WorldWideScience

Sample records for blown bitumens

  1. Bitumen pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past bitumen was a preferred matrix for the embedding of low and intermediate level radioactive waste: its geological history promised long term stability in final repositories. A great variety of waste has been embedded: technological waste, spent ion exchange resins, concrete, rubble, etc. Liquid waste like evaporator concentrates can be dried and embedded simultaneously in extruders, allowing simple processes and equipment. Unfortunately, during long term intermediate storage the bituminized waste drums proved out being not as stable as expected: a significant number turned out to be no longer acceptable for final disposal, and some of them even needed repacking to enable further intermediate storage. A method to rework such drums with bituminized radioactive waste seems to be urgently needed. Pyrolysis and pyro-hydrolysis (= pyrolysis with water steam added) have a long history for the treatment of organic waste: spent solvent (TBP), spent ion exchange resins, alpha waste (predominantly PVC), etc. Due to its low process temperature and the endothermic character, such processes offer significant safety advantages, as compared to incineration or dissolving in organic solvents. Results of lab-scale investigations and concepts for facilities are presented. (authors)

  2. COOEE bitumen: chemical aging

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2013-01-01

    We study chemical aging in "COOEE bitumen" using molecular dynamic simulations. The model bitumen is composed of four realistic molecule types: saturated hydrocarbon, resinous oil, resin, and asphaltene. The aging reaction is modelled by the chemical reaction: "2 resins $\\rightarrow$ 1 asphaltene". Molecular dynamic simulations of four bitumen compositions, obtained by a repeated application of the aging reaction, are performed. The stress autocorrelation function, the fluid structure, the rotational dynamics of the plane aromatic molecules, and the diffusivity of each molecule, are determined for the four different compositions. The aging reaction causes a significant dynamics slowdown, which is correlated to the aggregation of asphaltene molecules in larger and dynamically slower nanoaggregates. Finally, a detailed description of the role of each molecule types in the aggregation and aging processes is given.

  3. Project scenarios for bitumen upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The established reserves of Alberta's heavy oil resources are 178 billion barrels, and potential recoverable reserves are 315 billion barrels. The challenge of production includes the logistics of recovery, upgrading and transportation to market. Utilization of the bitumen is not simple because bitumen is too viscous to transport by pipeline. In addition, it is not processable by most existing refineries unless it can be upgraded through dilution. This paper examined different factors regarding the economic viability of various upgrading methods of a wide range of bitumen feedstocks. The study also examined the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, along with the competitiveness among bitumen-based feedstock and conventional crudes. Western Canada, Ontario and the PADD II district in the United States are the 3 major markets for western Canadian bitumen based feedstock, the demand for which depends on refinery configurations and asphalt demand. This paper described the following 4 generic scenarios that describe Alberta bitumen upgrading projects: (1) adjacent to open pit mines, (2) adjacent to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities, (3) remotely located from resource production at an existing refinery, and (4) pipeline bitumen. It was noted that producers should determine the best way to upgrade the bitumen to ensure there is an economic market for the product, but they should also be aware not to over process the bitumen so as not to leave existing refinery facilities under-utilized. 2 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  4. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  5. The big bitumen breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ongoing transformation of the oilsands and heavy oil sector from a poor cousin a few years ago into the cornerstone of the Alberta oil industry, was discussed. Much of this change is due to the development of SAGD (steam assisted gravity drainage) technology for the underground recovery of heavy oil and tarry bitumens, aided by partly government-funded research, and boosted by a revised provincial royalty regime. The thermal recovery process makes use of a pair of horizontal injection and recovery wells, drilled one above the other. The efficiency of this new technology could produce a shift in the petroleum industry's spending towards oil sands and heavy oil if investors conclude that it is more profitable to produce heavy oil than conventional light oil. Some of the oil sands producers that are poised to invest billions of dollars in various underground bitumen projects in Alberta over the next five years include Suncor, Syncrude, Alberta Energy Co., Amoco Canada, Elan Energy, Imperial Oil Resources, CS Resources, Koch Oil, and Gulf Resources. The ultimate goal is recovery costs of $6 per barrel, which is comparable to the costs of the conventional oil sector. The added advantage of oil sands production is, of course, the virtual elimination of the exploration risk. 3 figs

  6. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  8. Impact of salinity on bitumen extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, H.A.W; Schaffer, M. [Total EandP Canada Ltd (Canada); Gingras, J.P. [TOTAL Petrochemicals Mont-Lacq Research and Development (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil sands industry, the hot water extraction process is used to extract bitumen. Recovery of bitumen is thus dependent on the water chemistry. Previous studies identified that divalent cations such as calcium present in water have a negative effect on bitumen recovery but the effect of monovalent cations such as sodium at high concentrations is still unknown. This paper assessed the potential impact of both monovalent and divalent cations on bitumen recovery. Extraction tests were conducted with two low grade and one average grade ore and with different water chemistries. Results showed that monovalent cations can have a negative impact on bitumen recovery for specific ore types. The study was not successful in determining the responsible mechanism but it is presumed to be related to coagulation of fine clays. This paper highlighted that monovalent cations can impact the bitumen recovery; further work is required to determine the responsible factors.

  9. Prepare to be blown away

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    On 16 April, the TE-VSC team began identifying and repairing the LHC’s faulty radiofrequency fingers. Their main tool: an “RF ball” that will be – quite literally – blown through the beam pipe.   RF ball tests carried out in 2007. In the bellows of the LHC interconnects, you’ll find the vacuum pipe held together by some flexible metallic connectors known as “RF fingers”. These RF fingers maintain the electrical contact between the LHC magnets, ensuring the continuity of the beam pipe. As the magnets contract and expand when heated up and cooled down, the fingers preserve their connection by simply sliding over each other. However, experience has shown that the movement of the LHC magnets can cause the fingers to buckle. “It’s not a question of bad design,” explains Vincent Baglin, from TE's Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings (TE-VSC) group. “Rather, there were slight non...

  10. Mechanism of Solid Bitumen in Silurian Sandstones of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinglian; Zhu Bingquan

    1997-01-01

    @@ There are a large amount of solid bitumen within Silurian sandstones in Tabei, Tazhong, Kalpin uprifts of the Tarim Basin. Petroleum geochemists are interested in the super giant fossil oil pool. Unfortunately,some key questions have not been solved, such as: what generated the bitumen? When did the bitumen generate and when did the bitumen accumulated in the sandstones?

  11. NMR measurement of bitumen at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Hirasaki, George J

    2008-06-01

    Heavy oil (bitumen) is characterized by its high viscosity and density, which is a major obstacle to both well logging and recovery. Due to the lost information of T2 relaxation time shorter than echo spacing (TE) and interference of water signal, estimation of heavy oil properties from NMR T2 measurements is usually problematic. In this work, a new method has been developed to overcome the echo spacing restriction of NMR spectrometer during the application to heavy oil (bitumen). A FID measurement supplemented the start of CPMG. Constrained by its initial magnetization (M0) estimated from the FID and assuming log normal distribution for bitumen, the corrected T2 relaxation time of bitumen sample can be obtained from the interpretation of CPMG data. This new method successfully overcomes the TE restriction of the NMR spectrometer and is nearly independent on the TE applied in the measurement. This method was applied to the measurement at elevated temperatures (8-90 degrees C). Due to the significant signal-loss within the dead time of FID, the directly extrapolated M0 of bitumen at relatively lower temperatures ( or = 60 degrees C), the M0 value of bitumen at lower temperatures (Curie's Law. Consequently, some important petrophysical properties of bitumen, such as hydrogen index (HI), fluid content and viscosity were evaluated by using corrected T2. PMID:18387325

  12. Self lubrication of bitumen froth in pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, D.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper I will review the main properties of water lubricated pipelines and explain some new features which have emerged from studies of self-lubrication of Syncrudes` bitumen froth. When heavy oils are lubricated with water, the water and oil are continuously injected into a pipeline and the water is stable when in a lubricating sheath around the oil core. In the case of bitumen froth obtained from the Alberta tar sands, the water is dispersed in the bitumen and it is liberated at the wall under shear; water injection is not necessary because the froth is self-lubricating.

  13. A New Approach for Evaluating Rejuvenator Diffusing into Aged Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Dongliang; FENG Zhengang; YU Jianying; CHEN Xing; ZHOU Bo

    2011-01-01

    Rejuvenator diffusing into aged bitumen was evaluated by determining penetration and chemical components of aged bitumen with rejuvenator coat before and after diffusing experiment.Effects of temperature, time and viscosity of rejuvenator on the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen were investigated. Results indicated that the diffusing ability of rejuvenator into aged bitumen could be enhanced with the increasing of temperature and time, however, the diffusing of rejuvenator into aged bitumen would be restricted due to the volatilization of light component and aging of rejuvenator under high temperature (over 170 ℃). Rejuvenator with low viscosity diffused into aged bitumen more easily.

  14. Market challenges for SCO and bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various options available to producers of bitumen to market their product are reviewed. Marketing as bitumen blend is one of the options, however, the ability of doing this becomes constrained by the availability of diluent and refinery capacity to utilize the crude. Building a complex upgrader and produce an upgraded synthetic crude is another option, but that too will face marketing constraints as oilsands development continues to grow. A third option is to partially upgrade the bitumen, enough to be pumpable, and then sell it to a refiner for further upgrading. Partial upgrading in the field appears to be the most viable option but it will likely require long term integration with refineries to be effective. Refiners are faced with the challenge to reduce sulphur in gasoline, which means that they may well be reluctant to take bitumen as feedstock due its being hydrogen deficient, requiring substantial hydrogen addition or coke withdrawal to make them more compatible with existing refiners, most of which are not able to deal with bitumen efficiently. Regardless of the option chosen, increased production of bitumen will require new markets (perhaps PADD II, the US Midwest or more remote markets) and may require investments in new refining facilities to absorb all new synthetic supplies. While the availability of an adequate diluent supply is the major issue, there is also the added pressure on refiners to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; this in itself could be a significant factor in deciding where upgrading of bitumen should occur. The paper concludes by saying that to meet these challenges it will be necessary for producers, upgraders and refiners to work much more closely together than they have in the past

  15. Markets for Canadian bitumen-based feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken in an effort to determine the market potential for crude bitumen and derivative products from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in 2007. As part of the study, CERI assessed the economic viability of a wide range of bitumen-based feedstock based on their refining values, investigated the sensitivity of refinery demand to the prices of these feedstocks, and examined the competitiveness of bitumen-based feedstocks and conventional crudes. A US$18.00 per barrel price for West Texas Intermediate at Cushing, Oklahoma, was assumed in all calculations, including other crude prices, as well as for Western Canadian and US crude oil production forecasts. Four different scenarios have been considered, but only the 'most plausible' scenario is discussed in the report. Consequently, Hydrocracked/Aromatics Saturated Synthetic Crude Oil, which is currently only a hypothetical product, is excluded from consideration. The availability of historical price differentials for the various competing crudes was another assumption used in developing the scenario. Proxy prices for the bitumen-based feedstock were based on their respective supply costs. The study concludes that the principal dilemma facing bitumen producers in Western Canada is to determine the amount of upgrading necessary to ensure an economic market for their product in the future. In general, the greater the degree of upgrading, the higher is the demand for bitumen-based feedstock. However, it must be kept in mind that the upgrading decisions of other bitumen producers, along with many other factors, will have a decisive impact on the economics of any individual project. The combination of coking capacity and asphalt demand limits the market for heavy and extra-heavy crudes. As a result, the researchers concluded that major expansion of heavy crude conversion capacity may have to wait until the end of the current decade. The economic market for bitumen-based blends in 2007 is estimated at

  16. Langmuir films of solids-free bitumen and bitumen fractions at toluene/water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyev, A.; Zhang, L.; Xu, Z.; Masliyah, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the interfacial behaviour of bitumen and bitumen fractions at an organic solvent/water interface using a Langmuir trough and atomic force microscope (AFM). The objective was to better understand the stability of water-in-solvent diluted bitumen emulsions. The accumulation of interfacially active components at the oil/water interfaces promotes the formation of interfacial films, which resist the coalescence of water droplets thereby stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions. The bitumen fractions included maltene, and asphaltene films at the toluene/de-ionized water interface. Langmuir films of bitumen, maltene and asphaltene were spread at toluene/water interfaces where they exhibited different interfacial pressure-area isotherms. Asphaltenes were found to be irreversibly adsorbed at the toluene/water interface when the films were subjected to multiple washings with fresh toluene. Interfacial pressure-area isotherms remained unchanged. Consecutive washings of maltene films with fresh toluene showed a progressive loss of interfacial materials from the toluene/water interface. However, the pressure-area isotherms showed a consistent shift during the first 2 consecutive bitumen film washings and then no further shift with subsequent washings. After the first 2 washings, the isotherms were same as the original asphaltene films. According to AFM images of Langmuir-Blodgett films deposited from the toluene/water interface, the topographical features of asphaltene films resembled that of bitumen films. However, they were very different from that of maltene films. The study results demonstrated that the bitumen film at a toluene/water interface is composed primarily of asphaltenes. The asphaltenes contribute to the stability of water-in-diluted bitumen emulsions because they are irreversibly adsorbed at the interface. tabs., figs.

  17. Market outlook for Athabasca bitumen: the economics of location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) was shown to have lowered supply costs and made Athabasca bitumen competitive in the North American market for heavy crudes and bitumen. As part of a SAGD commercialization study, the potential market for Athabasca bitumen, its transportation and netback prices were studied. While both Syncrude and Suncor have identified a need for additional bitumen in the future, it was also recognized that Athabasca bitumen prices must be cost competitive with Syncrude's and Suncor's own products. The study also revealed that the most significant obstacle for Athabaska bitumen to being fully competitive in the North American market was the lack of transportation infrastructure. It was suggested that using larger volume pipelines would aid in keeping pipeline tariffs low , which in turn, would improve Athabaska bitumen's competitiveness and enable further development of the deposit. 8 figs., 1 table

  18. Bitumen recovery from surface mined oil sands recycle water ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J.; Munoz, V.A.; Elliott, G. L. [Natural Resources Canada, CanmetENERGY, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In surface mined oil sands, high bitumen recovery can be achieved but tailings have accumulated over the years. Several technologies have been proposed for recovering bitumen from tailings, but because this bitumen carries high surfactant concentrations there have been processing problems. This paper presents the application of oxidized ore characterization and processing methods to process tailings pond bitumen. Laboratory tests were carried out to characterize bitumen samples coming from four different tailings sources and tests were run with caustic additive. Results showed that high caustic additions can be applied to surfactant rich tailings pond bitumen to avoid downstream froth treatment emulsion problems; the oxidation degree should be carefully monitored. This study demonstrated that the use of caustic additive, already used for oxidized ores, can be applied to treat the bitumen recovered from tailings streams.

  19. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive regulatory performance test program, using an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The testing has shown that the relatively viscous form of oxidized bitumen that was used has been able to meet all performance requirements. Using a 53-mm Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of ASTM D312, type III, air-blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, was used. The mixed liquid waste contained approximately 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium, and strontium. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, 40, 50, and 60 wt % salt. Performance test results include the 90-day American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements

  20. Origin of Unliberated Bitumen in Athabasca Oil Sands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TuYun; J.B.O'Carroll; B.D.Sparks; L.S.Kotlyar; S.Ng; K.H.Chung; G.Cuddy

    2005-01-01

    Oil sands contain a so-called organic rich solids component (ORS), i.e., solids whose surfaces are strongly associated with toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM). Typically, humic material is the major component of TIOM.It provides sites for adsorption and chemical fixation of bitumen. This bound bitumen is """"""""unliberated"""""""", and considerable mechanical or chemical energy may be required to release it. In order to establish a correlation between bitumen recovery and ORS content, a few selected oil sands were processed in a Batch Extraction Unit (BEU).Analysis of the middlings and coarse tailings streams from these tests indicated a relatively constant bitumen to ORS ratio of 2.8±0.7. This value allows the liberated-unliberated bitumen balance (LUBB) to be calculated for any given oil sands. The amounts of bitumen recovered as primary froth during the BEU experiments are close to the estimated liberated bitumen contents in each case tested. This observation indicates that the liberated-unliberated bitumen calculation is an important quantitative parameter for prediction of bitumen recovery under specific recovery conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the ORS content of an oil sands may be estimated from the carbon content of bitumen free oil sands solids.

  1. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs

  2. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  3. Volume Stability of Bitumen Bound Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers results of laboratory investigations on the volume stability of masonry units incorporating waste materials bound with bitumen (Bitublocks, due to moisture adsorption, thermal exposure and vacuum saturation. The materials used were steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, and 50 pen bitumen. The samples were produced in hot mix method, compacted, then exposed to moist and temperature. It was found that moisture adsorption from the environment caused the Bitublock to expand. The samples with less intense curing regime experienced lower expansion and became stable faster, and vice versa. Under thermal condition (at 70°C, the samples with less intense curing regime underwent higher expansion, and vice versa. They were also highly reversible. Their volume stability was found unique under water exposure. The expansion on first vacuum saturation cycle was irreversible, then largely reversible on the following cycles.

  4. Microbial desulphurization of heavy oils and bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, A; Scharer, J M; Moo-Young, M

    1987-01-01

    Most oil producing countries have extensive reserves of heavy oil and bitumen. As easily accessible sources of conventional crudes decline, these reserves will become more important in supplementing the energy requirements. Heavy oil and bitumen are highly viscous and contain 3 to 6% sulphur. These objectionable quantities of sulphur must be removed before being acceptable as refinery feedstock. This paper addresses the potential of biological desulphurization of heavy oil and bitumen. The aerobic and anaerobic processes to remove organic as well as inorganic sulphur have been reviewed. To date, most studies were performed with model substrates, particularly dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a synthetic medium. Early work concerned with the isolation of microorganisms, identification and characterization of intermediate metabolites, and the development of growth media. No commercially viable process has emerged since the engineering details of the process have not been addressed conclusively. Due to high utility and catalyst cost conventional hydrodesulphurization processes are reported to be uneconomic in case of high sulphur oils. Microbial desulphurization, on the other hand, appears to be promising due to the inherent low energy requirement. This process may become more attractive by the application of genetically modified bacteria and improvements in bioreactor design. PMID:14543142

  5. Volatility of bitumen prices and implications for the industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Sustained crude oil price increases have led to increased investment in and production of Canadian bitumen to supplement North American oil supplies. For new projects, the evaluation of profitability is based on a prediction of the future price path of bitumen and ultimately light/medium crude oil. This article examines the relationship between the bitumen and light crude oil prices in the context of a simple error-correction economic-adjustment model. The analysis shows bitumen prices to be significantly more volatile than light crude prices. Also, the dominant effect of an oil price shock on bitumen prices is immediate and is amplified, both in absolute terms and percentage price changes. It is argued that the bitumen industry response to such market risks will likely be a realignment toward vertical integration via new downstream construction, mergers, or on a de facto basis by the establishment of alliances. ?? 2008 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Investigation of rheological properties of TPS modified bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全涛; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 王金刚

    2008-01-01

    Rheological properties of the virgin bitumen and TPS modified bitumen binders with several percentages of TPS additives were studied.All TPS modified bituminous binders were prepared on a laboratory scale.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) strain sweep test was made to measure the linear viscoelasticity areas of various bitumen binders at -20-70 ℃,then temperature sweep test and frequency sweep test were made in the linear viscoelasticity areas.Complex modulus master curves were drawn to analyze and compare various bitumen binders’ rheological properties.Based on the test results,the ideal percentage of TPS additive was brought forward.The results show that TPS modified bitumen binders have more excellent properties at high,medium and low temperatures compared with original bitumen.The dosages of TPS additive are vital to their properties.

  7. Autosolvent effect of bitumen in thermal cracking; Netsubunkai hanno ni okeru bitumen no jiko yobai koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuni, M.; Sato, M.; Hattori, H. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology; Nagaishi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Tar sand bitumen is petroleum-based ultra-heavy oil, and has a great amount of reserve like coal. However, there are still a lot of problems for its highly effective utilization. This paper discusses whether the light components in bitumen show independent behavior during the thermal cracking of heavy components, or not. Solvent effect and reaction mechanism during the thermal cracking are also derived from the change of their chemical structures. Athabasca tar sand bitumen was separated into light and heavy fractions by vacuum distillation based on D-1660 of ASTM. Mixtures of the both fractions at various ratios were used as samples. Negative effect of the light fraction on cracking of the heavy fraction was observed with dealkylation and paraffin formation Polymerization of the dealkylated light fraction to the heavy fraction was suggested due to lack of hydrogen in the thermal cracking under nitrogen atmosphere, which resulted in the formation of polymer. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Effect of base bitumen composition on asphalt rubber binder properties

    OpenAIRE

    Partl, M.N.; Ould-Henia, M.; Dumont, A.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The asphalt rubber blend properties are strongly related to its base components properties. The base bitumen composition is considered as a key factor influencing the final rheological properties of asphalt rubber binder. This paper describes results from a laboratory investigation of the interaction between crumb rubber and different composition bitumen according to the wet process. The bitumen composition is determined according to the SARA decomposition approac...

  9. The long-term stability of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural bitumen can be an aid in the assessment of the long-term behaviour of technical bitumen. Natural occurrences of bitumen usually have the drawback that the original material before alteration or degration began is not known. The present work applies an alternative approach: on the basis of the geology and stratigraphy at a site where bitumen samples have been taken, the existence of a gradient in the parameters of subaerial and microbial degradation processes may be assumed. Therefore relative variation in properties, composition and structure (bitumen content, volative fraction, elemental composition, chromatographic fractions, saturated hydrocarbons, trace metals, humic substances) at different locations within the deposit have been analysed. The bitumen impregnates a bed of porous Jurassic limestone which crops out at the surface and dips under sediments of various permeability. The quality of the bitumen is in compliance with standards for soft technical bitumen, although it can be characterized as highly biodegraded. It has probably not been affected to any marked degree by degradation since the Quarternary or possibly even late Tertiary, however, as observable variations in composition and properties are only minor and seem to exhibit no clear relation to the present geological setting. Only near the present outcrop do there seem to be signs of increased oxidation. Direct exposure to the weather at the surface leads to destruction of the bitumen within a very thin surface layer. Traces of humic substances probably originating from the decomposition of bitumen were found. The rate of bitumen degradation at outcrops seems to coincide with the rate of weathering and erosion of the host rock. It can be concluded from the results that the time scales necessary to achieve significant alteration of bitumen under the given conditions far exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of radionuclides in low- and medium-level radioactive waste

  10. Cooee bitumen II: Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Claire,; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J.C.; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of ...

  11. Physico-chemical modification of asphalt bitumens by reactive agents

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen, a by-product from crude oil distillation, has long been used in numerous engineering applications that range from the construction of road pavements to waterproof membranes for the roofing industry. On account of its properties (impermeability, adhesiveness, elasticity, ductility, etc.), bitumen is the most suitable material to be used as a binder of mineral aggregates for paving industry, and consequently, roads are mainly constructed using a composite mixture of bitumen (~ 5 wt.%) ...

  12. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The μ-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  13. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recoverable reserves of Canada's vast oil deposits is estimated to be 335 billion barrels (bbl), most of which are in the Alberta oil sands. Canada was the largest import supplier of crude oil to the United States in 2001, followed by Saudi Arabia. By 2011, the production of oil sands is expected to increase to 50 per cent of Canada's oil, and conventional oil production will decline as more production will be provided by synthetic light oil and bitumen. This paper lists the announced oil sands projects. If all are to proceed, production would reach 3,445,000 bbl per day by 2011. The three main challenges regarding the transportation and marketing of this new production were described. The first is to expand the physical capacity of existing pipelines. The second is the supply of low viscosity diluent (such as natural gas condensate or synthetic diluent) to reduce the viscosity and density of the bitumen as it passes through the pipelines. The current pipeline specifications and procedures to transport partially upgraded products are presented. The final challenge is the projected refinery market constraint to process the bitumen and synthetic light oil into consumer fuel products. These challenges can be addressed by modifying refineries and increasing Canadian access in Petroleum Administration Defense District (PADD) II and IV. The technology for partial upgrading of bitumen to produce pipeline specification oil, reduce diluent requirements and add sales value, is currently under development. The number of existing refineries to potentially accept partially upgraded product is listed. The partially upgraded bitumen will be in demand for additional upgrading to end user products, and new opportunities will be presented as additional pipeline capacity is made available to transport crude to U.S. markets and overseas. The paper describes the following emerging partial upgrading methods: the OrCrude upgrading process, rapid thermal processing, CPJ process for

  14. Investigations of Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Hassan Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several road pavement distresses are related to rheological bitumen properties. Rutting and fatigue cracking are the major distresses that lead to permanent failures in pavement construction. Influence of crumb rubber modifier (CRM on rheological properties of bitumen binder such as improvement of high and intermediate temperatures is investigated in the binder’s fatigue and rutting resistance through physical-rheological changes in this research. The bitumen binders were aged by rolling thin film oven (RTFOT to simulate short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV to simulate long-term aging. The effects of aging on the rheological and physical properties of bitumen binders were studied conducting dynamic shear rheometer test (DSR, Brookfield viscometer test, softening point test, and penetration test. The results showed that the use of rubberised bitumen binder reduces the aging effect on physical and rheological properties of the bitumen binder as illustrated through lower aging index of viscosity, lower aging index of , and an increase in with crumb rubber modifier content increasing, indicating that the crumb rubber might improve the aging resistance of rubberised bitumen binder. In addition, the results showed that the softening point increment ( and penetration aging ratio (PAR of the rubberised bitumen binder decreased significantly due to crumb rubber modification. Furthermore, the higher crumb rubber content, the lower after PAV aging, which led to higher resistance to fatigue cracking bitumen.

  15. Disjoining pressure isotherms of water-in-bitumen emulsion films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Shawn D; Czarnecki, Jan; Masliyah, Jacob

    2002-08-01

    In the oil sands industry, undesirable water-in-oil emulsions are often formed during the bitumen recovery process where water is used to liberate bitumen from sand grains. Nearly all of the water is removed except for a small percentage (approximately 1 to 2%), which remains in the solvent-diluted bitumen as micrometer-sized droplets. Knowledge of the colloidal forces that stabilized these water droplets would help to increase our understanding of how these emulsions are stabilized. In this study, the thin liquid film-pressure balance technique has been used to measure isotherms of disjoining pressure in water/toluene-diluted bitumen/water films at five different toluene-bitumen mass ratios. Even though a broad range of mass ratios was studied, only two isotherms are obtained, indicating a possible change in the molecular orientation of surfactant molecules at the bitumen/water interfaces. At low toluene-bitumen mass ratios, the film stability appears to be due to a strong, short-range steric repulsion created by a surfactant bilayer. Similar isotherms were obtained for water/toluene-diluted asphaltene/water films, indicating that the surface active material at the interface probably originated from the asphaltene fraction of the bitumen. However, unlike the bitumen films, films of toluene-diluted asphaltenes often formed very rigid interfaces similar to the "protective skin" described by other researcher. PMID:16290773

  16. Impact of fugitive bitumen on polymer-based flocculation of mature fine tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, C.; Harbottle, D; Alagha, L; Xu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In bitumen recovery from oil sands, a percentage of the bitumen is lost to tailings. The effect of fugitive bitumen on fines settling and consolidation in tailings ponds remains controversial. In the current study, the settling performance of mature fine tailings (MFT) in response to flocculant addition was considered by studying MFT of varying bitumen content. Bitumen content in the MFT was adjusted by controlled removal of bitumen using a Denver flotation cell. The initial settling rate of ...

