKBF/KBS the microbial processes that are likely to occur in the silo part of SFR, the final repository for medium- and low-level nuclear wastes, have been put together. The experimental studies concerning microbial degradation of bitumen are described. From a microbial point of view it is the biodegradation of bitumen that constitutes the greatest risk in the silo part of SFR. The degradation, aerobic as well as anaerobic, leads to production of carbon dioxide which might cause a decrease in pH to such an extent that hydrogen-gas producing corrosion of metal could occur. This production of gas can cause an increase in internal pressure of the repository. A culture of bacteria able to degrade bitumen aerobically has been enriched. Uptil now no culture degrading bitumen under anaerobic conditions have been obtained. When making a risk assessment of the SFR at the present time it is not possible to completely disregard the microbial activity. An account is also given for some international contacts in this area. 11 references

  12. Oil-bearing inclusions in vein quartz and kalcite and, bitumens in veins: Testament to multiple phases of hydrocarbon migration in the Barrandian basin (lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchý, V.; Dobeš, P.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír; Stejskal, M.; Kroužek, J.; Chudoba, J.; Matějovský, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 285-297 ISSN 0264-8172 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3012703; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrocarbon * fluid inclusion * bitumen Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2010

  13. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic performance, steady amd vibratory loads, surface temperatures, and acoustic characteristics of a large-scale twin-engine upper-surface blown jet-flap configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Static and wind-on tests were conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of and the effects of jet impingement on the wing of a large scale upper surface blown configuration powered with an actual turbine engine. The wing and flaps were instrumented with experimental dual-sensing transducer units consisting of a fluctuating pressure gage, a vibratory accelerometer, and a surface mounted alumel thermocouple. Noise directivity and spectral content measurements were obtained for various flap configurations and various engine thrust settings to provide baseline noise data for other upper surface blown configurations.

  14. Investigation on the Combined Effect of Fibers and Cement on the Mechanical Performance of Foamed Bitumen Mixtures Containing 100% RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ashouri Taziani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about virgin aggregate sources and increasing demands for construction materials of transport infrastructures as the key parameters in development are the most important reasons, which convinced pavement engineers to develop new methods in order to use higher amount of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP. One of the common methodologies to produce mixtures containing RAP is foamed bitumen mix (FBM. In addition, according to previous research studies, incorporating various types of fibers and hydraulic binders such as cement could significantly improve the mechanical performance of mixtures. The present research study evaluated FBM containing 100% RAP and two types of fiber and Portland cement. Dynamic modulus, unconfined dynamic creep compression, and indirect tensile strength were evaluated in the laboratory at optimum moisture content, which was investigated in this research. Both types of fiber and cement proved to enhance specific properties of mixtures.

  15. Multidimensional Analysis of the Effects of Waste Materials on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Recycled Mixtures with Foamed Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Mazurek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the results from the tests of recycled mixture samples containing waste materials. Six types of waste materials were used in the mineral mix, in various configurations. Statistical inference was based on the multidimensional analysis through the reduction of input data size. Three groups of recycled mixtures were identified, each representing significantly different properties. The first group included rigid recycled mixtures, the second group comprised flexible mixtures, and those with the lowest cohesion and rigidity were in the third group. The statistical inference demonstrated that the recycled mixtures with waste materials to be most recommended were those with a high bitumen content (>2.5%. A high proportion of reclaimed asphalt pavement material was found to provide high performance of the recycled mixture, whereas recycled aggregate reduced the stiffness of the mix and its resistance to moisture.

  16. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  17. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, A.; Jacquemet, N.; Erable, B.; Sablayrolles, C.; Escadeillas, G.; Albrecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium

  18. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  19. Low speed wind tunnel investigation of a four-engine upper surface blown model having swept wing and rectangular and D-shaped exhaust nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, W. C., Jr.; Hohlweg, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    A low speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the power-on static-turning and powered-lift aerodynamic performance of a four engine upper surface blown transport configuration. Initial tests with a D-shaped exhaust nozzle showed relatively poor flow-turning capability, and the D-nozzles were replaced by rectangular nozzles with a width-height ratio of 6.0. The high lift system consisted of a leading edge slat and two different trailing-edge-flap configurations. A double slotted flap with the gaps sealed was investigated and a simple radius flap was also tested. A maximum lift coefficient of approximately 9.3 was obtained for the model with the rectangular exhaust nozzles with both the double slotted flap deflected 50 deg and the radius flap deflected 90 deg.

  20. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a semispan STOL jet transport wing body with an upper surface blown jet flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Letko, W.; Henderson, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation of the static longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a semispan STOL jet transport wing-body with an upper-surface blown jet flap for lift augmentation was conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel having a 12-ft octagonal test section. The semispan swept wing had an aspect ratio of 3.92 (7.84 for the full span) and had two simulated turbofan engines mounted ahead of and above the wing in a siamese pod equipped with an exhaust deflector. The purpose of the deflector was to spread the engine exhaust into a jet sheet attached to the upper surface of the wing so that it would turn downward over the flap and provide lift augmentation. The wing also had optional boundary-layer control provided by air blowing through a thin slot over a full-span plain trailing-edge flap.

  1. Haploinsufficiency of NADPH Oxidase Subunit Neutrophil Cytosolic Factor 2 Is Sufficient to Accelerate Full-Blown Lupus in NZM 2328 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Chaim O; Yu, Ning; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Perez-Zapata, Lizet J; Barbu, Emilia Alina; Kaplan, Mariana J; Purmalek, Monica; Pingel, Jeanette T; Idol, Rachel A; Dinauer, Mary C

    2017-08-01

    We have previously established that the gene for neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 (NCF-2) predisposes to lupus, and we have identified lupus patients with point mutations that are predicted to cause reduced NADPH oxidase activity. We undertook this study to investigate the relationship between reduced leukocyte NADPH oxidase activity and immune dysregulation associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We generated NCF-2-null mice, in which NADPH oxidase activity is absent, on the nonautoimmune C57BL/6 (B6) mouse background and on the NZM 2328 mouse background, a polygenic model in which mice spontaneously develop lupus. Clinical disease, serology, and immunopathology were evaluated. NCF-2-null mice on the B6 background were susceptible to Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia characteristic of chronic granulomatous disease, but did not develop systemic lupus disease. In contrast, NCF-2-null and even NCF-2-haploinsufficient mice on the NZM 2328 background developed accelerated full-blown lupus with significantly accelerated lupus kidney disease. This was characterized by more rapid development of hyperactive B cell and T cell immune compartments, increased expression of type I interferon-responsive genes, and generation of neutrophil extracellular traps, which were observed even in the absence of NADPH oxidase activity. Just as patients with chronic granulomatous disease who lack NADPH oxidase rarely develop SLE, NCF-2-null mice on a nonautoimmune background were susceptible to a chronic granulomatous disease-like opportunistic infection but did not develop lupus. In contrast, on a lupus-prone background, even haploinsufficiency of NCF-2 accelerated the development of full-blown lupus disease. This establishes an interaction between reduced oxidase activity and other lupus-predisposing genes, paralleling human SLE-associated variants predicted to have only reduced NADPH oxidase activity. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6 overexpression threshold of over 60 fold can distinguish between adenoma and fully blown colon carcinoma in individual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greulich Karl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that alpha-defensin expression is enhanced in colon cancer. However, the expression of human alpha defensin 6 (DEFA 6 in earlier stages, such as adenoma, has so far not yet been studied in a patient resolved manner. Methods By using quantitative Real Time-PCR, the gene expression pattern of DEFA 1-3 and DEFA 6 was analyzed in tissue of different stages of carcinogenesis, derived from colorectal cancer patients. In addition to paired normal and tumor tissue, matched normal near tumor and adenoma tissue samples were examined. Results The median gene expression of human defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6 has been found to be moderately increased (~ 5 fold in tumor samples derived from individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to their normal counterparts. However, when the data were analyzed in a patient-wise manner, a large expression variation among individual patients is found, making the use of DEFA 6 for individual diagnosis of fully blown colon carcinoma difficult. Surprisingly, in adenoma the gene expression analysis revealed a 100 fold increased median expression of DEFA 6 relative to normal colon tissue. 13/18 samples had an individual overexpression of more than 60 fold in adenoma but only 3/17 in carcinoma. In each of the individual patients, at least either the adenoma or the carcinoma showed strong DEFA 6 overexpression. Conclusions We suggest that the expression of DEFA 6 preferably can be used as a potential diagnostic marker for adenoma and not as a marker for fully blown carcinoma. This is supported by the fact that DEFA 6 is a downstream target of the Wnt pathway, which is mutational active during the earliest stage of cancer development.

  3. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  4. Development of bituminization process for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masao; Miyao, Hidehiko; Mizuno, Ryukichi

    1973-01-01

    For the bituminization of radioactive wastes from a fuel reprocessing plant, the leachability, irradiation stability and burning property of bitumen products have been studied. Sodium nitrate was used for simulated evaporator concentrate, and mixed with distillation bitumen or blown bitumen; the sodium nitrate content in the mixture was 30 to 60 wt%. The distillation bitumen is superior to the blown bitumen in leachability and flash point, but inferior in the increase of volume by irradiation. Since the volume increase is not large, the distillation bitumen is satisfactory for the bituminization of the evaporator concentrate from a fuel reprocessing plant. (Mori, K.)

  5. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  6. Future tools : from reservoir-embedded seismic to nanotechnological bitumen upgrading, scientists are unlocking new ways to extract and process fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2006-10-15

    A review of reservoir monitoring tools and methods designed by research centres and high-tech firms in Alberta was presented. The National Centre for Upgrading Technology is currently examining the use of biological catalysts for partially upgrading bitumens at remote field production sites to lower the viscosity and density of heavy oil and reduce the environmental impacts associated with refining. Geo-scientists at the University of Calgary are using a combination of geophysical methods to improve coalbed methane and tight gas extraction processes. Research at the university has centred around multi-component seismic exploration, which uses a shear wave measurement to provide an image of the ground's rigidity and can discriminate between fluid types to produce different pictures of the subsurface. In addition to investigating the conversion of seismic waves to radio emissions, the university is also examining the integration of electromagnetic or electrical methods with seismic methods. Multi-component seismic is now being evaluated for the purpose of monitoring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhanced recovery operations and sequestration at a demonstration project near Drayton Valley. Time-lapse monitoring will allow the research team to compare seismic surveys done months apart and identify changes caused by the growing pressure due to CO{sub 2} injection. It was suggested that a new nanotechnology fabrication facility created as part of the National Research Council (NRC) technology cluster will help scientists to discover new approaches in bitumen processing through a better understanding of the properties that cause bitumen to foul upgrading and transportation equipment. Many students are now using nanotechnology methods to understand how large bitumen molecules interact with catalyst surfaces. 4 figs.

  7. Effect of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the stability of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina-Villalba, German; Garcia-Sucre, Maximo

    2000-01-01

    In order to study the effects of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the drop size of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions, a modification of a standard Brownian Dynamics algorithm was employed. The new algorithm is able to simulate the evolution of oil/water emulsions towards flocculation and coalescence. The simulation boxes contain 216 and 125 particles initially distributed in a homogeneous simple cubic arrangement, corresponding to bitumen/water volume fractions of 0.30 and 0.51, respectively. The particles interact through a DLVO potential dependent on the total surfactant concentration, spatial surfactant distribution, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed to the bitumen/water interface. As will be shown in this article, certain combinations of the referred variables can produce a wide variety of repulsive potentials between similar drops. The variation of the total number of drops with time does not obey the usual analytical formalisms developed for more diluted cases, and instead, a simple exponential decrease of the number of drops with time is found. Such behavior has already been confirmed by experiment. Some similarities between the present results and those previously published for more diluted systems are discussed [es

  8. Assessment of dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road paving and mastic crews with an observational method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Michela; Fransman, Wouter; De Vocht, Frank; Van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Kromhout, Hans

    2011-07-01

    To assess dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among road pavers and indoor mastic workers in multiple crews using a semi-quantitative observational method [DeRmal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM)]. Two skilled observers assessed dermal exposure to bitumen condensate among 85 asphalt workers from 12 crews from nine companies active within four European countries using the DREAM methodology, which produces an estimate of exposure expressed in dimensionless DREAM units. Both observers independently evaluated each crew member's job (N = 14 jobs) for road paving and mastic applications. Potential and actual dermal exposures were estimated for hands and for the rest of the body separately, taking into account the effect of protective clothing. To evaluate the reproducibility of the observational method intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated. The exposures in DREAM units were modelled using linear mixed models to estimate average relative scores for each job. Correlations between dermal exposure parameters were evaluated by estimating Pearson correlation coefficients. A total of 170 observations were completed by two observers independently (n = 118 and n = 52 for 59 road pavers and 26 mastic workers, respectively) in 11 days. The mean ICCs (for potential and actual exposure in DREAM units) varied between 0.74 and 0.80 with values for actual units being slightly higher. Geometric mean potential dermal exposure units of mastic workers were higher than for road pavers (factor 3 for hands and factor 4 for rest of the body). Differences for actual dermal exposure units were smaller for hands (factor 2) and larger for actual exposure units of rest of the body (factor 5). Differences in dermal exposure at the hands between jobs within a paving crew were much larger than between jobs within a mastic crew. Within paving crews, a consistent pattern for all exposure units emerged with 'screed man' and 'raker' as the two highest exposed jobs. Within mastic

  9. Age dating of mineralization and brittle deformation using rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology in pyrite-bitumen bearing fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Robert; Dempsey, Eddie; Selby, David; Dichiarante, Anna; Finlay, Alex; Ogilvie, Steven

    2013-04-01

    The relative ages of different fault rocks are generally established using cross-cutting relationships seen in the field and thin section. However, the absolute dating of fault rock formation events remains a problematic issue. In many Phanerozoic basins, hydrocarbon (mainly bitumen)-bearing fault and fracture systems also carry sulphide minerals such as pyrite. The bitumen and pyrite are commonly enriched with rhenium (Re) so that the 187Re-187Os geochronometer can be used to date mineralization and better constrain the timing of brittle deformation. Furthermore, the determined 187Os/188Os composition of the sulphide minerals at the time of formation can yield insights into the origins of the fracture-hosted fluids. We report 3 cases of Re-Os sulphide geochronology from fracture-hosted hydrocarbon-pyrite systems offshore West of Shetland (UK) and in the nearby onshore Orcadian Basin, N Scotland. Hydrocarbon Re-Os data from the Faroe-Shetland Basin (FSB) show that there are four pulses of increased oil generation at 72 ± 5 Ma, 64 ± 4 Ma, 53 ± 14 Ma and 42 ± 6 Ma. These dates remove the need for large scale oil collection within fractured basement and Late Cretaceous reservoirs before re-migration into later Cenozoic reservoirs and agree with more recent models in which oil generation has been retarded by over pressure and that multiple pulses of generation are associated with regional inversion events that occurred during the Late Cretaceous, Paleocene and Oligocene/Miocene. The Clair oil field lies on the SE side of the FSB and a major part of the reservoir lies in Lewisian basement where hosting fractures are infilled with pyrite, calcite and bitumen. The pyrite contains low abundances of Re and Os, with Re-Os isotope compositions that are too similar to yield an isochron, whilst the associated bitumen is enriched in both Re and Os. Regression of the Re-Os data from other parts of the Clair field with the new pyrite Re-Os data obtained here yields a more

  10. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersoil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin biomacromolecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Moisture Damage and Stripping of Asphalt Concrete Prepared With New Additives of Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim H. Al-Humeidawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture induced damage and stripping are two of common reasons of premature failure of flexible pavement. The current research involved an extensive experimental investigation on two types of polymers (Novolac and PVA as modifiers in order to produce Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB. Different ratios of both additives were investigated for rheological properties of binder and mechanical properties of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA. The rheological properties of PMB were evaluated by penetration, softening point, ductility and thin film oven tests. The mechanical properties of HMA were assessed by Marshall Stability test, Retained Marshall Stability test, indirect tensile strength test, Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR, and striping test. The results of tests showed that the Novolac modifier improves the cohesion properties of binder and the adhesion of binder to aggregate. The PVA modifier mainly improves the adhesion of binder to aggregate with less degree of that of using Novolac. Both modifiers significantly improve moisture sensitivity and decrease the stripping of HMA. Also, the results showed that the addition of 2% of Novolac to binder to produce PMB represents the optimum option. The HMA with PMB Novolac 2% improves the Marshall Stability, Retained Marshall Stability, and TSR by 45%, 14% and 44% respectively. The very small amount of these additives compared with mix components and their reasonable price make them a superior and practical solution for premature failure of flexible pavement.

  12. Decontamination by fractional distillation of a radioactive mixture of perchlorethylene, bitumen, and sludges from chemical co-precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.; Hullo, R.

    1969-01-01

    It is not possible to incinerate the contaminated organic waste containing chlorine, produced at the Marcoule Centre. The only valid method for these solvents of average activity is fractional distillation. This report presents a pilot fractional distillation plant designed for decontaminating the residual solvents produced by the Centre's Waste Processing Station. These contaminated solvents come from the decontamination of a screw extrusion apparatus with perchlorethylene; this equipment is used for coating the radioactive sludges with bitumen. The pilot plant operates discontinuously and is used to decontaminate the perchlorethylene, to separate the perchlorethylene from the water, and to process the distillation residue. The electrically heated boiler is fitted with a removable base in the form of a disposable container. The installations decontamination factor is 3.4 x 10 6 when solvents with a specific activity of 0.23 Ci/m 3 are used. The average flow-rate for a distillation run is 10 l/hr at atmospheric pressure, and 21 l/hr at a residual pressure of 40 torr. The decontamination factor for the installation is better at atmospheric pressure than in a vacuum. (authors) [fr

  13. Experimental study of acoustic loads on an upper-surface-blown STOL airplane configuration. [Langley full-scale wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C. M.; Schoenster, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure levels were measured on the flap and fuselage of an upper-surface-blown jet-flap airplane configuration in a wind tunnel. The model tested had turbofan engines with a bypass ratio of 3 and a thrust rating of 10 kN. Rectangular nozzles were mounted flush with the upper surface at 35 percent of the wing chord. Test parameters were flap deflection angle, jet impingement angle, angle of attack, free-stream velocity, spanwise location of the engine, and jet dynamic pressure. Load levels were high throughout the jet impingement region, with the highest levels (about 159 dB) occurring on the fuselage and near the knee of the flap. The magnitude of the forward-velocity effect appeared to depend upon the ratio of free-stream and jet velocities. Good agreement was obtained between fluctuating pressure spectra measured at jet dynamic pressures of 7 and 22 kPa when the spectra were scaled by nondimensional functions of dynamic pressure, velocity, and the empirical relationship between dynamic pressure and overall fluctuating pressure level.

