WorldWideScience

Sample records for blown bitumens

  1. Cooee bitumen:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in “Cooee bitumen” using molecular dynamic simulations. This model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: “2 resins → 1 asphaltene.” Molecular...... dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule are determined for the four...

  2. Bitumen pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  3. Blown-up orbifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to repair - ''blow-up'' - the singularities of the Abelian (2,2) orbifolds to obtain the corresponding (2,2) Calabi-Yau manifolds is presented. This approach makes use of the fact that with each orbifold singularity there are associated massless scalar fields - blowing-up modes - whose potential is flat to all orders in the string perturbation theory. The zero vacuum expectation values (VEV's) of the blowing-up modes correspond to the orbifold limit, while nonzero VEV's yield the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifold. One can then calculate explicitly, for such Calabi-Yau manifolds, the mass spectrum, Yukawa couplings, and all the other parameters of the effective Lagrangian by inserting successively all the background blowing-up modes with nonzero vacuum expectation value into the corresponding orbifold amplitudes. The results are exact at the string tree-level; however, they are perturbative in the blowing-up procedure. Mass spectra and Yukawa couplings for the blown-up Z3 and Z4 orbifolds are explicitly calculated. In particular all the E6 singlets except the ones associated with the moduli-space of the blown-up orbifolds receive the mass; while the 27's and anti 27's do not pair up

  4. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  5. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  6. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  7. The big bitumen breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ongoing transformation of the oilsands and heavy oil sector from a poor cousin a few years ago into the cornerstone of the Alberta oil industry, was discussed. Much of this change is due to the development of SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology for the underground recovery of heavy oil and tarry bitumens, aided by partly government-funded research, and boosted by a revised provincial royalty regime. The thermal recovery process makes use of a pair of horizontal injection and recovery wells, drilled one above the other. The efficiency of this new technology could produce a shift in the petroleum industry's spending towards oil sands and heavy oil if investors conclude that it is more profitable to produce heavy oil than conventional light oil. Some of the oil sands producers that are poised to invest billions of dollars in various underground bitumen projects in Alberta over the next five years include Suncor, Syncrude, Alberta Energy Co., Amoco Canada, Elan Energy, Imperial Oil Resources, CS Resources, Koch Oil, and Gulf Resources. The ultimate goal is recovery costs of $6 per barrel, which is comparable to the costs of the conventional oil sector. The added advantage of oil sands production is, of course, the virtual elimination of the exploration risk. 3 figs

  8. Processing options for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 178 billion barrels of oil can be recovered from Alberta's vast heavy oil reserves. The challenge lies in the logistics of recovering, upgrading and transporting the oil to market. The Canadian Energy Research Institute conducted a recent study to determine market potential by 2007 for diluted bitumen and synthetic crude oil produced from upgraded bitumen. The viability for a wide range of bitumen feedstocks was assessed along with the sensitivity of refinery demand to their prices. The 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen include PADD 2 in the United States, western Canada, and Ontario. Bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline and cannot be processed by most of the existing refineries. Therefore, in order to develop a mass market for the product, bitumen must undergo the energy intensive upgrading process at existing refineries. The factors impacting which method of upgrading is most suitable were discussed with particular attention to the impact that Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol may have on Alberta's bitumen resource in terms of costs of complying with greenhouse gas reduction initiatives. The authors emphasized that it is crucial to customize an upgrading project to meet site and market specific factors. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Selective extraction of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed in the field of natural bitumen extraction is aimed at maximum separation of organic phase. On treating bituminous rocks with solvents, the associated metals are extracted together with the organic phase and may further exert a negative effect on refining of natural bitumen. the authors propose a simplified two stage technique for the extraction of bitumen which enables to utilize V and Ni contained in the concentrate of the second stage extraction (Table). At the first stage, negative bitumen is extracted with the summary content of metals not exceeding 0.005%. This allows to avoid de metallization of native bitumen and subject it to treatment by catalytic cracking. during this stage gasoline and kerosene fractions, different oil distillates and condensates can be used as solvents. at the second stage, aromatic and halo id compounds bearing wastes and by-products, i.e. cheap and non deficient reagents, serve as solvents. The technology was tested under laboratory conditions using Tatar bituminous sands. It is also possible to use one solvent only, however, on condition that at first the oil product with the summary metal content below 0.005%, and then the remaining product is extracted. The proposed technology has proved so universal that it can be applied to refining any type of raw material to be found in the territory of the Tatar republic, using surface extraction complexes. (author). 9 refs., tab

  10. The Human Bitumen Study: executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Rühl, Reinhold; Brüning, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Bitumen has attracted attention from the scientific community and regulating agencies. The debate on health effects of exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen during the hot application of bitumen ranges from respiratory and neurological effects to carcinogenicity. In 2000, the German Hazardous Substances Committee (AGS), in collaboration with the German Bitumen Forum, initiated the examination of a group of mastic asphalt workers and a same number of construction workers without exposure bitumen using a cross-shift design. The study was then extended to the Human Bitumen Study, and the recruitment was finished in 2008 after examination of 500 workers on 80 construction sites. Three hundred and twenty workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen at high processing temperatures and 118 workers at outdoor construction sites were included. In the Human Bitumen Study external exposure to vapours and aerosols of bitumen, internal exposure to PAH by analysing urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes and the sum of 1- and 2-hydroxynaphthalenes, irritative effects in the upper and lower airways and genotoxic effects in blood cells were investigated. The study turned out to be one of the largest investigations of workers exposed to vapours and aerosols of bitumen under current exposure conditions. The present paper summarizes its background and main topics. PMID:21369765

  11. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  13. Impact of salinity on bitumen extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, H.A.W; Schaffer, M. [Total EandP Canada Ltd (Canada); Gingras, J.P. [TOTAL Petrochemicals Mont-Lacq Research and Development (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil sands industry, the hot water extraction process is used to extract bitumen. Recovery of bitumen is thus dependent on the water chemistry. Previous studies identified that divalent cations such as calcium present in water have a negative effect on bitumen recovery but the effect of monovalent cations such as sodium at high concentrations is still unknown. This paper assessed the potential impact of both monovalent and divalent cations on bitumen recovery. Extraction tests were conducted with two low grade and one average grade ore and with different water chemistries. Results showed that monovalent cations can have a negative impact on bitumen recovery for specific ore types. The study was not successful in determining the responsible mechanism but it is presumed to be related to coagulation of fine clays. This paper highlighted that monovalent cations can impact the bitumen recovery; further work is required to determine the responsible factors.

  14. Prepare to be blown away

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 16 April, the TE-VSC team began identifying and repairing the LHC’s faulty radiofrequency fingers. Their main tool: an “RF ball” that will be – quite literally – blown through the beam pipe.   RF ball tests carried out in 2007. In the bellows of the LHC interconnects, you’ll find the vacuum pipe held together by some flexible metallic connectors known as “RF fingers”. These RF fingers maintain the electrical contact between the LHC magnets, ensuring the continuity of the beam pipe. As the magnets contract and expand when heated up and cooled down, the fingers preserve their connection by simply sliding over each other. However, experience has shown that the movement of the LHC magnets can cause the fingers to buckle. “It’s not a question of bad design,” explains Vincent Baglin, from TE's Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (TE-VSC) group. “Rather, there were slight non...

  15. Installation of a bitumen coating plant for high-activity concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the excellent results obtained on the industrial coating of radioactive sludges, the possibility of solidifying also the evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been considered. For high activity concentrates, the use of bitumen is however limited by two main parameters: temperature resistance, irradiation resistance. By making use of the characteristics of a blown bitumen, it has been possible to design a high activity coating pilot plant treating concentrations of several tens of curies per litre. This plant will make use of a screw-type extrusion machine capable of coating treated concentrates at a rate of 20 l/hr. Before being coated, the concentrates will be subjected to a coprecipitation treatment designed to make the radioelements insoluble. This installation will make possible, apart from technological studies, laboratory experiments on the coated material (measurements on self-heating, on electrical charges, on radiolytic gases, and also lixiviation tests. It is at present believed, on the basis of available data, that it is possible to coat concentrates having an activity of 20 Ci/l at a price of 1840 F per cubic metre. (authors)

  16. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  17. Upgrading of bitumen using supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayukawa, T. [JGC Corp., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation outlined the technical and economic aspects of thermal cracking by supercritical water. Supercritical water (SCW) is a commonly used method for upgrading heavy oil to produce pipeline-transportable oil from high-viscous bitumen. The process uses water and does not require hydrogen nor catalysts. Pre-heated bitumen and water enter a vertical reactor with flows of counter current at the supercritical point of water. The upgraded synthetic crude oil (SCO) and pitch are obtained from the top of the reactor when the bitumen is thermally cracked. Bench-scale studies have shown that Canadian oil sands bitumen can be converted to 80 volume per cent of SCO and 20 volume per cent of pitch. The SCO has satisfied Canadian pipeline specifications in terms of API gravity and kinetic viscosity. The kinetic viscosity of the pitch has also satisfied boiler fuel specifications. tabs., figs.

  18. A New Approach for Evaluating Rejuvenator Diffusing into Aged Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Dongliang; FENG Zhengang; YU Jianying; CHEN Xing; ZHOU Bo

    2011-01-01

    Rejuvenator diffusing into aged bitumen was evaluated by determining penetration and chemical components of aged bitumen with rejuvenator coat before and after diffusing experiment.Effects of temperature, time and viscosity of rejuvenator on the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen were investigated. Results indicated that the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen could be enhanced with the increasing of temperature and time, however, the diffusing of rejuvenator into aged bitumen would be restricted due to the volatilization of light component and aging of rejuvenator under high temperature (over 170 ℃). Rejuvenator with low viscosity diffused into aged bitumen more easily.

  19. Market challenges for SCO and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various options available to producers of bitumen to market their product are reviewed. Marketing as bitumen blend is one of the options, however, the ability of doing this becomes constrained by the availability of diluent and refinery capacity to utilize the crude. Building a complex upgrader and produce an upgraded synthetic crude is another option, but that too will face marketing constraints as oilsands development continues to grow. A third option is to partially upgrade the bitumen, enough to be pumpable, and then sell it to a refiner for further upgrading. Partial upgrading in the field appears to be the most viable option but it will likely require long term integration with refineries to be effective. Refiners are faced with the challenge to reduce sulphur in gasoline, which means that they may well be reluctant to take bitumen as feedstock due its being hydrogen deficient, requiring substantial hydrogen addition or coke withdrawal to make them more compatible with existing refiners, most of which are not able to deal with bitumen efficiently. Regardless of the option chosen, increased production of bitumen will require new markets (perhaps PADD II, the US Midwest or more remote markets) and may require investments in new refining facilities to absorb all new synthetic supplies. While the availability of an adequate diluent supply is the major issue, there is also the added pressure on refiners to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; this in itself could be a significant factor in deciding where upgrading of bitumen should occur. The paper concludes by saying that to meet these challenges it will be necessary for producers, upgraders and refiners to work much more closely together than they have in the past

  20. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  1. Langmuir films of solids-free bitumen and bitumen fractions at toluene/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyev, A.; Zhang, L.; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the interfacial behaviour of bitumen and bitumen fractions at an organic solvent/water interface using a Langmuir trough and atomic force microscope (AFM). The objective was to better understand the stability of water-in-solvent diluted bitumen emulsions. The accumulation of interfacially active components at the oil/water interfaces promotes the formation of interfacial films, which resist the coalescence of water droplets thereby stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions. The bitumen fractions included maltene, and asphaltene films at the toluene/de-ionized water interface. Langmuir films of bitumen, maltene and asphaltene were spread at toluene/water interfaces where they exhibited different interfacial pressure-area isotherms. Asphaltenes were found to be irreversibly adsorbed at the toluene/water interface when the films were subjected to multiple washings with fresh toluene. Interfacial pressure-area isotherms remained unchanged. Consecutive washings of maltene films with fresh toluene showed a progressive loss of interfacial materials from the toluene/water interface. However, the pressure-area isotherms showed a consistent shift during the first 2 consecutive bitumen film washings and then no further shift with subsequent washings. After the first 2 washings, the isotherms were same as the original asphaltene films. According to AFM images of Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited from the toluene/water interface, the topographical features of asphaltene films resembled that of bitumen films. However, they were very different from that of maltene films. The study results demonstrated that the bitumen film at a toluene/water interface is composed primarily of asphaltenes. The asphaltenes contribute to the stability of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions because they are irreversibly adsorbed at the interface. tabs., figs.

  2. Vergelijkend AFM Onderzoek: microstructuur van bitumen in relatie tot healing

    OpenAIRE

    Schmets, A. J. M.; Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Fischer, H.; Scarpas, A.; Erkens, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the background, the scientific and experimental approach and the results of AFM experiments performed on two different batches of bitumen. The specific bitumen researched in this project has also been studied in the context of the InfraQuest project ‘Pragmatisch Healing Onderzoek’. It has been known for quite some time already that bitumen posessess a microstructure at the typical length scale of micrometers. This can be shown experimentally by imaging the bitumen su...

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of air-blown gasification for IGCC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Air-blown IGCCs are investigated starting from a model of an air-blown gasifier. → Air-blown and oxygen-blown gasifiers have similar cold gas efficiency. → Different coal gasification technologies are better understand by means of Sankey diagrams. → The overall IGCC performance improves with the air-blown technology. → Potential savings in terms of investment costs determine lower electricity costs. -- Abstract: This paper analyzes the thermodynamic performance of IGCC power plants based on an air-blown gasifier. A preliminary computational model for a lab-scale gasifier was calibrated on experimental data available in open literature, as a first step for the modeling of a large-scale MHI-type air-blown demonstration gasifier. The latter was analyzed by a parametric analysis, carried out by varying the gasification temperature and the heat transferred to the membrane walls. In agreement with data from MHI, the power balance of the air-blown gasifier suggests that the cold gas efficiency is similar to the one of oxygen-blown gasifiers, even though energy flows are quite different in the two gasification technologies. A complete IGCC power plant based on an air-blown gasifier is then proposed. Its predicted performance is compared to the one of a plant using an oxygen-blown Shell-type gasifier, calculated with coherent assumptions. The same state-of-the-art combustion turbine is selected as topping cycle in both the IGCCs. The overall power plant performance improves with the air-blown technology and the calculated net efficiency is a bit more than 1.5% points higher. Such a result, along with potential savings in terms of investment cost, could possibly determine lower costs of the electricity produced. Sankey diagrams of the energy flows, along with a second-law analysis, are discussed in the paper, to better understand the results provided by similar power cycle configurations, but with very different coal gasification technologies.

  4. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best types of refineries for processing western Canadian bitumen-based feedstock (BBF) were identified and a potential market for these feedstock for year 2007 was calculated. In addition, this power point presentation provided an estimation of potential regional and total demand for BBF. BBF included Athabasca bitumen blend, de-asphalted blend, coked sour crude oil (SCO), coked sweet SCO, hydrocracked SCO and hydrocracked/aromatic saturated SCO (HAS). Refinery prototypes included light and mixed prototypes for primary cracking units, light and heavy prototypes for primary coking units, as well as no coking, coking severe and residuum prototypes for primary hydrocracking units. The presentation included graphs depicting the natural market for Western Canadian crudes as well as U.S. crude oil production forecasts by PADD districts. It was forecasted that the market for bitumen-based feedstock in 2007 will be tight and that the potential demand for bitumen-based blends would be similar to expected production. It was also forecasted that the potential demand for SCO is not as promising relative to the expected production, unless price discounting or HAS will be available. 11 figs

  5. The conditioning of radioactive waste by bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of radioactive sludge and waste by bitumen is studied. Results are given concerning various trials carried out on the lixiviation of the final product by water as a function of the pH, of the time, and of the composition. The conditions for carrying out this process of coating the waste are controlled from a radioactive point of view. (author)

  6. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive regulatory performance test program, using an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The testing has shown that the relatively viscous form of oxidized bitumen that was used has been able to meet all performance requirements. Using a 53-mm Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of ASTM D312, type III, air-blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, was used. The mixed liquid waste contained approximately 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium, and strontium. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, 40, 50, and 60 wt % salt. Performance test results include the 90-day American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements

  7. Market outlook for Athabasca bitumen: the economics of location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) was shown to have lowered supply costs and made Athabasca bitumen competitive in the North American market for heavy crudes and bitumen. As part of a SAGD commercialization study, the potential market for Athabasca bitumen, its transportation and netback prices were studied. While both Syncrude and Suncor have identified a need for additional bitumen in the future, it was also recognized that Athabasca bitumen prices must be cost competitive with Syncrude's and Suncor's own products. The study also revealed that the most significant obstacle for Athabaska bitumen to being fully competitive in the North American market was the lack of transportation infrastructure. It was suggested that using larger volume pipelines would aid in keeping pipeline tariffs low , which in turn, would improve Athabaska bitumen's competitiveness and enable further development of the deposit. 8 figs., 1 table

  8. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs

  9. Characterization of laser blown molydisilicide links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser blowing of MoSi2/Poly-n+ fuse links is reported. The polycide links were successfully blown under 10KA of PSG (phospho silicate glass used for isolation between the link and the aluminum) at laser power levels comparable to those used for standard poly link vaporization. Also, the size of the crater in the PSG, produced by the expanding gases associated with link vaporization, was found to be less than that for standard poly links. Laser power levels were found which gave both a near unity blowing probability and produced no substrate damage when the link was located on top of 7-10KA of field oxide. The successful blowing of silicide links is very important with respect to the use of both laser redundancy and silicides in VLSI technology

  10. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  11. Experimental PVT property analyses for Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashrafi, Mohammad; Souraki, Yaser; Karimaie, Hassan; Torsaeter, Ole [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Bjorkvik, Bard J.A. [SINTEF Petroleum Research (Norway)

    2011-07-01

    To study fluid behavior in a reservoir it is very important to find out exact and complete data on the rock system, fluid properties, and rock-fluid interactions. PVT properties are among the most critical data that reservoir engineers need to evaluate the reservoir. This paper presents the experimental study of a few PVT properties of Athabasca bitumen. The viscosity of Athabasca heavy crude was measured using a rotational viscometer. These viscosity data are a reliable input for simulation purposes. The Athabasca oil was characterized using gas chromatography analysis. Whole sample molar mass was measured at 534 g/mol by cryoscopy. Density and molar mass were also measured. Based on the experimental study, a formula was derived for Athabasca bitumen density prediction in the temperature and pressure range studied. From the results, the interfacial tension between oil and steam was measured, using the pendant drop method, and found to be between 25 and 18 mN/m.

  12. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  13. Bitumens from the Barrandian Basin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkorová, Ivana; Suchý, Václav

    Porto: Departamento de geologia, Centro de geologia da Universidade do Porto, 1998, s. 54-55. ISSN 0873-741X. [Symposium on Gondwana Coals and 50th ICCP Meeting/2./. Porto (PT), 20.09.1998-26.09.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : bitumens * maturation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Investigation of rheological properties of TPS modified bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全涛; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 王金刚

    2008-01-01

    Rheological properties of the virgin bitumen and TPS modified bitumen binders with several percentages of TPS additives were studied.All TPS modified bituminous binders were prepared on a laboratory scale.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) strain sweep test was made to measure the linear viscoelasticity areas of various bitumen binders at -20-70 ℃,then temperature sweep test and frequency sweep test were made in the linear viscoelasticity areas.Complex modulus master curves were drawn to analyze and compare various bitumen binders’ rheological properties.Based on the test results,the ideal percentage of TPS additive was brought forward.The results show that TPS modified bitumen binders have more excellent properties at high,medium and low temperatures compared with original bitumen.The dosages of TPS additive are vital to their properties.

  15. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Physico-chemical modification of asphalt bitumens by reactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  17. The long-term stability of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural bitumen can be an aid in the assessment of the long-term behaviour of technical bitumen. Natural occurrences of bitumen usually have the drawback that the original material before alteration or degration began is not known. The present work applies an alternative approach: on the basis of the geology and stratigraphy at a site where bitumen samples have been taken, the existence of a gradient in the parameters of subaerial and microbial degradation processes may be assumed. Therefore relative variation in properties, composition and structure (bitumen content, volative fraction, elemental composition, chromatographic fractions, saturated hydrocarbons, trace metals, humic substances) at different locations within the deposit have been analysed. The bitumen impregnates a bed of porous Jurassic limestone which crops out at the surface and dips under sediments of various permeability. The quality of the bitumen is in compliance with standards for soft technical bitumen, although it can be characterized as highly biodegraded. It has probably not been affected to any marked degree by degradation since the Quarternary or possibly even late Tertiary, however, as observable variations in composition and properties are only minor and seem to exhibit no clear relation to the present geological setting. Only near the present outcrop do there seem to be signs of increased oxidation. Direct exposure to the weather at the surface leads to destruction of the bitumen within a very thin surface layer. Traces of humic substances probably originating from the decomposition of bitumen were found. The rate of bitumen degradation at outcrops seems to coincide with the rate of weathering and erosion of the host rock. It can be concluded from the results that the time scales necessary to achieve significant alteration of bitumen under the given conditions far exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of radionuclides in low- and medium-level radioactive waste

  18. Cooee bitumen II: Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Claire,; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J.C.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of ...

  19. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  20. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The μ-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  1. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  2. Disjoining pressure isotherms of water-in-bitumen emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn D; Czarnecki, Jan; Masliyah, Jacob

    2002-08-01

    In the oil sands industry, undesirable water-in-oil emulsions are often formed during the bitumen recovery process where water is used to liberate bitumen from sand grains. Nearly all of the water is removed except for a small percentage (approximately 1 to 2%), which remains in the solvent-diluted bitumen as micrometer-sized droplets. Knowledge of the colloidal forces that stabilized these water droplets would help to increase our understanding of how these emulsions are stabilized. In this study, the thin liquid film-pressure balance technique has been used to measure isotherms of disjoining pressure in water/toluene-diluted bitumen/water films at five different toluene-bitumen mass ratios. Even though a broad range of mass ratios was studied, only two isotherms are obtained, indicating a possible change in the molecular orientation of surfactant molecules at the bitumen/water interfaces. At low toluene-bitumen mass ratios, the film stability appears to be due to a strong, short-range steric repulsion created by a surfactant bilayer. Similar isotherms were obtained for water/toluene-diluted asphaltene/water films, indicating that the surface active material at the interface probably originated from the asphaltene fraction of the bitumen. However, unlike the bitumen films, films of toluene-diluted asphaltenes often formed very rigid interfaces similar to the "protective skin" described by other researcher. PMID:16290773

  3. Investigations of Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hassan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several road pavement distresses are related to rheological bitumen properties. Rutting and fatigue cracking are the major distresses that lead to permanent failures in pavement construction. Influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on rheological properties of bitumen binder such as improvement of high and intermediate temperatures is investigated in the binder’s fatigue and rutting resistance through physical-rheological changes in this research. The bitumen binders were aged by rolling thin film oven (RTFOT to simulate short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV to simulate long-term aging. The effects of aging on the rheological and physical properties of bitumen binders were studied conducting dynamic shear rheometer test (DSR, Brookfield viscometer test, softening point test, and penetration test. The results showed that the use of rubberised bitumen binder reduces the aging effect on physical and rheological properties of the bitumen binder as illustrated through lower aging index of viscosity, lower aging index of , and an increase in with crumb rubber modifier content increasing, indicating that the crumb rubber might improve the aging resistance of rubberised bitumen binder. In addition, the results showed that the softening point increment ( and penetration aging ratio (PAR of the rubberised bitumen binder decreased significantly due to crumb rubber modification. Furthermore, the higher crumb rubber content, the lower after PAV aging, which led to higher resistance to fatigue cracking bitumen.

  4. Impact of fugitive bitumen on polymer-based flocculation of mature fine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, C.; Harbottle, D; Alagha, L; Xu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In bitumen recovery from oil sands, a percentage of the bitumen is lost to tailings. The effect of fugitive bitumen on fines settling and consolidation in tailings ponds remains controversial. In the current study, the settling performance of mature fine tailings (MFT) in response to flocculant addition was considered by studying MFT of varying bitumen content. Bitumen content in the MFT was adjusted by controlled removal of bitumen using a Denver flotation cell. The initial settling rate of ...

  5. Vergelijkend AFM Onderzoek: microstructuur van bitumen in relatie tot healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmets, A.J.M.; Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Fischer, H.; Scarpas, A.; Erkens, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the background, the scientific and experimental approach and the results of AFM experiments performed on two different batches of bitumen. The specific bitumen researched in this project has also been studied in the context of the InfraQuest project ‘Pragmatisch Healing On

  6. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  7. Natural analogues of bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occurrences of natural bitumen provide possibilities to identify and assess materials, processes, phenomena and conditions in nature which can serve as model cases valid also with respect to a final repository. Natural bitumens meet the basic requirements for use as natural analogues. In natural sites, processes of bitumen formation and degradation often work simultaneously. The major processes are thermal alteration, evaporation, reaction with water, biodegradation, oxidation, weathering and radiation degradation. Progress in analytical organic geochemistry made during recent years has enabled a deeper understanding of the structural and compositional effects of these processes on bitumen. This is necessary in natural analogue applications. The time scales involved in degradation processes, as observed in natural occurrences, exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of most important fission products in low and medium level waste by orders of magnitude. Only exposure to the weather at the surface leads to a more rapid destruction of bitumen. Trace metals in bitumen arenot released until the matrix is completely destroyed. Products of radiation degradation and weathering of bitumen are able, to a certain degree, to delay migration of the metal ions released. Impregnation with bitumen may effectively reduce the microbial decomposition of easily destructable organic waste components, as can be deduced on the basis of the excellent preservation of fossils observed in bitumen. The complexity of all the natural sites described requires extensive understanding of the origin and kind of organic material in bitumen, its maturation, migration, alteration and degradation and of the geological and tectonic evolution of the site. The latter is used for establishing the time scale

  8. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  9. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND STORAGE STABILITY OF SEBS POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SI BACHIR DJAFFAR

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the effects of Styrene–Ethylene-Butylene–Styrene (SEBS modification on the conventional properties and rheological characteristics of pure bitumen were investigated. The polymer modified bitumens (PMBs were prepared by mixing bitumen with SEBS to four polymer contents using laboratory mixer. The physical properties of the PMBs have been determined using conventional test methods. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the conventional properties of the base bitumen such as; penetration, softening point and temperature susceptibility. The results of storage stability test showed that the storage-stable mixtures could be obtained if the polymer content was maintained below about 5 wt%. The rheological properties of the modified binders were characterized using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR. The results of the investigation indicate that the SEBS polymer improve rheological properties of base bitumen, such as increased elastic responses (increased complex shear modulus and decreased phase angle at low to high temperatures. The softening point and TSHRP of the modified bitumen become higher, indicating the improvement of high-temperature property of the modified bitumen.

  10. Marshall properties of waste polymer and nanoclay modified bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeque Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modified bitumen is emerging as one of the important construction materials for flexible pavements. The addition of polymers in bitumen improves the deformational stability and durability of bitumen. Also Montmorillonite nanoclay has been successfully used as additive in polymer to significantly improve the thermal stability and mechanical properties. The present study, the effect of waste low density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP obtained from waste carry bag, crumb rubber obtained from Waste tyre (CRand nanoclay (MMT on Marshall stability have been evaluated. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern can be used successfully to modify the bitumen, these waste polymers are added in 2%, 4% and 6% whereas nanoclay is added in 1,2 and 3 % in 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and its effect on stability and flow of bitumen are evaluated. The result of experimental study shows that there is significant improvement in the Marshall Stability of bitumen due addition of waste polymer and nanoclay.

  11. Bitumen pressure cell installation and monitoring procedure: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 6-in. (150-mm)-thick bitumen layer will be placed between the upper shaft preliminary concrete lining and the steel lining component of the final lining. The function of this layer is twofold; first, it will act as a compliant sealing layer which, because of the bitumen's fluid properties, will remain effective even if the concrete and steel lining components suffer significant strains; and second, it will help to ensure a uniform transmission of rock or hydrostatic loads to the inner lining components. A type 200--300 penetration grade bitumen (ASTM D946) will be used, with 32% by weight of added limestone flour. The purpose of the limestone flour is to ensure that the bitumen has a density which is greater than that of the formation fluids, resulting in a positive pressure gradient from the bitumen to the ground water. The resulting mixture will have a specific gravity of about 1.25 at 60/degree/F (15/degree/C). Pressure measurements in the bitumen layer are needed in order to determine loads on the inner lining components. Although some initial loading will occur in response to excavation, full rock and hydrostatic loads will not develop until post-construction thawing of the freeze wall is complete. Loads transmitted by the bitumen layer to the other lining components will be those which act radially, i.e., the bitustatic pressure, or the radial stress if deviatoric stresses develop

  12. Estimation of bitumen and clay content in fine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine tailings are the components of tailings ponds and the by-product of the oil sand extraction process, consisting mostly of water with small amounts of bitumen, sand, silts and clays. Because of the large volumes of tailings, an important environmental and production process issue involves the reduction of the remaining bitumen in the tailings stream. This paper presented the results of a study that used low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in order to estimate the bitumen, clay and water content of synthetic tailings samples. NMR is a non-destructive technique that is utilized to determine compositions of oil and brine emulsions and the viscosity of heavy oil and bitumen as well as in reservoir characterization, measuring properties such as permeability, porosity, mobile and immobile fluids, and fluid saturations. The study prepared and tested numerous samples with variable water, bitumen, sand and clay concentrations in the NMR tool under ambient conditions. Two qualities of water and bitumen were used to prepare the synthetic samples. Each type of water and bitumen was analyzed as a single substance and in a mixture with the typical solids found in tailings composition. These included kaolinite, illite, sodium montmorillonite and sand. These synthetic samples were analyzed using different mixing configurations, as a function of time and in two different NMR tools. It was concluded that NMR is a potential application for on-line determination of tailings streams composition. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 17 figs

  13. Rapid method for determining the penetration of bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Denisova, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the penetration (for bitumens and other viscous materials) without changing the penetrometer, used according to GOST 1150-73 is proposed. The essence of the method consists in using in place of a cup for bitumen a vessel 83Cm/sup 3/ of cyclindrical tubes with diameter 10-15 mm and height 25 mm. Reducing the amount of bitumen and development of Pv cooling allows one to sharply reduce the test duration from 1.5-2 hours to 15-20 minutes.)

  14. Investigation of hydrogen and methane production when irradiation of bitumen B45 and bitumen B45 mixed with solid substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolysis of the bitumen components on influence of ionizing radiation causing gases generation, chiefly hydrogen and methane has been investigated. To avoid formation of explosive mixtures of some gases, for example, hydrogen with air, and to avoid heating of mixtures of bitumen and radioactive wastes because of the heat generation during decay, there is necessary to have cooling of bituminized wastes and removal of the radiolysis products in the stores for bituminized radioactive wastes with high specific activity. Investigations has shown that with specific activity higher than 10 Ci/kg heat remowal and remowal af radiolysis products were necessary. Bitumen B45 and bitumen compounds based on it has been exposed both to external irradiation by Cobalt-60 and to internal irradiation by incorporated into bitumen and bitumen compounds Strontium-90, Cesium-137 and Polonium-270. Internal irradiation is modeling real conditions of bituminized radioactive wastes burial. Parameters of the bitumen B45 are given. After irradiation, by means of the gas chromatography method it has been determined that the main components of the gases produced were hydrogen and methane. Volume of hydrogen and methane produced, depending on absorbed dose has been determined and coefficients of the hydrogen and methane production have been calculated. The results of investigations of methane and hydrogene production coefficients dependance from different conditions during external and internal irradiation are given. (I.T.)

  15. WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANE RIGID FOAMS MODIFIED BY CHEMICAL PLASTICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming; XU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Water-blown polyurethane rigid foams are getting more and more attention, because the traditional blowing agent HCFC141b has already been abolished to prevent the ozone layer from destruction. However, the polyurethane rigid foams blown by water have serious defects, i.e. friability and resulting lower adhesion strength. Thus, the purpose of this study is to resolve the problems by chemical plastication. The maleate was added to polyol-premix containing water or to polyisocyanate,with both of which maleate does not react. To prove the reaction when polyol-premix and polyisocyanate were mixed, the model composite was synthesized and analyzed by IR, NMR and ESI (MS). Furthermore, a series of water-blown polyurethane rigid foams added different amount maleate were successfully prepared. By testing impact strength and adhesion strength of the foams, the actual effect of adding maleate was obtained.

  16. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan. (review article)

  17. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan. PMID:22982806

  18. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-01-01

    The transport of dust and sand by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This article presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  19. Angra 2 - qualification of the bitumen waste product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2, the concentrates from the liquid waste processing system and spent resins from the reactor coolant purification system, represent the low and intermediate level radioactive waste to be incorporate into a bitumen matrix. In order to attempt the Process Control Program aimed to obtain a waste product qualified to an intermediate and a final store, a program to qualify a Brazilian supplier bitumen manufacture, simulated tests in pilot scale in Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN and tests in industrial scale, in Angra 2 during the commissioning and licensing phase was performed. The paper presents the team experience gained since the bitumen selection up to the bitumen characterization simulated waste product. (author)

  20. Mechanisms of chloride decomposition in upgrading oil sands bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.; Diaz, D.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Eaton, P. [Champion Technologies, Fresno, TX (United States); Wu, A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    In addition to clay minerals, bitumens from mining operations contain chloride salts because of the salinity of the extraction process water and the connate water in the ore. These chlorides form corrosive hydrochloric acid. High concentrations of organic acid components known as naphthenic acids are also found in bitumen from Alberta's oil sands. These also cause corrosion. Chloride salts, clays and organic acids may interact in the presence of steam to promote hydrochloric acid formation causing major corrosion problems in downstream facilities. This study examined the behaviour of these components under upgrading conditions. In particular, it examined the rate and the extent of the hydrolysis reactions for salts found in bitumen. Mixtures of bitumen, salts and organic acids were exposed to flowing steam at 100 to 400 degrees C under nitrogen purge. Ion chromatography was used to analyze the condensed vapours for chloride.

  1. Bitumen immobilization of aqueous radwaste by thin-film evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, AECL built a Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) for managing low-level solid and aqueous liquid wastes for converting CANDU wastes. At present, two liquid waste streams are being treated at the WTC. The liquid waste streams are volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies. The concentrate produced from the TRO system and the volume-reduced MF backwash solutions are evaporated while simultaneously adding bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. A water-free product of chemical and radiochemical salts and bitumen is removed in 200-L galvanized steel drums for storage. The radiation field of product drums on contact typically has a value of 0.5 to 3 R/h depending upon the feed concentration of radioactivity to the evaporator. The total solids content in the 200-L drum ranges from 25 to 35%. Encapsulated in the bitumen matrix are a variety of nonradiochemical salts, which comprise the bulk of the total solids that are in the product drum. This report discusses the immobilization of the aqueous waste with bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. Simulated bituminized waste forms were leached in accordance with the ANS/ANSI 16.1 leach test. In this test, the waste form is immersed under water for an extended period of time, and the leachate is periodically removed and chemically analysed. The Leachability index varied between 7 and 9 for the emulsified bitumen waste forms produced at the WTC. Bitumen samples were unconfined and subjected to immersion and frequent leachate replenishment. The results of leach tests will be a lower bound for the performance of the bitumen waste product in an unsaturated environment. The Leachability indexes reported exceeds the USNRC minimum requirement for wasteform criteria. Adding protective overcoats of either Portland cement or oxidized bitumen enhanced the Leachability index. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  2. ELASTICITY OF BITUMEN BINDERS AND THE FACTORS CAUSING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of the initial bitumen penetration grade and different con-centrations of the mineral filler on the elasticity of the polymer-modified bitumen (PMB with 3 and 6 % of SBS type polymer. The dependences of elasticity of the PMB on the test conditions – such as the temperature and the stress state level are shown additionally.

  3. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  4. Storage stability of SBS/sulfur modified bitumens at high temperature: influence of bitumen composition and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Carcer, I.; Masegosa Fanego, Rosa María; Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Sanchez-Cabezudo Tirado, Marta; Salom Coll, Catalina; González Prolongo, Margarita; Contreras, Verónica; Barceló, Francisco; Páez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified bitumens, PMBs, are usually prepared at high temperature and subsequently stored for a period of time, also at high temperature. The stability of PMBs, in these conditions, has a decisive influence in order to obtain the adequate performances for practical applications. In this article the attention is focused in the analysis of the factors that determine the stability of styrene–butadiene–styrene copolymer (SBS)/sulfur modified bitumens when the mixtures are maintained at hi...

  5. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  6. Solubility bitumen testing by VIS-NIR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Bitumen is a semi-solid material which can be produced from certain oils by distillation or can be found in nature as 'natural asphalt' like 'tar sands, oil sands, etc'. It consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons of different molecular size, aromatic moieties and polarity. The largest use of bitumen is in for road pavements. Asphalt consists of bitumen and mineral mixed together at different amounts. Bituminous binders have varying solubility in different solvents; this property is an important parameter for their quality. The solubility is conventionally determined with a standard European test based on gravimetric differences of the asphalt before and after dissolution; this method is quite time-consuming and gives no information about the chemical nature of the dissolved bitumen. In this work a VIS-NIR (l: 500 - 900 nm) method is proposed based on the dissolution of the asphalt in an suitable filtering funnel equipped with a 270 Mesh (53 mm) filter clamped to a base. The asphalt is grinded and put into the filtering funnel; a specific quantity of solvent is added and after a fixed period of time the solution is filtered and poured into a flask. This solution is diluted in CH2Cl2 in well defined ratios, to become suitable for VIS-NIR analysis. Concentration of the bitumen is obtained from the absorbance values at determined VIS-NIR wavelengths, previously chosen to have no interferences from absorptions of the solvents; for each wavelength, absorbance calibration curves have been carried out. The calculated concentrations are compared to the maximum concentration of bitumen achievable by dissolving the whole bitumen contained in the asphalt, which is inferred from Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Some simple algorithms allow obtaining the degree of solubility of bituminous binders in different solvents. Moreover, the VIS-NIR spectra give information about the aromatic nature of dissolved bitumen. Some ratios between

  7. Studies Concerning Heat-Resisting Additives for Bitumens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Groll

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of causeway’s bitumen adhesiveness is becoming a current practice in our country, especially when is used acid (siliceous aggregate. One of the most important properties of bitumen is its adhesiveness to aggregate, and this property determine the using of bitumen in causeways area. Usually the adhesiveness is defined as the capacity of a binder to cover an aggregate without dispersing itself when touching the water or the traffic aggressions. Therefore, the adhesiveness additives are products that improve the adhesiveness of the bitumen to a certain aggregate. The used additives – ADETEN type (A01 and A03 have a high stocking stability, a low toxicity degree toward the amine, diamine, polyamine-based additives and are liquid products perfectly compatible with all bitumens and easy to use, in comparison to the paste or solid additives, which must be made liquid to be used. But a very important condition, which must be fulfilled by these promoters is the heat-resisting condition.

  8. Case study: modeling the phase behavior of solvent diluted bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, P.; Schoeggl, F.F.; Yarranton, H.W. [University of Calgary (Canada); Satyro, M.A. [Virtual Materials Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    To recover heavy oil and bitumen, thermal recovery methods such as cyclic steam stimulation and steam assisted gravity drainage are widely used in western Canada. Accurate predictions of phase behavior are required for the design of solvent-based and solvent-assisted heavy oil recovery. This paper presents the phase behavior modeling of solvent-diluted bitumen. The saturation pressures of live and dead bitumen were measured in a JEFRI PVT cell at various concentrations and temperatures. The onset of asphaltene precipitation was also measured for bitumen diluted with n-pentane by titrating bitumen with pentane and constantly circulating the mixture around a high-pressure microscope. The data were modeled using the advanced Peng-Robinson equation of state (APR EoS). By adjusting the binary interaction parameter between the solvent and the pseudo-components, the APR EoS was tuned to match the saturation pressures. The unrealistic phase behavior predictions were made based on the extrapolated SimDist data characterizations.

  9. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 oC) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure

  10. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultraviolet-light (UV resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM. Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  11. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; T N Ojha; R N Yadav

    2001-06-01

    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  12. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic......Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen...... molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem to behave as a flexible linear chain...

  13. Uranium-rich xenotime in bitumen, Moonta mines, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen from the Moonta copper mines is known to exhibit anomalous radioactivity. The bitumen contains abundant metalliferous inclusions, many of which are copper and iron sulphide minerals. Electron microscope studies reported show that the radioactive mineral is an yttrium phosphate phase, resembling xenotime which exhibits significant substitution by uranium, calcium and silicon. An average of 20 analyses yields the formula (Y0.66 U0.23 Ca0.12)1.01(P0.80 Si0.20)O4. A deficiency in the measured element total suggests that the formula may include up to 6 or 7 water molecules. It is assumed that the carbon in the bitumen was derived from younger sedimentary rocks which formerly overlay the ore deposit. 14 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. Cooee bitumen II: Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen.Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of having a nanoaggregate of a given size in the stationary regime. To model this complicated behavior, we chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem ...

  15. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2014-10-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of having a nanoaggregate of a given size in the stationary regime. To model this complicated behavior, we chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem to behave as a flexible linear chain.

  16. Evaluation of Venezuela's Orinoco bitumen as an MHD fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela contains huge deposits of a bitumen that is complex to handle and refine into lighter hydrocarbon fractions. These deposits are in the early commercialization stage, being marketed as an emulsion with 30% water as a boiler fuel. The fuel is similar to oil in heating value (about 18,100 BTU/lbm) and ash (less than 0.4%). It has an extremely high carbon to hydrogen ratio, a parameter that is important in MHD for electrical conductivity. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for this bitumen as a fuel for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. An experimental program to demonstrate the merit of the bitumen as an MHD fuel and validate the calculations is suggested

  17. Diesel and Jet Fuels from Bitumen-derived Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SokYui

    2004-01-01

    Narrow fractions of light gas oils obtained from various upgrading processes of Athabasca oilsands bitumen were investigated as diesel and jet fuels. The relationship among the boiling range, cetane number, smoke point, and other properties such as aromatics content, aniline point, and the sulfur and nitrogen content was also studied. The study reveals that when appropriate processes and distillation boiling ranges are selected, oilsands bitumen can produce diesel and jet fuels that meet stringent environmental regulations and future product specifications. New correlations to predict CN and smoke point were developed as a function of density, boiling ranges by simulated distillation, and mono- and total aromatics by supercriticaL fluid chromatography. The correlations apply to bitumen-derived middle distiLLates that have a wide range of boiling points.

  18. CRUDE PALM OIL AS A BIOADDITIVE IN POLYPROPYLENE BLOWN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Rose Jusoh,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

  19. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  20. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Lemarchand, Claire; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, J. C.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component united-atom molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are carried out using graphic-processor-units based...... software in time spans in order of microseconds, which enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper also presents results of the model dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The...

  1. Mechanical properties of dual phase steel quenched in bitumen medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. ADEDIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of a dual phase steel treated in different intercritical windows and subjected to bitumen as the quenching medium was investigated. The viscosity of the quenchant was altered at several rate, the morphology of phases formed was characterized. Also, the quenched samples produced ferrite-martensite phases obtained at different intercritical windows. The tensile and hardness behaviour of the structures was examined; and the microstructures were characterized. It was observed that samples intercriticaly heat treated at 790°C and held for 60mins, bitumen quenched at 125°C, offers the highest impact toughness, while its counterpart at 730°C soaked for 30mins, bitumen quenched at 125°C offered the least impact toughness value. Sample intercriticaly treated at 790°C and held for 45mins in a 150°C quenching, offered the peak hardness factor. However, samples at 790°C held at 45mins and bitumen quenched at 150°C possessed relatively the best combination of tensile properties, hardness and impact energy. The water quenched samples at 790°C held for 60mins has the peak hardness value. The micrographs as well showed a uniformly distributed dual phase structure of ferrite and martensite at various volume fractions.

  2. Bitumen emulsions based on Ukrainian surface-active substances

    OpenAIRE

    Pyshyev, Serhiy; Grytsenko, Yuriy; Koval, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen emulsions can be obtained based on surface-active substances (SAS) according to DSTU B V.2.7- 129:200 produced at JSC “Barva” (Ukraine). These emulsions meet the demands of mentioned standard relative to sieve residue homogeneity, storage quality after 7 and 14 days and conventional viscosity at 25 C.