  17. Vergelijkend AFM Onderzoek: microstructuur van bitumen in relatie tot healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmets, A.J.M.; Nahar, S.N.; Dillingh, B.; Fischer, H.; Scarpas, A.; Erkens, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we present the background, the scientific and experimental approach and the results of AFM experiments performed on two different batches of bitumen. The specific bitumen researched in this project has also been studied in the context of the InfraQuest project ‘Pragmatisch Healing On

  18. Natural analogues of bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occurrences of natural bitumen provide possibilities to identify and assess materials, processes, phenomena and conditions in nature which can serve as model cases valid also with respect to a final repository. Natural bitumens meet the basic requirements for use as natural analogues. In natural sites, processes of bitumen formation and degradation often work simultaneously. The major processes are thermal alteration, evaporation, reaction with water, biodegradation, oxidation, weathering and radiation degradation. Progress in analytical organic geochemistry made during recent years has enabled a deeper understanding of the structural and compositional effects of these processes on bitumen. This is necessary in natural analogue applications. The time scales involved in degradation processes, as observed in natural occurrences, exceed the time scales dictated by the half-lives of most important fission products in low and medium level waste by orders of magnitude. Only exposure to the weather at the surface leads to a more rapid destruction of bitumen. Trace metals in bitumen arenot released until the matrix is completely destroyed. Products of radiation degradation and weathering of bitumen are able, to a certain degree, to delay migration of the metal ions released. Impregnation with bitumen may effectively reduce the microbial decomposition of easily destructable organic waste components, as can be deduced on the basis of the excellent preservation of fossils observed in bitumen. The complexity of all the natural sites described requires extensive understanding of the origin and kind of organic material in bitumen, its maturation, migration, alteration and degradation and of the geological and tectonic evolution of the site. The latter is used for establishing the time scale

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  20. Marshall properties of waste polymer and nanoclay modified bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeque Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer modified bitumen is emerging as one of the important construction materials for flexible pavements. The addition of polymers in bitumen improves the deformational stability and durability of bitumen. Also Montmorillonite nanoclay has been successfully used as additive in polymer to significantly improve the thermal stability and mechanical properties. The present study, the effect of waste low density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP obtained from waste carry bag, crumb rubber obtained from Waste tyre (CRand nanoclay (MMT on Marshall stability have been evaluated. Waste plastics, whose disposal is a matter of concern can be used successfully to modify the bitumen, these waste polymers are added in 2%, 4% and 6% whereas nanoclay is added in 1,2 and 3 % in 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and its effect on stability and flow of bitumen are evaluated. The result of experimental study shows that there is significant improvement in the Marshall Stability of bitumen due addition of waste polymer and nanoclay.

  1. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  2. Bitumen immobilization of aqueous radwaste by thin-film evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, AECL built a Waste Treatment Centre (WTC) for managing low-level solid and aqueous liquid wastes for converting CANDU wastes. At present, two liquid waste streams are being treated at the WTC. The liquid waste streams are volume-reduced by a combination of continuous crossflow microfiltration (MF), spiral wound reverse osmosis (SWRO) and tubular reverse osmosis (TRO) membrane technologies. The concentrate produced from the TRO system and the volume-reduced MF backwash solutions are evaporated while simultaneously adding bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. A water-free product of chemical and radiochemical salts and bitumen is removed in 200-L galvanized steel drums for storage. The radiation field of product drums on contact typically has a value of 0.5 to 3 R/h depending upon the feed concentration of radioactivity to the evaporator. The total solids content in the 200-L drum ranges from 25 to 35%. Encapsulated in the bitumen matrix are a variety of nonradiochemical salts, which comprise the bulk of the total solids that are in the product drum. This report discusses the immobilization of the aqueous waste with bitumen in a thin-film evaporator. Simulated bituminized waste forms were leached in accordance with the ANS/ANSI 16.1 leach test. In this test, the waste form is immersed under water for an extended period of time, and the leachate is periodically removed and chemically analysed. The Leachability index varied between 7 and 9 for the emulsified bitumen waste forms produced at the WTC. Bitumen samples were unconfined and subjected to immersion and frequent leachate replenishment. The results of leach tests will be a lower bound for the performance of the bitumen waste product in an unsaturated environment. The Leachability indexes reported exceeds the USNRC minimum requirement for wasteform criteria. Adding protective overcoats of either Portland cement or oxidized bitumen enhanced the Leachability index. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  3. ELASTICITY OF BITUMEN BINDERS AND THE FACTORS CAUSING IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the influence of the initial bitumen penetration grade and different con-centrations of the mineral filler on the elasticity of the polymer-modified bitumen (PMB with 3 and 6 % of SBS type polymer. The dependences of elasticity of the PMB on the test conditions – such as the temperature and the stress state level are shown additionally.

  4. WATER-BLOWN POLYURETHANE RIGID FOAMS MODIFIED BY CHEMICAL PLASTICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ming; XU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Water-blown polyurethane rigid foams are getting more and more attention, because the traditional blowing agent HCFC141b has already been abolished to prevent the ozone layer from destruction. However, the polyurethane rigid foams blown by water have serious defects, i.e. friability and resulting lower adhesion strength. Thus, the purpose of this study is to resolve the problems by chemical plastication. The maleate was added to polyol-premix containing water or to polyisocyanate,with both of which maleate does not react. To prove the reaction when polyol-premix and polyisocyanate were mixed, the model composite was synthesized and analyzed by IR, NMR and ESI (MS). Furthermore, a series of water-blown polyurethane rigid foams added different amount maleate were successfully prepared. By testing impact strength and adhesion strength of the foams, the actual effect of adding maleate was obtained.

  5. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  6. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-01-01

    The transport of dust and sand by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This article presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  7. Storage stability of SBS/sulfur modified bitumens at high temperature: influence of bitumen composition and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre de Carcer, I.; Masegosa Fanego, Rosa María; Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Sanchez-Cabezudo Tirado, Marta; Salom Coll, Catalina; González Prolongo, Margarita; Contreras, Verónica; Barceló, Francisco; Páez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Polymer modified bitumens, PMBs, are usually prepared at high temperature and subsequently stored for a period of time, also at high temperature. The stability of PMBs, in these conditions, has a decisive influence in order to obtain the adequate performances for practical applications. In this article the attention is focused in the analysis of the factors that determine the stability of styrene–butadiene–styrene copolymer (SBS)/sulfur modified bitumens when the mixtures are maintained at hi...

  8. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

  9. Solubility bitumen testing by VIS-NIR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Bitumen is a semi-solid material which can be produced from certain oils by distillation or can be found in nature as 'natural asphalt' like 'tar sands, oil sands, etc'. It consists of a mixture of hydrocarbons of different molecular size, aromatic moieties and polarity. The largest use of bitumen is in for road pavements. Asphalt consists of bitumen and mineral mixed together at different amounts. Bituminous binders have varying solubility in different solvents; this property is an important parameter for their quality. The solubility is conventionally determined with a standard European test based on gravimetric differences of the asphalt before and after dissolution; this method is quite time-consuming and gives no information about the chemical nature of the dissolved bitumen. In this work a VIS-NIR (l: 500 - 900 nm) method is proposed based on the dissolution of the asphalt in an suitable filtering funnel equipped with a 270 Mesh (53 mm) filter clamped to a base. The asphalt is grinded and put into the filtering funnel; a specific quantity of solvent is added and after a fixed period of time the solution is filtered and poured into a flask. This solution is diluted in CH2Cl2 in well defined ratios, to become suitable for VIS-NIR analysis. Concentration of the bitumen is obtained from the absorbance values at determined VIS-NIR wavelengths, previously chosen to have no interferences from absorptions of the solvents; for each wavelength, absorbance calibration curves have been carried out. The calculated concentrations are compared to the maximum concentration of bitumen achievable by dissolving the whole bitumen contained in the asphalt, which is inferred from Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Some simple algorithms allow obtaining the degree of solubility of bituminous binders in different solvents. Moreover, the VIS-NIR spectra give information about the aromatic nature of dissolved bitumen. Some ratios between

  10. Bitumen fume-induced gene expression profile in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to bitumen fumes during paving and roofing activities may represent an occupational health risk. To date, most of the studies performed on the biological effect of asphalt fumes have been done with regard to their content in carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In order to gain an additional insight into the mechanisms of action of bitumen fumes, we studied their pulmonary effects in rodents following inhalation using the microarray technology. Fisher 344 rats were exposed for 5 days, 6 h/day to bitumen fumes generated at road paving temperature (170 oC) using a nose-only exposition device. With the intention of studying the early transcriptional events induced by asphalt fumes, lung tissues were collected immediately following exposure and gene expression profiles in control and exposed rats were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays. Data analysis revealed that genes involved in lung inflammatory response as well as genes associated with PAH metabolization and detoxification were highly expressed in bitumen-exposed animals. In addition, the expression of genes related to elastase activity and its inhibition which are associated with emphysema was also modulated. More interestingly genes coding for monoamine oxidases A and B involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and xenobiotics were downregulated in exposed rats. Altogether, these data give additional information concerning the bitumen fumes biological effects and would allow to better review the health effects of occupational asphalt fumes exposure

  11. The significance of petroleum bitumen in ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K A; Ikram, S; Evershed, R P

    2016-10-28

    Mummification was practised in ancient Egypt for more than 3000 years, emerging from initial observations of buried bodies preserved by natural desiccation. The use of organic balms (and other funerary practices) was a later introduction necessitated by more humid burial environments, especially tombs. The dark colour of many mummies led to the assumption that petroleum bitumen (or natural asphalt) was ubiquitous in mummification; however, this has been questioned for more than 100 years. We test this by investigating 91 materials comprising balms, tissues and textiles from 39 mummies dating from ca 3200 BC to AD 395. Targeted petroleum bitumen biomarker (steranes and hopanes) analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM, m/z 217 and 191) showed no detectable bitumen use before the New Kingdom (ca 1550-1070 BC). However, bitumen was used in 50% of New Kingdom to Late Period mummies, rising to 87% of Ptolemaic/Roman Period mummies. Quantitative determinations using (14)C analyses reveal that even at peak use balms were never more than 45% w/w bitumen. Critically, the dark colour of balms can be simulated by heating/ageing mixtures of fats, resins and beeswax known to be used in balms. The application of black/dark brown balms to bodies was deliberate after the New Kingdom reflecting changing funerary beliefs and shifts in religious ideology.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. PMID:27644983

  12. Optical and UV-Aging Properties of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultraviolet-light (UV resistant material. In this study, LDHs were used to modify bitumen. The optical and UV aging properties of LDHs modified bitumen were investigated. Firstly, the thin films of bitumen, with and without LDHs, were prepared. By using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer, absorbance, reflectance, and transmittance of bituminous thin film were evaluated. The morphology of LDHs-modified bitumen was observed by using fluorescence microscopy (FM. Finally, the aging resistance of LDH-modified bitumen was investigated by using the UV-aging oven. Results indicated that the LDHs, especially with 5 wt % in the bitumen, can effectively absorb and reflect the UV light and improve the UV-aging resistance of bitumen. This implied that the addition of LDHs into bitumen had the potential to prolong the service life of asphalt pavement.

  13. Effect of bitumen emulsion on setting, strength, soundness and moisture resistance of oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P S Chandrawat; T N Ojha; R N Yadav

    2001-06-01

    Addition of bitumen emulsion to the matrix has been found to improve strength and soundness of the product while decreasing the initial setting periods. Thus, bitumen emulsion as an admixture in magnesia cement is a moisture proofing and strengthening material.

  14. Diesel and Jet Fuels from Bitumen-derived Middle Distillates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SokYui

    2004-01-01

    Narrow fractions of light gas oils obtained from various upgrading processes of Athabasca oilsands bitumen were investigated as diesel and jet fuels. The relationship among the boiling range, cetane number, smoke point, and other properties such as aromatics content, aniline point, and the sulfur and nitrogen content was also studied. The study reveals that when appropriate processes and distillation boiling ranges are selected, oilsands bitumen can produce diesel and jet fuels that meet stringent environmental regulations and future product specifications. New correlations to predict CN and smoke point were developed as a function of density, boiling ranges by simulated distillation, and mono- and total aromatics by supercriticaL fluid chromatography. The correlations apply to bitumen-derived middle distiLLates that have a wide range of boiling points.

  15. Cooee bitumen II: Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Lemarchand, Claire A; Dyre, Jeppe C; Hansen, Jesper S

    2014-01-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen.Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of having a nanoaggregate of a given size in the stationary regime. To model this complicated behavior, we chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem ...

  16. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarchand, Claire A.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Hansen, Jesper S.

    2014-10-01

    Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen, eventually leading to road deterioration. This paper focuses on understanding the mechanisms behind nanoaggregate size and stability. We used molecular dynamics simulations to quantify the probability of having a nanoaggregate of a given size in the stationary regime. To model this complicated behavior, we chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem to behave as a flexible linear chain.

  17. Evaluation of Venezuela's Orinoco bitumen as an MHD fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Orinoco Belt in Venezuela contains huge deposits of a bitumen that is complex to handle and refine into lighter hydrocarbon fractions. These deposits are in the early commercialization stage, being marketed as an emulsion with 30% water as a boiler fuel. The fuel is similar to oil in heating value (about 18,100 BTU/lbm) and ash (less than 0.4%). It has an extremely high carbon to hydrogen ratio, a parameter that is important in MHD for electrical conductivity. In this paper, the authors evaluate the potential for this bitumen as a fuel for an MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. An experimental program to demonstrate the merit of the bitumen as an MHD fuel and validate the calculations is suggested

  18. Cooee bitumen. II. Stability of linear asphaltene nanoaggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    chose first to consider the simple case where only asphaltene molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate. We used a master equation approach and a related statistical mechanics model. The linear asphaltene nanoaggregates behave as a rigid linear chain. The most complicated case where all aromatic......Asphaltene and smaller aromatic molecules tend to form linear nanoaggregates in bitumen. Over the years bitumen undergoes chemical aging and during this process, the size of the nanoaggregate increases. This increase is associated with an increase in viscosity and brittleness of the bitumen...... molecules are counted in a nanoaggregate is then discussed. The linear aggregates where all aromatic molecules are counted seem to behave as a flexible linear chain...

  19. Investigation on the effects of gamma irradiation on bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, M.S.; Braz, D.; Motta, L.M.G., E-mail: Laura@coc.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Leite, L.F.M., E-mail: leniml@petrobras.com.br [Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Leopoldo Americo Miguez de Mello (CENPES/RJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil has more than 218,000 km of asphalt-paved highways. Bitumen is a generic term for natural or manufactured black or dark-colored solid, semisolid, or viscous cementitious materials that are composed mainly of high molecular weight hydrocarbons (90-95%). Several papers have shown that the irradiation process has changed the mechanical behavior in some polymers. This work aims to analyze the behavior of Brazilian irradiated Bitumen (CAP 50-70). In order to provide a preliminary evaluation, bitumen samples and cylindrical specimens of asphaltic mixture were tested. The bitumen samples were irradiated 0.1 to 300 kGy, and asphaltic mixture specimen was irradiated 5 to 300 kGy. The cylindrical asphaltic mixture specimen of 10.16 cm diameter used in this study was molded using an asphalt-aggregate mixture. The specimens were irradiated in LIN/UFRJ/Brazil using a Gamma cell Co{sup 60} source of gamma irradiation with an applied dose rate of 29.7 Gy/min. After irradiated, the bitumen samples were subjected to penetration test and the asphaltic mixtures were subjected to indirect tensile strength test (diametral compression) for determination of the resilient modulus, according to ASTM method D 4123. The results of these experiments for each dose were compared with the control (nonirradiated). As expected, the penetration results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) decreases with increasing of irradiation dose for bitumen samples and the resilient modulus results showed that the ratio (irradiated/non-irradiated) increases with increasing of irradiation dose for asphaltic mixture. (author)

  20. Calculations of the effect of boiling water on bitumen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering]|[Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory; McGee, B. [E-T Energy Limited, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Alberta's vast resources of heavy oil and bitumen are playing an increasing role as a main resource for crude oil. Thermal recovery methods for heavy oil and bitumen include steam injection and steam flooding in which thermal energy is given to the oil to reduce its viscosity and allow it to flow towards a production spot. A viable alternative to steam injection is the electromagnetic heating method for heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. Electromagnetic heating transfers heat to heavy oil reservoirs based on electromagnetic energy and can be used in situations where steam injection may not work well. The process can also be used to preheat the reservoir before steam injection. This study examined the possible displacement mechanisms of such processes with particular focus on the physics of boiling water in porous media as a potential displacement agent for heavy oil and bitumen. It is very possible that water could vaporize while being electrically heated and the vaporized water could push more heavy oil or bitumen out of reservoir. As such, higher oil recovery could be expected due to water vaporization. The role of water vaporization during electrical heating process was examined and a methodology to estimate the magnitude of incremental oil recovery was developed based on simple conceptual models with numerical simulators and illustrative experiments. The primary contributors of this process appear to be a combination of drainage, imbibition, viscosity reduction and gas expansion. The study showed that the expansion of water into steam could very efficiently flush oil out of pore spaces. It was concluded that water vaporization inside the reservoir can be an additional driving force for heavy oil or bitumen production, and that this alternative to steam injection can offer energy savings for the recovery process. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs., 1 appendix.

  1. Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shea...

  2. Obtaining mineral powder for bitumen cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, S.; Dlugoiz, B.; Frackowiak, F.; Nowakowski, S.; Walasek, J.; Wisniewski, L.; Wozniakowski, B.

    1979-07-30

    In order to prepare mineral powder used as a filler for bitumen cement, especially for road and runway coatings, combined grinding of three sedimentary rocks in the following proportions is carried out: 18-75 percent sandstone, 19-63 percent dolomites and limestones and less than or equal to 13 percent clayey shales to obtain the granulometric composition required in roadbuilding. The sandstone consists primarily of quartz with small amounts of feldspars, quartzites and other rock cemented by carbonate, carbonate-clay and clay cement. Some of the silocon dioxide is bound to A1203, CaO, K20 and Na20 in the form of feldspars. The carbonate cement contains along with CaO, MgO and A1203 also organic carbon which determines the high activity of the mineral powder obtained after grinding. Carbonate components are represented primarily by dolomite and calcite, and secondarily by clay minerals, quartzite pelite, bituminous v-v, mica, gypsum and adhydrite. The shales consist primarily of bituminous shale and dolomite shale. The chemical composition of the rock for manufacture of the mineral powder (percent): sandstone -- Si02 74.17, A1203 4.52, Ca0 6.29, Mg0 1.43, C02 2.65, Corg 0.38; dolomites and sanstones -- Si02 17.59, A1203 6.54, Ca0 23.59, MgO 19.96, CO2 31.10, Corg 0.86; shales Si02 24.38, A1203 10.00, Ca0 10.35, MgO 7.38, CO2 16.66, Corg 4.01. A similar feestock for combined grinding makes it possible to obtain continuity of the grain composition and simplies grinding to the required sizes (greater than or equal to 80 percent finer than 0.075 mm). Solid and larger grains of quartz and dolomite improve the roughness of the cement, and fine and less hard grains of calcite, kaolinite, and gypsum stabilize the cement.

  3. CRUDE PALM OIL AS A BIOADDITIVE IN POLYPROPYLENE BLOWN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Rose Jusoh,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of oilsand bitumen over nanoporous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, See-Hoon; Heo, Hyeon Su; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Yim, Jin-Heong; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Ko, Young Soo; Kim, Seung-Soo; Park, Young-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic cracking of oilsand bitumen was performed over nanoporous materials at atmospheric conditions. The yield of gas increased with application of nanoporous catalysts, with the catalytic conversion to gas highest for Meso-MFI. The cracking activity seemed to correlate with pore size rather than weak acidity or surface area. PMID:21446540

  5. Mechanical properties of dual phase steel quenched in bitumen medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. ADEDIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of a dual phase steel treated in different intercritical windows and subjected to bitumen as the quenching medium was investigated. The viscosity of the quenchant was altered at several rate, the morphology of phases formed was characterized. Also, the quenched samples produced ferrite-martensite phases obtained at different intercritical windows. The tensile and hardness behaviour of the structures was examined; and the microstructures were characterized. It was observed that samples intercriticaly heat treated at 790°C and held for 60mins, bitumen quenched at 125°C, offers the highest impact toughness, while its counterpart at 730°C soaked for 30mins, bitumen quenched at 125°C offered the least impact toughness value. Sample intercriticaly treated at 790°C and held for 45mins in a 150°C quenching, offered the peak hardness factor. However, samples at 790°C held at 45mins and bitumen quenched at 150°C possessed relatively the best combination of tensile properties, hardness and impact energy. The water quenched samples at 790°C held for 60mins has the peak hardness value. The micrographs as well showed a uniformly distributed dual phase structure of ferrite and martensite at various volume fractions.

  6. Brewster angle microscopy of Langmuir films of athabasca bitumens, n-C5 asphaltenes, and SAGD bitumen during pressure-area hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Angle, Chandra W

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen films formed on water surfaces have negative consequences, both environmental and economic. CanmetENERGY has placed considerable research emphasis on understanding the structures of the bitumen films on water as a necessary step before optimization of bitumen extraction. The detailed structures of the adsorbed molecules and, especially, the role of asphaltene molecules at the interfaces are still under scrutiny and debate. In the present study, we compared bitumen and asphaltene films as they were compressed and expanded under various surface pressures in order to achieve a clearer understanding of bitumen film structures. We used a customized NIMA Langmuir trough interfaced to a Brewster angle microscope (BAM) and CCD camera (Nanofilm_ep3BAM, Accurion, previously Nanofilm Gmbh) to study images of bitumen films at the air/water interface. The bitumen film appeared uniform with high reflectivity at a surface pressure of 18 mN·m(-1) and exhibited a coarse pebblelike interface with reduced reflectivity in the liquid condensed (LC) phase at higher pressures (18-35 mN·m(-1)). During the first cycle of compression asphaltene films showed well-defined phase transitions and a uniformly smooth interface in the LC phase between 9 and 35 mN·m(-1). However, folding or buckling occurred at surface pressures from 35 to 44 mN·m(-1). On expansion, asphaltene films appeared to break into islands. The hysteresis of the pressure-area isotherm was much larger for asphaltenes than for bitumen. In both compression and expansion cycles, BAM images for bitumen films appeared to be more reproducible than those of the asphaltene films at the same surface pressures. Films for low-°API SAGD bitumen were almost identical to those for surface-mined bitumen. Films formed from partially deasphalted surface-mined bitumens showed higher compressibility and lower rigidity than the original bitumen. The BAM images illustrated significant differences between the partially deasphalted and

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of organic intercalated layered double hydroxides and their application in bitumen modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Song [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jianying, E-mail: jyyu@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Sun, Yubin [Center for Materials Research and Analysis, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wu, Shaopeng [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Organic layered double hydroxides (LDHs) intercalated by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) were prepared by anion-exchange method and applied to modify bitumen aiming at improving ageing resistance of bitumen. The organic LDHs (SDBS–LDHs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometry. The effect of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs on physical and anti-ageing properties of bitumen was evaluated by means of conventional and rheological test. The results of XRD, FTIR and SEM show that SDBS is successfully intercalated into interlayer of LDHs, and the UV–vis reflectance and absorbance curves illustrate that intercalation of SDBS enhances the UV shielding effect of LDHs. The addition of SDBS–LDHs or LDHs has little influence on physical properties of bitumen because SDBS–LDHs and LDHs are physically mixed in bitumen. Compared with pristine bitumen after TFOT and UV irradiation ageing, the introduction of SDBS–LDHs and LDHs significantly improves thermal- and photo-oxidative ageing resistance of bitumen. Notably, bitumen with SDBS–LDHs exhibits better anti-ageing performance than that with LDHs, implying more effective modification of SDBS-LDHs which is due to the enhanced UV protective ability and compatibility with bitumen of SDBS–LDHs. - Highlights: • XRD, FTIR and SEM were used to confirm the successful intercalation. • SDBS–LDHs show superior UV protective ability. • SDBS–LDHs improved the anti-ageing properties of bitumen.

  9. Biological effects and toxicity of diluted bitumen and its constituents in freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, William A; Hontela, Alice; Rood, Stewart B; Pyle, Greg G

    2015-11-01

    Approximately 50 billion cubic meters of bitumen resides within the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada. To facilitate the transport of bitumen from where it is extracted to where it is processed, the bitumen is diluted with natural gas condensate ('dilbit'), synthetic crude from hydrocracking bitumen ('synbit'), or a mixture of both ('dilsynbit'). A primary consideration for the effects of diluted bitumen products on freshwater organisms and ecosystems is whether it will float on the water surface or sink and interact with the stream or lake sediments. Evidence from a spill near Kalamazoo, MI, in 2010 and laboratory testing demonstrate that the nature of the spill and weathering of the dilbit, synbit or dilsynbit prior to and during contact with water will dictate whether the product floats or sinks. Subsequent toxicological data on the effects of dilbit and other diluted bitumen products on freshwater organisms and ecosystems are scarce. However, the current literature indicates that dilbit or bitumen can have significant effects on a wide variety of toxicological endpoints. This review synthesizes the currently available literature concerning the fate and effects of dilbit and synbit spilled into freshwater, and the effects of bitumen and bitumen products on aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Dilbit is likely to provide ecological impacts that are similar to and extend from those that follow from exposure to lighter crude oil, but the prospect of bitumen settling after binding to suspended sediments elevates the risk for benthic impacts in streams and lakes. PMID:26153036

  10. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  11. Effects of thermal-oxidative aging on rheological properties of montmorillonite modified bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯鹏程; 余剑英; 王骁; 陶园园

    2008-01-01

    Organic montmorillonite(OMMT) modified bitumen nanocomposites was prepared by melt blending.The effects of thin-film oven test(TFOT) and pressure ageing vessel(PAV) on rheological properties of pristine bitumen and OMMT modified bitumen were investigated by dynamic shear rheometer(DSR).The results show that complex modulus(G*) increases,phase angle(δ) decreases and rutting factor(G*/sin δ) is enhanced for the pristine bitumen after TFOT,whereas G*,δ and G*/sin δ of OMMT modified bitumen have a little change before and after TFOT.Besides,the pristine bitumen exhibits a large increase of G* and a great decrease of δ after PAV aging.However,the changes in G* and δ of OMMT modified bitumen are small before and after PAV.Compared with the pristine bitumen,OMMT modified bitumen presents a lower fatigue factor(G*sin δ) after PAV.As a consequence,resistance to thermal-oxidative aging of bitumen is remarkably improved due to the introduction of OMMT.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Quarterly report, July--September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report cites task number followed by a brief statement of each task and the action taken this quarter. The tasks are: NEPA environmental information statement; coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; water-based recovery of bitumen; rotary kiln process for recovery of bitumen and combustion of coke sand; recovery of bitumen from oil sands using fluidized bed reactors and combustion of spent sands in transport reactors; recovery of bitumen from oil sand and upgrading of bitumen by solvent extraction; catalytic and thermal upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids; evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high energy jet fuels, and other specialty products; development of mathematical models for bitumen recovery and processing; completion of the cost estimation study of the pilot plant restoration; development studies of equipment for three-product gravity separation of bitumen and sand; development studies of disposal of sand by conveying or pumping of high solids concentration sand-water slurries; and environmental studies of the North Salt Lake pilot plant rehabilitation and eventual operation and those environmental problems associated with eventual commercial products.

  13. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  14. Four-component united-atom model of bitumen

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jesper S; Nielsen, Erik; Dyre, Jeppe C; Schrøder, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    We propose a four-component molecular model of bitumen. The model includes realistic chemical constituents and introduces a coarse-graining level that suppresses the highest frequency modes. Molecular dynamics simulations of the model are being carried out using Graphic-Processor-Units based software in time spans in order of microseconds, and this enables the study of slow relaxation processes characterizing bitumen. This paper focuses on the high-temperature dynamics as expressed through the mean-square displacement, the stress autocorrelation function, and rotational relaxation. The diffusivity of the individual molecules changes little as a function of temperature and reveals distinct dynamical time scales as a result of the different constituents in the system. Different time scales are also observed for the rotational relaxation. The stress autocorrelation function features a slow non-exponential decay for all temperatures studied. From the stress autocorrelation function, the shear viscosity and shear ...

  15. Thermal recovery of bitumen from carbonate reservoirs: formation damage aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, about a third of bitumen resources are located in carbonate reservoirs but none of it is considered as a reserve by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). In fact no pilot has been successful in recovering bitumen from carbonate reservoirs due to formation damage problems. Carbonate rock is chemically active at the high temperatures reached in thermal recovery processes, carbon dioxide is generated and carbonate minerals are precipitated. The aim of this paper is to find methods to control the phenomenon. Kinetic and thermodynamic controls were used. Results showed that formation damage is due to aqueous carbon dioxide attacking the reservoir rock. They found that a reduction of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide could inhibit the initial dissolution of rock material by reducing the concentration of aqueous carbon dioxide. A method to overcome the formation damage problem was found and a co-injection of gas and steam process was developed to apply it.

  16. Characterization of Ultra Fine Solids(BS) in Athabasca Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zai-Feng(李再峰); Judy KUNG; TU Yun(涂云); Luba S.KOTLYAR; Keng H.CHUNG

    2004-01-01

    The ultra fine (<200 nm) inorganic solids (BS) were separated from bitumen which was washed by toluene and centrifugated at 2000 rpm.The result of PAS FTIR and image of TEM showed that the structure of BS particles was smiliar to that of kaolinite clay.On the surface of BS,both toluene insoluble organic matter and structural OH group are detected at the same time.The surface characteristics imparted a bi-wettable nature to the BS.As a result,the BS is able to stabilize fine water emulsion in the bitumen phase.The organic matter associated with BS is a possible factor of the fouling on catalyst and equipment.