  14. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenest, T., E-mail: tdebenest@yahoo.fr [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Turcotte, P. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagne, F., E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagnon, C.; Blaise, C. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% < 1.9%) was 20 times higher than the one of OSW (72 h-IC 50% > 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<-0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  15. Make Quality Bitumen from Waxy Crudes Production de bitume de qualité à partir de bruts à base paraffinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl J. S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of quality bitumen from less suitable/non bitumen bearing crudes continues to be a challenging task for the refineries. Blending of short residues prior to processing is helpful to a limited extent. Generation of asphaltics low in wax through appropriate processing and their conversion to quality bitumen in admixture with suitable fluxes appears more practical approach. It is described with the help of experimental results. La production de bitume de qualité à partir de bruts contenant peu ou pas du tout de bitume naturel demeure une tâche difficile pour les raffineurs. Le problème est dû au déséquilibre de certains constituants des hydrocarbures, à savoir : les asphaltènes et les malthènes, composés de résines, de fractions aromatiques, de fractions naphténiques et de paraffine. Le traitement de ces matières premières ne permet pas d'obtenir des bitumes possédant des propriétés rhéologiques et physiques acceptables à haute et basse température. En fait, ces produits de base ont tantôt une teneur insuffisante en asphaltènes, tantôt une teneur excessive en paraffine, et parfois même les deux défauts. De plus, les matières premières à base paraffinique ont une forte densité API et une faible teneur en soufre. Le traitement des résidus de ces bruts doit donc être effectué par un procédé capable d'améliorer leurs propriétés et d'obtenir un bitume possédant les mêmes qualités que ceux que l'on tire des bruts bitumineux, comme ceux du Moyen Orient. La méthode préconisée par Ditman est peut-être la première tentative pour extraire des bitumes à partir des bruts à base paraffinique provenant d'Afrique du Nord. Les données ci-dessus et les expériences effectuées par les auteurs permettent de proposer les deux voies suivantes pour la production de bitumes de qualité à partir de résidus de bruts impropres : a Désalphatage des résidus courts. b Distillation des résidus courts sous pression

  16. Laboratory test results on the thermal resistance of polyisocyanurate foamboard insulation blown with CFC-11 substitutes: A cooperative industry/government project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01

    The fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFC-11 and CFC-12) are used as blowing agents for foam insulations for building and appliance applications. The thermal resistance per unit thickness of these insulations is greater than that of other commercially available insulations. Mandated reductions in the production of these chemicals may lead to less efficient substitutes and increase US energy consumption by one quad or more. This report describes laboratory thermal and aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminate boardstock to evaluate the viability of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFSs) as alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorcarbon-11 (CFC-11). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC- 123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b. These HCFC gases have a lower ozone depletion potential than CFC-11 or CFC-12. Apparent thermal conductivity (k) was determined from 0 to 50{degrees}C. Results on the laminate boards provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The measured laboratory increase in k was between 8 and 11% after a 240-d field exposure in the RTRA. Results are reported on a thin-specimen, aging procedure to establish the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. These thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 75 and 150{degrees}F for up to 300 d. The resulting k-values were correlated with an exponential dependency on (diffusion coefficient {times} time){sup {1/2}}/thickness and provided diffusion coefficients for air components into, and blowing agent out of, the foam. This aging procedure was used to predict the five-year thermal resistivity of the foams. The thin-specimen aging procedure is supported with calculations by a computer model for aging of foams. 43 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Application of oxy-fuel CO2 capture for In-situ bitumen extraction from Canada's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Mark; Goold, Scott; Laux, Stefan; Sharma, Apoorva; Aasen, Knut; Neu, Ben

    2010-09-15

    The CO2 Capture Project, along with Praxair, Devon Canada, Cenovus Energy and Statoil are executing a project to demonstrate oxy-fuel combustion as a practical and economic method for CO2 capture from once-through steam generators used in the in-situ production of bitumen in the Canadian Oil Sands. The goal of the project is to develop a reliable, lower cost solution for capturing CO2 that will eliminate up to 90% of the GHG emissions from in-situ operations. The participants will present results of Phase I of this project, and will also outline the future Phases to pilot this technology.

  18. Measurements of the speed of sound and the absorption coefficient for ion exchange resin embedded in concrete and bitumen using ultrasonic waves at around 0.1 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The speed and absorption of sound was determined for different amounts of resin, different times after preparation of the samples, and for different temperatures. The absorption data indicate that it should be possible to use the technique on full-scale waste products. The data also indicate that the velocity of sound is sensitive to several parameters of interest in radioactive waste treatment and storage. The technique may also be used to gain information on the internal disposition of a waste package. (Auth.)

  19. Differential induction of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes and exfoliated urothelial cells of workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenebis-(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA) and bitumen fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, E B; Edwards, J W

    2005-01-01

    Cytogenetic end-points used to estimate risk of genotoxic events in workers include the measurement of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated cells, lymphocytes, and other tissues. Micronuclei are chromatin-containing bodies outside the cell nucleus resulting from contaminant-induced DNA damage. A review of 71 reports of human genotoxic responses to chemical or physical agents published between 1999 and 2001 revealed that 14% of such studies measured genotoxicity endpoints in specific target tissues relevant to the site of disease for the agent examined; 18% used endpoints in surrogate or non-target tissues but considered the relations between endpoints in surrogate and disease target tissues, and 68% measured genotoxicity endpoints in accessible tissues without reference to specific targets for disease. Methylenebis-(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), used in polyurethane manufacture, is a suspected bladder carcinogen. Bitumen, used in road surfacing, contains skin and lung carcinogens. In this study, we aimed to compare genotoxicity in urothelial cells and in lymphocytes of workers exposed to these materials. Twelve men employed in polyurethane manufacture, twelve bitumen road layers, and eighteen hospital stores personnel (controls) were recruited and all provided blood and urine samples on the same day. Blood cultures were prepared using a cytochalasin B-block method. Exfoliated urothelial cells were collected from urine and stained for light microscopy. The number of MN in urothelial cells was higher in MOCA-exposed (14.27 +/- 0.56 MN/1000, 9.69 +/- 0.32 MN cells/1000) than in bitumen exposed workers (11.99 +/- 0.65 MN/1000, 8.66 +/- 0.46 MN cells/1000) or in control subjects (6.88 +/- 0.18 MN/1000, 5.17 +/- 0.11 MN cells/1000). Conversely, in lymphocytes, MN were higher in bitumen-exposed (16.24 +/- 0.63 MN/1000, 10.65 +/- 0.24 MN cells/1000) than in MOCA-exposed workers (13.25 +/- 0.48 MN/1000, 8.54 +/- 0.14 MN cells/1000) or in control subjects (9.24 +/- 0.29 MN/ 1000, 5

  20. Flies blown disease - Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis, a term first introduced by Hope (1840, refers to the invasion of tissues and organs of animals and human wounds and certain body cavities by the dipteran larvae which manifests as subcutaneous furunculoid or boillike lesions. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and a risk to the patient′s life. Higher incidence is seen in rural areas affecting the tropical and sub-tropical zones of Africa and America. Myiasis affecting the oro-dental complex is rare. Here is a case report of oral myiasis in an 18-year-old male patient who is mentally challenged with anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and periodontal disease. The lesion was treated with turpentine oil, which forced larvae out and irrigated with normal saline solution. Follow-up examination revealed complete remission and healing of the lesion.

  1. Does a more refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume and confounders alter risk estimates from a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Michela; Ferro, Gilles; Burstyn, Igor

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study....

  2. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model; Comportement sous eau des dechets radioactifs bitumes: validation experimentale du modele de degradation Colonbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinner, B

    2004-03-01

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of

  3. Issue of Changes in Adhesion of Bitumen Sheet to Primary Layer over the Course of Time in Multilayer Waterproofing during Shear Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachý, Jan; Vysoká, Jana; Vejmelka, Radek; Horský, Jan; Vacek, Vítězslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is based on research dealing with defects that appear on concrete bridge decks with an insulating layer from asphalt strips on the interface between the asphalt strip and its basis. The durability and lifespan of the bearing structure of concrete bridge is determined by insulating layer that constitutes, together with the primary layer and a protective layer, the insulation system of the concrete bridge deck. Paints based on low viscosity epoxy resigns are one of the possibilities of primary layer implementation. These paints may be performed as anchoring-impregnation paints that usually represent single layer paint on the bridge deck surface. Sealing layer is another variant. Sealing layer is a multilayer consisting of anchoring- impregnation paint and sealing paint. The primary layers mainly provide vapour closing of the concrete surface, and partly, through roughening the surface, contribute to adhesion of bitumen (asphalt) insulation (waterproofing) layer. Application of the primary layer has been spreading in the Czech Republic since the 1990s. Now, after approximately 30 years of use defects in these epoxy based sealing layers at the interface between primary layer and waterproofing layer of reinforced bitumen sheets (RBS) are being solved in the Czech Republic. After performance of the first test focusing on breaking-strength, it was found that the strength between the asphalt and the primary belt layer in some types of low-viscosity resin-epoxy decreases and after a certain period of time again increases, depending on the time. Tensile strength test is carried out on a sample of asphalt strip, which is fused onto the substrate with a primer coat. It was therefore proceeded to test the shear adhesion. Testing of the shear adhesion is conducted on the entire concrete deck waterproofing system. It was supposed that the decrease of adhesion at this test become evident in higher extent. Adhesion tests in shear were performed on the primary layer

  4. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts.

  5. Other solutions for the plastic residue from the automobile industry and used as additives in the asphaltic bitumens; Alternativas de los residuos plasticos de la automocion y su empleo como aditivos de los betunes asfalticos. Parte I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Vidriero, E.; Castillo, F. [CEDEX. Ministerio de Fomento. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    This article forms part of an investigation which aims to achieve two adjectives. The first is to cooperate in the improvement of the environment by decreasing the amount of plastic residue from the automobile industry. The second is to improve the characteristics of asphaltic bitumens used in roofing and waterproofing in civil engineering, through the addition of plastic residue from the automobile industry. (Author) 4 refs.

  6. Optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties for ballast stabilisation; Optimización de las propiedades de emulsión de betún para la estabilización de balasto.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Angelo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Thom, N.

    2017-07-01

    Ballasted track, while providing economical and practical advantages, is associated with high costs and material consumption due to frequent maintenance. More sustainable alternatives to conventional ballasted trackbeds should therefore aim at extending its durability, particularly considering ongoing increases in traffic speed and loads. In this regard, the authors have investigated a solution consisting of bitumen stabilised ballast (BSB), designed to be used for new trackbeds as well as in reinforcing existing ones. This study presents the idea behind the technology and then focuses on a specific part of its development: the optimisation of bitumen emulsion properties and dosage in relation to ballast field conditions. Results showed that overall bitumen stabilisation improved ballast resistance to permanent deformation by enhancing stiffness and damping properties. Scenarios with higher dosage of bitumen emulsion, higher viscosity, quicker setting behaviour, and harder base bitumen seem to represent the most desirable conditions to achieve enhanced in-field performance. [Spanish] El balasto proporciona ventajas económicas y prácticas, sin embargo se asocia con altos costos y consumo de materiales. Las alternativas más sostenibles deben tener como objetivo extender la durabilidad del balasto, sobre todo teniendo en cuenta los actuales incrementos en la velocidad y las cargas del tráfico. Los autores presentan una solución que consiste en estabilizar el balasto con betún. Este estudio describe la tecnología y se centra en la optimización de las propiedades de la emulsión bituminosa y su dosis en función de las condiciones del balasto. Los resultados muestran que la stabilización con betún mejora la resistencia a la deformación permanente mediante la modificación de la rigidez y las propiedades de amortiguación. Pruebas con mayor dosis de emulsión bituminosa, mayor viscosidad, fraguado rápido y betún base más duro, representan las condiciones m

  7. Heavy oil and bitumen : thinking caps on : researchers look at new and greener ways to get at the heavy oil prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-01-15

    New steam stimulation processes developed by the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy were discussed. The J-well and gravity-assisted steam stimulation (JAGD) process uses a steam injection well located within the top few metres of a reservoir and a production well comprised of an inclined J-shaped well. JAGD is a transitional cold production-to-thermal-production technology. High pressure steam is used to heat and loosen the bitumen so that it flows to the producer well below. The configuration was designed to cut through mud and shale layers and is suitable for poor quality reservoirs. Simulations conducted in Athabasca reservoirs have demonstrated that JAGD uses approximately 75 per cent of the steam typically used in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. The iSAGD process was designed to reposition parallel wells in order to increase oil mobility. Researchers at the centre are also investigating a catalytic air-stream process called CASPAR which aims to upgrade oil from 10 degrees API to 16 degrees API within the reservoir. The process involves a mixture of heat, catalyst hydrogen, steam, air and water in the reservoir. The process leaves heavier ends of oil underground as well as fractions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Research is also being conducted on expanding-solvent SAGD (ES-SAGD) a process that adds butane to steam in order to reduce water use. 3 figs.

  8. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Scheidhauer, J.

    1963-01-01

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors) [fr

  9. Effective method of treatment of effluents from production of bitumens under basic pH conditions using hydrodynamic cavitation aided by external oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Gągol, Michał; Klein, Marek; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of cavitation in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is a promising trend in research on treatment of industrial effluents. The paper presents the results of investigations on the use of hydrodynamic cavitation aided by additional oxidation processes (O 3 /H 2 O 2 /Peroxone) to reduce the total pollution load in the effluent from the production of bitumens. A detailed analysis of changes in content of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for all processes studied was also performed. The studies revealed that the most effective treatment process involves hydrodynamic cavitation aided by ozonation (40% COD reduction and 50% BOD reduction). The other processes investigated (hydrodynamic cavitation+H 2 O 2 , hydrodynamic cavitation+Peroxone and hydrodynamic cavitation alone) ensure reduction of COD by 20, 25 and 13% and reduction of BOD by 49, 32 and 18%, respectively. The results of this research revealed that most of the VOCs studied are effectively degraded. The formation of byproducts is one of the aspects that must be considered in evaluation of the AOPs studied. This work confirmed that furfural is one of the byproducts whose concentration increased during treatment by hydrodynamic cavitation alone as well as hydrodynamic cavitation aided by H 2 O 2 as an external oxidant and it should be controlled during treatment processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Desempeño de pavimentos estabilizado con asfalto espumado en una prueba de pavimentos a escala real y carga acelerada Performance of foamed bitumen pavements in accelerated testing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Gonzalez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los objetivos claves de la gestión de pavimentos es desarrollar e implementar una estrategia de construcción y mantenimiento rentables, con el fin de alcanzar niveles requeridos de servicio y desempeño. Una técnica rentable y sustentable para la rehabilitación de pavimentos es la de estabilización o reciclado con asfalto espumado (AE. Este artículo presenta un estudio sobre el desempeño de pavimentos estabilizados con asfalto espumado en el Canterbury Accelerated Pavement Testing Indoor Facility CAPTIF. CAPTIF es un laboratorio a escala real para pavimentos ubicado en Nueva Zelandia, que permite aplicar un gran número de cargas de tráfico en un breve período de tiempo. Seis secciones de pavimentos con distintos contenidos de asfalto y cemento fueron ensayadas en CAPTIF. Los resultados del experimento mostraron que las deflexiones disminuyen en las secciones con mayor contenido de asfalto espumado. Luego de aplicar más de un millón de ciclos de carga, las secciones estabilizadas sólo con cemento, sólo con asfalto y la sección sin estabilizar mostraron un deterioro significativo en forma de ahuellamiento. Por otro lado, las secciones que fueron estabilizadas con AE y cemento mostraron un buen desempeño, demostrando que el cemento y el AE juntos mejoran significativamente el desempeño del pavimento. Los resultados de ahuellamiento fueron empleados para desarrollar modelos y describir el deterioro estable y acelerado de los pavimentos en estudio, lo que puede ser utilizado para una mejor gestión de los pavimentos estabilizados con asfalto espumado.One of the key principal goals of pavement asset management is to develop and implement cost-effective pavement construction and maintenance strategies that achieve the required levels of service and performance. A sustainable, cost-effective technique for rehabilitating pavements is foamed bitumen stabilization. This paper presents a study on the performance of foamed bitumen

  11. Acute toxicity of Corexit EC9500A and assessment of dioctyl sulfosuccinate as an indicator for monitoring four oil dispersants applied to diluted bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Ceara Y; Brunswick, Pamela; Park, Grace H; Buday, Craig; Schroeder, Grant; Fieldhouse, Ben; Brown, Carl E; van Aggelen, Graham; Shang, Dayue

    2018-01-11

    The present study investigated oil dispersant toxicity to fish species typical of the cooler regions of Canada, together with less well-documented issues pertaining to oil dispersant monitoring. The oil dispersant toxicity of Corexit EC9500A was assessed for the freshwater fish species rainbow trout and the seawater species coho, chinook, and chum, with a final median lethal concentration (LC50) acute lethality range between 35.3 and 59.8 mg/L. The LC50 range was calculated using confirmed 0-h dispersant concentrations that were justified by fish mortality within the first 24 h of exposure and by variability of the dispersant indicator dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS) used to monitor concentrations at later time points. To investigate DOSS as an oil dispersant indicator in the environment, microcosm systems were prepared containing Corexit EC9500A, Finasol OSR52, Slickgone NS, and Slickgone EW dispersants together with diluted bitumen. The DOSS indicator recovery was found to be stable for up to 13 d at 5 °C, 8 d at 10 °C, but significantly less than 8 d at ≥15 °C. After 3 d at temperatures ≥15 °C, the DOSS indicator recovery became less accurate and was dependent on multiple environmental factors including temperature, microbial activity, and aeration, with potential for loss of solvents and stabilizers. A final assessment determined DOSS to be a discrepant indicator for long-term monitoring of oil dispersant in seawater. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-11. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  12. Preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for samples from Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata, Maverick Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Gesserman, Rachel M.; Ridgley, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, a regionally occurring limestone and shale interval of 500-600-ft maximum thickness (Rose, 1986), is being evaluated as part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in onshore Lower Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to release preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for Pearsall Formation, Glen Rose Formation, Hosston Formation, Austin Group, and Eagle Ford Group samples from the Maverick Basin in south Texas in order to aid in the characterization of these strata in this area. The preliminary nature of this report and the data contained herein reflect that the assessment and characterization of these samples is a work currently in progress. Pearsall Formation subdivisions are, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Bexar Shale Members (Loucks, 2002). The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation is also part of the USGS Lower Cretaceous assessment and produces oil in the Maverick Basin (Loucks and Kerans, 2003). The Hosston Formation was assessed by the USGS for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2006 (Dyman and Condon, 2006), but not in south Texas. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Group is being assessed as part of the USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Upper Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico and, along with the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, is considered to be an important source rock in the Smackover-Austin-Eagleford Total Petroleum System (Condon and Dyman, 2006). Both the Austin Group and the Eagle Ford Group are present in the Maverick Basin in south Texas (Rose, 1986).