  3. Bitumen-rubber mixture for effective vibration damping sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Cherkasov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of researches of a bitumen-rubber mixture design for the damping sheet are presented. Application of vibration damping sheet in thin-walled construction designs allows reducing negative vibrations considerably. Existent bituminous and bituminous-rubber materials have insufficient vibration damping in the range of negative temperatures that is inadmissible in Russian climate conditions. Selection of structure bitumen-rubber mixture and regularity establishment of its properties will allow receiving a material with a wide temperature range of application. As an object of research there was chosen the polymeric matrix representing a mix of two materials – butyl rubber and bitumen, plasticized by industrial oil I-20A; the filler – swept of MTD-2 brands. The dependence of physical and mechanical properties of a material on the contents of bitumen-butyl rubber in a mix was established. The material based on the received mixture has effective vibration damping in the range of temperatures from -40 to +40 °C.

  4. Rheological, structural and chemical evolution of bitumen under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen derived from crude oil by fractional distillation has been used in the nuclear industry as a radioactive waste encapsulation matrix. When subjected to α, β and γ self-irradiation, this organic matrix undergoes radiolysis, generating hydrogen bubbles and modifying the physical and chemical properties of the material. In this paper, the effects of irradiation on bitumen materials, especially in terms of its physical, chemical, structural and rheological properties, were characterized at radiation doses ranging from 1 to 7 MGy. An increase in the shear viscosity and melt yield stress was observed with increasing doses. Similarly, the elastic and viscous moduli (G' and G'') increase with the dose, with a more pronounced increase for G' that reflects enhanced elasticity arising from radiation-induced cross-linking. In addition, a low-frequency plateau is observed for G', reflecting pseudo-solid behavior and leading to an increase of the complex viscosity. This behavior is due to increased interactions between asphaltene particles, and to aromatization of the bitumen by γ-radiations. Cross-linking of bitumen enhances its strength, as confirmed by various techniques (modulated DSC, DTA/TGA, SEC, FTIR and XRD). (authors)

  5. Field investigation of potential contamination by bitumen-coated piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coating piles with bitumen down to their neutral points to debond them from embedding soil is a feasible method to minimize the adverse effects of negative skin friction. Bitumen is a petroleum product composed of numerous extremely complex organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have been identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic and carcinogenic materials. To investigate the engineering behavior of bitumen-coated piles under extreme weather conditions, full-scale field tests were performed in New Orleans, Louisiana, and Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Instrumented piles were installed at these sites from 1989 to 1990. This paper presents the results of geoenvironmental field investigations performed at these sites to determine the spatial distribution of target PAHs in the subsurface after the piles had been installed for 2--3 1/2 yr. The findings of the investigation indicate that the subsurface contamination, if there is any, caused by the installation of bitumen-coated piles is well within acceptable limits

  6. Rheological properties of nanofiltered Athabasca bitumen and Maya crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, M.D.A.; Fulem, Michal; Bazyleva, A.; Shaw, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2009), s. 5012-5021. ISSN 0887-0624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : viscosity * rheology * Athabasca bitumen * Maya crude oil * phase behavior * asphaltenes * nanofiltration Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.319, year: 2009

  7. Bitumen and heavy oil rheological properties: reconciliation with viscosity measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bazyleva, A.B.; Hasan, M.D.A.; Fulem, Michal; Becerra, M.; Shaw, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 1389-1397. ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Athabasca bitumen * Maya crude oil * rheological properties * viscosity measurements Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.089, year: 2010

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of oilsand bitumen over nanoporous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, See-Hoon; Heo, Hyeon Su; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Yim, Jin-Heong; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Ko, Young Soo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic cracking of oilsand bitumen was performed over nanoporous materials at atmospheric conditions. The yield of gas increased with application of nanoporous catalysts, with the catalytic conversion to gas highest for Meso-MFI. The cracking activity seemed to correlate with pore size rather than weak acidity or surface area. PMID:21446540

  9. Brewster angle microscopy of Langmuir films of athabasca bitumens, n-C5 asphaltenes, and SAGD bitumen during pressure-area hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Angle, Chandra W

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen films formed on water surfaces have negative consequences, both environmental and economic. CanmetENERGY has placed considerable research emphasis on understanding the structures of the bitumen films on water as a necessary step before optimization of bitumen extraction. The detailed structures of the adsorbed molecules and, especially, the role of asphaltene molecules at the interfaces are still under scrutiny and debate. In the present study, we compared bitumen and asphaltene films as they were compressed and expanded under various surface pressures in order to achieve a clearer understanding of bitumen film structures. We used a customized NIMA Langmuir trough interfaced to a Brewster angle microscope (BAM) and CCD camera (Nanofilm_ep3BAM, Accurion, previously Nanofilm Gmbh) to study images of bitumen films at the air/water interface. The bitumen film appeared uniform with high reflectivity at a surface pressure of 18 mN·m(-1) and exhibited a coarse pebblelike interface with reduced reflectivity in the liquid condensed (LC) phase at higher pressures (18-35 mN·m(-1)). During the first cycle of compression asphaltene films showed well-defined phase transitions and a uniformly smooth interface in the LC phase between 9 and 35 mN·m(-1). However, folding or buckling occurred at surface pressures from 35 to 44 mN·m(-1). On expansion, asphaltene films appeared to break into islands. The hysteresis of the pressure-area isotherm was much larger for asphaltenes than for bitumen. In both compression and expansion cycles, BAM images for bitumen films appeared to be more reproducible than those of the asphaltene films at the same surface pressures. Films for low-°API SAGD bitumen were almost identical to those for surface-mined bitumen. Films formed from partially deasphalted surface-mined bitumens showed higher compressibility and lower rigidity than the original bitumen. The BAM images illustrated significant differences between the partially deasphalted and

  10. Star dust. [refractory grains blown into interstellar space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, E. P.

    1977-01-01

    Recent infrared techniques have revealed that the dust which is a major constituent of the universe, is composed of refractory grains produced by certain classes of stars, condensed in their atmospheres and blown into interstellar space by the radiation pressure of these stars. In some cases stars are surrounded by dust shells which consist of carbon refractories in the case of a carbon-rich environment, and metallic silicates of the kind that produced terrestrial planets in the case of oxygen-rich environments. A few of these infrared stars (called cygnids) exhibit a unique morphology that suggests the formation of a planetary stage in the evolution of a planetary nebula. Comets which are bright in the infrared and believed to be the remnants of the most primitive material in the solar nebula, are found to inject the astrophysical dust into our solar system together with asteroidal debris. Certain novae are also found to condense grains which are blown out in their shells after the explosion.

  11. Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2014-09-01

    Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively. PMID:25236498

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  14. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of organic intercalated layered double hydroxides and their application in bitumen modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Song [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jianying, E-mail: jyyu@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Sun, Yubin [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Shaopeng [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Organic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) were prepared by anion-exchange method and applied to modify bitumen aiming at improving ageing resistance of bitumen. The organic LDHs (SDBS–LDHs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry. The effect of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs on physical and anti-ageing properties of bitumen was evaluated by means of conventional and rheological test. The results of XRD, FTIR and SEM show that SDBS is successfully intercalated into interlayer of LDHs, and the UV–vis reflectance and absorbance curves illustrate that intercalation of SDBS enhances the UV shielding effect of LDHs. The addition of SDBS–LDHs or LDHs has little influence on physical properties of bitumen because SDBS–LDHs and LDHs are physically mixed in bitumen. Compared with pristine bitumen after TFOT and UV irradiation ageing, the introduction of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs significantly improves thermal- and photo-oxidative ageing resistance of bitumen. Notably, bitumen with SDBS–LDHs exhibits better anti-ageing performance than that with LDHs, implying more effective modification of SDBS-LDHs which is due to the enhanced UV protective ability and compatibility with bitumen of SDBS–LDHs. - Highlights: • XRD, FTIR and SEM were used to confirm the successful intercalation. • SDBS–LDHs show superior UV protective ability. • SDBS–LDHs improved the anti-ageing properties of bitumen.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of organic intercalated layered double hydroxides and their application in bitumen modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) were prepared by anion-exchange method and applied to modify bitumen aiming at improving ageing resistance of bitumen. The organic LDHs (SDBS–LDHs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry. The effect of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs on physical and anti-ageing properties of bitumen was evaluated by means of conventional and rheological test. The results of XRD, FTIR and SEM show that SDBS is successfully intercalated into interlayer of LDHs, and the UV–vis reflectance and absorbance curves illustrate that intercalation of SDBS enhances the UV shielding effect of LDHs. The addition of SDBS–LDHs or LDHs has little influence on physical properties of bitumen because SDBS–LDHs and LDHs are physically mixed in bitumen. Compared with pristine bitumen after TFOT and UV irradiation ageing, the introduction of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs significantly improves thermal- and photo-oxidative ageing resistance of bitumen. Notably, bitumen with SDBS–LDHs exhibits better anti-ageing performance than that with LDHs, implying more effective modification of SDBS-LDHs which is due to the enhanced UV protective ability and compatibility with bitumen of SDBS–LDHs. - Highlights: • XRD, FTIR and SEM were used to confirm the successful intercalation. • SDBS–LDHs show superior UV protective ability. • SDBS–LDHs improved the anti-ageing properties of bitumen

  17. Thermal recovery of bitumen from carbonate reservoirs: formation damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, about a third of bitumen resources are located in carbonate reservoirs but none of it is considered as a reserve by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). In fact no pilot has been successful in recovering bitumen from carbonate reservoirs due to formation damage problems. Carbonate rock is chemically active at the high temperatures reached in thermal recovery processes, carbon dioxide is generated and carbonate minerals are precipitated. The aim of this paper is to find methods to control the phenomenon. Kinetic and thermodynamic controls were used. Results showed that formation damage is due to aqueous carbon dioxide attacking the reservoir rock. They found that a reduction of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide could inhibit the initial dissolution of rock material by reducing the concentration of aqueous carbon dioxide. A method to overcome the formation damage problem was found and a co-injection of gas and steam process was developed to apply it.

  18. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jesper S; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C; Schrøder, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse-graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are being carried out using Graphic-Processor-Units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, and this enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper focuses on the high-temperature dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales as a result of the different constituents in the system. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear ...

  19. Common ground : bitumen and gas producers come together to find gas-over-bitumen solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2005-08-01

    The gas-over-bitumen issue has meant that hundreds of natural gas wells remain closed while regulatory hearings and research activities continue. The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board should soon reach a final decision on the status of gas wells considered to be a threat to thermal extraction of underlying oil sands. This article discussed collaborative efforts by oil and gas companies to resolve these issues, including the use of fluid injection technology, low pressure Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and artificial lift. The objective of the Gas Reinjection and Production Experiment (GRIPE) is to reinject gas to displace natural gas being produced. The pilot project, conducted by Paramount Resources Ltd., consists of 2 injector wells, 4 producers and 12 observation wells that measure gas pressure in the reservoir. The project also includes a 2 stage compressor modified to handle flue gas. According to reservoir simulations, Paramount should be able to recover between 50 to 60 per cent of the remaining gas in place. Results from the pilot suggest that the technique could result in more than half the currently shut-in pools being re-opened. It was suggested that gas-by-gas displacement may result in higher recovery rates because there is usually more remaining gas in place. It was noted that EnCana Corporation has also been repressurizing a depleted natural gas pool by injecting compressed air rather than flue gas. Various other projects were reviewed, including the use of electric submersible pumps, low pressure SAGD and new SAGD well pair configurations. It was concluded that the artificial lift and low pressure SAGD technical sub-committee have now filed 10 applications for funding under the Alberta Energy Department's Innovative Energy Technology Program.

  20. Mechanical properties of dual phase steel quenched in bitumen medium

    OpenAIRE

    Adeolu A.ADEDIRAN; Aribo, Sunday; Muhammed Olalekan Hakeem AMUDA

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a dual phase steel treated in different intercritical windows and subjected to bitumen as the quenching medium was investigated. The viscosity of the quenchant was altered at several rate, the morphology of phases formed was characterized. Also, the quenched samples produced ferrite-martensite phases obtained at different intercritical windows. The tensile and hardness behaviour of the structures was examined; and the microstructures were characterized. It was obs...

  1. A Different Approach of the Adhesiveness of Bitumens to Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the capacity of coverage in the laboratory may be made visually as well. The operator ’s subjective perspective, the angle of view, the luminosity, the nature and colour of aggregates are many factors that may influence the result. The computer-assisted image analysis qualifies and quantifies objectively enough the capacity of coverage of bitumen on aggregates, removing any exterior influences. It is a simple, repeatable and reproducible used method.

  2. Kinetic of the reaction between bitumen and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of sulphur in bituminous binders has been tried for many years in a number of countries, mainly USA and Canada. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of the reaction between elemental sulphur and bitumen, with the production of hydrogen sulfide. The work was carried out with the help of a thermo balance. It was shown that H2S evolution starts immediately after sulphur melting and that the rate of reaction is of second order

  3. Baseline air quality evaluation for the Venezuelan Orinoco Bitumen Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve a harmonic relationship between oil exploration and production activities and the environment, Petroleos de Venezuela and its affiliated companies conducted environmental evaluations of the physical and bionic media in the Orinoco Bitumen Belt. This region covers an area of approximately 42000 km2 with estimated bitumen reserves on the order of 3 x 1012 barrels, one of the largest bitumen reservoirs in the world. This paper presents the results of a study of baseline air quality conditions: an emissions inventory, surface and upper layer meteorological conditions and measurements of air quality parameters of interest (CO, HC, NOx, SO2, H2S and T.S.P.) taken by a network of automated air quality stations using standard international reference techniques. The temporal (hourly and daily basis) and spatial air quality variability and the variables/activities that might determine the observed trends are discussed. NO, NO2, SO2 and H2S concentrations were lower than the detection limits of the analytical methods, while O3 and CO 1-hour average levels ranged from 5-30 ppb and 0.5-1.8 ppm, respectively, and T.S.P. daily means varied from 10-50 μg/m3, all of which is close to natural background concentrations. Maximum hourly average reactive hydrocarbon concentrations of 0.37 ppm were found near a producing oil field

  4. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter; Todd, Billy; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are...... viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex...

  5. Phenomenological implications of the blown-up orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetic, M.

    1987-05-01

    We discuss the structure of the effective Lagrangian for the (2,2) Z/sub N/ orbifolds and the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifolds which are obtained by ''blowing-up'' the orbifold singularities. The method to ''blow-up'' such singularities is reviewed. Results are exact at the string tree-level. In particular, the question of generating an intermediate scale M/sub I/ in such models is addressed. It is shown that for Z/sub N/ orbifolds (except one) and the corresponding blown-up orbifolds which are compactified on any six-torus T/sup 6/ which can be obtained by continuously deforming T/sup 4/ circle times T/sup 2/, all the terms of the type (2727)/sup K/ are absent from the effective superpotential, thus questioning the mechanism for generating a large intermediate scale for such compactifications.

  6. A transport-rate model of wind-blown sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sand transport by wind plays an important role in environmental problems.Formulating the sand-transport rate model has been of continuing significance,because the majority of the existing models relate sand-transport rate to the wind-shear velocity.However,the wind-shear velocity readapted to blown sand is difficult to determine from the measured wind profiles when sand movement occurs,especially at high wind velocity.Detailed wind tunnel tests were carried out to reformulate the sand-transport rate model,followed by attempts to relate sand-transport rate to parameters of wind velocity,threshold shear-velocity,and grain size.Finally,we validated the model based on the data from field observations.

  7. A comprehensive numerical model of wind-blown sand

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F

    2009-01-01

    Wind-blown sand, or "saltation", ejects dust aerosols into the atmosphere, creates sand dunes, and erodes geological features. We present a comprehensive numerical model of steady-state saltation that, in contrast to most previous studies, can simulate saltation over mixed soils. Our model simulates the motion of saltating particles due to gravity, fluid drag, particle spin, fluid shear, and turbulence. Moreover, the model explicitly accounts for the retardation of the wind due to drag from saltating particles. We also developed a physically-based parameterization of the ejection of surface particles by impacting saltating particles which matches experimental results. Our numerical model is the first to reproduce measurements of the wind shear velocity at the impact threshold (i.e., the lowest shear velocity for which saltation is possible) and of the aerodynamic roughness length in saltation. It also correctly predicts a wide range of other saltation processes, including profiles of the wind speed and partic...

  8. TL properties of some wind-blown sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission spectra of fine-grain polymineral and quartz-only samples of various wind-blown sediments have been studied using an image-intensifierbased spectrometer. These revealed the possibility of greatly enhancing the ratio of non-quartz to quartz components of the emissions by means of an ultra-violet transmitting, blue-absorbing filter. The effects of such a wavelength selection on glow-curve shape, rate of bleaching by sunlight, and the post-bleaching beta-regeneration of TL have been investigated. These show advantages over the commonly used blue (Corning 5-58) wavelength selection which have implications for improved archaeological dose determinations, especially of older sediments. (author)

  9. Lessons learned from IOR steamflooding in a bitumen-light oil heterogeneous reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mudhafar, W.J.M.; Hosseini Nasab, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Steamflooding was considered in this research to extract the discontinuous bitumen layers that are located at the oil-water contact for the heterogeneous light oil sandstone reservoir of South Rumaila Field. The reservoir heterogeneity and the bitumen layers impede water aquifer approaching into the reservoir; therefore, Steamflooding would be efficient to extract bitumen layers and improve oil recovery. This research focused on adopting three Design of Experiments (DoE) approaches with t...

  10. Combustion and heat transfer characteristics of pipelineable water-bitumen emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a research program undertaken by CANMET's Energy Research Laboratories to compare the combustion and heat transfer characteristics of Western Canadian bitumen emulsions with those of heavy fuel oil. It has been shown that heavy bitumen burns and transfers heat in much the same manner as heavy fuel oil. It was concluded from this research program that bitumen emulsions would make excellent fuels for boilers and process combustors, providing the combustion and handling equipment

  11. Investigation of microstructures and ultraviolet aging properties of organo-montmorillonite/SBS modified bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Henglong [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Yu Jianying, E-mail: jyyu@whut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials Science and Engineering of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China); Wang Huacai; Xue Lihui [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Microstructures and ultraviolet (UV) aging properties of organo-montmorillonite (OMMT)/Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified bitumen were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and physical properties tests. {yields} OMMT/SBS modified bitumen forms an intercalated structure. {yields} The phase contrast between the dispersed domains and the matrix is inverted in SBS modified bitumen, which is decreased with the introduction of OMMT. {yields} The UV aging resistance of SBS modified bitumen can be improved obviously with the addition of OMMT. - Abstract: Organo-montmorillonite(OMMT)/Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS) modified bitumen nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. The microstructures of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The effect of OMMT on ultraviolet (UV) aging properties of SBS modified bitumen was investigated. FTIR and XRD analyses indicate that the OMMT/SBS modified bitumen forms an intercalated structure. It is observed that the phase contrast between the dispersed domains and the matrix is inverted in SBS modified bitumen, which is decreased with the introduction of OMMT according to AFM analysis. As a result of UV aging, both viscosity aging index and softening point increment of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen decrease significantly. There is a single phase trend in the morphology of the bitumen after aging, which is accelerated by the existence of SBS. However, these changes can be effectively prevented under the influence of OMMT, indicating the good UV aging resistance of OMMT/SBS modified bitumen.

  12. Study on possible explosive reactions of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures initiated by a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential hazards of the mixture sodium nitrate-bitumen obtained by embedding in bitumen liquid radioactive effluents concentrated by evaporation are studied in case of accidental shock wave. A theoretical evaluation based on thermodynamical data show a low probability, nevertheless different from zero. No explosion occurred in tests realized in severe conditions. In conclusion there is no risk of detonation of large quantity of bitumen-nitrates stored in 200-liter drum in radioactive waste storage

  13. Determining the Rheological Properties of Neat and Rubber Modified Soft Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Kjosavik, Andreas Meling

    2013-01-01

    The properties of bitumen as an asphalt binder are dependent on temperature. At high temperatures, the bitumen softens enabling permanent deformation of the pavement. At low temperatures, the bitumen becomes stiff and inflexible and can crack as a result of strain and thermal contraction. Adding rubber from ground car tires increases the stiffness at high temperatures while maintaining or improving the flexibility of the binder at low temperatures. This thesis studies the interaction between ...

  14. Impact of maltene and asphaltene fraction on mechanical behavior and microstructure of bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Hofko, B.; L. Eberhardsteiner; Fussl, J.; H. Grothe; Handle, F.; Hospodka, M.; Grossegger, D.; Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Scarpas, A.

    2015-01-01

    As a widely accepted concept, bitumen consists of four fractions that can be distinguished by their polarity. Highly polar asphaltene micelles are dispersed in a viscous phase of saturates, aromatics and resins (maltene phase). Different concentrations of asphaltenes in the bitumen result in a range of mechanical response properties. In an interdisciplinary study the impact of the maltene phase and asphaltenes on the linear viscoelastic behavior and the microstructure of bitumen were analyzed...

  15. Rheological Behaviour of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate [EVA] Modified Road Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this present study, the effects of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate (EVA) on the conventional characteristics and rheological properties of pure bitumen were investigated. The modified bitumen (PMB) has been prepared in laboratory by mixing bitumen with copolymer EVA. Three different contents of polymer have been tested to evaluate the modification. The basic properties of the PMBs have been determined by using conventional test methods. The results indicated that polymer modification improved the c...

  16. Survivability of Microbes in Mars Wind Blown Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Klovstad, Melisa R.; Fonda, Mark L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the probability of Earth microbes growing (dividing) in the Martian environment is extremely low, the probability of their survival on the Martian surface is unknown. During the course of landed missions to Mars terrestrial microbes may reach the surface of Mars via inadequately sterilized spacecraft landers, rovers, or through accidental impact of orbiters. This investigation studied the potential for Earth microbes to survive in the windblown dust on the surface of Mars. The rationale for the study comes from the fact that Mars regularly has huge dust storms that engulf the planet, shading the surface from solar UV radiation. These storms serve as a mechanism for global transfer of dust particles. If live organisms were to be transported to the surface of Mars they could be picked up with the dust during a dust storm and transported across the planet. Washed, dried spores of Bacillus subtilis strain HA 101 were aseptically mixed with sterile sieved (size range of 1-5microns) Mars soil standard (obtained from NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA), or Fe-montmorillonite such that the number of microbes equals 5 x 10(exp 6)/g dry wt soil. The microbe soil mixture was placed in a spherical 8 L Mars simulation chamber equipped with a variable speed rotor, gas ports and an Oriel deuterium UV lamp emitting light of wave lengths 180-400 nm. The chamber was sealed, flushed with a simulated Martian atmosphere (96.9% CO2, 3% O2, 0.1% H2O), and the pressure brought to 10 torr. The lamp and rotor were switched on to begin the experiment. Periodically samples were collected from the chamber, and the numbers of microbial survivors g soil was determined using plate counts and the most probable number method (MPN). The data indicate that Bacillus subtilis spores dispersed with Mars analog soil in a Mars atmosphere (wind blown dust) survive exposure to 5.13 KJ m-2 UV radiation, suggesting that Mars wind blown dust has potential to the protect microbes from solar

  17. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  18. Prediction of the viscosity of solvent diluted live bitumen at temperatures up to 175 degree Celsius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motahhari, H.; Schoeggl, F. F.; Yarranton, H. W. [University of Calgary (Canada); Satyro, M. A. [Virtual Materials Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The methodology for predicting heavy and diluted oil bitumen was discussed in this work. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the expanded fluid (EF) viscosity correlation in predicting live and dead bitumen viscosity. Samples of live and dead Alberta bitumen were prepared and tested at a temperature range of 20 to 175 C and pressures up to 10 MPa. The different sample types identified were: pure bitumen, condensate, diluted dead bitumen, and diluted live bitumen. Oil viscosities were calculated from density measurements obtained using the mixing rule, both ideal and non-ideal. The EF correlation validity was tested from the measured data. It was shown that live bitumen viscosity obtained from the correlation deviated from measured data by 20 to 28%, whereas deviations in the dead bitumen were lower. In general, it was shown that the EF correlation proved to be a practical method for predicting the viscosity of heavy crudes subjected to thermal and solvent treatment.

  19. On the investigation of the bulk microstructure of bitumen - Introducing two new techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Dillingh, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen, the residue of oil distillation and applied e.g. as binder in asphalt pavements displays a rich microstructure at the bitumen surface-to-air surface with several clearly distinguishable phases. However, uncertainty still remains whether this micro-structure is just present at free surfaces

  20. High and Low Temperature Properties of FT-Paraffin-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Fazaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research on the effects of “Fischer Tropsch-Paraffin” (Sasobit content on physical and rheological properties of Sasobit modified bitumen at various operational temperatures. For this purpose, bitumen with a Performance Grade (PG of 58–22 is selected as the base and later it is modified with 1, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 weight percent of FT-Paraffin (Sasobit. The performance of modified bitumen at high, intermediate, and low temperatures is evaluated based on Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP Superpave tests. Results of the study show that FT-paraffin improves the performance of bitumen at high temperatures in addition to increasing the resistance of mixture against permanent deformation. Despite the advantages of FT-paraffin on bitumen performance at high temperatures, it does not show a considerable influence on the intermediate and low temperature performance of bitumen. The effect of FT-paraffin content on the viscosity of modified bitumen is also investigated using Brookfield Viscometer Apparatus. Results show that increasing the additive content lowers the viscosity of modified bitumen. This in return can reduce the mixing and compaction temperature of asphalt mixtures.

  1. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol...

  2. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  3. Reservoir design of a shallow LP-SAGD project for in situ extraction of Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, C.; Walker, I. [Alberta Oilsands (Canada); Carlson, M.; Uwiera, M. [Inc RPS Energy (Canada); Torlak, M. [Siemens AG (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Alberta Oilsands Inc. is developing a project 8 km southeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The Clearwater project aims to extract bitumen from a shallow bitumen reservoir through in situ production; the aim of this paper is to present this project and to evaluate the commercial viability of combining different technologies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating. Alberta Oilsands will put 6 SAGD well pairs and infill wells in place to effectively recover the bitumen. Reservoir simulations were carried out using reservoir models based on geological, petrophysical and geostatical work. Results showed that the combination of SAGD, solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating can increase bitumen production while reducing the steam oil ratio. This paper provides information on the Phase I reservoir design of the Clearwater project; steam injection and bitumen recovery are expected to start in 2012.

  4. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J. S.; Lemarchand, Claire A.; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Schrøder, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    We propose a four-component united-atom molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are carried out using graphic-processor-units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, which enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper also presents results of the model dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear modulus are evaluated, showing a viscous response at frequencies below 100 MHz. The model predictions of viscosity and diffusivities are compared to experimental data, giving reasonable agreement. The model shows that the asphaltene, resin, and resinous oil tend to form nano-aggregates. The characteristic dynamical relaxation time of these aggregates is larger than that of the homogeneously distributed parts of the system, leading to strong dynamical heterogeneity.

  5. Base Course Modification through Stabilization using Cement and Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Marandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research was to analyze the use of combined cement and bitumen emulsion in base course stabilization in details and examine its replacement with conventional pavement in regions with low quality materials and limited construction period. To conduct the objectives, the research divided into three phases. Phase I involved the optimization of cement and bitumen emulsion. In this case, a series of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS and Marshal Tests carried out. In the second phase, various alternative roadway sections examined for minimizing the pavement thickness and increasing the bearing capacity and finally in third phase, a Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD machine used to examine the pavement bearing capacity for three sections of the roadway. It was found that, the optimum values to eliminate the creation of shrinkage cracks in the whole project and minimize the execution period and construction costs were 3% for both binders in stabilization and its replacement with conventional pavement method (i.e., stabilized layer with conventional sub-base and base layers. Also, FWD results showed that, the bearing capacity of the constructed pavement using stabilization method is far beyond the predicted values in pavement design. Furthermore, it was found that, with high inflation rate and political situation in the region, base stabilized method decreased the final roadway construction costs in compare with conventional pavement method.

  6. Comparison of mass and energy balances for air blown and thermally ballasted fluidized bed gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to compare the mass and energy balances for a conventional air blown fluidized bed gasifier and a ballasted fluidized bed gasifier developed at Iowa State University. The ballasted gasifier is an indirectly heated gasifier that uses a single reactor for both combustion and pyrolysis. Heat accumulated in high-temperature phase change material during the combustion phase is released during the pyrolysis phase to generate producer gas. Gas composition, tar and char contents, cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion, and hydrogen yield per unit biomass input were determined as part of these evaluation. During the pyrolysis phase of ballasted gasification, higher volumetric concentrations of hydrogen and methane were obtained than during air blown gasification. Hydrogen yield for ballasted gasification was 14 g kg−1 of biomass, which was about 20% higher than that obtained during air blown gasification. The higher heating value of the producer gas also reached higher levels during the ballasted pyrolysis phase than that of air blown gasification. Heating value for air blown gasification was 5.2 MJ m−3 whereas the heating value for the ballasted pyrolysis phase averaged 5.5 MJ m−3, reaching a maximum of 8.0 MJ m−3. The ballasted gasifier was expected to yield producer gas with average heating value as high as 15 MJ m−3 but excessive use of nitrogen to purge and cool the fuel feeder system greatly diluted the producer gas. Relatively simple redesign of the feeder system would greatly reduce the use of purge gas and may increase the heating values to about 17.5 MJ m−3. Higher char production per kilogram of biomass was associated with the ballasted system, producing 140 g kg−1 of biomass compared to only 53 g kg−1 of biomass during air blown gasification. On the other hand, tar concentrations in the producer gas were 6.0 g m−3 for ballasted gasification compared to 11.7 g m−3 for air blown gasification. On balance, carbon

  7. Foamed bitumen stabilization of MSWI bottom ash; Skumbitumenstabilisering av bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Jacobsson, Torbjoern [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Mikael; Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-04-15

    Foamed bitumen is a mixture of bitumen, water and air. Bitumen that is heated to 175 deg C expands about 10-30 times compared to its original volume when injecting small amounts of water and air under high pressure. By exposing a granulate material to foamed bitumen the particles will be covered with a bitumen film. This will give the particles hydrophobic properties, as well as a smaller specific surface. At the same time the mechanical properties of the material are expected to improve due to the cohesive properties of the bitumen covered particles. The treatment can be made both offsite and in situ. The objective of this project was to investigate the possibility to treat municipal solid waste bottom ash with foamed bitumen to achieve improved leaching and mechanical properties. The following leaching tests have been performed on the original bottom ash and two foamed bitumen treated ashes with 2 and 4.5 % bitumen, respectively: one-stage batch test (EN 12457-4), pH-static test (prEN 14997), column test (prEN 14405) and monolithic leaching test (NEN 7345). In addition, the specific surface and intra-particle porosity were determined by BET N2 adsorption experiments on selected fractions of bottom ash. The results showed that the specific surface decreased with more than 50 % and manifested itself in a lower buffer capacity at both low and high pH. For most elements no significant difference in leaching behavior where found when comparing the results from the leaching tests for the three materials at their own pH. This is thought to be due to that sufficient specific area available for leaching exists to reach equilibrium despite the foam bitumen treatment. The results from the one-stage batch test show a minor reduction in leaching for Cl{sup -}, S, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Sb, and Ca for the foamed bitumen treated ashes. The results from the column test of the foamed bitumen stabilized ashes showed an increased leaching of some elements, especially

  8. Installation of a bitumen coating plant for high-activity concentrates; Installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Seyfried, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the excellent results obtained on the industrial coating of radioactive sludges, the possibility of solidifying also the evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been considered. For high activity concentrates, the use of bitumen is however limited by two main parameters: temperature resistance, irradiation resistance. By making use of the characteristics of a blown bitumen, it has been possible to design a high activity coating pilot plant treating concentrations of several tens of curies per litre. This plant will make use of a screw-type extrusion machine capable of coating treated concentrates at a rate of 20 l/hr. Before being coated, the concentrates will be subjected to a coprecipitation treatment designed to make the radioelements insoluble. This installation will make possible, apart from technological studies, laboratory experiments on the coated material (measurements on self-heating, on electrical charges, on radiolytic gases, and also lixiviation tests. It is at present believed, on the basis of available data, that it is possible to coat concentrates having an activity of 20 Ci/l at a price of 1840 F per cubic metre. (authors) [French] A la suite des excellents resultats obtenus pour l'enrobage industriel des boues radioactives, il a ete envisage de solidifier egalement les concentrats d'evaporation par le bitume. Pour les concentrats de haute activite, l'emploi du bitume est cependant limite par deux parametres essentiels: tenue a la temperature, tenue a l'irradiation. Grace aux caracteristiques d'un bitume souffle, il a ete possible de concevoir une installation pilote d'enrobage haute activite contenant plusieurs dizaines de curies par litre. Cette installation utilisera une machine du type extrudeuse a vis qui peut enrober 20 l/h de concentrats traites. Avant leur enrobage, les concentrats subiront un traitement de coprecipitation destine a insolubiliser les radioelements. En dehors des etudes

  9. Upgrading of Bitumen in Super Critical Water — Activation of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, D.; Kishita, A.; Jin, F.; Kazuyuki, T.; Enomoto, H.

    2007-03-01

    Recently, oil sand in Canada has been gathering attention because of its huge storage, and the lack of fossil fuels. However, the bitumen from the oil sand has the problems for commercial use due to its high viscosity, high sulfur and high heavy metal content. Our research group has been carrying heavy oil/bitumen upgrading by hydrothermal visbreaking in supercritical water with the addition of alkali. Results showed that by supercritical water treatment with alkali was very effective for upgrading heavy oil/bitumen. However, water activation for upgrading bitumen remains poorly understood. An understanding of water activation is needed for improving upgrading bitumen in supercritical water reaction. In this study, therefore, the effect of water on upgrading bitumen in supercritical water reaction was investigated by varying reaction pressure and temperature. Experiments were performed in both a batch reactor and a continuous-flow reactor. In batch experiment, experiments were performed at temperature of 380°C to 460°C, the reaction pressure of 24 MPa to 40 MPa, and the reaction time of 30 min. Results showed that pressure and temperature, particularly pressure, have great effect on upgrading bitumen in supercritical water reaction This suggests that that the desired product could be obtained by controlling the reaction pressure and temperature.

  10. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  11. In-situ analysis of solid bitumen in coal: Examples from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Glikson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen.

  12. Towards the Development of Bitumen Carbonates: An Integrated Analysis of Grosmont Steam Pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeuko C.C.; Wang J; Kallos M.S.; Gates I.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada is a highly fractured, karstified and vuggy bitumen-rich carbonate reservoir located west of and below the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen carbonate platform extends about 500 km in length and up to 150 km in width and contains an estimated 64.5 billion m3 (406.5 billion barrels) of oil. The Grosmont Formation is larger than the combined total of all other known carbonate bitumen deposits in the world. Here, we analyze early Grosmont steam pi...

  13. Reflectance measurements of zooclasts and solid bitumen in Lower Paleozoic shales, southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Nielsen, Arne T.

    2013-01-01

    Reflectance measurements have been carried out on zooclasts (graptolites, chitinozoans, and vase-shaped microfossils) and other organic particles (vitrinite-like particles, porous/granular vitrinite-like particles, and solid bitumen) in Middle Cambrian to Upper Silurian shales from central and...... graptolites at the same level of maturity. Reflectance measurements of solid bitumen are a poor maturity indicator, probably because bitumen can have various origins and morphologies and it may not be indigenous to the host rock. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Dating hydrocarbon genera-tion and migration based on bitumen reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of thermal maturation theories of organic matter in sediments and an improved Karweil's method, a method for dating hydrocarbon generation and migration by means of bitumen reflectance has been suggested. A few representative boreholes in the Tazhong Area of the Tarim Basin was investigated by this method. The results indicate that the three phases of bitumen from the Tazhong Area formed during Middle and Late Ordovician, Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, and Late Tertiary, respectively. This implicates that there were three phases of hydrocarbon generation and migration occurring in this area during geological history. This study provided a new idea for the geological application of geochemical data of bitumen.

  15. Air Blowing of Bitumens: Process Variables and Structural Parameters Soufflage des bitumes : variables du procédé et paramètres structuraux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl J. S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of process variables viz. air rate, time of air blowing, temperature and catalyst concentration has been investigated and optimised to determine the possibility of making paving grade bitumen from 500°C+ Aghajari Short residue, of appropriate temperature susceptibility. Structural parameters of feed and some typical air blown products determined through NMR spectroscopy to follow the reaction mechanism leading to formation of increased asphaltene content during air blowing are also described. On a étudié et optimisé l'effet des variables du procédé comme le débit de l'air, le temps de soufflage, la température et la concentration en catalyseurs afin de déterminer la possibilité de fabriquer du bitume routier d'une susceptibilité à la température convenable, à partir d'un résidu Aghajari 500 °C+ de distillation poussée. On présente également les paramètres structuraux de la charge et de quelques produits types du soufflage, déterminés par résonance magnétique nucléaire, pour suivre le mécanisme de la réaction conduisant à une augmentation de la teneur en asphaltènes durant le soufflage d'air.

  16. Method for measuring the speed distribution of blown sand using laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for measuring the speed distribution of blown sand grains using He-Ne laser beam has been developed. This method enables us to measure the rate of sand movement as well as the number of blown sand at the some region in the wind tunnel and field. The apparatus is composed of a He-Ne laser (l mW)., a photodetection system with a slit (width: 0.3-3.0 mm), a five channel pulse width analyzer and a multi-purpose counter. When a sand grain passes across the laser beam, a shadow is thrown upon the light sensitive area of photodetector. The change in photocurrent after amplification and pulse shaping, is fed to the pulse width analyzer. The pulse width has information on both the speed and size of blown sand. Using nearly uniform size of sand grains, the speed distribution of blown sand can be measured. This method has many merits for studying the physical phenomena of blown sand in the field. First, the laser beam does not disturb the stream line of wind, but this condition is not satisfied in the case of using the sand trap. Second, in case of use of sand trap, the base of this must be buried in the sand surface and this handling affect the physical properties of sand surface. Third, this method is strong differential method in time and space, whereas the sand trap is .strong in integral method and easy handling

  17. A laboratory test of the elec-trification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The measured data in the wind-tunnel tests show that the wind-blown sand particles acquired a negative charge when their diameters are smaller than 250 mm and positive charge when their diameters are larger than 500 mm, which confirms Latham's assumption that the large particles in wind-blown sand flux acquired positive charge while nega-tive charge developed on small ones. In the meanwhile, the measured data also show that the average charge-to-mass ratio for wind-blown sand particles decreases with the in-crease of the particle diameter and the wind velocity, and increases with the rise of height. The electric field in wind-blown sand flux is mainly formed by the moving charged sand particles. Its direction is vertical to the Earth's surface and upward, which is opposite to that of the fair-weather field. The electric field increases with wind velocity and height increasing. These experimental results will lay the foundation for developing the theoretical analysis of the electrification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux.

  18. A miniature cell for gas solubility measurements in oils and bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Acosta, Edgar J.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    A miniature cell has been designed and constructed to measure gas solubility in crude oils and bitumen. The cell was made of stainless steel with a total internal volume of 1.835 cc and only an oil sample of 0.4 cc was required for one set of measurements at different pressures. By using this small cell, the waiting time for reaching equilibrium was less than 10 min. The technique was validated by measuring CO2 gas solubility in two bitumen samples. The results were compared and found to be in very good agreement with available data. The apparatus was also used to study the effect of ashphaltene on CO2 solubility in bitumen. It was shown that ashphaltene had a negligible effect on CO2 solubility in bitumen.

  19. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  20. Study of the thermal and mechanical sensitivity of bitumen/oxygen salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe handling characteristics of radioactive wastes containing nitrate salts to be fixed in bitumen for ultimate storage in salt mines according to a process developed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have been examined with respect to their combustibility and shock sensitivity in tests of inactive bitumen/salt mixtures. Samples containing 40% bitumen and 60% nitrates of alkali, alkaline earth, and heavy metals, organic acids and rare earths were used to determine the thermal sensitivity (ignition temperature, duration of burning, heating under contained conditions), the mechanical sensitivity (shock sensitivity) and, in order to simulate major shock stresses, the sensitivity against detonation stresses. A few basic experiments were also performed on some beta-irradiated inactive samples. It appeared that although the addition of nitrates increased the combustibility of bitumen, neither the high thermal nor the detonation stresses resulted in any explosion-type reaction. (orig.)

  1. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been ...

  2. New maturity indicators based on spectral fluorescence of alginite and bitumen, Monterey Formation, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chungi; Kennicutt, M.C. II (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States)); Lo, H.B. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Conventional assessment of maturation level in the Monterey has been problematic, since sporinite and vitrinite are rare or absent. Organic matter is largely alginite and amorphous material, and reliable vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}%) and Thermal Alteration Index (TAI) are difficult to obtain. Large amounts of bitumen often imbedded in the highly fractured Monterey shales cause a suppression of T{sub max} and low values of S{sub 1}S{sub 1} + S{sub 2}. It is often difficult to determine whether bitumen is indigenous or migrated from other more mature strata. Spectral fluorescence measurements of alginite and bitumen have proved useful in assessing the maturity of the Monterey. A maturity scale based on red/green quotient (Q{sub v}) measured as the fluorescence of alginite B when excited by violet-light has been developed and applied to the Monterey. Alginite B is common in the Monterey, and accurate fluorescent measurements can be readily obtained given the highly fluorescent character of alginite B. A total scanning fluorescence technique was used to develop a maturity scale based on bitumen aromatic content and composition. The maturity parameter (R{sub 1}) developed in this study uses the intensity of fluorescence emitted at 360 nm ratioed to that at 320 nm when the solvent-dissolved bitumen is excited at the 270 nm. These parameters allow for the evaluation of the thermal maturity of algal organic matter and bitumen from the Monterey with R{sub o}% {lt} 1. Indigenous bitumen is also indicated by a comparison of maturity based on Q{sub v} (the solid phase) and bitumen maturity (the liquid phase) based on R{sub 1}.

  3. Numerical Simulation Study on Parameters related to Athabasca Bitumen Recovery with SAGD

    OpenAIRE

    Marianayagam, Kristin Reka

    2012-01-01

    The world’s total oil reserves are to some extent dominated by heavy oil. The heavy oil reserves are doubled in volume compared to conventional oil reserves. As conventional oil reservoirs are depleting, heavy oil and bitumen possesses a great potential in covering parts of the future energy demand. The possibility of horizontal drilling has created a pathway for SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage), which is the most preferred heavy oil and bitumen recovery method. The mechanism of SAGD in...

  4. Analys av Nedbrytningsprodukter av Polymerer för Bitumenändamål

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Björn

    2007-01-01

    This project was aimed to study the degradation of polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS). SBS is used to modify bitumen, the binder in asphalt. From earlier studies it is known that SBS degrades in bitumen, but the degradation products have not been identified. To be able to determine the long term effects of SBS in the environment, degradation products need to be identified. Polystyrene forms rigid blocks with polybutadiene as a rubbery matrix between the ridgid blocks. When bl...

  5. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device)

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat Jahan; Jason Fawcett; Thomas L. King; Alexander M. McPherson; Katherine N. Robertson; Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil ...

  6. Towards a Viscoelastic Model for Phase Separation in Polymer Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiqing

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, a review is given on the most popular polymers used today for polymer modification of bitumen. Furthermore, the development of a model for phase separation in polymer modified bitumen (PMB) is proposed, that will enable a better control and understanding of PMB phase behaviour, allowing thus to enhanced long-term performance. PMB is hereby considered as a blend and focus is placed on its structure, its equilibrium thermodynamics and its phase separation dynamics. The effects o...