  17. Kinetic of the reaction between bitumen and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of sulphur in bituminous binders has been tried for many years in a number of countries, mainly USA and Canada. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of the reaction between elemental sulphur and bitumen, with the production of hydrogen sulfide. The work was carried out with the help of a thermo balance. It was shown that H2S evolution starts immediately after sulphur melting and that the rate of reaction is of second order

  18. Mechanical properties of dual phase steel quenched in bitumen medium

    OpenAIRE

    Adeolu A.ADEDIRAN; Aribo, Sunday; Muhammed Olalekan Hakeem AMUDA

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a dual phase steel treated in different intercritical windows and subjected to bitumen as the quenching medium was investigated. The viscosity of the quenchant was altered at several rate, the morphology of phases formed was characterized. Also, the quenched samples produced ferrite-martensite phases obtained at different intercritical windows. The tensile and hardness behaviour of the structures was examined; and the microstructures were characterized. It was obs...

  19. Baseline air quality evaluation for the Venezuelan Orinoco Bitumen Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve a harmonic relationship between oil exploration and production activities and the environment, Petroleos de Venezuela and its affiliated companies conducted environmental evaluations of the physical and bionic media in the Orinoco Bitumen Belt. This region covers an area of approximately 42000 km2 with estimated bitumen reserves on the order of 3 x 1012 barrels, one of the largest bitumen reservoirs in the world. This paper presents the results of a study of baseline air quality conditions: an emissions inventory, surface and upper layer meteorological conditions and measurements of air quality parameters of interest (CO, HC, NOx, SO2, H2S and T.S.P.) taken by a network of automated air quality stations using standard international reference techniques. The temporal (hourly and daily basis) and spatial air quality variability and the variables/activities that might determine the observed trends are discussed. NO, NO2, SO2 and H2S concentrations were lower than the detection limits of the analytical methods, while O3 and CO 1-hour average levels ranged from 5-30 ppb and 0.5-1.8 ppm, respectively, and T.S.P. daily means varied from 10-50 μg/m3, all of which is close to natural background concentrations. Maximum hourly average reactive hydrocarbon concentrations of 0.37 ppm were found near a producing oil field

  20. Study on possible explosive reactions of sodium nitrate-bitumen mixtures initiated by a shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential hazards of the mixture sodium nitrate-bitumen obtained by embedding in bitumen liquid radioactive effluents concentrated by evaporation are studied in case of accidental shock wave. A theoretical evaluation based on thermodynamical data show a low probability, nevertheless different from zero. No explosion occurred in tests realized in severe conditions. In conclusion there is no risk of detonation of large quantity of bitumen-nitrates stored in 200-liter drum in radioactive waste storage

  1. Determining the Rheological Properties of Neat and Rubber Modified Soft Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Kjosavik, Andreas Meling

    2013-01-01

    The properties of bitumen as an asphalt binder are dependent on temperature. At high temperatures, the bitumen softens enabling permanent deformation of the pavement. At low temperatures, the bitumen becomes stiff and inflexible and can crack as a result of strain and thermal contraction. Adding rubber from ground car tires increases the stiffness at high temperatures while maintaining or improving the flexibility of the binder at low temperatures. This thesis studies the interaction between ...

  2. 40 CFR 426.130 - Applicability; description of the hand pressed and blown glass manufacturing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressed and blown glass manufacturing subcategory. 426.130 Section 426.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hand Pressed and Blown Glass Manufacturing Subcategory § 426.130 Applicability; description of...

  3. A comprehensive numerical model of wind-blown sand

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F

    2009-01-01

    Wind-blown sand, or "saltation", ejects dust aerosols into the atmosphere, creates sand dunes, and erodes geological features. We present a comprehensive numerical model of steady-state saltation that, in contrast to most previous studies, can simulate saltation over mixed soils. Our model simulates the motion of saltating particles due to gravity, fluid drag, particle spin, fluid shear, and turbulence. Moreover, the model explicitly accounts for the retardation of the wind due to drag from saltating particles. We also developed a physically-based parameterization of the ejection of surface particles by impacting saltating particles which matches experimental results. Our numerical model is the first to reproduce measurements of the wind shear velocity at the impact threshold (i.e., the lowest shear velocity for which saltation is possible) and of the aerodynamic roughness length in saltation. It also correctly predicts a wide range of other saltation processes, including profiles of the wind speed and partic...

  4. Saltation and suspension of wind-blown particle movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Several factors that affect the trajectories of sand particles in a wind-blown sand flux are analyzed by considering the stochastic movement of sand particles transported within turbulent flow in the atmospheric boundary layer. The results show that there are remarkably different trajectories for particles with the same diameter, the same vertical liftoff velocity from sand bed and the same friction ve-locity of wind because of the presence of turbulence flow. The vertical fluctuating velocity of sand particles can be regarded as a reflection of the transport mode, which is related to not only the diameters and liftoff velocity of sand particles but also the shear stress velocity of wind. The critical liftoff velocity and the fraction of each transport mode are calculated for the given particle diameter and friction ve-locity of wind. A comparison of the predicted fraction and the statistical fraction with and without the wind-sand couple effect is made.

  5. A transport-rate model of wind-blown sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sand transport by wind plays an important role in environmental problems.Formulating the sand-transport rate model has been of continuing significance,because the majority of the existing models relate sand-transport rate to the wind-shear velocity.However,the wind-shear velocity readapted to blown sand is difficult to determine from the measured wind profiles when sand movement occurs,especially at high wind velocity.Detailed wind tunnel tests were carried out to reformulate the sand-transport rate model,followed by attempts to relate sand-transport rate to parameters of wind velocity,threshold shear-velocity,and grain size.Finally,we validated the model based on the data from field observations.

  6. Shear resistance properties of TPS modified bitumen binders and asphalt mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹庭维; 吴少鹏; 刘聪慧; 张涛

    2008-01-01

    Shear resistance properties of the virgin bitumen and modified bitumen binders with Tafpack Super(TPS) modifier and SBS modified bitumen were discussed.Dynamic shear rheometer(DSR) was used to measure the laboratory creep data for these binders over a wide range of constant shear stresses at 20 ℃ to characterize the shear creep behaviors of all kinds of asphalt binders,and the rutting test system was used to investigate the permanent deformation of porous asphalt mixtures using the above bitumen binders for a fixed compressive stress.The shear strain rate and shear creep modulus were used to characterize the shear creep behavior of the TPS modified bitumen,and the rutting test results were used to show the consistency of porous asphalt mixtures with the bitumen binders.Results indicate that a distinction of shear creep strain can be made among different contents of TPS modified bitumen at the same stress level,where the shear creep strain-time response curve of the SBS modified bitumen binder is between the curves of the 8% TPS and 12% TPS modified bitumen binders.The shear strain rate and the shear creep modulus of the TPS modified bitumen binders are obtained to compare with those of the SBS modified bitumen binder which results in the same trend as the shear creep strain-time response curve.Permanent deformation results of all the porous asphalt mixtures from the rutting test show reasonable agreement with the findings of the shear strain rates and shear creep modulus over the range of shear stress levels.

  7. Isocyanate-functionalized castor oil as a novel bitumen modifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The use of biomaterials from renewable sources in the synthesis of polyurethane-derived polymers is lately receiving great attention from social, environmental and economic standpoints. In this work, prepolymers having different -NCO/-OH ratio were synthesized, by reaction of 4,4´-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with castor oil (CO), to be used as modifying agent of asphaltic bitumen. Reactions between MDI and CO, performed with -NCO/-OH molar ratios of 8:1 and 4:1, have led to suitable bi...

  8. Heavy Oil and Natural Bitumen Resources in Geological Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Heavy oil and natural bitumen are oils set apart by their high viscosity (resistance to flow) and high density (low API gravity). These attributes reflect the invariable presence of up to 50 weight percent asphaltenes, very high molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules incorporating many heteroatoms in their lattices. Almost all heavy oil and natural bitumen are alteration products of conventional oil. Total resources of heavy oil in known accumulations are 3,396 billion barrels of original oil in place, of which 30 billion barrels are included as prospective additional oil. The total natural bitumen resource in known accumulations amounts to 5,505 billion barrels of oil originally in place, which includes 993 billion barrels as prospective additional oil. This resource is distributed in 192 basins containing heavy oil and 89 basins with natural bitumen. Of the nine basic Klemme basin types, some with subdivisions, the most prolific by far for known heavy oil and natural bitumen volumes are continental multicyclic basins, either basins on the craton margin or closed basins along convergent plate margins. The former includes 47 percent of the natural bitumen, the latter 47 percent of the heavy oil and 46 percent of the natural bitumen. Little if any heavy oil occurs in fore-arc basins, and natural bitumen does not occur in either fore-arc or delta basins.

  9. On the investigation of the bulk microstructure of bitumen - Introducing two new techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Dillingh, E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Bitumen, the residue of oil distillation and applied e.g. as binder in asphalt pavements displays a rich microstructure at the bitumen surface-to-air surface with several clearly distinguishable phases. However, uncertainty still remains whether this micro-structure is just present at free surfaces

  10. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol...

  11. High and Low Temperature Properties of FT-Paraffin-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Fazaeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research on the effects of “Fischer Tropsch-Paraffin” (Sasobit content on physical and rheological properties of Sasobit modified bitumen at various operational temperatures. For this purpose, bitumen with a Performance Grade (PG of 58–22 is selected as the base and later it is modified with 1, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 weight percent of FT-Paraffin (Sasobit. The performance of modified bitumen at high, intermediate, and low temperatures is evaluated based on Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP Superpave tests. Results of the study show that FT-paraffin improves the performance of bitumen at high temperatures in addition to increasing the resistance of mixture against permanent deformation. Despite the advantages of FT-paraffin on bitumen performance at high temperatures, it does not show a considerable influence on the intermediate and low temperature performance of bitumen. The effect of FT-paraffin content on the viscosity of modified bitumen is also investigated using Brookfield Viscometer Apparatus. Results show that increasing the additive content lowers the viscosity of modified bitumen. This in return can reduce the mixing and compaction temperature of asphalt mixtures.

  12. Survivability of Microbes in Mars Wind Blown Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Klovstad, Melisa R.; Fonda, Mark L.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the probability of Earth microbes growing (dividing) in the Martian environment is extremely low, the probability of their survival on the Martian surface is unknown. During the course of landed missions to Mars terrestrial microbes may reach the surface of Mars via inadequately sterilized spacecraft landers, rovers, or through accidental impact of orbiters. This investigation studied the potential for Earth microbes to survive in the windblown dust on the surface of Mars. The rationale for the study comes from the fact that Mars regularly has huge dust storms that engulf the planet, shading the surface from solar UV radiation. These storms serve as a mechanism for global transfer of dust particles. If live organisms were to be transported to the surface of Mars they could be picked up with the dust during a dust storm and transported across the planet. Washed, dried spores of Bacillus subtilis strain HA 101 were aseptically mixed with sterile sieved (size range of 1-5microns) Mars soil standard (obtained from NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, USA), or Fe-montmorillonite such that the number of microbes equals 5 x 10(exp 6)/g dry wt soil. The microbe soil mixture was placed in a spherical 8 L Mars simulation chamber equipped with a variable speed rotor, gas ports and an Oriel deuterium UV lamp emitting light of wave lengths 180-400 nm. The chamber was sealed, flushed with a simulated Martian atmosphere (96.9% CO2, 3% O2, 0.1% H2O), and the pressure brought to 10 torr. The lamp and rotor were switched on to begin the experiment. Periodically samples were collected from the chamber, and the numbers of microbial survivors g soil was determined using plate counts and the most probable number method (MPN). The data indicate that Bacillus subtilis spores dispersed with Mars analog soil in a Mars atmosphere (wind blown dust) survive exposure to 5.13 KJ m-2 UV radiation, suggesting that Mars wind blown dust has potential to the protect microbes from solar

  13. Reservoir design of a shallow LP-SAGD project for in situ extraction of Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmgren, C.; Walker, I. [Alberta Oilsands (Canada); Carlson, M.; Uwiera, M. [Inc RPS Energy (Canada); Torlak, M. [Siemens AG (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Alberta Oilsands Inc. is developing a project 8 km southeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The Clearwater project aims to extract bitumen from a shallow bitumen reservoir through in situ production; the aim of this paper is to present this project and to evaluate the commercial viability of combining different technologies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating. Alberta Oilsands will put 6 SAGD well pairs and infill wells in place to effectively recover the bitumen. Reservoir simulations were carried out using reservoir models based on geological, petrophysical and geostatical work. Results showed that the combination of SAGD, solvent co-injection and electro-magnetic heating can increase bitumen production while reducing the steam oil ratio. This paper provides information on the Phase I reservoir design of the Clearwater project; steam injection and bitumen recovery are expected to start in 2012.

  14. Base Course Modification through Stabilization using Cement and Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Marandi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this research was to analyze the use of combined cement and bitumen emulsion in base course stabilization in details and examine its replacement with conventional pavement in regions with low quality materials and limited construction period. To conduct the objectives, the research divided into three phases. Phase I involved the optimization of cement and bitumen emulsion. In this case, a series of Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS and Marshal Tests carried out. In the second phase, various alternative roadway sections examined for minimizing the pavement thickness and increasing the bearing capacity and finally in third phase, a Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD machine used to examine the pavement bearing capacity for three sections of the roadway. It was found that, the optimum values to eliminate the creation of shrinkage cracks in the whole project and minimize the execution period and construction costs were 3% for both binders in stabilization and its replacement with conventional pavement method (i.e., stabilized layer with conventional sub-base and base layers. Also, FWD results showed that, the bearing capacity of the constructed pavement using stabilization method is far beyond the predicted values in pavement design. Furthermore, it was found that, with high inflation rate and political situation in the region, base stabilized method decreased the final roadway construction costs in compare with conventional pavement method.

  15. Valorization of phosphogypsum waste as asphaltic bitumen modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadri, A A; Navarro, F J; García-Morales, M; Bolívar, J P

    2014-08-30

    The accumulation of phosphogypsum waste from the fertilizer industries, which remain in regulated stacks occupying considerable land resources, is causing significant environment problems worldwide. In that sense, the scientific community is being pressured to find alternative ways for their disposal. In this research, we propose a novel application for phosphogypsum waste, as a modifier of bitumen for flexible road pavements. Viscous flow tests carried out on bitumen modified with a phosphogypsum waste and doped with sulfuric acid demonstrated an extraordinary increase in viscosity, at 60°C, when compared to a counterpart sample which had been modified with gypsum, the main component of phosphogypsum. Similarly, a significant improvement in the viscoelastic response of the resulting material at high temperatures was also found. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) scans provided evidences of the existence of chemical reactions involving phosphorus, as revealed by a new absorption band from 1060 to 1180cm(-1), related to COP vibrations. This result points at phosphorus contained in the phosphogypsum impurities to be the actual "modifying" substance. Furthermore, no COP band was observed in the absence of sulfuric acid, which seems to be the "promoting" agent of this type of bond.

  16. EBF noise suppression and aerodynamic penalties. [Externally Blown Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinzie, L. J., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic tests were conducted at model scale to determine the noise produced in the flyover and sideline planes at reduced separation distances between the nozzle exhaust plane and the flaps of an under-the-wing (UTW) externally blown flap (EBF) configuration in its approach attitude. Tests were also made to determine the noise suppression effectiveness of two types of passive devices which were located on the jet impingement surfaces of the configuration. In addition, static aerodynamic performance data were obtained to evaluate the penalties produced by these suppression devices. Broadband low frequency noise reductions were achieved by reducing the separation distance between the nozzle and flaps. However, mid and high frequency noise was produced which exceeded that of the reference configuration. Two passive noise suppression devices located on the flaps produced moderate to large noise reductions at reduced separation distances. Consideration of the static aerodynamic performance data obtained for the configurations tested suggests that specific broadband noise suppression characteristics may be obtained through a trade-off with aerodynamic performance penalties by the careful selection of suppression devices.

  17. Foamed bitumen stabilization of MSWI bottom ash; Skumbitumenstabilisering av bottenaska fraan avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendz, David [Swedish Geotechnical Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Jacobsson, Torbjoern [Swedish National Road and Transport Research Inst., Linkoeping (Sweden); Svensson, Mikael; Flyhammar, Peter [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden). Dept. of Water Resources Engineering

    2006-04-15

    Foamed bitumen is a mixture of bitumen, water and air. Bitumen that is heated to 175 deg C expands about 10-30 times compared to its original volume when injecting small amounts of water and air under high pressure. By exposing a granulate material to foamed bitumen the particles will be covered with a bitumen film. This will give the particles hydrophobic properties, as well as a smaller specific surface. At the same time the mechanical properties of the material are expected to improve due to the cohesive properties of the bitumen covered particles. The treatment can be made both offsite and in situ. The objective of this project was to investigate the possibility to treat municipal solid waste bottom ash with foamed bitumen to achieve improved leaching and mechanical properties. The following leaching tests have been performed on the original bottom ash and two foamed bitumen treated ashes with 2 and 4.5 % bitumen, respectively: one-stage batch test (EN 12457-4), pH-static test (prEN 14997), column test (prEN 14405) and monolithic leaching test (NEN 7345). In addition, the specific surface and intra-particle porosity were determined by BET N2 adsorption experiments on selected fractions of bottom ash. The results showed that the specific surface decreased with more than 50 % and manifested itself in a lower buffer capacity at both low and high pH. For most elements no significant difference in leaching behavior where found when comparing the results from the leaching tests for the three materials at their own pH. This is thought to be due to that sufficient specific area available for leaching exists to reach equilibrium despite the foam bitumen treatment. The results from the one-stage batch test show a minor reduction in leaching for Cl{sup -}, S, SO{sub 4}{sup -2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Sb, and Ca for the foamed bitumen treated ashes. The results from the column test of the foamed bitumen stabilized ashes showed an increased leaching of some elements, especially

  18. Effect of Ultraviolet Aging on Rheology and Chemistry of LDH-Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are an ultravioletlight (UV-resistant material. In this study, two types of LDHs (Mg-Al-LDHs and Zn-Al-LDHs were applied to modify bitumen by melt-blending. The effect of ultraviolet aging on the rheology and chemistry of LDH-modified bitumen was studied by means of dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry to reveal the mechanisms of action for LDHs and bitumen. The results showed that within the UV spectra (220–400 nm, the reflectance of Zn-Al-LDHs was larger than that of Mg-Al-LDHs. These two LDHs have different influences on the performance of bitumen. Mg-Al-LDHs had a more obvious influence on the physical and dynamic rheological properties of bitumen than Zn-Al-LDHs. Zn-Al-LDHs improved the UV-aging resistance of bitumen more. The reason can be that the reflectance of the Zn-Al-LDHs to the UV light is larger than that of the Mg-Al-LDHs. The Zn-Al-LDH-modified bitumen had more potential to improve the UV-aging resistance during the service life of asphalt pavement.

  19. Alternatives for Benzene in the Extraction of Bitumen Fume from Exposure Sample Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Benjamin; Ravera, Christel; Hussard, Caroline; Langlois, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is frequently used to extract collected bitumen fumes from personal sampler substrates. However, this solvent is particularly dangerous because of its carcinogenicity (group 1 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification). Therefore, to prevent the exposure of laboratory technicians to benzene during the fume extraction step from samplers, a compromise had to be found to identify a less toxic solvent with the same extraction capacity. To compare the extraction capacities of selected solvents, bitumen fumes were generated in the laboratory from three different batches of road surfacing bitumen collected on dedicated bitumen fume samplers. The samplers were then extracted by benzene and the solvents tested. Of 11 selected solvents less toxic than benzene and used in studies on bitumen and bitumen fume analyses, n-hexane and n-heptane were identified as alternatives to benzene. In particular, the results demonstrated that n-heptane was the best candidate solvent for benzene replacement, due to its extraction efficiency comparable to benzene for the three bitumen fumes tested and its low toxicity, which is highly compatible with benzene replacement. PMID:26400870

  20. In-situ analysis of solid bitumen in coal: Examples from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Glikson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.Solid bitumen and associated vitrinite from selected coals from the Bowen Basin and the Illinois Basin were studied using electron microprobe and micro-FTIR techniques. The coal studied covers a range of vitrinite reflectance from 0.59% to 1.33%. Carbon content in the bitumen is generally lower than in vitrinite in coals with vitrinite reflectance below 0.67%. In coals with reflectance above 0.67%, carbon content of bitumen is higher than in vitrinite, reflecting higher aromaticity due to hydrocarbon generation. Sulfur and iron content are comparable between vitrinite and bitumen. Functional group distribution suggests the presence of two types of bitumen in the Illinois Basin coals. The more aliphatic variety occurring in veins and cleats is interpreted as pre-gas generation bitumen, and the more aromatic variety filling cells and voids in inertinite as post-gas generation bitumen.

  1. Dating hydrocarbon genera-tion and migration based on bitumen reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of thermal maturation theories of organic matter in sediments and an improved Karweil's method, a method for dating hydrocarbon generation and migration by means of bitumen reflectance has been suggested. A few representative boreholes in the Tazhong Area of the Tarim Basin was investigated by this method. The results indicate that the three phases of bitumen from the Tazhong Area formed during Middle and Late Ordovician, Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary, and Late Tertiary, respectively. This implicates that there were three phases of hydrocarbon generation and migration occurring in this area during geological history. This study provided a new idea for the geological application of geochemical data of bitumen.

  2. Visbreaking based integrated process for bitumen upgrading and hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, C.; Gonzalez, M.F.; Carbognani, L.; Perez-Zurita, M.J.; Lopez-Linares, F.; Husein, M.; Moore, G.; Pereira, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Alberta In Situ Centre For In Situ Energy, Schulich School Of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    New and cost effective upgrading schemes for distillates production and residue disposal are needed in order to recover Alberta's vast heavy oil and bitumen reserves. On average, heavy oils and bitumen contain 50 per cent (w/w) of components remaining after vacuum distillation. A new alternative for upgrading vacuum resids was proposed. The method involves the following 3 processing steps: production of modified, nearly unstable heavy molecules by mild thermal cracking known as visbreaking; adsorption of modified heavy molecules over inexpensive, tailor-designed porous sorbents or catalysts; and, production of hydrogen by low temperature catalytic steam gasification of the adsorbed molecules. This cost effective way of producing hydrogen is based on the selective segregation of a minimal fraction of the heaviest hydrocarbon molecules, those most instable, followed by their gasification at low temperature. This paper presented results on the combined processing as well as using both a model molecule and real feedstock from the Athabasca vacuum resids for the adsorption and hydrogen production steps. The study showed that this new process can obtain high rates of hydrogen production when a kaolin based solid formulation is used as both, adsorbent and catalysts, for these heavy molecules. It was concluded that this alternative method for producing hydrogen at upgrading sites in northern Alberta has potential for both installed and future up-graders to improve the quality of synthetic crude being produced. The hydrogen produced from the gasification of these heavy compounds could be used for both refining purposes or for in-situ reservoir upgrading. 27 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Process property studies of melt blown thermoplastic polyurethane polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Eung

    The primary goal of this research was to determine optimum processing conditions to produce commercially acceptable melt blown (MB) thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) webs. The 6-inch MB line and the 20-inch wide Accurate Products MB pilot line at the Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC), The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, were utilized for this study. The MB TPU trials were performed in four different phases: Phase 1 focused on the envelope of the MB operating conditions for different TPU polymers; Phase 2 focused on the production of commercially acceptable MB TPU webs; Phase 3 focused on the optimization of the processing conditions of MB TPU webs, and the determination of the significant relationships between processing parameters and web properties utilizing statistical analyses; Based on the first three phases, a more extensive study of fiber and web formation in the MB TPU process was made and a multi liner regression model for the MB TPU process versus properties was also developed in Phase 4. In conclusion, the basic MB process was fundamentally valid for the MB TPU process; however, the MB process was more complicated for TPU than PP, because web structures and properties of MB TPUs are very sensitive to MB process conditions: Furthermore, different TPU grades responded very differently to MB processing and exhibited different web structure and properties. In Phase 3 and Phase 4, small fiber diameters of less than 5mum were produced from TPU237, TPU245 and TPU280 pellets, and the mechanical strengths of MB TPU webs including the tensile strength, tear strength, abrasion resistance and tensile elongation were notably good. In addition, the statistical model showed useful interaction regarding trends for processing parameters versus properties of MB TPU webs. Die and air temperature showed multicollinearity problems and fiber diameter was notably affected by air flow rate, throughput and die/air temperature. It was also shown that most of

  4. A miniature cell for gas solubility measurements in oils and bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Hooman; Acosta, Edgar J.; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2011-03-01

    A miniature cell has been designed and constructed to measure gas solubility in crude oils and bitumen. The cell was made of stainless steel with a total internal volume of 1.835 cc and only an oil sample of 0.4 cc was required for one set of measurements at different pressures. By using this small cell, the waiting time for reaching equilibrium was less than 10 min. The technique was validated by measuring CO2 gas solubility in two bitumen samples. The results were compared and found to be in very good agreement with available data. The apparatus was also used to study the effect of ashphaltene on CO2 solubility in bitumen. It was shown that ashphaltene had a negligible effect on CO2 solubility in bitumen.

  5. Effects of SBS Configuration on Performance of High Modulus Bitumen Based on Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Liang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available High modulus bitumens modified by polystyrene-block-polybutadiene-block-polystyrene (SBS with different molecular structure were investigated on dynamic shear rheometer and fluorescence microscopy to evaluate viscoelastic properties and morphology of binders. The results shows that storage modulus (G’ is obviously less than loss modulus (G”, which means viscous behaviour of bitumen is dominant, and anti-rutting factor (G* ⁄ sin δ is markedly enhanced by star SBS than by linear SBS. The morphology indicated that star SBS improved the softening point more obviously, tending to form a cross-linked network in bitumen. As for linear SBS, it is dispersed in bitumen in the form of globules and enhances the ductility of binder.

  6. Study of the thermal and mechanical sensitivity of bitumen/oxygen salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe handling characteristics of radioactive wastes containing nitrate salts to be fixed in bitumen for ultimate storage in salt mines according to a process developed at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center have been examined with respect to their combustibility and shock sensitivity in tests of inactive bitumen/salt mixtures. Samples containing 40% bitumen and 60% nitrates of alkali, alkaline earth, and heavy metals, organic acids and rare earths were used to determine the thermal sensitivity (ignition temperature, duration of burning, heating under contained conditions), the mechanical sensitivity (shock sensitivity) and, in order to simulate major shock stresses, the sensitivity against detonation stresses. A few basic experiments were also performed on some beta-irradiated inactive samples. It appeared that although the addition of nitrates increased the combustibility of bitumen, neither the high thermal nor the detonation stresses resulted in any explosion-type reaction. (orig.)

  7. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  8. Use and trade of bitumen in antiquity and prehistory: molecular archaeology reveals secrets of past civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Connan, J.

    1999-01-01

    Natural asphalt (or bitumen) deposits, oil seepage and liquid oil shows are widespread in the Middle East, especially in the Zagros mountains of Iran. Ancient people from northern Iraq, south-west Iran and the Dead Sea area extensively used this ubiquitous natural resource until the Neolithic period (7000 to 6000 BC). Evidence of earlier use has been recently documented in the Syrian desert near El Kown, where bitumen-coated flint implements, dated to 40,000 BC (Mousterian period), have been ...

  9. Towards a Viscoelastic Model for Phase Separation in Polymer Modified Bitumen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiqing

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, a review is given on the most popular polymers used today for polymer modification of bitumen. Furthermore, the development of a model for phase separation in polymer modified bitumen (PMB) is proposed, that will enable a better control and understanding of PMB phase behaviour, allowing thus to enhanced long-term performance. PMB is hereby considered as a blend and focus is placed on its structure, its equilibrium thermodynamics and its phase separation dynamics. The effects o...

  10. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  11. Numerical Simulation Study on Parameters related to Athabasca Bitumen Recovery with SAGD

    OpenAIRE

    Marianayagam, Kristin Reka

    2012-01-01

    The world’s total oil reserves are to some extent dominated by heavy oil. The heavy oil reserves are doubled in volume compared to conventional oil reserves. As conventional oil reservoirs are depleting, heavy oil and bitumen possesses a great potential in covering parts of the future energy demand. The possibility of horizontal drilling has created a pathway for SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage), which is the most preferred heavy oil and bitumen recovery method. The mechanism of SAGD in...

  12. Analys av Nedbrytningsprodukter av Polymerer för Bitumenändamål

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Björn

    2007-01-01

    This project was aimed to study the degradation of polystyrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS). SBS is used to modify bitumen, the binder in asphalt. From earlier studies it is known that SBS degrades in bitumen, but the degradation products have not been identified. To be able to determine the long term effects of SBS in the environment, degradation products need to be identified. Polystyrene forms rigid blocks with polybutadiene as a rubbery matrix between the ridgid blocks. When bl...

  13. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device)

    OpenAIRE

    Nusrat Jahan; Jason Fawcett; Thomas L. King; Alexander M. McPherson; Katherine N. Robertson; Ulrike Werner-Zwanziger; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil ...