  13. The influence of organic complexing agents upon the mobilization and migration of radionuclides from ILW contained in cement and bitumen under nearfield conditions for a repository in a salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiling, C.

    1992-01-01

    Within the frame of this project the influence of the synthetic organic complexing agents dibutylphosphate, tributylphosphate, ethylenediamine-tetra acetic acid, citrate and oxalate on the solubilities, the migration and sorption behaviour of the elements iodine, cesium, uranium neptunium, plutonium and americium was investigated in electrolyte solutions, representing the conditions of a near field of a waste repository in a salt dome after an intrusion of brines, considered as a hypothetical scenario. The electrolyte solutions were saturated NaCl solution and Q-brine, which were equilibrated with corrosion products of the matrices Portland 35-F cement and bitumen (Shell Mexphalte R 80-100) before starting the experiments, in order to simulate their influence on the chemical behaviour of the solutions used for the experiments. The temperature, at which the experiments were carried out, was 298 K. After determining the relevant pH- and Eh-values, pH was adapted to 12.3 for saturated NaCl solution equilibrated with cement and to 6.4 for Q-brine also being at equilibrium with cement. The electrolyte systems on the other hand containing bitumen were kept at those pH-values, which resulted from saturation with the complexing agents. 120 tabs., 87 figs., 67 refs

  14. Blown away; new non-fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    Review of 'The Manhattan Project' by Jeff Hughes which sets the mammoth collaboration into scientific context, showing how it both developed from and accelerated a research trend that was already underway (1/2 page).

  15. Melt Blown Fabrics for Chemical Protective Liners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadsworth, Larry

    2003-01-01

    ... chemical protective clothing designs This study was performed in three phases The objective of Phase 1 was to establish an envelope of MB operating conditions versus web performance properties with three...

  16. Experimental investigation of the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation: Anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis of a bitumen-rich Eagle Ford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Deyong; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Tongwei

    2018-01-01

    Gold-tube pyrolysis experiments were conducted on miniature core plugs and powdered rock from a bitumen-rich sample of Eagle Ford Shale to investigate the role of rock fabric in gas generation and expulsion during thermal maturation. The samples were isothermally heated at 130, 300, 310, 333, 367, 400, and 425 °C for 72 h under a confining pressure of 68.0 MPa, corresponding to six levels of induced thermal maturity: pre-oil generation (130 °C/72 h), incipient oil/bitumen generation (300 and 310 °C/72 h), early oil generation (333 °C/72 h), peak oil generation (367 °C/72 h), early oil cracking (400 °C/72 h), and late oil cracking (425 °C/72 h). Experimental results show that gas retention coupled with compositional fractionation occurs in the core plug experiments and varies as a function of thermal maturity. During the incipient oil/bitumen generation stage, yields of methane through pentane (C1–C5) from core plugs are significantly lower than those from rock powder, and gases from core plugs are enriched in methane. However, the differences in C1–C5 gas yield and composition decrease throughout the oil generation stage, and by the oil cracking stage no obvious compositional difference in C1–C5 gases exists. The decrease in the effect of rock fabric on gas yield and composition with increasing maturity is the result of an increase in gas expulsion efficiency. Pyrolysis of rock powder yields 4–16 times more CO2 compared to miniature core plugs, with δ13CCO2 values ranging from −2.9‰ to −0.6‰, likely due to carbonate decomposition accelerated by reactions with organic acids. Furthermore, lower yields of gaseous alkenes and H2 from core plug experiments sugge

  17. Phase behavior of Athabasca bitumen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazyleva, A.; Fulem, Michal; Becerra, M.; Zhao, B.; Shaw, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 7 (2011), s. 3242-3253 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid-organic compounds * heat-capacity * scanning calorimeters * thermodynamic properties * temperature calibration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2011

  18. Recent technological advances in the application of nano-catalytic technology to the enhanced recovery and upgrading of bitumen and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Almao, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Advances in Nanotechnology, such as manufacturing of nano-catalysts allow the online (during processing) and on site production of nano-catalysts for heavy oils upgrading. These inventions have also facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oils upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. Producing chemical upgrading of heavy oils is achievable and economically viable at lower temperatures and lower pressures than used in most upgraders if the use of nano-catalysts were implemented. The spontaneity of thermal, steam and hydro processing reactions for converting the different chemical families of hydrocarbons present in the heaviest fractions of heavy oils and bitumen (HO-B) into lighter products was shown recently. Spontaneity was measured by the value of the change of free energy at low pressure. These undesirable paths are spontaneous and uncontrollable under thermal cracking conditions, and require providing years of residence time for intermolecular hydrogen redistribution to minimize olefins polymerization, if at all possible. Instead, hydroprocessing in the presence of hydrogen activating catalysts would create an abundance of hydrogen radicals impeding large molecules condensation and olefins proliferation. In Situ Upgrading: performs coupled Enhanced Oil Recovery with In Reservoir Upgrading via Hot Fluid Injection (HFI). The heat handling of this HFI process and the production of transportable oil with no need of diluent from the start of operation completes the originality of it. This technology uses heavy fractions separated from produced oil to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. These components react in the well bore and inside the reservoir to release more heat (hydroprocessing reactions are exothermic) producing light gases and volatile hydrocarbons that contribute to increase oil detachment from the rock resulting in

  19. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    needed to increase the recovery of bitumen resources and provide the upgrading capacity required by Suncor for additional bitumen production from its mining and in situ projects. 1 fig

  20. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties. Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. We propose the use of bioDiesel such as fatty acids methyl ester as a surfactant additive reducing heavy oil/bitumen-water interfacial tension in steam assisted recovery processes. Advantages of using bioDiesel as a surfactant additive are that bioDiesel is chemically stable under the operating pressure and temperature of the reservoir, it causes no harm on bitumen fuel quality and on release water chemistry and its use is economically feasible. We conducted a series of steam assisted bitumen recovery experiments to clarify the additional recovery potential and efficiency improvement capacity of bioDiesel. High pressure steam at 1.8 MPa pressure, 205°C was used in these tests at a 900 g/h feed rate. The porous media used was a normal grade oil sands ore obtained from a surface mine operation in Northern Alberta, Canada. Oil sands ore was packed in a basket and placed in a high pressure cell. Bitumen recovery experiments were performed by spraying canola oil fatty acid methyl ester on oil sands ore at a 2 g/kg-bitumen dosage. These tests show that bitumen recovery efficiency increases over 40%. In another series of tests, tall oil fatty acids methyl ester was injected into a high pressure steam line at a 8.3 g-bioDiesel/kg-steam dosage. Because of the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen, the effect of bioDiesel on bitumen recovery could not be accurately concluded. Vapor pressure measurements performed on canola oil and tall oil derived bioDiesel samples suggest that saturation

  1. Rheological testing of crumb rubber modified bitumen

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available According to AASHTO Test Method T 315 ranges are a function of the binder stiffness. Anton Paar Physica Smartpave Plus that uses a Peltier system with a parallel plate mea configuration. SHRP-A-370 (1994 sample thickness (gap), which...

  2. Correlação entre propriedades reológicas e ópticas de filmes tubulares de polietileno linear de baixa densidade com diferentes distribuições de ramificações curtas Correlation between rheological and optical properties of LLDPE blown films with different distributions of short chain branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glayton M. Basso

    2006-06-01

    weight and the distribution of molecular weights, the SCB affects the blown film process because it interferes in the film solidification and crystallization kinetics up to the freezing line. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of the DSCB of LLDPE in the rheological and optical properties of blown films. Three LLDPE, synthesized with Ziegler-Natta and metallocene catalysts, were studied, all with similar weight average molecular weight, Mw, but with different DSCB. It was observed that the DSCB influenced the rheological properties that reflect the material elasticity, such as the first normal tension difference, N1(g, the storage modulus G'(w and the recoverable strain gammar; however, the rheological properties that reflect the viscosity, such as the shear viscosity eta(gamma and the loss modulus G"(w, were not affected. In addition, the higher the gammar of the LLDPE, the lower the crystalline structures of the films, which decreased their opacity. However this proportionality was kept up to a given value of gammar above which the melt fracture dominated the recoverable strain and the opacity increased again.

  3. Solution-blown nanofiber mats from fish sarcoplasmic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sett, S.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Yarin, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    that the production rate of solution-blowing was increased 30-fold in relation to electrospinning. Overall, this study reveals FSP as an interesting biopolymeric alternative to synthetic polymers, and the introduction of FSP to nylon 6 provides a composite with controlled properties....

  4. Comet mission is blown off course by faulty rocket

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    ESA has announced that the launch of the Rosetta probe, has been delayed indefinitely because of problems with the unreliable Ariane-5 rocket on which it was to fly. The project will now have to be redesigned completely to target a different comet at a later date (1/2 page).

  5. Best practice: bitumen-emulsion and foamed bitumen materials laboratory processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekwick, SV

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available of these materials, which can include both active and inactive fillers such as lime, cement, fly ash, etc., as well as the bituminous binder and parent material. The complexities of the various chemical reactions and interactions that will occur during the treatment...

  6. Inhibition of the radiolytic hydrogen production in the nuclear waste of 'bitumen coated' type: study of the interaction between hydrogen and cobalt hydroxo-sulphide; Inhibition de la production d'hydrogene radiolytique dans les dechets nucleaires de type 'enrobes bitumineux': etude de l'interaction entre l'hydrogene et l'hydroxosulfure de cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, C

    2006-11-15

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxo sulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an 'inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production'. However, the origin of this phenomenon was not clearly identified. In order to propose an explanation to this inhibition phenomenon, model organic molecules were used to represent the components of the bitumen. Irradiations were carried out by protons to simulate the alpha radiolysis. The organic molecules irradiations by a proton beam showed that cobalt hydroxo sulphide CoSOH, does not act as a hydrogenation catalyst of unsaturated hydrocarbons, nor as a radicals scavenger, but consists of a trap of hydrogen. Experiments of hydrogen trapping at ambient temperature were carried out according to two techniques: gravimetry and manometry. The solid was characterized before and after interaction with hydrogen (infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction). The initial solid was composed of amorphous cobalt hydroxo sulphide and a minor phase of cobalt hydroxide. The gravimetry and manometry experiments showed that the maximum of hydrogen trapping capacity is equal to 0.59 {+-} 0.18 mole of hydrogen per mole of cobalt. After interaction with hydrogen, the Co(OH){sub 2} phase disappeared and a new solid phase appeared corresponding to Co{sub 9}S{sub 8}. These observations, as well as the analysis of the gas phase, made it possible to conclude with the following reaction (1): 9 CoSOH + 11/2 H{sub 2} = Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} + 9 H{sub 2}O + H{sub 2}S (1). Gravimetry experiments at temperatures between 50 and 210 C revealed the desorption of water but not of hydrogen sulphide. The absence of hydrogen

  7. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963); Enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de la station de traitement des effluents du centre de Marcoule. Mise au point des etats d'avancement 1, 2, 3 et 4. (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Scheidhauer, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors) [French] En dehors des liquides de tres haute activite contenant des produits de fission, le traitement chimique des combustibles irradies produit un volume important d'effluents aqueux et de residus solides de radioactivite relativement faible. Ces produits, faiblement actifs, peuvent etre elimines dans le sol, dans un systeme hydrographique terrestre ou dans la mer. Les techniques d'evaporation, de concentration sur resine, de coprecipitation, permettent la decontamination prealable des liquides. La coprecipitation donne naissance a des boues minerales dont la teneur en eau est elevee. Tous ces residus occupent un volume important et representent un poids non negligeable. Dans le cas des boues, leur fluidite relative exige un conditionnement donnant toutes garanties de securite au stockage. La solution du probleme consistera a passer directement d'un liquide ou d'une suspension a un solide

  8. Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Agbabu Bitumen deposit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg was carried out on sediment of Agbabu with a sequential extraction procedure in the dry and rainy seasons of year 2008. Hg was not detected in all the fractions in the two seasons. In the dry season, all the metals were mostly abundant in Fraction-5, however ...

  9. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  10. Biodegradation of hydrocarbon compounds in Agbabu natural bitumen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... one third of the total PAHs contained in undegraded PFB was found in them. This implies that the three bacteria were able to degrade more than 60% of the total PAHs contained in undegraded ANB. The extent of degradation of PAHs achieved in this work is very close to the results of Gokcen et al. (2008) ...

  11. Characteristics of two-component epoxy modified bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Su, Z.; Zandvoort, F.

    2010-01-01

    Coal tar bearing emulsions were used in the Netherlands as binder in anti-skid surfaces for runways because of their perfect adhesion and fuel resistance properties. They are however toxic and will not be allowed anymore after 2010. Therefore alternatives need to be developed. As one of the

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report

  13. Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Agbabu Bitumen deposit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    specially the actual environmental impact, metal bioavailability as well as their origin (Ramirez,. 2005). Heavy metal speciation in sediment impacted with crude oil in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria has been reported (Iwegbue et al., 2006). It was found that Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni have high mobility indices. Cd was associated.

  14. Turning Back Time : Rheological and Microstructural Assessment of Rejuvenated Bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Schlangen, E.; Shirazi, M.; van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.; Scarpas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Countermeasures to the ageing of bituminous asphalt binders is a highly important topic, both for service-life extension of asphalt ‘in the field’ and for recycling old pavements (RAP) into new structures with similar functional requirements as the original structure. Usually this is achieved by

  15. Response Modelling of Bitumen, Bituminous Mastic and Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on testing and modelling the viscoelastic response of bituminous binders. The main goal is to find an appropriate response model for bituminous binders. The desired model should allow implementation into numerical environments such as ABAQUS. On the basis of such numerical

  16. Blown by the wind: the ecology of male courtship display behavior in orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Tamara; Vogler, Ira; Losch, René; Schlütting, Patrick; Juarez, Pedro; Bissantz, Nicolai; Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Many insects rely on chemical signals to transmit precise information on the location, identity, and quality of potential mates. Chemical signals are often broadcasted at sites with physical properties that maximize signal propagation and signal transmission. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) perch and display on vertical branches and tree trunks in the forest to expose volatile blends (perfumes) that they previously collected from their environment. Previous studies have shown that the chemical composition of perfume blends is highly differentiated even between closely related species. However, variation in behavioral components of perfume exposure and male display remain poorly understood. We conducted a four-year study on orchid bee display sites (8 species) in pacific Costa Rica, using field observations along with chemical analysis and cage experiments to assess display niche partitioning among sympatric species. We evaluated the influence of physical factors (terrain, wind, light) on the distribution of perch sites and on display behavior, and tested a prediction of the sex pheromone-analogue hypothesis, i.e., that displaying males have above-average quantities or qualities of acquired perfumes. Males of different species displayed in the same general area and sometimes in close proximity to each other, but partitioned the display niche by selecting different perch diameters, display heights, and by displaying at different times of the day. Most perch sites were located inside the forest on elevated ground, especially along ridges, where stronger winds may help disperse perfume signals. Furthermore, the angular position of displaying males on perches was narrowly determined by wind direction, with males being positioned on the downwind side of the perch, where they would be most conspicuous to conspecifics approaching on an odor trail. Although our results generally support the hypothesis that perfumes serve as pheromone analogues, we did not find differences in the perfume composition of males caught at display perches and males captured at chemical baits. This suggests that, while chemical communication is an integral part of orchid bee display, male display activity is not determined by the history of, and success in, volatile acquisition. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Protection of surface assets on Mars from wind blown jettisoned spacecraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Jettisoned Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) hardware from landing spacecraft have been observed by orbiting spacecraft, strewn over the Martian surface. Future Mars missions that land spacecraft close to prelanded assets will have to use a landing architecture that somehow minimises the possibility of impacts from these jettisoned EDLS components. Computer modelling is used here to investigate the influence of wind speed and direction on the distribution of EDLS components on the surface. Typical wind speeds encountered in the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) were found to be of sufficient strength to blow items having a low ballistic coefficient, i.e. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIADs) or parachutes, onto prelanded assets even when the lander itself touches down several kilometres away. Employing meteorological measurements and careful characterisation of the Martian PBL, e.g. appropriate wind speed probability density functions, may then benefit future spacecraft landings, increase safety and possibly help reduce the delta v budget for Mars landers that rely on aerodynamic decelerators.