  7. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  8. High-sulphur shale oil as a prime matter for bitumen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and properties of heavy residues of Israeli shale oil (S content 6.8 %) were investigated as a source for bitumens. Both principal methods of asphalt production - vacuum distillation and oxidizing with air -were studied. Straight-run bitumen had satisfactory characteristics. As to oxidized bitumen, the values of its penetration, ductility and softening point were also satisfactory. The drawback of shale oil bitumens is their high viscosity after the thin film oven test, which means their high sensitivity to aging. The shale oil composition changes significantly as a result of distillation and oxidation. The content of asphaltenes sharply increases: from 3.5 to 20-22 % in straight-run bitumen and to 30 % in oxidized bitumen. It is explained by the reactions of condensation and polymerization of the most unstable polar components during heating and oxidation. Unlike petroleum, shale oil is a product of pyrogenic origin, i.e., it is formed as a result of thermal decomposition of large molecules of kerogen and a part of this cracked material consists of unstable fragments of these molecules, which have a tendency to polymerization. The C/H ratio and nitrogen content increase significantly in the order 'saturated hydrocarbons-naphthenoaromatics - aromatics - asphaltenes'. (author)

  9. Bitumen casting of 14 C contaminated ion exchangers in view of final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Cernavoda NPP commissioning in the frame of radioactive waste management the important issue of processing the ion organic resin exchangers occurred. This waste, generated in different processes of water purification, represents a source of low and intermediate level activity. 14 C occurs in important amounts during the purification of the moderator and transport primary circuit. To secure the environmental safety 14 C contaminating the ion exchangers must be immobilized into a monolithic block of cement, bitumen or organic polymers. Our studies indicated as optimal the immobilization in Romanian 160-70 type bitumen. The barrel containing the immobilized waste in bitumen is then cast in concrete into a stainless steel container. In this work the following stages were achieved: - establishing the technological process of 14 C contaminated ion exchangers conditioning; - conceiving, designing and building the pilot installation for 14 C contaminated ion exchangers conditioning; - conducting experiments of immobilization of the resins used in bitumen on the pilot installation to establish the optimal parameters of installation's operation; - choosing a method of retaining 14 C released in the bitumen incorporation process, in a material able of total absorption; - leaching studies on the bitumen-resin and cement-bituminated resin to determine the 14 C leaching rate

  10. The Effects of Applying Organic Matter in Wind Blown Soil on Microbial Biomass and Enzyme Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of applying organic matter in wind blown soil on microbial biomass and enzyme activity.The results showed that microbial biomass and enzyme activity keep dynamic changes during wheat growing season in wind blown soil,and reached the peak level in wheat booting stage.Compared with chemical fertilizer,all the other treatments could increase the microbial biomass in different degree,the same as catalsae and alkaline phosphatase activity,But urease activity was slightly difference from them.

  11. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Todd, Billy D; Daivis, Peter J; Hansen, Jesper S

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear is investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity and normal stress differences of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid. The corresponding molecular structure is studied at the same shear rates and temperatures. The Cooee bitumen is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. The nanoaggregates are shown to break up at very high shear rates, leading only to a minor effect on the viscosity of the mixture. At low shear rates, bitumen can be seen as a colloidal suspension of nanoaggregates in a solvent. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified...

  12. Use of a density meter for analysis of process streams obtained during solvent extraction of bitumen from Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J.R.; Kumar, A.; Sparks, B.D.; Kotlyar, L.S.

    A fast and accurate densimetry method has been developed that allows analysis of concentrated solutions of bitumen in diluents (such as naptha, varsol, etc.) used in solvent extraction processes. By means of an equation described in this paper, densimetry can also be applied to the determination of diluent occluded in agglomerated sand in the presence of bitumen. In this case a prior determination of bitumen content by some other method is required for complete determination.

  13. Polymer and bitumen modified OPC for the immobilisation of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer:cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for 137Cs, are obtained at p:c >= 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  14. Incoherent quasielastic scattering of slow neutrons on bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the cold neutron quasielastic scattering measurements on ESSO bitumen compound at room temperature. The area of the quasielastic peak as a function of the impulse transfer has an oscillatory behavior having a very prominent peak at 0.5 A-1. As the translational motions are too slow in this case, the dynamical behavior of the system is given by rotational motions of different molecular groups of the compound. The so-called 'elastic incoherent structure factor' (E.I.S.F.) of rotational motions depends mainly on the squared Bessel function j0(κd) (where κ is the impulse transfer and d is the gyration radius of the scattering cluster). Using the position of the main maximum in the E.I.S.F. plot as a function of κ we obtained a diameter of about 10 A for the molecular scattering cluster. This value can be assigned to polynuclear aromatic sheets inside of a asphaltene-micelle aggregate, according to Yen colloidal model proposed for compounds of this type. (authors)

  15. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  16. Wind-blown mosquitoes and introduction of Japanese encephalitis into Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, S. A.; Rochester, W.

    2001-01-01

    Backtrack simulation analysis indicates that wind-blown mosquitoes could have traveled from New Guinea to Australia, potentially introducing Japanese encephalitis virus. Large incursions of the virus in 1995 and 1998 were linked with low-pressure systems that sustained strong northerly winds from New Guinea to the Cape York Peninsula.

  17. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  18. Oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    This project emphasizes CO2-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems, CO2 transportation, and options for the long-term sequestration Of CO2. The intent is to quantify the CO2 budget, or an ``equivalent CO2`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal, followed by Claus/SCOT treatment, to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO2 release rate of 0.801 kg/kV-Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H2S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO2 recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H2S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle, with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline takes the CO2 to geological sequestering. For the optimal CO2 recovery case, the net electric power production was reduced by 37.6 MW from the base case, with a CO2 release rate of 0.277 kg/kWhe (when makeup power was considered). In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO2-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, while the cost for oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh. For the optimal cases employing glycol CO2 recovery, there was no clear advantage; the cost for air-blown IGCC was 95.48 mills/kWh, and the cost for the oxygen-blown IGCC was slightly lower, at 94.55 mills/kWh.

  19. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals incorporating adjacent blocks of swelling clay and bitumen. It is shown that the interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents water penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. A review of the swelling properties of highly compacted bentonite and magnesium oxide is presented, and the characteristic sealing properties of bituminous materials are described. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that bentonite is the preferred candidate material for use in composite clay/bitumen seals for intermediate-level radioactive waste repositories. However, it is thought that magnesium oxide may have other sealing applications for high-level waste repositories. A programme of laboratory experiments is described in which relevant swelling and intrusion properties of highly compacted bentonite blocks and the annealing characteristics of oxidised and hard-grade industrial bitumens are examined. The results of composite sealing experiments involving different water penetration routes are reported, and factors governing the mechanism of self-sealing are described. The validation of the sealing concept at a laboratory scale indicates that composite bentonite/bitumen seals could form highly effective barriers for the containment of radioactive wastes. Accordingly, recommendations are made concerning the development of the research, including the implementation of full-scale demonstration experiments to simulate conditions in an underground repository. 13 tabs., 41 figs., 62 refs

  20. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  1. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  2. Thermal Fatigue with Freeze-thaw Cycles of Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachir Glaoui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research contributes to characterize the EVA polymer modified bitumen, which was subjected to thermal fatigue. The aim of this work was to determine the rheological components and their evolutions under thermal fatigue with freezing - thawing cycles. To represent thermal fatigue phenomenon of polymer modified bitumen in laboratory, both freezer and controlled temperature room were used to produce the real cycles of freeze-thaw of winter season. The results suggest that thermal fatigue is more complicated on rheological behavior of polymer modified bitumen. It is shown that thermal fatigue influenced thermal cracking, fatigue cracking and permanent deformation resistance. It is concluded that thermal fatigue due to thermal cycling, is a big problem to accelerate the degradation of pavement.

  3. Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan-Tan; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1992-07-01

    Data are presented on the distribution of diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in the natural bitumens extracted from unheated coals identified as Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL), as well as from pyrolysates obtained from heating of these coals. It was found that pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, whereas diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC, indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than of the other coals and that it releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. It was also found that the composition of diterpanes is different among these coals and that the distributions of sterane and triterpane in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those of pyrolysates.

  4. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs

  5. Performance Test for Open Grade Bitumen and Cement Mixture OGBC-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. L.; Li, C. M.; Gan, X. Z.; Xiong, X. J.

    For effective prevention of urban road intersection special sections for nit diseases and improving the pavement durability, an open grade bitumen and cement (OGBC-20) mixture is proposed. In organic hydraulic cement mixture design, mix proportion designs of cement mortar and matrix open-graded bitumen were done. The matrix mixture gradation was adjusted .It has greater void of air volume than that of ATPB-25. A variety of tests in laboratory for OGBC-20 were performed. The experimental results show that: The void of air volume of adjusted gradation matrix asphalt mixture is up to 23%. and binder drainage loss is ≤ 0.3%. Cement mortar filling is fuller and better water stability and low temperature crack resistance compared to ordinary bitumen mixture. It has the absolute advantage on high temperature stability and shows the superiority of the new pavement materials.

  6. Modeling the release, behavior, and fate of bitumen-water emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modeling approach was developed for simulating the release, fate, and transport of an Orimulsion spill in lakes, rivers or seas. Orimulsion (a new substitute for heavy fuel oils), is a bitumen and water emulsion which can have a positive, neutral or negative buoyancy depending on the properties of the surrounding water. The unique physical characteristics of Orimulsion make it necessary to modify existing oil behaviour models. Three areas of experimentation were identified: (1) estimating discharge rates from a leaking tanker, (2) understanding weathering of the product, and (3) examining the consequences of subsurface transport. A formula was devised for generalizing oil sedimentation models to include bitumens. It was shown that any bitumen in a marine spill that does not aggregate, sink to the bottom, or adhere to suspended sediment will be transported by the subsurface current. 25 refs

  7. Observations and morphological analysis of supermolecular structure of natural bitumens by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny A. Golubev; Olga V. Kovaleva; Nikolay P. Yushkin [Institute of Geology of RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    The supermolecular structures of natural bitumens of the thermal consequent row asphaltites lower kerites (albertites), higher kerites (impsonites), anthraxolites from the Timan-Pechora petroleum province and Karelian shungite rocks, Russia, were studied in details. The experimental technique used was atomic force microscopy (AFM), following fracture preparation. The element distribution of the sample surfaces was analyzed by an X-ray microanalyser 'Link ISIS', combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this work, we characterized the supermolecular evolution of natural solid bitumens in the carbonization sequence by quantitative parameters. We showed that supermolecular structure can be important in defining to which classification group solid bitumens belong. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, C. [Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs.

  9. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  10. System analysis of dry black liquor gasification based synthetic gas production comparing oxygen and air blown gasification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Circulating fluidized bed system for black liquor gasification with direct causticization. ► Effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on gasification are studied. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive limekiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show 10% higher SNG production from O2 blown system than air blown system. ► SNG production is higher in O2 blown system than air blown system. - Abstract: The black liquor gasification based bio-fuel production at chemical pulp mill is an attractive option to replace conventional recovery boilers increasing system energy efficiency. The present paper studies circulating fluidized bed system with direct causticization using TiO2 for the gasification of the black liquor to the synthesis gas. The advantage of using direct causticization is the elimination of energy-intensive lime kiln which is an integral part of the conventional black liquor recovery system. The study evaluates the effects of gasifying medium i.e. oxygen or air, on the fluidized bed gasification system, the synthesis gas composition, and the downstream processes for the synthesis gas conversion to the synthetic natural gas (SNG). The results showed higher synthetic natural gas production potential with about 10% higher energy efficiency using oxygen blown gasification system than the air blown system. From the pulp mill integration perspective, the material and energy balance results in better integration of air blown system than the oxygen blown system, e.g. less steam required to be generated in the power boiler, less electricity import, and less additional biomass requirement. However, the air blown system still requires a significant amount of energy in terms of the synthesis gas handling and gas upgrading using the nitrogen rejection system

  11. Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.T.; Kaplan, I.R. (California University, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1992-07-01

    There is a significant difference in the distribution of terpanes in natural bitumen extracted from Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL). Pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than in the other coals and releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. Furthermore, the composition of diterpanes is also different among these coals. The diterpenoid content is negligible in the pyrolysates of all coals. The sterane and triterpane distributions in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those in pyrolysates e.g. C31 alpha-beta-22R hopane predominates in the m/z 191 mass fragmentograms of the natural bitumens, whereas a homologous series of hopanes (C27-C35; except C28) is present in the coal pyrolysates. C27 steranes are absent in the natural bitumen, but are generated in pyrolysates during lengthy heating of coal kerogen. C29 monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons are abundant in the natural bitumen of the four coals. Triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons are only present in GCC, whereas significant amounts of tetra- and triaromatic triterpenoid hydrocarbons are present in the other three coals (GEC, RMC, and WL). The ratio of benzo(e)pyrene/perylene may be potentially useful as a maturity parameter because the amount of benzo(e)pyrene increases with thermal stress, whereas perylene decreases with heating time. Benzohopanes are widely present in four humic coals.

  12. Waste reduction algorithm used as the case study of simulated bitumen production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste reduction algorithm - WAR is a tool helping process engineers for environmental impact assessment. WAR algorithm is a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI of a chemical process. In particular, the bitumen production process was analyzed following three stages: a atmospheric distillation unit, b vacuum distillation unit, and c bitumen production unit. Study was developed for the middle sized oil refinery with capacity of 5000000 tones of crude oil per year. Results highlight the most vulnerable aspects of the environmental pollution that arise during the manufacturing process of bitumen. The overall rates of PEI leaving the system (PEI/h - Iout PEI/h are: a 2.14105, b 7.17104 and c 2.36103, respectively. The overall rates of PEI generated within the system - Igen PEI/h are: a 7.75104, b -4.31104 and c -4.32102, respectively. Atmospheric distillation unit have the highest overall rate of PEI while the bitumen production unit have the lowest overall rate of PEI. Comparison of Iout PEI/h and Igen PEI/h values for the atmospheric distillation unit, shows that the overall rate of PEI generated in the system is 36.21% of the overall rate of PEI leaving the system. In the cases of vacuum distillation and bitumen production units, the overall rate of PEI generated in system have negative values, i.e. the overall rate of PEI leaving the system is reduced at 60.11% (in the vacuum distillation unit and at 18.30% (in the bitumen production unit. Analysis of the obtained results for the overall rate of PEI, expressed by weight of the product, confirms conclusions.

  13. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals comprising juxtaposed blocks of highly compacted bentonite clay and bitumen. It is shown that interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents weather penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. Factors affecting seal performance are examined by means of laboratory experiments, and implications for the design of repository backfilling and sealing systems are discussed. It is concluded that design principles and material specifications should be further developed on the basis of large scale experiments. (author)

  14. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  15. Determination of the bitumen content in asphalt concrete using a neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron physical method (reflection method) for the fast, nondestructive determination of the bitumen content in asphalt concrete has been developed. The determination is performed on cylindrical asphalt concrete samples containing desiccated rubble matrix. Using samples of about 1000g and measuring times of 20 min, the reproducibility of the bitumen determination is 0.15 w%, the sensitivity is 3.10-3 g/g. The thus obtained results were compared with data obtained by chemical analysis, using two different type of matrix. The mean values and the standard deviations are in good agreement for both cases. (T.G.)

  16. The role of water content in triboelectric charging of wind-blown sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Wei, Wei; Su, Junwei; Yu, Chuck Wah

    2013-01-01

    Triboelectric charging is common in desert sandstorms and dust devils on Earth; however, it remains poorly understood. Here we show a charging mechanism of sands with the adsorbed water on micro-porous surface in wind-blown sand based on the fact that water content is universal but usually a minor component in most particle systems. The triboelectric charging could be resulted due to the different mobility of H+/OH− between the contacting sands with a temperature difference. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) were used to demonstrate the dynamics of the sand charging. The numerically simulated charge-to-mass ratios of sands and electric field strength established in wind tunnel agreed well with the experimental data. The charging mechanism could provide an explanation for the charging process of all identical granular systems with water content, including Martian dust devils, wind-blown snow, even powder electrification in industrial processes. PMID:23434920

  17. Physical property behaviour of North Dakota lignite in an oxygen/steam blown moving bed gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mangena, S.J.; Bunt, J.R.; Waanders, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study lignite originating from North Dakota (USA) was thermally treated in an oxygen/steam blown commercial-scale moving bed gasifier operating on lump coal at the Dakota Gasification Company (DGC) in order to identify the physical property changes that occur during heating. After reaction, the solid particulate remnants were extracted from the reactor and characterised using standard techniques. Thermal fragmentation was found to be severe with the coal tested, i.e. the l...

  18. Effect of thermal diffusion and electrostatic force on evolution of wind-blown sand flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Gao-wei; ZHENG Xiao-jing

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model is suggested to mathematically describe the effect of thermal diffusion from a sand-bed on evolution of a wind-blown sand flow. An upward wind field is engendered by the thermal diffusion and the coupling interaction among the horizontal and upward wind flow, saltating grains, and a kind of electrostatic force exerted on the grains are considered in this theoretical model. The numerical results show that the effect of the thermal diffusion on the evolution process of wind-blown grain flow is quite obvious and very similar to the effect of the electrostatic force on the evolution. Not only the time for the entire system to reach a steady state (called the duration time), the transport rate of grains, the mass-flux profiles and the trajectory of saltating grains are affected by the thermal diffusion and the electrostatic force exerted on saltating grains,but also the wind profiles and the temperature profiles at the steady state are affected by the wind-blown sand flow.

  19. Solubility of methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in bitumen and water for SAGD modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Murayri, M.T.; Harding, T.G.; Maini, B.B.

    2011-07-15

    The steam assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process is a technology used in unconventional reservoirs to enhance oil recovery, this technique sometimes uses the co-injection of noncondensable gases (NCGs). The co-injection of NCGs with steam is used to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in SAGD, but this technique also affects the performance of SAGD, making the knowledge of gas solubility in bitumen and water important. This study was undertaken to develop a systematic approach to predict the K-values for the gas-bitumen and gas water phase equilibria at different temperatures and pressures. This research has been carried out by using different existing correlations. It has been observed that the Mehrotra and Svrcek gas-solubility correlation should be used to calculate NCG's solubility in bitumen and that NCGs' solubility in water could be calculated with Harvey's correlation. This study defined successfully an approach to calculate NCGs' solubility in bitumen and water.

  20. Thermal maturity, alginite-bitumen transformation, and hydrocarbon generation in Upper Ordovician source rocks, Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiuk, L.D.; Osadetz, K.G. (Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Organic petrological techniques have been used to study the alginite-bitumen-oil transformation in Upper Ordovician Yeoman Formation kukersite source rocks of the northern Williston Basin, Saskatchewan, Canada. The kukersites are characterized by two distinct interlaminated microfacies, disseminated and stromatolitic, each representing a growth stage of the precursor to the alginite maceral Gloeocapsomorpha prisca. Different rates of thermal maturation and thresholds of petroleum generation for the two G. prisca maceral subvarieties are indicated by different rates of percent reflectance in oil increase and are verified by shifts in fluorescence spectra and observations on transformation into bitumen. With increasing thermal maturation, disseminated G.prisca reaches a softening stage, losing its primary morphological features as it is transformed from a primary to a secondary maceral (bitumen). The stromatolitic subvariety of G. prisca does not display comparable alteration in response to increasing thermal stress. Hot stage experiments conducted on doubly polished thin sections of the kukersites support the optical discrepancies observed between the two maceral subvarieties in the subsurface. These findings indicate that hydrocarbon generation from kukersites may involve two steps controlled largely by organic microfacies. Inception of petroleum generation appears to occur at a depth of 3000 m for the disseminated alginite. Bitumen has been cracked to anisotropic 'coke' on a local thermal anomaly, and peak to postgeneration of petroleum has occurred at a maximum temperature of 148[degree]C, as suggested by homogenization temperatures for fluid inclusions.

  1. Chemical modification of bitumen heavy ends and their non-fuel uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bitumen asphaltenes undergo a variety of simple chemical conversions. For example, asphaltenes can be oxidized, sulfonated, sulfomethylated, halogenated, and phosphorylated. The net result is the introduction of functional entities into the asphaltene structure which confers interesting properties on the products for which a variety of uses are proposed.

  2. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 108 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +600) to -300C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  3. Solidification of low and medium level wastes in bitumen at Barsebaeck nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating experience is presented from 4 years of bitumen solidification of wastes coming from two boiling water reactors. Methods used to sample, analyse and document the wastes are described. Transport and storage methods without remote handling have been adopted. The risk of fire is discussed and a description is given of the measures taken for fire protection. (author)

  4. In situ analytical pyrolysis of coal macerals and solid bitumens by laser micropyrolysis GC-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, P.F.; George, S.C.; Pickel, W. [CSIRO Petroleum, PO Box 136, NSW 1670 N. Ryde (Australia); Zhu, Y. [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, 434102 Hubei (China); Zhong, N. [Applied Geochemistry Laboratory, University of Petroleum, Changping, 102200 Beijing (China)

    2001-04-01

    Specific macerals in coals and distinct solid organic bitumens within limestones from northern China were separately analysed in situ by laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major pyrolysates from the resinite and cutinite macerals included aromatic hydrocarbons such as alkylnaphthalenes, alkylbenzenes, alkyltetralins (in the resinite) and alkylphenols (in the cutinite), and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as n-alk-1-enes, n-alkanes, pristane and phytane. The same classes of hydrocarbons were also detected in co-occurring vitrinites, including very similar relative distributions of alkylnaphthalenes in the case of the resin-rich coal. Several observed quantitative differences are consistent with previous molecular data from maceral concentrates. The qualitative similarity of the maceral data suggest (1) extensive assimilation of free hydrocarbons by all macerals within the coals; or (2) inefficient targeting of the macerals by the laser, although microscopic observation showed that the laser craters were generally constrained within surface boundaries of the maceral. The organic composition of a solid bitumen within a Carboniferous limestone was characterised by a distinctive distribution of C{sub 0}-C{sub 4} alkyldibenzofurans, as well as alkylbenzenes, alkylnaphthalenes and a low molecular weight distribution of n-alk-1-enes and n-alkanes. These data suggest the solid bitumen comprises a strongly aromatic matrix with terrestrially-derived oxygen functionality and alkyl linkages. The same aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon products were also detected in the morphologically homogenous carbonates hosting the solid bitumens, indicating the presence of sub-microscopic organic moieties throughout the limestone.

  5. Infrared microscopy investigation of oxidation and phase evolution in bitumen modified with polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginie Mouillet; Jerome Lamontagne; Francoise Durrieu; Jean-Pascal Planche; Laurence Lapalu [Laboratoire Regional des Ponts et Chaussees, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2008-06-15

    Polymer modified bitumens (PmB) were studied in their original state and after conventional tests claimed to simulate the ageing during the mixing process and several years of road service (RTFOT + PAV). The PmB's included plastomers and elastomers, some of them being in situ crosslinked. Infrared microscopy was used to determine for each phase the polymer rate and functional indices characterizing the bitumen such as aromaticity, aliphaticity and condensation, and also to map the polymer distribution in the PmB. The characterization of PmB in their original state points out which species of the bitumen are involved in the polymer swelling and the effect of the polymer nature. The characterization of the same PmB's after the RTFOT + PAV ageing shows how the bitumen species responsible for the swelling evolve during ageing. In addition, kinetic studies were performed using an heating cell fitted to the IR microscope. They confirmed the tendencies obtained with the conventional ageing tests. These studies come to the conclusion of an interdependence of the ageing of the different constitutive phases in a PmB and of chemical exchanges between them. They make clear the micro-morphological modification induced by ageing in a PmB. They finally help to better understand the effect of a crosslinking on the PmB microstructure and its ageing mechanism. 44 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Bitumen modification with a low-molecular-weight reactive isocyanate-terminated polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.J. Navarro; P. Partal; M. Garcia-Morales; F.J. Martinez-Boza; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales

    2007-10-15

    A low-molecular-weight polyethyleneglycol functionalized with a polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate) was used as a modifying agent for a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen. The rheological properties of the resulting modified binder, at both low and intermediate temperatures, before and after curing at room temperature were studied and compared with those corresponding to a SBS modified bitumen. The analysis showed that the addition of a small quantity of this reactive polymer leads to enhanced rheological properties mainly at high in-service temperature (50{sup o}C). However, modification was found to be rather slow during binder curing at room temperature. Moreover, storage stability analysis showed that phase separation did not take place after bitumen storage at 163{sup o}C, though storage at high temperature affects the modification capability of the reactive polymer. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the reactive polymer addition leads to asphaltene-rich regions with lower thermal susceptibility, which are present even at high temperature, yielding an improved bitumen viscosity in this range of in-service temperatures. 38 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2002-01-01

    ire and bitumen particle concentrations are determined in aerosol and soil samples. They each constitute about 5 wt-% of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in inner city air, collected with a Berner low pressure impactor, 5 m from a road. The particle size distribution shows that 92% of...

  8. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injection...

  9. Towards the Development of Bitumen Carbonates: An Integrated Analysis of Grosmont Steam Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko C.C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada is a highly fractured, karstified and vuggy bitumen-rich carbonate reservoir located west of and below the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen carbonate platform extends about 500 km in length and up to 150 km in width and contains an estimated 64.5 billion m3 (406.5 billion barrels of oil. The Grosmont Formation is larger than the combined total of all other known carbonate bitumen deposits in the world. Here, we analyze early Grosmont steam pilots to improve the design of future pilots and commercial development of this massive bitumen deposit. In agreement with the conclusions of earlier analysis of these Grosmont pilots, they were reasonably successful considering the heterogeneous nature of the Grosmont Formation. Operational factors such as poor steam quality, non-optimized high injection pressures and completion issues appear to have heavily impacted recovery performances. Clearly, steam-based recovery operations have good potential for Grosmont, especially considering that it is mature commercial technology. Following an integrated analysis of early Grosmont pilots, we posit that Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS using horizontal wells exhibits greater potential for the development of Grosmont carbonate, compared with Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage technology (SAGD.

  10. Effect of processing temperature on the bitumen/MDI-PEG reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, M.J.; Partal, P.; Navarro, F.J.; Garcia-Morales, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de ' El Carmen' , Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva (Spain); Bordado, J.C.M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, A.C. [Materials Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    Reactive polymers are lately gaining acceptance to give added value to a residue of the crude oil refining process such as bitumen. The resulting material should display enhanced mechanical properties to be considered for advanced applications in construction. In the present paper, we report the effect of processing temperature on the reaction between bitumen compounds and an isocyanate-based reactive polymer, synthesized by reaction of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) with a low molecular weight polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Rheokinetics experiments, viscosity measurements at 60 C, atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, thin layer chromatography (TLC-FID) analysis and thermogravimetric studies (TGA) were performed on the reactive polymer and on samples of MDI-PEG modified bitumen containing 2 wt.% of the polymer. Results showed the existence of an optimum processing temperature arisen as a consequence of opposite effects: microstructural availability for the formation of a polymer-bitumen network, reaction ability and polymer thermal degradation. Consequently, this study aims to serve as a guideline for the refining and asphalt industries facing the stage of selecting the optimum processing parameters. (author)

  11. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors)

  12. Effect of ageing under gamma radiations on the long term behaviour of bitumen material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The referential scenario considered for bituminized waste drums is an intermediate storage likely to be followed by a deep geological disposal. Under geological disposal conditions, when site will be re-saturated with water and containers will be corroded, the main phenomenon likely to alter bituminized waste is linked to the presence of water. During intermediate storage conditions, drums will be submitted to the effect of irradiation, and for the external part of the wasteform to the effect of oxidation by surrounding air. The combined effect of air and radiation may increase bitumen oxidation. In further disposal conditions, alteration phenomena of drums will concern aged drums. The aim of these studies dealing with ageing, is to characterise the effect of alteration factors such as irradiation and radio-oxidation on the potential release of radionuclides from bituminized waste in disposal conditions. Radio-oxidation depends on: - the diffusion of O2 in the matrix (diffusion coefficient, solubility), -the intensity of radiation (dose rate), -the time of exposure to radiations. Low dose rates of radiation, near realistic dose rates are here investigated in order to characterise the effect of ageing phenomena on the long term behaviour of bitumen properties. Results concern Infra-red characterization of oxidized bitumen, gases evolution and diffusion of water. The evolution of the thickness of the oxidized layer with the dose and the dose rate for bitumen sample can be deduced from profiles of oxidised compounds concentration obtained with FTIR (Fourier transformed Infrared Spectroscopy). (authors)

  13. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  14. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  15. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  16. The adsorption of Cs+, Sr2+ and Ni2+ on bitumen: a mechanistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption of radionuclides on the waste matrix is a positive effect and contributes to the retardation of released radionuclides migrating to the geo-and biosphere. For the safety assessment studies, it is important to know whether or not radionuclides do adsorb on the waste matrix. In the present work the adsorption of 134Cs+, 85Sr2+ and 63Ni2+ on bitumen was studied as a function of the pH and ionic strength of the equilibrium solution. Bitumen emulsions with well defined surfaces were used. The surface of bitumen is negatively charged due to the deprotonation of weak acid carboxyl groups at the interface. The functional group density amounts to 1.37.1018 groups/m2 and their deprotonation behaviour can be well described by the 'Ionizable Surface Group' model. Cs+, Sr2+ and Ni2+ adsorb on the surface by three different processes, i.e. ion exchange, outer sphere complexation and inner sphere surface complexation respectively. The adsorption depends on the pH and the ionic strength of the contact solution. Under near field conditions, Cs+ and Sr2+ do not adsorb on the bitumen due to the competition with Na+, K+ and Ca2+ present in the cement pore water in contact with the bitumen. Ni2+ adsorption can also be neglected because the formation of neutral and anionic hydroxo complexes in solution competes strongly with the adsorption reaction. Other hydrolysable radionuclides of interest are expected to behave similarly to Ni2+. The main conclusion of the study is that the adsorption of radionuclides under near field conditions is expected to be very low. Consequently, this process need not to be considered in safety assessment studies. (author) figs., tabs., 30 refs

  17. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Feng Su; Peng Yang; Ying-Yuan Wang; Shan Han; Ning-Xu Han; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a repar...

  18. Blown Away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    The number of students killed or injured by gunfire while at schools is increasing. The National Rifle Association, the nation's powerful gun lobby, has a gun safety program; however, children's advocates say stricter gun-control laws are necessary. Briefly cites 24 gun incidents and describes 4 semiautomatic pistols that were among the firearms…

  19. Blown Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan

    2014-01-01

    On Aug. 13, 2011, at 8:45 p.m. country music fans were eagerly awaiting the band Sugarland to make its entry onto the main stage at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. Also competing for the fans' attention was an approaching storm. Sugarland never made their entrance. At 8:49 p.m. the stage rigging was hit by 59 mile/h (94 km/h) winds causing it…

  20. Blown Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan

    2014-04-01

    On Aug. 13, 2011, at 8:45 p.m. country music fans were eagerly awaiting the band Sugarland to make its entry onto the main stage at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. Also competing for the fans' attention was an approaching storm. Sugarland never made their entrance. At 8:49 p.m. the stage rigging was hit by 59 mile/h (94 km/h) winds causing it to collapse, killing seven people and injuring 58. A simplified facsimile model of this collapse is presented here that can be used as a case study in applying fundamental physics concepts appropriate for an introductory class. It is a forensic physics/engineering investigation. Afterwards, key aspects of the actual investigation will be presented.

  1. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. The blown sand disaster to the Tarim Desert Highway in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Jiaqiang(雷加强); WANG; Xueqin(王雪芹); WANG; De(王德); ZHOU; Changhai(周长海); XIA; Xuncheng(夏训诚)

    2002-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway in Xinjiang, China, the longest one in the world, has a lengthof 562 km, about 80% of which runs across, from north to south, the Taklimakan Desert. Obviously,the main problem of the road maintenance is the blown sand disaster. The research resultsshowed: (1) the physical environment along thedesert highway is characterized by strong winds,fine and loose ground materials, different dunes and so on, which provides the dynamical conditionand material source for the formation of blown sand disaster to the road and its shelter system.Meanwhile, the trend and cross-section of the road and the structure of the shelter system, asdamage objects, play important roles in the formation process of blown sand disaster; (2) theblown sand disaster to the shelter system is original from the intrusion of the drift sands and mobiledunes outside the shelter system, and the wind erosion and sand deposit caused by the air streamchanges on the ground in the shelter system. The main damage object in the Tarim Desert High-way is the shelter system presently. The damage forms include wind erosion, sand burying anddune covering; and (3) the damaged length of the blocking sand fences is 83.7%, 88.4%, 72.4%,72.8% and 40.3% and the damaged area of the straw checkerboard belts is 73.1%, 58.2%, 44.5%,35.4% and 36.6%, in turn, in 5 different landform units from north to south, and, the disasters tofences and the straw checkerboard belts are 79.5% and 57.6% in the compound dunes while theyare 64.6% and 37.7% in the interdunes respectively.

  3. Forward flight effects on mixer nozzle design and noise considerations for STOL externally blown flap systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Sekas, N.; Groesbeck, D. E.; Huff, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data of the peak axial-velocity decay in a moving airstream are presented for several types of nozzles. The nozzles include a six-tube mixer nozzle of a type considered for reduction of jet-flap interaction noise for externally-blown-flap STOL aircraft. The effect of secondary flow on the core flow velocity decay of a bypass nozzle is also discussed. Tentative correlation equations are suggested for the configurations evaluated. Recommendations for minimizing forward velocity effects on velocity decay and jet-flap interaction noise are made.

  4. Effect of hydrated lime and cement on moisture damage of recycled mixtures with foamed bitumen and emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Nosetti, R.A.; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo; Martínez Reguero, Adriana Haydée; Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Cold recycling with foamed bitumen can be used as a sustainable and cost-effective rehabilitation technique. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the resistance to the water action in mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and foamed bitumen by means of indirect tensile test, comparing the effect of two active fillers: cement and hydrated lime. Additionally, mixtures recycled with RAP and asphalt emulsions were also tested in order to compare the response of both technologies. Resu...

  5. First Observation of the Blending Zone Morphology at the Interface of Reclaimed Asphalt Binder and Virgin Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Mohajeri, M.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Scarpas, T.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges in designing recycled asphalt mixtures with a high amount of RAP is to estimate the blending degree between RAP binder and the added virgin bitumen. The extent of blending is crucial in this case as asphalt concrete response is influenced by the final binder properties. This paper focuses on the evaluation of interaction and extent of blending between RAP-binder and virgin bitumen by studying the microstructures of the ‘blending zone’ with atomic force microscopy (AFM). ...

  6. Analysis of the Influence of the Modernized Bitumen Batching System on the Composition of the Hot Mix Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justas Bražiūnas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The weighted mass of a binder in the bucket of the bitumen batcher of a batch-type asphalt plant should be such that its percentage of hot mix asphalt (HMA mixture lot would comply with the design amount of the job-mix formula in all mix batches. A bitumen batcher does not always weigh bitumen portions precisely. Their mass deviations from the amount determined by the project and its variation impair HMA composition and performance. The paper provides data on a statistical evaluation of bitumen batcher modernization performed at Lithuanian enterprise „LL“. The article analyzes differences in the structures of reconstructed and not reconstructed bitumen batching systems and presents methods for determining modernization effectiveness. The paper also focuses on the effectiveness of the batching system, determining deviations from bitumen content in subsamples taken and extracted everyday during two seasons (before and after batcher‘s modernization of producing HMA from the value of job-mix formula and comparing them to the values of tolerances.Article in Lithuanian

  7. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Todd, Billy D.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2015-06-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates are immersed in a solvent of saturated hydrocarbon molecules. At a fixed temperature, the shear-shinning behavior is related not only to the inter- and intramolecular alignments of the solvent molecules but also to the decrease of the average size of the nanoaggregates at high shear rates. The variation of the viscosity with temperature at different shear rates is also related to the size and relative composition of the nanoaggregates. The slight anisotropy of the whole sample due to the nanoaggregates is considered and quantified. Finally, the position of bitumen mixtures in the broad literature of complex systems such as colloidal suspensions, polymer solutions, and associating polymer networks is discussed.

  8. Effect of Gamma-Irradiated Recycled Low-Density Polyethylene on the High- and Low-Temperature Properties of Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perviz Ahmedzade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes polymer modification of bitumen with gamma-irradiated recycled (γ-LDPER low-density polyethylene. The recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPER was obtained from greenhouse films exposed to sunlight at least one year. The surface of the LDPER was treated by gamma beam irradiation that provided formation of free radicals and some functional groups that may contribute to the creation of strong chemical bonds between polymer modifier and bitumen. Five different samples of bitumen/γ-LDPER compositions with the modifier content, wt. %: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, were prepared. The effects of the γ-LDPER on original and aged bitumen were investigated by means of morphological, chemical, and physical testing program, including FTIR spectroscopy, conventional tests, rotational viscosity (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests. Superior performing asphalt pavements (Superpave specifications were used to analyze mechanical test results as well as to determine the performance grades (PG of the binders. Optimum usage of the γ-LDPER as modifier in bitumen were suggested after testing program. The results reveal the stiffening effect of the γ-LDPER on bitumen that provide enhanced temperature susceptibility and also promise better performance grades (PG with γ-LDPER polymer modification.

  9. A Review on the Effect of Crumb Rubber Addition to the Rheology of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crumb rubber modification has been proven to enhance the properties of pure bitumen. This paper looks at some of the international standards for producing crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB and reviews the effect of crumb rubber to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen. The review shows that the rheology of CRMB depends on internal factors such as crumb rubber quantity, particle size, and pure bitumen composition, and external factors such as the mixing time, temperature, and also the modification technique. These factors govern the swelling process of crumb rubber particles that lead to the increase of viscosity of the modified bitumen. However, the mixing temperature and duration can cause rubber particles to depolymerize and subsequently cause loss of viscosity. Crumb rubber modification also improves the properties of bitumen by increasing the storage and loss modulus and enhancing the high and low temperature susceptibility. The effect of crumb rubber to aging properties of CRMB is also discussed. Finally several techniques of chemical modification to terminal blends of CRMB and the subsequent improvement to the settling property of CRMB are explained.

  10. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C 30 steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic Age petroleum and bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Mark A.; Michael Moldowan, J.; Lipton, Paul A.; Summons, Roger E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Jeganathan, Alwarsamy; Watt, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic (≈ 1800 Ma) to Miocene (≈ 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C 30 steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24- n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24- n-propylcholestanes (≥1), while younger and older samples have a lower ratio (≤0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  11. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  12. Experimental study of simultaneous Athabasca bitumen recovery and upgrading using ultradispersed catalysts injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi, R.; Pereira, P. [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    As the demand for oil is continuously increasing, the need for unconventional resources is rising. Oil extraction from bitumen and heavy oil reservoirs requires advanced techniques in order to decrease the viscosity of the oil. To increase the recovered original oil in place (OOIP) of a reservoir and decrease refining costs, new techniques to upgrade oil in situ are being developed. The current study investigates the use of ultra-dispersed (UD) submicronic catalysts to decrease oil viscosity. The experiment involved the injection of the catalyst and hydrogen gas in a sand pack saturated with Athabasca bitumen. Analysis was carried out by building recovery curves, and by comparing the oil recovery from the catalyzed process with that of catalyst-free processes. The study demonstrated that the oil recovered from the new technique had higher API gravity and lower viscosity, indicating the success of the in situ upgrading process.

  13. A parametric simulation study for solvent co-injection process in bitumen deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, A.; Alvestad, J.; Kjonsvik, D.; Gilje, E.; Kowalewski, E. [Statoil Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of very large Canadian extra heavy oil and bitumen deposits is facing major challenges, such as energy requirements and access to sustainable water resources. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most common commercial in-situ recovery process used for the extraction but it has many associated economic and environmental challenges. Moreover, current knowledge of the fundamental physics and mechanics involved in the process is not satisfactory. This paper presents a parametric simulation study for a solvent co-injection (SCI) process in bitumen deposits. This process has the potential to improve the efficiency of steam processes as well as to reduce energy use and CO2 emissions. The study contributes to further understanding of the development process. Several operational and geological parameters were evaluated to assess their impact on SAGD operations. The results demonstrated that the basis for selecting the optimum solvent should not only be mobility improvement capability but should also include other operational and geological conditions.

  14. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  15. Radiation chemical conversion of oil derived from oil-bitumen rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil-bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43-216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment. (authors)

  16. Unlocking bitumen in thin and/or lower pressure pay using cross SAGD (XSAGD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, J.L. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigated the effect of rate limits, pay thickness, steam injection pressure, and heterogeneity for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cross SAGD (XSAGD) processes. The results of symmetry element model simulations demonstrated that XSAGD offers significant advantages over SAGD in thin and/or low-pressured bitumen sands. By combining both gravity drainage and lateral displacement, XSAGD accelerated recovery, reduced steam requirements, and improved the economic potential of the reservoir when compared to SAGD. XSAGD efficiencies relative to SAGD increased in inverse proportion to pay thickness and injection pressures increases. Optimal accelerated bitumen recovery with lower steam requirement occurred in a homogenous payzone between 10 to 40 m thick with a pressure range of 1500 kPa at 100 m spacing. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Early Maritime Activity on the Dead Sea: Bitumen Harvesting and the Possible Use of Reed Watercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Asaf; Galili, Ehud; Hadas, Gideon; Klein, Micha

    2015-04-01

    Most studies of ancient maritime activity on the Dead Sea focus on the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine periods, for which a rich body of archaeological and historic data exists. However, finds of Dead Sea bitumen at distant prehistoric sites and an anchor dating to the seventh century BC indicate that maritime activity on the lake preceded the Greek and Roman periods, and raise questions regarding this activity's origins and nature. By linking the exploitation of Dead Sea bitumen with the use of watercraft, and through consideration of a broader early maritime record of the ancient Near East, this study pushes back the dating of this activity on the lake and suggests the nature of its watercraft.

  18. Toxicological assessment of fish (Clarias gariepinus) from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandiran, T A; Dahunsi, S O

    2016-02-01

    Toxicological evaluation of Clarias gariepinus from bitumen-polluted River Oluwa, Nigeria, was carried out in furtherance of studies on the environmental impacts of the bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria. Samples were taken from three different (two polluted and one as control) sites. The effect of changes in monthly seasonal flow rate was assessed for the sites of study. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) and histological changes/lesions in various organs were evaluated as markers of pollution in the fish blood using standard methods. The result of the physicochemical properties of water from the sampling points revealed some of the values conforming to approved standards while others showed deviation. Significant differences were found in the blood and histological endpoints between the control and the polluted sites as well as between the two seasons evaluated across the sites. The public health implications of consuming this fish are fully discussed. PMID:26725477

  19. Experimental Investigationand Numerical Simulation ofThermal Recovery ProcessesApplicable in AthabascaBitumen Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Souraki, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Due to reduction of high quality oil resources and consequently increase of oil price around the world, new sources of energy should be found to relief the high demand of energy. Hence, countries like Venezuela, United States and particularly Canada came up with their unconventional reservoirs which contain bitumen, extra heavy oil and heavy oil as remarkable sources of energy. Exploitation of such kind of reservoirs was not beneficial in the past but in recent years due to the increase of oi...

  20. Influence of the bitumen properties on the functional and rheological behaviour of asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Machado, A.V.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about ten kilograms of tires are discarded per inhabitant annually. The negative impact of this residue can be reduced since rubber can be reused as a constituent of asphalt rubber (AR) builder in road pavements. However, the materials which constitute the AR binders and their interaction are not sufficiently characterized, In this work several base bitumens interacted with crumb rubber in order to produce AR binders, which were subsequently separated, by using a modified...

  1. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Albina Mukhametshina; Elena Martynova

    2013-01-01

    Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, w...

  2. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hydrosoluble organic matter in bitumen leachates

    OpenAIRE

    Walczak, Isabelle; Libert, Marie-Françoise; Camaro, Sylvie; Blanchard, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    International audience Bitumen is currently used as an embedding matrix for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in deep sediments. High impermeability and a great resistance to most chemicals are the two main properties sought. Indeed, the generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents could affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of radionuclide solubility. Therefore, the aim of this study is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of so...