  14. Distinguishing solid bitumens formed by thermochemical sulfate reduction and thermal chemical alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, S.R.; Walters, C.C.; Kwiatek, P.J.; Afeworki, M.; Sansone, M.; Freund, H.; Pottorf, R.J.; Machel, H.G.; Zhang, T.; Ellis, G.S.; Tang, Y.; Peters, K.E.

    2008-01-01

    Insoluble solid bitumens are organic residues that can form by the thermal chemical alteration (TCA) or thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) of migrated petroleum. TCA may actually encompass several low temperature processes, such as biodegradation and asphaltene precipitation, followed by thermal alteration. TSR is an abiotic redox reaction where petroleum is oxidized by sulfate. It is difficult to distinguish solid bitumens associated with TCA of petroleum from those associated with TSR when both processes occur at relatively high temperature. The focus of the present work was to characterize solid bitumen samples associated with TCA or TSR using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS is a surface analysis conducted on either isolated or in situ (>25 ??m diameter) solid bitumen that can provide the relative abundance and chemical speciation of carbon, organic and inorganic heteroatoms (NSO). In this study, naturally occurring solid bitumens from three locations, Nisku Fm. Brazeau River area (TSR-related), LaBarge Field Madison Fm. (TSR-related), and the Alaskan Brooks range (TCA-related), are compared to organic solids generated during laboratory simulation of the TSR and TCA processes. The abundance and chemical nature of organic nitrogen and sulfur in solid bitumens can be understood in terms of the nature of (1) petroleum precursor molecules, (2) the concentration of nitrogen by way of thermal stress and (3) the mode of sulfur incorporation. TCA solid bitumens originate from polar materials that are initially rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Aromaticity and nitrogen increase as thermal stress cleaves aliphatic moieties and condensation reactions take place. Organic sulfur in TCA organic solids remains fairly constant with increasing maturation (3.5 to ???17 sulfur per 100 carbons) into aromatic structures and to the low levels of nitrogen in their hydrocarbon precursors. Hence, XPS results provide organic chemical composition information that helps to

  15. High-sulphur shale oil as a prime matter for bitumen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition and properties of heavy residues of Israeli shale oil (S content 6.8 %) were investigated as a source for bitumens. Both principal methods of asphalt production - vacuum distillation and oxidizing with air -were studied. Straight-run bitumen had satisfactory characteristics. As to oxidized bitumen, the values of its penetration, ductility and softening point were also satisfactory. The drawback of shale oil bitumens is their high viscosity after the thin film oven test, which means their high sensitivity to aging. The shale oil composition changes significantly as a result of distillation and oxidation. The content of asphaltenes sharply increases: from 3.5 to 20-22 % in straight-run bitumen and to 30 % in oxidized bitumen. It is explained by the reactions of condensation and polymerization of the most unstable polar components during heating and oxidation. Unlike petroleum, shale oil is a product of pyrogenic origin, i.e., it is formed as a result of thermal decomposition of large molecules of kerogen and a part of this cracked material consists of unstable fragments of these molecules, which have a tendency to polymerization. The C/H ratio and nitrogen content increase significantly in the order 'saturated hydrocarbons-naphthenoaromatics - aromatics - asphaltenes'. (author)

  16. Quantitative studies of hydrocarbon loss of the Silurian bitumen sandstone in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of Tarim Basin experienced several tectonic movements,of which Caledonian movement caused a serious damage to reservoirs of Silurian. The earlier reservoirs size and the later hydrocarbon loss are two key factors to exploration prospect of Silurian. On the basis of net thickness of bituminous sandstone and recovery coefficient of crude oil converting to bitumen,the scale of the hydrocarbon loss of palaeo-accumulation in bitumen sandstone of Silurian was calculated (86.30×108t). The deter-mination of net thickness of bitumen sandstone was completed mainly by several methods,such as physical property demarcation,observing lithology,grains with oil inclusion (GOI) technology,and quantitative grains fluorescence (QGF) technology. The samples of black sandstone and white sand-stone were collected and compared by means of the methods mentioned above. The results showed that there was little hydrocarbon,or none,in the white sandstone. The recovery coefficient was ob-tained by the analyses of plentiful physical parameters of crude oil and bitumen sandstone,based on the hypothesis that nonhydrocarbon compounds and bitumen were invariable in the process of bitu-men forming. The calculated result,which is more scientific and actual,indicates the exploration pros-pect is more promising in Silurian of the Tarim Basin.

  17. A laboratory test of the elec-trification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The measured data in the wind-tunnel tests show that the wind-blown sand particles acquired a negative charge when their diameters are smaller than 250 mm and positive charge when their diameters are larger than 500 mm, which confirms Latham's assumption that the large particles in wind-blown sand flux acquired positive charge while nega-tive charge developed on small ones. In the meanwhile, the measured data also show that the average charge-to-mass ratio for wind-blown sand particles decreases with the in-crease of the particle diameter and the wind velocity, and increases with the rise of height. The electric field in wind-blown sand flux is mainly formed by the moving charged sand particles. Its direction is vertical to the Earth's surface and upward, which is opposite to that of the fair-weather field. The electric field increases with wind velocity and height increasing. These experimental results will lay the foundation for developing the theoretical analysis of the electrification phenomenon in wind-blown sand flux.

  18. Use of a density meter for analysis of process streams obtained during solvent extraction of bitumen from Athabasca oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J.R.; Kumar, A.; Sparks, B.D.; Kotlyar, L.S.

    A fast and accurate densimetry method has been developed that allows analysis of concentrated solutions of bitumen in diluents (such as naptha, varsol, etc.) used in solvent extraction processes. By means of an equation described in this paper, densimetry can also be applied to the determination of diluent occluded in agglomerated sand in the presence of bitumen. In this case a prior determination of bitumen content by some other method is required for complete determination.

  19. Make Quality Bitumen from Waxy Crudes Production de bitume de qualité à partir de bruts à base paraffinique

    OpenAIRE

    Bahl J. S.; Gupta U. C.; Singh H.

    2006-01-01

    Production of quality bitumen from less suitable/non bitumen bearing crudes continues to be a challenging task for the refineries. Blending of short residues prior to processing is helpful to a limited extent. Generation of asphaltics low in wax through appropriate processing and their conversion to quality bitumen in admixture with suitable fluxes appears more practical approach. It is described with the help of experimental results. La production de bitume de qualité à partir de bruts co...

  20. Incoherent quasielastic scattering of slow neutrons on bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of the cold neutron quasielastic scattering measurements on ESSO bitumen compound at room temperature. The area of the quasielastic peak as a function of the impulse transfer has an oscillatory behavior having a very prominent peak at 0.5 A-1. As the translational motions are too slow in this case, the dynamical behavior of the system is given by rotational motions of different molecular groups of the compound. The so-called 'elastic incoherent structure factor' (E.I.S.F.) of rotational motions depends mainly on the squared Bessel function j0(κd) (where κ is the impulse transfer and d is the gyration radius of the scattering cluster). Using the position of the main maximum in the E.I.S.F. plot as a function of κ we obtained a diameter of about 10 A for the molecular scattering cluster. This value can be assigned to polynuclear aromatic sheets inside of a asphaltene-micelle aggregate, according to Yen colloidal model proposed for compounds of this type. (authors)

  1. Polymer and bitumen modified OPC for the immobilisation of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer:cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for 137Cs, are obtained at p:c >= 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. (author)

  2. The Effects of Applying Organic Matter in Wind Blown Soil on Microbial Biomass and Enzyme Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of applying organic matter in wind blown soil on microbial biomass and enzyme activity.The results showed that microbial biomass and enzyme activity keep dynamic changes during wheat growing season in wind blown soil,and reached the peak level in wheat booting stage.Compared with chemical fertilizer,all the other treatments could increase the microbial biomass in different degree,the same as catalsae and alkaline phosphatase activity,But urease activity was slightly difference from them.

  3. Damage by wind-blown sand and its control along Qinghai-Tibet Railway in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke-cun; Qu, Jian-jun; Liao, Kong-tai; Niu, Qing-he; Han, Qing-jie

    2010-01-01

    Qinghai-Tibet Railway, with an average altitude of 4500 m above sea level, is the longest railway in a high altitude region. It passes through 550 km-long permafrost belt and crosses the Kunlun and Tanggulha Mountain on Tibetan Plateau. Since it opened in 2006, damage by wind-blown sand began to and rapidly spread along the railway. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the climatic conditions, the damage by wind-blown sand and its control along Qinghai-Tibet Railway.

  4. Bitumen on Water: Charred Hay as a PFD (Petroleum Flotation Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusrat Jahan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for petroleum keeps increasing while traditional supplies decline. One alternative to the use of conventional crude oils is the utilization of Canadian bitumen. Raw bitumen is a dense, viscous, semi-liquid that is diluted with lighter crude oil to permit its transport through pipelines to terminals where it can then be shipped to global markets. When spilled, it naturally weathers to its original form and becomes dense enough to sink in aquatic systems. This severely limits oil spill recovery and remediation options. Here we report on the application of charred hay as a method for modifying the surface behavior of bitumen in aquatic environments. Waste or surplus hay is abundant in North America. Its surface can easily be modified through charring and/or chemical treatment. We have characterized the modified and charred hay using solid-state NMR, contact angle measurements and infrared spectroscopy. Tests of these materials to treat spilled bitumen in model aquatic systems have been undertaken. Our results indicate that bitumen spills on water will retain their buoyancy for longer periods after treatment with charred hay, or charred hay coated with calcium oxide, improving recovery options.

  5. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals incorporating adjacent blocks of swelling clay and bitumen. It is shown that the interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents water penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. A review of the swelling properties of highly compacted bentonite and magnesium oxide is presented, and the characteristic sealing properties of bituminous materials are described. On the basis of this review, it is concluded that bentonite is the preferred candidate material for use in composite clay/bitumen seals for intermediate-level radioactive waste repositories. However, it is thought that magnesium oxide may have other sealing applications for high-level waste repositories. A programme of laboratory experiments is described in which relevant swelling and intrusion properties of highly compacted bentonite blocks and the annealing characteristics of oxidised and hard-grade industrial bitumens are examined. The results of composite sealing experiments involving different water penetration routes are reported, and factors governing the mechanism of self-sealing are described. The validation of the sealing concept at a laboratory scale indicates that composite bentonite/bitumen seals could form highly effective barriers for the containment of radioactive wastes. Accordingly, recommendations are made concerning the development of the research, including the implementation of full-scale demonstration experiments to simulate conditions in an underground repository. 13 tabs., 41 figs., 62 refs

  6. On the determination of diffusivities of volatile hydrocarbons in semi-solid bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide, supercritical ethane and propane have been considered as solvents to recover heavy oil. Given that mixing solvent with bitumen is one of the important parameters governing the performance of the solvent extraction processes, good understanding of solvent dispersion is essential for the proper design of the process. Produced bitumen can still contain some residual volatile hydrocarbons after gas flashing off a three-phase separator. When exposed to the air due to a spill or ruptured line, these residual hydrocarbons can escape and create air pollution problems. Consequently, knowledge of the diffusivities of volatile components in bitumen is needed to assess the extent of environmental damage that may result from bitumen spill or working loss of vapour to the atmosphere. This paper discusses the de-coupled transfer model developed by this author (and described in a paper in vol. 78 of this journal) and its limiting solution, and provides a re-intrepretation of the method by Fu and Phillips (1979) which in turn was based on the late-time limiting solution advanced by Tang and Zhang (2000). The analysis indicates that gas purging is a valid method for determining the diffusion coefficients of trace, volatile hydrocarbons in bitumen. However, the assumption of de-coupling may not be appropriate for large diffusion flux and slow gas flow. Furthermore, improper use of the limiting solution theory could lead to a 25 per cent error in calculating the diffusion coefficient. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  7. Wind-blown mosquitoes and introduction of Japanese encephalitis into Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, S. A.; Rochester, W.

    2001-01-01

    Backtrack simulation analysis indicates that wind-blown mosquitoes could have traveled from New Guinea to Australia, potentially introducing Japanese encephalitis virus. Large incursions of the virus in 1995 and 1998 were linked with low-pressure systems that sustained strong northerly winds from New Guinea to the Cape York Peninsula.

  8. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  9. Risk analysis for scaleup of the Westinghouse oxygen-blown gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.

    1981-03-01

    Kellogg has reviewed the scaleup risk of the Westinghouse oxygen-blown gasifier, as requested by DOE/GRI. Several factors were considered; in brief, those factors and Kellogg's conclusion in regard to each are: as for air-blown gasifier scaleup, Kellogg would expect that demonstration plant design could be accomplished at an acceptable level of risk, through continued proper testing in the PDU andthe large cold flow model coupled with appropriate analytical modeling; changes in the PDU have eliminated key problems with oxygen-blown operation and testing has validated most of the design bases; the scaleup factors for the three oxygen-blown demonstration projects proposed by Westinghouse are in the range of 22 to 37 times, and are not considered to be excessive (The scaleup factor for first-pass SNG plant design would be about 200, and is not currently an appropriate option); extrapolation of operating pressure to 340 psig for the demonstration plants is an item of technical risk, but is not regarded as a major risk; continued testing to validate design values for withdrawal ash concentration, fines recycle rate and recycle gas requirements is in order; and carbon deposition should not be a problem if direct quench (with water) of the raw gas is applied.

  10. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs

  11. Performance Test for Open Grade Bitumen and Cement Mixture OGBC-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. L.; Li, C. M.; Gan, X. Z.; Xiong, X. J.

    For effective prevention of urban road intersection special sections for nit diseases and improving the pavement durability, an open grade bitumen and cement (OGBC-20) mixture is proposed. In organic hydraulic cement mixture design, mix proportion designs of cement mortar and matrix open-graded bitumen were done. The matrix mixture gradation was adjusted .It has greater void of air volume than that of ATPB-25. A variety of tests in laboratory for OGBC-20 were performed. The experimental results show that: The void of air volume of adjusted gradation matrix asphalt mixture is up to 23%. and binder drainage loss is ≤ 0.3%. Cement mortar filling is fuller and better water stability and low temperature crack resistance compared to ordinary bitumen mixture. It has the absolute advantage on high temperature stability and shows the superiority of the new pavement materials.

  12. Modification of Bitumen with Desulfurized Crumb Rubber in the Present of Reactive Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Zhigang; ZHANG Yuzhen; KONG Xianming

    2005-01-01

    Bitumen was modified with desulfurized crumb rubber (DCR) in the present of reactive additives. The effect of the kinds and content of the reactive additive on properties of DCR modified bitumen (DCRMB) was investigated. The morphology of DCRMB was characterized by SEM and the changes of the chemical structure of DCRMB without and with the addition of the reactive additive were analyzed by FTIR. The experimented results show that the softening point,the elasticity recovery and the storage stability of DCRMB were improved significantly by the addition of the reactive additive. This is because that a network structure of rubber in DCRMB was formed and the chemical reaction between C=C double bonds in bitumen and DCR has happened after the reactive additive was added into DCRMB.

  13. Observations and morphological analysis of supermolecular structure of natural bitumens by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevgeny A. Golubev; Olga V. Kovaleva; Nikolay P. Yushkin [Institute of Geology of RAS, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    The supermolecular structures of natural bitumens of the thermal consequent row asphaltites lower kerites (albertites), higher kerites (impsonites), anthraxolites from the Timan-Pechora petroleum province and Karelian shungite rocks, Russia, were studied in details. The experimental technique used was atomic force microscopy (AFM), following fracture preparation. The element distribution of the sample surfaces was analyzed by an X-ray microanalyser 'Link ISIS', combined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In this work, we characterized the supermolecular evolution of natural solid bitumens in the carbonization sequence by quantitative parameters. We showed that supermolecular structure can be important in defining to which classification group solid bitumens belong. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan-Tan; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1992-07-01

    Data are presented on the distribution of diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes, and aromatic hydrocarbons in the natural bitumens extracted from unheated coals identified as Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL), as well as from pyrolysates obtained from heating of these coals. It was found that pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, whereas diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC, indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than of the other coals and that it releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. It was also found that the composition of diterpanes is different among these coals and that the distributions of sterane and triterpane in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those of pyrolysates.

  15. Waste reduction algorithm used as the case study of simulated bitumen production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Marina A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste reduction algorithm - WAR is a tool helping process engineers for environmental impact assessment. WAR algorithm is a methodology for determining the potential environmental impact (PEI of a chemical process. In particular, the bitumen production process was analyzed following three stages: a atmospheric distillation unit, b vacuum distillation unit, and c bitumen production unit. Study was developed for the middle sized oil refinery with capacity of 5000000 tones of crude oil per year. Results highlight the most vulnerable aspects of the environmental pollution that arise during the manufacturing process of bitumen. The overall rates of PEI leaving the system (PEI/h - Iout PEI/h are: a 2.14105, b 7.17104 and c 2.36103, respectively. The overall rates of PEI generated within the system - Igen PEI/h are: a 7.75104, b -4.31104 and c -4.32102, respectively. Atmospheric distillation unit have the highest overall rate of PEI while the bitumen production unit have the lowest overall rate of PEI. Comparison of Iout PEI/h and Igen PEI/h values for the atmospheric distillation unit, shows that the overall rate of PEI generated in the system is 36.21% of the overall rate of PEI leaving the system. In the cases of vacuum distillation and bitumen production units, the overall rate of PEI generated in system have negative values, i.e. the overall rate of PEI leaving the system is reduced at 60.11% (in the vacuum distillation unit and at 18.30% (in the bitumen production unit. Analysis of the obtained results for the overall rate of PEI, expressed by weight of the product, confirms conclusions.

  16. Diterpanes, triterpanes, steranes and aromatic hydrocarbons in natural bitumens and pyrolysates from different humic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.T.; Kaplan, I.R. (California University, Los Angeles, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1992-07-01

    There is a significant difference in the distribution of terpanes in natural bitumen extracted from Rocky Mountain coal (RMC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene coal (GEC), Australian Gippsland Latrobe Eocene Cretaceous coal (GCC), and Texas Wilcox lignite (WL). Pentacyclic triterpanes are dominant in GEC, GCC, and WL, diterpanes strongly predominate in the bitumen of RMC indicating that resin is a more important constituent of RMC than in the other coals and releases the diterpenoids at an early stage of diagenesis. Furthermore, the composition of diterpanes is also different among these coals. The diterpenoid content is negligible in the pyrolysates of all coals. The sterane and triterpane distributions in the natural bitumen of coals are very different from those in pyrolysates e.g. C31 alpha-beta-22R hopane predominates in the m/z 191 mass fragmentograms of the natural bitumens, whereas a homologous series of hopanes (C27-C35; except C28) is present in the coal pyrolysates. C27 steranes are absent in the natural bitumen, but are generated in pyrolysates during lengthy heating of coal kerogen. C29 monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons are abundant in the natural bitumen of the four coals. Triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons are only present in GCC, whereas significant amounts of tetra- and triaromatic triterpenoid hydrocarbons are present in the other three coals (GEC, RMC, and WL). The ratio of benzo(e)pyrene/perylene may be potentially useful as a maturity parameter because the amount of benzo(e)pyrene increases with thermal stress, whereas perylene decreases with heating time. Benzohopanes are widely present in four humic coals.

  17. Quantification of bitumen particles in aerosol and soil samples using HP-GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2000-01-01

    A method for identifying and quantifying bitumen particles, generated from the wear of roadway asphalts, in aerosol and soil samples has been developed. Bitumen is found to be the only contributor to airborne particles containing organic molecules with molecular weights larger than 2000 g pr. mol....... These are separated and identified using High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HP-GPC) with fluorescence detection. As an additional detection method Infra Red spectrometry (IR) is employed for selected samples. The methods have been used on aerosol, soil and other samples....

  18. Determination of the bitumen content in asphalt concrete using a neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron physical method (reflection method) for the fast, nondestructive determination of the bitumen content in asphalt concrete has been developed. The determination is performed on cylindrical asphalt concrete samples containing desiccated rubble matrix. Using samples of about 1000g and measuring times of 20 min, the reproducibility of the bitumen determination is 0.15 w%, the sensitivity is 3.10-3 g/g. The thus obtained results were compared with data obtained by chemical analysis, using two different type of matrix. The mean values and the standard deviations are in good agreement for both cases. (T.G.)

  19. Research on swelling clays and bitumen as sealing materials for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a programme of research to investigate the performance of composite seals comprising juxtaposed blocks of highly compacted bentonite clay and bitumen. It is shown that interaction of the materials can promote a self-sealing mechanism which prevents weather penetration, even when defects are present in the bitumen layer. Factors affecting seal performance are examined by means of laboratory experiments, and implications for the design of repository backfilling and sealing systems are discussed. It is concluded that design principles and material specifications should be further developed on the basis of large scale experiments. (author)

  20. The role of water content in triboelectric charging of wind-blown sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhaolin; Wei, Wei; Su, Junwei; Yu, Chuck Wah

    2013-01-01

    Triboelectric charging is common in desert sandstorms and dust devils on Earth; however, it remains poorly understood. Here we show a charging mechanism of sands with the adsorbed water on micro-porous surface in wind-blown sand based on the fact that water content is universal but usually a minor component in most particle systems. The triboelectric charging could be resulted due to the different mobility of H+/OH− between the contacting sands with a temperature difference. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) were used to demonstrate the dynamics of the sand charging. The numerically simulated charge-to-mass ratios of sands and electric field strength established in wind tunnel agreed well with the experimental data. The charging mechanism could provide an explanation for the charging process of all identical granular systems with water content, including Martian dust devils, wind-blown snow, even powder electrification in industrial processes. PMID:23434920

  1. Bitumen/Water Emulsions as Fuels for High-Speed Ci Engines Preliminary Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jesper; Sigvardsen, R.; Forman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Mixtures of bitumen and water, are cheap fuel alternatives for combustion engines. There are, however, several problems that have to be solved before these fuels can be applied in high-speed diesel engines. These are: - emulsion break up due to high temperature or high shear stress in the injecti...

  2. Phase-Separation Characteristics of Bitumen and their Relation to Damage-Healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    During the service life of flexible asphalt pavements, asphalt concrete degrades due to traffic loading and environmental conditions like temperature, rain, oxidation, ultraviolet-radiation from the sun. All these environmental factors have adverse effects on the performance of bitumen, which is the

  3. Coprocessing of biooils from biomass pyrolysis and bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, M.; Daruwalla, S.; Daruwalla, D.D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonia, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Liquid biooils can be produced from the thermochemical treatment of biomass by pyrolysis. However, because of their poor volatility, high viscosity, coking, corrosiveness, and cold flow problems, biooils cannot be used directly as transportation fuel. Biooils can be upgraded into a liquid transportation fuel by hydrodeoxygenation with typical hydrotreating procedure with sulfided cobalt and molybdenum (CoMo) or nickel molybdenum (NiMo) as catalysts in the current oil refinery facilities. Coprocessing of biooils and bitumen from oil sand provides an opportunity to process the two feeds at the same time which can be achieved by injection of pyrolytic biooils and vacuum gas oil (VGO) from bitumen into a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit if the acid number of the biooils is below 35. Typically the biooils are diluted to about 1.5 to 5 per cent in the VGO feed to be processed. For the blends of VGO and biooils, the biooils appear to facilitate the cracking of the VGO and shift yields toward light ends, lower light cycle oil. They also clarify slurry oil, which makes the process more cost effective. This paper briefly reviewed the typical methods for bitumen pretreatment and preliminary upgrading. The paper also discussed the current status of coprocessing of biooils and hydrocarbons, and suggested two possible processes for coprocessing bitumen with biooils and biopitches. The impact on the hydrodesulphurization process conversion of dibenzothiophenic compounds was also studied, showing no differences of the inhibiting effect between these molecules. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Chemical modification of bitumen heavy ends and their non-fuel uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    Bitumen asphaltenes undergo a variety of simple chemical conversions. For example, asphaltenes can be oxidized, sulfonated, sulfomethylated, halogenated, and phosphorylated. The net result is the introduction of functional entities into the asphaltene structure which confers interesting properties on the products for which a variety of uses are proposed.

  5. How Thermal Fatigue Cycles Change the Rheological Behavior of Polymer Modified Bitumen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaoui, B.; Merbouh, M.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Chailleux, E.; Youcefi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of thermal fatigue cycles phenomenon, which affects the performance of flexible pavement. The purpose of the paper is to extent the knowledge on the rheology of polymer modified bitumen which was affected by cycles of thermal fatigue. The aim of this research is to d

  6. Laboratory investigation of bitumen based on round robin DSC and AFM tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soenen, H.; Besamusca, J.; Fischer, H.R.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Planche, J.P.; Das, P.K.; Kringos, N.; Grenfell, J.R.A.; Lu, X.; Chailleux, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the past years a wide discussion has been held among asphalt researchers regarding the existence and interpretation of observed microstructures on bitumen surfaces. To investigate this, the RILEM technical committee on nano bituminous materials 231-NBM has conducted a round robin study combining

  7. Use of a thin-film evaporator for bitumen coating of radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the development in the laboratory of a process for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen, a technological study of this coating process has been undertaken. The report describes a pilot installation for the bitumen coating of concentrates, which uses a thin-film evaporator LUWA L 150. The first, inactive series of tests was designed to determine the maximum and optimum capacities of the evaporator by varying the amounts of bitumen and of concentrate, the rotor speed and the thermo-fluid temperature. Two rotors were tested, one of conventional type, the other a model especially designed for high viscosity products. The maximum capacity of evaporation of the apparatus is 72 kg/hr for a heating temperature of 221 deg. C. During normal operation, the evaporator can produce 50 kg/hr of coated product containing 55 to 60 per cent of bitumen (Mexphalte 40/50), the water content of the product remaining under 0.5 per cent. A second series of tests will shortly be carried out on this pilot installation using, in particular, bituminous emulsions containing mainly Mexphalte 40/50 and 80/100. (authors)

  8. Bitumen modification with a low-molecular-weight reactive isocyanate-terminated polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.J. Navarro; P. Partal; M. Garcia-Morales; F.J. Martinez-Boza; C. Gallegos [Universidad de Huelva, Huelva (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales

    2007-10-15

    A low-molecular-weight polyethyleneglycol functionalized with a polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate) was used as a modifying agent for a 60/70 penetration grade bitumen. The rheological properties of the resulting modified binder, at both low and intermediate temperatures, before and after curing at room temperature were studied and compared with those corresponding to a SBS modified bitumen. The analysis showed that the addition of a small quantity of this reactive polymer leads to enhanced rheological properties mainly at high in-service temperature (50{sup o}C). However, modification was found to be rather slow during binder curing at room temperature. Moreover, storage stability analysis showed that phase separation did not take place after bitumen storage at 163{sup o}C, though storage at high temperature affects the modification capability of the reactive polymer. Atomic force microscopy measurements showed that the reactive polymer addition leads to asphaltene-rich regions with lower thermal susceptibility, which are present even at high temperature, yielding an improved bitumen viscosity in this range of in-service temperatures. 38 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Solidification of low and medium level wastes in bitumen at Barsebaeck nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operating experience is presented from 4 years of bitumen solidification of wastes coming from two boiling water reactors. Methods used to sample, analyse and document the wastes are described. Transport and storage methods without remote handling have been adopted. The risk of fire is discussed and a description is given of the measures taken for fire protection. (author)

  10. Solubility of methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in bitumen and water for SAGD modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Murayri, M.T.; Harding, T.G.; Maini, B.B.

    2011-07-15

    The steam assisted gravity-drainage (SAGD) process is a technology used in unconventional reservoirs to enhance oil recovery, this technique sometimes uses the co-injection of noncondensable gases (NCGs). The co-injection of NCGs with steam is used to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in SAGD, but this technique also affects the performance of SAGD, making the knowledge of gas solubility in bitumen and water important. This study was undertaken to develop a systematic approach to predict the K-values for the gas-bitumen and gas water phase equilibria at different temperatures and pressures. This research has been carried out by using different existing correlations. It has been observed that the Mehrotra and Svrcek gas-solubility correlation should be used to calculate NCG's solubility in bitumen and that NCGs' solubility in water could be calculated with Harvey's correlation. This study defined successfully an approach to calculate NCGs' solubility in bitumen and water.