  18. "Mind Blown"--Including Exercise Science Students as Research Assistants to Reduce Ageist Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Samuel T.; Bourassa, Dara

    2017-01-01

    The amount of older adults is increasing rapidly and the demands of an aging population will need to be met by professionals in many fields, including exercise science. However, many undergraduate students do not want to work with older adults. Therefore, this qualitative study sought to examine the experiences and perceptions of exercise science…

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation of slot-blown air over a cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, W.; Buysschaert, F.; Hayez, J.; Carlier, F.; Antoine, H.; Hendrick, P.; Dimitriadis, G.; Degrez, G.

    2015-06-01

    The paper investigates the concept of directional control of helicopters without tail rotor by means of the Coandă effect. Slot-blowing around a a cylinder in a steady flow is modeled computationally, using the unsteady k-ω shear stress transport (SST) solver in NUMECA, as well as experimentally in the wind tunnel of the Université de Liège. While the concept, in general, is promising, it is shown that there are some potential problems, including pitch-yaw coupling and some unsteady flow conditions. These problems exist under various circumstances and are due, at least, in part, due to the complicated flow-field that governs this problem, even in two dimensions.

  20. A study on properties of PLA/PBAT from blown film process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongdilokkul, P; Keeratipinit, K; Chawthai, S; Suttiruengwong, S; Hararak, B; Seadan, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the properties of films based on PLA/PBAT blend prepared by the reactive compounding. PLA/PBAT blends were prepared at the weight ratio of 80:20 together with peroxide as a reactive agent in a twin screw extruder with temperature profile of 160/170/180/210/220/190/175/150°C from feed to die zone. All blended samples, neat PLA, and neat PBAT were characterized for morphology, mechanical and rheological properties. SEM micrographs showed finely dispersed phases of PBAT in PLA in all cases. The particle sizes of PBAT were around 1 μm. The results indicated that the drawability and toughness properties of PLA were greatly improved when blended with 20%wt PBAT. The interface adhesion, and mechanical properties of PLA/PBAT blends were also improved when adding a very small quantity of peroxide. PLA/PBAT blends were then used to produce films. The film characteristics and mechanical properties were examined. Tensile strength of films was significantly improved in the machine direction in PLA/PBAT/peroxide blends whereas the good optical transparent property were remained the same compared with neat PLA. (paper)

  1. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) Based Tear Resistant and Biodegradable Flexible Films by Blown Film Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallegni, Norma; Phuong, Thanh Vu; Coltelli, Maria-Beatrice; Cinelli, Patrizia; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2018-01-17

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt mixed in a laboratory extruder with poly(butylene adipate- co -terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) in the presence of polypropylene glycol di glycidyl ether (EJ400) that acted as both plasticizer and compatibilizer. The process was then scaled up in a semi-industrial extruder preparing pellets having different content of a nucleating agent (LAK). All of the formulations could be processed by blowing extrusion and the obtained films showed mechanical properties dependent on the LAK content. In particular the tearing strength showed a maximum like trend in the investigated composition range. The films prepared with both kinds of blends showed a tensile strength in the range 12-24 MPa, an elongation at break in the range 150-260% and a significant crystallinity.

  2. Distribution and provenance of wind-blown SE Pacific surface sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saukel, C.; Lamy, F.; Stuut, J.B.W.; Tiedemann, R.; Vogt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of low-latitude ocean-atmosphere interactions is one of the major issues of (paleo-) environmental studies. The trade winds, extending over 20 degrees to 30 degrees of latitude in both hemispheres, between the subtropical highs and the intertropical convergence zone, are major

  3. Blown by the wind. Replacing nuclear power in German electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtenböhmer, Stefan; Samadi, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Only three days after the beginning of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, Japan, on 11 March 2011, the German government ordered 8 of the country's 17 existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) to stop operating within a few days. In summer 2011 the government put forward a law – passed in parliament by a large majority – that calls for a complete nuclear phase-out by the end of 2022. These government actions were in contrast to its initial plans, laid out in fall 2010, to expand the lifetimes of the country's NPPs. The immediate closure of 8 NPPs and the plans for a complete nuclear phase-out within little more than a decade, raised concerns about Germany's ability to secure a stable supply of electricity. Some observers feared power supply shortages, increasing CO 2 -emissions and a need for Germany to become a net importer of electricity. Now – a little more than a year after the phase-out law entered into force – this paper examines these concerns using (a) recent statistical data on electricity production and demand in the first 15 months after the German government's immediate reaction to the Fukushima accident and (b) reviews the most recent projections and scenarios by different stakeholders on how the German electricity system may develop until 2025, when NPPs will no longer be in operation. The paper finds that Germany has a realistic chance of fully replacing nuclear power with additional renewable electricity generation on an annual basis by 2025 or earlier, provided that several related challenges, e.g. expansion of the grids and provision of balancing power, can be solved successfully. Already in 2012 additional electricity generation from renewable energy sources in combination with a reduced domestic demand for electricity will likely fully compensate for the reduced power generation from the NPPs shut down in March 2011. If current political targets will be realised, Germany neither has to become a net electricity importer, nor will be unable to gradually reduce fossil fuel generated electricity. Whether the reduction in fossil fuel use will be sufficient to adequately contribute to national greenhouse gas mitigation targets significantly depends on an active policy to promote electricity savings, continuous efforts to increase the use of renewables and a higher share of natural gas (preferably used in combined heat and power plants) in fossil fuel power generation.

  4. Clean energy stakes too important for nuclear to be blown off course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, St George' s Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    New figures indicating that offshore wind farms could be built for a record low price in the UK - and produce cheaper electricity than nuclear - sent an initial chill through the nuclear energy industry. Wind lobbyists were quick to trumpet the figures from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (UK), which were unveiled following a 'contracts for difference' auction for subsidies. The spokesperson's comments were more astonishing than the data that emerged from the report. As the chief executive of the Nuclear Industry Association (NIA), Tom Greatrex, pointed out: ''Reports that the cost of future offshore wind projects may fall (if they are constructed) is good news, but as the UK renewable trade body, informed commentators and industry experts have made clear, one technology alone can't solve the UK's power challenge''.

  5. The lived body in schizophrenia: Transition from basic self-disorders to full-blown psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eIrarrázaval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the results of a phenomenological study of patients with schizophrenia during their first psychiatric hospitalisation. The study aims at clarify aspects related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and to reach a greater understanding of the illness, with a view to contribute to prevention and psychotherapeutic intervention models. Firstly, the paper offers a description of the patients’ disembodiment manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, it presents a description of the subjective anomalies that may be considered as disorders of ipseity or of pre-reflexive self-awareness. Thirdly, the description is extended to encompass secondary disturbances to processes of establishing consensual intersubjectivity that lead to difficulties in shared communication practices and a progressive withdrawal from the intersubjective world. The conclusion states that a structural element, a key part of the personal processes involved in schizophrenia, is the diminishment of self-presence in experience, which manifests on both individual and social levels.

  6. Vitrification Conditions and Porosity Prediction of CO2 Blown Polystyrene Foams.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Nistor, A.; Topiař, Martin; Kosek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0896-8446. [Iberoamerican Conference on Supercritical Fluids ProSCiba 2016 /4./. Vina del Mar, 28.03.2016-01.04.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18938S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : polymer foam * supercritical CO2 * heat transfer Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  7. Atypical extensive genital ulcer in full blown aids with slim disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct immunofluorescence detection on genital ulcer scraping was negative for Chlamydia trachomatis and Treponema pallidum. Furthermore, the infections with Haemophilus ducreyi and Chlamydia trachomatis were excluded by PCR on genital swabs.Genital PCR was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2.

  8. Vitrification Conditions and Porosity Prediction of CO2 Blown Polystyrene Foams.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Nistor, A.; Topiař, Martin; Kosek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, SEP 2017 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 0896-8446. [Iberoamerican Conference on Supercritical Fluids ProSCiba 2016 /4./. Vina del Mar, 28.03.2016-01.04.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18938S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : polymer foam * supercritical CO2 * heat transfer Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  9. Exergy based performance analysis of hydrogen production from rice straw using oxygen blown gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Atmadeep; Das, Anirban; Datta, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    An exergetic analysis has been performed on a gasification-based bio-hydrogen generation system consisting of an ASU (air separation unit), a gasifier and a water gas shift reactor. The biomass feed in the system is rice straw. The influences of oxygen percentage in the gasifying agent (in the range 85–99%) and gasifier equivalence ratio (in the range 2–4) on the system exergetic efficiency have been studied. The analysis also investigates the effect of the above mentioned operating parameters on the hydrogen yield and cold gas efficiency. It is observed that, with 95% oxygen in the gasifying agent and with gasifier equivalence ratio of 4.0, the process generates 107.8 g hydrogen per kg of dry biomass (on ash free basis) with a cold gas efficiency of 70%. An increase in gasifier equivalence ratio is found to increase the exergetic efficiency of the system. However, the exergetic efficiency remains almost immune to the change in oxygen percentage in the gasifying agent. The maximum destruction of exergy, in quantitative term, is found to be in the gasifier due to the irreversible chemical reactions occurring there. However, in terms of percentage of exergy input, the highest exergy destruction and exergy loss are observed to occur in the ASU. - Highlights: • Hydrogen generation from biomass gasification analyzed for exergetic performance. • Oxygen-rich stream from air separation used as gasification agent. • Performance evaluated at varying equivalence ratio and % oxygen in gasifying agent. • Component-wise exergy analysis has been done for the system

  10. An investigation of bicomponent polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) melt blown microfiber nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rongguo

    2001-12-01

    This work studied polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PP/PET) bico MB microfiber nonwovens, including the effects of processing conditions on fiber and web properties, process/structure/property relationships, and spinline dynamics. It was conducted in the 24-inch ReicofilRTM MB pilot line with bicomponent MB capability. The Response Surface Methodology was employed for experimental design and statistical analysis. It remarkably reduced number of runs for the most important information, investigated all selected factors as a whole, and predicted their effects on the properties of interest (responses). Phase 1 concentrated on the preliminary determination of the processing conditions of 100% PP and 100% PET. Thermal analysis and Theological measurements suggest that PP35MFR/PET is a better pair for bico melt blowing. The bico filaments possess a side-by-side cross-sectional geometry. Phase 2 focused on the processing of PP/PET bico MB nonwovens and the process-structure-property relationships. Phase 3 focused on spinline dynamics to develop a fundamental understanding of the PP/PET bico MB process. These results provide fundamental information to explain the observations of fiber attenuation and web structure development. Based on the findings of this study and the literature review, several recommendations were also made for further investigation of bico MB microfiber nonwovens.

  11. Thermo-mechanical behavior and structure of melt blown shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L; Boothby, Jennifer M; Kelly, Cambre N; Beatty, Kyle; Lakhera, Nishant; Frick, Carl P; Lin, Angela; Guldberg, Robert E; Griffis, Jack C

    2016-09-01

    New processing methods for shape-memory polymers allow for tailoring material properties for numerous applications. Shape-memory nonwovens have been previously electrospun, but melt blow processing has yet to be evaluated. In order to determine the process parameters affecting shape-memory behavior, this study examined the effect of air pressure and collector speed on the mechanical behavior and shape-recovery of shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens. Mechanical behavior was measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile testing, and shape-recovery was measured by unconstrained and constrained recovery. Microstructure changes throughout the shape-memory cycle were also investigated by micro-computed tomography. It was found that increasing collector speed increases elastic modulus, ultimate strength and recovery stress of the nonwoven, but collector speed does not affect the failure strain or unconstrained recovery. Increasing air pressure decreases the failure strain and increases rubbery modulus and unconstrained recovery, but air pressure does not influence recovery stress. It was also found that during the shape-memory cycle, the connectivity density of the fibers upon recovery does not fully return to the initial values, accounting for the incomplete shape-recovery seen in shape-memory nonwovens. With these parameter to property relationships identified, shape-memory nonwovens can be more easily manufactured and tailored for specific applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrological Implications of Covering Wind-Blown Snow Accumulations with Geotextiles on Mount Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nestler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an excellent water reservoir, naturally storing large quantities of water at time scales from a few days to several months. In summer-dry countries, like Armenia, runoff due to snow melt from mountain regions is highly important for a sustained water supply (irrigation, hydropower. Snow fields on Mount Aragats, Armenia’s highest peak, often persist until July, providing vital amounts of melt water. Artificially managing these wind-driven snow accumulations as a natural water reservoir might have considerable potential. In the context of the Swiss-Armenian joint venture, Freezwater, snow fields are covered with geotextiles in order to delay snow melt long enough to provide additional melt water in the dry season of the year. In this study, we analyze the hydrological effectiveness of the artificial management of the natural snow cover on Mount Aragats based on various field measurements acquired over a three-year period and numerical modeling. Over the winter season, partly more than five meter-thick snow deposits are formed supported by snow redistribution by strong wind. Repeated mappings of snow fields indicate that snow cover patterns remain highly consistent over time. Measurements of ablation below manually applied geotextiles show a considerable reduction of melt rates by more than 50%. Simulations with an energy-balance model and a distributed temperature-index model allow assessing the hydrological effect of artificial snow management for different initial snow depths and elevations and suggest that coverage is needed at a large scale in order to generate a significant impact on discharge.

  13. Bitumen and biocarbon : land use conversions and loss of biological carbon due to bitumen operations in the Boreal forests of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.; Cheng, R.

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed land use changes, biological carbon content, and the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by existing and future oil sands mining and in situ extraction in Alberta, Canada. The study focused on estimating changes to the natural ecosystems caused by open pit mines, tailings ponds, mine waste, overburden piles and other major infrastructure put in place by surface mining activities. The study showed that a total of 488,968 ha of peatlands, mineral wetlands, and upland forest ecosystems have undergone changes as a result of oil sands mining activities. Natural ecosystems that have undergone land use changes as a result of exploration wells, production wells, access roads, pipelines, and other infrastructure related to existing and potential in situ operations totalled 1,124,919 ha. If all 578.9 megatonnes of carbon produced by oil sands mines in Alberta were emitted, it is likely that 873.4 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be released into the atmosphere. The average annual release of CO{sub 2} was estimated at 8.7 megatonnes over a 100 year period. 59 refs., 11 tabs., 12 figs.

  14. Effect of Organic Co-blowing Agents on the Morphology of CO2 Blown Microcellular Polystyrene Foams.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nistor, A.; Topiař, Martin; Sovová, Helena; Kosek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 130, DEC 2017 (2017), s. 30-39 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-18938S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : polystyrene * closed-cell microcellular foam * co-blowing agent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  15. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  16. The effect of torrefaction on the process performance of oxygen-steam blown CFB gasification of hardwood and softwood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsalidis, George; di Marcello, Manuela; Spinelli, Giacomo; de Jong, Wiebren; Kiel, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Torrefaction is a promising biomass upgrading method, offering advantages in logistics and handling. Gasification is an attractive thermochemical conversion technology due to its flexibility in the product gas end-use. The aim of this paper is to investigate the impact of torrefaction on the

  17. Modeling wind-blown desert dust in the southwestern United States for public health warning: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dazhong; Nickovic, Slobodan; Barbaris, Brian; Chandy, Beena; Sprigg, William A.

    A model for simulating desert dust cycle was adapted and applied for a dust storm case in the southwest United States (US). This is an initial test of the model's capability as part of a future public health early warning system. The modeled meteorological fields, which drive a dust storm, were evaluated against surface and upper-air measurement data. The modeled dust fields were compared with satellite images, in situ surface PM2.5 and PM10 data, and visibility data in the areas affected by the dust event. The model predicted meteorological fields reasonably well. The modeled surface and upper-air field patterns were in agreement with the measured ones. The vertical profiles of wind, temperature, and humidity followed closely with the observed profiles. Statistical analyses of modeled and observed meteorological variables at surface sites showed fairly good model performance. The modeled dust spatial distributions were comparable with the satellite-observed dust clouds and the reduced visibility patterns. Most encouragingly, the model-predicted and observed PM2.5 peak hours matched reasonably well. The model produced better PM2.5 peak hours than PM10 peak hours. The temporal varying trends of daily and hourly PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations at most of the measurement sites were similar to those observed. Discrepancies between the values of the modeled and the measured surface PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations differed with time and location. Sometimes the modeled and measured concentrations can have one order of magnitude differences. These revealed there were possible deficiencies in the simulation of the dust production strength and location, and the representation of dust particle size in the modeling. Better land surface data and size representation of the dust production are expected to further improve model performance.

  18. Investigation of flow behavior for linear melt blown polypropylenes with different molecular weights in very wide shear rate range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, Jiri; Zatloukal, Martin; Martyn, Mike

    2017-05-01

    In this work, three different linear polypropylenes, with melt flow rate between 450-1200 g.10min-1, have been characterized by using rotational and twin bore capillary rheometer equipped by novel inert orifice die design as well as by the instrumented injection molding machine. The measured data, that shows first as well as second Newtonian plateau, were consequently fitted by four conventional models (Cross, Carreau, Generalized Quemada and Carreau-Yasuda models) as well as by two novel viscosity models (modified Quemada and Carreau models) suggested here for the first time. It has been found that modified 5-parametric Carreau model has the highest capability to describe the measured shear viscosity data for given polymer melts.

  19. The vertical structure of airflow turbulence characteristics within a boundary layer during wind blown sand transport over a beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z. S.; Baas, A. C.; Jackson, D.; Cooper, J. A.; Lynch, K.; Delgado-Fernandez, I.; Beyers, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested the significant role of boundary layer turbulence and coherent flow structures on sand transport by wind over beaches and desert dunes. Widespread use of sonic anemometry and high-frequency sand transport sensors and traps have facilitated a move beyond the basic monitoring of shear velocities and bulk sediment transport to more detailed measurements at much higher spatio-temporal resolutions. In this paper we present results of a small-scale point-location field study of boundary layer turbulence and shear stresses conducted under obliquely onshore winds over a beach at Magilligan Strand, Northern Ireland. High-frequency (25 Hz) 3D wind vector measurements were collected at five different heights between 0.13 and 1.67 metres above the bed using sonic anemometry for durations of several hours, and the associated sand transport response was measured using an array of Safires. The wind data are used to investigate the vertical structure of Reynolds shear stresses and burst-sweep event characteristics, as well as a comparison with the standard logarithmic (law-of-the-wall) wind profile. The study explores the identification and selection of a characteristic event duration based on integral time-scales as well as spectral analysis, and includes an assessment of the issues involved with data rotations for yaw, pitch, and roll corrections relative to flow streamlines, and the subsequently derived turbulence parameters based on fluctuating vector components (u’, v’, w’). Results show how the contributions to shear stress and the average pitch of bursts and sweeps changes as a function of height above the bed, indicating the transformation of top-down turbulent eddies as they travel toward the surface. A comparison between the turbulence data and the synchronous sand transport events, meanwhile, reveals the potential effects of enhanced saltation layer roughness feedback on eddies close to the bed.