  3. Morphological characteristics and barrier properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan blown film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khanh Minh; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2016-10-01

    Fabrication of starch-based edible film using blown film extrusion is challenging and interesting because this process provides continuous operation with shorter production time and lower energy consumption, is less labor intensive, and results in higher productivity than the conventional solution casting technique. Previously, we reported on the preparation and some properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan (TPS/CTS) blown films; however, their morphological characteristics and barrier properties had not yet been elucidated. The present work thus aims to investigate the effect of chitosan (0.37-1.45%) on morphological characteristics, water vapor and oxygen barrier properties as well as hydrophilicity of the TPS and TPS/CTS films. The relationship between morphological characteristics and properties of the films was also discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the distribution and deposition of chitosan on the film surface. The existence of chitosan on the surface imparted the improved water vapor and oxygen barrier properties and the reduced surface hydrophilicity to the film. The results suggest that this biodegradable bio-based TPS/CTS film could potentially be used as an edible film for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:27312611

  4. High melt strength, tear resistant blown film based on poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Neil R.; Plimmer, Peter N.; Tanner, Chris

    2015-05-01

    A major problem associated with the commercial manufacture of thin films from PLA is inferior processing characteristics on blown film lines compared to low density polyethylene. PLA has poor melt strength (leading to bubble instability) and develops a permanent crease in the flattened film as it exits the tower of the film line. In addition, the thin film product has poor tear strength and an unacceptable `noise' level when converted into flexible packaging. Furthermore, fabricated articles based on PLA are known to show an unattractive tendency toward dimensional instability. This behaviour is associated with `cold crystallization', a phenomenon which also causes exudation of any plasticizer added for improving flexibility. Blow moulded articles based on PLA also exhibit dimensional sensitivity above 60°C. All of these issues have been overcome by the technology described in this paper. This has been accomplished without loss of the valuable compostability characteristic of PLA; this was confirmed by evaluation of film in a commercial composting operation. These results have been achieved through novel reactive compounding technology which: (a) Creates a PLA-rich structure containing long chain crosslinks, (b) generates a low glass transition temperature phase covalently bonded to the PLA structure, and (c) provides a material which performs like LDPE in a blown film manufacturing operation. The technology developed is covered by NZ Patent 580231 (3). The patent is held by UniServices Ltd, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

  5. Supernova-blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    CERN Document Server

    Haid, Sebastian; Naab, Thorsten; Seifried, Daniel; Mackey, Jonathan; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with $n(r) \\sim$ $r^{-2}$ (for $n(r) > n_{_{\\rm floor}}$) the amount of momentum injection is solely r...

  6. The role of multivalent metal cations and organic complexing agents in bitumen-mineral interactions in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Weibing

    A systematic investigation was carried out to study the interactions between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals (quartz, kaolinite and illite) in aqueous solutions containing multivalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+, in the absence and presence of organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, EDTA and citric acid). A range of experimental techniques, including coagulation measurement, visualization of bitumen-mineral attachment, metal ion adsorption measurement, zeta potential measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses, were employed in the investigation. Free energy changes of adsorption of metal cations on the minerals and bitumen were evaluated using the James & Healy thermodynamic model. Total interaction energies between the minerals and bitumen were calculated using classical DLVO theory. It was observed that while the tested minerals showed varying degrees of mutual-coagulation with bitumen (or hexadecane), the presence of the multivalent metal cations could prominently increase the mutual coagulation. It was also found that such enhancement of the mutual coagulation was only significant when the metal cations formed first-order hydroxyl complexes (such as CaOH +, MgOH+, etc.) or metal hydroxides (such as Fe(OH) 3, Mg(OH)2, etc.). Therefore, the increase of the bitumen-mineral mutual coagulation by the metal cations was strongly pH dependent. Organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, citric acid and EDTA) used in this study, citric acid in particular, significantly reduced or virtually eliminated the mutual coagulation between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals caused by metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe 2+ and Fe3+. Due to its ability to substantially lower the mutual coagulation between bitumen and mineral particles, citric acid was found the most effective in improving bitumen-mineral liberation in solutions containing the multivalent metal cations at pH 8--10. In small scale flotation experiments

  7. Electromagnetic heating for in-situ production of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, Bernd; Karmeileopardus, Denny; Trautmann, Bernd; Helget, Andreas; Torlak, Muris [Siemens AG (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the electro-magnetic (EM) heating process for in-situ production of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. The method aims at heavy oil and in-situ bitumen production in an environmentally friendly way that minimizes the surface footprint. The objective is to reduce the viscosity of heavy oil or bitumen by a rise in temperature and enable displacement and transport towards the producer. The paper outlines and documents the step-by-step approach which must follow the technology analysis laid out in a government white paper on commissioning and field testing. A simulation example on the reservoir is also provided for in-situ production with EM heating. The paper also describes different electrical heating techniques, feasibility studies and simulation of inductive heating methods, the process of implementation and the benefits of EM heating. The study shows that the new technology is promising and also has other advantages which include cost effectiveness, energy efficiency, and a minimal environmental footprint.

  8. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen concrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediate level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium. (authors)

  9. Management of the basal McMurray watersand during bitumen and heavy oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, K.C. [CH2M Hill Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The risks associated with basal aquifers in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) recovery of heavy oils were discussed. Bitumen distribution within the McMurray Formation varies with facies changes in the deposit. The coarse-grained sand at the base of the formation forms a basal aquifer where the bitumen content is low and where pore pressures are high. The confined aquifer is very permeable which poses a major management issue for both open bit bitumen extraction and in situ heavy oil production. This is because the basal aquifer often requires depressurization, particularly in open pit mining because the high pore pressure can reduce pit wall stability. In addition, seepage to the pit floor can reduce the rate of traffic flow. Oilsand and basal aquifers, which provide the foundation for tailings ponds, can potentially form a groundwater flow path for pond seepage. One way to remedy this situation is to develop a strategy for wastewater injection into the basal aquifer, but before this is done certain issues must be addressed, including the effects of pressure interference, fracture initiation and related seepage. Other issues that must be addressed include the affect of increased discharge of poor quality insitu water into the Athabasca River.

  10. Mathematical model of pyritic smelting process for copper-nickel mineral in oxygen top-blown furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 何方; 胡建杭; 包桂蓉

    2003-01-01

    Mathematical model for mass transfer of chemical reactions on the surface of the smelting bath pit in oxygen top-blown smelting furnace was put forward. Additionally, one of two mathematical models for mass transfer of chemical reactions forming copper matte in smelting bath and the other for parameters of smelting process were developed. The verification tests were simultaneously carried out in a pilot scale furnace and the experimental results show that these mathematical models are convincing. Thus, these numerical models are reliable to simulate pyritic smelting process for copper-nickel mineral in oxygen top-blown furnace.

  11. The bitumen situation : a Heartland group's hopes to buck the trend of upgrading and refining outside Alberta, and the government initiative that's starting to help

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed a campaign aimed at promoting bitumen refining at the site where it is mined. This initiative would increase the amount of bitumen upgraded in Alberta. Rather than investing in new upgrader capacity in Alberta, bitumen producers currently favour processing alliances with upgraders in the United States or Mexico. Bitumen production is valuable, but the end products of upgrading and refining would bring more value to the province. Processing the bitumen within Alberta would provide the basis for a petrochemical industry, supplying feedstock or the building blocks for end products, and create a talent pool of professionals. Alberta currently processes two-thirds of its bitumen, but this is expected to fall to less than 40 percent by 2020. Industry and government cooperation is needed for developing common infrastructure needed for multiple upgraders. Developing facilities in a cluster would lower the entry cost for new upgrader developers, but government would have to take a lead role in such a project. Upgraders are capital-intensive projects, and it currently costs half as much to construct on the Gulf of Mexico coast. The price difference between heavy and light oil has narrowed, leaving little incentive for upgrading bitumen. The Alberta Government's Bitumen Royalty in Kind Program, which gives the government the option of collecting royalties in bitumen (kind) instead of cash, is being used as a lever to attract new upgrading capacity. 1 fig.

  12. Influence of Golmud-Lhasa Section of Qinghai-Tibet Railway on Blown Sand Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jianhua; YAO Zhengyi; QU Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) passes through 281 km of sandy land,11.07 km of which causes serious sand damage to the railway and thus,the control of blown sand is important for the safe operation of the railway.Construction of the railway and sand prevention system greatly changed the blown sand transport of the primary surface.Effective and feasible sand-control measures include stone checkerboard barriers (SCBs),sand fences (SFs),and gravel coverings.This study simulated the embankments,SCBs and SFs of the QTR in a wind tunnel,and analyzed their respective wind profile,sand deposition,and sand-blocking rate (SBR) in conjunction with field data,aiming at studying the influence of Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR and sand prevention system on blown sand transport.The results of wind tunnel experiments showed that wind speed increased by 67.7%-77.3% at the upwind shoulder of the embankment and decreased by 50.0%--83.3% at upwind foot of embankment.Wind speed decreased by 50.0%-100.0% after passing through the first SF,and 72.2%,100.0% after the first row of stones within the first SCB grid.In the experiment of sand deposition,the higher the wind speed,the lower the SBR of SCB and SF.From field investigation,the amount of sand blocked by the four SFs decreased exponentially and its SBR was about 50.0%.By contrast,SCB could only block lower amounts of sand,but had a higher SBR (96.7%) than SF.Although,results show that SFs and SCBs along the Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR provide an obvious sand blocking effect,they lead to the deposition of a large amount of sand,which forms artificial dunes and becomes a new source of sand damage.

  13. An experimental study of USB flap noise reduction through mean flow modification. [Upper Surface Blown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M. C.; Yu, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mean flow modification on the noise production of upper surface blown flaps has been studied experimentally. Mean velocity profile at the nozzle exit was modified from the usual 'top-hat' shape to 'Gamma' and 'L'-shaped profiles. The 'L'-modification caused noise reduction around and above the peak frequency of the 'top-hat' spectrum when compared on an equal thrust per exit area basis. Modification to 'Gamma'-shaped profile resulted in a shift of the spectrum to lower frequencies and a lower overall noise reduction. These modifications alter the development of the large scale disturbances in the upper shear layer and trailing edge wake of the wall jet geometry.

  14. Role of Chinese wind-blown dust in enhancing environmental pollution in Metropolitan Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonnyon; Doh, Seong-Jae; Yu, Yongjae; Lee, Meehye

    2008-05-01

    A suite of rock magnetic experiments and intensive microscopic observations were carried out on Asian dust deposits in Seoul, Korea, collected on 19 and 23 March 2002, 9 April 2002 and 12 April 2003. Desert-sand and loess from the dust source regions in China were also analyzed as a comparison. Asian dust showed a higher magnetic concentration than the source region samples, indicating a significant influx of magnetic particles into Asian dust had occurred during its transportation. Electron microscopy identified carbon-bearing iron-oxides as the added material. These iron-oxides were likely to have been produced by anthropogenic pollution (fossil fuel combustion) while the wind-blown dusts passing across the industrial areas of eastern China and western Korea. Such wind-paths were confirmed by a simulation of the air-mass trajectories. The magnetic technique appears to be useful for determining the anthropogenic pollution of Asian dust. PMID:17904713

  15. Unicystic plexiform ameloblastoma with mural proliferation: a full-blown lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchlia, Sonal; Bahl, Sumit; Vyas, Siddharth; Raju, Godishala Swamy Sugunakar

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is the most common aggressive benign odontogenic tumour of the jaws and has received considerable attention due to its frequency, clinical subtypes and high tendency to infiltrate and recur. There are various types of this tumour and confusion still exists among clinicians as to its correct classification. Multicystic ameloblastoma is the most frequent subtype while unicystic ameloblastoma can be considered a variant of the solid or multicystic subtype. Unicystic ameloblastoma is considered a less aggressive tumour with a variable recurrence rate. However, its frequency is often underestimated. Ameloblastoma is often asymptomatic, presenting as a slowly enlarging facial swelling or an incidental finding on radiograph. It is seen in all age groups but is most commonly diagnosed in the third and fourth decades. We report a case of unusual unicystic ameloblastoma and present its clinical, radiological and full-blown histological changes and treatment modalities, providing new insights into ameloblastomas. PMID:27053538

  16. Response of an artificially blown clarinet to different blowing pressure profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeot, Baptiste; Vergez, Christophe; Gazengel, Bruno; Didier, Ferrand

    2013-01-01

    Using an artificial mouth with an accurate pressure control, the onset of the pressure oscillations inside the mouthpiece of a simplified clarinet is studied experimentally. Two time profiles are used for the blowing pressure: in a first set of experiments the pressure is increased at constant rates, then decreased at the same rate. In a second set of experiments the pressure rises at a constant rate and is then kept constant for an arbitrary period of time. In both cases the experiments are repeated for different increase rates. Numerical simulations using a simplified clarinet model blown with a constantly increasing mouth pressure are compared to the oscillating pressure obtained inside the mouthpiece. Both show that the beginning of the oscillations appears at a higher pressure values than the theoretical static threshold pressure, a manifestation of bifurcation delay. Experiments performed using an interrupted increase in mouth pressure show that the beginning of the oscillation occurs close to the stop ...

  17. Supernova-blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Seifried, D.; Mackey, J.; Gatto, A.

    2016-05-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n0 [cm-3 ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers M from 1 - 100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n(r) ˜ r-2 (for n(r) > nfloor) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density nfloor and compares to nuni = nfloor. However, in turbulent ambient media with log-normal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as p_{_turb}/p_{0} =23.07 (n_{_{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-0.12} + 0.82 (ln (1+b2M2))^{1.49}(n_{_{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-1.6}. The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.

  18. Supernova blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Seifried, D.; Mackey, J.; Gatto, A.

    2016-08-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n0 [cm- 3] ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers M from 1to100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n(r) ˜ r-2 (for n(r) > nfloor) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density nfloor and compares to nuni = nfloor. However, in turbulent ambient media with lognormal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as p_{turb}/{p_{{0}}} =23.07 (n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-0.12} + 0.82 (ln (1+b2{M}2))^{1.49}(n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-1.6}. The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.

  19. Pilot plant studies for a new hot water process for extraction of bitumen from Utah tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    A process development pilot plant for extracting bitumen from tar sands under arid conditions are described. The hot water recovery process under development is required to maximize heat and water recovery, recover more than 90% of the bitumen, minimize the operating cost, and eliminate the use of a tailings pond by increasing the effectiveness of solids separation and dewatering. Technical aspects of process flow conditions, the liquid cyclone separator under development, and testing to analyze the influence of flow rates, size distribution in discharge streams, amount of bitumen recovery from different streams, and air addition are summarized. Test results indicate that bitumen recovery should be at least 90%, water content from thickener underflow and dewater coarse solids averages about 30 weight percent moisture, and the forced vortex cyclone can produce an underflow solids concentration of 69 to 72 weight percent moisture. The proposed flow sheet is believed to be a very low-cost method for bitumen recovery. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  1. Biogeochemical modelling of the Mont Terri in situ bitumen-nitrate-clay interaction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Bitumen-Nitrate-Clay Interaction experiment (BN) currently being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland) provides an in situ examination of redox reactions expected between nitrate containing wastes and mineral and organic electron donors present in clay host rocks and as degradation products of organic wastes. The BN experiment has been designed to examine the fate of nitrate that is present in the form of soluble salts within a bitumen matrix; they are part of intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste (ILW) manufactured in France and Belgium and planned for disposal in deep geological clay formations. The nitrate component of this bituminized waste form, as well as that present in other ILW, has the potential to affect the chemical conditions and the speciation and transport behaviour of redox sensitive radionuclides (e.g. Se, Tc, U, Np, Pu) in the near field and in host rocks with initially reducing conditions. A sequence of tests undertaken in the BN experiment will examine the reactions of nitrate with the Opalinus Clay together with acetate as a reference bitumen degradation product. The BN experiment includes comprehensive chemical and microbial characterisation of samples recovered during the nitrate injection tests that record the phases of microbial denitrification and other biogeochemical processes. As such the BN experiment provides an insight into the potential biogeochemical processes that may occur in the excavation and chemically disturbed zones (EDZ/CDZ) of a deep geological repository. In this paper the results of the BN experiment are modelled using the Generalised Repository Model (GRM) originally developed in the UK to examine biogeochemical processes occurring in cellulose containing low-level waste disposed in a near surface facility. The GRM simulation of the BN experiment provides further interpretation of the BN data. In addition, the study is aimed at building

  2. Application of thermodynamics to the estimation of the biodegradation of bitumen wastes package underground stored

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modelling approach to evaluate microbial activity in a geological system is adopted. It focusses upon the availability of key nutrients (C, H, O, N, P, S) and energy sources required for bacterial growth. The model is applied to determine the possible consequences of such microbiological activity in the presence of bitumen embedded waste in a repository for low - and intermediate - level waste. Taking into account this particular environment, thermodynamic and experimental results are given in terms of gas and organic complexant production. (authors)

  3. Gas chromatograph study of bitumen from oil shale of Amman Formation (upper cretaceous), NW Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extractable organic matter of seven outcrop samples of Amman Formation Oil Shale have been analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC). The bitumen is rich in heterocompounds contents (> 60 wt%). Gas chromatograms show a predominance of iosprenoids, specially phytane over n-alkanes, and low carbon preference index (CPI). This indicates that the organic matter is immature, and its origin is mainly of marine organisms. These rocks could be possible source rocks due to the high content of hydrocarbon. (authors). 22 refs., 4 figs. 3 tabs

  4. Effect of waste plastic as modifier on thermal stability and degradation kinetics of bitumen/waste plastics blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different modified bituminous binders are used in pavement construction for improved durability and for enhanced performance in resisting cracking and permanent deformation of bituminous layers. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern, have been used successfully for modifying bitumen. This paper reports the thermogravimetric studies conducted on waste plastic modified bituminous binders. Modified bituminous binders prepared using different plastic contents (0-7 wt% by weight of bitumen) were investigated. The activation energies were determined from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data using Kissinger and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, which do not require knowledge of the reaction mechanism. Modified bitumen (WPMB5) with 5 wt% plastic was found to have the highest thermal stability compared to other binders investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out to find crystalline melting temperature and fusion enthalpy. Rheological parameters of modified binders prepared with different plastic contents also suggest that the 5 wt% plastic content is expected to yield optimal performance.

  5. Quantitative temperature-depending mapping of mechanical properties of bitumen at the nanoscale using the AFM operated with PeakForce TappingTM mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Stadler, H.; Erina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bitumen, such as elasticity/Young's modulus, stickiness/adhesion, hardness and energy loss, and sample deformation were acquired quantitatively and simultaneously with the topology at the microscale, discriminating clearly two separate phases within the bitumen. Temperat

  6. The most appropriate mixing method of polypropylene fiber with aggregates and bitumen based on binder mix design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zahedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is used in road pavements as the binder of aggregates in a great extent all around the world. Asphalt Modifiers have used in pavement engineering in order to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. One of the most important of them is Polypropylene Fiber that causes increasing stability in the mixture. In this article usage of this fiber in civil engineering and especially in asphalt mixtures is investigated; Mixing methods of fiber with aggregates and bitumen are dry, wet and complex are investigated and the most appropriate method because of homogenous mixing and better result is introduced. Keywords: Polypropylene Fiber, Mixing, Bitumen, Aggregates, Binder.

  7. Changes in composition of sapropelic organic acid A and S bitumens from Lake Lakheper in relation to depth of origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar' , Ye.; Palu, V.; Veski, R.

    1982-01-01

    Test results are presented for acid bitumens (from A and S sapropelic post-glacier lake (Lakheper) in Estonian SSR). Using liquid gas chromatography and chromato-mass spectrometry normally saturated and unsaturated monocarbonic acids were determined (figures provided), as well as iso- and antiiso-monocarbonic acids, oxycarbonic, and cyclopropane acids (formulas provided). Analysis of derived data makes it possible to assume that changes in bitumen acids at early stages of diagenesis of the sapropelic mud is determined not only by diagenesis itself, but by changes in conditions under which sedimentation occurred.

  8. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertron, A.; Ranaivomanana, H.; Jacquemet, N.; Erable, B.; Sablayrolles, C.; Escadeillas, G.; Albrecht, A.

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  9. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  10. Integral migration and source-term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate-level waste-forms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of waste-form, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two waste forms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe in the Federal Republic of Germany and bitumenized intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium were rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the waste-form. The released of all nuclides from the bitumenized waste was very low

  11. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite associated with the Windy Knoll bitumen deposit, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M. R.; Rankin, A. H.; Milledge, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite, associated with an outcropping bitumen deposit at Windy Knoll, Derbyshire, have been analysed in situ using a combination of microthermometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry, and ultraviolet (UV) microscopy. The inclusions in these samples can be considered as a series with two endmembers: aqueous inclusions containing a low-density vapour phase and inclusions containing liquid "oil" with no detectable aqueous phase. The majority of the inclusions are mixed types containing both aqueous and liquid hydrocarbon phases. Although microthermometry distinguishes at least two different aqueous fluids with varying homogenization temperatures and salinities, the oil fraction is cogenetic and trapped together with just one fluid, a low-salinity, low-calcium brine with an average homogenization temperature of 134°C. The majority of the liquid hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions fluoresce bright blue under UV illumination with peaks around 475 nm, characteristic of paraffinic oils. The FTIR spectra of these inclusions are dominated by peaks assigned to aliphatic C - H bonding. However, inclusions have also been found which display a fluorescence typical of the red-shift associated with less mature oils. The FTIR spectra display peaks assigned to CO, C - O, and O - CH 2 bonding. This study presents new data on the in-situ analysis of hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions from this important area of natural petroleum seepage and ore mineralization. The results suggest a direct link between the fluid inclusion populations, the outcropping bitumens, and fluorite deposition.

  12. Breaking through the bitumen upgrading barriers with the UOP Uniflex Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, D. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    High costs and environmental concerns are some of the challenges facing bitumen upgrading. In addition, yields from conventional process such as coking and ebullated bed hydrocracking are much lower than desired. As such, there is a need for processes that can maximize conversion and selectively produce transportation boiling range products, particularly distillates. There are both technical and financial challenges in providing a reliable high-conversion technology. UOP has developed the UOP Uniflex Process, a commercially based high-conversion residue upgrading process that selectively converts residues from conventional crude oils and bitumen to transportation fuels and high quality synthetic crude oil. The unique features of this technology were described along with commercialization background. Recent advances being developed by UOP under the AERI Hydrocarbon Upgrading Demonstration Program were also described, with particular reference to catalyst design, engineering design and residue by-product utilization. This presentation also outlined UOP's latest flow scheme options for use with existing upgrading technologies. tabs., figs.

  13. A New Method of Detecting Leaks in Reservoirs or Canals Using Labelled Bitumen Emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a method of detecting and localizing leaks in natural or artificial stored-water bodies such as lakes, canals, basins, reservoirs or wells. The method consists of injecting into the stored water an emulsion labelled with a radioactive tracer. The labelled emulsion is entrained into the leakage areas where emulsion particles separate from the water and accumulate. The distribution of these particles, which can be considered as proportional to the specific infiltration flow for structures with interstitial permeability, is then determined ''in situ'' simply by measuring the radioactivity. Where the labelled emulsion is an emulsion of bitumen, the plastic properties of this product are useful in promoting the agglomeration of the particles and their adhesion to the materials of the revetment or wall to be studied. The paper describes the preparation of an emulsion of bitumen labelled with iodine-131 and its application in determining permeability gradients and detecting leaks in canal revetments. It is pointed out in conclusion that this original method has a vast range of applications. It can, for example, be successfully used to study the relative permeabilities of strata in which wells, pits or boreholes have been drilled, and to distinguish between areas of varying permeabilities. (author)

  14. Fire test on a storage container filled with sodium nitrate-bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using combustible material e.g. bitumen, in the solidification of radioactive wastes from processing burnt fuel rods of nuclear power plants, the question always arises: What happens if this hardening material catches fire. The authors put this question to the test by filling a 100 l barrel of sheet steel with a test mixture (bitumen with 52% NaNO3) and placing the barrel in a larger sheet steel barrel (200 l) and filling the intermediate space with sand as well as covering the test barrel by approx. 15 cm. 74 l petrol are poured into this sand and ignited. Result: The barrel does not become noticeably warm at any position. If one assumes that such barrels are not piled ontop of one another and there is a good air supply, as well as - as the authors propose - the space between the barrels is filled, one can exclude any considerable damage, even if e.g. hydrogen should ignite. Should there be no ventilation (closed cavity in rock), then the fire will in any case extinguish when the available oxygen is consumed, there will be no damage in this case either. (orig./RB)

  15. A new method of detecting leaks in reservoirs or canals using labelled bitumen emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a method of detecting and localizing leaks in natural or artificial stored-water bodies such as lakes, canals, basins, reservoirs or wells. The method consists of injecting into the stored water an emulsion labelled with a radioactive tracer. The labelled emulsion is entrained into the leakage areas where emulsion particles separate from the water and accumulate. The distribution of these particles, which can be considered as proportional to the specific infiltration flow for structures with interstitial permeability, is then determined 'in situ' simply by measuring the radioactivity. Where the labelled emulsion is an emulsion of bitumen, the plastic properties of this product are useful in promoting the agglomeration of the particles and their adhesion to the materials of the revetment or wall to be studied. The paper describes the preparation of an emulsion of bitumen labelled with iodine-131 and its application in determining permeability gradients and detecting leaks in canal revetments. It is pointed out in conclusion that this original method has a vast range of applications. It can, for example, be successfully used to study the relative permeabilities of strata in which wells, pits or boreholes have been drilled, and to distinguish between areas of varying permeabilities. (author)

  16. Wake Measurement Downstream of a Hybrid Wing Body Model with Blown Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Westra, Bryan W.; Collins, Scott W.; Zeune, Cale H.

    2010-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were obtained in the wake of a full-span Hybrid Wing Body model with internally blown flaps. The test was performed at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at low speeds. Off-body measurements were obtained with a 7-hole probe rake survey system. Three model configurations were investigated. At 0deg angle of attack the surveys were completed with 0deg and 60deg flap deflections. At 10deg angle of attack the wake surveys were completed with a slat and a 60deg flap deflection. The 7-hole probe results further quantified two known swirling regions (downstream of the outboard flap edge and the inboard/outboard flap juncture) for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Flowfield results and the general trends are very similar for the two blowing cases at nozzle pressure ratios of 1.37 and 1.56. High downwash velocities correlated with the enhanced lift for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Jet-induced effects are the largest at the most inboard station for all (three) velocity components due in part to the larger inboard slot height. The experimental data are being used to improve computational tools for high-lift wings with integrated powered-lift technologies.

  17. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale hybrid upper surface blown flap model having four engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carros, R. J.; Boissevain, A. G.; Aoyagi, K.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of large-scale wind tunnel aircraft model that utilized a hybrid-upper surface blown flap to augment lift. The hybrid concept of this investigation used a portion of the turbofan exhaust air for blowing over the trailing edge flap to provide boundary layer control. The model, tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel, had a 27.5 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 8 and 4 turbofan engines mounted on the upper surface of the wing. The lift of the model was augmented by turbofan exhaust impingement on the wind upper-surface and flap system. Results were obtained for three flap deflections, for some variation of engine nozzle configuration and for jet thrust coefficients from 0 to 3.0. Six-component longitudinal and lateral data are presented with four engine operation and with the critical engine out. In addition, a limited number of cross-plots of the data are presented. All of the tests were made with a downwash rake installed instead of a horizontal tail. Some of these downwash data are also presented.

  19. Solution-Blown Core-Shell Self-Healing Nano- and Microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Wook; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

    2016-02-24

    Self-healing microfibers with core-shell geometry were studied. A commercial binary epoxy was encased in solution-blown polymer nano-/microfibers in the 0.2-2.6 μm diameter range. The core-shell microfibers were formed by coaxial nozzles, which encapsulated the epoxy resin and its hardener in separate cores. Solution blowing, the fiber-forming process used in this work, was at least 30 times faster than the electrospinning method used previously and has already been scaled up to the industrial level. These core-shell microfibers show self-healing capability, in which epoxy and hardener are released from the cores of damaged fibers, resulting in polymerization. The epoxy used had a higher strength and shorter solidification time than poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) used previously. Also, the larger fiber diameters in the present study facilitated faster release of the epoxy resin and its hardener from the fiber cores, shortening the solidification time in comparison to the previous studies. Blister tests were conducted, which measured the adhesion energy of microfiber mats to substrates and the cohesion energy between layers of microfiber mats before and after fatigue damage followed by self-healing. PMID:26836581

  20. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  1. Response of an artificially blown clarinet to different blowing pressure profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeot, Baptiste; Almeida, André; Gazengel, Bruno; Vergez, Christophe; Ferrand, Didier

    Using an artificial mouth with an accurate pressure control, the onset of the pressure oscillations inside the mouthpiece of a simplified clarinet is studied experimentally. Two time profiles are used for the blowing pressure: in a first set of experiments the pressure is increased at constant rates, then decreased at the same rate. In a second set of experiments the pressure rises at a constant rate and is then kept constant for an arbitrary period of time. In both cases the experiments are repeated for different increase rates. Numerical simulations using a simplified clarinet model blown with a constantly increasing mouth pressure are compared to the oscillating pressure obtained inside the mouthpiece. Both show that the beginning of the oscillations appears at a higher pressure values than the theoretical static threshold pressure, a manifestation of bifurcation delay. Experiments performed using an interrupted increase in mouth pressure show that the beginning of the oscillation occurs close to the stop in the increase of the pressure. Experimental results also highlight that the speed of the onset transient of the sound is roughly the same, independently of the duration of the increase phase of the blowing pressure.

  2. Response of an artificially blown clarinet to different blowing pressure profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeot, Baptiste; Almeida, André; Gazengel, Bruno; Vergez, Christophe; Ferrand, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Using an artificial mouth with an accurate pressure control, the onset of the pressure oscillations inside the mouthpiece of a simplified clarinet is studied experimentally. Two time profiles are used for the blowing pressure: in a first set of experiments the pressure is increased at constant rates, then decreased at the same rate. In a second set of experiments the pressure rises at a constant rate and is then kept constant for an arbitrary period of time. In both cases the experiments are repeated for different increase rates. Numerical simulations using a simplified clarinet model blown with a constantly increasing mouth pressure are compared to the oscillating pressure obtained inside the mouthpiece. Both show that the beginning of the oscillations appears at a higher pressure values than the theoretical static threshold pressure, a manifestation of bifurcation delay. Experiments performed using an interrupted increase in mouth pressure show that the beginning of the oscillation occurs close to the stop in the increase of the pressure. Experimental results also highlight that the speed of the onset transient of the sound is roughly the same, independently of the duration of the increase phase of the blowing pressure. PMID:24437788

  3. Computational modelling of the complex dynamics of chemically blown polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireka, I. E.; Niedziela, D.; Schäfer, K.; Tröltzsch, J.; Steiner, K.; Helbig, F.; Chinyoka, T.; Kroll, L.

    2015-11-01

    This study presents computational analysis of the complex dynamics observed in chemically blown polyurethane foams during reaction injection molding process. The mathematical formulation introduces an experimentally motivated non-divergence free setup for the continuity equations which reflects the self expanding behaviour observed in the physical system. The foam growth phenomena which is normally initiated by adequate pre-mixing of necessary reactant polymers, leading to an exothermic polymerization reaction, bubble nucleation, and gas formation, is captured numerically. We assume the dependence of material viscosity on the degree of cure/polymerization, gas volume fraction, and temperature as well as non-dependence of mixture density on pressure. The set of unsteady nonlinear coupled partial differential equations describing the dynamics of the system are solved numerically for state variables using finite volume techniques such that the front of the flow is tracked with high resolution interface capturing schemes. Graphical representation of the foam volume fraction, evolution of foam heights, and temperature distributions is presented. Results from our simulations are validated with experimental data. These results show good quantitative agreement with observations from experiments.

  4. Alternating nonsteady gas-discharge modes in an atmospheric-pressure air flow blown through a point-plane gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric and spectral characteristics of a nonsteady discharge in an atmospheric air flow blown through a point-plane interelectrode gap were investigated experimentally. The discharge was produced by applying a constant positive voltage to the point electrode, the amplitude of the applied voltage being much higher than the corona ignition voltage. The nonsteady character of the discharge is due to the spontaneously repeating streamer-spark breakdown, followed by the formation of either a diffuse ultracorona or a filamentary glow discharge. In the latter case, the length of the plasma column increases progressively, being blown off by the gas flow from the discharge gap. The extinction of a filamentary discharge is unrelated to the break of the current channel: the discharge decays abruptly when the filament length reaches its critical value. The distribution of active particles (O, OH, and N*2) carried out from the discharge gap is determined from the data of spectral measurements

  5. Bitumen Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Daniel; Lejdeby, Mikael; Zarate, Inigo Oz. de; Delamarliere, Mathieu

    2002-01-01

    This bachelor degree thesis was assigned to us in the fall semester of 2001. The purpose was to redesign a machine for the company Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) in Karlskrona. ABB HVC in Karlskrona is manufacturing high voltage cables. Amongst these the seacables are the largest and most complex. The seacables are heavy naval cables and lies on the bottom of the sea. For these heavy-duty applications the cables need good armouring. The armouring, which is made of steel, needs a corrosion protection...

  6. Application of Solution-blown 20-50 nm Nanofibers in Filtration of Nanoparticles: The Efficient van der Waals Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Ray, Sumit; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2015-11-01

    Filtration efficiency of commercially available filter media with fiber/pore sizes on the scale of 10 μm can be dramatically increased by adding a layer of ultrafine supersonically-blown 20-50 nm nanofibers. Different commercial filters were modified with (i) electrospun nanofibers alone, (ii) solution-blown 20-50 nm alone, and (iii) the dual coating with electrospun nanofibers deposited first and the solution-blown 20-50 nm nanofibers deposited on top of them. Detailed observations of nanoparticle removal revealed that the above-mentioned modified filters, especially those with the dual nanofiber coating with the 20-50 nm nanofibers deposited on top, are the most effective in removing the below-200 nm Cu nanoparticles/clusters from aqueous suspensions, in particular at the lowest concentrations of 0.2-0.5 ppm. The theory developed in the present work dealing with convective transport of nanoparticles in the fluid flow along with diffusion of nanoparticles and the van der Waals attraction explains and describes how the smallest solution-blown nanofibers introduce a novel physical mechanism of nanoparticle interception (the attractive van der Waals forces) and become significantly more efficient collectors compared to the larger electrospun nanofibers. The theory also elucidates the morphology of the nanoparticle clusters being accumulated at the smallest nanofiber surfaces, including the clusters growing at the windward side, or in some cases also on the leeward side of a nanofiber. This work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC), grant No. 12-144SB.

  7. Oil sands supply outlook : potential supply and costs of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil in Canada, 2003-2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment of the Canadian oil sands industry addressed bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs based on extraction, production and upgrading technologies. Forecasts of production under various global scenarios and energy price outlooks were also presented. It was revealed that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. Alberta's bitumen resources are one of the world's largest hydrocarbon deposits. At year-end 2002, the remaining established reserves of crude bitumen in Alberta were estimated to be 174.4 billion barrels and further growth is expected. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. This report discussed the resource base, recovery technologies, history of the oil sands industry, proposed oil sands development projects, and capital and operating costs. Supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios were included. Environmental issues were also addressed along with energy requirements, water requirements, water supply, diluent requirements, infrastructure constraints, and market constraints. The potential effect of natural gas production on the recovery of crude bitumen in the Athabasca oil sands area was also reviewed. Information on every operating, proposed and planned oil sands project in Alberta is available to organizations who provided funding for this study. 84 refs., 42 tabs., 24 figs

  8. Experimental analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xie; Zhibao Dong; Xiaojing Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The probability distributions of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in a wind-blown sand flux play very important roles in the simulation of the wind-blown sand movement. In this paper, the vertical and the horizontal speeds of sand particles located at 1.0 mm above a sand-bed in a wind-blown sand flux are observed with the aid of Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) in a wind tunnel. Based on the experimental data, the probability distributions of not only the vertical lift-off speed but also the lift-off velocity as well as its horizontal component and the incident velocity as well as its vertical and horizontal components can be obtained by the equal distance histogram method. It is found, according to the results of the χ2-test for these probability distributions, that the probability density functions (pdf's) of the sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities as well as their vertical components are described by the Gamma density function with different peak values and shapes and the downwind incident and lift-off horizontal speeds, respectively, can be described by the lognormal and the Gamma density functions. These pdf's depend on not only the sand particle diameter but also the wind speed.

  9. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the recovery and extraction of crude bitumen from Canada’s oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in oil sands is presented. • The model is developed from fundamental engineering principles. • Cogeneration in the oil sands has the ability to offset GHG emissions. • The effect of key parameters is investigated through a sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: A model – FUNNEL-GHG-OS (FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in the Oil Sands) was developed to estimate project-specific energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in major recovery and extraction processes in the oil sands, namely surface mining and in situ production. This model estimates consumption of diesel (4.4–7.1 MJ/GJ of bitumen), natural gas (52.7–86.4 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.8–2.1 kW h/GJ of bitumen) as fuels in surface mining. The model also estimates the consumption of natural gas (123–462.7 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.2–3.5 kW h/GJ of bitumen) in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), based on fundamental engineering principles. Cogeneration in the oil sands, with excess electricity exported to Alberta’s grid, was also explored. Natural gas consumption forms a major portion of the total energy consumption in surface mining and SAGD and thus is a main contributor to GHG emissions. Emissions in surface mining and SAGD range from 4.4 to 7.4 gCO2eq/MJ of bitumen and 8.0 to 34.0 gCO2eq/MJ of bitumen, respectively, representing a wide range of variability in oil sands projects. Depending upon the cogeneration technology and the efficiency of the process, emissions in oil sands recovery and extraction can be reduced by 16–25% in surface mining and 33–48% in SAGD. Further, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of key parameters on the GHG emissions in surface mining and SAGD. Temperature and the consumption of warm water in surface mining and the steam-to-oil ratio (SOR) in SAGD are major parameters

  10. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced

  11. Hydrogen production from wind energy in Western Canada for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen is produced via steam methane reforming (SMR) for bitumen upgrading which results in significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Wind energy based hydrogen can reduce the GHG footprint of the bitumen upgrading industry. This paper is aimed at developing a detailed data-intensive techno-economic model for assessment of hydrogen production from wind energy via the electrolysis of water. The proposed wind/hydrogen plant is based on an expansion of an existing wind farm with unit wind turbine size of 1.8 MW and with a dual functionality of hydrogen production and electricity generation. An electrolyser size of 240 kW (50 Nm3 H2/h) and 360 kW (90 Nm3 H2/h) proved to be the optimal sizes for constant and variable flow rate electrolysers, respectively. The electrolyser sizes aforementioned yielded a minimum hydrogen production price at base case conditions of $10.15/kg H2 and $7.55/kg H2. The inclusion of a Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) of $0.13/kWh renders the production price of hydrogen equal to SMR i.e. $0.96/kg H2, with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 24%. The minimum hydrogen delivery cost was $4.96/kg H2 at base case conditions. The life cycle CO2 emissions is 6.35 kg CO2/kg H2 including hydrogen delivery to the upgrader via compressed gas trucks. -- Highlights: ► This study involves development of a data intensive techno-economic model for estimation cost of hydrogen production from wind energy. ► Wind energy based electricity is used for electrolysis to produce hydrogen in Western Canada for bitumen upgrading for oil sands. ► Several scenarios were developed to study the electricity generation and hydrogen production from wind energy. ► The cost of production of hydrogen is significantly higher than natural based hydrogen in Western Canada.

  12. Sulfur species in source rock bitumen before and after hydrous pyrolysis determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Trudy B.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Hill, Ronald J.; Grayson, Michael B.; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Bake, Kyle D.; Craddock, Paul R.; Abdallah, Wael; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The sulfur speciation of source rock bitumen (chloroform-extractable organic matter in sedimentary rocks) was examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy for a suite of 11 source rocks from around the world. Sulfur speciation was determined for both the native bitumen in thermally immature rocks and the bitumen produced by thermal maturation of kerogen via hydrous pyrolysis (360 °C for 72 h) and retained within the rock matrix. In this study, the immature bitumens had higher sulfur concentrations than those extracted from samples after hydrous pyrolysis. In addition, dramatic and systematic evolution of the bitumen sulfur moiety distributions following artificial thermal maturation was observed consistently for all samples. Specifically, sulfoxide sulfur (sulfur double bonded to oxygen) is abundant in all immature bitumen samples but decreases substantially following hydrous pyrolysis. The loss in sulfoxide sulfur is associated with a relative increase in the fraction of thiophene sulfur (sulfur bonded to aromatic carbon) to the extent that thiophene is the dominant sulfur form in all post-pyrolysis bitumen samples. This suggests that sulfur moiety distributions might be used for estimating thermal maturity in source rocks based on the character of the extractable organic matter.

  13. The composition of acids in bitumen and in products from saponification of kerogen: Investigation of their role as connecting kerogen and mineral matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razvigorova, M.; Budinova, T.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, 1113 Sofia, Acad. Bonchev Str., bl. 9 (Bulgaria); Ekinci, E. [ISIK University, Kumbaba Mevkii, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Atakul, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-03

    In order to obtain more information and to understand the nature of relation between organic and mineral matter in oil shales, the compositions of soluble bitumen fractions obtained by extraction from Bulgarian oil shales before and after demineralization with 10% HCl, concentrated HF, and a HF/HCl mixture were investigated. The four extracts were quantitatively examined by IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The investigation of isolated acidic material of the bitumen fractions showed that the fatty acids are present in bitumen fractions as free acids, esters and salts. The amount of free acids in bitumen is very small. The dominant part of bitumen acids is associated with mineral components of the oil shales as well as part of them is included in the mineral matrix, and can be separated only after deep demineralization. The kerogen of the oil shales, obtained after separation of the bitumen fractions and mineral components, was subjected to saponification in order to determine the amount of acids, bound as esters to the kerogen matrix. The major components found were n-carboxylic, {alpha},{omega}-di-carboxylic, and aromatic acids. The connection of kerogen with mineral components is accomplished by the participation of carboxylic and complicated ester bonds. Experimental data for the composition of bitumen acids give evidence that algae and terrestrial materials are initial sources in the formation of soluble organic matter of Bulgarian oil shale. (author)

  14. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H2/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H2S on HDS and NH3 on HDN. (author)

  15. Study of radioactivity diffusion for bitumen-coated blocks produced by an industrial coating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solidification by bitumen of chemical coprecipitation sludges from the Marcoule waste treatment station has been studied in the laboratory and has led to the construction of an industrial coating plant. The quality of the coated material obtained has been controlled by the lixiviation test carried out with ordinary water and with sea-water on 45 ml laboratory samples and on industrial coated blocks of 150 litres. Tests on blocks of such a size have necessitated the installation of three special tanks. Two, each of 2000 litres capacity, contain ordinary and sea-water which was continuously recycled at a rate of 2.5 cm/hr and renewed periodically. In the third tank having a capacity of 11000 litres, the coated block was buried in earth and sprinkled with ordinary water with a view to studying the migration of radioelements in soil. The results of these tests confirm those obtained during the laboratory experiments. (authors)

  16. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  17. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chacón

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and ammonia (NH3 in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H2/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H2S on HDS and NH3 on HDN.

  18. Generation of smoke and clogging of ventilation filter under burning of bitumen/salt mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion accident happened at the bituminization demonstration facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan on March 11, 1997. To elucidate smoke generation and clogging mechanism of ventilation filters under burning of bitumen/salt mixture in the PNC facility, small-scale simulation experiments were performed. The mock mixtures were prepared by referring to the composition of the real liquid waste and were burnt by heating. The burning behavior of the mixture was observed and the filter pressure drop, which was caused by loading smoke, was measured. Moreover, mass, energy and smoke release rate as direct source term from the burnt mixture and the empirical equation, which could represent the relationship between the pressure drop and burnt mass, were determined by comparing between the calculation results based on a one-dimensional thermofluid analysis code CELVA-1D, and the experimental results. (author)

  19. Fire test a storage container filled with sodium nitrate-bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test was carried out by filling a 100 l barrel of sheet steel with a test mixture (bitumen with 52% NaNO3) and placing the barrel in a larger sheet steel barrel (200 l) and filling the intermediate space with sand as well as covering the test barrel by approx. 15 cm. 74 l petroleum are poured into this sand and ignited. The barrel does not become noticeably warm at any position. If one assumes that such barrels are not piled ontop of one another and there is a good air supply, and the space between the barrels is filled, one can exclude any considerable damage, even if hydrogen should ignite. Should there be no ventilation (closed cavity in rock), then the fire will in any case extinguish when the available oxygen is consumed

  20. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of the

  1. An optimized setup for determining the bitumen content in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A setup was developed in order to determine the bitumen content in asphalt concrete by neutron reflection. The main parts of this setup are an Am-Be neutron source of 37 GBq and a 3He neutron detector. To avoid geometrical effects of the measurements, the optimum volume of the samples was determined by plotting the reflected neutron response versus the sample volume. For the calibration of the system, the American Standard Method (ASTM) was used when preparing aggregate and asphalt concrete samples. The method was then compared to the conventional chemical method by analyzing unknown samples taken from an asphalt concrete producing plant and finally the method was assessed in terms of reproducibility, sensitivity and precision. (author)

  2. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  3. Aquathermolysis of crude oils and natural bitumen: chemistry, catalysts and prospects for industrial implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanyan, B. P.; Petrukhina, N. N.; Kayukova, G. P.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Foss, L. E.; Romanov, G. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of studies of alterations in the elemental and SARA compositions and physicochemical and rheological properties of highly viscous heavy crude oils upon catalytic and non-catalytic aquathermolysis are generalized. The chemistry of transformations of model hydrocarbons and heteroatomic compounds in aqueous media at high temperature, including subcritical and supercritical conditions, is considered. Comparative analysis of methods for activation of oil conversion via aquathermolysis using hydrogen donors, oil-soluble and water-soluble nanodispersed catalysts, ionic hydrogenation processes and various ways for reservoir heating is presented. Problems and prospects of oil-field implementation of catalytic aquathermolysis for upgrading heavy oils and natural bitumen are discussed. The bibliography includes 234 references.