  11. Effect of processing temperature on the bitumen/MDI-PEG reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, M.J.; Partal, P.; Navarro, F.J.; Garcia-Morales, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de ' El Carmen' , Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva (Spain); Bordado, J.C.M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, A.C. [Materials Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    Reactive polymers are lately gaining acceptance to give added value to a residue of the crude oil refining process such as bitumen. The resulting material should display enhanced mechanical properties to be considered for advanced applications in construction. In the present paper, we report the effect of processing temperature on the reaction between bitumen compounds and an isocyanate-based reactive polymer, synthesized by reaction of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) with a low molecular weight polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Rheokinetics experiments, viscosity measurements at 60 C, atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, thin layer chromatography (TLC-FID) analysis and thermogravimetric studies (TGA) were performed on the reactive polymer and on samples of MDI-PEG modified bitumen containing 2 wt.% of the polymer. Results showed the existence of an optimum processing temperature arisen as a consequence of opposite effects: microstructural availability for the formation of a polymer-bitumen network, reaction ability and polymer thermal degradation. Consequently, this study aims to serve as a guideline for the refining and asphalt industries facing the stage of selecting the optimum processing parameters. (author)

  12. Tire-tread and bitumen particle concentrations in aerosol and soil samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Tjell, Jens Christian; Mosbæk, Hans;

    2002-01-01

    ire and bitumen particle concentrations are determined in aerosol and soil samples. They each constitute about 5 wt-% of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in inner city air, collected with a Berner low pressure impactor, 5 m from a road. The particle size distribution shows that 92% of...

  13. In-situ water vaporization improves bitumen production during electrothermal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); McGee, B. [E-T Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kantzas, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Tomographic Imaging and Porous Media Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electro-thermal processes are now being considered as an alternative or complementary process to steam injection processes. This study used an in situ vaporized water process to optimize electrothermal processes for steam injection enhanced oil recovery (EOR). A simulation tool was used to model electro-thermal processes in an Athabasca oil sands reservoir. Incremental oil recovery was estimated based on a 3-block conceptual model. A field scale model was then used to investigate the effects of electrode spacing, water injection rates, and electrical heating rates on bitumen recovery. Results of the simulation studies were then analyzed using a statistical tool in order to determine optimal conditions for maximizing bitumen production. Results of the study showed that incremental recovery using the water vaporization technique resulted in oil recovery rates of 25 per cent original oil in place (OOIP). Sensitivity analyses showed that medium electrical heating rates, low water injection rates, and small spacings between electrodes maximized bitumen production rates. It was concluded that the technique can be used alone or combined with other methods to economically produce bitumens. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Electro-thermal dynamic stripping process : integrating environmentalism with bitumen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.W.; McDonald, C.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[E-T Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada); Little, L. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presented a new method of in situ oil sands extraction developed by Calgary-based E-T Energy. The Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process (ET-DSP) uses electricity to melt oil sands deposits that are too deep for open pit mining. The energy intensity of production compares favourably with alternative thermal bitumen extraction techniques and water consumption for the process is comparatively low, with all produced water being re-injected into the producing formation without any treatment. With ET-DSP, electrodes are drilled and completed next to the oil sands formation which ensures that the electrical currents are forced to flow to the oil sands formation. The viscosity of the bitumen is lowered by the heat from the current, thereby making the fluid flow more readily into vertical extraction wells. ET-DSP uses electricity directly from the power grid, and does not produce any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of its own. The process has the potential to allow operators to focus on areas of oil sands reservoirs that have remained inaccessible. Field studies confirmed that the production of bitumen using this method was achieved with reduced greenhouse gas emissions as compared to other thermal recovery process. The bitumen had trace amount of sand and no emulsions. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Towards the Development of Bitumen Carbonates: An Integrated Analysis of Grosmont Steam Pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezeuko C.C.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Grosmont Formation in Alberta, Canada is a highly fractured, karstified and vuggy bitumen-rich carbonate reservoir located west of and below the Athabasca oil sands deposit. The bitumen carbonate platform extends about 500 km in length and up to 150 km in width and contains an estimated 64.5 billion m3 (406.5 billion barrels of oil. The Grosmont Formation is larger than the combined total of all other known carbonate bitumen deposits in the world. Here, we analyze early Grosmont steam pilots to improve the design of future pilots and commercial development of this massive bitumen deposit. In agreement with the conclusions of earlier analysis of these Grosmont pilots, they were reasonably successful considering the heterogeneous nature of the Grosmont Formation. Operational factors such as poor steam quality, non-optimized high injection pressures and completion issues appear to have heavily impacted recovery performances. Clearly, steam-based recovery operations have good potential for Grosmont, especially considering that it is mature commercial technology. Following an integrated analysis of early Grosmont pilots, we posit that Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS using horizontal wells exhibits greater potential for the development of Grosmont carbonate, compared with Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage technology (SAGD.

  16. Physical property behaviour of North Dakota lignite in an oxygen/steam blown moving bed gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mangena, S.J.; Bunt, J.R.; Waanders, F.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this study lignite originating from North Dakota (USA) was thermally treated in an oxygen/steam blown commercial-scale moving bed gasifier operating on lump coal at the Dakota Gasification Company (DGC) in order to identify the physical property changes that occur during heating. After reaction, the solid particulate remnants were extracted from the reactor and characterised using standard techniques. Thermal fragmentation was found to be severe with the coal tested, i.e. the l...

  17. Supernova-blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    OpenAIRE

    Haid, Sebastian; Walch, Stefanie; Naab, Thorsten; Seifried, Daniel; Mackey, Jonathan; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), po...

  18. Effect of thermal diffusion and electrostatic force on evolution of wind-blown sand flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Gao-wei; ZHENG Xiao-jing

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model is suggested to mathematically describe the effect of thermal diffusion from a sand-bed on evolution of a wind-blown sand flow. An upward wind field is engendered by the thermal diffusion and the coupling interaction among the horizontal and upward wind flow, saltating grains, and a kind of electrostatic force exerted on the grains are considered in this theoretical model. The numerical results show that the effect of the thermal diffusion on the evolution process of wind-blown grain flow is quite obvious and very similar to the effect of the electrostatic force on the evolution. Not only the time for the entire system to reach a steady state (called the duration time), the transport rate of grains, the mass-flux profiles and the trajectory of saltating grains are affected by the thermal diffusion and the electrostatic force exerted on saltating grains,but also the wind profiles and the temperature profiles at the steady state are affected by the wind-blown sand flow.

  19. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a reparative fracture-healing process under different temperatures. It was found that these samples had tensile strength values larger than the data of pure bitumen samples under the same conditions after the four tensile fracture-healing cycles. Fracture morphology investigation and mechanism analysis indicated that the self-healing process was a process consisting of microcapsules being broken, penetrated and diffused. Moreover, the crack healing of bitumen can be considered as a viscosity driven process. The self-healing ability partly repaired the damage of bitumen during service life by comparing the properties of virgin and rejuvenated bitumen.

  20. Influence of mineral fillers on the rheological response of polymer-modified bitumens and mastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cardone

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of the bituminous components (bitumen and bituminous mastic within asphalt mixtures contribute significantly to the major distresses of flexible pavements (i.e. rutting, fatigue and low temperature cracking. Asphalt mixtures are usually composed of mastic-coated aggregates rather than pure bitumen-coated aggregates. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of mineral fillers on the rheological behaviour of several polymer-modified bitumens (PMBs through laboratory mixing. A neat bitumen and two types of polymers (elastomeric and plastomeric were used to produce PMBs, and two fillers with different minerals (limestone and basalt were selected to obtain mastics. The dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to characterize the rheological properties of PMBs and mastics. In particular, multiple stress creep recovery (MSCR tests were performed to evaluate the rutting potential at high temperatures, whereas BBR tests were carried out to investigate the low temperature behaviour of these materials. BBR results for unmodified mastics show that the increase of stiffness is similar regardless of the filler type, whereas results for polymer-modified mastics indicate that the degree of stiffening depends on the combination of filler/polymer types. MSCR results show that adding filler leads to a reduced susceptibility of permanent deformation and an enhanced elastic response, depending on the combination of filler/polymer types. Overall results suggest that a physical–chemical interaction between the filler and bitumen occurs, and that the interaction level is highly dependent on the type of polymer modification.

  1. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  2. Investigating the rheological properties of crumb rubber modified bitumen and its correlation with temperature susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Salim Mashaan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence on the advantages of using crumb rubber in enhancing conventional bitumen properties, gaining environmental protection and boosting industrial-economical benefits. Thus, the use of this ingenious additive in bitumen modification through sustainable technology is highly advocated.The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different blending conditions (of time and temperature and various crumb rubber contents on the properties of bitumen binders. Testing was conducted using the Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR test and softening point test. The results showed that differing crumb rubber contents and blending temperature have significant effects on modified binder properties whereas the blending time showed an insignificant effect. Higher blending temperature and crumb rubber content were found to influence the interaction of bitumen-rubber blends and also increased the swelling rate of rubber particles, resulting in an increase in complex shear modulus (G*, storage modulus (G', loss modulus (G" and softening point as well as a decrease in phase angle (δ. Thus, the modified bitumen became less susceptible to deformation after stress removals. The study also presented a considerable relationship between rheological parameters (G*, G', G' and δ and softening point in terms of predicting physical-mechanical properties regardless of blending conditions. Thus, in terms of elasticity for the softening point data, the storage modulus and phase angle were found to be good indicators of binder elasticity. When softening point is made available, a prediction about binder ability to recover its original shape after stress removals can be done.

  3. Investigation of the Self-Healing Behaviors of Microcapsules/Bitumen Composites by a Repetitive Direct Tension Test

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Feng Su; Peng Yang; Ying-Yuan Wang; Shan Han; Ning-Xu Han; Wei Li

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the self-healing behaviors of bitumen using microcapsules containing rejuvenator by a modified fracture healing–refracture method through a repetitive tension test. Microcapsules had mean size values of 10, 20 and 30 μm with a same core/shell ratio of 1/1. Various microcapsules/bitumen samples were fabricated with microcapsule contents of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 wt. %, respectively. Tension strength values of microcapsules/bitumen samples were measured by a repar...

  4. High temperature air-blown woody biomass gasification model for the estimation of an entrained down-flow gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobusuke; Tanaka, Miku; Piao, Guilin; Kobayashi, Jun; Hatano, Shigenobu; Itaya, Yoshinori; Mori, Shigekatsu

    2009-01-01

    A high temperature air-blown gasification model for woody biomass is developed based on an air-blown gasification experiment. A high temperature air-blown gasification experiment on woody biomass in an entrained down-flow gasifier is carried out, and then the simple gasification model is developed based on the experimental results. In the experiment, air-blown gasification is conducted to demonstrate the behavior of this process. Pulverized wood is used as the gasification fuel, which is injected directly into the entrained down-flow gasifier by the pulverized wood banner. The pulverized wood is sieved through 60 mesh and supplied at rates of 19 and 27kg/h. The oxygen-carbon molar ratio (O/C) is employed as the operational condition instead of the air ratio. The maximum temperature achievable is over 1400K when the O/C is from 1.26 to 1.84. The results show that the gas composition is followed by the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. Therefore, the air-blown gasification model is developed based on the CO-shift reaction equilibrium. The simple gasification model agrees well with the experimental results. From calculations in large-scale units, the cold gas is able to achieve 80% efficiency in the air-blown gasification, when the woody biomass feedrate is over 1000kg/h and input air temperature is 700K.

  5. Coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic (interaction among coal, bitumen and plastic); Sekitan/tar sand bitumen/plastic no kyoekika ni okeru kyozon busshitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Okuyama, Y.; Matsubara, K. [NKK Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamo, T.; Sato, Y. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the improvement of economy, coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic was performed under low hydrogen pressure, to investigate the influence of interaction among these on the liquefaction characteristics. For comparison, coliquefaction was also performed under the hydrogen pressure same as the NEDOL process. In addition, for clarifying its reaction mechanism, coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic was performed as a model experiment, to illustrate the distribution of products and composition of oil, and to discuss the interaction between dibenzyl and various plastics, and between various plastics. Under direct coal liquefaction conditions, coprocessing of Tanito Harum coal, Athabasca tar sand and plastic was carried out under low hydrogen pressure with an autoclave. The observed value of oil yield was higher than the calculated value based on the values from separate liquefaction of coal and plastic, which suggested the interaction between coal and the mixed plastic. The results of coliquefaction of coal, tar sand bitumen and plastic could be explained from the obtained oil yield and its composition by the coliquefaction of dibenzyl and plastic. 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Blown Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan

    2014-04-01

    On Aug. 13, 2011, at 8:45 p.m. country music fans were eagerly awaiting the band Sugarland to make its entry onto the main stage at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. Also competing for the fans' attention was an approaching storm. Sugarland never made their entrance. At 8:49 p.m. the stage rigging was hit by 59 mile/h (94 km/h) winds causing it to collapse, killing seven people and injuring 58. A simplified facsimile model of this collapse is presented here that can be used as a case study in applying fundamental physics concepts appropriate for an introductory class. It is a forensic physics/engineering investigation. Afterwards, key aspects of the actual investigation will be presented.

  7. Blown Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan

    2014-01-01

    On Aug. 13, 2011, at 8:45 p.m. country music fans were eagerly awaiting the band Sugarland to make its entry onto the main stage at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. Also competing for the fans' attention was an approaching storm. Sugarland never made their entrance. At 8:49 p.m. the stage rigging was hit by 59 mile/h (94 km/h) winds causing it…

  8. Blown Away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    The number of students killed or injured by gunfire while at schools is increasing. The National Rifle Association, the nation's powerful gun lobby, has a gun safety program; however, children's advocates say stricter gun-control laws are necessary. Briefly cites 24 gun incidents and describes 4 semiautomatic pistols that were among the firearms…

  9. 加拿大Athabasca油砂中部分沥青质油不易分离的原因%Origin of Unliberated Bitumen in Athabasca Oil Sands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Oil sands contain a so-called organic rich solids component (ORS), i.e., solids whose surfaces are strongly associated with toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM). Typically, humic material is the major component of TIOM.It provides sites for adsorption and chemical fixation of bitumen. This bound bitumen is "unliberated", and considerable mechanical or chemical energy may be required to release it. In order to establish a correlation between bitumen recovery and ORS content, a few selected oil sands were processed in a Batch Extraction Unit (BEU).Analysis of the middlings and coarse tailings streams from these tests indicated a relatively constant bitumen to ORS ratio of 2.8±0.7. This value allows the liberated-unliberated bitumen balance (LUBB) to be calculated for any given oil sands. The amounts of bitumen recovered as primary froth during the BEU experiments are close to the estimated liberated bitumen contents in each case tested. This observation indicates that the liberated-unliberated bitumen calculation is an important quantitative parameter for prediction of bitumen recovery under specific recovery conditions. Preliminary results indicate that the ORS content of an oil sands may be estimated from the carbon content of bitumen free oil sands solids.

  10. Effect of hydrated lime and cement on moisture damage of recycled mixtures with foamed bitumen and emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Nosetti, R.A.; Pérez Jiménez, Félix Edmundo; Martínez Reguero, Adriana Haydée; Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Cold recycling with foamed bitumen can be used as a sustainable and cost-effective rehabilitation technique. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the resistance to the water action in mixtures with reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and foamed bitumen by means of indirect tensile test, comparing the effect of two active fillers: cement and hydrated lime. Additionally, mixtures recycled with RAP and asphalt emulsions were also tested in order to compare the response of both technologies. Resu...

  11. Effect of Gamma-Irradiated Recycled Low-Density Polyethylene on the High- and Low-Temperature Properties of Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perviz Ahmedzade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes polymer modification of bitumen with gamma-irradiated recycled (γ-LDPER low-density polyethylene. The recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPER was obtained from greenhouse films exposed to sunlight at least one year. The surface of the LDPER was treated by gamma beam irradiation that provided formation of free radicals and some functional groups that may contribute to the creation of strong chemical bonds between polymer modifier and bitumen. Five different samples of bitumen/γ-LDPER compositions with the modifier content, wt. %: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9, were prepared. The effects of the γ-LDPER on original and aged bitumen were investigated by means of morphological, chemical, and physical testing program, including FTIR spectroscopy, conventional tests, rotational viscosity (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests. Superior performing asphalt pavements (Superpave specifications were used to analyze mechanical test results as well as to determine the performance grades (PG of the binders. Optimum usage of the γ-LDPER as modifier in bitumen were suggested after testing program. The results reveal the stiffening effect of the γ-LDPER on bitumen that provide enhanced temperature susceptibility and also promise better performance grades (PG with γ-LDPER polymer modification.

  12. A Review on the Effect of Crumb Rubber Addition to the Rheology of Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crumb rubber modification has been proven to enhance the properties of pure bitumen. This paper looks at some of the international standards for producing crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB and reviews the effect of crumb rubber to the rheology of crumb rubber modified bitumen. The review shows that the rheology of CRMB depends on internal factors such as crumb rubber quantity, particle size, and pure bitumen composition, and external factors such as the mixing time, temperature, and also the modification technique. These factors govern the swelling process of crumb rubber particles that lead to the increase of viscosity of the modified bitumen. However, the mixing temperature and duration can cause rubber particles to depolymerize and subsequently cause loss of viscosity. Crumb rubber modification also improves the properties of bitumen by increasing the storage and loss modulus and enhancing the high and low temperature susceptibility. The effect of crumb rubber to aging properties of CRMB is also discussed. Finally several techniques of chemical modification to terminal blends of CRMB and the subsequent improvement to the settling property of CRMB are explained.

  13. The blown sand disaster to the Tarim Desert Highway in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Jiaqiang(雷加强); WANG; Xueqin(王雪芹); WANG; De(王德); ZHOU; Changhai(周长海); XIA; Xuncheng(夏训诚)

    2002-01-01

    The Tarim Desert Highway in Xinjiang, China, the longest one in the world, has a lengthof 562 km, about 80% of which runs across, from north to south, the Taklimakan Desert. Obviously,the main problem of the road maintenance is the blown sand disaster. The research resultsshowed: (1) the physical environment along thedesert highway is characterized by strong winds,fine and loose ground materials, different dunes and so on, which provides the dynamical conditionand material source for the formation of blown sand disaster to the road and its shelter system.Meanwhile, the trend and cross-section of the road and the structure of the shelter system, asdamage objects, play important roles in the formation process of blown sand disaster; (2) theblown sand disaster to the shelter system is original from the intrusion of the drift sands and mobiledunes outside the shelter system, and the wind erosion and sand deposit caused by the air streamchanges on the ground in the shelter system. The main damage object in the Tarim Desert High-way is the shelter system presently. The damage forms include wind erosion, sand burying anddune covering; and (3) the damaged length of the blocking sand fences is 83.7%, 88.4%, 72.4%,72.8% and 40.3% and the damaged area of the straw checkerboard belts is 73.1%, 58.2%, 44.5%,35.4% and 36.6%, in turn, in 5 different landform units from north to south, and, the disasters tofences and the straw checkerboard belts are 79.5% and 57.6% in the compound dunes while theyare 64.6% and 37.7% in the interdunes respectively.

  14. RADIATION CHEMICAL CONVERSION OF OIL DERIVED FROM OIL-BITUMEN ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lala Jabbarova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil–bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43–216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment.

  15. Radiation chemical conversion of oil derived from oil-bitumen rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research in the radiation processing of synthetic oil derived from oil-bitumen rock of the Balakhany deposit in Azerbaijan are presented. The study has been conducted on a 60Co gamma-source at a dose rate of P = 0.5 Gy/s and various absorbed doses of D = 43-216 kGy. Samples of synthetic oil from natural bitumen rocks have been analyzed by chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and IR-spectroscopy, and their radiation resistance has been evaluated. The results of the study allow for both assessment of the feasibility of manufacturing petrochemicals for various applications by radiation processing and use of these materials for isolating radioactive sources to preclude their impact on the environment. (authors)

  16. Unlocking bitumen in thin and/or lower pressure pay using cross SAGD (XSAGD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, J.L. [ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigated the effect of rate limits, pay thickness, steam injection pressure, and heterogeneity for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cross SAGD (XSAGD) processes. The results of symmetry element model simulations demonstrated that XSAGD offers significant advantages over SAGD in thin and/or low-pressured bitumen sands. By combining both gravity drainage and lateral displacement, XSAGD accelerated recovery, reduced steam requirements, and improved the economic potential of the reservoir when compared to SAGD. XSAGD efficiencies relative to SAGD increased in inverse proportion to pay thickness and injection pressures increases. Optimal accelerated bitumen recovery with lower steam requirement occurred in a homogenous payzone between 10 to 40 m thick with a pressure range of 1500 kPa at 100 m spacing. 3 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  17. Early Maritime Activity on the Dead Sea: Bitumen Harvesting and the Possible Use of Reed Watercraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Asaf; Galili, Ehud; Hadas, Gideon; Klein, Micha

    2015-04-01

    Most studies of ancient maritime activity on the Dead Sea focus on the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine periods, for which a rich body of archaeological and historic data exists. However, finds of Dead Sea bitumen at distant prehistoric sites and an anchor dating to the seventh century BC indicate that maritime activity on the lake preceded the Greek and Roman periods, and raise questions regarding this activity's origins and nature. By linking the exploitation of Dead Sea bitumen with the use of watercraft, and through consideration of a broader early maritime record of the ancient Near East, this study pushes back the dating of this activity on the lake and suggests the nature of its watercraft.

  18. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C 30 steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic Age petroleum and bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Mark A.; Michael Moldowan, J.; Lipton, Paul A.; Summons, Roger E.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Jeganathan, Alwarsamy; Watt, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic (≈ 1800 Ma) to Miocene (≈ 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C 30 steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24- n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24- n-propylcholestanes (≥1), while younger and older samples have a lower ratio (≤0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  19. Electromagnetic Heating of Heavy Oil and Bitumen: A Review of Experimental Studies and Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Mukhametshina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity is a major obstacle in the recovery of low API gravity oil resources from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs. While thermal recovery is usually considered the most effective method for lowering viscosity, for some reservoirs introducing heat with commonly implemented thermal methods is not recommended. For these types of reservoirs, electromagnetic heating is the recommended solution. Electromagnetic heating targets part of the reservoir instead of heating the bulk of the reservoir, which means that the targeted area can be heated up more effectively and with lower heat losses than with other thermal methods. Electromagnetic heating is still relatively new and is not widely used as an alternate or addition to traditional thermal recovery methods. However, studies are being conducted and new technologies proposed that could help increase its use. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the recovery of heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs by electromagnetic heating through the review of existing laboratory studies and field trials.

  20. Forward flight effects on mixer nozzle design and noise considerations for STOL externally blown flap systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Sekas, N.; Groesbeck, D. E.; Huff, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data of the peak axial-velocity decay in a moving airstream are presented for several types of nozzles. The nozzles include a six-tube mixer nozzle of a type considered for reduction of jet-flap interaction noise for externally-blown-flap STOL aircraft. The effect of secondary flow on the core flow velocity decay of a bypass nozzle is also discussed. Tentative correlation equations are suggested for the configurations evaluated. Recommendations for minimizing forward velocity effects on velocity decay and jet-flap interaction noise are made.

  1. Influence of the bitumen properties on the functional and rheological behaviour of asphalt rubber binders

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, J.; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Machado, A.V.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about ten kilograms of tires are discarded per inhabitant annually. The negative impact of this residue can be reduced since rubber can be reused as a constituent of asphalt rubber (AR) builder in road pavements. However, the materials which constitute the AR binders and their interaction are not sufficiently characterized, In this work several base bitumens interacted with crumb rubber in order to produce AR binders, which were subsequently separated, by using a modified...

  2. Raman spectroscopy of carbon and solid bitumens in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehlicka, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Pokorný, Jan

    2003-08-01

    Different types of carbonaceous matter from rocks display Raman spectral features which knowledge permits to obtain structural information of these materials. Application of Raman microspectroscopy to investigate kerogen, bitumen, fossils, highly carbonified amorphous carbon as well as graphite from different environments is reviewed. Differences in Raman spectra and structural differences between carbonaceous samples differing in their metamorphic history are discussed on the basis of new data.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of hydrosoluble organic matter in bitumen leachates

    OpenAIRE

    Walczak, Isabelle; Libert, Marie-Françoise; Camaro, Sylvie; Blanchard, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    International audience Bitumen is currently used as an embedding matrix for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in deep sediments. High impermeability and a great resistance to most chemicals are the two main properties sought. Indeed, the generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents could affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of radionuclide solubility. Therefore, the aim of this study is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of so...

  4. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen concrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediate level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium. (authors)

  5. Management of the basal McMurray watersand during bitumen and heavy oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, K.C. [CH2M Hill Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The risks associated with basal aquifers in steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) recovery of heavy oils were discussed. Bitumen distribution within the McMurray Formation varies with facies changes in the deposit. The coarse-grained sand at the base of the formation forms a basal aquifer where the bitumen content is low and where pore pressures are high. The confined aquifer is very permeable which poses a major management issue for both open bit bitumen extraction and in situ heavy oil production. This is because the basal aquifer often requires depressurization, particularly in open pit mining because the high pore pressure can reduce pit wall stability. In addition, seepage to the pit floor can reduce the rate of traffic flow. Oilsand and basal aquifers, which provide the foundation for tailings ponds, can potentially form a groundwater flow path for pond seepage. One way to remedy this situation is to develop a strategy for wastewater injection into the basal aquifer, but before this is done certain issues must be addressed, including the effects of pressure interference, fracture initiation and related seepage. Other issues that must be addressed include the affect of increased discharge of poor quality insitu water into the Athabasca River.

  6. Determination of gas dispersion in vapor extraction of heavy oil and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapadia, Ronak A.; Upreti, Simant R.; Lohi, Ali [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chatzis, Ioannis [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-05-16

    In this work, a mathematical model is developed and simulated to determine gas dispersion along with solubility during the vapor extraction (Vapex) of live oil from a laboratory scale physical model. The physical model is a rectangular block of homogenous porous medium saturated with heavy oil and bitumen. At a given temperature and pressure, the block is initially exposed on its side to a solvent gas, which diffuses into the medium and gets absorbed. The absorption of gas reduces the viscosity of heavy oil and bitumen causing it to drain under gravity. The low-viscosity 'live oil' is produced at the bottom of the porous block. The production of live oil with time is accompanied by the shrinkage of oil in the block as well as its increased exposure to gas from top. These phenomena of Vapex are described by the mathematical model, which is used to calculate live oil production with various values of gas solubility and dispersion. Their optimal values are determined for the vapor extraction of Cold Lake bitumen with butane by matching calculated live oil production with its experimental values published earlier. (author)

  7. 沥青燃烧特性的实验研究%Experimental research on combustion characteristics of bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚东; 冯丹丹; 吴珂; 敖文; 黄志义

    2011-01-01

    采用热重分析法对SBS改性沥青和阻燃沥青及其胶浆的燃烧特性进行研究,实验条件为空气环境、升温速率为20℃/min.结果表明:两种沥青胶浆的燃烧特性曲线形状十分相近,大致分为5个阶段.两种沥青燃烧过程较一致,主要分为4个阶段.沥青二次挥发分燃烧与残炭燃烧同时进行.目前的阻燃技术对沥青自燃点的影响不大,其主要作用是减缓沥青的燃烧速度.阻燃沥青的平均燃烧速率约为SBS改性沥青的60%.两种沥青胶浆的灰分含量相差不大,其平均燃烧速率也相差不大.%The combustion characteristics of SBS modification bitumen and fire retardant bitumen and their mortar were studied by thermo-gravimetric analysis with air as the ambient gas and 20 ℃/min heating rate. The experimental results showed that the combustion characteristics curves of the mortar of these two kinds of bitumen are very similar, and all have 5 sections. The combustion processes of two kinds of bitumen are similar and have 4 sections. The secund volatile component and carbon residue of bitumen burned at the same time. The flame- resistant technology has little effect on the bitumen' s self - ignition point at present, and its primary action is to slow down the reaction rate of bitumen combustion. The average combustion rate of flame-retardant bitumen is 60% of that of SBS modification bitumen The mortar of two kinds of bitumen has the similar ash content, so has the similar average combustion rate.

  8. Dimensional Analysis of Average Diameter of Bubbles for Bottom Blown Oxygen Copper Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Average diameter of bubbles is important in copper furnace. Based on the principle of similarity, a slice water model of a furnace with bottom-blown oxygen in matte-smelting process was established. A high-speed camera was used to record images continuously and clearer pictures were selected for treatment. Finally, image processing software was used for obtaining the average diameter of the bubbles. The effects of different injection conditions and equipment factors such as the diameter of nozzle, the nozzle installing angle, and gas velocity on the average diameter of bubbles were studied with cold water model experiment, exploring the dispersion and disintegration rules of bubbles. According to experimental data and Buckingham’s theorem, by using dimensional analysis method, an empirical formula on average diameter of bubbles was established (dB=0.41666d0.29374θ-0.46572v-0.16725. It can be seen from the formula that nozzle installing angle and diameter of nozzle make the most impact on the average diameter of bubbles in bottom blown oxygen copper furnace.

  9. Supernova-blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    CERN Document Server

    Haid, Sebastian; Naab, Thorsten; Seifried, Daniel; Mackey, Jonathan; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with $n(r) \\sim$ $r^{-2}$ (for $n(r) > n_{_{\\rm floor}}$) the amount of momentum injection is solely r...