  20. African and local wind-blown dist contributions at three rural sites in SE Spain: the aerosol size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Lidon, V.; Martinez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The entrainment of particulate material into the atmosphere by wind action on surface soils both disturbed and natural, as well as directly due to human activities like agricultural practices, mineral industry operations, construction works and traffic, is a significant contribution to the aerosol load in Mediterranean semi-arid areas. A further crustal contribution in the region comes from the frequent arrival of African mineral dust plumes. We summarize some of the results obtained after 4-6 month campaigns at three rural sites in SE Spain where the aerosol number size distribution (31 size bins between 0.25 and 32 μm) was continuously measured. The influence of both local wind speed and the arrival of air masses loaded with African dust on the airborne particulate distribution is assessed. Similarities and differences between the three locations give information that allows a better understanding of the influence of both local wind speed and African dust outbreaks (ADO), while highlight what is mostly related to local features. (Author)

  1. Fatigue and rutting performance of conventional asphalt and bitumen-rubber asphalt under accelerated trafficking.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The Californian Department of Transportation commissioned a pilot project to evaluate the potential of the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) for conduction pavement studies. The effect of channelisation of traffic on the rutting behaviour of a...

  2. Displacement Investigation of KNN-Bitumen-Based Piezoceramics in Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric material has excellent characteristics of electromechanical coupling so that it could be widely applied in structural health monitoring field. Nondestructive testing of piezoelectric technique becomes a research focus on piezoelectric field. Asphalt concrete produces cumulative damage under the multiple repeated vehicle load and natural situation, so it is suited material and structure for nondestructive application. In this study, a test system was established by driving power of piezoceramic, laser displacement sensor, computer, and piezo-embedded asphalt concrete. Displacement, hysteresis, creeps, and dynamic behavior of KNN piezoceramic element embedded in asphalt concrete were tested. The results indicate that displacement output attained 0.4 μm to 0.7 μm when the loads were from 0 N to 150 N. The hysteresis was not obvious when the load was from 0 N to 100 N, aside from higher loads. The creep phenomenon can be divided into two parts: uptrend and balance. The more serious the asphalt binder ageing is, the larger the displacement is, when piezo-asphalt concrete has already been in serious ageing.

  3. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  4. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    system - high content of heavy metals - high emissions of particulate matter and PAH This investigation deals with the problem of separation due to high shear stress in the injection system. It is shown that the viscosity of the injected fuel can be used to estimate whether the emulsion has separated...

  5. Conceptual performance model for deep in situ recycled pavements with cement and bitumen additives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available structure is monitored together with environmental parameters. Based on this information, and associated laboratory testing data, a model for the performance of these pavements is currently being developed. The model is currently based on the results of APT...

  6. A study of the forest and aquatic ecology of the Bitumen belt of Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study shows that the aquatic environment of the study area is not very different from the aquatic environment in other parts of the rain forest region of Southern Nigeria. The impact of human activities was evident in the relative paucity of zooplankton and the larger aquatic fauna. However, the surface water bodies were ...

  7. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of Syncrude sweet blend distillation fractions derived from Athabasca bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelian, K H; Zhang, S L; Hall, R H; Bulmer, J T

    2001-01-01

    The C-H stretching region in FT-Raman spectra of Syncrude sweet blend (SSB) and three distillation fractions (naphtha, light gas oil and heavy gas oil) was analyzed in detail in this investigation. The frequencies and intensities of the 11 aliphatic and three aromatic C-H bands used to fit the spectrum of SSB were equal to the averages (weighted sums) of the corresponding quantities in the spectra of the fractions. The additivity of the spectra, thought to be a consequence of the large number of discrete compounds contained in each fraction, makes it possible to estimate the composition of other SSB samples using the spectra of the fractions reported in this work. In the aromatic C-H region, total intensities can be used to calculate the distribution of aromatics among the distillation fractions; these data also permit calculation of the fractional aromaticity (per cent aromatic carbon) for SSB and each fraction, with accuracies comparable to those obtained using NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Reflectance measurements of zooclasts and solid bitumen in Lower Paleozoic shales, southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2013-01-01

    -like particles and graptolite fragments. The Middle Cambrian to Furongian (upper Cambrian) shales may contain sparse fragments of vase-shaped microfossils (VSM) that seem to follow the maturation trend of chitinozoans. In the present sample set, the reflectance of chitinozoans and VSM is comparable...

  9. Mechanisms in Healing of Bitumen and the Impact of Normal Force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Scarpas, Athanasios; Erkens, Sandra; Chabot, A.; Buttlar, W.G.; Dave, E.V.; Petit, C.; Tebaldi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Damage in pavements is known to reduce over time when the material is left to rest, this phenomenon is known as healing. It has been shown that healing is an important influence factor in pavement performance. However, an accepted method to assess the healing capability of a pavement is currently

  10. Bitumen and cement solidifications of LL and ML liquid radwaste. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchemitcheff, E.; Roux, P.

    1993-01-01

    The presentation is focused on the thin-film evaporator technology and the experience gained in the field of the NPPs and research centers on radwaste conditioning. As early as 1970, SGN was licensed by the CEA for the bituminization of LL and ML radwaste. With the support of EDF and COGEMA, SGN has been performing in depth research on cement solidification of borated concentrates and ion exchange resins generated by reactors or reprocessing plant since 1983

  11. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  12. Aviation Turbine Fuels from Tar Sands Bitumen and Heavy Oils. Part 3. Laboratory Sample Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    future work should include electrostatic precipita- tion as a possible means of oil/water separation at lower diluent dosages. Otherwise, desalting ...potentially successful desalting in a modern, multi-stage electrostatic unit with relatively high temperature and moderate dilution required. 34 too- 90o so...33 DESALTING ......................34 ARTSM........................36 RCCsm........................36 DILUENT HYDROTREATIN

  13. Induction healing of concrete reinforced by bitumen-coated steel fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero Rodriguez, C.; Chaves Figueiredo, S.; Chiaia, B.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Cracking in concrete structures compromises the durability and functionality of the structures themselves. Different kinds of self-healing concretes, less or more sophisticated, have been developed in the past ten years to overcome early cracks in structures. An experimental study of a novel

  14. Bitumen stabilized ballast: a potential solution for railway track-bed

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, Giacomo; Thom, Nicholas; Lo Presti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Railway ballast degradation under dynamic loads progressively leads to loss of mechanical performance and geometry of the track, so that maintenance interventions are frequently needed. In order to systematically avoid this issue, recently solutions have been proposed to reinforce track-bed by using polyurethane and/or resins as well as asphalt layers among others. Nonetheless, their main limitations are related to the high initial cost and low productivity.\\ud To cope with these limitations,...

  15. Characterization of long term field aging of polymer modified bitumen in porous asphalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, D. van; Erkens, S.; Leegwater, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of long term field aging on different types of polymer modified binders used in two-layer porous asphalt is studied using different test methods. Chemical and rheological tests are performed on samples taken from road sections at different moments in time in search of trends in long term

  16. Aging characteristics of bitumen related to the performance of porous asphalt in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, G.A.; Erkens, Sandra; van Vliet, Dave

    2012-01-01

    The performance of two layered porous asphalt (2LPA) surfaces is superior with respect to the reduction of noise produced by road-tyre interaction and the amount of splash and spray during rain, compared to dense surface layers. However, these open surface roads have a drawback with as they have a

  17. Processing of concentrated radioactive wastes into cement and bitumens following calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napravnik, J.; Sazavsky, P.; Ditl, P.; Prikryl, P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief characteristic is presented of the most frequently used processes of solidification of liquid radioactive wastes, viz., bituminization, cementation and their combination with calcination. The effect of individual parameters is assessed on the choice of the type of solidification process as is their importance in the actual process, in temporary storage, during transportation and under conditions of long-term storage. It has been found that a combination of the procedures could lead to a modular system of methods and equipment. This would allow to approach optimal solidification of wastes in the present period and to establish a research reserve for the development of more modern, economically advantageous and safer procedures. A rough estimate is made of the costs of the solidification of 1 m 3 of radioactive concentrate from the V-1 power plant at a production of 380 m 3 /year, this for the cementation-calcination and bituminization-calcination procedures. The said rough economic analysis only serves to identify the major operating components which have the greatest effect on the economic evaluation of the solidification procedures. (Z.M.)

  18. Performance and behaviour of bitumen emulsion treated road bases in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Horak, E

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion treatment of granular bases is used mostly as a rehabilitation option in South Africa. Emulsion treated bases (ETBs) have been used on an ad hoc basis in South Africa in the past. Considerable work has gone into the mix design of ETBs...

  19. Labour-based bitumen roads as cost-effective alternatives to conventional gravel wearing courses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available . As part of the Gundo Lashu Programme for Labour Intensive Rural Roads Maintenance that is currently being implemented in Limpopo Province, the training of 24 emerging contractors in rehabilitation of rural gravel roads was carried out. These emerging...

  20. 3-D CFD Modeling for Parametric Study in a 300-MWe One-Stage Oxygen-Blown Entrained-Bed Coal Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Shin Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling of the gasification performance in a one-stage, entrained-bed coal gasifier (Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP gasifier was performed, for the first time. The parametric study used various O2/coal and steam/coal ratios, and the modeling used a commercial code, ANSYS FLUENT. CFD modeling was conducted by solving the steady-state Navier–Stokes and energy equations using the Eulerian–Lagrangian method. Gas-phase chemical reactions were solved with the Finite–Rate/Eddy–Dissipation Model. The CFD model was verified with actual operating data of Demkolec demo Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC facility in Netherlands that used Drayton coal. For Illinois #6 coal, the CFD model was compared with ASPEN Plus results reported in National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL. For design coal used in the SCGP gasifier in Korea, carbon conversion efficiency, cold gas efficiency, temperature, and species mole fractions at the gasifier exit were calculated and the results were compared with those obtained by using ASPEN Plus-Kinetic. The optimal O2/coal and steam/coal ratios were 0.7 and 0.05, respectively, for the selected operating conditions.

  1. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading : Technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification

  2. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall, leading to…

  3. Mechanics and upscaling of heavy oil bitumen recovery by steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoirs method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.; Babadagli, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This paper discussed a numerical modelling scheme applied to the steam-over-solvent injection in fractured reservoirs (SOS-FR) method for a single-matrix block. After modelling the process at the core scale, sensitivity tests were performed to determine the optimal injection conditions for efficient oil recovery and solvent retrieval. The basic mechanisms and physics of the process were described along with the amount of injectant and the time required for recovering target oil for field-scale application. In the physics of the recovery mechanism, gravity was found to have a substantial effect on oil recovery when the matrix was exposed to solvent. Special attention was paid to the solvent retrieval rate and amount in the third cycle and the permeability reduction caused by asphaltene precipitation in the solvent injection phase; the latter factor was observed to be substantially critical for the process. An upscaling analysis yielded an encouraging straight-line relationship between the time value to reach ultimate recovery and the matrix size with a non-integer exponent less than 2. 21 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  4. Evaluation of the use of polymer modified bitumen in the production of high modulus asphalt for heavily-trafficked roads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Komba, Julius J

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enrobé à Module Élevé (EME) technology, a High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA), has been introduced to South Africa to provide an optimum solution for the design and construction of heavily trafficked roads. Implementation of EME technology in South Africa...

  5. The performance of Agbabu natural bitumen modified with polyphosphoric acid through fundamental and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeyemi M. Olabemiwo

    2016-12-01

    The comparative study of FTIR spectra of both base ANB and PPA modified ANB samples showed appearance of some few new peaks in the infrared spectra of PPA modified ANB samples confirming that the structure of the neat ANB had been modified. On the basis of our experimental results, incorporation of PPA up to 6% into ANB structure greatly enhances the fundamental physical and flow properties of ANB. This showed that PPA has the potential of improving the service life of ANB.

  6. Modified sulphur cement: A low porosity encapsulation material for low, medium and alpha waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van; Rijpkema, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Modified sulphur cement, available under the trade name Chement 2000, is a thermoplastic candidate material for the matrix of low, intermediate and alpha radioactive waste. The main source of sulphur is the desulphurization of fossil fuels. In view of the future increase of this product a modified compound of sulphur has been developed at the US Bureau of Mines. Modified sulphur cement as matrix material has properties in common with Portland or blast furnace cement and bitumen. The mechanical strength is comparable to hydraulic cement products. The process to incorporate waste materials is identical to bitumization. The leachability and the resistance to attack by chemicals is nearly the same as for bituminized products. This study showed also that the radiation resistance is high without radiolytic gas production and without change in dimensions (swelling). The rigidity of the matrix is a disadvantage when internal pressures are built up. The thermal conductivity and the heat of combustion of sulphur is low resulting in slow damage to the waste form under fire conditions, even when the temperature of self ignition in air is 220 0 C. The low leachability, the very slow effective diffusion of H 2 O and HTO, and the low permeability is due to the small pore diameters in the modified sulphur matrix. The loading capacity of modified sulphur cement depends on grain size and distribution and is for ungraded ashes, precipitates, dried sludges, etc., in the order of 40-50% of weight. The price of Chement 2000 per tonne is equal to those of blown bitumen

  7. Quantification of loss of calcite, pyrite, and organic matter due to weathering of Toarcian black shales and effects on kerogen and bitumen characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littke, R.; Klussmann, U.; Krooss, B.; Leythaeuser, D.

    1991-11-01

    Comparison of geochemical data on Posidonia Shale (Early Toarcian) from a shallow unweathered core and from adjacent weathered exposures of the same fades was performed. Results revealed that quantitatively the most affected petrographic constituent is pyrite and that organic matter and carbonate were also altered by weathering. Due to this process of weathering, the bulk composition of organic matter, especially the molecular composition of soluble organic matter and the fluorescence colour of organic particles, are changed. Estimates of weathering rates reveal that the annual release of sulphur and organic carbon from black shales may significantly add to anthropogenic pollution.

  8. Generation and migration of Bitumen and oil from the oil shale interval of the Eocene Green River formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    The results from the recent U.S. Geological Survey assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, based primarily on the Fischer assay method, are applied herein to define areas where the oil shale interval is depleted of some of its petroleum-generating potential along the deep structural trough of the basin and to make: (1) a general estimates of the amount of this depletion, and (2) estimate the total volume of petroleum generated. Oil yields (gallons of oil per ton of rock, GPT) and in-place oil (barrels of oil per acre, BPA) decrease toward the structural trough of the basin, which represents an offshore lacustrine area that is believed to have originally contained greater petroleum-generating potential than is currently indicated by measured Fischer assay oil yields. Although this interval is considered to be largely immature for oil generation based on vitrinite reflectance measurements, the oil shale interval is a likely source for the gilsonite deposits and much of the tar sands in the basin. Early expulsion of petroleum may have occurred due to the very high organic carbon content and oil-prone nature of the Type I kerogen present in Green River oil shale. In order to examine the possible sources and migration pathways for the tar sands and gilsonite deposits, we have created paleogeographic reconstructions of several oil shale zones in the basin as part of this study.

  9. Cancer risk to First Nations’ people from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near in-situ bitumen extraction in Cold Lake, Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alberta oil sands are an important economic resource in Canada, but there is growing concern over the environmental and health effects as a result of contaminant releases and exposures. Recent studies have shown a temporal and spatial trend of increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in sediments and snowpack near the Athabasca oil sands operations (i.e., open pit mines), but thus far similar studies have not been done for the Cold Lake region where steam assisted gravity drainage (in situ) extraction is performed. Methods Many PAHs are known mutagenic carcinogens, and this study measured soil and atmospheric concentrations of PAHs in the Cold Lake region to assess the excess lifetime cancer risk posed to the First Nations’ inhabitants of the region. Using both deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods, excess lifetime cancer risks were calculated for exposures from inhalation or inadvertent soil ingestion. Results The mean excess cancer risk for First Nations’ people through ingestion who engage in traditional wilderness activities in the Cold Lake region was 0.02 new cases per 100,000 with an upper 95% risk level of 0.07 cases per 100,000. Exposure to PAHs via inhalation revealed a maximum excess lifetime cancer risk of less than 0.1 cases per 100,000. Conclusions Excess lifetime risk values below 1 case per 100,000 is generally considered negligible, thus our analyses did not demonstrate any significant increases in cancer risks associated with PAH exposures for First Nations people inhabiting the Cold Lake region. PMID:24520827

  10. Investigation into the early trafficking of emulsion treated (ETB) foamed bitumen (FB) bases treated in combination with cement and cement (OPC) only

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, PB

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available 1 13.8 2124 42.5 2.4 574 38.9 37.8 23.3 100.00 502 574 -46.9 91.6 34.1 21.3 100.00 531 1 14.8 2083 42.5 3 598 36.3 36.0 27.8 100.00 528 598 -50.3 89.7 34.0 26.5 100.00 532 Average 40.2 39.1 20.7 100.00 Average -49.3 94.9 35.4 19.1 100.00 2 15....8 2124 42.5 2.4 487 33.2 44.1 22.6 100.00 519 487 -4.4 38.2 43.7 22.4 100.00 522 1 14.8 2083 42.5 3 502 31.0 42.0 26.9 100.00 545 502 -4.5 35.9 41.8 26.8 100.00 546 Average 34.3 45.6 20.1 100.00 Average -4.6 39.4 45.2 19.9 100.00 2 15.8 2118 32.5 1...