  4. Canadian heavy crude oil and bitumen: Some new and old ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian conventional heavy oil and bitumen production has been steadily increasing over the last five years. This rise is forecast to continue under modest future crude oil pricing assumptions. During 1990 and 1991, the heavy oil market suffered from wide pricing differentials relative to light crude due to market reductions in Montreal and a feedstock shift at Uno-Ven's Chicago refinery, as well as an increase in the percentage of heavy in the world crude oil supply because of the Iraqi war. These have been offset by price-related bitumen production cuts and minor refinery capacity growth at other locations. The industry is poised for positive change with modest but stable prices and reduced light-heavy differentials caused, in part, by anticipated market expansion due to the June start-up of the Conco coker (50,000 bbl/d) in Montana and the anticipated late fall start up of the Bi-Provincial Upgrader in Saskatchewan (50,000 bbl/d blend). For the future, refinery upgrading and new grass roots refinery additions are suggested for western Canada. Associated transportation savings and condensate blending stock costs are two areas of advantage. Taken together with environmental problems in other densely populated market areas, it makes sense to build new heavy processing capacity near Edmonton but only after all current capacity is debottlenecked and inexpensive additions to current facilities are completed. New capacity will only be built when the heavy/light price differential on feed stock provides economic justification. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2013-06-23

    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical response based on macroindentation experiments with a cylindrical indenter. A finite element simulation was performed in the second stage to compute the mechanical response corresponding to a viscoelasticity model described by three mechanical parameters. The comparison between the experimental and numerical responses showed a perfect matching. In addition, the identification procedure helped to discriminate between different bitumens characterized by different asphaltene and maltene contents. Finally, the developed procedure could be used as an efficient tool to characterize the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic materials, thanks to the quantified relationship between the viscoleastic parameters and the force-penetration response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3440-3450, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Differences in bitumen and kerogen-bound fatty acid fractions during diagenesis and early catagenesis in a maturity series of New Zealand coals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glombitza, Clemens; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Horsfield, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-bearing functional groups, in particular the carboxylic groups of acids and esters, are mainly responsible for the chemical reactivity of sedimentary organic matter. We have studied kerogen and bitumen fractions from a coalification series from the New Zealand Coal Band covering the rank...... range from 0.28% to 0.80% vitrinite reflectance. We investigated the composition of fatty acids separated from the bitumen, and compared this to the distribution of kerogen-bound fatty acids (esters) obtained after selective chemical degradation of the macromolecular organic matter. We found remarkable...... differences in the fatty acid composition between bitumen and kerogen-bound acids, both in the short (< C20) and long chain (≥ C20) fatty acid range. The compositions of these two acid fractions changed independently as a function of maturation. This points to the long and short chain fatty acids in bitumen...

  7. Measurements of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss at MHz and GHz frequencies for ionic exchange resin embedded in concrete and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The results indicate that absorption of radio waves would not prohibit measurements being made on full size waste forms, except in the case of concrete at high frequencies. The results also indicate that dielectric measurements on wastes may provide information related to the water content of concrete and bitumen, and possibly also to the curing time of concrete. (Auth.)

  8. Wind-blown Sand Electrification Inspired Triboelectric Energy Harvesting Based on Homogeneous Inorganic Materials Contact: A Theoretical Study and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenwen; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification between heterogeneous materials has been widely studied. Inspired from wind-blown sand electrification, we design a novel kind of TENG based on size dependent electrification using homogeneous inorganic materials. Based on the asymmetric contact theory between homogeneous material surfaces, a calculation of surface charge density has been carried out. Furthermore, the theoretical output of homogeneous material based TENG has been simulated. Therefore, this work may pave the way of fabricating TENG without the limitation of static sequence.

  9. Wind-blown Sand Electrification Inspired Triboelectric Energy Harvesting Based on Homogeneous Inorganic Materials Contact: A Theoretical Study and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenwen; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based on contact electrification between heterogeneous materials has been widely studied. Inspired from wind-blown sand electrification, we design a novel kind of TENG based on size dependent electrification using homogeneous inorganic materials. Based on the asymmetric contact theory between homogeneous material surfaces, a calculation of surface charge density has been carried out. Furthermore, the theoretical output of homogeneous material based TENG has been simulated. Therefore, this work may pave the way of fabricating TENG without the limitation of static sequence. PMID:26817411

  10. Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

    1974-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

  11. An NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Investigation of the Chemical Association and Molecular Dynamics in Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand Ore and Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, D. A.; Coover, P. T.

    1987-09-01

    Preliminary studies on tar sand bitumen given in this report have shown that the reassociation of tar sand bitumen to its original molecular configuration after thermal stressing is a first-order process requiring nearly a week to establish equilibrium. Studies were also conducted on the dissolution of tar sand bitumen in solvents of varying polarity. At a high-weight fraction of solute to solvent the apparent molecular weight of the bitumen molecules was greater than that of the original bitumen when dissolved in chloroform-d{sub 1} and benzene-d{sub 6}. This increase in the apparent molecular weight may be due to micellar formation or a weak solute-solvent molecular complex. Upon further dilution with any of the solvents studied, the apparent molecular weight of the tar sand bitumen decreased because of reduced van der Waals forces of interaction and/or hydrogen bonding. To define the exact nature of the interactions, it will be necessary to have viscosity measurements of the solutions.

  12. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C[sub 30] steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic age petroleum and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, M.A.; Lipton, P.A. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)); Moldowan, J.M. (Cheveron Petroleum Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States) Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Summons, R.E. (Australian Geological Survey Organization, Canberra City (Australia)); Peters, K.E. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States) Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Jeganathan, A.; Watt, D.S. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic ([approx] 1800 Ma) to Miocene ([approx] 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C[sub 30] steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24-n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24-n-propylcholestanes ([ge] 1), while younger and older samples have a low ratio ([le]0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain Marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  13. Bitumen coating as a tool for improving the porosity and chemical stability of simulated cement-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coating process of simulated cement-based waste form with bitumen was evaluated by performing physical and chemical experimental tests. X-ray diffraction (X-RD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and electron microscope investigations were applied on coated and non-coated simulated waste forms. Experimental results indicated that coating process improved the applicable properties of cement-based waste form such as porosity and leachability. Diffusion coefficients and leach indecies of coated specimens were calculated and show acceptable records. It could be stated that coating cemented waste form by bitumen emulsion, isolate the radioactive contaminants, thus reduces their back release to surrounding and in consequently save the environment proper and safe

  14. Molecular dynamics in bitumen compounds. A combined study by NMR and neutron scattering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comparative studies by the combined NMR and neutron scattering techniques opened new possibilities for the investigations of the molecular structures and molecular dynamics in liquids as well as in solids. One of the first works of this type, reported in the literature was carried out in our Institute on supercooled liquid phenol. Later, the idea was extended to molecular crystals by a joint research project, between IFIN-HH, Bucharest and Max-Planck Institute-MD Heidelberg, using advanced solid-state NMR and stronger neutron fluxes. Here, we report preliminary results of the combined NMR and neutron scattering investigations on bitumen compounds that are micellar structures with important industrial applications. The goal of the study is to bring information about the molecular dynamics in various phases of these compounds and on this basis to test and/or improve their microscopic models.The neutron scattering measurements were carried out at IBR-2 high flux reactor at JNIR-Dubna. The neutron energy in the incident beam was 4.43 meV and scattering angles ranging from 6 angle to 134 angle. The scattered neutron spectra at room temperature are shown, for several angles. The quasielastic peak gives direct information about the molecular dynamics via the linewidth dependence on the transfer momentum k2. On this basis we calculated an overall diffusion constant Dn = 1.26·10-7 cm2/s. Dn is a superposition of contributions from the various rotational diffusions as well as the Translational diffusion. The neutron scattering data can hardly distinguish between them. This ambiguity can be partially removed by the information brought in by NMR. The temperature dependence of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of ESSO-bitumen, measured at ω0/2φ = 25 MHz indicates several particular features: a) The relaxation process cannot be explained by a single relaxation mechanism. The superposition of two V-type mechanisms produces a reasonable agreement with experimental

  15. Microbiological analysis of the in situ bitumen-nitrate-Opalinus clay interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay formations like the Opalinus Clay are foreseen to serve as the host rock for geological disposal of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in several countries, because of their favourable properties to delay the migration of radionuclides over time. However, bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste may physico-chemically perturb the clay barrier properties because in time it will leach substantial amounts of nitrate and organic bitumen degradation products (BDP). To study the physico-chemical impact of intermediate-level radioactive waste containing bitumen and nitrate, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay (Saint Ursanne, Switzerland) named the Bitumen-Nitrate- Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. The in situ equipment of the BN-experiment consists of three separate packed-off intervals, supplied with a filter screen. Each interval is equipped with its own stainless steel water circulation unit. Such water circulation unit contains water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. One of the circulation units is equipped with an on-line UV spectrophotometer and pH electrode intervals, allowing a continuous monitoring of nitrate, nitrite concentrations, organic carbon level and pH. In a first series of tests, the microbial and biogeochemical effect of a nitrate and/or acetate perturbation is studied. Acetate is used as it a good representation of BDP. Hereto, nitrate was injected in interval 1 while a mixture of nitrate and acetate is injected in interval 2. As an active microbial community can have a significant impact on the physical and (geo)chemical conditions of the clay surrounding the disposal gallery, microbial analyses were performed on samples taken from the interval solutions before, during and after this first series of tests. Our microbial investigations which included Scanning Electron

  16. Measurement of bitumen viscosity in the room-temperature drop experiment: student education, public outreach and modern science in one

    OpenAIRE

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; A E Phillips; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    Slow flow of the viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration, the world-longest running experiment earning the Ig Nobel prize, one drop of pitch takes about 10 years to fall, leading to problems of actually observing the drops. Here, we describe our recent demonstration of slowly-flowing bitumen where appreciable flow is observed on the time scale of...

  17. Influence of the prepolymer molecular weight and free isocyanate content on the rheology of polyurethane modified bitumens

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Páez, Virginia; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate-based modification is lately gaining acceptance as a successful way to give added value to bitumen, a crude oil refining by-product. In order to study the influence of prepolymer type on the rheological properties of the resulting binders, six prepolymers synthesized from polypropylene-glycols (PPG) with varying molecular weight (between 440 and 2425) and different molar excess of a polymeric MDI (4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) were used. Two modification procedures, either inv...

  18. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in soil varied from (45.2 ± 5.3) to (484.2 ± 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 ± 2.1) and (22.8 ± 2.7) to (62.4 ± 6.8) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 ± 133.5), (13.3 ± 8.0) and (40.0 ± 10.2) Bq.kg-1, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 ± 36.4), (16.1 ± 13.3) and (32.5 ± 13.1) Bq.kg-1, respectively, for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 ± 8.9) nGy.h-1 and (50.7 ± 10.9) μSv.y-1, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 ± 15.6) nGy.h-1 and (36.1 ± 19.1) μSv.y-1, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  19. Bitumen modifiers for reduced temperature asphalts: a comparative analysis between three polymeric and non-polymeric additives

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Carrera Páez, Virginia; Izquierdo Rodríguez, María Angeles; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study presents three bitumen modifiers which may find successful application in the fabrication of binders for warm mix asphalt in the paving industry. In that sense, two non-polymeric additives, thiourea and thiourea dioxide, along with a reactive isocyanate-terminated prepolymer have been evaluated. Viscous flow and linear viscoelasticity tests, at 60 ºC, reveal bituminous modified binders which evolve towards highly viscous materials when subjected to ambient curing. However, at 135 º...

  20. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional Project. The Canadian Association of Petroleum

  1. Proceedings of the 4. NCUT conference on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian oil sands are held as a prime resource opportunity as well as a key to future global energy needs. Expansion projects in Northern Alberta are expected to increase production from the current 1 million barrels per day to 3 million by 2020. However, significant research needs to be conducted to increase the economics of oil sands production. This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production and presented details of new innovations in upgrading processes. Many of the presentations focused on issues related to the compatibility and stability of upgraded bitumen and heavy crudes to fuel and pipeline specifications. Research developments in asphaltene behaviour research were presented. Various hydrocracking techniques were evaluated. Issues concerning water use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were also discussed. A technical program was presented in which a keynote address examined issues concerning oil sands and the global marketplace. The main conference was divided into 5 sessions: (1) new technologies for bitumen upgrading; (2) energy independence and increased opportunities for value addition; (3) secondary upgrading developments and increasingly tight fuel specifications; (4) corrosion; and (5) fouling. Each session was followed by a question and answer period. The conference featured 31 presentations, of which 29 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  2. Proceedings of the 4. NCUT conference on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Canadian oil sands are held as a prime resource opportunity as well as a key to future global energy needs. Expansion projects in Northern Alberta are expected to increase production from the current 1 million barrels per day to 3 million by 2020. However, significant research needs to be conducted to increase the economics of oil sands production. This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production and presented details of new innovations in upgrading processes. Many of the presentations focused on issues related to the compatibility and stability of upgraded bitumen and heavy crudes to fuel and pipeline specifications. Research developments in asphaltene behaviour research were presented. Various hydrocracking techniques were evaluated. Issues concerning water use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were also discussed. A technical program was presented in which a keynote address examined issues concerning oil sands and the global marketplace. The main conference was divided into 5 sessions: (1) new technologies for bitumen upgrading; (2) energy independence and increased opportunities for value addition; (3) secondary upgrading developments and increasingly tight fuel specifications; (4) corrosion; and (5) fouling. Each session was followed by a question and answer period. The conference featured 31 presentations, of which 29 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Effect of radio-oxidative ageing and pH on the release of soluble organic matter from bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen is employed as an embedding matrix for low and medium level radioactive wastes. An high impermeability and a great resistance against most of chemicals are two of main bitumen properties. These characteristics of bitumen confinement properties may be modified under environmental parameters during intermediate storage or deep repository such as radiations or the presence of water. The radio-oxidation induces an increase of the quantity of leached organic matter. The evolution of the soluble organic species release seems to be linear with the irradiation dose, as soon as the dose is higher than 20 kGy, and seems to be no dependant of the dose rate. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. An increase of the quantity of leached organic matter is also observed in presence of alkaline solutions. Identified molecules, by GC/MS analysis, are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. (authors)

  4. The Evolution of Supernovae in Circumstellar Wind-Blown Bubbles I. Introduction and One-Dimensional Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, V V

    2004-01-01

    Mass loss from massive stars ($\\ga 8 \\msun$) can result in the formation of circumstellar wind blown cavities surrounding the star, bordered by a thin, dense, cold shell. When the star explodes as a core-collapse supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave will interact with this modified medium around the star, rather than the interstellar medium. In this work we first explore the nature of the circumstellar medium around massive stars in various evolutionary stages. This is followed by a study of the evolution of SNe within these wind-blown bubbles. The evolution depends primarily on a single parameter $\\Lambda$, the ratio of the mass of the dense shell to that of the ejected material. We investigate the evolution for different values of this parameter. We also plot approximate X-ray surface brightness plots from the simulations. Our results show that in many cases the SN remnant spends a significant amount of time within the bubble. The low density within the bubble can delay the onset of the Sedov stage, and...

  5. The formation of ammonia in air-blown gasification: does char-derived NO act as a precursor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. Amure; S. Hanson; M. Cloke; J.W. Patrick [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). SChEME

    2003-10-01

    Air-blown gasification of coal has received considerable attention worldwide and especially in the UK in conjunction with the Air-Blown Gasification Cycle, an integrated combined cycle which has been developed in recent decades. The cycle has the potential to produce electricity at higher efficiencies and lower emissions than conventional pf plants. However, the formation of ammonia in the gasifier has been identified as a potential problem, as it would contribute to NOx emissions. The formation of ammonia has been studied in a laboratory-scale rig designed and constructed specifically for that purpose. The reactor was a fluidised bed of the spouted bed variety. NH{sub 3}, NO and HCN levels could be monitored at different bed heights to trace their formation and conversion. Four coals were gasified at 1000{sup o}C and 0.2 MPa. It was found that the bulk of the NH{sub 3} was formed in the spout and the NH{sub 3} concentration increased progressively with reactor height. Formation of NO was relatively minor and, although both NO and HCN may act as precursors for NH{sub 3} formation in the devolatilisation/partial combustion zone, no evidence was found to suggest they make a significant contribution to any subsequent increase in NH{sub 3} emissions. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Thermomechanical properties of bitumen modified with crumb tire rubber and polymeric additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V.; Martinez-Boza, F.J.; Navarro, F.J.; Gallegos, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Huelva, Campus del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Perez-Lepe, A.; Paez, A. [Centro de Tecnologia, Repsol-YPF, Carretera de Extremadura, N-V, km 18, 28931 Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, the influence of some additives on the rheological and technological properties of crumb rubber modified binders has been studied. The research has been mainly focused on the degree of bitumen modification, measured as the improvement of the mechanical properties, produced by the additives used, and the storage stability of these binders at high temperature. The experimental results obtained reveal that all the polymeric additives used yield an improvement in both rheological and technological properties of the binder. The storage instability of these binders has been associated to sedimentation processes of insoluble CR particles that strongly influence the mechanical properties of the binder. The additives and processing conditions selected in this study do not completely prevent problems associated with the poor stability of CRMBs during storage at high temperature. Nevertheless, the use of polyoctenamer, FT-wax or SBS-containing additives improves CRMB stability. In this sense, similar loss tangent values were found before and after hot storage of these binders. (author)

  7. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R.; Canale, A.; Bouza, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transporte. Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sanchez, Y. [Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas. Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H{sub 2}/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H{sub 2}S on HDS and NH{sub 3} on HDN. (author)

  8. Polymer and bitumen-modified OPC for the immobilization of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer: cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for Cs137, are obtained at p:c > 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer-modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. 20 refs, 20 tabs, 10 figs

  9. Super critical water reactor for use in steam generation for recovery of bitumen resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of recovering the bitumen (oil sand) resources in Alberta requires steam at high pressures. To help reduce the carbon footprint of exploiting these fuel resources, an innovative new design of a CANDU super critical water reactor (CANDU-SCWR) is being considered to provide the high pressure steam required for the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. The high temperature and pressure associated with the CANDU-SCWR allow for the high pressure, temperature steam to be produced without supplementary energy. The Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada (PTAC) has specified the SAGD process requires steam at 11 MPa and near 100% steam quality, and net electrical power of 106 MWe. This paper examines steam cycle and design options to meet the steam and power requirements defined by PTAC. Steam cycle options are examined focusing on the optimization of steam and power conversion. Additionally passive safety and cooling for both the heat transport and moderation systems are considered and their impact on performance are examined. As the CANDU-SCWR is at a preliminary stage of design, basic design parameters have been defined based on preliminary assessments. This paper is focused on a reactor with the following basic design assumptions: Vertical fuel channel; Re-entrant fuel channels; Pu-Th fuel; and Batch refuelling. (author)

  10. The Study Of Briquettes Produced With Bitumen, Caso4 And Starch As Binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ,Ikelle Issie Ikelle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work was based on production and study of the properties of smokeless briquettes of various compositions with coal and rice husk. Different briquettes were produced with starch, bitumen and CaSO4 as the binders while Ca(OH2 was the desulphurizing agent. The proximate analysis of the raw coal sample showed ash content 19.12%, moisture content 6.25%, volatile matter 41.12%, fixed carbon 33.51% and calorific value 117 KJ/g, the rice husk had the following values ash content 7.53%, moisture content 10.48%, volatile matter 68.74%, fixed carbon 13.25% and calorific value 65.24 KJ/g. The briquettes produced are in the following ratio of mixtures of coal and rice husk 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 respectively. The prepared briquettes were sun dried for seven days, subjected to various tests to assess their fuel quality. The briquettes produced with starch as the binder had better results for faster ignition time, lower amounts of sulphur emissions during burning, highest calorific values and longer burning time for all the different compositions.

  11. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  12. Hot solvent injection for heavy oil-bitumen recovery : an experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Edmunds, N.R. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Steam injection and generation costs can have a significant influence on the overall economics of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes. The economic feasibility of miscible recovery methods is based on the use of effective solvent retrieval procedures. This study investigated the performance of solvents at higher temperatures. Glass bead packs and Berea sandstone cores were used to represent different types of pore structures in a series of laboratory experiments. The samples were saturated with heavy oil and exposed to paraffinic solvent vapors at temperatures above boiling point at a pressure of 1500 kPa. The solvents were then collected from each sample and analyzed in order to determine composition, viscosity, and asphaltene content. The amounts of oil recovered were also analyzed and the quantity of the asphaltene precipitated with each of the tested solvents was determined. Results of the study were then used to determine optimal conditions for each solvent type and to assess which solvents had the highest recovery rates. Butane diluted the oil more than propane, which resulted in a lower asphaltene content and decreased viscosity in the oil samples. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  13. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition (δ 13C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka (14C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions

  14. Rubber bearing and bitumen infill support system for seismic protection of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prestressed concrete pressure vessel (PCPV) for the AGR is of cylindrical type. The whole of the reactor primary circuit is contained within the PCPV vault and includes the reactor core and support structures, boilers and gas circulators. The PCPV is essentially free standing on its foundation raft. In order to transmit gravitational and seismic loads between the PCPV and the foundation raft, a support system is used which consists of concentric rings of neoprene pads and a thin annulus of bitumen infill. In order to assess the importance of both stiffness and damping of the PCPV support system on the overall AGR response, detailed parametric studies were carried out using time-history dynamic analysis in conjunction with the modal superposition technique. The effects of both stiffness and damping are compared in terms of the maximum dynamic response (maximum accelerations and maximum relative displacements) and also floor response spectra at various locations on the nuclear island. It is clearly apparent from these investigations that for an appropriate range of structures on the nuclear island (such as the PCPV and its internals), greater reduction in seismic loading can be achieved by proper selection of stiffnesses and damping of the PCPV support system without resorting to strengthening techniques. (orig./HP)

  15. Chemistry and mineralogy of natural bitumens and heavy oils and their reservoir rocks from the United States, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosterman, John W.; Meyer, R.F.; Palmer, C.A.; Doughten, M.W.; Anders, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one samples from natural bitumen and heavy oil deposits in seven States of the United States and six samples from outside the United States form the basis of this initial study. This Circular gives the mineral content of the reservoir rock, the trace-element distribution in the reservoir rock and hydrocarbons, and the composition of the heavy oil and natural bitumen. The reservoir rock and sediment residues from California contain more trace-element maximum amounts than any of the other rock samples. These relatively high concentrations of trace elements may be due, in part, to the low quartz content of the rock and to the presence of heulandite, cristobalite, siderite, and pyrite. The reservoir rock and sediment residues from Oklahoma contain more minimum amounts of trace elements than any of the other rock samples. This pattern probably results from the large amount of quartz in four of the samples and a large amount of calcite in the other sample. The maximum and minimum amounts of trace elements in the bitumen and heavy oil do not correlate with those in the reservoir rocks. The bitumen from Utah contains the greatest number of trace-element maxima, whereas there is no trend in the trace-element minima in the bitumen and heavy oil.

  16. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-09-01

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional

  17. Hydroprocessing full-range of heavy oils and bitumen using ultradispersed catalysts at low severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Enzo

    The progressive exhaustion of light crude oils is forcing the petroleum industry to explore new alternatives for the exploitation of unconventional oils. New approaches are searching for technologies able to produce, transport and refine these feedstocks at lower costs, in which symbiotic processes between the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the conventional upgrading technologies are under investigation. The process explored in this thesis is an interesting alternative for in-situ upgrading of these crude oils in the presence of ultradispersed (UD) catalysts, which are included as a disperse phase able to circulate along with the processed feed. The objectives of this work are: (a) study the performance of UD catalysts in the presence of a full range (non fractioned) heavy oil and bitumen and (b) evaluate the recyclability of the UD catalysts. Four different heavy crude oils were evaluated in the presence with UD catalysts at a total pressure of 2.8 MPa, residence time of 8 hours and reaction temperatures from 360 up to 400ºC. Thermal and catalytic hydro-processing were compared in terms of conversion and product stability. A comparison between the different crude oils was additionally derived in terms of SARA, initial micro-carbon content and virgin oil stability among other properties. Advantages of catalytic hydro-processing over thermal hydro-processing were evidenced, with UD catalysts playing an essential hydrogenating role while retarding coke formation; microcarbon and asphaltenes reduction in the presence of UD catalysts was observed. To evaluate the feasibility of recycling the UD catalysts, a micro-slurry recycled unit was developed as part of this research. These main results showed: (a) a successful design of this unit, (b) that temperature, LHSV and fractional recycling ratio have more impact on VGO conversion, while pressure has almost no effect, and (c) an UD catalysts agglomeration process was detected, however this process is slow and reversible.

  18. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro's estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  19. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  20. Study on the fundamental technology for CBRNE defense systems. Study on dispersion simulation of particulates blown off in explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical simulation and experiment are conduct in the present study. In the experiment, the acceleration process of the small particles is measured using the Γ-type Free-Piston Shock Tube with the high-pressure air, in order to simulate the small particles, such as CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives) materials, blown off in an explosion. In the previous report the experiment employed mm order size particle, and the experiment employs μm order size particle in the present report. The thermo-fluid dynamics numerical simulations under the experimental conditions are conducted, and the simulation model of μm order size particle motion in the blast is validated by comparison with the experimental results. (author)

  1. Efficiency enhancement in IGCC power plants with air-blown gasification and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-blown IGCC systems with hot fuel gas clean-up are investigated. In detail, the gas clean-up station consists of two reactors: in the first, the raw syngas exiting the gasifier and passed through high-temperature syngas coolers is desulfurized by means of a zinc oxide-based sorbent, whereas in the second the sulfided sorbent is duly regenerated. The hot fuel gas clean-up station releases H2S-free syngas, which is ready to fuel the combustion turbine after hot gas filtration, and a SO2-laden stream, which is successively treated in a wet scrubber. A thermodynamic analysis of two air-blown IGCC systems, the first with cold fuel gas clean-up and the second with hot fuel gas clean-up, both with a state-of-the-art combustion turbine as topping cycle, shows that it is possible to obtain a really attractive net efficiency (more than 51%) for the second system, with significant improvements in comparison with the first system. Nevertheless, higher efficiency is accomplished with a small reduction in the power output and no sensible efficiency improvements seem to be appreciated when the desulfurization temperature increases. Other IGCC systems, with an advanced 1500 °C-class combustion turbine as the result of technology improvements, are investigated as well, with efficiency as high as 53%. - Highlights: ► Hot fuel gas clean-up is a highly favorable technology for IGCC concepts. ► Significant IGCC efficiency improvements are possible with hot fuel gas clean-up. ► Size reductions of several IGCC components are possible. ► Higher desulfurization temperatures do not sensibly affect IGCC efficiency. ► IGCC efficiency as high as 53% is possible with a 1500°C-class combustion turbine

  2. Should Alberta upgrade oil sands bitumen? An integrated life cycle framework to evaluate energy systems investment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs in energy systems investment decision-making requires the development of a framework that accounts for GHG and economic tradeoffs. This paper develops such a framework by integrating partial cost–benefit analysis with life cycle assessment to explore the question of whether bitumen should be upgraded in the Canadian province of Alberta to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO), or blended with light hydrocarbons to produce lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit). The net present value (NPV) of these options is calculated from the stakeholder perspectives of the oil sands industry, the Alberta public, and a climate-concerned Alberta resident. This calculation includes monetized GHG emissions costs stemming from a hypothetical economy-wide GHG price, and a sensitivity analysis explores the effects of variations in technical and economic conditions on stakeholders’ preferences. We find that under most plausible sets of conditions, industry would prefer the dilution option, while the climate-concerned Alberta resident would prefer the upgrading option. In contrast, the preferences of the general Alberta public depend on the values of key variables (e.g., the SCO-dilbit price differential). Key drivers of differences among stakeholders’ preferences include different perceptions of risks and responsibilities for life cycle GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We develop a novel integrated partial cost-benefit analysis/LCA framework. • We consider stakeholder perspectives, and technical and GHG price variations. • Upgrading is typically less GHG-intensive than dilution per barrel of bitumen. • Dilution is typically less GHG-intensive than upgrading per mega joule of gasoline. • Even stringent GHG prices may not align preferences on energy systems investment decisions

  3. Comparison of the chemical structure of coal hydrogenation products, Athabasca tar sand bitumen and Green River shale oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Yoshida, T.; Nakata, Y.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hino, M.; Ikawa, Y.; Makabe, M.; Bodily, D.M.

    1983-03-01

    Coal hydrogenation products, Athabasca tar sand bitumen, and Green River shale oil produced by retorting were analyzed by the Brown-Ladner method and the Takeya et al. method on the basis of elemental analysis and /sup 1/H-NMR data, by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy and by FT-IR spectroscopy. Structural characteristics were compared. The results show that the chemical structure of oils from Green River shale oil and Athabasca tar sand bitumen, and the oils produced in the initial stage of hydrogenation of Taiheiyo coal and Clear Creek, Utah, coal is characterized as monomers consisting of units of one aromatic ring substituted highly with C/sub 5//sub -//sub 6/ aliphatic chains and heteroatom-containing functional groups. The chemical structure of asphaltenes from Green River shale oil and Athabasca tar sand bitumen is characterized by oligomers consisting of units of 1-2 aromatic rings substituted highly with C/sub 3//sub -//sub 5/ aliphatic chains and heteroatom-containing functional groups. The chemical structure of asphaltenes from coal hydrogenation is characterized by dimers and/or trimers of unit structures of 2 to 5 condensed aromatic rings, substituted moderately with C/sub 2//sub -//sub 5/ aliphatic chains and heteroatom-containing functional groups. The close agreement between f/SUB/a(/sup 1/H-NMR) and f/SUB/a(/sup 13/C-NMR) for Green River shale oil derivatives indicates that the assumption of 2 for the atomic H/C ratio of aliphatic structures is reasonable. For coal hydrogenation products, a value of 1.6-1.7 for the H/C ratio of aliphatic structures would be more reasonable. (25 refs).

  4. Improved set-up for determination of bitumen content in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set-up was developed for the determination of bitumen in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method. The main parts of this set-up include an Am-Be neutron source (1 Ci) and a 3He neutron detector. To avoid geometrical effects on the measurements, the optimum sample volume was determined from the neutron response vs volume sample plot. The AST method (ASTM) was used for calibration when preparing the aggregate and asphalt concrete samples. The method was compared to the conventional chemical method by analysing unknown samples taken from the asphalt concrete producing plant. The method was characterized by its reproducibility, sensitivity and precision

  5. Irritative effects of fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways: results of a cross-shift study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Kappler, Martin; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans Peter; Merget, Rolf; Bruening, Thomas [Institut der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Schott, Klaus [Berufsgenossenschaft der Bauwirtschaft (BG BAU), Munich (Germany); Preuss, Ralf; Angerer, Juergen [Universitaet Erlangen, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (IPASUM), Erlangen (Germany); Hahn, Jens Uwe [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitsschutz (BGIA), Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Possible health hazards of fumes and aerosols of bitumen are in discussion, and data on their adverse effects on human airways under current exposure conditions are limited. To assess the irritative effects of exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways, a cross-sectional cross-shift study was conducted including external and internal exposure measurements, spirometry and especially non-invasive methods like nasal lavage collection and induction of sputum in order to identify and evaluate more precisely inflammatory process in the upper and lower airways. The cross-shift study comprised 74 mastic asphalt workers who were exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen and 49 construction workers without this exposure as reference group. Questionnaire, spirometry, ambient monitoring and urinary analysis were performed. Humoral and cellular parameters were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum. For data analysis, a mixed linear model was performed on the different outcomes with exposure group, time of measurement (pre-, post-shift), current smoking, German nationality and age as fixed factors and subjects as random factor. Based on personal exposure measurements during shift, mastic asphalt workers were classified into a low ({<=}10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 46) and a high (>10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 28) exposure group. High exposure was accompanied by significant higher urinary post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes. Acute respiratory symptoms were reported more frequently in the high exposure group after shift. Significant cross-shift declines in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1} (% predicted)] and forced vital capacity [FVC (% predicted)]) were measured in mastic asphalt workers. Pre-shift FEV{sub 1} (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted) were higher in the low exposure group. In pre- and post-shift NALF samples, interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-, IL-8- and total protein concentrations

  6. Sorption of cesium, strontium, iodine, nickel and carbon in mixtures of concrete, crushed rock and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption of Cs-134, Sr-85, I-125, Ni-63 and C-14 on simulated mixtures of materials present in the repositories for low and medium level wastes were studied. Samples were selected according to the Finnish plans for the repositories. The components of the mixtures were crushed rock, concrete (IVO and TVO) and bitumen (TVO) to be used as waste package, backfill and construction material. The ground water used was collected from the planned disposal sites for the low and medium level wastes. The solution-to-solid mass-ratios (V/M) have been chosen to simulate the conditions prevailing in repositories. The Ksub(d)-values of the mixtures were determined by the batch method. The Ksub(d)-values of the mixtures were also calculated using the relative mass of each component and the Ksub(d)-values determined for each component separately. The effect of concrete water as well as the correction due to the ratio of the liquid volume to solid mass (V/M-ratio) was taken into account in the determinations of the calculated Ksub(d)-values. The experimental Ksub(d)-values of cesium were 10 - 115 and 1 - 3 ml/g for TVO's and IVO's mixtures, respectively. The calculated Ksub(d)-values were 2 - 26 times higher than the experimental Ksub(d)-values. The experimental and calculated Ksub(d)-values of strontium, iodine and nickel were the same order of magnitude. The Ksub(d)-values of strontium were about 1 - 16 ml/g. Low sorption of iodine in all samples was found, the Ksub(d)-values were < 0.6 ml/g. The Ksub(d)-values of nickel were 2 - 15 ml/g. The experimental Ksub(d)-values of carbon were 0.1 - 12 ml/g. The calculated Ksub(d)-values of carbon were lower than the experimental Ksub(d)-values. The effect of V/M on Ksub(d) of sample mixtures was low for Sr. For cesium and iodine the Ksub(d) was lower by a factor of 5 for the V/M ratio 0.28:1 than 10:1. For nickel and carbon the Ksub(d)-values were 1 - 3 orders of magnitude smaller for low V/M ratio (0.28:1). (author)

  7. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; de Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  8. Modification of an Amposta origin bitumen by using tlie Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluyiene-2,4-diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, M.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available In this works, we have modified a bitumen from Amposta by using the Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of aluminium trichloride, presenting as well as the characteristics of the original bitumen as the ones of the modification products. We have made technological test, aging of thin film, rheological test, thermical susceptibility and components analyses.

    En el presente trabajo se ha modificado un betún procedente de Amposta por reacción de Friedei y Crafts con 4-metil-1,3-bencenodiisocianato, en presencia de tricloruro de aluminio. Se han determinado las características del betún original así como las de los productos obtenidos en la modificación. Se han llevado a cabo ensayos de tipo tecnológico, envejecimiento en película delgada, propiedades reológicas, susceptibilidad térmica y análisis de componentes.

  9. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation of Submerged Combustion Behavior in a Tuyere Blown Slag-fuming Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Naser, Jamal; Brooks, G. A.; Reuter, M. A.; Matusewicz, R. W.

    2012-10-01

    A thin-slice computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a conventional tuyere blown slag-fuming furnace has been developed in Eulerian multiphase flow approach by employing a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid unstructured orthographic grid system. The model considers a thin slice of the conventional tuyere blown slag-fuming furnace to investigate details of fluid flow, submerged coal combustion dynamics, coal use behavior, jet penetration behavior, bath interaction conditions, and generation of turbulence in the bath. The model was developed by coupling the CFD with the kinetics equations developed by Richards et al. for a zinc-fuming furnace. The model integrates submerged coal combustion at the tuyere tip and chemical reactions with the heat, mass, and momentum interfacial interaction between the phases present in the system. A commercial CFD package AVL Fire 2009.2 (AVL, Graz, Austria) coupled with several user-defined subroutines in FORTRAN programming language were used to develop the model. The model predicted the velocity, temperature field of the molten slag bath, generated turbulence and vortex, and coal use behavior from the slag bath. The tuyere jet penetration length ( l P) was compared with the equation provided by Hoefele and Brimacombe from isothermal experimental work ( {{l_{{P}} }/{d_{o }} = 10.7( {N^' }_{Fr} } )^{0.46} ( {ρ_{{g}} /ρl } )^{0.35} } ) and found 2.26 times higher, which can be attributed to coal combustion and gas expansion at a high temperature. The jet expansion angle measured for the slag system studied is 85 deg for the specific inlet conditions during the simulation time studied. The highest coal penetration distance was found to be l/L = 0.2, where l is the distance from the tuyere tip along the center line and L is the total length (2.44 m) of the modeled furnace. The model also predicted that 10 pct of the injected coal bypasses the tuyere gas stream uncombusted and carried to the free surface by the tuyere gas stream, which

  11. The Evolution of Supernovae in Circumstellar Wind-Blown Bubbles. I. Introduction and One-Dimensional Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarkadas, Vikram V.

    2005-09-01

    Mass loss from massive stars (>~8 Msolar) can result in the formation of circumstellar wind-blown cavities surrounding the star, bordered by a thin, dense, cold shell. When the star explodes as a core-collapse supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave will interact with this modified medium around the star, rather than the interstellar medium. In this work we first explore the nature of the circumstellar medium around massive stars in various evolutionary stages. This is followed by a study of the evolution of SNe within these wind-blown bubbles. The evolution depends primarily on a single parameter Λ, the ratio of the mass of the dense shell to that of the ejected material. We investigate the evolution for different values of this parameter. We also plot approximate X-ray surface brightness plots from the simulations. For very small values ΛX-ray emission from the remnant will also change. The initial X-ray luminosity of the remnant is quite low, but interaction of the shock wave with the dense circumstellar shell can increase the luminosity by 2-3 orders of magnitude. As the reflected shock begins to move inward, X-ray images will show the presence of a double-shelled structure. Larger values result in more SN energy being expended to the shell. The resulting reflected shock moves quickly back to the origin, and the ejecta are thermalized rapidly. The evolution of the remnant is speeded up, and the entire remnant may appear bright in X-rays. If Λ>>1, then a substantial amount of energy may be expended in the shell. In the extreme case the SN may go directly from the free expansion to the adiabatic stage, bypassing the Sedov stage. Our results show that in many cases the SNR spends a significant amount of time within the bubble. The low density within the bubble can delay the onset of the Sedov stage and may end up reducing the amount of time spent in the Sedov stage. The complicated density profile within the bubble makes it difficult to infer the mass

  12. Microbial processes in the final repository, the silo part. Theoretical approach and preliminary experiments on the biodegradation of bitumen. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Commission of SKBF/KBS the microbial processes that are likely to occur in the silo part of SFR, the final repository for medium- and low-level nuclear wastes, have been put together. The experimental studies concerning microbial degradation of bitumen are described. From a microbial point of view it is the biodegradation of bitumen that constitutes the greatest risk in the silo part of SFR. The degradation, aerobic as well as anaerobic, leads to production of carbon dioxide which might cause a decrease in pH to such an extent that hydrogen-gas producing corrosion of metal could occur. This production of gas can cause an increase in internal pressure of the repository. A culture of bacteria able to degrade bitumen aerobically has been enriched. Uptil now no culture degrading bitumen under anaerobic conditions have been obtained. When making a risk assessment of the SFR at the present time it is not possible to completely disregard the microbial activity. An account is also given for some international contacts in this area. 11 references

  13. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  14. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ∼1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. -- Highlights: •In-situ bitumen extraction linked to rise in alkyl PAHs in one of two study lakes. •Alkyl PAHs elevated in two soil samples. •PAH contamination likely related to effluent sources, not atmospheric deposition. -- PAHs in sediments and soils were generally low in areas adjacent to in-situ bitumen extraction rigs in the Cold Lake Alberta oil sands, but evidence of localized contamination at some sites was evident

  15. Oil-bearing inclusions in vein quartz and kalcite and, bitumens in veins: Testament to multiple phases of hydrocarbon migration in the Barrandian basin (lower Palaeozoic), Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchý, V.; Dobeš, P.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír; Stejskal, M.; Kroužek, J.; Chudoba, J.; Matějovský, L.; Havelcová, Martina; Matysová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2010), s. 285-297. ISSN 0264-8172 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3012703; GA AV ČR IAA300460804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : hydrocarbon * fluid inclusion * bitumen Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.130, year: 2010

  16. Lifting Thor's Helmet: An X-ray/infrared Archival Study Of The Wind-blown Bubble NGC 2359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Marcus; Kastner, J.; Montez, R.; Rappaport, S.

    2012-05-01

    We present a combined X-ray/IR study of NGC 2359, a wind-blown bubble around a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star, with the goals of providing insight into the distribution of dust within the nebula and ascertaining its source(s) of X-ray emission. We are analyzing Spitzer and WISE infrared data in conjunction with Swift and ROSAT X-ray observations acquired from the Spitzer Heritage Archive, NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, and NASA’s High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive. Utilizing Spitzer and WISE data, we generated temperature and mass maps of the dust within the region. These maps reveal large dust concentrations in the main bubble, at the central WR star (WR 7), and along the southern bar of the nebula. From the archival X-ray data, we have determined that an X-ray source that was previously attributed to WR 7 is actually associated with a 2MASS source well displaced from (57" due W of) the star, while WR 7 itself is not detected. We analyze the spectral energy distribution of the NGC 2359 X-ray source, and consider potential alternatives for its origin.

  17. Self-Sealing Shells: Blowouts and Blisters on the Surfaces of Leaky Wind-Blown-Bubbles and Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Pittard, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Blowouts can occur when a dense shell confining hot, high pressure, gas ruptures. The venting gas inflates a blister on the surface of the shell. Here we examine the growth of such blisters on the surfaces of wind-blown-bubbles (WBBs) and supernova remnants (SNRs) due to shell rupture caused by the Vishniac instability. On WBBs the maximum relative size of the blister (R_bstall/R) is found to grow linearly with time, but in many cases the blister radius will not exceed 20 per cent of the bubble radius. Thus blowouts initiated by the Vishniac instability are unlikely to have a major effect on the global dynamics and properties of the bubble. The relative size of blisters on SNRs is even smaller than on WBBs, with blisters only growing to a radius comparable to the thickness of the cold shell of SNRs. The small size of the SNR blowouts is, however, in good agreement with observations of blisters in the Vela SNR. The difference in relative size between WBB and SNR blisters is due to the much higher speed at whic...