  10. Morphological characteristics and barrier properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan blown film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khanh Minh; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2016-10-01

    Fabrication of starch-based edible film using blown film extrusion is challenging and interesting because this process provides continuous operation with shorter production time and lower energy consumption, is less labor intensive, and results in higher productivity than the conventional solution casting technique. Previously, we reported on the preparation and some properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan (TPS/CTS) blown films; however, their morphological characteristics and barrier properties had not yet been elucidated. The present work thus aims to investigate the effect of chitosan (0.37-1.45%) on morphological characteristics, water vapor and oxygen barrier properties as well as hydrophilicity of the TPS and TPS/CTS films. The relationship between morphological characteristics and properties of the films was also discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the distribution and deposition of chitosan on the film surface. The existence of chitosan on the surface imparted the improved water vapor and oxygen barrier properties and the reduced surface hydrophilicity to the film. The results suggest that this biodegradable bio-based TPS/CTS film could potentially be used as an edible film for food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:27312611

  11. High melt strength, tear resistant blown film based on poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Neil R.; Plimmer, Peter N.; Tanner, Chris

    2015-05-01

    A major problem associated with the commercial manufacture of thin films from PLA is inferior processing characteristics on blown film lines compared to low density polyethylene. PLA has poor melt strength (leading to bubble instability) and develops a permanent crease in the flattened film as it exits the tower of the film line. In addition, the thin film product has poor tear strength and an unacceptable `noise' level when converted into flexible packaging. Furthermore, fabricated articles based on PLA are known to show an unattractive tendency toward dimensional instability. This behaviour is associated with `cold crystallization', a phenomenon which also causes exudation of any plasticizer added for improving flexibility. Blow moulded articles based on PLA also exhibit dimensional sensitivity above 60°C. All of these issues have been overcome by the technology described in this paper. This has been accomplished without loss of the valuable compostability characteristic of PLA; this was confirmed by evaluation of film in a commercial composting operation. These results have been achieved through novel reactive compounding technology which: (a) Creates a PLA-rich structure containing long chain crosslinks, (b) generates a low glass transition temperature phase covalently bonded to the PLA structure, and (c) provides a material which performs like LDPE in a blown film manufacturing operation. The technology developed is covered by NZ Patent 580231 (3). The patent is held by UniServices Ltd, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.

  12. Morphological characteristics and barrier properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan blown film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Khanh Minh; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2016-10-01

    Fabrication of starch-based edible film using blown film extrusion is challenging and interesting because this process provides continuous operation with shorter production time and lower energy consumption, is less labor intensive, and results in higher productivity than the conventional solution casting technique. Previously, we reported on the preparation and some properties of thermoplastic starch/chitosan (TPS/CTS) blown films; however, their morphological characteristics and barrier properties had not yet been elucidated. The present work thus aims to investigate the effect of chitosan (0.37-1.45%) on morphological characteristics, water vapor and oxygen barrier properties as well as hydrophilicity of the TPS and TPS/CTS films. The relationship between morphological characteristics and properties of the films was also discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the distribution and deposition of chitosan on the film surface. The existence of chitosan on the surface imparted the improved water vapor and oxygen barrier properties and the reduced surface hydrophilicity to the film. The results suggest that this biodegradable bio-based TPS/CTS film could potentially be used as an edible film for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  13. The bitumen situation : a Heartland group's hopes to buck the trend of upgrading and refining outside Alberta, and the government initiative that's starting to help

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discussed a campaign aimed at promoting bitumen refining at the site where it is mined. This initiative would increase the amount of bitumen upgraded in Alberta. Rather than investing in new upgrader capacity in Alberta, bitumen producers currently favour processing alliances with upgraders in the United States or Mexico. Bitumen production is valuable, but the end products of upgrading and refining would bring more value to the province. Processing the bitumen within Alberta would provide the basis for a petrochemical industry, supplying feedstock or the building blocks for end products, and create a talent pool of professionals. Alberta currently processes two-thirds of its bitumen, but this is expected to fall to less than 40 percent by 2020. Industry and government cooperation is needed for developing common infrastructure needed for multiple upgraders. Developing facilities in a cluster would lower the entry cost for new upgrader developers, but government would have to take a lead role in such a project. Upgraders are capital-intensive projects, and it currently costs half as much to construct on the Gulf of Mexico coast. The price difference between heavy and light oil has narrowed, leaving little incentive for upgrading bitumen. The Alberta Government's Bitumen Royalty in Kind Program, which gives the government the option of collecting royalties in bitumen (kind) instead of cash, is being used as a lever to attract new upgrading capacity. 1 fig.

  14. A Structural Design for an Externally Blown Flap (EBF) Medium STOL Research Aircraft. [development of computer program for structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A computer program to predict, by reference to structural drawings, the dynamic response of a high lift STOL wing with externally blown flaps was developed. Structural data for the computer program are presented in the form of sketches, weight and dynamic loads information graphs, and tables for an external blown, triple-slotted flap, high lift STOL transport wing. Weight, mass distribution, and moment of inertia data are summarized in table form and presented pictorially by drawing layout. The methods used for obtaining weight data were: (1) actual know, weight of components, (2) preliminary stress sizing, and (3) statistical weight estimating methods.

  15. Mathematical model of pyritic smelting process for copper-nickel mineral in oxygen top-blown furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 何方; 胡建杭; 包桂蓉

    2003-01-01

    Mathematical model for mass transfer of chemical reactions on the surface of the smelting bath pit in oxygen top-blown smelting furnace was put forward. Additionally, one of two mathematical models for mass transfer of chemical reactions forming copper matte in smelting bath and the other for parameters of smelting process were developed. The verification tests were simultaneously carried out in a pilot scale furnace and the experimental results show that these mathematical models are convincing. Thus, these numerical models are reliable to simulate pyritic smelting process for copper-nickel mineral in oxygen top-blown furnace.

  16. Influence of Golmud-Lhasa Section of Qinghai-Tibet Railway on Blown Sand Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jianhua; YAO Zhengyi; QU Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) passes through 281 km of sandy land,11.07 km of which causes serious sand damage to the railway and thus,the control of blown sand is important for the safe operation of the railway.Construction of the railway and sand prevention system greatly changed the blown sand transport of the primary surface.Effective and feasible sand-control measures include stone checkerboard barriers (SCBs),sand fences (SFs),and gravel coverings.This study simulated the embankments,SCBs and SFs of the QTR in a wind tunnel,and analyzed their respective wind profile,sand deposition,and sand-blocking rate (SBR) in conjunction with field data,aiming at studying the influence of Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR and sand prevention system on blown sand transport.The results of wind tunnel experiments showed that wind speed increased by 67.7%-77.3% at the upwind shoulder of the embankment and decreased by 50.0%--83.3% at upwind foot of embankment.Wind speed decreased by 50.0%-100.0% after passing through the first SF,and 72.2%,100.0% after the first row of stones within the first SCB grid.In the experiment of sand deposition,the higher the wind speed,the lower the SBR of SCB and SF.From field investigation,the amount of sand blocked by the four SFs decreased exponentially and its SBR was about 50.0%.By contrast,SCB could only block lower amounts of sand,but had a higher SBR (96.7%) than SF.Although,results show that SFs and SCBs along the Golmud-Lhasa section of the QTR provide an obvious sand blocking effect,they lead to the deposition of a large amount of sand,which forms artificial dunes and becomes a new source of sand damage.

  17. Pilot plant studies for a new hot water process for extraction of bitumen from Utah tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    A process development pilot plant for extracting bitumen from tar sands under arid conditions are described. The hot water recovery process under development is required to maximize heat and water recovery, recover more than 90% of the bitumen, minimize the operating cost, and eliminate the use of a tailings pond by increasing the effectiveness of solids separation and dewatering. Technical aspects of process flow conditions, the liquid cyclone separator under development, and testing to analyze the influence of flow rates, size distribution in discharge streams, amount of bitumen recovery from different streams, and air addition are summarized. Test results indicate that bitumen recovery should be at least 90%, water content from thickener underflow and dewater coarse solids averages about 30 weight percent moisture, and the forced vortex cyclone can produce an underflow solids concentration of 69 to 72 weight percent moisture. The proposed flow sheet is believed to be a very low-cost method for bitumen recovery. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Supersonically blown nylon-6 nanofibers entangled with graphene flakes for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Mali, Mukund G; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Swihart, Mark T; Yoon, Sam S

    2015-12-01

    Water purification membranes, capable of purifying a few to tens of milliliters of aqueous methylene blue solution in a minute, were produced by supersonically blowing graphene flakes with a nylon-6 polymeric solution. The solution-blown nylon-6 nanofibers became entangled with graphene flakes thereby locking the graphene flakes within the frame of the bendable two-dimensional film structure. This method, which yielded a 5 × 7 cm(2)-sized membrane in less than 10 seconds, is commercially viable owing to fast fabrication and scalability. We show that our water purification device allows a flow rate range of 0.3-4 L h(-1) with a membrane area of just 5 cm(2), under a pressure difference of 0.5-3.5 bar. If the membrane were scaled up to 0.5 m(2), it could provide 300-4000 L h(-1) flow rate, an ample supply for home use. PMID:26514169

  19. Blown Bubble Assembly of Graphene Oxide Patches for Transparent Electrodes in Carbon-Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiting; Yang, Yanbing; Li, Yitan; Wang, Chunhui; Xu, Wenjing; Shi, Enzheng; Zou, Mingchu; Yang, Liusi; Yang, Xiangdong; Li, Yan; Cao, Anyuan

    2015-12-30

    Graphene oxide (GO) sheets have a strong tendency to aggregate, and their interfaces can impose limitations on the electrical conductivity, which would hinder practical applications. Here, we present a blown bubble film method to assemble GO sheets with a uniform distribution over a large area and further interconnect individual GO sheets by transforming the bubble film into graphitized carbon. A conventional polymer was used to facilitate the bubble blowing process and disperse GO sheets in the bubble. Then, the bubble film was annealed on a Cu substrate, resulting in a highly transparent reduced GO (RGO)-carbon hybrid structure consisting of RGO patches well adhered to the carbon film. We fabricated RGO-carbon/Si solar cells with power conversion efficiencies up to 6.42%, and the assembled RGO patches hybridized with carbon film can form an effective junction with Si, indicating potential applications in thin film electronic devices and photovoltaics. PMID:26641030

  20. Response of an artificially blown clarinet to different blowing pressure profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeot, Baptiste; Vergez, Christophe; Gazengel, Bruno; Didier, Ferrand

    2013-01-01

    Using an artificial mouth with an accurate pressure control, the onset of the pressure oscillations inside the mouthpiece of a simplified clarinet is studied experimentally. Two time profiles are used for the blowing pressure: in a first set of experiments the pressure is increased at constant rates, then decreased at the same rate. In a second set of experiments the pressure rises at a constant rate and is then kept constant for an arbitrary period of time. In both cases the experiments are repeated for different increase rates. Numerical simulations using a simplified clarinet model blown with a constantly increasing mouth pressure are compared to the oscillating pressure obtained inside the mouthpiece. Both show that the beginning of the oscillations appears at a higher pressure values than the theoretical static threshold pressure, a manifestation of bifurcation delay. Experiments performed using an interrupted increase in mouth pressure show that the beginning of the oscillation occurs close to the stop ...

  1. An experimental study of USB flap noise reduction through mean flow modification. [Upper Surface Blown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M. C.; Yu, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mean flow modification on the noise production of upper surface blown flaps has been studied experimentally. Mean velocity profile at the nozzle exit was modified from the usual 'top-hat' shape to 'Gamma' and 'L'-shaped profiles. The 'L'-modification caused noise reduction around and above the peak frequency of the 'top-hat' spectrum when compared on an equal thrust per exit area basis. Modification to 'Gamma'-shaped profile resulted in a shift of the spectrum to lower frequencies and a lower overall noise reduction. These modifications alter the development of the large scale disturbances in the upper shear layer and trailing edge wake of the wall jet geometry.

  2. Supernova blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Seifried, D.; Mackey, J.; Gatto, A.

    2016-08-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n0 [cm- 3] ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers M from 1to100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n(r) ˜ r-2 (for n(r) > nfloor) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density nfloor and compares to nuni = nfloor. However, in turbulent ambient media with lognormal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as p_{turb}/{p_{{0}}} =23.07 (n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-0.12} + 0.82 (ln (1+b2{M}2))^{1.49}(n_{{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-1.6}. The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.

  3. Supersonically blown nylon-6 nanofibers entangled with graphene flakes for water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Gun; Kim, Do-Yeon; Mali, Mukund G.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Swihart, Mark T.; Yoon, Sam S.

    2015-11-01

    Water purification membranes, capable of purifying a few to tens of milliliters of aqueous methylene blue solution in a minute, were produced by supersonically blowing graphene flakes with a nylon-6 polymeric solution. The solution-blown nylon-6 nanofibers became entangled with graphene flakes thereby locking the graphene flakes within the frame of the bendable two-dimensional film structure. This method, which yielded a 5 × 7 cm2-sized membrane in less than 10 seconds, is commercially viable owing to fast fabrication and scalability. We show that our water purification device allows a flow rate range of 0.3-4 L h-1 with a membrane area of just 5 cm2, under a pressure difference of 0.5-3.5 bar. If the membrane were scaled up to 0.5 m2, it could provide 300-4000 L h-1 flow rate, an ample supply for home use.Water purification membranes, capable of purifying a few to tens of milliliters of aqueous methylene blue solution in a minute, were produced by supersonically blowing graphene flakes with a nylon-6 polymeric solution. The solution-blown nylon-6 nanofibers became entangled with graphene flakes thereby locking the graphene flakes within the frame of the bendable two-dimensional film structure. This method, which yielded a 5 × 7 cm2-sized membrane in less than 10 seconds, is commercially viable owing to fast fabrication and scalability. We show that our water purification device allows a flow rate range of 0.3-4 L h-1 with a membrane area of just 5 cm2, under a pressure difference of 0.5-3.5 bar. If the membrane were scaled up to 0.5 m2, it could provide 300-4000 L h-1 flow rate, an ample supply for home use. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06549f

  4. Supernova-blast waves in wind-blown bubbles, turbulent, and power-law ambient media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, S.; Walch, S.; Naab, T.; Seifried, D.; Mackey, J.; Gatto, A.

    2016-05-01

    Supernova (SN) blast waves inject energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM), control its turbulent multiphase structure and the launching of galactic outflows. Accurate modelling of the blast wave evolution is therefore essential for ISM and galaxy formation simulations. We present an efficient method to compute the input of momentum, thermal energy, and the velocity distribution of the shock-accelerated gas for ambient media (densities of 0.1 ≥ n0 [cm-3 ≥ 100) with uniform (and with stellar wind blown bubbles), power-law, and turbulent (Mach numbers M from 1 - 100) density distributions. Assuming solar metallicity cooling, the blast wave evolution is followed to the beginning of the momentum conserving snowplough phase. The model recovers previous results for uniform ambient media. The momentum injection in wind-blown bubbles depend on the swept-up mass and the efficiency of cooling, when the blast wave hits the wind shell. For power-law density distributions with n(r) ˜ r-2 (for n(r) > nfloor) the amount of momentum injection is solely regulated by the background density nfloor and compares to nuni = nfloor. However, in turbulent ambient media with log-normal density distributions the momentum input can increase by a factor of 2 (compared to the homogeneous case) for high Mach numbers. The average momentum boost can be approximated as p_{_turb}/p_{0} =23.07 (n_{_{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-0.12} + 0.82 (ln (1+b2M2))^{1.49}(n_{_{0,turb}}/1 cm^{-3})^{-1.6}. The velocity distributions are broad as gas can be accelerated to high velocities in low-density channels. The model values agree with results from recent, computationally expensive, three-dimensional simulations of SN explosions in turbulent media.

  5. Determination of organic products resulting of chemical and radiochemical decompositions of bitumen. Applications to embedded bitumens; Determination des produits organiques d'alterations chimiques et radiochimiques du bitume. Applications aux enrobes bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walczak, I

    2000-01-27

    Bitumen can be used for embedding most of wastes because of its high impermeability and its relatively low reactivity with of chemicals. Bituminization is one of selected solutions in agreement with nuclear safety, waste compatibility and economic criteria. Bitumen, during storage, undergoes an auto-irradiation due to embedded radio-elements. During this stage,drums are not airtight then oxygen is present. In disposal configuration, water, which is a potential vector of radioactivity and organic matter, is an other hazard factor liable to deteriorate the containment characteristics of bitumen wastes. The generation of water-soluble organic complexing agents can affect the integrity of the wasteform due to an increase of the radionuclides solubility. The first aim of this work is the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of soluble organic matter in bitumen leachates. Different leaching solutions were tested (various pH, ionic strength, ratio S/V). When the pH of the leaching solutions increases, the total organic carbon released increases as well. Identified molecules are aromatics like naphthalene, oxidised compounds like alcohols, linear carbonyls, aromatics, glycols and nitrogen compounds. For the cement equilibrated solution (pH 13.5), the effect of ionic strength becomes significative and influences the release of soluble organic matter. This soluble organic matter can be bio-degraded if microorganisms can growth. The second aim of this work is to study the effect of radio-oxidative ageing on the bitumen confinement properties. During radio-oxidation, the chemical properties of bitumen are modified. The {mu}-IRTF analysis shows the formation of hydroxyl compounds and aromatic acids. The formation of these polar groups does not influence in our study the water uptake. However the organic matter release increases significantly with the irradiation dose. (author)

  6. INTER-PHASE CONTACTS IN BITUMEN-MINERAL SYSTEMS AND THEIR STRENGTHENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. N. Kovalev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently bitumen-mineral materials (including asphalt-concrete comprise nearly 98 % for construction of expensive road pavement. Large resources of local minerals (quartz sand and industrial wastes in the form of used molding sand (foundry by-product are widely applied for reduction of their cost. Such approach is economically and ecologically reasonable but it requires its justification because an adhesion interaction in the bitumen-quartz substrate system (with SiO2 more than 95 % is rather poor in natural state and due to water action it is still more decreasing. In this connection an objective necessity arises to modify significantly technology of bitumen-mineral compositions for ensuring reliability of road pavements while using silicon components.All the ideas pertaining to strengthening of adhesion bonds in the “quartz mineral substrate - bitumen” system are traditionally of physical and chemical nature and they presuppose mainly usage of colloidal chemistry methods. The paper considers the matter on the basis of molecular kinetic theory of matter taking into account the fact that there is absence of generally accepted calculations for intermolecular interactions of components in the SiO2 - organic matrix material system.As a theoretical supposition the following well-known regulatory principle in physics is used: as every atom or molecular have its own electromagnetic field then action of external electromagnetic fields initiates their interaction that leads to excitement of electrons, deformations and rupture of chemical bonds. Literature analysis shows that the existing electric bonds between components of the SiO2 - organic matrix material system provide the possibility to apply various electro-physical methods having an effect on these components with the purpose to strengthen their adhesion interaction.The paper investigates matters for determination of bond energy during physical adsorption and adhesion in the SiO2 - organic

  7. Geothermal waste heat utilization from in situ thermal bitumen recovery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakevska, Nevenka; Schincariol, Robert A; Dehkordi, S Emad; Cheadle, Burns A

    2015-01-01

    In situ thermal methods for bitumen extraction introduce a tremendous amount of energy into the reservoirs raising ambient temperatures of 13 °C to as high as 200 °C at the steam chamber edge and 50 °C along the reservoir edge. In essence these operations have unintentionally acted as underground thermal energy storage systems which can be recovered after completion of bitumen extraction activities. Groundwater flow and heat transport models of the Cold Lake, Alberta, reservoir, coupled with a borehole heat exchanger (BHE) model, allowed for investigating the use of closed-loop geothermal systems for energy recovery. Three types of BHEs (single U-tube, double U-tube, coaxial) were tested and analyzed by comparing outlet temperatures and corresponding heat extraction rates. Initial one year continuous operation simulations show that the double U-tube configuration had the best performance producing an average temperature difference of 5.7 °C, and an average heat extraction of 41 W/m. Given the top of the reservoir is at a depth of 400 m, polyethylene piping provided for larger extraction gains over more thermally conductive steel piping. Thirty year operation simulations illustrate that allowing 6 month cyclic recovery periods only increases the loop temperature gain by a factor of 1.2 over continuous operation. Due to the wide spacing of existing boreholes and reservoir depth, only a small fraction of the energy is efficiently recovered. Drilling additional boreholes between existing wells would increase energy extraction. In areas with shallower bitumen deposits such as the Athabasca region, i.e. 65 to 115 m deep, BHE efficiencies should be larger.

  8. Quantitative temperature-depending mapping of mechanical properties of bitumen at the nanoscale using the AFM operated with PeakForce TappingTM mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Stadler, H.; Erina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical properties of bitumen, such as elasticity/Young's modulus, stickiness/adhesion, hardness and energy loss, and sample deformation were acquired quantitatively and simultaneously with the topology at the microscale, discriminating clearly two separate phases within the bitumen. Temperat

  9. Technology of Anticorrosive Protection of Steel Constructions by Coatings Based on Rapid-Hardening Bitumen-Latex Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nykyforchyn, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recipes of rapid-hardening bitumen-latex emulsions and coatings on its base are created, in-laboratory tests of their physical, chemical and anticorrosive properties are carried out. The technology of anticorrosive protection and the installation technical documentation for making of aqueous bitumen-latex emulsion is developed, installation is mounted and a pilot lot of rapid-hardening emulsion is produced. Experimental-industrial approbation of the technology of coating formation on pipes in oil and gas industry is carried out.

  10. The most appropriate mixing method of polypropylene fiber with aggregates and bitumen based on binder mix design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Zahedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt is used in road pavements as the binder of aggregates in a great extent all around the world. Asphalt Modifiers have used in pavement engineering in order to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt mixtures. One of the most important of them is Polypropylene Fiber that causes increasing stability in the mixture. In this article usage of this fiber in civil engineering and especially in asphalt mixtures is investigated; Mixing methods of fiber with aggregates and bitumen are dry, wet and complex are investigated and the most appropriate method because of homogenous mixing and better result is introduced. Keywords: Polypropylene Fiber, Mixing, Bitumen, Aggregates, Binder.

  11. Changes in composition of sapropelic organic acid A and S bitumens from Lake Lakheper in relation to depth of origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar' , Ye.; Palu, V.; Veski, R.

    1982-01-01

    Test results are presented for acid bitumens (from A and S sapropelic post-glacier lake (Lakheper) in Estonian SSR). Using liquid gas chromatography and chromato-mass spectrometry normally saturated and unsaturated monocarbonic acids were determined (figures provided), as well as iso- and antiiso-monocarbonic acids, oxycarbonic, and cyclopropane acids (formulas provided). Analysis of derived data makes it possible to assume that changes in bitumen acids at early stages of diagenesis of the sapropelic mud is determined not only by diagenesis itself, but by changes in conditions under which sedimentation occurred.

  12. Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite associated with the Windy Knoll bitumen deposit, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, M. R.; Rankin, A. H.; Milledge, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions in fluorite, associated with an outcropping bitumen deposit at Windy Knoll, Derbyshire, have been analysed in situ using a combination of microthermometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry, and ultraviolet (UV) microscopy. The inclusions in these samples can be considered as a series with two endmembers: aqueous inclusions containing a low-density vapour phase and inclusions containing liquid "oil" with no detectable aqueous phase. The majority of the inclusions are mixed types containing both aqueous and liquid hydrocarbon phases. Although microthermometry distinguishes at least two different aqueous fluids with varying homogenization temperatures and salinities, the oil fraction is cogenetic and trapped together with just one fluid, a low-salinity, low-calcium brine with an average homogenization temperature of 134°C. The majority of the liquid hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions fluoresce bright blue under UV illumination with peaks around 475 nm, characteristic of paraffinic oils. The FTIR spectra of these inclusions are dominated by peaks assigned to aliphatic C - H bonding. However, inclusions have also been found which display a fluorescence typical of the red-shift associated with less mature oils. The FTIR spectra display peaks assigned to CO, C - O, and O - CH 2 bonding. This study presents new data on the in-situ analysis of hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions from this important area of natural petroleum seepage and ore mineralization. The results suggest a direct link between the fluid inclusion populations, the outcropping bitumens, and fluorite deposition.

  13. Breaking through the bitumen upgrading barriers with the UOP Uniflex Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillis, D. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    High costs and environmental concerns are some of the challenges facing bitumen upgrading. In addition, yields from conventional process such as coking and ebullated bed hydrocracking are much lower than desired. As such, there is a need for processes that can maximize conversion and selectively produce transportation boiling range products, particularly distillates. There are both technical and financial challenges in providing a reliable high-conversion technology. UOP has developed the UOP Uniflex Process, a commercially based high-conversion residue upgrading process that selectively converts residues from conventional crude oils and bitumen to transportation fuels and high quality synthetic crude oil. The unique features of this technology were described along with commercialization background. Recent advances being developed by UOP under the AERI Hydrocarbon Upgrading Demonstration Program were also described, with particular reference to catalyst design, engineering design and residue by-product utilization. This presentation also outlined UOP's latest flow scheme options for use with existing upgrading technologies. tabs., figs.

  14. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  15. The mechanisms of electrical heating for the recovery of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.W. [McMillan-McGee Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Vermeulen, F.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper described the Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process (ET-DSP), a thermal recovery process in which oil sands are electrically heated. This technology has evolved since the 1970s as an alternative to steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and surface mining of Alberta's oil sands. The heat and mass transfer mechanisms associated with electrical heating were examined along with the gravity forces to better understand how the heated bitumen is recovered from the oil sand. Initially, all fluids are immobile. Heat is created in the oil sand as a current flows through the connate water. This results in a pressure and temperature distribution that is characteristic to an electrical heating process. The electrical heating process changes as the temperature of the oil sand increases and as the bitumen is produced. The heat, mass and electromagnetic fields are strongly coupled and are in a transient state throughout the recovery process. This paper presented the main mechanism for electrical heating in terms of equations. A 3-dimensional quasi-harmonic finite element electromagnetic model was coupled to a mass and energy equation and solved in time. A thermal recovery strategy was then presented in terms of electrode spacing, duration of heating, energy supply and ideal operating conditions.

  16. Bitumen Applicator

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Daniel; Lejdeby, Mikael; Zarate, Inigo Oz. de; Delamarliere, Mathieu

    2002-01-01

    This bachelor degree thesis was assigned to us in the fall semester of 2001. The purpose was to redesign a machine for the company Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) in Karlskrona. ABB HVC in Karlskrona is manufacturing high voltage cables. Amongst these the seacables are the largest and most complex. The seacables are heavy naval cables and lies on the bottom of the sea. For these heavy-duty applications the cables need good armouring. The armouring, which is made of steel, needs a corrosion protection...