  11. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 3, Appendix B: NO{sub x} and alkali vapor control strategies: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    CRS Sirrine (CRSS) is evaluating a novel IGCC process in which gases exiting the gasifier are burned in a gas turbine combustion system. The turbine exhaust gas is used to generate additional power in a conventional steam generator. This results in a significant increase in efficiency. However, the IGCC process requires development of novel approaches to control SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and alkali vapors which can damage downstream turbine components. Ammonia is produced from the reaction of coal-bound nitrogen with steam in the reducing zone of any fixed bed coal gasifier. This ammonia can be partially oxidized to NO{sub x} when the product gas is oxidized in a gas turbine combustor. Alkali metals vaporize in the high-temperature combustion zone of the gasifier and laser condense on the surface of small char or ash particles or on cooled metal surfaces. It these alkali-coated materials reach the gas turbine combustor, the alkali will revaporize condense on turbine blades and cause rapid high temperature corrosion. Efficiency reduction will result. PSI Technology Company (PSIT) was contracted by CRSS to evaluate and recommend solutions for NO{sub x} emissions and for alkali metals deposition. Various methods for NO{sub x} emission control and the potential process and economic impacts were evaluated. This included estimates of process performance, heat and mass balances around the combustion and heat transfer units and a preliminary economic evaluation. The potential for alkali metal vaporization and condensation at various points in the system was also estimated. Several control processes and evaluated, including an order of magnitude cost for the control process.

  12. Estudo do reprocessamento de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD reciclado do processamento de extrusão de filmes tubulares Study of the reprocessing of low density polyethylene (LDPE recycled from extruded blown films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pistor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de reciclagem para os polímeros termoplásticos encontra-se atualmente em acentuada ascensão. Os materiais reciclados são vistos como materiais de propriedades inferiores em relação ao material virgem. O presente trabalho avaliou as características viscoelásticas e térmicas do polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD reciclado. As amostras foram reprocessadas até dez vezes em condições extremas de processamento (300 °C/80 rpm em uma extrusora monorosca, a fim de avaliar modificações estruturais nas suas propriedades. Foram realizadas análises de reometria oscilatória de placas paralelas e calorimetria exploratória de varredura (DSC. A partir das análises de reometria oscilatória foram calculados espectros de relaxação e retardação pelo programa de regularização não-linear (NLREG e através das análises de DSC no primeiro aquecimento foram calculados os parâmetros cinéticos pelos métodos de Avrami e Freeman-Carroll. Os resultados do estudo reológico demonstraram que as amostras reprocessadas acima de quatro vezes apresentaram aumento da viscosidade complexa e dos módulos de armazenamento e perda, além de fenômenos de relaxação e retardação mais largos. Entretanto, os termogramas de DSC e os parâmetros cinéticos de fusão demonstraram que o PEBD estudado manteve sua estabilidade térmica, independentemente da modificação de suas características viscoelásticas.The recycling market of thermoplastic polymers is currently in a sharp increase. Recycled materials are regarded as having inferior properties compared to the virgin material. Here we investigated the viscoelastic and thermal properties of the recycled low density polyethylene (LDPE. The samples were reprocessed up to ten times under extreme processing conditions (300 °C/80 rpm in a single screw extruder in order to evaluate structural changes in their properties. Analyses were performed in an oscillatory rheometer with parallel plates and in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. From the analysis of the oscillatory rheometry, relaxation and retardation spectra were obtained upon applying a non-linear adjustment using a computational program (NLREG, while the kinetics parameters were estimated from the results of the first DSC heating using the Avrami and Freeman-Carroll methods. From the rheological study we inferred that the samples reprocessed more than four times had an increase in complex viscosity, storage and loss moduli, also displaying wider relaxation and retardation phenomena. However, the DSC thermograms and the melt kinetic parameters showed that the LDPE studied maintained their thermal stability, regardless of the modification in their viscoelastic properties.

  13. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  14. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  15. Alternative PMB produced from recycling waste PMMA/ATH

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan TUŠAR; Ema ŠUŠTERŠIČ; Andreja ZUPANČIČ-VALANT

    2014-01-01

    With development of production processes in refineries production of bitumen is decreasing, as well as the quality of produced bitumen. On the market this brings increased demand for bitumen accompanied by the demand for additives to improve such low quality bitumen. Many different types of additives are used, but most commonly SBS is added. Usage of additives bring additional direct costs, due to market price of additives and indirect cost due to adjustments in the technological process as s...

  16. Interfacial interactions and mass transfer at the interfacial region of bituminous hydrocarbon mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lent, D.Q.

    2014-01-01

    The adhesion between bitumen and aggregate is a complex process with numerous of variables. To improve the understanding of the bond between bitumen and aggregates in road applications, this research focuses on preferential adsorption, which is one aspect of bitumen-aggregate adhesion. The main

  17. short communication aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The impact of sunlight on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of Agbabu natural bitumen in Nigeria was investigated. The raw flow type of the bitumen was purified and exposed to sunlight for six consecutive months. Different portions of the bitumen were withdrawn at an interval of one.

  18. Real‐Time Measurement of Wheel Performance on a Rover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wind-blown sand on Mars produces a high risk of entrapment for Mars rovers. This was evident when the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was immobilized in a wind blown...

  19. Bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradev, G.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Stefanov, G.I.; G'oshev, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The leaching of alcaline cations, as well as of chloride, sulphate and borate anions and radionuclides was studied. The leach rates and the diffusion coefficients of some of the incorporated ions for the salt-bitumen products obtained from Bulgarian bitumens (road bitumen PB 66/90 and hydroinsulating bitumen HB 80/25) and salts (chlorides, sulphates, borates, salt mixtures modelling the concentrate from the evaporators at the Kozloduy NPP and radionuclides) were determined. Most suitable for technological research under the conditions of the Kozloduy NPP proved to be the road bitumen PB 66/90 with softening temperature at 48 o C. The optimum bitumen/salt ratio is found to be about 1.2. Admixtures of natural inorganic sorbents (clinoptiolite, vermiculite and bentonite) in quantities of 5-10% are found to decrease the leaching of radionuclides from the bitumen products. The action of the hydromica vermiculite is particularly pronounced. 6 tabs., 5 refs

  20. Management of the used ion-exchangers contaminated with C-14 generated by NPP Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boteanu, O.; Valeca, M.; Arsene, C.

    2016-01-01

    For the conditioning of ion-exchangers generated from operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1, techniques of direct immobilization in cement, bitumen and organic polymers have been experimented. The selected process for conditioning of spent resins is the bituminization. The bituminization process consists of the incorporation in bitumen of the spent resin, at temperatures between 110 and 1200C, and the solidification of the mixture by cooling. The percentage of incorporated spent resin in bitumen is ranged from 40 to 50% dry resin. The advantages of bituminization are: the bitumen is insoluble in water, the bituminization installation is simple, the matrix is not cost expensive, the temperature process is low, bitumen is compatible with wastes having various compositions, and the volume of the final product is smaller. The main disadvantage is that bitumen is combustible, although not easily flammable, and, at high temperature, interaction between bitumen matrix and chemical components, might occur. (authors)

  1. Determination of bitumen and rubber content in bituminous mixes containing crumb tyre rubber; Determinacion del contenido de betum y de caucho en las mezclas bituminosas que incorporan plvo de caucho procedente de neumaticos fuera de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Guzamn, B.; Jimenez Saez, R.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years the use of crumb rubber from scrap tyres as a component of hot bituminous mixes for road construction, has been officially promoted by the Public Administration in Spain, by issuing several publications of both informative and normative nature, aimed to spread knowledge and experiences on the subject and also to specify the requirement and regulate the working applications for this material. However, it also seems necessary to develop new test methods which, allows control of the rubber content in crumb rubber-added mixes, regardless of the process (wet or dry) followed for the mix production. This article describes a procedure reliable enough to determine both the soluble bituminous binder and the rubber contents in bituminous mixes based on two combined, previously standardized test methods: binder extraction with solvent and ignition. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Savoir-faire. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  3. The Effect of SBS Polymer on the Dynamic Properties of Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ziari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer application for the improvement and modification of the bitumen used in roads surfaces has expanded in recent decades. The roads engineers and constructors, therefore, have used the modified bitumen in asphalts helping in this way to increase roads and pavements service life and improving the durability of the roads and asphalts. The bitumen used in asphalt mixture constitutes only a low percentage of the weight of this mixture (between 4% and 6%, but even this small amount has a significant effect on asphalt performance. The polymers that are mostly used in promoting the bitumen specifications are polymer modifiers including: styrenebutadiene- styrene (SBS, as well as similar polymers such as styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR, ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA and polyethylene (PE. Polymers as the most important family of bitumen modifiers are added to bitumen to improve bitumen performance and to increase its effectiveness. Among the existing polymers, SBS is considered as the best bitumen modifier. In this research, SBS as one of the elastomer-thermoplast modifiers was added in different weights (2%-5% to bitumen 60/70 in Isfahan Refinery and its effect on asphalt properties were investigated. Adding this polymer to bitumen improves the Marshall stability of sample asphalt, flow, module of rupture and asphalt content voids. However, it has a minor effect on asphalt special weight. Adding SBS would also lead to asphalt fatigue life.

  4. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  5. Solvent extraction of oil-sand components for determination of trace elements by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, F.S.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of 30 elements in Athabasca oil sands and oil-sand components. The oil sands were separated into solid residue, bitumen, and fines by Soxhlet extraction with toluene-bitumen extract. The mineral content of the extracted bitumen was dependent on the treatment of the oil sand prior to extraction. The geochemically important and organically associated trace element contents of the bitumen (and asphaltenes) were determined by subtracting the mineral contributions from the total measured concentrations. The method allows analysis of the bitumen without the necessity of ultracentrifugation or membrane filtration, which might remove geochemically important components of the bitumen. The method permits classification of trace elements into organic and inorganic combinations

  6. Study of Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders in Middle and High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remišová Eva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bitumen binders in road pavements are exposed traffic loading effect at different climatic conditions. A resistance to these stresses depends on bitumen properties as well. The paper presents rheological properties (G*, δ, ν* determined and compared for four bituminous binders (unmodified and polymer modified bitumen at temperature 46 – 60 (80 °C and dynamic viscosity at temperature 130 – 190 °C (Brookfield viscometer. On the basis of viscosity results it is possible to set optimal production and compaction temperatures. Elastic and viscous behavior of binder in the middle temperature is determined in rheometers. The higher value of complex modulus, the stiffer bitumen binder is able to resist deformation. The greater content of elastic components (e.g. polymer in bitumen varies mainly elastic-viscous properties of primary bitumen.

  7. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on the fatigue properties of LDHs were evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and indirect tensile fatigue test. Results indicated that the introduction of LDHs could change the fatigue properties of bitumen under a stress control mode. The mixture with modified bitumen showed better fatigue resistance than the mixture with base bitumen. The results illustrated that the LDHs would be alternative modifiers used in the bitumen to improve the lifetime of asphalt pavements.

  8. Characterization of the properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing waste rubber tire powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu Ling; Xin, Zhen Xiang; Zhang, Zhen Xiu; Kim, Jin Kuk

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this research was to recycle waste rubber tires by using powdering technology and treating the waste rubber tire powder with bitumen. It has been proven that the elongation at break, thermal stability and processing flowability of composites of polypropylene (PP), waste rubber tire powder (WRT) and bitumen composites are better than those of PP/WRT composite. A comparative study has been made to evaluate the influence of bitumen content and different compatibilizers on the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites, using a universal testing machine (UTM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a capillary rheometer. The results suggested that the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites were dependent on the bitumen content and the kind of compatibilizer used.

  9. University of Utah Oil Sand Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the Oil Sand Research and Development Program at the University of Utah will be presented. It will include resource characterization of the Uinta Basin oils and deposits and bitumens and bitumen-derived liquid recovery and upgrading technology and product utilization. The characterization studies will include the Whiterocks and Asphalt Ridge oil sands. The discussion of recovery and upgrading technologies will include aqueous separation, thermal recovery processes; solvent extraction, and thermal and catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen-derived heavy oils. Product evaluation studies will include jet fuels, diesel fuel, asphalt and specialty chemicals. Plans for the future of the project will be discussed.

  10. Pengaruh Latek pada Kepekaan Terhadap Temperatur Bahan Pengikat Aspal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Siswanto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (latex is an additive that could be expected to enhance the physical properties of an asphalt mixtrure, particular its temperature susceptibility bitumen in the form of latex-bitumen in road construction merits consideration. The objectives of the research were to in investigate the effect of latex on the temperature susceptibility. Bitumen used was 60/70-penetration grade and the latex was Dry Rubber Content 60. The results of tests in binders containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of bitumen indicated that penetration index increases with increase in latex content, indicating a reduction in temperature susceptibility.

  11. Testing of bituminized ion-exchange resin waste products from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.K.; Vuorinen, U.S.

    Testing methods are described and preliminary results presented for the bituminized waste products from TVO nuclear power plant. Radiation effects on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste product and a pure bitumen sample were studied using an external 60 Co gamma source. Results of the postirradiation study show that the relative density decreases for both the waste products and the bitumen. Softening points rise for waste products but drop for bitumen. Breaking point of the powder resin waste product drops; in the granular resin waste product it rises on the surface and slightly decreases or does not significantly change at the bottom. For bitumen the breaking point rises

  12. DOE ZERH Case Study: Charles Thomas Homes, Anna Model, Omaha, NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 48 without PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, ocsf at rim joists, basement with plus 2x4 stud walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; 95% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, ERV; heat pump water heater.

  13. Analysis and Interpretation of Artifact Collections from four Archaeological Sites within the Country Club Gardens Permit Area, West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    includes soybeans, milo, wheat, rice, alfalfa, sorghum , and pastureI characterizes most farms in the county. Machinery began to replace livestock as the...was recovered from all of the sites (Appendices 1 and 2; Table 1). W•hile most early glass was free-blown, mold -blown and machine made bottles becane...common during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Mold -blown glass occurs after ca. 1818. Machine made bottles were used in commercial production

  14. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    bitumen, mineral matter which includes clay or sand and water. The bitumen also referred to as heavy oil constitutes an important energy resource that must be rigorously treated in order to convert it to an upgraded crude oil before it can be used in refineries to produce gasoline and other fuels. Thus oil sand is economically.

  15. Bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradev, G.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Zhelyazkov, V.T.; Stefanov, G.I.; G'oshev, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Salt-bitumen products are produced by the method of 'hot mixing' of some Bulgarian bitumens (road bitumen PB 66/99 and the hydroinsulating bitumen HB 80/25) and salts (chlorides, sulphates, borates, salt mixtures modelling the liquid waste from nuclear power plants) in different ratios to determine the optimum conditions for bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. The penetration, ductility and softening temperature were determined. The sedimentation properties and the thermal resistance of the various bitumen-salt mixtures were studied. The most suitable bitumen for technological research at the Kozloduy NPP was found to be the road bitumen PB 66/90 with softening temperature at 48 o C. The optimum amount of salts incorporated in the bitumen - about 45% - was found. No exothermal effects were observed in the bituminization process in the temperature range of up to 200 o C. The results obtained may be useful in the elaboration of a technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes in the Kozloduy NPP. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 4 refs

  16. Akinmosin and Imo (9)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Bitumen saturation, particle size distribution and mineralogical analyses were carried out on some tar sand deposits in parts of southwestern Nigeria with a view to determining their sedimentological properties and the degree of bitumen saturation of the respective lithofacies. Fifty one fresh samples collected at 1 m intervals ...

  17. Characterization of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomine, J.C.; Tassigny, C. de; Billon, J.

    1983-11-01

    Leaching tests on real wastes embedded in cement, bitumens or resins are realized to study leachability of alpha-emitters or fission products and anion-cation exchange between leachate and embedded materials. Radionuclide distribution is examined by spectrogammametry on cores taken from cemented wastes. Qualitative results concerning degradation of waste blocks embedded in bitumens by bacteria in the ground are given [fr

  18. EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF BIT VALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    nd illegal waste tyres cts such as alterations s when gullies and e road pavement is erties of the bitumen phase and the only deformable component [10]. It is a viscoelastic material ... EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF BITUMEN MODIFIED WITH WASTE TYRE ... construction does not only solve a waste disposal problem ...

  19. EVALUATION OF PROPERTIES OF BIT VALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1, 2,DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING. E-mail addresses: ddresses: ... ndard for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The ductility value .... 2.1 Materials. Materials used for this research are bitumen and waste tyres obtained locally within Akure. Also,. 60/70 penetration grade bitumen was obtained from FCC quarry in ...

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... 2School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains ... ineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong. Tebal ... Materials. Bitumen with the penetration grade of 60/70 was used as the binder. The bitumen was oven heated until it became fluid before adding it to the aggregate mixture.

  1. Stabilization of Model Crude Oil Emulsion using Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of an ongoing research into the stability of oil-field emulsions, model oil samples have been utilized to probe the effects of asphaltene interactions on crude oil/water emulsion stability. Asphaltenes were precipitated from treated Ondo State oil sand bitumen with n-hexane in a 40:1 solvent to bitumen ratio which was ...

  2. Improving the quality of asphalt coating with carbon nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisa, Urkhanova; Nikolay, Shestakov; Aleksandr, Semenov; Natalya, Smirnyagina; Irina, Semenova

    2015-07-01

    This article deals with the possibility of modifying the binder by adding carbon nanomodifier to bitumen to improve the quality of asphalt. Addition of 0.05%-0.5% of nanomodifier significantly changes the properties of bitumen. Asphalt with this astringent has increased strength, heat resistance and shear resistance.