  18. Melt-blown and electrospun drug-loaded polymer fiber mats for dissolution enhancement: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Attila; Farkas, Balázs; Faragó, Kornél; Farkas, Attila; Wagner, István; Van Assche, Ivo; Verreck, Geert; Nagy, Zsombor K; Marosi, György

    2015-05-01

    Melt blowing (MB) was investigated to prepare a fast dissolving fibrous drug-loaded solid dispersion and compared with solvent-based electrospinning (SES) and melt electrospinning (MES). As a conventional solvent-free technique coupled with melt extrusion and using a high-speed gas stream, MB can provide high-quality micro- and nanofibers at industrial throughput levels. Carvedilol, a weak-base model drug with poor water solubility, was processed using a common composition optimized for the fiber spinning and blowing methods based on a hydrophilic vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (PVPVA64) and PEG 3000 plasticizer. Scanning electron microscopy combined with fiber diameter analysis showed diameter distributions characteristic to each prepared fibrous fabrics (the mean value increased toward SESdiffraction studies revealed that the incorporated drug was in amorphous form regardless the preparation method. The HPLC studies demonstrated that all of the materials produced by the different techniques passed the regulatory purity requirements. The fibers exhibited ultrafast drug release tested under neutral pH conditions; the melt-blown sample dissolved within 2 min owing to its large specific surface area. The presented results confirm the applicability of MB as a novel formulation technique for polymer-based drug delivery systems. PMID:25761776

  19. Adaptation of Nitraria sphaerocarpa to wind-blown sand environments at the edge of a desert oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiu-yan; ZHAO Wen-zhi; FANG Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptation of Nitraria sphaerocarpa to blown sand at the edge of a desert oasis with regard to the aspects of soil seed banks, seedlings, and population. Horizontally, the total number of seeds per unit area decreased from the shrub canopy center to intershrub areas, and most seeds were found under shrub canopies. Vertically, the highest proportion of seeds was found at depths of 5-10 cm. The emergence percentage, seedling mass, and seedling height, which were significantly affected by both burial depth and seed size, were highest at the optimal burial depth of 2 cm, and decreased with increasing burial depth in each seed size-class. Although seedling mass was usually greatest for large seeds and least for small seeds at each burial depth, little difference was observed in seedling height at shallow burial depths of 0-3 cm. The population shows a patchy and discontinuous distribution pattern. Population height increases with increasing sand depth. Also the density increases with increasing depth of sand in the desert; however, there is a steady decrease when the depth of sand is more than 100 cm. This result indicates that the depth of sand that is most suitable for the growth of Nitraria sphaerocarpa is 100 cm. The size of the population is significantly correlated with the sand depth, which increases with increasing depth in the desert.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene Non-woven Fabrics Prepared by Melt-blown Spinning for Filtration Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PP non-woven fabrics were prepared by melt-blown spinning, followed by heat and plasma treatments. After heat treatment, the PP non-woven fabrics displayed decreased water flux, increased tensile strength, decreased elongation, and an average pore size of 0.7 μm. The hydrophilicity of the PP non-woven fabrics was improved by plasma treatment. The water flux of the PP non-woven fabrics increased about two fold after the plasma treatment. The particle removal efficiency was determined to be 97.2-99.4% for 1-3 μm sized particles, demonstrating a high particle removal efficiency. Polypropylene (PP) non-woven fabrics have been widely used as filtration membranes in wastewater purification with industrial applications due to their low cost, good mechanical strength, and high thermal and chemical stability. The membrane fouling behavior depends strongly on the physical and mechanical properties of the membrane, including pore size, porosity, morphology, and hydrophilicity. In general, PP non-woven fabrics have poor hydrophilicity; this has limited their application in the biomedical field. It is therefore necessary to develop PP non-woven fabrics with improved surface hydrophilicity to increase the scope of their use. Plasma treatment, an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional chemical activation, only changes the uppermost atomic layers of a membrane surface without affecting the bulk properties of the polymer

  1. Ultravilolet-radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide onto the melt-blown polypropylene filter element by dynamic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By dynamic method under UV irradiation, commercial melt-blown polypropylene (PPMB) filter element was modified with acrylamide (AAm) using benzophenone (BP) as initiator. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope verified that polyacrylamide chain was grafted on the fiber surface of PPMB filter element. Elemental content analysis with energy dispersive X-ray of fibers revealed that the polymerization content in the inner part of filter element was relatively higher than that in the outer. Degree of grafting changed with initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature and reached 2.6% at the reaction condition: CBP=0.06 mol/L, CAAm=2.0 mol/L, irradiation time: 80 min, 60℃. Relative water flux altered with the hydrophilicity and pore size of filter element. In the antifouling test, the modified filter gave greater flux recovery (approximately 70%) after filtration of the water extract of Liuweidihuang, suggesting that the fouling layer was more easily reversible due to the hydrophilic nature of the modified filter.

  2. Wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale upper surface blown-flap model having four engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, K.; Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale subsonic jet transport model with an upper surface blown flap system. The model had a 25 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 7.28 and four turbofan engines. The lift of the flap system was augmented by turning the turbofan exhaust over the Coanda surface. Results were obtained for several flap deflections with several wing leading-edge configurations at jet momentum coefficients from 0 to 4.0. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with four engines operating. In addition, longitudinal and lateral data are presented with an engine out. The maximum lift and stall angle of the four engine model were lower than those obtained with a two engine model that was previously investigated. The addition of the outboard nacelles had an adverse effect on these values. Efforts to improve these values were successful. A maximum lift of 8.8 at an angle-of-attack of 27 deg was obtained with a jet thrust coefficient of 2 for the landing flap configuration.

  3. The development and use of a laboratory scale reactor to study aspects of gasification in an air blown fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, A.; Zhuo, Y.; Reed, G.P.; Paterson, N.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    A laboratory scale reactor has been used to study aspects of air blown, spouted bed gasifiers. The effects of operating conditions on the release of fuel-N has been studied using both coal and sewage sludge. The work has clarified the reactions involved and shown that steam has an important effect on the formation of NH{sub 3} from both volatile-N and char-N. The HCN concentration depends strongly on the residence time at temperature and on the presence (and depth) of a char bed. Trace element results indicate that bed temperatures above 900{sup o}C enhanced depletion of Ba, Pb and Zn from the bed residue and their enrichment in the fines. Mercury and selenium were released and their subsequent capture required low temperature filters operating below 120{sup o}C. The reactor was modified to enable char samples to be prepared and collected under controlled conditions. Results show the decreasing reactivity of the char with increasing temperature, time, pressure and particle size. There appears to be an initial decrease in reactivity during pyrolysis and a further longer- term decrease caused by graphitisation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Activity of Wind-Blown Sand and the Formation of Feathered Sand Ridges in the Kumtagh Desert, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kongtai; Qu, Jianjun; Tang, Jinnian; Ding, Feng; Liu, Hujun; Zhu, Shujuan

    2010-05-01

    We study the activity of wind-blown sand and its effects on the evolution of feathered sand ridges in the Kumtagh Desert, China, and attempt to reveal the formation process of feathered sand ridges using wind-tunnel experiments, remote sensing data, and detailed field observations from 2005 to 2008. The prevailing wind direction in the Kumtagh Desert is easterly in winter and north-easterly in other seasons. The average annual wind speed is 5.9 ms-1, and winds sufficiently strong to entrain sand occur on 143 days per annum. The sand transport rate within 0.4 m of the ground is strongly influenced by local landforms, and is related to wind speed by a power function. Wind erosion occurs on the crest, the windward slope of crescent sand ridges and inter-ridge sand strips, where the blowing sand cloud is in an unsaturated state; in contrast, sand accumulation occurs on the leeward slope of the crescent sand ridges, where the blowing sand cloud is in an over-saturated state. These results indicate that the development of feathered sand ridges in the Kumtagh Desert is mainly controlled by the local wind regime. The dominant winds (from the north, north-north-east and north-east) and additional winds (from the east-north-east, east and east-south-east) determine the development of crescent sand ridges, but winds that are approximately parallel to sand ridges form the secondary inter-ridge sand strips.

  5. Three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Clara E.

    Two distinct topics in multi-phase flow of interest of the oil industry are considered in this thesis. Studies of three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth are reported. Applications of foams and foaming are found in many industrial processes such as flotation of minerals, enhanced oil recovery, drilling in oil reservoirs, and refining processes. However the physics of foaming and defoaming are not fully understood. Foams trap gas and are not desirable in some processes such as oil refining. Previously, it has been found that foaming may be strongly suppressed in a cold slit bubble reactor by fluidizing hydrophilic particles in the bubbly mixture below the foam. In this work, we fluidized hydrophobic and hydrophilic versions of two different sands in a cold slit foaming bubble reactor. We found that the hydrophobic sands suppress the foam substantially better than their hydrophilic counterparts. To study the capacity of foams to carry particles, we built a new slit foaming bubble reactor, which can be continuously fed with solid particles. Global gas, liquid, and solid holdups were measured for given gas and liquid velocities and solid flow rates. This research provides the fundamental ground work for the identification of flow types in a slit three-phase foaming bubble reactor with continuous injection of particles. Bitumen froth is produced from the oil sands of Athabasca, Canada. When transported in a pipeline, water present in the froth is released in regions of high shear (at the pipe wall). This results in a lubricating layer of water that allows bitumen froth pumping at greatly reduced pressures and hence the potential for savings in pumping energy consumption. Experimental results establishing the features of this self lubrication phenomenon are presented. The pressure gradient of lubricated flows closely follow the empirical law of Blasius for turbulent pipe flow with a constant of proportionality

  6. Alberta's reserves 2002 and supply/demand outlook 2003-2012 : crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas and liquids, coal, sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document, stake holders find reliable information concerning the state of reserves, supply, and demand for Alberta's energy resources such as bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, coal, and sulphur. Estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential were also included in the report, along with a 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources. The development of Alberta's energy resources depend on factors such as reserve supply, costs of development, energy demands, conservation, and social, economic and environmental considerations. The energy development landscape in 2002 was determined in large part by changes in energy prices, drilling activity, and planned investments in the range of billions of dollars in oil sands projects. For the first time in 2001, conventional crude oil production was surpassed by raw bitumen production, and this growth continued in 2002. During 2002, 48 per cent of the province's crude oil and equivalent production was in the form of non-upgraded bitumen and synthetic crude oil production. This growth can be explained by increased bitumen production from oil sands mining. Levels similar to those of 2001 were achieved for in situ bitumen production. Approval was recently granted for several steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) schemes, and many are currently under review by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Higher volumes of commercial production are expected from those schemes in future years. Decline in natural gas production in 2002 was due to less drilling activity, but this is expected to increase in 2003. For the remaining forecast period, production is expected to decline. Continued growth in coalbed methane (CBM) development activity is expected for 2002 and for the next few years. In response to this increased activity, the EUB will begin to calculate CBM reserves. 31 tabs., 66 figs., 3 appendices

  7. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  8. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertron, A., E-mail: bertron@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Jacquemet, N. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Erable, B. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France); Sablayrolles, C. [Université de Toulouse (France); INP (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, BP 44 362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); INRA (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), F-31029 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Albrecht, A. [Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  9. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium

  10. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersdistribution. Such characteristics led to stable emulsified systems that are amenable for a wide range of applications. Emulsification with CML afforded bitumen emulsions with very high colloidal stability (no change was noted for over one month) and with a strong shear thinning behavior. Both features indicate excellent prospects for storage, transport and spraying, which are relevant in operations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin

  11. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  12. Leaching and comprehensive regulatory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance test results obtained from laboratory testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste are presented. A relatively viscous form of oxidized bitumen (ASTM D 312, Type III) has been tested and has been shown to meet all of the current regulatory performance criteria. Molded specimens were obtained using a 53-mm extruder. A surrogate, low-level, mixed, liquid waste was used. The surrogate waste contained ∼30 weight percent sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium, and strontium. Waste form specimens contained three levels of waste loading: 40, 50, and 60 weight percent salt. Results include thermal testing, extraction procedure toxicity tests, and 90-day American Nuclear Society 16.1 leach tests, as well as compressive strength tests

  13. FORECASTING OF DURABILITY OF THE LAYER OF SUPERFICIAL PROCESSING OF ROAD COVERINGS ON THE BASIS OF THE MODIFIED BITUMENS WITH APPLICATION OF NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Tyukov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity of application of system of neural networks for forecasting durability of a layer of superficial processing of road coverings is considered. The offered technique of definition of efficiency of application of any additive in-tended for improvement of properties of bitumens at the device of layers of su-perficial processing of road coverings allows to receive the most authentic fore-cast of safety of a layer.

  14. Effect of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the stability of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effects of non-homogeneous spatial distributions of surfactants on the drop size of high-content bitumen-in-water emulsions, a modification of a standard Brownian Dynamics algorithm was employed. The new algorithm is able to simulate the evolution of oil/water emulsions towards flocculation and coalescence. The simulation boxes contain 216 and 125 particles initially distributed in a homogeneous simple cubic arrangement, corresponding to bitumen/water volume fractions of 0.30 and 0.51, respectively. The particles interact through a DLVO potential dependent on the total surfactant concentration, spatial surfactant distribution, and the amount of surfactant adsorbed to the bitumen/water interface. As will be shown in this article, certain combinations of the referred variables can produce a wide variety of repulsive potentials between similar drops. The variation of the total number of drops with time does not obey the usual analytical formalisms developed for more diluted cases, and instead, a simple exponential decrease of the number of drops with time is found. Such behavior has already been confirmed by experiment. Some similarities between the present results and those previously published for more diluted systems are discussed

  15. Study on the fundamental technology for CBRNE defense systems. Experimental and numerical study on dispersion of particulates blown off in explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical simulation and experiment are conducted in the present study. In the experiment, the acceleration process of the particles such as CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives) materials is measured using the Γ-type Free-Piston Shock Tube with the high-pressure air, in order to simulate the particles blown off in an explosion. The thermo-fluid dynamics numerical simulations under the experimental conditions are conducted, and the simulation model of particle motion in the blast is validated in the comparison with the experimental results. (author)

  16. Native bitumens in surficial soils of the Athabasca oil sands region : preliminary characterization and assessment of contaminant mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, M.; Fleming, I. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted on bitumen tarballs located in surficial soils in Alberta's Athabasca region. The tarballs occur in every soil type in the region, and pose a challenge to oil sands operators who hope to use the soils for reclamation activities. Chromatographic analyses have shown that the tarballs contain variable petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and possess a characteristic chromatographic footprint. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment has characterized the hydrocarbons according to various fractions. A soil-column leaching study is also being conducted by the University of Saskatchewan on heavily-impacted tarball soil under unsaturated conditions. Results of the study have indicated that the soil has low levels of contaminant mobility and degradation. Hydrocarbon concentrations in leachate water are less than 20 per cent of ground water guidelines for Alberta. It was concluded that after respiration over 9 months, the most active soil column in the study degraded only 2.7 g of an estimated 650 g.

  17. Nailing tailings : researchers close in on innovative ways to speed up reclamation of bitumen mine tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2009-09-15

    This article reviewed the collaborative research that is ongoing at the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD). Directive 74 issued by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board stipulates that oilsand operators must accelerate their pace at developing tailings technologies. It requires the reduction of fluid tailings and their capture in ERCB-approved dedicated disposal areas. CONRAD's tailings consortium has representation from the 4 existing oilsands operators, namely Suncor Energy Inc., Syncrude Canada Ltd., Shell Canada Limited and Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL), as well as 3 companies with proposed projects. Technologies being considered include water capping, centrifugation, composite tails, mature fine tailings (MFT) drying, accelerated dewatering and the use of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). CO{sub 2} works chemically works on the fluid fine tails to create consolidated tailings, using MFT in the mix. Operators have the added advantage of receiving some credit for the CO{sub 2} that is sequestered in the tailings. These new processes are designed to reduce the footprint of the tailings pond, and by increasing the amount of water available for recycling, decrease the amount of river water needed to process bitumen. 3 figs.

  18. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debenest, T., E-mail: tdebenest@yahoo.fr [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Turcotte, P. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagne, F., E-mail: francois.gagne@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Gagnon, C.; Blaise, C. [Environment Canada, Fluvial Ecosystem Research, 105 McGill Street, 7 floor, Montreal, Quebec, H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-05-15

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% < 1.9%) was 20 times higher than the one of OSW (72 h-IC 50% > 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<-0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  19. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<−0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  20. Measurements of the speed of sound and the absorption coefficient for ion exchange resin embedded in concrete and bitumen using ultrasonic waves at around 0.1 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic measurements have been carried out on concrete and bitumen containing ion exchange resin. The speed and absorption of sound was determined for different amounts of resin, different times after preparation of the samples, and for different temperatures. The absorption data indicate that it should be possible to use the technique on full-scale waste products. The data also indicate that the velocity of sound is sensitive to several parameters of interest in radioactive waste treatment and storage. The technique may also be used to gain information on the internal disposition of a waste package. (Auth.)

  1. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  2. Defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6 overexpression threshold of over 60 fold can distinguish between adenoma and fully blown colon carcinoma in individual patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greulich Karl

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that alpha-defensin expression is enhanced in colon cancer. However, the expression of human alpha defensin 6 (DEFA 6 in earlier stages, such as adenoma, has so far not yet been studied in a patient resolved manner. Methods By using quantitative Real Time-PCR, the gene expression pattern of DEFA 1-3 and DEFA 6 was analyzed in tissue of different stages of carcinogenesis, derived from colorectal cancer patients. In addition to paired normal and tumor tissue, matched normal near tumor and adenoma tissue samples were examined. Results The median gene expression of human defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6 has been found to be moderately increased (~ 5 fold in tumor samples derived from individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to their normal counterparts. However, when the data were analyzed in a patient-wise manner, a large expression variation among individual patients is found, making the use of DEFA 6 for individual diagnosis of fully blown colon carcinoma difficult. Surprisingly, in adenoma the gene expression analysis revealed a 100 fold increased median expression of DEFA 6 relative to normal colon tissue. 13/18 samples had an individual overexpression of more than 60 fold in adenoma but only 3/17 in carcinoma. In each of the individual patients, at least either the adenoma or the carcinoma showed strong DEFA 6 overexpression. Conclusions We suggest that the expression of DEFA 6 preferably can be used as a potential diagnostic marker for adenoma and not as a marker for fully blown carcinoma. This is supported by the fact that DEFA 6 is a downstream target of the Wnt pathway, which is mutational active during the earliest stage of cancer development.

  3. Defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6) overexpression threshold of over 60 fold can distinguish between adenoma and fully blown colon carcinoma in individual patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that alpha-defensin expression is enhanced in colon cancer. However, the expression of human alpha defensin 6 (DEFA 6) in earlier stages, such as adenoma, has so far not yet been studied in a patient resolved manner. By using quantitative Real Time-PCR, the gene expression pattern of DEFA 1-3 and DEFA 6 was analyzed in tissue of different stages of carcinogenesis, derived from colorectal cancer patients. In addition to paired normal and tumor tissue, matched normal near tumor and adenoma tissue samples were examined. The median gene expression of human defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6) has been found to be moderately increased (~ 5 fold) in tumor samples derived from individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to their normal counterparts. However, when the data were analyzed in a patient-wise manner, a large expression variation among individual patients is found, making the use of DEFA 6 for individual diagnosis of fully blown colon carcinoma difficult. Surprisingly, in adenoma the gene expression analysis revealed a 100 fold increased median expression of DEFA 6 relative to normal colon tissue. 13/18 samples had an individual overexpression of more than 60 fold in adenoma but only 3/17 in carcinoma. In each of the individual patients, at least either the adenoma or the carcinoma showed strong DEFA 6 overexpression. We suggest that the expression of DEFA 6 preferably can be used as a potential diagnostic marker for adenoma and not as a marker for fully blown carcinoma. This is supported by the fact that DEFA 6 is a downstream target of the Wnt pathway, which is mutational active during the earliest stage of cancer development

  4. Identification of organic sulfur compounds in coal bitumen obtained by different extraction techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria Elisabete; Cappelli Fontanive, Fernando; Bastos Caramao, Elina; Alcaraz Zini, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Quimica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Vladimir de [URI, Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The determination of organic sulfur compounds (OSC) in coal is of great interest. Technically and operationally these compounds are not easily removed and promote corrosion of equipment. Environmentally, the burning of sulfur compounds leads to the emission of SO{sub x} gases, which are major contributors to acid rain. Health-wise, it is well known that these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Bitumen can be extracted from coal by different techniques, and use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection enables identification of compounds present in coal extracts. The OSC from three different bitumens were tentatively identified by use of three different extraction techniques: accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE). Results obtained from one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (GC-qMS) and from two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC x GC-TOFMS) were compared. By use of 2D GC, a greater number of OSC were found in ASE bitumen than in SFE and UE bitumens. No OSC were identified with 1D GC-qMS, although some benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were detected by use of EIM and SIM modes. GC x GC-TOFMS applied to investigation of OSC in bitumens resulted in analytical improvement, as more OSC classes and compounds were identified (thiols, sulfides, thiophenes, naphthothiophenes, benzothiophenes, and benzonaphthothiophenes). The roof-tile effect was observed for OSC and PAH in all bitumens. Several co-elutions among analytes and with matrix interferents were solved by use of GC x GC. (orig.)

  5. Does a more refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume and confounders alter risk estimates from a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Michela; Ferro, Gilles; Burstyn, Igor;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study.......To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study....

  6. Implication of cytochrome P-450 1A isoforms and the AH receptor in the genotoxicity of coal-tar fume condensate and bitumen fume condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, C; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Boillot, K; Brandt, H; Castegnaro, M

    1998-06-01

    During the hot application of bitumen- or coal-tar-containing materials, fumes are emitted that contain polycyclic aromatic compounds. Although workers' exposure to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. No study has reported the metabolic pathways involved in the genotoxicity of coal tar or bitumen fume condensates (CTFC, BFCs). We have therefore studied the DNA adducts formed by incubation of CTFC or BFCs with liver microsomes from several type of mice and with yeast microsomes expressing individual human CYP enzymes. Our results demonstrates that: (1) the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in the biotransformation of BFCs and to a lesser extent of CTFC; (2) for CTFC, both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A isoforms are involved in the formation of genotoxic compounds, and the reactive metabolites formed via CYP 1A1, are substrates for epoxide hydrolase (mEH); (3) for BFCs, the genotoxicity is partially dependent upon CYP 1A1 and the reactive metabolites are not substrates for mEH; (4) CYP 1A isoforms are not exclusively responsible for the genotoxicity of the CTFC and BFCs as other CYPs and also enzymes of the [AH] gene battery, may play an important role. PMID:21781875

  7. Alberta's reserves 2001 and supply/demand outlook 2002-2011 : crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas and liquids, coal, sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides stakeholders with a reliable source of information on the state of reserves, supply and demand for Alberta's energy resources including crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and coal. The report also includes estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential. A 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources is also presented. The economic factors that determine the development of Alberta's energy resources depend on resource supply, development costs, energy demand, conservation and environmental and social considerations. Energy development in 2001 was driven in part by changes in energy prices, drilling activity and planned investments of billions of dollars in the oil sands projects. Production of raw bitumen exceeded conventional crude oil for the first time in 2001, with the first commercial steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production. Several SAGD schemes have been approved and more are under review. Although natural gas production is expected to decline in the second half of the forecast period, interest in coalbed methane development will likely increase. Alberta has the largest oil sands resource in the world, with nearly 50 billion cubic meters that are potentially recoverable. Alberta's remaining established reserves of conventional crude oil was estimated at 278 million cubic metres. 35 tabs., 55 figs., 3 appendices

  8. Proceedings of the 3. NCUT meeting on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen and synthetic crude oil and the 2. symposium on stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference highlights new developments in refining processes for heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crudes. The oil sands/heavy oil industry in Canada has grown significantly in the last decade and could triple by 2012 to reach 2.6 million barrels per day. Experts from the petroleum industry, government organizations and technology providers attended this conference which identified technology gaps and areas where improvements are needed. The presentations demonstrated that many new technologies associated with heavy oil bitumen upgrading and refining have posed compatibility and stability challenges for pipeliners, upgraders and refiners. One of the issues addressed at the conference was the effect of upgrading technologies on market price due to the expected increase in production. Another important issue is how production of bitumen can be increased without significantly increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the refineries and upgrading facilities. The sessions of the conference were entitled: new technology developments in bitumen upgrading; secondary upgrading developments and expanded product opportunities; environmental issues and expanded oil sands development; and, stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum. Twenty six presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  9. Inhibition of the radiolytic hydrogen production in the nuclear waste of 'bitumen coated' type: study of the interaction between hydrogen and cobalt hydroxo-sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxo sulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an 'inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production'. However, the origin of this phenomenon was not clearly identified. In order to propose an explanation to this inhibition phenomenon, model organic molecules were used to represent the components of the bitumen. Irradiations were carried out by protons to simulate the alpha radiolysis. The organic molecules irradiations by a proton beam showed that cobalt hydroxo sulphide CoSOH, does not act as a hydrogenation catalyst of unsaturated hydrocarbons, nor as a radicals scavenger, but consists of a trap of hydrogen. Experiments of hydrogen trapping at ambient temperature were carried out according to two techniques: gravimetry and manometry. The solid was characterized before and after interaction with hydrogen (infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction). The initial solid was composed of amorphous cobalt hydroxo sulphide and a minor phase of cobalt hydroxide. The gravimetry and manometry experiments showed that the maximum of hydrogen trapping capacity is equal to 0.59 ± 0.18 mole of hydrogen per mole of cobalt. After interaction with hydrogen, the Co(OH)2 phase disappeared and a new solid phase appeared corresponding to Co9S8. These observations, as well as the analysis of the gas phase, made it possible to conclude with the following reaction (1): 9 CoSOH + 11/2 H2 = Co9S8 + 9 H2O + H2S (1). Gravimetry experiments at temperatures between 50 and 210 C revealed the desorption of water but not of hydrogen sulphide. The absence of hydrogen sulphide in gaseous phase and the Co(OH)2 phase disappearance

  10. Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of a techno-economic model for UCG-CCS and SMR-CCS. • Estimation of H2 production costs with and without CCS for UCG and SMR. • UCG is more economical for H2 production with CCS. • SMR is more cost efficient for H2 production without CCS. • Cost competiveness is highly sensitive to the IRR differential between UCG and SMR. - Abstract: This paper examines the techno-economic viability of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada, for the servicing of the oil sands bitumen upgrading industry. Hydrogen production for bitumen upgrading is predominantly achieved via steam methane reforming (SMR); which involves significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with considerable feedstock (natural gas) cost volatility. UCG is a formidable candidate for cost-competitive environmentally sustainable hydrogen production; given its negligible feedstock cost, the enormity of deep coal reserves in Western Canada and the favourable CO2 sequestration characteristics of potential UCG sites in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin (WCSB). Techno-economic models were developed for UCG and SMR with and without CCS, to estimate the cost of hydrogen production including delivery to a bitumen upgrader. In this paper, at base case conditions, a 5% internal rate of return (IRR) differential between UCG and SMR was considered so as to account for the increased investment risk associated with UCG. The cost of UCG hydrogen production without CCS is estimated to be $1.78/kg of H2. With CCS, this increases to range of $2.11–$2.70/kg of H2, depending on the distance of the site for CO2 sequestration from the UCG plant. The SMR hydrogen production cost without CCS is estimated to be $1.73/kg of H2. In similar fashion to UCG, this rises to a range of $2.14 to $2.41/kg of H2 with the consideration of CCS. Lastly, for hydrogen production without CCS, UCG has a superior cost competitiveness in comparison to SMR for an IRR

  11. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  12. Amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture in air-blown IGCC systems with cold and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hot fuel gas clean-up is a very favorable technology for IGCC concepts. • IGCC net efficiency reduces to 41.5% when realizing post-combustion CO2 capture. • Complex IGCC layouts are necessary if exhaust gas recirculation is realized. • IGCC performance does not significantly vary with exhaust gas recirculation. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the thermodynamic performance of air-blown IGCC systems with post-combustion CO2 capture by chemical absorption. Two IGCC technologies are investigated in order to evaluate two different strategies of coal-derived gas clean-up. After outlining the layouts of two power plants, the first with conventional cold gas clean-up and the second with hot gas clean-up, attention is paid to the CO2 capture station and to issues related to exhaust gas recirculation in combined cycles. The results highlight that significant improvements in IGCC performance are possible if hot coal-derived gas clean-up is realized before the syngas fuels the combustion turbine, so the energy cost of CO2 removal in an amine-based post-combustion mode is less strong. In particular, IGCC net efficiency as high as 41.5% is calculated, showing an interesting potential if compared to the one of IGCC systems with pre-combustion CO2 capture. Thermodynamic effects of exhaust gas recirculation are investigated as well, even though IGCC performance does not significantly vary against a more complicated plant layout

  13. Acoustic characteristics of a large-scale wind tunnel model of an upper-surface blown flap transport having two engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falarski, M. D.; Aoyagi, K.; Koenig, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The upper-surface blown (USB) flap as a powered-lift concept has evolved because of the potential acoustic shielding provided when turbofan engines are installed on a wing upper surface. The results from a wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale USB model powered by two JT15D-1 turbofan engines are-presented. The effects of coanda flap extent and deflection, forward speed, and exhaust nozzle configuration were investigated. To determine the wing shielding the acoustics of a single engine nacelle removed from the model were also measured. Effective shielding occurred in the aft underwing quadrant. In the forward quadrant the shielding of the high frequency noise was counteracted by an increase in the lower frequency wing-exhaust interaction noise. The fuselage provided shielding of the opposite engine noise such that the difference between single and double engine operation was 1.5 PNdB under the wing. The effects of coanda flap deflection and extent, angle of attack, and forward speed were small. Forward speed reduced the perceived noise level (PNL) by reducing the wing-exhaust interaction noise.

  14. Development and testing of a unique carousel wind tunnel to experimentally determine the effect of gravity and the interparticle force on the physics of wind-blown particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R. N.; Greeley, Ronald; White, Bruce R.; Iversen, James D.

    1987-01-01

    In the study of planetary aeolian processes the effect of gravity is not readily modeled. Gravity appears in the equations of particle motion along with the interparticle forces but the two are not separable. A wind tunnel that perimits multiphase flow experiments with wind blown particles at variable gravity was built and experiments were conducted at reduced gravity. The equations of particle motion initiation (saltation threshold) with variable gravity were experimentally verified and the interparticle force was separated. A uniquely design Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) allows for the long flow distance in a small sized tunnel since the test section if a continuous loop and develops the required turbulent boundary layer. A prototype model of the tunnel where only the inner drum rotates was built and tested in the KC-135 Weightless Wonder 4 zero-g aircraft. Future work includes further experiments with walnut shell in the KC-135 which sharply graded particles of widely varying median sizes including very small particles to see how interparticle force varies with particle size, and also experiments with other aeolian material.

  15. Aostra: how a government-industry partnership bridged the technology 'valley of death' and helped trump Venezuela's natural bitumen advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, Robert

    2011-10-15

    The scale of Venezuela's in-place bitumen and heavy oil resources is comparable with Alberta's and is much more producible. Maurice Dusseault thinks that political stability and investment are the reasons that Alberta has surged ahead of Venezuela both in investment and production. The Canadian government began to foster the development of the oilsands from the late '60s and early '70s. Government and industry made financial support available for pilot projects and university research. The Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) was established in 1974. AOSTRA has played a critical role in fostering research and testing techniques and technologies on a pre-commercial scale. Successful examples of AOSTRA initiatives were cited in this article. By investing in R and D and creating a favorable investment climate, Alberta has become the centre of the heavy oil research and commercialization industry.

  16. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste; Avaliacao de pastas e argamassas para o embalado de rejeitos radioativos betuminizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O., E-mail: msg@cdtn.br, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository.

  17. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model; Comportement sous eau des dechets radioactifs bitumes: validation experimentale du modele de degradation Colonbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinner, B

    2004-03-01

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of

  18. 长效液体乳聚乙烯吹塑薄膜阻隔性能研究%A Study on Barrier Property of Polyethylene Blown Film for Liquid Milk with Long Shelf-life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧英

    2014-01-01

    通过对包装用聚乙烯吹塑薄膜的水蒸气透过量、氧气透过量进行研究,在满足液体牛奶保鲜期要求前提下,能够最大限度地降低对聚乙烯吹塑薄膜的阻透性要求,从而降低液体牛奶产品的包装成本。%Through a study on the vapor and oxygen permeability of polyethylene blown film for packaging, on the premise of guaranteeing the shelf-life of liquid milk, the requirement for polyethylene blown film’s barrier property can be minimized with a view of lowering the cost of liquid milk packaging.

  19. A computational model for the rise and dispersion of wind-blown, buoyancy-driven plumes—I. Neutrally stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    A multi-dimensional computational model for the rise and dispersion of a wind-blown, buoyancy-driven plume in a calm, neutrally stratified atmosphere is presented. Lagrangian numerical techniques, based on the extension of the vortex method to variable density flows, are used to solve the governing equations. The plume rise trajectory and the dispersion of its material in the crosswind plane are predicted. It is found that the computed trajectory agrees well with the two-thirds power law of a buoyancy-dominated plume, modified to include the effect of the initial plume size. The effect of small-scale atmospheric turbulence, modeled in terms of eddy viscosity, on the plume trajectory is found to be negligible. For all values of buoyancy Reynolds number, the plume cross-section exhibits a kidney-shaped pattern, as observed in laboratory and field experiments. This pattern is due to the formation of two counter-rotating vortices which develop as baroclinically generated vorticity rolls up on both sides of the plume cross-section. Results show that the plume rise can be described in terms of three distinct stages: a short acceleration stage, a long double-vortex stage, and a breakup stage. The induced velocity field and engulfment are dominated by the two large vortices. The effect of a flat terrain on the plume trajectory and dispersion is found to be very small. The equivalent radii of plumes with different initial cross-sectional aspect ratios increase at almost the same rate. A large aspect-ratio plume rises slower initially and then catches up with smaller aspect-ratio plumes in the breakup stage. The Boussinesq approximation is found to be valid if the ratio of the density perturation to the reference density is less than 0.1.

  20. Coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly and decreased melarsoprol-induced reactive encephalopathy in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nyabuga Nyariki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modulatory effects of coenzyme Q10 on experimental trypanosome infections in mice and evaluate the risk of occurrence and severity of melarsoprol-induced post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE. Methods: Female Swiss white mice were orally administered with 200 mg/kg of coenzyme Q10 after which they were intraperitoneally inoculated with Trypanasoma brucei rhodesiense (T. b. rhodesiense. The resultant infection was allowed to develop and simulate all phases of human African trypanosomiasis and PTRE. Parasitaemia development, packed cell volume, haematological and pathological changes were determined. Results: A histological study in the brain tissue of T. b. rhodesiense infected mice demonstrated neuroinflammatory pathology which was highly amplified in the PTRE-induced groups. A prominent reduction in the severity of the neuroinflammatory response was detected when coenzyme-Q10 was administered. Furthermore, the mean tissue weight of spleen to body ratio in coenzyme Q10 supplemented group was significantly (P<0.05 different compared to un-supplemented groups, and clearly indicated that coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly pathogenesis by T. b. rhodesiense. A significant (P<0.05 increase in hemoglobin levels and red blood cells was observed in coenzyme Q10 mice compared to those infected and un-supplemented with coenzyme Q10. Conclusions: The capacity of coenzyme Q10 to alter the pathogenesis of T. b. rhodesiense infection in mice and following treatment with melarsoprol, may find application by rendering humans and animals less susceptible to deleterious effects of trypanosome infection such as splenomegaly and melarsoprol-induced PTRE and neurotoxicity.

  1. A computational model for the rise and dispersion of wind-blown, buoyancy-driven plumes—II. Linearly stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    A multi-dimensional computational model of wind-blown, buoyancy-driven flows is applied to study the effect of atmospheric stratification on the rise and dispersion of plumes. The model utilizes Lagrangian transport elements, distributed in the plane of the plume cross section normal to the wind direction, to caoture the evolution of the vorticity and density field, and another set of elements to model the dynamics in the atmosphere surrounding the plume. Solutions are obtained for a case in which atmospheric density changes linearly with height. Computational results show that, similar to the case of a neutrally stratified atmosphere, the plume acquires a kidney-shaped cross section which persists for a long distance downstream the source and may bifurcate into separate and distinct lumps. Baroclinic vortivity generated both along the plume boundary and in the surroundings is used to explain the origin of the distortion experienced by the plume and the inhibiting effect of a stratified atmosphere, respectively. The vorticity within the plume cross section forms two large-scale coherent eddies which are responsible for the plume motion and the entrainment. Prior to reaching the equilibrium height, the computed plume trajectory is found to follow the two-thirds law, when extended to include the initial plume size, reasonably well. Entrainment and added mass coefficients equal to 0.49 and 0.7 respectively, are obtained from the numerical results over a wide range of the buoyancy ratio, defined as the ratio between the plume buoyancy and the degree of background stratification. In the case of strong stratification, the plume trajectory shows weak, fast decaying oscillations around the equilibrium height.

  2. Two-stage desorption-controlled release of fluorescent dye and vitamin from solution-blown and electrospun nanofiber mats containing porogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, S; Duzyer, S; Sinha-Ray, S; Hockenberger, A; Yarin, A L; Pourdeyhimi, B

    2013-12-01

    In the present work, a systematic study of the release kinetics of two embedded model drugs (one completely water soluble and one partially water soluble) from hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanofiber mats was conducted. Fluorescent dye Rhodamine B was used as a model hydrophilic drug in controlled release experiments after it was encapsulated in solution-blown soy-protein-containing hydrophilic nanofibers as well as in electrospun hydrophobic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)-containing nanofibers. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), a partially water-soluble model drug, was also encapsulated in hydrophobic PET-containing nanofiber mats, and its release kinetics was studied. The nanofiber mats were submerged in water, and the amount of drug released was tracked by fluorescence intensity. It was found that the release process saturates well below 100% release of the embedded compound. This is attributed to the fact that desorption is the limiting process in the release from biopolymer-containing nanofibers similar to the previously reported release from petroleum-derived polymer nanofibers. Release from monolithic as well as core-shell nanofibers was studied in the present work. Moreover, to facilitate the release and ultimately to approach 100% release, we also incorporated porogens, for example, poly(ethylene glycol), PEG. It was also found that the release rate can be controlled by the porogen choice in nanofibers. The effect of nanocracks created by leaching porogens on drug release was studied experimentally and evaluated theoretically, and the physical parameters characterizing the release process were established. The objective of the present work is a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of controlled drug release from nanofibers facilitated by the presence of porogens. The novelty of this work is in forming nanofibers containing biodegradable and biocompatible soy proteins to facilitate controlled drug release as well as in measuring detailed

  3. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. PMID:8760390

  4. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by {sup 32}P-postlabelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.; Genevois, C.; Brandt, H.; Laget, M.; Bartsch, H.; Castegnaro, M. [Laboratoire de Biogenotoxicologie et Mutagenese Environnementale, Marseille (France). Faculte de Pharmcie

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during road paving. Exposure of workers to these fumes might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Thus a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens which were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays. Results were related to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates were tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for their formation. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina M. Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están decoloradas, alteradas y muy permeables por la ausencia de óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro, la disolución total a parcial de los cementos, losfeldespatos y líticos volcánicos y la alteración de estos últimos aargilominerales (illita> caolinita. Los minerales de cobre estándiseminados, en tubos o nódulos siempre en contacto con bitumen. Consisten enrestos de calcosina, covellina, trazas de calcopirita y una variedad deminerales de cobre supergénicos (malaquita, con crisocola, brochantita,azurita, tenorita, turquesa, atacamita, volbortita. También hay piritadiseminada y trazas de psilomelano. En las muestras con las mayoresconcentraciones de Cu (16% se detectaron anomalías de Mo (810 ppm, U (9,43ppm, Th (40,6 ppm y V (127-221 ppm. La geoquímica del bitumen indica que setrata de un residuo dejado por la migración de hidrocarburos generados a partirde rocas de origen marino del Jurásico (Formaciones Los Molles o Vaca Muerta.Las aguas de formación ricas en cloruros que migraron junto con loshidrocarburos, pudieron transportar el cobre y el azufre en solución. Lamigración de estos fluidos desde las rocas fuentes hacia los reservorios através de las fallas y estratos permeables, habría desempeñado un rol muyimportante en la extracción del cobre a partir del lavado de los óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro de los estratos rojos continentales infrayacentes. En sutransporte y en contacto con los niveles permeables de la Formación Portezuelo

  6. Flies blown disease - Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis, a term first introduced by Hope (1840, refers to the invasion of tissues and organs of animals and human wounds and certain body cavities by the dipteran larvae which manifests as subcutaneous furunculoid or boillike lesions. Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and a risk to the patient′s life. Higher incidence is seen in rural areas affecting the tropical and sub-tropical zones of Africa and America. Myiasis affecting the oro-dental complex is rare. Here is a case report of oral myiasis in an 18-year-old male patient who is mentally challenged with anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and periodontal disease. The lesion was treated with turpentine oil, which forced larvae out and irrigated with normal saline solution. Follow-up examination revealed complete remission and healing of the lesion.

  7. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors)

  8. Heavy oil and bitumen : thinking caps on : researchers look at new and greener ways to get at the heavy oil prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-01-15

    New steam stimulation processes developed by the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy were discussed. The J-well and gravity-assisted steam stimulation (JAGD) process uses a steam injection well located within the top few metres of a reservoir and a production well comprised of an inclined J-shaped well. JAGD is a transitional cold production-to-thermal-production technology. High pressure steam is used to heat and loosen the bitumen so that it flows to the producer well below. The configuration was designed to cut through mud and shale layers and is suitable for poor quality reservoirs. Simulations conducted in Athabasca reservoirs have demonstrated that JAGD uses approximately 75 per cent of the steam typically used in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. The iSAGD process was designed to reposition parallel wells in order to increase oil mobility. Researchers at the centre are also investigating a catalytic air-stream process called CASPAR which aims to upgrade oil from 10 degrees API to 16 degrees API within the reservoir. The process involves a mixture of heat, catalyst hydrogen, steam, air and water in the reservoir. The process leaves heavier ends of oil underground as well as fractions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Research is also being conducted on expanding-solvent SAGD (ES-SAGD) a process that adds butane to steam in order to reduce water use. 3 figs.

  9. 泡沫沥青冷再生混合料力学特性试验%Test of Mechanical Property of Cold Recycled Mixture with Foamed Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金枝; 郝培文; 刘丽

    2011-01-01

    采用间接拉伸强度、无侧限抗压强度及抗压回弹模量试验,分析了沥青路面旧料掺量及水泥用量对泡沫沥青冷再生混合料力学特性的影响.研究表明:随旧料掺量的增大或其中旧沥青含量的增多,泡沫沥青冷再生混合料设计最佳沥青用量减少,冷再生混合料抗拉、抗压、抗剪性能呈下降趋势,而抗压回弹模量逐渐增大;水泥用量的增大有助于提高冷再生混合料的强度、刚度及其水稳定性,但用量过大不利于冷再生混合料的抗裂性能,建议不超过2%;水泥用量较小(≤1.5%)的冷再生混合料强度增长主要集中于室温养生的24h以及40℃烘箱养生的第1个24h内,而水泥用量较大(1.5%~3%)的冷再生混合料养生期内强度增长比较匀速.%By indirect tensile strength test, unconfined compressive strength test and compressive resilient modulus test, the influences of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) content and cement content on mechanical property of cold recycled mixture with foamed bitumen ( CRMFB) were studied. The results indicate that ( 1) Increase of RAP content or content of old bitumen in RAP led to decrease of optimum foamed asphalt content and tensile, compressive, and shear strengths, but increase of compressive resilient modulus for CRMFB. (2) Increase of cement content contributed to the enhancement of mechanical property and water susceptibility of CRMFB. However, an excess of cement would have negative effect on crack resistance of CRMFB, so the cement content is suggested to be limited to 2% or less. (3) For the CRMFB with lower cement content ( ≤1. 5% ) , the strength increase mainly concentrated in the period of the 24 h at open air curing and the first 24 h at 40 t oven curing, while for the CRMFB with higher cement content (1.5% -3% ) , an uniform strength increase appeared in the whole curing period.