  17. Rheological and chemical evaluation on the ageing properties of SBS polymer modified bitumen: From the laboratory to the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Nielsen, E.; Komacka, J.; Greet, L.; Ven, M.V.D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the ageing properties of the styrene-butadiene- styrene polymer modified bitumen (SBS PMB) from the laboratory to the field. The virgin SBS PMB had been kept for 23 years and its field-aged binder was extracted from the reclaimed stone matrix asphalt (SMA) after the 22-year s

  18. Bitumen fumes: review of work on the potential risk to workers and the present knowledge on its origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binet, S; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Brandt, H; Lafontaine, M; Castegnaro, M

    2002-12-01

    Bitumens fumes contain polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC). There is a possibility of long-term health effects following chronic exposure by inhalation or skin contamination in asphalt road pavers and highway maintenance workers. Epidemiological and experimental studies on this topic are reviewed and the possible causes of cancer discussed with a primary focus on heterocyclic polyaromatic compounds. In 2001, the results of the IARC epidemiological study confirmed an excess of lung cancer despite a lower cancer mortality. In vitro genotoxicity and mechanistic studies demonstrated a mutagenic effect of bitumen fume condensates (BFC) and some data suggested that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) analysed were not the major genotoxic compounds in bitumen fume condensates. Other compounds such as nitrogen-, sulfur- and/or oxygen-containing PAH or their alkyl substituted analogues, mutagenic in the Ames mutation assay, may be involved in the genotoxic effect of BFC. After skin painting with BFC, DNA adducts were found in skin, lung and lymphocytes of all the treated animals. Differences in the adduct patterns were also observed, but a more polar adduct was common to the three tissues and not observed in those from rats treated with coal-tar fume condensates (CTFC). Rat inhalation experiments with bitumen fumes confirmed the presence of a DNA-adduct in the lungs with the same Rf as the previous polar adduct. This adduct therefore merits further investigation as a potential biomarker in lymphocyte DNA to follow exposed workers. All the analytical data and the mechanistic data are complementary and suggest the potential role of thiophenes in the genotoxicity of bitumen fumes. Some thiophenes have lower mutagenic activity than their isosteric PAH, whereas others are very potent carcinogens. Generally, the sulfur analogues of PAH (SPAH) in bitumen fumes have a higher concentration than the PAH of similar molecular weight, whereas the SPAH in coal-tar fumes have a

  19. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the recovery and extraction of crude bitumen from Canada’s oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in oil sands is presented. • The model is developed from fundamental engineering principles. • Cogeneration in the oil sands has the ability to offset GHG emissions. • The effect of key parameters is investigated through a sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: A model – FUNNEL-GHG-OS (FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in the Oil Sands) was developed to estimate project-specific energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in major recovery and extraction processes in the oil sands, namely surface mining and in situ production. This model estimates consumption of diesel (4.4–7.1 MJ/GJ of bitumen), natural gas (52.7–86.4 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.8–2.1 kW h/GJ of bitumen) as fuels in surface mining. The model also estimates the consumption of natural gas (123–462.7 MJ/GJ of bitumen) and electricity (1.2–3.5 kW h/GJ of bitumen) in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), based on fundamental engineering principles. Cogeneration in the oil sands, with excess electricity exported to Alberta’s grid, was also explored. Natural gas consumption forms a major portion of the total energy consumption in surface mining and SAGD and thus is a main contributor to GHG emissions. Emissions in surface mining and SAGD range from 4.4 to 7.4 gCO2eq/MJ of bitumen and 8.0 to 34.0 gCO2eq/MJ of bitumen, respectively, representing a wide range of variability in oil sands projects. Depending upon the cogeneration technology and the efficiency of the process, emissions in oil sands recovery and extraction can be reduced by 16–25% in surface mining and 33–48% in SAGD. Further, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of key parameters on the GHG emissions in surface mining and SAGD. Temperature and the consumption of warm water in surface mining and the steam-to-oil ratio (SOR) in SAGD are major parameters

  20. Wake Measurement Downstream of a Hybrid Wing Body Model with Blown Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Jones, Gregory S.; Allan, Brian G.; Westra, Bryan W.; Collins, Scott W.; Zeune, Cale H.

    2010-01-01

    Flow-field measurements were obtained in the wake of a full-span Hybrid Wing Body model with internally blown flaps. The test was performed at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel at low speeds. Off-body measurements were obtained with a 7-hole probe rake survey system. Three model configurations were investigated. At 0deg angle of attack the surveys were completed with 0deg and 60deg flap deflections. At 10deg angle of attack the wake surveys were completed with a slat and a 60deg flap deflection. The 7-hole probe results further quantified two known swirling regions (downstream of the outboard flap edge and the inboard/outboard flap juncture) for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Flowfield results and the general trends are very similar for the two blowing cases at nozzle pressure ratios of 1.37 and 1.56. High downwash velocities correlated with the enhanced lift for the 60deg flap cases with blowing. Jet-induced effects are the largest at the most inboard station for all (three) velocity components due in part to the larger inboard slot height. The experimental data are being used to improve computational tools for high-lift wings with integrated powered-lift technologies.

  1. Synthesis, Modeling and Exergy Analysis of Atmospheric Air Blown Biomass Gasification for Fischer-Tropsch Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Panopoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of the present work is to investigate the combination of an atmospheric and a pressurised air blown biomass gasifier towards Fischer-Tropsch (FT synthesis of second generation biofuels and co-production of power. The complete process was simulated in AspenPlusTM software including sub-models for the gasification, gas cleaning and conditioning as well as for the FT reactor. A sensitivity analysis on exergetic performance was performed mainly examining the recycling of FT-tail gas. For the base case of 80% FT CO conversion without any recirculation, the exergetic efficiency was found to be 34.3% with atmospheric gasification and 30.64% for pressurised gasification. Recirculation of the non-reacted CO, H2 as well as light gas products of the FT-reactor back to the atmospheric gasifier can increase the overall efficiency up to 48.1 %.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings.

  2. Solution-Blown Core-Shell Self-Healing Nano- and Microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Wook; Yoon, Sam S; Yarin, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    Self-healing microfibers with core-shell geometry were studied. A commercial binary epoxy was encased in solution-blown polymer nano-/microfibers in the 0.2-2.6 μm diameter range. The core-shell microfibers were formed by coaxial nozzles, which encapsulated the epoxy resin and its hardener in separate cores. Solution blowing, the fiber-forming process used in this work, was at least 30 times faster than the electrospinning method used previously and has already been scaled up to the industrial level. These core-shell microfibers show self-healing capability, in which epoxy and hardener are released from the cores of damaged fibers, resulting in polymerization. The epoxy used had a higher strength and shorter solidification time than poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) used previously. Also, the larger fiber diameters in the present study facilitated faster release of the epoxy resin and its hardener from the fiber cores, shortening the solidification time in comparison to the previous studies. Blister tests were conducted, which measured the adhesion energy of microfiber mats to substrates and the cohesion energy between layers of microfiber mats before and after fatigue damage followed by self-healing. PMID:26836581

  3. Gasification of torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, G; Kwapinska, M; Horvat, A; Kwapinski, W; Rabou, L P L M; Dooley, S; Czajka, K M; Leahy, J J

    2014-05-01

    Torrefaction is suggested to be an effective method to improve the fuel properties of biomass and gasification of torrefied biomass should provide a higher quality product gas than that from unprocessed biomass. In this study, both raw and torrefied Miscanthus × giganteus (M×G) were gasified in an air-blown bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier using olivine as the bed material. The effects of equivalence ratio (ER) (0.18-0.32) and bed temperature (660-850°C) on the gasification performance were investigated. The results obtained suggest the optimum gasification conditions for the torrefied M × G are ER 0.21 and 800°C. The product gas from these process conditions had a higher heating value (HHV) of 6.70 MJ/m(3), gas yield 2m(3)/kg biomass (H2 8.6%, CO 16.4% and CH4 4.4%) and cold gas efficiency 62.7%. The comparison between raw and torrefied M × G indicates that the torrefied M × G is more suitable BFB gasification.

  4. Aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale hybrid upper surface blown flap model having four engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carros, R. J.; Boissevain, A. G.; Aoyagi, K.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented from an investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of large-scale wind tunnel aircraft model that utilized a hybrid-upper surface blown flap to augment lift. The hybrid concept of this investigation used a portion of the turbofan exhaust air for blowing over the trailing edge flap to provide boundary layer control. The model, tested in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel, had a 27.5 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 8 and 4 turbofan engines mounted on the upper surface of the wing. The lift of the model was augmented by turbofan exhaust impingement on the wind upper-surface and flap system. Results were obtained for three flap deflections, for some variation of engine nozzle configuration and for jet thrust coefficients from 0 to 3.0. Six-component longitudinal and lateral data are presented with four engine operation and with the critical engine out. In addition, a limited number of cross-plots of the data are presented. All of the tests were made with a downwash rake installed instead of a horizontal tail. Some of these downwash data are also presented.

  5. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  6. Probability of rebound and eject of sand particles in wind-blown sand movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xie; Xiaojing Zheng

    2007-01-01

    When incident particles impact into a sand bed in wind-blown sand movement, rebound of the incident particles and eject of the sand particles by the incident particles affect directly the development of wind sand flux. In order to obtain rebound and eject lift-off probability of the sand particles, we apply the particle-bed stochastic collision model presented in our pervious works to derive analytic solutions of velocities of the incident and impacted particles in the postcollision bed. In order to describe randomness inherent in the real particle-bed collision, we take the incident angle, theimpact position and the direction of resultant action of sand particles in sand bed on the impacted sand particle as random variables, and calculate the rebound and eject velocities,angles and coefficients (ratio of rebound and eject velocity to incident velocity). Numerical results are found in accordance with current experimental results. The rebound and eject lift-off probabilities versus the incident and creeping velocities are predicted.

  7. Computational modelling of the complex dynamics of chemically blown polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireka, I. E.; Niedziela, D.; Schäfer, K.; Tröltzsch, J.; Steiner, K.; Helbig, F.; Chinyoka, T.; Kroll, L.

    2015-11-01

    This study presents computational analysis of the complex dynamics observed in chemically blown polyurethane foams during reaction injection molding process. The mathematical formulation introduces an experimentally motivated non-divergence free setup for the continuity equations which reflects the self expanding behaviour observed in the physical system. The foam growth phenomena which is normally initiated by adequate pre-mixing of necessary reactant polymers, leading to an exothermic polymerization reaction, bubble nucleation, and gas formation, is captured numerically. We assume the dependence of material viscosity on the degree of cure/polymerization, gas volume fraction, and temperature as well as non-dependence of mixture density on pressure. The set of unsteady nonlinear coupled partial differential equations describing the dynamics of the system are solved numerically for state variables using finite volume techniques such that the front of the flow is tracked with high resolution interface capturing schemes. Graphical representation of the foam volume fraction, evolution of foam heights, and temperature distributions is presented. Results from our simulations are validated with experimental data. These results show good quantitative agreement with observations from experiments.

  8. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced

  9. The composition of acids in bitumen and in products from saponification of kerogen: Investigation of their role as connecting kerogen and mineral matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razvigorova, M.; Budinova, T.; Tsyntsarski, B.; Petrova, B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Organic Chemistry, 1113 Sofia, Acad. Bonchev Str., bl. 9 (Bulgaria); Ekinci, E. [ISIK University, Kumbaba Mevkii, 34980 Istanbul (Turkey); Atakul, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-11-03

    In order to obtain more information and to understand the nature of relation between organic and mineral matter in oil shales, the compositions of soluble bitumen fractions obtained by extraction from Bulgarian oil shales before and after demineralization with 10% HCl, concentrated HF, and a HF/HCl mixture were investigated. The four extracts were quantitatively examined by IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The investigation of isolated acidic material of the bitumen fractions showed that the fatty acids are present in bitumen fractions as free acids, esters and salts. The amount of free acids in bitumen is very small. The dominant part of bitumen acids is associated with mineral components of the oil shales as well as part of them is included in the mineral matrix, and can be separated only after deep demineralization. The kerogen of the oil shales, obtained after separation of the bitumen fractions and mineral components, was subjected to saponification in order to determine the amount of acids, bound as esters to the kerogen matrix. The major components found were n-carboxylic, {alpha},{omega}-di-carboxylic, and aromatic acids. The connection of kerogen with mineral components is accomplished by the participation of carboxylic and complicated ester bonds. Experimental data for the composition of bitumen acids give evidence that algae and terrestrial materials are initial sources in the formation of soluble organic matter of Bulgarian oil shale. (author)

  10. Sulfur species in source rock bitumen before and after hydrous pyrolysis determined by X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, Trudy B.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Lewan, Michael; Hill, Ronald J.; Grayson, Michael B.; Mitra-Kirtley, Sudipa; Bake, Kyle D.; Craddock, Paul R.; Abdallah, Wael; Pomerantz, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The sulfur speciation of source rock bitumen (chloroform-extractable organic matter in sedimentary rocks) was examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy for a suite of 11 source rocks from around the world. Sulfur speciation was determined for both the native bitumen in thermally immature rocks and the bitumen produced by thermal maturation of kerogen via hydrous pyrolysis (360 °C for 72 h) and retained within the rock matrix. In this study, the immature bitumens had higher sulfur concentrations than those extracted from samples after hydrous pyrolysis. In addition, dramatic and systematic evolution of the bitumen sulfur moiety distributions following artificial thermal maturation was observed consistently for all samples. Specifically, sulfoxide sulfur (sulfur double bonded to oxygen) is abundant in all immature bitumen samples but decreases substantially following hydrous pyrolysis. The loss in sulfoxide sulfur is associated with a relative increase in the fraction of thiophene sulfur (sulfur bonded to aromatic carbon) to the extent that thiophene is the dominant sulfur form in all post-pyrolysis bitumen samples. This suggests that sulfur moiety distributions might be used for estimating thermal maturity in source rocks based on the character of the extractable organic matter.

  11. Application of Solution-blown 20-50 nm Nanofibers in Filtration of Nanoparticles: The Efficient van der Waals Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Ray, Sumit; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2015-11-01

    Filtration efficiency of commercially available filter media with fiber/pore sizes on the scale of 10 μm can be dramatically increased by adding a layer of ultrafine supersonically-blown 20-50 nm nanofibers. Different commercial filters were modified with (i) electrospun nanofibers alone, (ii) solution-blown 20-50 nm alone, and (iii) the dual coating with electrospun nanofibers deposited first and the solution-blown 20-50 nm nanofibers deposited on top of them. Detailed observations of nanoparticle removal revealed that the above-mentioned modified filters, especially those with the dual nanofiber coating with the 20-50 nm nanofibers deposited on top, are the most effective in removing the below-200 nm Cu nanoparticles/clusters from aqueous suspensions, in particular at the lowest concentrations of 0.2-0.5 ppm. The theory developed in the present work dealing with convective transport of nanoparticles in the fluid flow along with diffusion of nanoparticles and the van der Waals attraction explains and describes how the smallest solution-blown nanofibers introduce a novel physical mechanism of nanoparticle interception (the attractive van der Waals forces) and become significantly more efficient collectors compared to the larger electrospun nanofibers. The theory also elucidates the morphology of the nanoparticle clusters being accumulated at the smallest nanofiber surfaces, including the clusters growing at the windward side, or in some cases also on the leeward side of a nanofiber. This work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC), grant No. 12-144SB.

  12. Experimental analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xie; Zhibao Dong; Xiaojing Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The probability distributions of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in a wind-blown sand flux play very important roles in the simulation of the wind-blown sand movement. In this paper, the vertical and the horizontal speeds of sand particles located at 1.0 mm above a sand-bed in a wind-blown sand flux are observed with the aid of Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) in a wind tunnel. Based on the experimental data, the probability distributions of not only the vertical lift-off speed but also the lift-off velocity as well as its horizontal component and the incident velocity as well as its vertical and horizontal components can be obtained by the equal distance histogram method. It is found, according to the results of the χ2-test for these probability distributions, that the probability density functions (pdf's) of the sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities as well as their vertical components are described by the Gamma density function with different peak values and shapes and the downwind incident and lift-off horizontal speeds, respectively, can be described by the lognormal and the Gamma density functions. These pdf's depend on not only the sand particle diameter but also the wind speed.

  13. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H2/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H2S on HDS and NH3 on HDN. (author)

  14. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  15. Generation of smoke and clogging of ventilation filter under burning of bitumen/salt mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion accident happened at the bituminization demonstration facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan on March 11, 1997. To elucidate smoke generation and clogging mechanism of ventilation filters under burning of bitumen/salt mixture in the PNC facility, small-scale simulation experiments were performed. The mock mixtures were prepared by referring to the composition of the real liquid waste and were burnt by heating. The burning behavior of the mixture was observed and the filter pressure drop, which was caused by loading smoke, was measured. Moreover, mass, energy and smoke release rate as direct source term from the burnt mixture and the empirical equation, which could represent the relationship between the pressure drop and burnt mass, were determined by comparing between the calculation results based on a one-dimensional thermofluid analysis code CELVA-1D, and the experimental results. (author)

  16. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of the

  17. An optimized setup for determining the bitumen content in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A setup was developed in order to determine the bitumen content in asphalt concrete by neutron reflection. The main parts of this setup are an Am-Be neutron source of 37 GBq and a 3He neutron detector. To avoid geometrical effects of the measurements, the optimum volume of the samples was determined by plotting the reflected neutron response versus the sample volume. For the calibration of the system, the American Standard Method (ASTM) was used when preparing aggregate and asphalt concrete samples. The method was then compared to the conventional chemical method by analyzing unknown samples taken from an asphalt concrete producing plant and finally the method was assessed in terms of reproducibility, sensitivity and precision. (author)

  18. The road that's taken : Alberta's bitumen and the world of asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately one third of the bitumen produced by the oil sands industry in Canada is used as asphalt in roads and roofing materials. Crude oils used for asphalt production require very little refining. The asphalt market has become a key profit centre for some Cold Lake operators. Imperial Oil has established a research centre devoted to asphalt production at its Sarnia-based refinery. A decline in heavy oil supplies from Mexico and Venezuela has left Canada with a larger margin of the asphalt market. Industry leaders predict that demand for asphalt products will grow by 2.6 per cent per year. A sharp increase in asphalt prices led to many construction delays in 2007. Trials are now being conducted on a new warm mix paving technology that allows users to lower the temperature of asphalt by 20 to 30 degrees C when paving. 2 figs

  19. Canadian heavy crude oil and bitumen: Some new and old ideas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadian conventional heavy oil and bitumen production has been steadily increasing over the last five years. This rise is forecast to continue under modest future crude oil pricing assumptions. During 1990 and 1991, the heavy oil market suffered from wide pricing differentials relative to light crude due to market reductions in Montreal and a feedstock shift at Uno-Ven's Chicago refinery, as well as an increase in the percentage of heavy in the world crude oil supply because of the Iraqi war. These have been offset by price-related bitumen production cuts and minor refinery capacity growth at other locations. The industry is poised for positive change with modest but stable prices and reduced light-heavy differentials caused, in part, by anticipated market expansion due to the June start-up of the Conco coker (50,000 bbl/d) in Montana and the anticipated late fall start up of the Bi-Provincial Upgrader in Saskatchewan (50,000 bbl/d blend). For the future, refinery upgrading and new grass roots refinery additions are suggested for western Canada. Associated transportation savings and condensate blending stock costs are two areas of advantage. Taken together with environmental problems in other densely populated market areas, it makes sense to build new heavy processing capacity near Edmonton but only after all current capacity is debottlenecked and inexpensive additions to current facilities are completed. New capacity will only be built when the heavy/light price differential on feed stock provides economic justification. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Improvement of Life Expectancy of Jute Based Needlepunched Geotextiles Through Bitumen Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Ray Gupta, K.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Sahu, R. B.; Mandol, S.

    2014-12-01

    Geotextiles have witnessed unrivalled growth worldwide in recent years in the field of different civil engineering constructions. The world of Geotextiles includes mainly non-biodegradable synthetic materials which are not environmentally compatible. With the increasing human awareness on environmental pollution aspects, biodegradable Jute Geotextile is increasingly gaining ground over its synthetic non-biodegradable counterpart. Though Jute is advantageous for its complete biodegradability in one hand but on the other hand it is disadvantageous for its poor microbial resistance and quicker biodegradation particularly under moist soil conditions, when applied as Geotextiles under soil. Therefore, it is a great challenge to the present researchers to make jute more microbial resistant (rot resistant) keeping its biodegradability intact during its performance period. Thorough investigation and study regarding the improvement of the durability of natural Jute Geotextile reveals the fact that though several attempts including chemical treatments have been made to enhance the life expectancy of jute fabrics yet these methods were neither found to be suitable nor techno-economically viable. Therefore, in order to accomplish the objective and based on the researchers' report of satisfactory thermal compatibility between hot bitumen and jute nonwoven fabrics, in the present study Bitumen emulsion with essential additives has been applied following a special technique, apart from the conventional method, on the Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics in different add on percentages to make a comparative assessment of the performance of both Grey Jute Fabrics and Bituminized Jute Nonwoven Fabrics by Soil Burial Test as per the BIS standard test method. The test results revealed that the durability and performance of the Bituminized Nonwoven Jute Fabrics are much better than that of Grey Jute Nonwoven Fabrics.

  1. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior of the pure bitumen grades 10/20 and 35/50 with macroindentation and finite element computation

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2013-06-23

    In this article, we present an identification procedure that allows the determination of the viscoelasticity behavior of different grades of pure bitumen (bitumen 35/50 and bitumen 10/20). The procedure required in the first stage a mechanical response based on macroindentation experiments with a cylindrical indenter. A finite element simulation was performed in the second stage to compute the mechanical response corresponding to a viscoelasticity model described by three mechanical parameters. The comparison between the experimental and numerical responses showed a perfect matching. In addition, the identification procedure helped to discriminate between different bitumens characterized by different asphaltene and maltene contents. Finally, the developed procedure could be used as an efficient tool to characterize the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic materials, thanks to the quantified relationship between the viscoleastic parameters and the force-penetration response. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130: 3440-3450, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Investigation of the Chemical Association and Molecular Dynamics in Asphalt Ridge Tar Sand Ore and Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzel, D. A.; Coover, P. T.

    1987-09-01

    Preliminary studies on tar sand bitumen given in this report have shown that the reassociation of tar sand bitumen to its original molecular configuration after thermal stressing is a first-order process requiring nearly a week to establish equilibrium. Studies were also conducted on the dissolution of tar sand bitumen in solvents of varying polarity. At a high-weight fraction of solute to solvent the apparent molecular weight of the bitumen molecules was greater than that of the original bitumen when dissolved in chloroform-d{sub 1} and benzene-d{sub 6}. This increase in the apparent molecular weight may be due to micellar formation or a weak solute-solvent molecular complex. Upon further dilution with any of the solvents studied, the apparent molecular weight of the tar sand bitumen decreased because of reduced van der Waals forces of interaction and/or hydrogen bonding. To define the exact nature of the interactions, it will be necessary to have viscosity measurements of the solutions.

  3. Paleoenvironmental implications of novel C[sub 30] steranes in Precambrian to Cenozoic age petroleum and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, M.A.; Lipton, P.A. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, La Habra, CA (United States)); Moldowan, J.M. (Cheveron Petroleum Technology Company, Richmond, CA (United States) Stanford Univ., CA (United States)); Summons, R.E. (Australian Geological Survey Organization, Canberra City (Australia)); Peters, K.E. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States) Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)); Jeganathan, A.; Watt, D.S. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Petroleums and bitumens from Early Proterozoic ([approx] 1800 Ma) to Miocene ([approx] 15 Ma) age marine strata contain 24-isopropylcholestanes, a novel group of C[sub 30] steroids. The abundance of these compounds, relative to 24-n-propylcholestanes, varies with source rock age. Late Proterozoic (Vendian) and Early Cambrian oils and/or bitumens from Siberia, the Urals, Oman, Australia, and India have a high ratio of 24-isopropylcholestanes to 24-n-propylcholestanes ([ge] 1), while younger and older samples have a low ratio ([le]0.4). Temporal changes in this parameter may reflect the relative abundance of certain Porifera (sponges) and certain Marine algae through time. Geochemical indicators such as this, which can constrain the source rock age of a migrated oil, are useful in source rock identification during petroleum exploration.

  4. Geostatistical modeling of facies, bitumen grade and particle size distribution for the Joslyn oil sand open pit mine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babak, Olena; Insalaco, Enzo; Mittler, Andreas [Total EandP Canada Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Joslyn North Mine Project is currently in the pre-development stage; the aim of this study is to use different available data to draw a geological model of facies, bitumen grade, full particle size distribution (PSD) and ore/waste discrimination. The study was conducted with the database of around 800 wells, stochastic, indicator and Gaussian simulations were performed along with a sensitivity study. Results demonstrated the importance of some parameters for evaluating grade cases including variogram uncertainty, sampling limitations and errors in geostatistical workflow. In addition, modeling the full PSD dataset was shown to be useful. This study demonstrated how to use available database through an overall workflow to develop case scenarios for bitumen in place in ore and characterize the ore material.

  5. Microbiological analysis of the in situ bitumen-nitrate-Opalinus clay interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Clay formations like the Opalinus Clay are foreseen to serve as the host rock for geological disposal of high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste in several countries, because of their favourable properties to delay the migration of radionuclides over time. However, bituminized intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste may physico-chemically perturb the clay barrier properties because in time it will leach substantial amounts of nitrate and organic bitumen degradation products (BDP). To study the physico-chemical impact of intermediate-level radioactive waste containing bitumen and nitrate, an in situ experiment in the Opalinus Clay (Saint Ursanne, Switzerland) named the Bitumen-Nitrate- Clay interaction (BN) experiment, is being performed at the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. The in situ equipment of the BN-experiment consists of three separate packed-off intervals, supplied with a filter screen. Each interval is equipped with its own stainless steel water circulation unit. Such water circulation unit contains water sampling containers, circulation pumps and flow meters. One of the circulation units is equipped with an on-line UV spectrophotometer and pH electrode intervals, allowing a continuous monitoring of nitrate, nitrite concentrations, organic carbon level and pH. In a first series of tests, the microbial and biogeochemical effect of a nitrate and/or acetate perturbation is studied. Acetate is used as it a good representation of BDP. Hereto, nitrate was injected in interval 1 while a mixture of nitrate and acetate is injected in interval 2. As an active microbial community can have a significant impact on the physical and (geo)chemical conditions of the clay surrounding the disposal gallery, microbial analyses were performed on samples taken from the interval solutions before, during and after this first series of tests. Our microbial investigations which included Scanning Electron

  6. Influence of the prepolymer molecular weight and free isocyanate content on the rheology of polyurethane modified bitumens

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Páez, Virginia; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate-based modification is lately gaining acceptance as a successful way to give added value to bitumen, a crude oil refining by-product. In order to study the influence of prepolymer type on the rheological properties of the resulting binders, six prepolymers synthesized from polypropylene-glycols (PPG) with varying molecular weight (between 440 and 2425) and different molar excess of a polymeric MDI (4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) were used. Two modification procedures, either inv...

  7. Bitumen modifiers for reduced temperature asphalts: a comparative analysis between three polymeric and non-polymeric additives

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Carrera Páez, Virginia; Izquierdo Rodríguez, María Angeles; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study presents three bitumen modifiers which may find successful application in the fabrication of binders for warm mix asphalt in the paving industry. In that sense, two non-polymeric additives, thiourea and thiourea dioxide, along with a reactive isocyanate-terminated prepolymer have been evaluated. Viscous flow and linear viscoelasticity tests, at 60 ºC, reveal bituminous modified binders which evolve towards highly viscous materials when subjected to ambient curing. However, at 135 º...

  8. Measurement of bitumen viscosity in the room-temperature drop experiment: student education, public outreach and modern science in one

    OpenAIRE

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; A E Phillips; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    Slow flow of the viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration, the world-longest running experiment earning the Ig Nobel prize, one drop of pitch takes about 10 years to fall, leading to problems of actually observing the drops. Here, we describe our recent demonstration of slowly-flowing bitumen where appreciable flow is observed on the time scale of...

  9. Performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel Joseph

    With the discovery of vast fossil resources, and the subsequent development of the fossil fuel and petrochemical industry, the role of biomass-based products has declined. However, concerns about the finite and decreasing amount of fossil and mineral resources, in addition to health and climate impacts of fossil resource use, have elevated interest in innovative methods for converting renewable biomass resources into products that fit our modern lifestyle. Thermal conversion through gasification is an appealing method for utilizing biomass due to its operability using a wide variety of feedstocks at a wide range of scales, the product has a variety of uses (e.g., transportation fuel production, electricity production, chemicals synthesis), and in many cases, results in significantly lower greenhouse gas emissions. In spite of the advantages of gasification, several technical hurdles have hindered its commercial development. A number of studies have focused on laboratory-scale and atmospheric biomass gasification. However, few studies have reported on pilot-scale, woody biomass gasification under pressurized conditions. The purpose of this research is an assessment of the performance of a pilot-scale, steam-blown, pressurized fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The 200 kWth fluidized bed gasifier is capable of operation using solid feedstocks at feedrates up to 65 lb/hr, bed temperatures up to 1600°F, and pressures up to 8 atm. Gasifier performance was assessed under various temperatures, pressure, and feedstock (untreated woody biomass, dark and medium torrefied biomass) conditions by measuring product gas yield and composition, residue (e.g., tar and char) production, and mass and energy conversion efficiencies. Elevated temperature and pressure, and feedstock pretreatment were shown to have a significant influence on gasifier operability, tar production, carbon conversion, and process efficiency. High-pressure and temperature gasification of dark torrefied biomass

  10. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional Project. The Canadian Association of Petroleum

  11. Proceedings of the 4. NCUT conference on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian oil sands are held as a prime resource opportunity as well as a key to future global energy needs. Expansion projects in Northern Alberta are expected to increase production from the current 1 million barrels per day to 3 million by 2020. However, significant research needs to be conducted to increase the economics of oil sands production. This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production and presented details of new innovations in upgrading processes. Many of the presentations focused on issues related to the compatibility and stability of upgraded bitumen and heavy crudes to fuel and pipeline specifications. Research developments in asphaltene behaviour research were presented. Various hydrocracking techniques were evaluated. Issues concerning water use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were also discussed. A technical program was presented in which a keynote address examined issues concerning oil sands and the global marketplace. The main conference was divided into 5 sessions: (1) new technologies for bitumen upgrading; (2) energy independence and increased opportunities for value addition; (3) secondary upgrading developments and increasingly tight fuel specifications; (4) corrosion; and (5) fouling. Each session was followed by a question and answer period. The conference featured 31 presentations, of which 29 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  12. Proceedings of the 4. NCUT conference on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Canadian oil sands are held as a prime resource opportunity as well as a key to future global energy needs. Expansion projects in Northern Alberta are expected to increase production from the current 1 million barrels per day to 3 million by 2020. However, significant research needs to be conducted to increase the economics of oil sands production. This conference examined various upgrading technologies related to bitumen production and presented details of new innovations in upgrading processes. Many of the presentations focused on issues related to the compatibility and stability of upgraded bitumen and heavy crudes to fuel and pipeline specifications. Research developments in asphaltene behaviour research were presented. Various hydrocracking techniques were evaluated. Issues concerning water use, energy efficiency, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were also discussed. A technical program was presented in which a keynote address examined issues concerning oil sands and the global marketplace. The main conference was divided into 5 sessions: (1) new technologies for bitumen upgrading; (2) energy independence and increased opportunities for value addition; (3) secondary upgrading developments and increasingly tight fuel specifications; (4) corrosion; and (5) fouling. Each session was followed by a question and answer period. The conference featured 31 presentations, of which 29 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Small scale wind tunnel model investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, W. L.; Chin, Y. T.