  3. Characterisation of bitumenised waste in SFR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Michael; Elert, M.

    2001-06-01

    The waste deposited in the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste, SFR, consists in part of waste solidified in bitumen. Bitumen is considered to have favourable chemical and physical properties to act as a fixation material for radioactive waste. However, during interim storage and subsequent disposal bitumen's properties may change. This may influence the stability of the bitumen matrix to retain radionuclides. This report discusses different processes affecting the long-term performance of bitumenised waste, and an evaluation of these properties in waste deposited in SFR 1 is made. The possible effect of a bitumen barrier on the release rate of radionuclides from SFR 1 is assessed. Based on leaching experiments reviewed in this study, it could take some thousand years, possibly more, to release all radionuclides in a 200-litre drum. The results are, however, extrapolated from experiments performed during a short period of time. Long- term deteriorating effects and the effect of a low temperature on the bitumen matrix are not very well documented. The literature focuses principally on bitumenised evaporator concentrate, but the bitumenised waste deposited in SFR 1 consists mainly of ion exchange resins. There are indications that the non-radioactive waste products usually investigated overestimate bitumen's ability to retain waste. Radiolytic effects has been estimated in this work to be negligible for waste categories F.17, F.20 and B.20 deposited in SFR 1, but for categories B.05, B.06 and F.18 the possibility of increased water uptake rate due to radiolysis can not be excluded. A more reasonable assumption is that bitumen will act as an effective barrier for radionuclide release during a time span from some hundreds to thousand of years. Generally, the majority of the inventory of radionuclides in SFR 1 is not solidified in bitumen. By taking the bitumen barrier into account in the modelling of release of radio- nuclides from SFR 1, the total

  4. 40 CFR 60.291 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from electrodes submerged in the molten glass, although some fossil fuel may be charged to the furnace... manufacturing and flow channels in wool fiberglass and textile fiberglass manufacturing, are not considered part.... Pressed and blown glass means glass which is pressed, blown, or both, including textile fiberglass...

  5. DESIGN AND DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Operational Amplifier and a D type flip-flop (CD4013). It works with the principle of current flowing through the lowest resistance. As described in the Figure 2, a blown fuse would make current to flow through the optocoupler causing the necessary trigger signal of a blown fuse detector to go high. The flow chart of the system ...

  6. Design and Implementation of GSM Based Transformer Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the design and implementation of a transformer phase monitoring system, which continuously check for blown fuses on each phases of the distribution transformer was carried out. The system promptly reports any transformer with blown J&P fuse via a preprogrammed SMS which will state the location of the ...

  7. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  9. Perbaikan Sifat Reologi Visco-Elastic Aspal dengan Penambahan Asbuton Murni Menggunakan Parameter Complex Shear Modulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wahyu Indriyati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of crude oil will increase the price of petroleum asphalt. Indonesia has imported asphalt to meet the need for the annually road construction and maintenance. One solution to improving the rheological properties of bitumen is by adding the harder bitumen or other chemical compound to reduce dependence to petroleum asphalt. In Indonesia there is a source of natural asphalt in Buton Island, Sulawesi with huge amount of deposit that potentially could improve the rheological properties of Pen 60/70 Petroleum Asphalt. In order to obtain a better understanding on the contribution of Asbuton to the improvement of performance on rheological properties, this research used 19 variations of Asbuton and pen 60/70 petroleum bitumen. This variation is then subjected to the basic rheology test and the mechanistic test using Dynamic Shear Rheometer. The conclusion of basic rheological performance is obtained that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petroleum bitumen will increase hardness of bitumen. Conclusion on mechanistic rheological performance is that mixture (Asbuton and 60/70 petrol bitumen will increase Performance Grade (PG and Complex Shear Modulus (G*. The results from the analysis of Master Curve and Black Diagram, it is shown that the increasing proportion of bitumen Asbuton will decrease the phase angle (δ but its temperature susceptibility is worse.

  10. Breaking the bottleneck : how best can we bring oil sands products to demanding markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, D.

    2006-01-01

    Alberta-based Altex Energy Ltd. is pursuing the development of an innovative heavy oil/bitumen pipeline from Alberta to the United States Gulf Coast (USGC). This energy infrastructure development company is led by a proven management team that developed and constructed the 3,700 km long Alliance Pipeline system. This presentation included a map of the $3.7 billion dollar Alliance Pipeline that identified the mainline compressor stations, lateral compressor stations, area offices and head offices. It was noted that oilsands will represent the most significant resource plays for many years. A graph indicating bitumen supply forecasts from 2005 to 2020 suggests that bitumen production will have exponential growth over the foreseeable future. Labor, materials and infrastructure limitations will create barriers to oilsands growth, as will uncertain market access. For that reason, assured pipeline capacity is needed along with an infrastructure to refineries and a favourable competitive balance for Canadian producers. The presentation addressed issues regarding marketing choices and the challenges of upgrading in Alberta. The economics of diluting heavy oil was also discussed along with industry response to the diluent challenge. Altex's proposed solution of a new direct greenfield pipeline from Alberta to the USGC would reach the largest refinery market in North America as well as the largest heavy oil/bitumen consuming regions. The Altex solution would be complementary to heavy oil/bitumen in Alberta. The proprietary pipeline technology permits alternative diluents, eliminating much of the diluent penalty. It mitigates the risks of upgrading in Alberta and competes on a cost basis with other expansion alternatives. The Altex pipeline system eliminates the need for costly condensate diluent, but accepts all current diluents. It transports up to 90 per cent more bitumen than clean diluted bitumen in a conventional pipeline. It can also transport as much as 175 per cent

  11. Carbonaceous matters in epigenetic uranium deposits associated with zones of layer oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchetochkin, V.N.; Uspensij, V.A.; Solntseva, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    The paper presents investigations on the carbonaceous substances encountered in uranium deposits of a certain type. A set of methods (IR spectroscopy, ultimate analysis and others) was used to examine the various types of carbonaceous compounds, their composition, structure and geochemistry, and their role in the formation of uranium concentrations. All the carbonaceous substances are divided into two main groups according to their spacial distribution: those syngenetic to the ore-containing sediments; and epigenetic materials introduced into them as a result of the development of an ascending carbon-bitumen process. A considerable similarity was found between the compositions and properties of forms that are known to have no genetic relation to each other, while carbonaceous formations related by a common origin and belonging to the same group are represented by several modifications with different internal structures and compositons. All the carbonaceous compounds of the syngenetic group occur in a random relationships to the uranium mineralization. Nevertheless, the presence of syngenetic carbonaceous substances assists the formation of rich concentrations of uranium. The appearance of epigenetic carbonaceous substances (bitumens) is generally more closely spacially related to zones of development of uranium mineralization. The maximum concentrations of uranium are typical for hard insoluble bitumens. Among the soluble bitumens, the carbonaceous substances - bitumen S - bound in epigenetic materials, are most enriched in uranium (up to px10 -3 %). The role of the bitumens differs in the formation of displaced and primary uranium ores. In the first case, the significance of the bitumens, seems to lie in the reduction of the redox potential of the infiltrated uranium-bearing waters. In the second case, it is possible that a co-migration of uranium and certain types of carbonaceous substance (bitumen S, hard bitumen) took place in reducing (by iron) solutions

  12. Orimulsion penetration and retention in coarse sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Ward, S.; Brown, T.; Sergy, G.; Dempsey, M.

    2002-01-01

    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to evaluate Orimulsion penetration and retention in coarse sediments. The objectives were to develop a standardized method to apply dispersed and coalesced bitumen to the coarse grained sediment test substrates and to estimate the quantity of bitumen retained on and in the substrate. Another objective was to evaluate how the two forms of bitumen interact with coarse sediments in terms of penetration and retention characteristics. The impact of tides and temperature on penetration and retention in coarse sediments was also evaluated. The results were interpreted in terms of potential response options and cleanup options for coarse sediment shorelines. It was determined that spilled Orimulsion would be stranded in the form of tar balls. Initial penetration of coalesced bitumen would be limited in granules and pebbles, Penetration of more than 30 cm would occur in cobbles within 4 tidal cycles. Penetration is temperature sensitive. Cold temperatures would limit penetration in cobbles. No washing method was identified for removal of coalesced bitumen, but coalesced bitumen remains buoyant after penetration. The retention of dispersed bitumen is less than 50 mg of bitumen per kg of sediment. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Mathematical and experimental investigations of modeling, simulation and experiment to promote the life-cycle of polymer modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The formulation of constitutive equations for asphaltic pavement is based on rheological models which include the asphalt mixture, additives, and the bitumen. In terms of the asphalt, the rheology addresses the flow and permanent deformation in time,...

  14. Occupational Renal Dysfunction Among Asphalt Workers In Sharkia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : An Epidemiological Study. ... Zagazig Journal of Occupational Health and Safety ... Abstract. Background: Occupational exposure to bitumen fumes emitted during hot application of asphalt carries the risk of exposure to significant amount of ...

  15. Study on the conditions of bituminization of radioactive wastes and their influence on the stability of stored products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinski, M.; Ksiazak, Z.

    1975-05-01

    Investigations carried out on a laboratory and semi-industrial scale showed that the Polish oxidised industrial bitumen P-60 was suitable for the solidification of liquid radioactive waste and particularly for non-concentrated post-precipitation sludges. The bitumen products were highly stable and were resistant to leaching by acids, salt solutions and water. Laboratory leach tests gave values similar to those obtained by others using different bitumen. By evaluating the sorption characteristics of the soil and the hydrogeological conditions existing at a proposed storage site, it was shown that the solidified wastes could be stored directly in the soil without further isolation from the soil water. Based on the liquid wastes arising from a nuclear power plant it has been shown that solidification of the wastes in bitumen will be cheaper than solidification of the same wastes using cement

  16. AOS clearwater project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, Claes [Alberta Oilsands Inc (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Athabasca oil sands, located in northeastern Alberta, are one of the largest deposits of bitumen in the world. In this presentation Alberta Oilsands Inc. provides an update of their two phase Clearwater project which aims at using an SLP-SAGD system to recover Athabasca bitumen. The Clearwater project site is located nearby the Fort McMurray regional airport. The idea behind the project is to utilize a low pressure SAGD system in combination with a co-injected solvent in order to extract the bitumen. The injected solvent mixes with the bitumen, decreasing its viscosity and improving its ability to flow. This type of system requires only 1000 kPa of operating pressure which leads to a lower steam to oil ratio. By the end of phase one, the Clearwater project aims at bringing in 4,500 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) and 15,000 to 25,000 BOPD by the end of phase two.

  17. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  18. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozes, G.; Kristof, M.

    1983-07-01

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m 3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  19. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LATEKS PADA TEMPERATUR PEMADATAN CAMPURAN ASPAL PENETRASI 60/70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Siswanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Latex is an additive that could be expected to enhance the physical properties of an asphalt binder. Previous research has shown that adding latex can reduce temperature susceptibility of an asphalt binder. Latex is widely available in Indonesia and the introduction of rubberized bitumen in form of latex-bitumen in road construction merits consideration. The objectives of the research was to investigate the effect of latex on physical properties of an asphalt binder, particularly its temperature compaction of an asphalt mixture. Bitumen used was 60/70 penetration grade and latex used was Dry Rubber Content (DRC 60. Methods of testing conformed to SNI. Other standard such as ASTM E 102-93(1997 was used when SNI standard was not available. The result of tests on binders containing 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% by weight of bitumen indicated that temperature compaction increases as latex content increases.

  20. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-06-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC08 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier in air- and oxygen-blown modes during TC08. Test Run TC08 was started on June 9, 2002 and completed on June 29. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen blown was smooth. The gasifier temperature was varied between 1,710 and 1,770 F at pressures from 125 to 240 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC08, 476 hours of solid circulation and 364 hours of coal feed were attained with 153 hours of pure oxygen feed. The gasifier and PCD operations were stable in both enriched air and 100 percent oxygen blown modes. The oxygen concentration was slowly increased during the first transition to full oxygen-blown operations. Subsequent transitions from air to oxygen blown could be completed in less than 15 minutes. Oxygen-blown operations produced the highest synthesis gas heating value to date, with a projected synthesis gas heating value averaging 175 Btu/scf. Carbon conversions averaged 93 percent, slightly lower than carbon conversions achieved during air-blown gasification.

  1. Use of waste plastic materials for road construction in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kwabena Appiah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper forms part of research to solve two main problems in Ghana: firstly, the management of municipal solid waste (MSW, particularly with regards to used plastics which have overwhelmed major cities and towns; secondly, the formation of potholes onroads due to excessive traffic and axle weight. This study examines the effect of blending waste thermoplastic polymers, namely High density polyethylene (HDPE and Polypropylene (PP in Conventional AC-20 graded bitumen, at various plastic compositions. The plastics were shredded and blended with the bitumen ‘in-situ’, with a shear mixer at a temperature range of 160 °C–170 °C. Basic rheological parameters such as penetration, ring & ball softening point and viscosity tests were employed to determine the resulting changes from base bitumen.FTIR spectroscopy was also employed to study the chemical functionalities present in the bitumen composite. The properties of the unmodified bitumen were found to be enhanced with the changes recorded in the rheological properties of the polymer modified bitumen (PMB. It was observed that polypropylene polymer, showed profound effect on homogeneity and compatibility with slight linear increment in the viscosity, softening and penetration values as against relatively high changes for HDPE modified bitumen.The viscosity of unmodified bitumen was enhanced with the addition of the polymers and thixotropic effect was observed for both HDPE and PP at 60 °C. For all modified binders prepared, the penetration values decrease as polymer-bitumen ratio increases whiles softening temperature generally increases as polymer ratio increases. The most compatible and incompatible blends for HDPE were respectively observed at 2% and 3% polymer loading. The most enhanced, homogenous blend is achieved with PP at 3% polymer loading. Three prominent peaks were identified in the spectrum of the unmodified bitumen, occurring at the 3000–2850 cm−1 IR frequency range

  2. Sulphur Compound Distributions in the Upper Jurassic Source Rocks from the Dinarides

    OpenAIRE

    Švel-Cerovečki, Svea; Alajbeg, An|a; Eškinja, Ivan

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of elemental sulphur and sulphur bound in inorganic and organic compounds was investigated for three surface samples of the oil-source rock from the Upper Jurassic strata in the Dinarides. Concentrations of elemental sulphur are very low and the concentrations of sulphur bound in pyrite and sulphates are relatively low. On the other hand, organically-bound sulphur in both kerogens and bitumens is rather high, representing almost a tenth of the bitumens and the kerogens by ...

  3. Rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bituminous mastics : a comparative analysis between physical and chemical modification

    OpenAIRE

    Shivokhin, Maxim; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Gallegos Montes, Críspulo

    2012-01-01

    Mastic, a bitumen/filler blend which naturally forms when bitumen is mixed with aggregates is the actual product used to bind coarse mineral particles in the asphalt mixtures. As a result, the characterisation of mastics is essential to improve the understanding of the response and performance of asphalt concrete pavements. On the other hand, the lack of experimental data concerning the behaviour of mastics and, above all, polymer-modified mastics has been lately claimed. In that sense, this ...

  4. Effect of transesterification degree and post-treatment on the in-service performance of NCO-functionalized vegetable oil bituminous products

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen modification through polyurethane prepolymers presents significant benefits for the manufacture of bituminous products for the paving industry. In this sense, this work explores the use, as bitumen modifier, of a novel reactive prepolymer synthesized by reaction of 4,4´,diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a vegetable oil-based polyol, castor oil (CO), previously transesterified with pentaerythritol. On the one hand, thermal analysis on transesterified CO revealed a highly stabl...

  5. Investigation of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharge and Its Application to Surface Modification of Blood-Filtering Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoliang; Feng, Xianping; Qiu, Gao; Yan, Yonghui; Shi, Yuncheng

    2004-10-01

    Melt-blown polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) nonwoven materials treated by using plasma is regarded as one of the excellent materials to filter white blood cells (WBC) from blood. In this paper, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source at an improved quasi-stable atmospheric pressure is achieved when discharge voltage, discharge current, and gap between the electrodes are carefully controlled. This plasma source has been used to modify the surface of PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials. Experimental results indicate that both the wettability and permeation of treated PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials are greatly improved.

  6. DOE ZERH Case Study: BPC Green Builders, Taft School, Watertown, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 33 without PV or HERS -14 with PV, with 8.5” double 2x4 walls with 8.5” (R-32) blown cellulose plus R-6 rigid foam, basement with 3” ccsf on interior plus 2x4 stud walls with R-13 blown cellulose, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; a central heat pump; HRV; heat pump water heater; 100% LED; and Passive House Institute U.S.+, LEED platinum, and Living Building Challenge certifications.

  7. Investigation of atmospheric pressure plasma discharge and its application to surface modification of blood-filtering material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoliang; Qiu Gao; Yan Yonghui; Shi Yuncheng

    2004-01-01

    Melt-blown polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) nonwoven materials treated by using plasma is regarded as one of the excellent materials to filter white blood cells (WBC) from blood. In this paper, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source at an improved quasi-stable atmospheric pressure is achieved when discharge voltage, discharge current, and gap between the electrodes are carefully controlled. This plasma source has been used to modify the surface of PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials. Experimental results indicate that both the wettability and permeation of treated PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials are greatly improved. (authors)

  8. Alternative PMB produced from recycling waste PMMA/ATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan TUŠAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With development of production processes in refineries production of bitumen is decreasing, as well as the quality of produced bitumen. On the market this brings increased demand for bitumen accompanied by the demand for additives to improve such low quality bitumen. Many different types of additives are used, but most commonly SBS is added. Usage of additives bring additional direct costs, due to market price of additives and indirect cost due to adjustments in the technological process as such as additional mixing device in bitumen tanks, elevated temperature of asphalt or prolongation in mixing time. A topic of our research was development low price asphalt additive from waste poly-methyl methacrylate filled with a fine dispersion aluminium trihydrate (PMMA/ATH. Additionally with paraffin wax it was used as modifying agents for 70/100 paving grade bitumen. With regard to performance of modified asphalt mixtures, it was found that both additives considerably reduce moisture susceptibility and formation of ruts. With laboratory tests and field trial we found that combined technology PMA (polymer modified asphalt and WMA (warm mix asphalt technologies resulted in optimized production and excellent performance of pavement material.