  10. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates; Utilisation d'un evaporateur a couche mince pour l'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G.; Rodier, J.; Hullo, R.; Cudel, Y.; Rodi, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors) [French] A la suite de la mise au point en laboratoire d'un procede d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats d'evaporation, une etude technologique de cet enrobage a ete entreprise. Ce rapport decrit une installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats utilisant un evaporateur a couche mince LUWA L 150. La premiere serie d'essais en inactif a eu pour but de definir les capacites maximales et optimales de l'evaporateur en faisant varier les dosages en bitume et en concentrats, la vitesse du rotor et la temperature du thermo-fluide. Deux rotors ont ete testes, l'un de type classique, l'autre d'un modele special concu pour les produits de haute viscosite. La capacite d'evaporation maximale de l'appareil est de 72 kg/h d'eau pour une temperature de chauffage de 221 deg. C. En marche normale l

  11. 转炉喷吹CO2+O2混合气体基础研究%Basic Study on Mixture Gas Including CO2 and O2 Blown into Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万雪峰; 曹东; 朱晓雷; 郭春媛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the thermod ynamic analysis of mixture gas including CO2 and O2 blown into BOF together with the experimental results of blowing mixture gas including CO2 and O2 into simulative converter at the final blowing stage in laboratory, the feasibility of blowing CO2 and O2 into the top blown converter for decarburization and control of oxygen is discussed. It is concluded that the product of carbon and oxygen reduces and the influence of the lance location on the prod-uct weakens as the ratio of CO2 in mixture gas increases, but the quantity of rephosphoration in-creases. when the ratio of CO2 in mixture gas increases to the 1 to 1 degree of CO2 and O2, the product of carbon and oxygen can be controlled between 0.23 ×10-6 and 0.25 ×10-6 in top blown converter and the average quantity of rephosphoration 0.001% while the theoretical maximum ratio of CO2 in mixture gas can increase up to 79.1%.%通过对转炉喷吹CO2+O2混合气体的热力学分析,结合实验室模拟转炉吹炼末期喷吹CO2+O2实验结果,探讨了在顶吹转炉中应用CO2+O2进行脱碳抑氧的可行性。得出结论,混合气体中CO2比例增大,碳氧积降低,枪位对碳氧积的影响减弱,但回磷量增加,当CO2比例增大到CO2:O2=1:1时,顶吹转炉碳氧积可控制在0.23×10-6~0.25×10-6,平均回磷量0.001%,混合气体中CO2最大理论比例可增加到79.1%。

  12. Effects of Water Levels on Morphologies and Mechanical Properties of Water-Blown Polyurethane%水用量对全水发泡聚氨酯泡沫形态和力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 杜海晶; 米岩; 高振华

    2012-01-01

    采用扫描电镜(SEM)和红外光谱(FT-IR)并结合物理力学性能测试,对高水用量(3phr~11phr)所制备的全水发泡低密度聚氨酯泡沫的形态和力学性能进行表征,结果表明,水用量逐渐从3phr增加到11phr,发泡聚氨酯物料的乳白时间、凝胶时间和不粘手时间逐渐延长,泡沫中的取代脲结构含量和氢键化程度逐渐增加,泡沫密度和力学性能逐渐降低,泡孔平均孔径呈先增大、后减小的趋势,然而泡沫的比强度和氨基甲酸酯含量变化不大。%The morphologies and mechanical properties of water-blown polyurethane (PU) foams with various water levels (3-11phr) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and physi-mechanical evaluations. The results indicate that water level has various effect on the chemical compositions and microstructures of water-blown PU foams and affectes the physi-mechanical properties because water not only formed the gas for foaming but also involved with the chain-extension of polyurea-urethane resin. As water level increased from 3 phr to llphr, the cream time, gel time, tack-free time, polyurea content and hydrogen bonding of PU foams increased gradually, while the density and mechanical properties of PU foam decreased accordingly. The water-blown PU foams with low density but good performances can be prepared by adjusting the water level.

  13. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén Alteration,Cu mineralization and bitumen in the Barda González prospect, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina M. Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están decoloradas, alteradas y muy permeables por la ausencia de óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro, la disolución total a parcial de los cementos, losfeldespatos y líticos volcánicos y la alteración de estos últimos aargilominerales (illita> caolinita. Los minerales de cobre estándiseminados, en tubos o nódulos siempre en contacto con bitumen. Consisten enrestos de calcosina, covellina, trazas de calcopirita y una variedad deminerales de cobre supergénicos (malaquita, con crisocola, brochantita,azurita, tenorita, turquesa, atacamita, volbortita. También hay piritadiseminada y trazas de psilomelano. En las muestras con las mayoresconcentraciones de Cu (16% se detectaron anomalías de Mo (810 ppm, U (9,43ppm, Th (40,6 ppm y V (127-221 ppm. La geoquímica del bitumen indica que setrata de un residuo dejado por la migración de hidrocarburos generados a partirde rocas de origen marino del Jurásico (Formaciones Los Molles o Vaca Muerta.Las aguas de formación ricas en cloruros que migraron junto con loshidrocarburos, pudieron transportar el cobre y el azufre en solución. Lamigración de estos fluidos desde las rocas fuentes hacia los reservorios através de las fallas y estratos permeables, habría desempeñado un rol muyimportante en la extracción del cobre a partir del lavado de los óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro de los estratos rojos continentales infrayacentes. En sutransporte y en contacto con los niveles permeables de la Formación Portezuelo

  14. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 2, Appendix A: Fixed bed gasifier and sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem computer model development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  15. The influence of organic complexing agents upon the mobilization and migration of radionuclides from ILW contained in cement and bitumen under nearfield conditions for a repository in a salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of this project the influence of the synthetic organic complexing agents dibutylphosphate, tributylphosphate, ethylenediamine-tetra acetic acid, citrate and oxalate on the solubilities, the migration and sorption behaviour of the elements iodine, cesium, uranium neptunium, plutonium and americium was investigated in electrolyte solutions, representing the conditions of a near field of a waste repository in a salt dome after an intrusion of brines, considered as a hypothetical scenario. The electrolyte solutions were saturated NaCl solution and Q-brine, which were equilibrated with corrosion products of the matrices Portland 35-F cement and bitumen (Shell Mexphalte R 80-100) before starting the experiments, in order to simulate their influence on the chemical behaviour of the solutions used for the experiments. The temperature, at which the experiments were carried out, was 298 K. After determining the relevant pH- and Eh-values, pH was adapted to 12.3 for saturated NaCl solution equilibrated with cement and to 6.4 for Q-brine also being at equilibrium with cement. The electrolyte systems on the other hand containing bitumen were kept at those pH-values, which resulted from saturation with the complexing agents. 120 tabs., 87 figs., 67 refs

  16. Decision 99-8 : Shell Canada Limited application to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader in the Fort Saskatchewan area : Shell Canada Products Limited application to amend refinery approval in the Fort Saskatchewan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to construct and operate an oil sands bitumen upgrader on Shell's property adjoining the existing Scotford refinery in the County of Strathcona. The upgrader would process bitumen from Shell's proposed Muskeg River Mine, located 70 km north of Fort McMurray, and other feedstocks available in the area. The Board also considered an application for an amendment to the existing Scotford refinery approval, Industrial Development Permit 89-10, for the processing of 3.75 million cubic metres per year of sour conversion feedstock. Under a coordinated application process, Shell filed a joint Shell Scotford Upgrader application/Environmental Impact Assessment. Issues considered with respect to these applications were: technology selection, air/health, sulphur recovery, noise/traffic, and land use conflict. Shell stated that its Scotford refinery is the most energy efficient refinery in the Americas and that is has the highest liquid yield per unit volume of crude oil feedstock of any refinery in the world. The refinery's hydrocracking capacity would make it possible to use hydro-conversion technology for its upgrader which is environmentally advantageous. After examining all of the evidence pertaining to the applications, the Board found the projects to be in the public interest and is prepared to approve the Scotford Upgrader and Scotford Refinery modifications assuming that certain prescribed conditions are met

  17. 沥青样品铼-锇同位素分析溶解实验研究%Dissolving Experimental Research of Re-Os Isotope System for Bitumen Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 屈文俊; 王登红; 陈郑辉; 杜安道; 张长青

    2011-01-01

    The content of Re-Os in asphalt samples is relatively low, and CO2 are released in digestion because of large amounts of organic matter. It is important to control the amount of asphalt in the sample and the proportion of oxidant to ensure the Os recovery and stability of the measured signal. The method for the Re-Os isotope was improved because of large amounts of organic matter contained in bitumen samples. The Oxidants was changed to 3 mL HC1, 4 mL HNO3 and 3mL H2 O2 from the original 3 mL HC1 and 6 mL HNO3, the improved method making the Os measured signal approximately 2 times larger than before. Changes in oxidants composition increase the amount of the bitumen sample weight greatly from th eoriginal 0.2 g to 0. 4 g. Influence of H2 O2 added with routine reverse aqua regia and direct distillation from a Carius tube on the signal intensity of osmium measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-MassSpectrometry( ICP-MS ). Was studied. Bitumen samples were dissolved and equilibrated with a known amount of 185Re and 190Os tracers in 2 mL HC1, 5 mL HNO3 and 2 mL H2O2 by a Carius tube at 200℃ for 12 h and 240℃ for 12 h, with the Os and Re separated using direct distillation or routine distillation and solvent extraction techniques, respectively. 187Re/185 Re, 187Os/190Os and 192Os/190Os were determined by ICP-MS. Bitumen samples in lead-zinc deposits from Yunnan Province were analyzed. The isochron ages was (60 ± 2 ) Ma ( MSWD = 2. 5, n = 7 ), and the initial 187Os/188Os values was 4. 36 ±0. 14. The results show that Re-Os isotope is an effective tool to date bitumen samples and the Os in the bitumen originated from the crust. The established method can be used to date and trace the source of bitumen samples.%沥青样品中Re、Os含量较低,且组成复杂,因含有大量有机质,在溶样过程中会释放大量CO2,需要大量氧化剂.控制样品称样量和氧化剂比例、用量对保证Os的回收率以及测量信号的稳定性非常重要.本文根

  18. Recent technological advances in the application of nano-catalytic technology to the enhanced recovery and upgrading of bitumen and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Almao, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Advances in Nanotechnology, such as manufacturing of nano-catalysts allow the online (during processing) and on site production of nano-catalysts for heavy oils upgrading. These inventions have also facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oils upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. Producing chemical upgrading of heavy oils is achievable and economically viable at lower temperatures and lower pressures than used in most upgraders if the use of nano-catalysts were implemented. The spontaneity of thermal, steam and hydro processing reactions for converting the different chemical families of hydrocarbons present in the heaviest fractions of heavy oils and bitumen (HO-B) into lighter products was shown recently. Spontaneity was measured by the value of the change of free energy at low pressure. These undesirable paths are spontaneous and uncontrollable under thermal cracking conditions, and require providing years of residence time for intermolecular hydrogen redistribution to minimize olefins polymerization, if at all possible. Instead, hydroprocessing in the presence of hydrogen activating catalysts would create an abundance of hydrogen radicals impeding large molecules condensation and olefins proliferation. In Situ Upgrading: performs coupled Enhanced Oil Recovery with In Reservoir Upgrading via Hot Fluid Injection (HFI). The heat handling of this HFI process and the production of transportable oil with no need of diluent from the start of operation completes the originality of it. This technology uses heavy fractions separated from produced oil to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. These components react in the well bore and inside the reservoir to release more heat (hydroprocessing reactions are exothermic) producing light gases and volatile hydrocarbons that contribute to increase oil detachment from the rock resulting in

  19. 策勒绿洲-荒漠过渡带风沙前沿近地面不同方向的输沙特征%Study on Wind-blown Sand Characteristics at Different Directions near the Surface in the Frontier of an Oasis-desert Ecotone in Qira County,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴华; 何清; 霍文; 程玉景

    2012-01-01

    Aeolian sand transport is serious in many arid regions in the world,and it is considered to be as a significant part of global biogeochemical cycles.Furthermore,wind-blown sand brings often disasters.Therefore,widespread attention has been paid to the significance of aeolian sand transport in many fields,such as geomorphology,climatology,meteorology,ecology and environmental science.Wind-blown sand direction is a base for both studying the formation and evolution of aeolian geomorphology and carrying out the sand damage control measures.In this study,a statistical analysis on wind-blown sand direction in an oasis-desert ecotone in Qira County,located in the south marginal zone of the Tarim Basin,was carried out during the period from 2010 to 2011.Some preliminary conclusions are as follows:(1) In the study area,the wind directions of sand-driving wind are mainly W and WNW,and the change of wind direction is comparatively simple;(2) In the study area,the wind directions at which the values of sediment discharge are high are dominated by NW,WNW,W,SW and WSW,and the occurring frequency is as high as 68.3%.An aeolian sediment discharge of 96 kg passing through a height extent of 0-40 cm and 1-cm width occurred.The annual resultant wind-blown sand amount is 45.9 kg,and the resultant wind-blown sand direction is 102.5°;(3) In the study area,the wind-blown sand potential and resultant wind-blown sand potential are 43.2 VU and 31.04 VU respectively.There is a considerable difference between the direction of wind-blown sand potential and the measured sediment discharge.It is recognized that wind-blown sand is a complex process,and various factors affecting wind-blow sand,such as wind speed,wind direction and underlying surface,should be comprehensively considered and researched.%利用策勒绿洲-荒漠过渡带风沙前沿输沙资料及风速风向资料,分析这一区域近地面输沙的方向分布特征。结果表明:①风沙前沿起沙风风向以W、WNW为

  20. In situ and laboratory investigation of the alteration of Boom Clay (Oligocene) at the air–geological barrier interface within the Mol underground facility (Belgium): Consequences on kerogen and bitumen compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boom Clay formation (Oligocene) is studied as a reference host rock for methodological studies on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. During excavation of galleries within the Clay formation (HADES underground research facility, Mol, Belgium), the physico-chemical conditions are significantly modified as an air–clay interface is created. In order to study the long-term impact of the air–clay contact on the organic matter contained in the Boom Clay, two types of samples were studied: (1) a reference series of clay samples having been in contact with the atmosphere of the HADES gallery for increasing times up to several years and (2) unaltered clay samples submitted to artificial oxidation in a ventilated oven at 80 °C. The evolution of geochemical data of the two series was compared using Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC–MS and size exclusion chromatography. The organic matter of the unaltered clays sampled in the HADES galleries is dominated by type III kerogen (terrestrial) with some contribution of type II (marine) and is thermally immature. The evolution of geochemical parameters during air alteration for the two series are very similar. They show progressive oxidation of kerogen accompanied by the release of bitumen enriched in low molecular weight constituents. Molecular analysis evidences the presence of a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic O-bearing compounds, inherited from the degradation of kerogen as well as from the clay catalyzed oxidation of the bitumen. These results show that (1) air oxidation is a major process in the in situ alteration of the organic matter of Boom Clay within the HADES galleries, (2) laboratory oxidation experiments at 80 °C yield similar results as in situ air alteration of Boom Clay and (3) artificial air oxidation may be used to assess the long term exposure of the organic matter to air.

  1. The Application of Melt Blown/Dry-Laid Composite Web in Automobile Sound-Absorbing Material and its Process%熔喷/干法纤网在线复合汽车吸音棉的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛长征; 邵庆国; 黄象安

    2012-01-01

    为了实现熔喷/干法纤网复合汽车吸音棉的在线生产,以开发300 g/m2的复合吸音棉为例,对熔喷工艺、干法纤网工艺以及熔喷/干法纤网在线复合等内容进行了分析介绍.结果表明:采用熔融指数150 g/min的聚丙烯切片,并控制好模头温度、热空气喷射角、热空气压力、接收距离等熔喷工艺参数,采用纤度为3.3 dtex的三维卷曲涤纶中空短纤维和阻燃涤纶短纤维组成的干法纤网,纤网加入熔喷丝的角度在75~83°之间时,能够得到较好的复合吸音棉材料.%To realize the on-line production of melt blown-dry laid composite automobile sound-absorbing material, the 300 g/m2 nonwoven is developed and the processes of melt blown fiber, dry-laid web and lamination of melt blown dry-laid web are investigated. The result indicates that the perfect composite sound-absorbing material can be obtained with following conditions: polypropylene chip with melt index 150 g/min, controlled die temperature, regulated hot air pressure and collection distance for melt blowing, the dry-laid web using 3.3 dtex three dimensional crimp PET hollow staple fiber and flame retardant PET staple fiber for dry-laid web, the jet angle of melt blown fiber with the web is 75~83°.

  2. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  3. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    OpenAIRE

    Babadagli T.; Ozum B.

    2012-01-01

    Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties. Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. We propose the use of bioDie...

  4. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for bitumen and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria; Radioactivite et evaluation de la dose dans des echantillons de bitume et de sol autour d'un depot bitumineux dans l'etat d'Ondo, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Ademonehin, S. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-07-15

    Bitumen samples and soil samples around a bituminous deposit in Ondo State, Nigeria, were analysed for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th employing gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in soil varied from (45.2 {+-} 5.3) to (484.2 {+-} 25.9), BDL (below detectable limit) to (27.7 {+-} 2.1) and (22.8 {+-} 2.7) to (62.4 {+-} 6.8) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The corresponding mean values were (240.2 {+-} 133.5), (13.3 {+-} 8.0) and (40.0 {+-} 10.2) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively. The mean activity concentrations of the radionuclides in the bitumen were (58.4 {+-} 36.4), (16.1 {+-} 13.3) and (32.5 {+-} 13.1) Bq.kg{sup -1}, respectively, for {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th. The mean absorbed dose and effective dose for the soil samples were (41.5 {+-} 8.9) nGy.h{sup -1} and (50.7 {+-} 10.9) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively, while those of the bitumen samples were (29.5 {+-} 15.6) nGy.h{sup -1} and (36.1 {+-} 19.1) {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, respectively. For radiological hazard assessment, the radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index were determined. The values of the radium equivalent activity and external hazard index obtained for the soil and bitumen samples were lower than the recommended limit. (authors)

  5. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    needed to increase the recovery of bitumen resources and provide the upgrading capacity required by Suncor for additional bitumen production from its mining and in situ projects. 1 fig

  6. Application of foamed bitumen cold-place recycling in heavy repair of highway%泡沫沥青就地冷再生在公路大修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces the application of the foamed bitumen cold-place recycling in the heavy repair of highways in Anhui province, illustrates the scheme selection and construction craft, and evaluates the application effect from conomy, the durability and well resistant reflection crack in foundation, so it provides experience for the selection for heavy repair of highways and the recycling utility of pavement used materials.%介绍了泡沫沥青就地冷再生在安徽省公路大修工程中的应用情况,就其方案比选及施工工艺流程进行了阐述,从其经济性、耐久性及良好的抗基层反射裂缝等方面对其使用效果进行了评价,为公路大修方案的选择及路面废旧料再生利用提供了可借鉴的经验.

  7. Clouds blown by the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this letter we investigate possible relationships between the cloud cover (CC) and the interplanetary electric field (IEF), which is modulated by the solar wind speed and the interplanetary magnetic field. We show that CC at mid–high latitudes systematically correlates with positive IEF, which has a clear energetic input into the atmosphere, but not with negative IEF, in general agreement with predictions of the global electric circuit (GEC)-related mechanism. Thus, our results suggest that mid–high latitude clouds might be affected by the solar wind via the GEC. Since IEF responds differently to solar activity than, for instance, cosmic ray flux or solar irradiance, we also show that such a study allows distinguishing one solar-driven mechanism of cloud evolution, via the GEC, from others. (letter)

  8. Blown away; new non-fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    Review of 'The Manhattan Project' by Jeff Hughes which sets the mammoth collaboration into scientific context, showing how it both developed from and accelerated a research trend that was already underway (1/2 page).

  9. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  10. 接枝杜仲胶对干法橡胶沥青混合料的改性机理与效果%Modification mechanism and effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum on dry-process rubber bitumen mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 李聪; 蔡敏东

    2014-01-01

    Domestic natural rubber, the eucommia ulmoides gum( EUG) , was used to create chemi-cal links between rubber crumb and asphalt.After rubber crumb was mixed with EUG, it was found that by the microscopic analysis and macroscopic representation of mixture, EUG owns double bond structure which could be vulcanized with the sulfur of rubber crumb.EUG was grafted with maleic anhydride ( MA) reacting with the asphalt amino-group, and thus chemical links were built between the EUG and asphalt.Then the modification effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum, EUG and imports was experimented by the microscopic and performance test of rubber bitumen, the high and low temperature performance, water stability and mechanical property of dry-process rubber bitumen mixture.Test results show that EUG can contribute to the vulcanization of rubber crumb, but it can-not create the reaction network between the vulcanized rubber crumb and asphalt,so the rubber as-phalt mixture performance improvement is not obvious.EUG grafted with MA establishes the re-sponse network of vulcanized rubber crumb and asphalt, so the rubber asphalt mixture performance improvement is obvious, and the modification effect can reach the level of foreign products.There-fore, EUG can only achieve chemical reaction between rubber powder and asphalt through grafting, which is the fundament of the dry rubber asphalt mixture.%利用国内特有天然橡胶---杜仲胶来建立橡胶粉与沥青之间的化学链接。首先通过橡胶粉干拌杜仲胶后的微观分析和宏观表象,发现杜仲胶的双键结构可以与橡胶粉的硫交联硫化;并将杜仲胶接枝于沥青氨基反应的马来酸酐,在杜仲胶与沥青之间产生化学链接。然后通过对橡胶沥青微观和路用性能,以及干法橡胶沥青混合料高低温、水稳性及力学性能进行试验,研究了杜仲胶、国外进口橡胶反应剂的改性效果。试验结果表明:杜仲胶可以促进橡胶粉的硫化

  11. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms

  12. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Laurent; Helgeson, Harold C.

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for ˜360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17α(H)- and 17β(H)-hopanes, 5α(H),14α(H)-, 5β(H),14α(H)-, 5α(H),14β(H)-, and 5β(H),14β(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive

  13. Biomass gasification as the first hot step in clean syngas production process - gas quality optimization and primary tar reduction measures in a 100 kW thermal input steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    g m-3 (STP). Moreover, magnesite complied with the expectation to have a positive impact on agglomeration prevention for the agricultural fuels containing alkali and chlorine in the ash. The kind of olivine applied during the experiments did not yield the expected tar reduction; the measured tar concentration was even higher than when quartz sand was used as bed material. Finally kaolin proved to be an effective additive to counteract the agglomeration when fuels with high alkali content in the ash are gasified using bed material that is rich in silica, as it is the case with quartz sand and olivine. -- Highlights: → Gasification of woody and agricultural biomass was extensively tested in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier. → Stable operation was possible, even with agricultural fuels, provided the agglomeration is counteracted using kaolin. → Operation with straw caused downstream problems due to KCl deposition. → Combination of magnesite as bed material and miscanthus as fuel yielded highest hydrogen fraction and lowest amount of tar. → The kind of olivine used in the experiments did not cause the expected reduction of the tar yield.

  14. Decontamination by fractional distillation of a radioactive mixture of perchlorethylene, bitumen, and sludges from chemical co-precipitations; Decontamination par distillation fractionnee d'un melange radioactif constitue par du perchlorethylene, du bitume et des boues de coprecipitation chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G.; Hullo, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    It is not possible to incinerate the contaminated organic waste containing chlorine, produced at the Marcoule Centre. The only valid method for these solvents of average activity is fractional distillation. This report presents a pilot fractional distillation plant designed for decontaminating the residual solvents produced by the Centre's Waste Processing Station. These contaminated solvents come from the decontamination of a screw extrusion apparatus with perchlorethylene; this equipment is used for coating the radioactive sludges with bitumen. The pilot plant operates discontinuously and is used to decontaminate the perchlorethylene, to separate the perchlorethylene from the water, and to process the distillation residue. The electrically heated boiler is fitted with a removable base in the form of a disposable container. The installations decontamination factor is 3.4 x 10{sup 6} when solvents with a specific activity of 0.23 Ci/m{sup 3} are used. The average flow-rate for a distillation run is 10 l/hr at atmospheric pressure, and 21 l/hr at a residual pressure of 40 torr. The decontamination factor for the installation is better at atmospheric pressure than in a vacuum. (authors) [French] Les effluents organiques contamines chlores du Centre de Marcoule ne peuvent etre incineres. Le seul mode de traitement qui s'impose pour ces solvants de moyenne activite s'avere etre la distillation fractionnee. Ce rapport presente une installation pilote de distillation fractionnee qui a ete concue pour decontaminer des solvants residuaires provenant de la Station de Traitement des Effluents du Centre. Ces solvants contamines resultent de la decontamination au moyen de perchlorethylene d'une extrudeuse a vis servant a l'enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de cette station. L'installation pilote fonctionne en discontinu et assure a la fois la decontamination du perchlorethylene, la separation du perchlorethylene et de l'eau et le

  15. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties. Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. We propose the use of bioDiesel such as fatty acids methyl ester as a surfactant additive reducing heavy oil/bitumen-water interfacial tension in steam assisted recovery processes. Advantages of using bioDiesel as a surfactant additive are that bioDiesel is chemically stable under the operating pressure and temperature of the reservoir, it causes no harm on bitumen fuel quality and on release water chemistry and its use is economically feasible. We conducted a series of steam assisted bitumen recovery experiments to clarify the additional recovery potential and efficiency improvement capacity of bioDiesel. High pressure steam at 1.8 MPa pressure, 205°C was used in these tests at a 900 g/h feed rate. The porous media used was a normal grade oil sands ore obtained from a surface mine operation in Northern Alberta, Canada. Oil sands ore was packed in a basket and placed in a high pressure cell. Bitumen recovery experiments were performed by spraying canola oil fatty acid methyl ester on oil sands ore at a 2 g/kg-bitumen dosage. These tests show that bitumen recovery efficiency increases over 40%. In another series of tests, tall oil fatty acids methyl ester was injected into a high pressure steam line at a 8.3 g-bioDiesel/kg-steam dosage. Because of the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen, the effect of bioDiesel on bitumen recovery could not be accurately concluded. Vapor pressure measurements performed on canola oil and tall oil derived bioDiesel samples suggest that saturation

  16. Correlação entre as propriedades reológicas, óticas e a morfologia de filmes soprados de LLDPE/LDPE Correlation between rheological and optical properties and the morphology of blown films of LLDPE/LDPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. Guerrini

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho correlações entre as propriedades reológicas e óticas e a morfologia de filmes soprados de polietileno linear de baixa densidade, LLDPE, e de suas blendas com 10% e 20 % de polietileno de baixa densidade, LDPE, foram pesquisadas. Os filmes foram processados em uma sopradora industrial. As propriedades reológicas estudadas foram : a viscosidade em regime permanente de cisalhamento, h(, a primeira diferença de tensões normais, N1(, o módulo complexo em cisalhamento, G* (ômega e a deformação recuperável, gamar (t. h( e N1(foram medidos num reômetro de deformação controlada com cone e placa (taxas baixas e num capilar (taxas elevadas; G* (ômega e gamar(t foram medidos num reômetro de tensão controlada com placas paralelas. As propriedades óticas (brilho e opacidade foram medidas num opacímetro. As morfologias superficiais dos filmes soprados foram analisadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e microscopia de força atômica. Uma correlação entre deformação recuper��vel, opacidade total e morfologia dos filmes das blendas de LLDPE/LDPE foi obtida: quanto maior a recuperação elástica, menor a opacidade total e menor o tamanho do cristalito. A adição do LDPE ao LLDPE aumentou a deformação recuperável das blendas, diminuindo as suas opacidades.ABSTRACT In this work, correlations between the rheological and optical properties and the morphology of blow films of blends of linear low density, LLDPE, and low density polyethylene, LDPE, were studied. The films were blown in an industrial film blowing line. Rheological properties of the blends, such as shear steady state viscosity, h( , first normal stress difference, N1(, shear complex modulus, G* (omega and recoverable strain, gammar (t were analyzed. h( and N1 ( were measured in a strain controlled rheometer with cone and plate geometry (low shear rates and in a capillary rheometer (hig shear rates; on the other hand, G* (omega and gammar (t were

  17. Solution-blown nanofiber mats from fish sarcoplasmic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sett, S.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Yarin, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, solution-blowing was adopted to form nanofibers from fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSPs). Nanofiber mats containing different weight ratios (up to 90/10) of FSP in the FSP/nylon 6 blended nanofibers were formed from formic acid solutions, and compared to electrospun fibers made...... production rate of solution-blowing was increased 30-fold in relation to electrospinning. Overall, this study reveals FSP as an interesting biopolymeric alternative to synthetic polymers, and the introduction of FSP to nylon 6 provides a composite with controlled properties....

  18. Surface Haze and Surface Morphology of Blown Film Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajen; Ratta, Varun; Saavedra, Pepe; Li, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Reduction in surface haze is a very attractive way to improve the optical properties of most polyolefin films. This route becomes very viable for coextruded multilayer films where the inner layers may be utilized to provide the desired mechanical properties, such as high modulus, controlled shrinkage, and good tear strength while the outer 'skin' layers are utilized to give low surface and ...

  19. Comet mission is blown off course by faulty rocket

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    ESA has announced that the launch of the Rosetta probe, has been delayed indefinitely because of problems with the unreliable Ariane-5 rocket on which it was to fly. The project will now have to be redesigned completely to target a different comet at a later date (1/2 page).

  20. Application of the blown-ups principle to thunderstorm forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huizhi; Xie, Na; Wang, Qin

    2005-09-01

    Discontinuous and long-duration thunderstorm weather, which occurred at Guanghan in Sichuan Province, was analyzed and predicted using structural conversion of irregular information in phase-space from self-recording “time sequence” records for predicting rain areas, as described in the “Non Destructive Information” method proposed by Professor OuYang Shoucheng. The results show that this method can reveal important changes of weather as well as, by using irregular self-recording information recorded every ten minutes, predict local thunderstorms with durations of only half an hour, and even predict intense convections 12 hours in advance. This is significant for civil and military aviation. It shows the necessity of full utilization of information from automatic weather stations and the necessity of improvements in recording modes in current automatic stations.

  1. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963); Enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de la station de traitement des effluents du centre de Marcoule. Mise au point des etats d'avancement 1, 2, 3 et 4. (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Scheidhauer, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors) [French] En dehors des liquides de tres haute activite contenant des produits de fission, le traitement chimique des combustibles irradies produit un volume important d'effluents aqueux et de residus solides de radioactivite relativement faible. Ces produits, faiblement actifs, peuvent etre elimines dans le sol, dans un systeme hydrographique terrestre ou dans la mer. Les techniques d'evaporation, de concentration sur resine, de coprecipitation, permettent la decontamination prealable des liquides. La coprecipitation donne naissance a des boues minerales dont la teneur en eau est elevee. Tous ces residus occupent un volume important et representent un poids non negligeable. Dans le cas des boues, leur fluidite relative exige un conditionnement donnant toutes garanties de securite au stockage. La solution du probleme consistera a passer directement d'un liquide ou d'une suspension a un solide

  2. Inhibition of the radiolytic hydrogen production in the nuclear waste of 'bitumen coated' type: study of the interaction between hydrogen and cobalt hydroxo-sulphide; Inhibition de la production d'hydrogene radiolytique dans les dechets nucleaires de type 'enrobes bitumineux': etude de l'interaction entre l'hydrogene et l'hydroxosulfure de cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, C

    2006-11-15

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxo sulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an 'inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production'. However, the origin of this phenomenon was not clearly identified. In order to propose an explanation to this inhibition phenomenon, model organic molecules were used to represent the components of the bitumen. Irradiations were carried out by protons to simulate the alpha radiolysis. The organic molecules irradiations by a proton beam showed that cobalt hydroxo sulphide CoSOH, does not act as a hydrogenation catalyst of unsaturated hydrocarbons, nor as a radicals scavenger, but consists of a trap of hydrogen. Experiments of hydrogen trapping at ambient temperature were carried out according to two techniques: gravimetry and manometry. The solid was characterized before and after interaction with hydrogen (infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction). The initial solid was composed of amorphous cobalt hydroxo sulphide and a minor phase of cobalt hydroxide. The gravimetry and manometry experiments showed that the maximum of hydrogen trapping capacity is equal to 0.59 {+-} 0.18 mole of hydrogen per mole of cobalt. After interaction with hydrogen, the Co(OH){sub 2} phase disappeared and a new solid phase appeared corresponding to Co{sub 9}S{sub 8}. These observations, as well as the analysis of the gas phase, made it possible to conclude with the following reaction (1): 9 CoSOH + 11/2 H{sub 2} = Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} + 9 H{sub 2}O + H{sub 2}S (1). Gravimetry experiments at temperatures between 50 and 210 C revealed the desorption of water but not of hydrogen sulphide. The absence of hydrogen

  3. Oil generation history of Paleozoic source rocks and its implications for the origin of Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in Northeastern Sichuan Basin%川东北地区古生界烃源岩生油模拟及其对飞仙关组储层沥青来源的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳飞; 王一刚

    2013-01-01

    The origin of Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin has been controversial for a long time.Previous knowledge mostly was based on geochemical data,and less hydrocarbon generation procedure was taken into account.In this study,basin modeling was used to investigate oil generation histories and resource potentials of three probable hydrocarbon source rocks (the Lower Cambrian,the Lower Permian and the Upper Permian mudstones) for the Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in Northeastern Sichuan basin.The results showed that the main oil generation stages occurred in the Permian-early Triassic period,early-middle Triassic period and late Triassic-early Jurassic period for the Lower Cambrian,Lower Permian and Upper Permian mud source rocks,respectively.With respect to resource potentials,the Lower Silurian mudstone source rocks produced the largest amount of oils during the whole middle-late Triassic period,accounting for 80%-90% of the total oils generated by the three sets of source rocks.During the early Jurassic sedimentary period,the Upper Permian shale was the primary oil source rocks in the Puguang area and the Lower Silurian shale became sub-ordinary,only accounting for 10%-20% of total oils generated during this period.However,the Lower Silurian shale source rocks contributed about 80% of oils in the Luojiazhai area.Considering absolute oil quantities generated in the middle-late Triassic period much more than those in the early Jurassic period,the oils in Feixianguan giant paleo-pools were believed to be sourced from the Lower Silurian hydrocarbon source rock and a minor contribution from the Permian shale source rock,and its contribution is variable in different regions.It was worthy to note that the huge quantities of oils generated from the Lower Cambrian shale were not trapped in the Feixianguan paleo-pools,because their generation was prior to the formation of Feixianguan reservoirs.They might be trapped in the Paleozoic

  4. INVESTIGATION OF EMULSIFIER PROPERTIES FOR ROAD BITUMEN EMULSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanyk, V.; Terletckaya, V.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of emulsifier for bituminous emulsions have been investigated. Concentration dependences of interfacial tension of emulsifier water solutions and index of adsorption of the surface active substances (SAS) on surface of mineral aggregates have been established.

  5. Characteristics of two-component epoxy modified bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Su, Z.; Zandvoort, F.

    2010-01-01

    Coal tar bearing emulsions were used in the Netherlands as binder in anti-skid surfaces for runways because of their perfect adhesion and fuel resistance properties. They are however toxic and will not be allowed anymore after 2010. Therefore alternatives need to be developed. As one of the alternat

  6. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report

  7. Turning Back Time: Rheological and Microstructural Assessment of Rejuvenated Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A. J. M.; Schlangen, E; M. Shirazi; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Schitter, G.; Scarpas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Countermeasures to the ageing of bituminous asphalt binders is a highly important topic, both for service-life extension of asphalt ‘in the field’ and for recycling old pavements (RAP) into new structures with similar functional requirements as the original structure. Usually this is achieved by applying additives that restore the adhesive and mechanical properties of the original bituminous binder. These additives are commonly termed (asphalt) rejuvenators. Here we examine the performance of...

  8. Hierarchical system of shells blown by wind of Cyg OB1 stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure and kinematics of gas-dust complex connected with the Cyg OB1 association and open clusters NGC 6913 and IC 4996 have been investigated. the optical and radio brightness distribution along with the radial velocities field provided by the available observations in Hα, CO, HI and recombination radio lines is analyzed. Several new ring nebulae and/or cavities in CO - distribution around the WR and Of stars are distinguished. An hierarchial system of ''inclosed'' shells is revealed: the common shell around Cyg OB1 consists of two components - the shells around NGC 6913 and IC 4996 with small-size WR and Of ring nebulae inside. Interferometric Hα observations of the region provided the common shell expansion velocity Vexp < or approx. 15 km/s. The origin of the multi-stellar structure of the ISM around Cyg OB1 is discussed

  9. Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Li Bo; Xiao-Jing Zheng; Shao-Zhen Duan; Yi-Rui Liang

    2013-01-01

    In the research of windblown sand movement,the lift-off and incident velocities of saltating sand particles play a significant role in bridging the spatial and temporal scales from single sand particle's motion to windblown sand flux.In this paper,we achieved wind tunnel measurements of the movement of sand particles near sand bed through improving the wind tunnel experimental scheme of paticle image velocimetry (PIV) and data processing method.And then the influence of observation height on the probability distributions of lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles was analyzed.The results demonstrate that the observation height has no obvious influence on the distribution pattern of the lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles,i.e.,the probability distribution of horizontal and vertical velocities of lift-off and incident sand particles follow a Gaussian distribution and a negative exponential distribution,respectively.However,it influences the center of the Gaussian distribution,the decay constant and the amplitude of the negative exponential distribution.

  10. Specific features of a stopped pipe blown by a turbulent jet: Aeroacoustics of the panpipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, Roman; Fabre, Benoît; Meneses, Felipe; de la Cuadra, Patricio; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2016-06-01

    Flute-like instruments with a stopped pipe were widely used in ancient cultures and continue to be used in many musical expressions throughout the globe. They offer great flexibility in the input control parameters, allowing for large excursions in the flux and in the geometrical configuration for the lips of the instrumentalist. For instance, the transverse offset of the jet axis relative to the labium can be shifted beyond the operational limits found in open-open pipes, and the total jet flux can be increased up to values that produce highly turbulent jets while remaining on the first oscillating regime. Some of the fundamental aspects of the acoustics and hydrodynamics of this kind of instrument are studied, like the instability of the jet wave and the static aerodynamic balance in the resonator. A replica of an Andean siku has been created to observe, through the Schlieren flow visualization, the behavior of both excitation and resonator of the instrument. PMID:27369145

  11. Distribution and provenance of wind-blown SE Pacific surface sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saukel, C.; Lamy, F.; Stuut, J.B.W.; Tiedemann, R.; Vogt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of low-latitude ocean-atmosphere interactions is one of the major issues of (paleo-) environmental studies. The trade winds, extending over 20 degrees to 30 degrees of latitude in both hemispheres, between the subtropical highs and the intertropical convergence zone, are major com

  12. Blown by the wind. Replacing nuclear power in German electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only three days after the beginning of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, Japan, on 11 March 2011, the German government ordered 8 of the country's 17 existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) to stop operating within a few days. In summer 2011 the government put forward a law – passed in parliament by a large majority – that calls for a complete nuclear phase-out by the end of 2022. These government actions were in contrast to its initial plans, laid out in fall 2010, to expand the lifetimes of the country's NPPs. The immediate closure of 8 NPPs and the plans for a complete nuclear phase-out within little more than a decade, raised concerns about Germany's ability to secure a stable supply of electricity. Some observers feared power supply shortages, increasing CO2-emissions and a need for Germany to become a net importer of electricity. Now – a little more than a year after the phase-out law entered into force – this paper examines these concerns using (a) recent statistical data on electricity production and demand in the first 15 months after the German government's immediate reaction to the Fukushima accident and (b) reviews the most recent projections and scenarios by different stakeholders on how the German electricity system may develop until 2025, when NPPs will no longer be in operation. The paper finds that Germany has a realistic chance of fully replacing nuclear power with additional renewable electricity generation on an annual basis by 2025 or earlier, provided that several related challenges, e.g. expansion of the grids and provision of balancing power, can be solved successfully. Already in 2012 additional electricity generation from renewable energy sources in combination with a reduced domestic demand for electricity will likely fully compensate for the reduced power generation from the NPPs shut down in March 2011. If current political targets will be realised, Germany neither has to become a net electricity importer, nor will be unable to gradually reduce fossil fuel generated electricity. Whether the reduction in fossil fuel use will be sufficient to adequately contribute to national greenhouse gas mitigation targets significantly depends on an active policy to promote electricity savings, continuous efforts to increase the use of renewables and a higher share of natural gas (preferably used in combined heat and power plants) in fossil fuel power generation.

  13. The lived body in schizophrenia: Transition from basic self-disorders to full-blown psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eIrarrázaval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the results of a phenomenological study of patients with schizophrenia during their first psychiatric hospitalisation. The study aims at clarify aspects related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and to reach a greater understanding of the illness, with a view to contribute to prevention and psychotherapeutic intervention models. Firstly, the paper offers a description of the patients’ disembodiment manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, it presents a description of the subjective anomalies that may be considered as disorders of ipseity or of pre-reflexive self-awareness. Thirdly, the description is extended to encompass secondary disturbances to processes of establishing consensual intersubjectivity that lead to difficulties in shared communication practices and a progressive withdrawal from the intersubjective world. The conclusion states that a structural element, a key part of the personal processes involved in schizophrenia, is the diminishment of self-presence in experience, which manifests on both individual and social levels.

  14. Hydrological Implications of Covering Wind-Blown Snow Accumulations with Geotextiles on Mount Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nestler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an excellent water reservoir, naturally storing large quantities of water at time scales from a few days to several months. In summer-dry countries, like Armenia, runoff due to snow melt from mountain regions is highly important for a sustained water supply (irrigation, hydropower. Snow fields on Mount Aragats, Armenia’s highest peak, often persist until July, providing vital amounts of melt water. Artificially managing these wind-driven snow accumulations as a natural water reservoir might have considerable potential. In the context of the Swiss-Armenian joint venture, Freezwater, snow fields are covered with geotextiles in order to delay snow melt long enough to provide additional melt water in the dry season of the year. In this study, we analyze the hydrological effectiveness of the artificial management of the natural snow cover on Mount Aragats based on various field measurements acquired over a three-year period and numerical modeling. Over the winter season, partly more than five meter-thick snow deposits are formed supported by snow redistribution by strong wind. Repeated mappings of snow fields indicate that snow cover patterns remain highly consistent over time. Measurements of ablation below manually applied geotextiles show a considerable reduction of melt rates by more than 50%. Simulations with an energy-balance model and a distributed temperature-index model allow assessing the hydrological effect of artificial snow management for different initial snow depths and elevations and suggest that coverage is needed at a large scale in order to generate a significant impact on discharge.

  15. Thermo-mechanical behavior and structure of melt blown shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L; Boothby, Jennifer M; Kelly, Cambre N; Beatty, Kyle; Lakhera, Nishant; Frick, Carl P; Lin, Angela; Guldberg, Robert E; Griffis, Jack C

    2016-09-01

    New processing methods for shape-memory polymers allow for tailoring material properties for numerous applications. Shape-memory nonwovens have been previously electrospun, but melt blow processing has yet to be evaluated. In order to determine the process parameters affecting shape-memory behavior, this study examined the effect of air pressure and collector speed on the mechanical behavior and shape-recovery of shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens. Mechanical behavior was measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile testing, and shape-recovery was measured by unconstrained and constrained recovery. Microstructure changes throughout the shape-memory cycle were also investigated by micro-computed tomography. It was found that increasing collector speed increases elastic modulus, ultimate strength and recovery stress of the nonwoven, but collector speed does not affect the failure strain or unconstrained recovery. Increasing air pressure decreases the failure strain and increases rubbery modulus and unconstrained recovery, but air pressure does not influence recovery stress. It was also found that during the shape-memory cycle, the connectivity density of the fibers upon recovery does not fully return to the initial values, accounting for the incomplete shape-recovery seen in shape-memory nonwovens. With these parameter to property relationships identified, shape-memory nonwovens can be more easily manufactured and tailored for specific applications. PMID:27310570

  16. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY AND MASS FLOWS IN AN ARC HEATER WITH INTENSIVELY BLOWN ELECTRIC ARC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregor, Jan; Jakubová, I.; Šenk, J.