  9. Leaching studies on ion exchange resins immobilized in bitument matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Villalobos, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    To study radionuclide leaching from bitumen waste forms, many samples of bitumen mixed with ion-exchange resin labelled with 134 Cs were prepared. The resins used in the tests were nuclear grade mixed cationic/anionic bead resins. Different bittumen types were assayed: two destilled and to oxidized bitumens. Laboratory to scale samples, with surface/volume ratio (S/V) = 1, were molded to 5 cm diameter and 10 cm height. The composition of the mixtures were: 30, 40, 50 and 60% by weight of dried resin with bitumen. The leachant was deionized water with a leachant volume to sample surface rario of about 8 cm. Leached fractions were collected according to the recommendation of ISO method, with complete exchange of leachant beckers after each sampling. The volume collected for analysis was one liter. Marinelli were used for counting in a Ge(Li) detector. Up to now, results of 250 days have been accumulated. Samples prepared with distilled bitumen have shown a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -14 cm 2 /sec and those prepared with oxidized bitumen yielded a diffusion coefficient of the order of 10 -12 cm 2 /sec. Mathematical models of transport phenomena applied to cylindrical geometry were employed to fit experimental data. (Author) [pt

  10. INVESTIGATION ON UTILITY OF PLASTIC WASTE AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE USING WET PROCESS OF MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Virendra Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Plastic waste has become a major environmental issue of concern due to its exponential growth due to rapid urbanization. The paper investigates utility of plastic waste as an additive for bituminous concrete using wet process of mixing. Methodology. The methodology for the present paper has been designed with complex research consisting of Marshall mix design of the bituminous mix added with plastic waste for modifying bitumen using wet process of mixing, performing the tests on the samples and analyzing the results in the form of table and figures. In the present paper LDPE and HDPE type of plastic waste are used to modify the bitumen. Finding. The results show that addition of 6 percent of bitumen improves the Marshall properties of the mix. Use of plastic to modify the bitumen not only makes the road surface more durable but also it is an eco-friendly way of proper disposal of plastic waste. Originality. The processes used for mixing the plastic waste to the bitumen are dry process and wet process. Dry process of mixing the plastic waste to the bituminous mix is most common and lot of study is carried out on its application. In the present paper wet process of mixing has not yet been studied much. Practical Value. The practical application of utilizing the plastic waste to modify bitumen in the bituminous mix improves the stability values resulting in the more durable road surface. Also the method ensures the proper disposal of plastic waste in eco-friendly way.

  11. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  12. Enhancement of orimulsion biodegradation through the addition of natural marine carbon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, L.M.; Toy, E.; Lapham, L.; Cherrier, J.; Chanton, J.P. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (USA). Dept. of Oceanography

    2001-04-01

    Orimulsion is a bitumen-based heavy fuel that is a less expensive alternative to traditional fuel oils. However, because its density is intermediate between that of freshwater and seawater, in the event of a spill, the fuel could strand in the sediments. Previous work indicated that only 0.6 - 2.7% of the bitumen would degrade in long incubations of marine sediments. Various natural carbon substrates were added to stimulate the degradation of bitumen by native populations of benthic bacteria. The concentration and carbon isotopic signature of the respired carbon dioxide was measured to partition the substrates that supported bacterial respiration. It was found that the addition of seagrass and pinfish stimulated the degradation of bitumen by as much as 2 to 9-fold relative to incubations without these substrates. Biodegradation of bitumen may be enhanced by the addition of natural marine carbon substrates and may be a useful approach for bioremediation. Preadaption of the bacteria to bitumen did not significantly enhance their ability to degrade it. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tab.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Modified with Municipal Wastes for Sustainable Pavement Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The severe hot temperature and high traffic loadings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are causing distress in flexible pavements within a few years of service. Secondly, the conventional bitumen extracted from Saudi oil refineries have a performance grade of 64-10 (PG 64-10, which does not meet the SuperPave performance grade requirement for most of the KSA’s regions. In order to improve the performance grade of bitumen, different percentages of municipal wastes (plastic and crumb rubber were used as bitumen additives. The performance of bitumen at low, intermediate, and high temperatures was evaluated. This is important as the waste production is rising significantly due to the fast urbanization and high population growth in the KSA. Particularly, when there are very few ways of recycling these wastes (municipal, as well as industrial, which in fact have great impact on the environment. High-density polyethylene (HDP, low-density polyethylene (LDP, and crumb rubber (CR with 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight of bitumen, were mixed with the base bitumen (PG 64-10. Rotational viscometer (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to evaluate the viscosity, rutting, fatigue, and low-temperature behavior of base and modified binders. The test results indicated that the rutting (permanent deformation and fatigue resistance were significantly improved in modified binders due to the improvement in the visco-elastic properties.

  14. Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

  15. Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen molecules attach to red blood cells, which travel back ... heart. At the same time, the carbon dioxide molecules in the alveoli are blown out of the ...

  16. 49 CFR 232.107 - Air source requirements and cold weather operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... writing. (b) Condensation and other contaminants shall be blown from the pipe or hose from which... manually drained at least once each day that the devices are used or more often if moisture is detected in...

  17. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... anesthesia. A flexible esophagoscope is introduced with gentle pressure as the patient swallows. Air is blown into ... is numbed using local anesthetic. You may feel pressure when the catheter is inserted into the vein ...

  18. Proceedings from the ETS and ARI Emotional Intelligence Workshop held in Princeton, New Jersey on November 13-15, 2003. Volume 2. Sessions 3 and 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Richard D; Minsky, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ...), the theme of the workshop. Perhaps because of this deficiency, there are a number of competing models of EI, none of which appears as full-blown as do current accounts of traditional forms of intelligence...

  19. Proceedings from the ETS and ARI Emotional Intelligence Workshop held in Princeton, New Jersey on November 13-15, 2003. Volume 1. Sessions 1 and 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Richard D; Minsky, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    ...), the theme of the workshop. Perhaps because of this deficiency, there are a number of competing models of EI, none of which appears as full-blown as do current accounts of traditional forms of intelligence...

  20. Spectral Analysis of Polarimetric Weather Radar Data With Multiple Processes in a Resolution Volume

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachmann, Svetlana; DeBrunner, Victor; Zrnic, Dusan; Yeary, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... An example of clear air observed using an S-band dual polarization radar is presented. Heretofore, migrating birds and wind-blown insects that are mixed within each resolution volume caused such data to be unusable for meteorological interpretation...

  1. 78 FR 36239 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wayne State University Gordon L. Grosscup Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... human remains reportedly included a pair of scissors, a hand blown bottle, a scalpel, six silver... remains, consisting of two small cranial fragments, were reportedly recovered near the edge of the...

  2. Evolution of the Ethane Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casado, Martin; Shenker, Scott

    2009-01-01

    .... First, the Ethane architecture was evolved from Ethane's narrowly targeted design to a fully general network operating system called NOX, which provides users with full-blown programmatic interface...

  3. Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure) An acute traumatic event could cause post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Not every traumatized person develops full-blown or even minor PTSD. 3 Although individual factors (such as coping strategies) ...

  4. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... areas of the body while other areas, especially air-filled lungs, are poorly suited for ultrasound. Common ... introduced with gentle pressure as the patient swallows. Air is blown into the esophagus for improved visualization, ...

  5. Modified Polymer Materials for Use in Selected Personal Protective Equipment Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzmańska Emilia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the methods of modification of melt-blown polymer materials by the addition of a bactericidal agent or superabsorbent directly to the fibre-forming area during the melt-blown production process. It also presents tests of textile composites designed for use in selected types of personal protective equipment worn in the workplace. One example of the application of textile composites is the protective footwear insole. The insole composites contain specially developed variants of melt-blown nonwovens made from PP, PC, and PA fibres. Microbiological, hygienic, and mechanical tests have shown that the optimum insoles for all-rubber protective footwear are those made of bioactive composites containing a PC melt-blown nonwoven. Another example of composite application is the air-purifying half mask. Filter composites contain polymer nonwovens with the addition of different quantities of a superabsorbent. They have been tested for particle penetration, airflow resistance, and moisture sorption.

  6. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1982) have argued that the material constituting the spokes is elevated above the ring plane. Hill and Mendis (1981a) proposed that these small grains are charged and electrostatically levitated and blown off larger bodies (perhaps meter-sized) ...

  7. DOE ZERH Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Via del Cielo, Santa Fe, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the mixed-dry climate that got a HERS 48 without PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-21 blown fiberglass; slab foundation with R-10 under slab and R-5rigid foam at slab edge; vented attic with R-75 blown fiberglass; ducted minisplit heat pump 16.5 SEER, 9.5 HSPF.

  8. DOE ZERH Case Study: New Town Builders, Town Homes at Perrin's Row, Wheat Ridge, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning multifamily project with 26 units in the cold climate that got a HERS 54 without PV, or HERS 28 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-23 blown fiberglass; slab foundation with R-10 rigid at slab edge; plus R-10 rigid exterior; R-22 ICF basement walls; vented attic with R-50 blown fiberglass; 92 AFUE furnace, 13 SEER AC.

  9. DOE ZERH Case Study: Dwell Development, Reclaimed Modern, Seattle, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  10. DOE ZERH Case Study: Evolutionary Home Builders, The Adaptation Home, Geneva, IL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 30 without PV, with 2x8 24” on center walls with blown fiberglass and 4” polysio rigid foam; basement with 2” XPS interior, 4” under slab, 4” exterior of foundation wall; vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; wo air-to-air heat pumps SEER 14.1; HSPF 9.6; heat pump water heater.

  11. DOE ZERH Case Study: Glastonbury Housesmith, Hickory Drive, South Glastonbury, CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 29 without PV -23 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with 5.5 blown fiberglass and 2.75” rigid mineral wool; basement with 4” XPS exterior, 4” under slab; sealed attic with 5” ccsf and R-58 blown fiberglass; ground source heat pump COP 4.4.

  12. DOE ZERH Case Study: Mantell-Hecathorn Builders, Shenandoah Circle, Durango, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 50 without PV, or HERS 21 with PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-13 ccsf plus 3.5” blown fiberglass, plus R-10 rigid exterior; R-22 ICF basement walls; vented attic with spray foam over top plates, R-65 blown fiberglass; 96 AFUE furnace, triple-pane windows, 80% LED.

  13. Modified Polymer Materials for Use in Selected Personal Protective Equipment Products

    OpenAIRE

    Irzmańska Emilia; Brochocka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The paper discusses the methods of modification of melt-blown polymer materials by the addition of a bactericidal agent or superabsorbent directly to the fibre-forming area during the melt-blown production process. It also presents tests of textile composites designed for use in selected types of personal protective equipment worn in the workplace. One example of the application of textile composites is the protective footwear insole. The insole composites contain specially developed variants...

  14. DETERMINATION OF THE DEGREE OF GRAVEL AGGREGATE-BITUMENCOVERAGE BY MULTI-DIRECTIONAL REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mulsow

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the determination of the percentage area of bitumen on partly covered aggregate. This task is a typical issue in material testing in road construction. The asphalt components bitumen and aggregate are subjected to defined mechanical stress in the presence of water in order to test the affine properties of the components. The degree to which the bitumen separates from the aggregate surface serves as an indicator for the quality of the affinity. Until now, examiners have been judging the coverage degree of samples by visual rating. Several research projects attempted to replace the error-prone subjective assessment by automatic procedures. These procedures analyse the different chromaticities of aggregate and bitumen in RGB images. However, these approaches as a whole are not reliable enough because of the rather specific requirements that are made on the environmental conditions when the picture is taken (illumination, exclusion of extraneous light and also on the lab assistant (manual definition of training areas, management of camera and illumination parameters. Moreover, the analysis is not suitable for all types of rock because of the necessary difference in colour between bitumen and aggregate (e.g. dark rock samples. Contrary to previous approaches, the new multi-directional reflectance measurements use the different surface characteristics of bitumen and aggregate instead of the chromaticities as separation criteria. These differences are made visible by directional lighting with a laser. The diffuse reflection from the aggregate surface and the directional reflection from the optically smoother bitumen produce definitely distinguishable brightnesses in the image. Thus the colour of the material is of no significance. The approach was used in a procedure and assessed. The paper presents the method itself, approaches for the elimination of reflections and first results. Moreover, the measuring principle is compared with

  15. Supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands: A comparative study of the costs and CO2 emissions of mining and in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Aurélie; Hope, Chris

    2013-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that before 2035, the most influential parameters are the learning parameter in the case of in-situ bitumen and the depletion parameter in the case of mined bitumen. After 2035, depletion dominates in both cases. The results show that the social cost of CO 2 has a large impact on the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon intensity of the recovery techniques: taking into account the social cost of CO 2 adds more than half to the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from mined bitumen in 2050 (mean value), while the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen more than doubles. - Highlights: • We model the cost of Canadian synthetic crude oil (SCO) using Monte-Carlo techniques. • We reveal the uncertainty associated with each input parameter. • We quantify the effect of learning, depletion and CO 2 using sensitivity analyses. • Accounting for the social cost of CO 2 doubles the cost of SCO from in-situ bitumen. • CO 2 pricing could have a large effect on the economics of the oil sands

  16. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  17. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht A.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaching experiments of solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes have been first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface (see the paper of Bertron et al.. Of course, as might be suspected, the cement matrix imposes highly alkaline pH conditions (10 bitumen and cement matrices. Denitrification was relatively fast in the presence of cement matrix (<100 hours and 2 to 3 times slower in the presence of bituminous matrix. Overall, the presence of solid cement promoted the kinetics of denitrification. The observation of solid surfaces at the end of the experiment revealed the presence of a biofilm of Halomonas desiderata on the cement paste surface. These attached bacteria showed a denitrifying activity comparable to planktonic bacterial culture. On the other side, no colonization of bitumen could be highlighted as either by SEM or epifluorescence microscopy. Now, we are currently developing a continuous experimental bioreactor which should allow us a more rational understanding of the bitumen-cement-microbe interactions.

  18. Characterization of Naphthenic Acids and Other Dissolved Organics in Natural Water from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenxing; Shotyk, William; Cuss, Chad W; Donner, Mark W; Fennell, Jon; Javed, Muhammad; Noernberg, Tommy; Poesch, Mark; Pelletier, Rick; Sinnatamby, Nilo; Siddique, Tariq; Martin, Jonathan W

    2017-09-05

    With growth of the Canadian oil sands industry, concerns have been raised about possible seepage of toxic oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) into the Athabasca River (AR). A sampling campaign in fall 2015 was undertaken to monitor for anthropogenic seepage while also considering natural sources. Naphthenic acids (NAs) and thousands of bitumen-derived organics were characterized in surface water, groundwater, and OSPW using a highly sensitive online solid phase extraction-HPLC-Orbitrap method. Elevated NA concentrations and bitumen-derived organics were detected in McLean Creek (30.1 μg/L) and Beaver Creek (190 μg/L), two tributaries that are physically impacted by tailings structures. This was suggestive of OSPW seepage, but conclusive differentiation of anthropogenic and natural sources remained difficult. High NA concentrations and bitumen-derived organics were also observed in natural water located far north of the industry, including exceedingly high concentrations in AR groundwater (A5w-GW, 2000 μg/L) and elevated concentration in a tributary river (Pierre River, 34.7 μg/L). Despite these evidence for both natural and anthropogenic seepage, no evidence of any bitumen-derived organics was detected at any location in AR mainstem surface water. The chemical significance of any bitumen-derived seepage to the AR was therefore minimal, and focused monitoring in tributaries will be valuable in the future.

  19. The organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Devonian source rocks in the Liard Basin, at Jackfish Gap-Yohin Ridge and North Beaver River, northern Canada: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J. (Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Richards, B.C.; Goodarzi, G. (Geological Survey, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Basinal shales of the Besa River Fm. have TOC values ranging from 1 to 4% and contain abundant type II, dominantly amorphous, kerogen of marine origin. Shales in the Yohin, Clausen, Prophet, and Golata Formations are of mixed maring and terrestrial origins and yield TOC values of 1 to 3%. Kerogen in the Golata and Yohin Formations are dominated by terrestrial components, while the Clausen and Flett kerogen comprises marine liptinites and bitumens. Kerogen from the deltaic Mattson shales at Jackfish Gap are types II and III, having mixed marine and terrestrial origins consistent with shallow, nearshore, subtidal environments. The coals are sapropelic and probably lacustrine in origin. Algal laminites associated with coals in the Upper Mattson have >10% TOC values, while non-laminite shales contain between 2 and 5% TOC. Comparable measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance data indicate that kerogen in the Lower Carboniferous at Jackfish Gap is mature. Kerogen in correlative formations in the subsurface at North Beaver River is more marine. Vitrinites are rate and oxidized, but four populations of bitumens are distinguished on the basis of relative reflectivity and morphological or petrophysical associations. Types A and B bitumens are primary and by-products of hydrocarbon generation from type II (algal and amorphous) kerogens. Correlations between depth and reflectance of bitumens A and B are very good. Vitrinite reflectance data calculated from bitumen reflectance measurements for the Besa River, Prophet, and Golata indicate that they are potential sources of catagenic gas. The Mattson kerogen is mature, oil and gas-prone.

  20. Evaluation of Asphalt Mixture Low-Temperature Performance in Bending Beam Creep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Dawid; Jaskula, Piotr; Szydlowski, Cezary

    2018-01-01

    Low-temperature cracking is one of the most common road pavement distress types in Poland. While bitumen performance can be evaluated in detail using bending beam rheometer (BBR) or dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests, none of the normalized test methods gives a comprehensive representation of low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures. This article presents the Bending Beam Creep test performed at temperatures from −20 °C to +10 °C in order to evaluate the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures. Both validation of the method and its utilization for the assessment of eight types of wearing courses commonly used in Poland were described. The performed test indicated that the source of bitumen and its production process (and not necessarily only bitumen penetration) had a significant impact on the low-temperature performance of the asphalt mixtures, comparable to the impact of binder modification (neat, polymer-modified, highly modified) and the aggregate skeleton used in the mixture (Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) vs. Asphalt Concrete (AC)). Obtained Bending Beam Creep test results were compared with the BBR bitumen test. Regression analysis confirmed that performing solely bitumen tests is insufficient for comprehensive low-temperature performance analysis. PMID:29320443