    Brno : Masaryk University, 2008. s. 173-174. ISBN N. [Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry/2nd./. 31.08.2008-04.09.2008, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Electric arc * mathematical model * energy flows * temperature distribution * velocity distribution * electric intensity * arc radius Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  17. Analyzing the importance of wind-blown snow accumulations on Mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Alexander; Huss, Matthias; Ambartsumian, Rouben; Hambarian, Artak; Mohr, Sandra; Santi, Flavio

    2013-04-01

    Armenia's climate has a predominantly continental character with high amounts of precipitation and low temperatures during wintertime and a lack of precipitation together with high temperatures during summer. On the volcano Mount Aragatz, snow is relocated by strong winds into massive accumulations between 2500 and 4100 m a.s.l. during the winter season. These snow accumulations appear every winter in regular patterns as cornices on the lee side of sharp edges, such as those of ridges and canyons, which are arranged in a radial manner around the central crater. The biggest cornices almost outlast the hot period and provide considerable amounts of melt water until they disappear completely by the end of August. Snow melt water is known to have a high economic importance for agriculture on the slopes of Mount Aragatz and in the surroundings of Armenia's captial Yerewan. The aim of this study is to estimate the quantity of water naturally stored as snow on Mount Aragatz, and to what degree the use of geotextiles can prolong the lives of these snow accumulations. The characteristics and the spatial distribution of snow cornices on Mount Aragatz were determined using classical glaciological methods in June/July 2011 and 2012, involving snow depth soundings, water equivalent measurements and snow melt monitoring using ablation stakes, together with GPS mappings and classifications obtained from satellite images of the snow cornices. The combination of these data with ASTER DEMs and local weather data allows the modelling of the formation of wind-driven snow accumulations. Statistical relationships between the measured extent and volume of the snow cornices and surface parameters such as slope, aspect and curvature are established. In order to analyze the meltdown of the snow accumulations and the consequent impacts on runoff generation and the hydrological regime, a glacio-hydrological model integrating topographic parameters and meteorological data is applied. The combination of in-situ field data and satellite information allows an estimation of the water volume that is stored in the form of snow on Mount Aragatz. Using numerical modelling, we extend these results to other years, and calculate past and future water yields from snow melt from Mount Aragatz. This study is performed in the frame of the Armenian-Swiss project "Freezwater" that aims at an artificial managing of snow melting to better time the release of melt water at low cost. In the past few years, an artificial glacier was built up successfully, and geotextiles were used to reduce the melt rates of snow cornices. In order to estimate the efficiency of geotextiles in delaying the melt-down, ablation rates of protected snow surfaces were compared to those of uncovered areas. This study will contribute to the understanding of aeolian processes within the cryosphere as well as it will help to gain engineering knowledge concerning a new and efficient water storage technique.

  18. Poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and polylactide/polytrimethylene carbonate blown films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Chang, Jiangping; Qin, Yuyue; Wu, Yan; Yuan, Minglong; Zhang, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and polylactide/ polytrimethylene carbonate films are prepared using a film blowing method. The process parameters, including temperature and screw speed, are studied, and the structures and properties of the P(LA-TMC) and PLA/PTMC films are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that upon improving the content of TMC and PTMC, the lamellar structures of the films are obviously changed. With increasing TMC monomer or PTMC contents, the elongation at the break is improved, and the maximum is up to 525%. The water vapor permeability (WVP) results demonstrate that the WVP of the PLA/PTMC film increased with the increase in the PTMC content, whereas the WVP of the P(LA-TMC) film decreased. Thermogravimetric (TG) measurements reveal that the decomposition temperatures of the P(LA-TMC) and PLA/PTMC films decrease with increases in the TMC and PTMC contents, respectively, but the processing temperature is significantly lower than the initial decomposition temperature. P(LA-TMC) or PLA/PTMC film can extend the shelf life of apples, for instance, like commercial LDPE film used in fruit packaging in supermarkets. PMID:24534806

  19. A supergiant supernova-blown bubble in the spiral galaxy NGC 1620

    CERN Document Server

    Vader, J P; Vader, J Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present UBR and H\\alpha imaging of NGC 1620, a highly inclined spiral galaxy that contains a large scale, arc-like feature of radius 3 kpc in its outer disk at a distance of \\sim 11 kpc from the center. What is unusual about this arc-like feature is its stellar nature and the presence of a luminous star cluster at its center. The arc is fragmented into HII region complexes and OB star clusters and shows two kinks in optical continuum light. It spans an angle of 220^{\\circ} on our U image and a full, though fragmented, circle on an unsharp masked R image. It is centered on a young star cluster that is the most luminous clump in blue optical continuum light besides the nucleus of the galaxy. This central star cluster has UBR colors and a surface brightness similar to those of other HII regions, but is a relatively weak H\\alpha emitter. It consists of at least three unresolved condensations in optical continuum light. Its location at the center of the arc and its prominence within the galaxy suggests that it ...

  20. Response of an artificially blown clarinet to different blowing pressure profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeot, Baptiste; De Almeida, André,; Vergez, Christophe; Gazengel, Bruno; Didier, Ferrand

    2013-01-01

    Using an artificial mouth with an accurate pressure control, the onset of the pressure oscillations inside the mouthpiece of a simplified clarinet is studied experimentally. Two time profiles are used for the blowing pressure: in a first set of experiments the pressure is increased at constant rates, then decreased at the same rate. In a second set of experiments the pressure rises at a constant rate and is then kept constant for an arbitrary period of time. In both cases the experiments are ...

  1. Distribution and provenance of wind-blown SE Pacific surface sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Saukel, C.; Lamy, F; J. B. W. Stuut; Tiedemann, R; Vogt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of low-latitude ocean-atmosphere interactions is one of the major issues of (paleo-) environmental studies. The trade winds, extending over 20 degrees to 30 degrees of latitude in both hemispheres, between the subtropical highs and the intertropical convergence zone, are major components of the atmospheric circulation and little is known about their long-term variability on geological time-scales, in particular in the Pacific sector. We present the modern spatial pattern of...

  2. Poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and Polylactide/Polytrimethylene Carbonate Blown Films

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongli; Chang, Jiangping; Qin, Yuyue; Wu, Yan; Yuan, Minglong; Zhang, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and polylactide/ polytrimethylene carbonate films are prepared using a film blowing method. The process parameters, including temperature and screw speed, are studied, and the structures and properties of the P(LA-TMC) and PLA/PTMC films are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that upon improving the content of TMC and PTMC, the lamellar structures of the films are obviously changed. With increasing TMC monomer...

  3. Evaluating Properties of Middle East Bitumen and Preparing Modified Bitumen%中东基质沥青评价及改性沥青研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉同; 黄婉利; 沈家永

    2013-01-01

    选用高温、中温、低温性能较优的Bahrain沥青作为改性沥青的原料沥青,采用SBS、GN-1及GN-2改性剂进行复合,制备了PG 76-16、PG 76-22、PG 82-16、PG 82-22四个系列改性沥青产品,优化配方,降低成本,其技术方案在中东地区应用,具有较好的经济效益.

  4. Bitumen and cement solidifications of LL and ML liquid radwaste. The SGN experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation is focused on the thin-film evaporator technology and the experience gained in the field of the NPPs and research centers on radwaste conditioning. As early as 1970, SGN was licensed by the CEA for the bituminization of LL and ML radwaste. With the support of EDF and COGEMA, SGN has been performing in depth research on cement solidification of borated concentrates and ion exchange resins generated by reactors or reprocessing plant since 1983

  5. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: the analytical tool for heavy oil and bitumen characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Thomas B.P; Brown, Melisa; Hsieh, Ben; Larter, Steve [Petroleum Reservoir Group (prg), Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICRMS), developed in the 1970's by Marshall and Comisarow at the University of British Columbia, has become a commercially available tool capable of analyzing several hundred thousand components in a petroleum mixture at once. This analytical technology will probably usher a dramatic revolution in geochemical capability, equal to or greater than the molecular revolution that occurred when GCMS technologies became cheaply available. The molecular resolution and information content given by the FTICRMS petroleum analysis can be compared to the information in the human genome. With current GCMS-based petroleum geochemical protocols perhaps a few hundred components can be quantitatively determined, but with FTICRMS, 1000 times this number of components could possibly be resolved. However, fluid and other properties depend on interaction of this multitude of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon components, not the components themselves, and access to the full potential of this new petroleomics will depend on the definition of this interactome.

  6. Influence of ageing on the properties of bitumen from asphalt mixtures with recycled concrete aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Pasandín, A. R.; Pérez, I.; Oliveira, Joel; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The reuse of recycled concrete aggregates in new hot-mix asphalt can be a more sustainable method of production, but these mixtures may need a heat treatment before compaction to improve their water sensitivity performance. A direct consequence of this treatment is an increase in the hot-mix asphalt resilient modulus. The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of ageing on the stiffness of asphalt mixtures with different amounts of recycled concrete aggregates, before and after a heat tre...

  7. Integral migration and source term experiments on cement and bitumen waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a programme of research which formed a part of the CEC joint research project into radionuclide migration in the geosphere (MIRAGE). This study addressed the aspects of integral migration and source term. The integral migration experiment simulated, in the laboratory, the intrusion of water into the repository, the leaching of radionuclides from two intermediate level wasteforms and the subsequent migration through the geosphere. The simulation consisted of a source of natural ground water which flowed over a sample of wasteform, at a controlled redox potential, and then through backfill and geological material packed in columns. The two wasteforms used here were cemented waste from the WAK plant at Karlsruhe, W. Germany and bitumenised intermediate concentrates from the Marcoule plant in France. The soluble fission products such as caesium wire rapidly released from the cemented waste but the actinides, and technetium in the reduced state, were retained in the wasteform. The release of all nuclides from the bitumenised waste was very low. (author)

  8. Sample preparation procedure for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in petroleum vacuum residue and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilgenast, Ewelina; Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Kaminski, Marian [Gdansk University of Technology, Chemical Faculty, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Gdansk (Poland); Przyjazny, Andrzej [Kettering University, Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, Flint, MI (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This paper describes a novel method of sample preparation for the determination of trace concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in high-boiling petroleum products. Limits of quantitation of the investigated PAHs in materials of this type range from tens of nanograms per kilogram to <20 {mu}g/kg. The studies revealed that in order to separate most of interferences from the analytes without a significant loss of PAHs, it is necessary to use size exclusion chromatography as the first step of sample preparation, followed by adsorption using normal-phase liquid chromatography. The use of orthogonal separation procedure described in the paper allows the isolation of only a group of unsubstituted and substituted aromatic hydrocarbons with a specific range of molar mass. The lower the required limit of quantitation of PAHs, the larger is the scale of preparative liquid chromatography in both steps of sample preparation needed. The use of internal standard allows quantitative results to be corrected for the degree of recovery of PAHs during the sample preparation step. Final determination can be carried out using HPLC-FLD, GC-MS, or HPLC-UV-VIS/DAD. The last technique provides a degree of identification through the acquired UV-VIS spectra. (orig.)

  9. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  10. Processing of concentrated radioactive wastes into cement and bitumens following calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief characteristic is presented of the most frequently used processes of solidification of liquid radioactive wastes, viz., bituminization, cementation and their combination with calcination. The effect of individual parameters is assessed on the choice of the type of solidification process as is their importance in the actual process, in temporary storage, during transportation and under conditions of long-term storage. It has been found that a combination of the procedures could lead to a modular system of methods and equipment. This would allow to approach optimal solidification of wastes in the present period and to establish a research reserve for the development of more modern, economically advantageous and safer procedures. A rough estimate is made of the costs of the solidification of 1 m3 of radioactive concentrate from the V-1 power plant at a production of 380 m3/year, this for the cementation-calcination and bituminization-calcination procedures. The said rough economic analysis only serves to identify the major operating components which have the greatest effect on the economic evaluation of the solidification procedures. (Z.M.)

  11. The conductivity and dielectric behavior of solutions of bitumen in toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.S.; Tse, D.L.; Takamura, K.

    1988-06-01

    Previous work on the conductivity and dielectric behavior of residual oil (the fraction remaining in the distillation tower) has suggested that the asphaltene fraction (pentane insolubles) was responsible for the conductivity behavior of solutions of this oil in organic solvents. In this work it is shown that the asphaltenes in heavy crude oils determine the conductivity behavior of solutions of the bulk oil in toluene, while the dielectric behavior is influenced by each component of the oil. The strong dependence of the conductivity on the asphaltene fraction makes it possible to determine the asphaltene content of a heavy crude oil by a conductimetric technique. The conductivity and dielectric behavior of crude oils and fractions of the crude oils, as well as the technique for determining the asphaltene content by conductivity will be presented.

  12. Transport, installation, and testing of a transportable volume reduction and bitumen solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the Transportable Volume Reduction/Radioactive Waste Solidification System (TVR) shows that the fabrication of the system meets the Duke contract specifications and current regulatory requirements and that the system has successfully demonstrated its ability to solidify boric acid, EPRI chemical cleaning solvent, and demineralizer resin wastes in asphalt. Review of disassembly, transport and reassembly reveals the TVR System's flexibility to move in and out of a station without undue impact on station personnel. Modification of the plant for TVR installation is easily accomplished upon conducting a comprehensive review of design considerations; a discussion is given of the actual coordination, design, and construction applied in modifying Duke Power Company's Riverbend Steam Station. Initial results are presented from processing boric acid, chemical cleaning, and demineralizer resin wastes which show that this system is capable of volume reducing and solidifying the wastes. 3 refs

  13. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  14. Recycled tyre rubber modified bitumens for road asphalt mixtures: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Presti, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, only a small percentage of waste tyres are being land-filled. The Recycled Tyre Rubber is being used in new tyres, in tyre-derived fuel, in civil engineering applications and products, in moulded rubber products, in agricultural uses, recreational and sports applications and in rubber modified asphalt applications. The benefits of using rubber modified asphalts are being more widely experienced and recognized, and the incorporation of tyres into asphalt is likely to increase. The te...

  15. Physico-mechanical properties of asphalt concrete based on road bitumen modified by rapeseed oil epoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Nykypanchuk, Mykhailo; Hrynchuk, Yurii; Olchovyk, Mykola

    2013-01-01

    The investigation results of type B fine asphalt concrete and its form modified by rapeseed oil epoxide are represented. The efficiency of ERO addition and its positive effect on the physico-mechanical properties of asphalt concrete has been established.

  16. Methods for neutron activation determination of metallic microconcentrations in oils and bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutron activation method for determining Co, Na, Mn, Br, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, and Sc is discussed. A quartz ampoule containing petroleum coke or oil (0.5 to 1 g) and a standard sample are placed into an aluminium cylindrical case. Irradiation is carried out with a neutron flux of 1.2x1013 per cm2xc for 30 to 60 min, followed by a delay of several hours. Repeated spectra measurements during 7 to 10 days are made with a scintillation counter (with a 40x50 mm NaI crystal and a 6.5% resolution for the 1.33 MeV line of 60Co) having an AI-100 or an AI-256 pulse analyser. When a quantitative analysis is made the gamma-peak intensities of the standard sample and the specimen are compared. The reproducibility evaluated by independent determination of Co, Na, and Br in oils is characterized by a 20% mean-root-square error in a single determination. The Co, Cu, Ga, Zn, and Mn analysis features are described

  17. Remediation of crude oil contaminated soils by means of bitumen emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Páez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Effective remediation of contaminated sites with oils, heavy metals and other chemical agents is one of the most important environmental problems all over the world. Contaminated soils by petroleum from different sites and origins, might contaminate groundwater aquifers and then be spread by rain. Many years and the requirement of remedial techniques may be needed to remediate them. However, previous experiences show the uselessness of these methods for the solution of all problems. As ...

  18. Influences of the Basin Brines on Extractable Bitumen of Kupferschiefer from southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉壮

    2000-01-01

    A study of the influences of the basin brines on hydrocarbon generation of the Kupferschiefer in southwestern Poland has been carried out.The samples from the Konrad and Polkowics mines were analyzed by orgainc geochemical,microscopic and FTIR methods.The results indicate that organic matter of Kupferschiefer tends to decrease with the ascending,oxidizing brines,In the Konrad profile,the Kupferschiefer was strongly oxidized.The extract yields were depleted up to 50mg Ext/g Corg.Gas chromatography(GC) and gas chromatography-mass spctrometry(GC/MS) data indicate that the depletion occureed predominantly in saturated hydrocarbon compounds.The identified n-alkanes in smpale KD1 were depleted at least to 5000μg/g Corg.The aromatic compounds show a fidderent trend of variation.The concentrations of phenanthrene+ alkylphenanthrenes(Ph-PAH) and naphthalene+alkylnaphthalenes(Na-PAH) show a decrease,whereas sulfur polyaromatic hydrocarbons(S-PAH)and oxygen polyaromatic hydrocarbons(O-PAH) show an incrase under the influences of oxidizing brines,In the Polkowice profile,organic matter under the influences of oxidizing fluids shows a simlar trend of varation as in the Konrad mine.Analyses of polar compounds shed light on the oxidation processes at the molecule level.The dominant products of oxidation are aliphatic acid.alcohol and ester.FTIR results indicate that the oxidation of organic matter led to a decrease in aliphatic CH3 and an increase in C-O,C=O bands.

  19. Investigation of the possibility of decontamination of bitumen concrete pavement contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the environment is possible during operation of nuclear power plants and the utilization of radionuclide sources in the economy. The problem of decontaminating the surfaces of industrial objects and environmental objects which are contaminated by radionuclides can be solved by different methods of depending on the character of the object: chemical treatment of metallic surfaces of equipment parts by application of different washing fluids, mechanical removal of contaminants or washing contaminants off with a jet of liquid, as well as adding different abrasive additives, the use of film-forming substances for sorption and removal of the decontaminating layer from the surface being cleaned, and other methods

  20. Probing the Density in the Galactic Center Region: Wind-Blown Bubbles and High-Energy Proton Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Fryer, C L; Rockefeller, G M; Hungerford, A; Bélanger, G; Fryer, Christopher L.; Liu, Siming; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Hungerford, Aimee; Belanger, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    Recent observations of the Galactic center in high-energy gamma-rays (above 0.1TeV) have opened up new ways to study this region, from understanding the emission source of these high-energy photons to constraining the environment in which they are formed. We present a revised theoretical density model of the inner 5pc surrounding Sgr A* based on the fact that the underlying structure of this region is dominated by the winds from the Wolf-Rayet stars orbiting Sgr A*. An ideal probe and application of this density structure is this high energy gamma-ray emission. We assume a proton-scattering model for the production of these gamma-rays and then determine first whether such a model is consistent with the observations and second whether we can use these observations to further constrain the density distribution in the Galactic center.

  1. Beyond Str\\"omgren Spheres and Wind-Blown Bubbles: An Observational Perspective on H II Region Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Povich, Matthew S

    2012-01-01

    Massive stars produce copious quantities of ultraviolet radiation beyond the Lyman limit, photoionizing the interstellar medium (ISM) and producing H II regions. As strong sources of recombination- and forbidden-line emission, infrared continuum, and thermal (free-free) radio continuum, H II regions serve as readily-observable beacons of massive star formation in the Milky Way and external galaxies. Along with supernovae, H II regions are dominant sources of feedback in star-forming galaxies, injecting radiative and mechanical luminosity into the ISM. H II regions may prove more important than supernovae as triggers of star formation through localized compression of cold cloud cores. In this review, I give a broad overview of the structure and time-evolution of H II regions, emphasizing complications to the theoretical picture revealed by multiwavelength observations. I discuss a recent controversy surrounding the dominant feedback mechanism in 30 Doradus, the most luminous H II region in the Local Group. I s...

  2. Hybrid upper surface blown flap propulsive-lift concept for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Carros, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hybrid upper surface blowing concept consists of wing-mounted turbofan engines with a major portion of the fan exhaust directed over the wing upper surface to provide high levels of propulsive lift, but with a portion of the fan airflow directed over selected portions of the airframe to provide boundary layer control. NASA-sponsored preliminary design studies identified the hybrid upper surface blowing concept as the best propulsive lift concept to be applied to the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) that is planned as a flight facility to conduct flight research at low noise levels, high approach lift coefficients, and steep approaches. Data from NASA in-house and NASA-sponsored small and large-scale wind tunnel tests of various configurations using this concept are presented.

  3. Shape and evolution of wind-blown bubbles of massive stars: on the effect of the interstellar magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    van Marle, Allard Jan; Marcowith, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The winds of massive stars create large (>10 pc) bubbles around their progenitors. As these bubbles expand they encounter the interstellar coherent magnetic field which, depending on its strength, can influence the shape of the bubble. We wish to investigate if, and how much, the interstellar magnetic field can contribute to the shape of an expanding circumstellar bubble around a massive star. We use the MPI-AMRVAC code to make magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of bubbles, using a single star model, combined with several different field strengths: B=5, 10, and 20 muG for the interstellar magnetic field. This covers the typical field strengths of the interstellar magnetic fields found in the galactic disk and bulge. Furthermore, we present two simulations that include both a 5 muG interstellar magnetic field and a 10,000 K interstellar medium and two different ISM densities to demonstrate how the magnetic field can combine with other external factors to influnece the morphology of the circumstellar bubbles. O...

  4. Acoustic source location in the secondary mixing region of a jet-blown flap using a cross-correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. S.; Maus, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the acoustic sources in the secondary mixing region of a laboratory-scale jet-flap was made using a causality correlation technique. The processed signal of a hot-film anemometer probe was cross correlated with the output signal of a far-field microphone. Axial acoustic source strength distributions were measured for three far-field microphone locations: plus or minus 45 deg in the flyover plane and 45 deg in the sideline plane. These measurements showed that the acoustic sources in the secondary mixing region are highly directional, radiating much more effectively to the -45 deg-microphone, located below the plane of the flap surface. A relative maximum in the acoustic source strength measured for the microphones in the flyover plane occurred very near the flap trailing edge, which may be due to an edge amplification effect predicted by the theoretical work of Ffowcs Williams and Hall.

  5. Analytical calculation of the minimum wind speed required to sustain wind-blown sand on Earth and Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F

    2010-01-01

    The wind-driven hopping motion of sand grains, known as saltation, forms dunes and ripples and ejects fine dust particles into the atmosphere on both Earth and Mars. While the wind speed at which saltation is initiated, the fluid threshold, has been studied extensively, the wind speed at which it is halted, the impact threshold, has been poorly quantified for Mars conditions. We present an analytical model of the impact threshold, which we show to be in agreement with measurements and recent numerical simulations for Earth conditions. For Mars conditions, we find that the impact threshold is approximately an order of magnitude below the fluid threshold, in agreement with previous studies. Saltation on Mars can thus be sustained at wind speeds an order of magnitude less than required to initiate it, leading to the occurrence of hysteresis. These results confirm earlier simulations with a detailed numerical saltation model, and have important implications for the formation of sand dunes, ripples, and dust storm...

  6. Maltene and soluble salt removal from bituminised radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the present Belgian reference scenario, Eurobitum bituminised waste is to be disposed off in a deep underground repository in a stable geological formation such as Boom Clay. This waste originates mainly from mixtures of nuclear fuel decladding slurries and waste concentrates from the nuclear fuel cycle. In Belgium, a weight ratio of 60/40 bitumen/waste was applied. The bitumen used as waste matrix is a commercial blown bitumen, type R85/40. Most of the inorganic waste particles are homogeneously incorporated in the bitumen matrix and are smaller than 40 micrometer. Safety performance studies on gas generation, effect of degradation products with complexing properties, generation of a swelling-pressure build-up due to water uptake of the dehydrated salts, and the reaction of the leached NaNO3 with the surrounding Boom clay are in progress. Even though these studies up till present do not show that this waste is unacceptable for deep underground disposal, we investigate a low temperature method to recondition the bituminised waste, just in case it would be decided not to dispose the waste as such in a deep underground repository. The method is based on the removal of the majority of the compounds that are the most sensitive towards radiolysis (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons - these are mostly present in the maltene fraction of bitumen) on the one hand and on the removal of hygroscopic water-soluble salts (mainly NaNO3) on the other hand. The pie chart on the right shows the main fractions present in Eurobitum. When the maltenes and the soluble salts can be removed and destroyed, the final waste contains only the asphaltenes and insoluble salts with the major part of the radionuclides. The separation scheme below shows how to separate the waste in these fractions. The separation of the maltenes from the precipitated asphaltenes and salts is based on an existing deasphalting process used in the petroleum industry, but has to be adapted to the case of

  7. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall,…

  8. C and S isotope characteristics of bitumen, calcite, Fe and Cu sulfides in the metallogenic analysis of the Ocoita metallotec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a significant increase in the rate of convergence of the Phoenix and South American plates during the Early Cretaceous (120 -100 Ma.), a basin, defined by Aberg et al., (1984) as an 'Aborted Marginal Basin', developed in Central Chile. In the late stages of this back-arc marine basin, submarine lava flows extruded through the thinned continental crust underlying the bottom of the shallow sea. The porphyritic lavas of the Pabellon Formation are the northernmost units of this event and are very similar to those of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation (Cisternas et al. 1999). The lava sequence lies conformably above calcareous rocks of the Pabellon Formation (Barremian-Aptian) and average 70 meters of thickness. The whole sequence dips to the east with a north-south directed strike. A notable characteristic of these lavas are the abundant (>40%) centimeter-size plagioclase phenocrysts, which can be associated with the 'lavas ocoiticas' or 'ocoitas' of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation of Central Chile. Geochemical analysis of the Pabellon formation lavas indicates that these lavas were derived from K-rich calc-alkaline to transitional magmas, typical of a continental margin subduction, however with an important component of intra-plate contamination (Galindo 1998; Cisternas et al., 1999). The basal rocks are cut by intrusives (119-93 ma.), the same age as the lavas. These intrusives are believed to be the source of heat needed for the thermal maturation of organic matter in the underlying beds. The organic matter rich limestones of the Nantoco formation are the most probable source of the hydrocarbons, which were mobilized by hydrothermal fluids and deposited in veinlets and voids in the lavas (au)

  9. The most appropriate mixing method of polypropylene fiber with aggregates and bitumen based on binder mix design

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Zahedi; Ramin Bayat; Mehdi Nazemi Jalal

    2014-01-01

    Asphalt is used in road pavements as the binder of aggregates in a great extent all around the world. Asphalt Modifiers have used in pavement engineering in order to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. One of the most important of them is Polypropylene Fiber that causes increasing stability in the mixture. In this article usage of this fiber in civil engineering and especially in asphalt mixtures is investigated; Mixing methods of fiber with aggregates and bitu...

  10. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200 sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4% in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design asphalt contents (3.83%, for asphalt concrete having PMA and 100% lime stone dust. Designed mix was laid on Southbound Turnol Taxila National Highway Section (N-5, Pakistan as a trial in year 2003. The study reveals that filler to asphalt ratio affects the mix properties to a greater extent and mix laid at site have shown relatively better performance during its service life of initial four critical years. For coarse graded mixes with low asphalt contents, designed especially for heavy loading and high temperatures regions like Pakistan, filler to asphalt ratio less than equal to 1.0 yields better results.

  11. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Hafeez; MUMTAZ AHMED KAMAL

    2010-01-01

    Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200) sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt) ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4%) in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design ...

  12. Blown away like apples by the fickle wind of the twentieth century”: counterculture resistance and the wilderness condition in Richard Brautigan's "Trout fishing in America"

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    Many critics consider Richard Brautigan’s 1967 novel Trout Fishing in America a coming-of-age account of a wayward, outsider narrator discovering that the pastoral mode is no longer viable in midcentury America. However, these readings often ignore Brautigan’s explicit political affinity and his conscious engagement with a specific setting—southern California in the mid- to late-60s. This paper explores Brautigan’s Counterculture ethic, which critiques the mindless prevalence of mainstream, m...

  13. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification pro

  14. Coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly and decreased melarsoprol-induced reactive encephalopathy in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Nyabuga Nyariki; John Kibuthu Thuita; Grace Kemunto Nyambati; Alfred Orina Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modulatory effects of coenzyme Q10 on experimental trypanosome infections in mice and evaluate the risk of occurrence and severity of melarsoprol-induced post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE). Methods: Female Swiss white mice were orally administered with 200 mg/kg of coenzyme Q10 after which they were intraperitoneally inoculated with Trypanasoma brucei rhodesiense (T. b. rhodesiense). The resultant infection was allowed to develop and simulate all phases of human African trypanosomiasis and PTRE. Parasitaemia development, packed cell volume, haematological and pathological changes were determined. Results:A histological study in the brain tissue of T. b. rhodesiense infected mice demonstrated neuroinflammatory pathology which was highly amplified in the PTRE-induced groups. A prominent reduction in the severity of the neuroinflammatory response was detected when coenzyme-Q10 was administered. Furthermore, the mean tissue weight of spleen to body ratio in coenzyme Q10 supplemented group was significantly (P Conclusions: The capacity of coenzyme Q10 to alter the pathogenesis of T. b. rhodesiense infection in mice and following treatment with melarsoprol, may find application by rendering humans and animals less susceptible to deleterious effects of trypanosome infection such as splenomegaly and melarsoprol-induced PTRE and neurotoxicity.

  15. Modified sulphur cement: A low porosity encapsulation material for low, medium and alpha waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified sulphur cement, available under the trade name Chement 2000, is a thermoplastic candidate material for the matrix of low, intermediate and alpha radioactive waste. The main source of sulphur is the desulphurization of fossil fuels. In view of the future increase of this product a modified compound of sulphur has been developed at the US Bureau of Mines. Modified sulphur cement as matrix material has properties in common with Portland or blast furnace cement and bitumen. The mechanical strength is comparable to hydraulic cement products. The process to incorporate waste materials is identical to bitumization. The leachability and the resistance to attack by chemicals is nearly the same as for bituminized products. This study showed also that the radiation resistance is high without radiolytic gas production and without change in dimensions (swelling). The rigidity of the matrix is a disadvantage when internal pressures are built up. The thermal conductivity and the heat of combustion of sulphur is low resulting in slow damage to the waste form under fire conditions, even when the temperature of self ignition in air is 2200C. The low leachability, the very slow effective diffusion of H2O and HTO, and the low permeability is due to the small pore diameters in the modified sulphur matrix. The loading capacity of modified sulphur cement depends on grain size and distribution and is for ungraded ashes, precipitates, dried sludges, etc., in the order of 40-50% of weight. The price of Chement 2000 per tonne is equal to those of blown bitumen

  16. 氯丁胶乳乳化沥青稀浆封层的初探%The Study on Chloroprene Rubber Latex Emulsified Bitumen Slurry Seal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光明

    2005-01-01

    掺少量氯丁胶乳改善阳离子乳化沥青性能,用于大交通量和水泥路面稀浆封层铺筑,效果良好,简要介绍了氯丁胶乳改性乳化沥青稀浆封层的部分技术,供参考.

  17. Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen%橡胶沥青老化后物理和流变特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海波

    2013-01-01

    该文通过沥青物理-流变特性的改变,研究了橡胶粉改性剂(CRM)对沥青流变特性的影响。通过动态剪切流变(DSR)试验,布氏粘度试验,软化点试验和针入度试验研究了老化对沥青物理和流变特性的影响。结果表明,橡胶粉降低了老化对沥青物理和流变特性的影响。随橡胶粉掺量增加,粘度老化指数和G*/sinδ老化指数降低,而tanδ老化指数增加,表明,橡胶粉可以提高沥青的抗老化能力。橡胶粉改性使软化点增量(ΔS)和橡胶沥青针入度老化率(PAR)大幅度降低。此外,橡胶粉掺量越高,PAV老化后G*sinδ越低,沥青抗疲劳开裂能力提高。%In this paper, through the asphalt physical-changes in rheological properties were studied crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the rheological properties of the asphalt. Through dynamic shear rheology (DSR) test, brookfield viscosity test, softening point test and penetration test study of aging on asphalt physical and rheological characteristics. The results show that the aging of rubber on asphalt powder reduces physical and rheological characteristics. With rubber powder content increases, the viscosity aging index and G*/sinδ aging index decreased, while tanδ aging index increased, indicating that asphalt rubber powder can improve the anti-aging ability. Rubber powder modified so that the softening point increment (ΔS) and rubber asphalt penetration aging rate (PAR) significantly reduced. In addition, the higher dosage rubber powder,PAV aging G*sinδ lower resistance to fatigue cracking of asphalt increased.

  18. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina M. Pons; Marta Franchini; Adolfo Giusiano; Agnes Impiccini; Marta Godeas

    2009-01-01

    Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén) y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están ...

  19. GLR-6乳化沥青设备的生产工艺及应用%The GLR-6 emulsified bitumen equipment's technique of production and applies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广平

    2009-01-01

    介绍了GLR-6型乳化沥青设备在金塘桥面铺装项目部的使用情况,重点介绍了乳化沥青设备的结构组成和乳化沥青的生产工艺、操作流程、以及在使用过程中需要注意的问题.通过与外购乳化沥青进行比较,发现利用乳化沥青设备自产的乳化沥青各项指标均可达到规范的要求,价格上也比外购成品乳化沥青要低很多,可节约大量乳化沥青的购置费用.

  20. Untersuchung von Bitumina zur Herstellung von Öl-in-Wasser-Emulsionen

    OpenAIRE

    Czubak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the differences between O/W emulsifiable (droplets smaller than 1 micron) and not O/W emulsifiable bitumens (forming droplets much bigger than 1µm). The findings of this study were used for the production of small-scale bitumen emulsions with an initially not emulsifiable bitumen to drop sizes below 1 micron. On the way there, first the bitumen was examined itself. Bitumens, which form bitumen emulsions with big droplets, show micro-phase separations at AFM. Bitumens forming...

  1. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén Alteration,Cu mineralization and bitumen in the Barda González prospect, Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina M. Pons; Marta Franchini; Adolfo Giusiano; Agnes Impiccini; Marta Godeas

    2009-01-01

    Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén) y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están ...

  2. About Coloured Cold Asphaltic Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Judele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The first coloured bitumen was obtained by using bitumen from Peru and then bitumen from the Middle East, with a low content of asphaltenes, also called "colourable" bitumens. The colours obtained by adding iron oxides led nevertheless to dark colours, due to the presence of asphaltenes. Nowadays the coloured asphalt is obtained from synthesis binders with translucent aspect. The colours are obtained by adding inorganic pigments, mainly iron oxide for red, chromic oxide for green, titanic dioxide for white. The properties and behaviour of the coloured bitumen during its lifetime are comparable with the ones of classic bitumen, sometimes even better.

  3. Flow Calculation Study on the Lower Reynolds Number for Cube-Shaped Blown Sand%立方体风沙粒子的低雷诺数绕流计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮; 钱光平

    2009-01-01

    采用计算流体力学软件Fluent计算了均匀来流条件下立方体颗粒的三维绕流流场,得到了立方体颗粒在不同来流方向下的速度分布、压力分布,给出了拟合的立方体阻力系数经验公式.结果表明:绕流阻力受来流方向的影响明显,而传统的非球型颗粒阻力经验公式给出的是来流方向垂直于立方体表面时的阻力.

  4. Estudo do reprocessamento de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD reciclado do processamento de extrusão de filmes tubulares Study of the reprocessing of low density polyethylene (LDPE recycled from extruded blown films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pistor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de reciclagem para os polímeros termoplásticos encontra-se atualmente em acentuada ascensão. Os materiais reciclados são vistos como materiais de propriedades inferiores em relação ao material virgem. O presente trabalho avaliou as características viscoelásticas e térmicas do polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD reciclado. As amostras foram reprocessadas até dez vezes em condições extremas de processamento (300 °C/80 rpm em uma extrusora monorosca, a fim de avaliar modificações estruturais nas suas propriedades. Foram realizadas análises de reometria oscilatória de placas paralelas e calorimetria exploratória de varredura (DSC. A partir das análises de reometria oscilatória foram calculados espectros de relaxação e retardação pelo programa de regularização não-linear (NLREG e através das análises de DSC no primeiro aquecimento foram calculados os parâmetros cinéticos pelos métodos de Avrami e Freeman-Carroll. Os resultados do estudo reológico demonstraram que as amostras reprocessadas acima de quatro vezes apresentaram aumento da viscosidade complexa e dos módulos de armazenamento e perda, além de fenômenos de relaxação e retardação mais largos. Entretanto, os termogramas de DSC e os parâmetros cinéticos de fusão demonstraram que o PEBD estudado manteve sua estabilidade térmica, independentemente da modificação de suas características viscoelásticas.The recycling market of thermoplastic polymers is currently in a sharp increase. Recycled materials are regarded as having inferior properties compared to the virgin material. Here we investigated the viscoelastic and thermal properties of the recycled low density polyethylene (LDPE. The samples were reprocessed up to ten times under extreme processing conditions (300 °C/80 rpm in a single screw extruder in order to evaluate structural changes in their properties. Analyses were performed in an oscillatory rheometer with parallel plates and in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. From the analysis of the oscillatory rheometry, relaxation and retardation spectra were obtained upon applying a non-linear adjustment using a computational program (NLREG, while the kinetics parameters were estimated from the results of the first DSC heating using the Avrami and Freeman-Carroll methods. From the rheological study we inferred that the samples reprocessed more than four times had an increase in complex viscosity, storage and loss moduli, also displaying wider relaxation and retardation phenomena. However, the DSC thermograms and the melt kinetic parameters showed that the LDPE studied maintained their thermal stability, regardless of the modification in their viscoelastic properties.

  5. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  6. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Yerbol Tileuberdi; S. Kozbakarova; Yerdos Ongarbayev; B. Tuleutaev; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  7. To Determine Impact of Shape of Course Aggregate on DBM Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaniyapurackal Jilu Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principal material in pavement construction. The shape of aggregate particle has significant influence on performance of the Bitumen pavement. The strength serviceability requirements of Bitumen mixes such as stability, flow, voids in mineral aggregate , voids filled with bitumen and air voids are highly depend on the physical properties of aggregate.

  8. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Savoir-faire. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  9. Numerical analysis of bitumen-surface highway dynamic response under vehicle loads%汽车荷载作用下沥青路面公路动力响应数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健; 李振存; 郭昕; 王健

    2012-01-01

    运用ANSYS软件建立沥青路面与路基三维动力分析模型,采用双频率正弦波动荷载模拟车辆动荷载,分析了三轴六轮组的东风重型货车在车速为72 km/h时,满载和超载80%两种工况下路面和路基动力响应.计算结果表明:轮距中心左右各2m的范围内,面层结构横向应力分布呈双峰状,轮迹处最大,然后向两边衰减;且随着深度增加,应力逐渐由压应力转化为拉应力,拉应力在面层下56 cm处达到最大;竖向动应力在路基内随着深度的增加逐渐减小,沿横向在路基表面呈马鞍状分布,且随着深度增加逐渐变为单峰分布;满载及超载80%时动荷载影响深度分别为2.2m和2.6m,影响宽度分别为4 m和6.5m.%3 d dynamic analysis models of asphalt pavement and subgrade were established by finite element software ANSYS. Vehicle dynamic loads were simulated by dual frequency sine wave. The dynamic response of pavement and subgrade were analyzed under the action of Dongfong truck when the speed is 72 km/h with full load and over load 80%. The calculated results show that within the scope of each 2 m around tread center, transverse stress distribution of the surface layer structure is bimodal shape. The maximum appears in place of wheel track and then attenuates toward both sides. With the increase of the depth, the stress changes gradually from the compressive stress into tensile stress, and the maximum tensile stress appears 56 cm under surface layer. Vertical dynamic stress decreases gradually with the increase of the depth in the subgrade. Vertical dynamic stress shows saddle - shaped distribution along the horizontal surface of the subgrade, and with increase of the depth, it increasingly becomes unimodal distribution. The influence depth of the dynamic loads with the action of full load and overload of 80% are 2.2 m and 2.6 m, the width are 4 m and 6.5 m.

  10. 废旧橡胶粉在道路改性沥青中的应用研究%Research on Application of Waste Rubber Powder in Road Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鹏

    2012-01-01

    随着我国经济的发展,汽车工业得到迅速的发展,但是我们也面临着一个严峻的问题,那就是汽车的废旧轮胎的处理问题.我国每年产生的废弃轮胎大约有1400kt.废旧轮胎对环境有着严重的污染作用.因为这种材料不容易分解,需要相当长的时间.植物的生长会因之破坏,随之滋生的蚊虫也会影响人类的健康.因此,如何处理废旧轮胎成了亟待解决的问题.现在有一种工艺,可以变废为宝.那就是将废旧轮胎磨成橡胶粉,将其用于道路改性沥青当中.经实验证明,这种沥青能够改善沥青的高温与低温性能,大大降低路面的损害,同时能在很大程度上改善废旧轮胎产生的污染问题.目前,我国针对这方面的研究还不够成熟,相关的标准也不完善.%As the development of national economy, the development of auto industry is rapid, but we also face a serious problem, namely the problem of dealing with cars' scrap tires. It produces disused tires about 1400 kt in China annually. Scrap tires has severe pollution effect on the environment. Because the material is not easy to break down, needing quite a long time, the growth of plants will be damaged, thereupon, the breeding of mosquito also can affect human health. Therefore, how to deal with scrap tires becomes a problem to be solved. Taking the scrap tires ground into rubber powder and making the rubber powder applied in road modified asphalt is an effective method of dealing with above problem. By the experiment, it proves this kind of asphalt can improve the high temperature and low temperature performance of asphalt, greatly reduce the damage of the road, at the same time, it can largely improve pollution from waste tires. However, it is still not mature for the research of this aspect in our country at present, and the relevant standards is not improved.

  11. Application of the Superpave bitumen pavement technology on Gan-Yue Expressway%Superpave沥青路面技术在赣粤高速公路上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家明

    2004-01-01

    该文通过Superpave技术在赣粤高速公路中的应用,进行了Superpave沥青混合料目标配合比和生产配合比设计,对混合料路用性能进行了评价,确定了施工工序,为今后推广使用Superpave沥青路面技术,提高沥青路面施工质量提供一些有益的参考.

  12. 沥青砼路面目标配合比设计的确定与优化%The Determination and Optimization of Bitumen Concrete Pavement Goal Mix Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪泳

    2003-01-01

    通过对曲菏高速公路沥青砼面层配合比设计的验证,对沥青用量及材料级配进行了调整和优化,使之更加符合和满足设计要求,为施工生产提供了科学的依据。

  13. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  14. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production rate correction =227 g/hr for container glass, pressed and blown (soda-lime and lead) glass, and pressed and blown (other than borosilicate, soda-lime, and lead) glass. =454 g/hr for pressed and blown... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  15. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on the fatigue properties of LDHs were evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and indirect tensile fatigue test. Results indicated that the introduction of LDHs could change the fatigue properties of bitumen under a stress control mode. The mixture with modified bitumen showed better fatigue resistance than the mixture with base bitumen. The results illustrated that the LDHs would be alternative modifiers used in the bitumen to improve the lifetime of asphalt pavements.

  16. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author)

  17. Study of the Raveling Resistance of Porous Asphalt Pavements Used in Sustainable Drainage Systems Affected by Hydrocarbon Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavements are one of the most commonly-used sustainable drainage systems (SuDS in urban areas for managing stormwater runoff problems. Porous asphalt is widely used in surface layers of permeable pavement systems, where it can suffer from accidental oil spills from vehicles. Oil spills affect bituminous mixes through the solvent action of the hydrocarbons on the bitumen, reducing the raveling resistance of asphalt pavements. In order to assess the raveling resistance in porous asphalt pavements, the Cantabro abrasion test was performed on 200 test samples after applying controlled oil spills. Three different types of binders were used: conventional bitumen, polymer-modified bitumen and special fuel-resistant bitumen. After analyzing the results, it was concluded that the most suitable bitumen to protect against oil leakages is the polymer-modified one, which is far better than the other two types of bitumen tested.

  18. Characterization of the properties of thermoplastic elastomers containing waste rubber tire powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this research was to recycle waste rubber tires by using powdering technology and treating the waste rubber tire powder with bitumen. It has been proven that the elongation at break, thermal stability and processing flowability of composites of polypropylene (PP), waste rubber tire powder (WRT) and bitumen composites are better than those of PP/WRT composite. A comparative study has been made to evaluate the influence of bitumen content and different compatibilizers on the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites, using a universal testing machine (UTM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and a capillary rheometer. The results suggested that the properties of PP/WRT/bitumen composites were dependent on the bitumen content and the kind of compatibilizer used

  19. Survey on product properties of bituminized waste concentrates from reprocessing, nuclear installations and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey on the product properties after solidification with bitumen of waste concentrates from reprocessing plants, nuclear research installations and nuclear power plants. The leach behaviour of bitumen products in water and saturated salt solutions is described as well as the radiolytic and thermal stability of the products. The reports also contain some data on sedimentation of salts fixed in bitumen. (orig.)

  20. University of Utah Oil Sand Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the Oil Sand Research and Development Program at the University of Utah will be presented. It will include resource characterization of the Uinta Basin oils and deposits and bitumens and bitumen-derived liquid recovery and upgrading technology and product utilization. The characterization studies will include the Whiterocks and Asphalt Ridge oil sands. The discussion of recovery and upgrading technologies will include aqueous separation, thermal recovery processes; solvent extraction, and thermal and catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen-derived heavy oils. Product evaluation studies will include jet fuels, diesel fuel, asphalt and specialty chemicals. Plans for the future of the project will be discussed.