    1974-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel test of a two engine hybrid model with upper surface blowing on a simulated expandable duct internally blown flap was accomplished in a two phase program. The low wing Phase I model utilized 0.126c radius Jacobs/Hurkamp flaps and 0.337c radius Coanda flaps. The high wing Phase II model was utilized for continued studies on the Jacobs/Hurkamp flap. Principal study areas included: basic data both engines operative and with an engine out, control flap utilization, horizontal tail effectiveness, spoiler effectiveness, USB nacelle deflector study and USB/IBF pressure ratio effects.

  14. Thermomechanical properties of bitumen modified with crumb tire rubber and polymeric additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, V.; Martinez-Boza, F.J.; Navarro, F.J.; Gallegos, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Huelva, Campus del Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Perez-Lepe, A.; Paez, A. [Centro de Tecnologia, Repsol-YPF, Carretera de Extremadura, N-V, km 18, 28931 Mostoles-Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In this paper, the influence of some additives on the rheological and technological properties of crumb rubber modified binders has been studied. The research has been mainly focused on the degree of bitumen modification, measured as the improvement of the mechanical properties, produced by the additives used, and the storage stability of these binders at high temperature. The experimental results obtained reveal that all the polymeric additives used yield an improvement in both rheological and technological properties of the binder. The storage instability of these binders has been associated to sedimentation processes of insoluble CR particles that strongly influence the mechanical properties of the binder. The additives and processing conditions selected in this study do not completely prevent problems associated with the poor stability of CRMBs during storage at high temperature. Nevertheless, the use of polyoctenamer, FT-wax or SBS-containing additives improves CRMB stability. In this sense, similar loss tangent values were found before and after hot storage of these binders. (author)

  15. Modeling of a three-phase reactor for bitumen-derived gas oil hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R.; Canale, A.; Bouza, A. [Departamento de Termodinamica y Fenomenos de Transporte. Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sanchez, Y. [Departamento de Procesos y Sistemas. Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions of bitumen-derived gas oil was developed. The model incorporates the mass-transfer resistance at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces and a kinetic rate expression based on a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type model. We derived three correlations for determining the solubility of hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in hydrocarbon mixtures and the calculation of the catalyst effectiveness factor was included. Experimental data taken from the literature were used to determine the kinetic parameters (stoichiometric coefficients, reaction orders, reaction rate and adsorption constants for hydrodesulfuration (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN)) and to validate the model under various operating conditions. Finally, we studied the effect of operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, LHSV, H{sub 2}/feed ratio and the inhibiting effect of H{sub 2}S on HDS and NH{sub 3} on HDN. (author)

  16. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate del Valle, Pedro F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad de Guadalajara - CUCEI, Ap. Postal 4-021, Guadalajara, Jalisco CP 44410 (Mexico); Simoneit, Bernd R.T. [Environmental and Petroleum Geochemistry Group, College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Building 104, Corvallis, OR 97331-5503 (United States)]. E-mail: simoneit@coas.oregonstate.edu

    2005-12-15

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition ({delta} {sup 13}C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka ({sup 14}C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions.

  17. Super critical water reactor for use in steam generation for recovery of bitumen resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of recovering the bitumen (oil sand) resources in Alberta requires steam at high pressures. To help reduce the carbon footprint of exploiting these fuel resources, an innovative new design of a CANDU super critical water reactor (CANDU-SCWR) is being considered to provide the high pressure steam required for the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process. The high temperature and pressure associated with the CANDU-SCWR allow for the high pressure, temperature steam to be produced without supplementary energy. The Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada (PTAC) has specified the SAGD process requires steam at 11 MPa and near 100% steam quality, and net electrical power of 106 MWe. This paper examines steam cycle and design options to meet the steam and power requirements defined by PTAC. Steam cycle options are examined focusing on the optimization of steam and power conversion. Additionally passive safety and cooling for both the heat transport and moderation systems are considered and their impact on performance are examined. As the CANDU-SCWR is at a preliminary stage of design, basic design parameters have been defined based on preliminary assessments. This paper is focused on a reactor with the following basic design assumptions: Vertical fuel channel; Re-entrant fuel channels; Pu-Th fuel; and Batch refuelling. (author)

  18. Polymer and bitumen-modified OPC for the immobilization of ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been made of the modification of ordinary Portland cement with polymeric additives, and of the properties of waste forms based on these matrix materials. The additives were styrene butadiene and bitumen emulsions, and epoxide and polyurethane resins: the simulated wastes were organic ion exchanger beads, PWR evaporator concentrate, reprocessing concentrate and Magnox metal. The effect of polymer: cement (p:c) and water:cement ratios on the properties of the hardened cement paste has been comprehensively investigated. Substantial increases in strain to failure, and modest reductions in permeability to water and leach rates for Cs137, are obtained at p:c > 0.2. Much larger volume fractions of organic ion exchange beads can be encapsulated in polymer modified OPC than in unmodified OPC, perhaps because of their better strain capability. The radiation stability of cemented PWR evaporator concentrate is better for a polymer-modified matrix than an unmodified OPC matrix. Two hundred litre trials have been successfully demonstrated. 20 refs, 20 tabs, 10 figs

  19. Biohydrogen production from forest and agricultural residues for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    In this study, forest residues (limbs, tops, and branches) and straw (from wheat and barley) are considered for producing biohydrogen in Western Canada for upgrading of bitumen from oil sands. Two types of gasifiers, namely, the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) gasifier and the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) gasifier are considered for biohydrogen production. Production costs of biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues from a BCL gasification plant with a capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day are 1.17 and 1.29/kg of H{sub 2}, respectively. For large-scale biohydrogen plant, GTI gasification is the optimum technology. The delivered-biohydrogen costs are 2.19 and 2.31/kg of H{sub 2} at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. Optimum capacity for biohydrogen plant is 3000 dry tonnes/day for both residues in a BCL gasifier. In a GTI gasifier, although the theoretical optimum sizes are higher than 3000 dry tonnes/day for both feedstocks, the cost of production of biohydrogen is flat above a plant size of 3000 dry tonnes/day. Hence, a plant at the size of 3000 dry tonnes/day could be built to minimize risk. Carbon credits of 119 and 124/tonne of CO{sub 2} equivalent are required for biohydrogen from forest and agricultural residues, respectively. (author)

  20. Hydrothermal bitumen generated from sedimentary organic matter of rift lakes - Lake Chapala, Citala Rift, western Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake Chapala is in the Citala Rift of western Mexico, which in association with the Tepic-Zacoalco and Colima Rifts, form the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The rifts are characterized by evidence for both paleo- and active hydrothermal activity. At the south shore of the lake, near the Los Gorgos sublacustrine hydrothermal field, there are two tar emanations that appear as small islands composed of solid, viscous and black bitumen. Aliquots of tar were analyzed by GC-MS and the mixtures are comprised of geologically mature biomarkers and an UCM. PAH and n-alkanes are not detectable. The biomarkers consist mainly of hopanes, gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes, carotane and its cracking products, steranes, and drimanes. The biomarker composition and bulk C isotope composition (δ 13C = -21.4%) indicate an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. The overall composition of these tars indicates that they are hydrothermal petroleum formed from lacustrine organic matter in the deeper sediments of Lake Chapala exceeding 40 ka (14C) in age and then forced to the lakebed by tectonic activity. The absence of alkanes and the presence of an UCM with mature biomarkers are consistent with rapid hydrothermal oil generation and expulsion at temperatures of 200-250 deg. C. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in continental rift systems is now well known and should be considered in future energy resource exploration in such regions

  1. The Evolution of Supernovae in Circumstellar Wind-Blown Bubbles I. Introduction and One-Dimensional Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, V V

    2004-01-01

    Mass loss from massive stars ($\\ga 8 \\msun$) can result in the formation of circumstellar wind blown cavities surrounding the star, bordered by a thin, dense, cold shell. When the star explodes as a core-collapse supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave will interact with this modified medium around the star, rather than the interstellar medium. In this work we first explore the nature of the circumstellar medium around massive stars in various evolutionary stages. This is followed by a study of the evolution of SNe within these wind-blown bubbles. The evolution depends primarily on a single parameter $\\Lambda$, the ratio of the mass of the dense shell to that of the ejected material. We investigate the evolution for different values of this parameter. We also plot approximate X-ray surface brightness plots from the simulations. Our results show that in many cases the SN remnant spends a significant amount of time within the bubble. The low density within the bubble can delay the onset of the Sedov stage, and...

  2. The formation of ammonia in air-blown gasification: does char-derived NO act as a precursor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. Amure; S. Hanson; M. Cloke; J.W. Patrick [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). SChEME

    2003-10-01

    Air-blown gasification of coal has received considerable attention worldwide and especially in the UK in conjunction with the Air-Blown Gasification Cycle, an integrated combined cycle which has been developed in recent decades. The cycle has the potential to produce electricity at higher efficiencies and lower emissions than conventional pf plants. However, the formation of ammonia in the gasifier has been identified as a potential problem, as it would contribute to NOx emissions. The formation of ammonia has been studied in a laboratory-scale rig designed and constructed specifically for that purpose. The reactor was a fluidised bed of the spouted bed variety. NH{sub 3}, NO and HCN levels could be monitored at different bed heights to trace their formation and conversion. Four coals were gasified at 1000{sup o}C and 0.2 MPa. It was found that the bulk of the NH{sub 3} was formed in the spout and the NH{sub 3} concentration increased progressively with reactor height. Formation of NO was relatively minor and, although both NO and HCN may act as precursors for NH{sub 3} formation in the devolatilisation/partial combustion zone, no evidence was found to suggest they make a significant contribution to any subsequent increase in NH{sub 3} emissions. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. It's all about the bitumen : oilsands producers have the attention of the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-09-01

    Within 10 years, oilsands growth will make Canada the fifth largest oil producing country in the world, thereby greatly increasing Canada's political power. A review of oil sands development was presented, with reference to the way in which Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) has revolutionized the industry. Recent acquisitions have pointed to the growing level of international interest in the oilsands industry. Construction details of the Surmont project were discussed along with Devon Canada's SAGD project at Jackfish where about 100 well-pairs are expected to be drilled. Petrobank Energy and Resources is constructing its Whitesands project, which will employ the first field-scale application of the toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) recovery method which has lower operating costs and which uses less water and creates fewer greenhouse (GHG) emissions. The pilot was designed to produce up to 1800 barrels per day of partially upgraded bitumen. Details of CNRI's Horizon project were presented, including construction plans and schedules. Shell Canada's increased budget for the first expansion of the Athabasca Oilsands Project was reviewed with reference to their strategic decision to pre-build infrastructure for future expansions. Details of Suncor Energy's production goals were also reviewed, including details of new upgraders and applications. Syncrude's continuing expansions were discussed, as well as their current production levels. An outline of UTS Energy Corporation and Petro-Canada's plans concerning the Fort Hills Mining Project was presented, with details of the new BITMIN extraction process. It was noted that Imperial Oil has filed regulatory applications for the Kearl Oilsands Project, which have estimated total recoverable bitumen resources of 4.4 billion barrels. Husky Energy's Sunrise Project was discussed, as well as MEG Energy's regulatory approval for the first phase of the Christina Lake Regional

  4. Hydroprocessing full-range of heavy oils and bitumen using ultradispersed catalysts at low severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Enzo

    The progressive exhaustion of light crude oils is forcing the petroleum industry to explore new alternatives for the exploitation of unconventional oils. New approaches are searching for technologies able to produce, transport and refine these feedstocks at lower costs, in which symbiotic processes between the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the conventional upgrading technologies are under investigation. The process explored in this thesis is an interesting alternative for in-situ upgrading of these crude oils in the presence of ultradispersed (UD) catalysts, which are included as a disperse phase able to circulate along with the processed feed. The objectives of this work are: (a) study the performance of UD catalysts in the presence of a full range (non fractioned) heavy oil and bitumen and (b) evaluate the recyclability of the UD catalysts. Four different heavy crude oils were evaluated in the presence with UD catalysts at a total pressure of 2.8 MPa, residence time of 8 hours and reaction temperatures from 360 up to 400ºC. Thermal and catalytic hydro-processing were compared in terms of conversion and product stability. A comparison between the different crude oils was additionally derived in terms of SARA, initial micro-carbon content and virgin oil stability among other properties. Advantages of catalytic hydro-processing over thermal hydro-processing were evidenced, with UD catalysts playing an essential hydrogenating role while retarding coke formation; microcarbon and asphaltenes reduction in the presence of UD catalysts was observed. To evaluate the feasibility of recycling the UD catalysts, a micro-slurry recycled unit was developed as part of this research. These main results showed: (a) a successful design of this unit, (b) that temperature, LHSV and fractional recycling ratio have more impact on VGO conversion, while pressure has almost no effect, and (c) an UD catalysts agglomeration process was detected, however this process is slow and reversible.

  5. Should Alberta upgrade oil sands bitumen? An integrated life cycle framework to evaluate energy systems investment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inclusion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions costs in energy systems investment decision-making requires the development of a framework that accounts for GHG and economic tradeoffs. This paper develops such a framework by integrating partial cost–benefit analysis with life cycle assessment to explore the question of whether bitumen should be upgraded in the Canadian province of Alberta to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO), or blended with light hydrocarbons to produce lower-quality diluted bitumen (dilbit). The net present value (NPV) of these options is calculated from the stakeholder perspectives of the oil sands industry, the Alberta public, and a climate-concerned Alberta resident. This calculation includes monetized GHG emissions costs stemming from a hypothetical economy-wide GHG price, and a sensitivity analysis explores the effects of variations in technical and economic conditions on stakeholders’ preferences. We find that under most plausible sets of conditions, industry would prefer the dilution option, while the climate-concerned Alberta resident would prefer the upgrading option. In contrast, the preferences of the general Alberta public depend on the values of key variables (e.g., the SCO-dilbit price differential). Key drivers of differences among stakeholders’ preferences include different perceptions of risks and responsibilities for life cycle GHG emissions. - Highlights: • We develop a novel integrated partial cost-benefit analysis/LCA framework. • We consider stakeholder perspectives, and technical and GHG price variations. • Upgrading is typically less GHG-intensive than dilution per barrel of bitumen. • Dilution is typically less GHG-intensive than upgrading per mega joule of gasoline. • Even stringent GHG prices may not align preferences on energy systems investment decisions

  6. Improved set-up for determination of bitumen content in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set-up was developed for the determination of bitumen in asphalt concrete by the neutron reflection method. The main parts of this set-up include an Am-Be neutron source (1 Ci) and a 3He neutron detector. To avoid geometrical effects on the measurements, the optimum sample volume was determined from the neutron response vs volume sample plot. The AST method (ASTM) was used for calibration when preparing the aggregate and asphalt concrete samples. The method was compared to the conventional chemical method by analysing unknown samples taken from the asphalt concrete producing plant. The method was characterized by its reproducibility, sensitivity and precision

  7. Irritative effects of fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways: results of a cross-shift study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Pesch, Beate; Kappler, Martin; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Rihs, Hans Peter; Merget, Rolf; Bruening, Thomas [Institut der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Berufsgenossenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin (BGFA), Bochum (Germany); Schott, Klaus [Berufsgenossenschaft der Bauwirtschaft (BG BAU), Munich (Germany); Preuss, Ralf; Angerer, Juergen [Universitaet Erlangen, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (IPASUM), Erlangen (Germany); Hahn, Jens Uwe [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut fuer Arbeitsschutz (BGIA), Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Possible health hazards of fumes and aerosols of bitumen are in discussion, and data on their adverse effects on human airways under current exposure conditions are limited. To assess the irritative effects of exposure to fumes and aerosols of bitumen on the airways, a cross-sectional cross-shift study was conducted including external and internal exposure measurements, spirometry and especially non-invasive methods like nasal lavage collection and induction of sputum in order to identify and evaluate more precisely inflammatory process in the upper and lower airways. The cross-shift study comprised 74 mastic asphalt workers who were exposed to fumes and aerosols of bitumen and 49 construction workers without this exposure as reference group. Questionnaire, spirometry, ambient monitoring and urinary analysis were performed. Humoral and cellular parameters were measured in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and induced sputum. For data analysis, a mixed linear model was performed on the different outcomes with exposure group, time of measurement (pre-, post-shift), current smoking, German nationality and age as fixed factors and subjects as random factor. Based on personal exposure measurements during shift, mastic asphalt workers were classified into a low ({<=}10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 46) and a high (>10 mg/m{sup 3}; n = 28) exposure group. High exposure was accompanied by significant higher urinary post-shift concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and the sum of hydroxyphenanthrenes. Acute respiratory symptoms were reported more frequently in the high exposure group after shift. Significant cross-shift declines in lung function parameters (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV{sub 1} (% predicted)] and forced vital capacity [FVC (% predicted)]) were measured in mastic asphalt workers. Pre-shift FEV{sub 1} (% predicted) and FVC (% predicted) were higher in the low exposure group. In pre- and post-shift NALF samples, interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-, IL-8- and total protein concentrations

  8. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  9. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro's estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  10. Efficiency enhancement in IGCC power plants with air-blown gasification and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-blown IGCC systems with hot fuel gas clean-up are investigated. In detail, the gas clean-up station consists of two reactors: in the first, the raw syngas exiting the gasifier and passed through high-temperature syngas coolers is desulfurized by means of a zinc oxide-based sorbent, whereas in the second the sulfided sorbent is duly regenerated. The hot fuel gas clean-up station releases H2S-free syngas, which is ready to fuel the combustion turbine after hot gas filtration, and a SO2-laden stream, which is successively treated in a wet scrubber. A thermodynamic analysis of two air-blown IGCC systems, the first with cold fuel gas clean-up and the second with hot fuel gas clean-up, both with a state-of-the-art combustion turbine as topping cycle, shows that it is possible to obtain a really attractive net efficiency (more than 51%) for the second system, with significant improvements in comparison with the first system. Nevertheless, higher efficiency is accomplished with a small reduction in the power output and no sensible efficiency improvements seem to be appreciated when the desulfurization temperature increases. Other IGCC systems, with an advanced 1500 °C-class combustion turbine as the result of technology improvements, are investigated as well, with efficiency as high as 53%. - Highlights: ► Hot fuel gas clean-up is a highly favorable technology for IGCC concepts. ► Significant IGCC efficiency improvements are possible with hot fuel gas clean-up. ► Size reductions of several IGCC components are possible. ► Higher desulfurization temperatures do not sensibly affect IGCC efficiency. ► IGCC efficiency as high as 53% is possible with a 1500°C-class combustion turbine

  11. Evaluation of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; de Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Project RBMN was launched in November 2008 and aims to establish, manage and execute all tasks for implementing the Brazilian Repository, from its conception to its construction. The concept to be adopted will be a near-surface repository. The inventory includes wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, fuel cycle facilities and from the use of radionuclides in medicine, industry and activities research and development. The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. In Brazil, for the immobilization and solidification of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level of radiation from NPPs are used cement, in Angra 1, and bitumen, in Angra 2. Studies indicate serious concerns about the risks associated with bituminization radioactive waste, much related to the process as the product. There are two major problems due to the presence of products bituminization in repositories, swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling, filling the drums must be limited to 70 - 90% of its volume, which reduces the structural stability of the repository and the optimization of deposition. This study aims to evaluate of the properties of bitumen and cement pastes and mortars used in the immobilization of waste radioactive. (author)

  12. Modification of an Amposta origin bitumen by using tlie Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluyiene-2,4-diisocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco, M.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available In this works, we have modified a bitumen from Amposta by using the Friedel and Crafts reaction with toluylene-2,4-diisocyanate in presence of aluminium trichloride, presenting as well as the characteristics of the original bitumen as the ones of the modification products. We have made technological test, aging of thin film, rheological test, thermical susceptibility and components analyses.

    En el presente trabajo se ha modificado un betún procedente de Amposta por reacción de Friedei y Crafts con 4-metil-1,3-bencenodiisocianato, en presencia de tricloruro de aluminio. Se han determinado las características del betún original así como las de los productos obtenidos en la modificación. Se han llevado a cabo ensayos de tipo tecnológico, envejecimiento en película delgada, propiedades reológicas, susceptibilidad térmica y análisis de componentes.

  13. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argilla- ceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000--4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  14. Geochemical features and genesis of the natural gas and bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs of Nanpanjiang Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MengJun; ZHANG ShuiChang; ZHAO Lin; DA Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Bitumen from the Nanpanjiang Basin occurs mainly in the Middle Devonian and Upper Permian reef limestone paleo-oil reservoirs and reserves primarily in holes and fractures and secondarily in minor matrix pores and bio-cavities. N2 is the main component of the natural gas and is often associated with pyrobitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs. The present study shows that the bitumen in paleo-oil reservoirs was sourced from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock and belongs to pyrobitumen by crude oil cracking under high temperature and pressure. But the natural gas with high content of N2 is neither an oil-cracked gas nor a coal-formed gas generated from the Upper Permian Longtan Formation source rock, instead it is a kerogen-cracked gas generated at the late stage from the Middle Devonian argillaceous source rock. The crude oil in paleo-oil reservoirs completely cracked into pyrobitumen and methane gas by the agency of hugely thick Triassic deposits. After that, the abnormal high pressure of methane gas reservoirs was completely destroyed due to the erosion of 2000-4500-m-thick Triassic strata. But the kerogen-cracked gas with normal pressure was preserved under the relatively sealed condition and became the main body of the gas shows.

  15. Chemical modification of a bitumen and its non-fuel uses. [Reactions of tar sand asphaltenes in synthesis of non-fuel products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschopedis, S.E.; Speight, J.G.

    1974-01-01

    Simple reactions are described whereby tar sand bitumen can be converted to a whole range of materials. Examples are given to illustrate the non-fuel uses of the products. The following reactions of Athabasca asphaltenes are considered: oxidation, halogenation, sulfonation and sulfomethylation, phosphorylation, hydrogenation, reactions with S and O, reactions with metal salts, and miscellaneous chemical conversions. (JGB)

  16. Microbial processes in the final repository, the silo part. Theoretical approach and preliminary experiments on the biodegradation of bitumen. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Commission of SKBF/KBS the microbial processes that are likely to occur in the silo part of SFR, the final repository for medium- and low-level nuclear wastes, have been put together. The experimental studies concerning microbial degradation of bitumen are described. From a microbial point of view it is the biodegradation of bitumen that constitutes the greatest risk in the silo part of SFR. The degradation, aerobic as well as anaerobic, leads to production of carbon dioxide which might cause a decrease in pH to such an extent that hydrogen-gas producing corrosion of metal could occur. This production of gas can cause an increase in internal pressure of the repository. A culture of bacteria able to degrade bitumen aerobically has been enriched. Uptil now no culture degrading bitumen under anaerobic conditions have been obtained. When making a risk assessment of the SFR at the present time it is not possible to completely disregard the microbial activity. An account is also given for some international contacts in this area. 11 references

  17. Localized enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil, spruce needles, and lake sediments linked to in-situ bitumen extraction near Cold Lake, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of bitumen from the Alberta oil sands using in-situ technologies is expanding at a rapid rate; however, investigations into the environmental impacts of oil sands development have focused on surface mining in the Athabasca region. We measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soils, spruce needles, and lake sediment cores in the Cold Lake oil sands region to provide a historical and spatial perspective on PAH contamination related to in-situ extraction activities. A pronounced increase in PAH concentrations was recorded in one of two study lakes (Hilda Lake) corresponding to the onset of commercial bitumen production in ∼1985. Distance from extraction rigs was not an important predictor of PAH concentrations in soils, although two samples located near installations were elevated in alkyl PAHs. Evidence of localized PAH contamination in Hilda Lake and two soil samples suggests that continued environmental monitoring is justified to assess PAH contamination as development intensifies. -- Highlights: •In-situ bitumen extraction linked to rise in alkyl PAHs in one of two study lakes. •Alkyl PAHs elevated in two soil samples. •PAH contamination likely related to effluent sources, not atmospheric deposition. -- PAHs in sediments and soils were generally low in areas adjacent to in-situ bitumen extraction rigs in the Cold Lake Alberta oil sands, but evidence of localized contamination at some sites was evident

  18. Freeze-Thaw Performance and Moisture-Induced Damage Resistance of Base Course Stabilized with Slow Setting Bitumen Emulsion-Portland Cement Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw (FT cycles and moisture susceptibility are important factors influencing the geotechnical characteristics of soil-aggregates. Given the lack of published information on the behavior of cement-bitumen emulsion-treated base (CBETB under environmental conditions, especially freezing and thawing, this study investigated the effects of these additives on the CBETB performance. The primary goal was to evaluate the resistance of CBETB to moisture damage by performing FT, Marshall conditioning, and AASHTO T-283 tests and to evaluate the long-term stripping susceptibility of CBETB while also predicting the liquid antistripping additives to assess the mixture’s durability and workability. Specimens were stabilized with Portland cement (0%–6%, bitumen emulsion (0%–5%, and Portland cement-bitumen emulsion mixtures and cured for 7 days, and their short- and long-term performances were studied. Evaluation results of both the Marshall stability ratio and the tensile strength ratio show that the additions of additives increase the resistance of the mixtures to moisture damage. Results of durability tests performed for determining the resistance of compacted specimens to repeated FT cycles indicate that the specimen with the 4% cement-3% bitumen emulsion mixture significantly improves water absorption, volume changes, and weight losses. This indicates the effectiveness of this additive as a road base stabilizer with excellent engineering properties for cold regions.

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation of Submerged Combustion Behavior in a Tuyere Blown Slag-fuming Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Nazmul; Naser, Jamal; Brooks, G. A.; Reuter, M. A.; Matusewicz, R. W.

    2012-10-01

    A thin-slice computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a conventional tuyere blown slag-fuming furnace has been developed in Eulerian multiphase flow approach by employing a three-dimensional (3-D) hybrid unstructured orthographic grid system. The model considers a thin slice of the conventional tuyere blown slag-fuming furnace to investigate details of fluid flow, submerged coal combustion dynamics, coal use behavior, jet penetration behavior, bath interaction conditions, and generation of turbulence in the bath. The model was developed by coupling the CFD with the kinetics equations developed by Richards et al. for a zinc-fuming furnace. The model integrates submerged coal combustion at the tuyere tip and chemical reactions with the heat, mass, and momentum interfacial interaction between the phases present in the system. A commercial CFD package AVL Fire 2009.2 (AVL, Graz, Austria) coupled with several user-defined subroutines in FORTRAN programming language were used to develop the model. The model predicted the velocity, temperature field of the molten slag bath, generated turbulence and vortex, and coal use behavior from the slag bath. The tuyere jet penetration length ( l P) was compared with the equation provided by Hoefele and Brimacombe from isothermal experimental work ( {{l_{{P}} }/{d_{o }} = 10.7( {N^' }_{Fr} } )^{0.46} ( {ρ_{{g}} /ρl } )^{0.35} } ) and found 2.26 times higher, which can be attributed to coal combustion and gas expansion at a high temperature. The jet expansion angle measured for the slag system studied is 85 deg for the specific inlet conditions during the simulation time studied. The highest coal penetration distance was found to be l/L = 0.2, where l is the distance from the tuyere tip along the center line and L is the total length (2.44 m) of the modeled furnace. The model also predicted that 10 pct of the injected coal bypasses the tuyere gas stream uncombusted and carried to the free surface by the tuyere gas stream, which

  20. Three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Clara E.

    Two distinct topics in multi-phase flow of interest of the oil industry are considered in this thesis. Studies of three-phase gas-liquid-solid foaming bubble reactors and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth are reported. Applications of foams and foaming are found in many industrial processes such as flotation of minerals, enhanced oil recovery, drilling in oil reservoirs, and refining processes. However the physics of foaming and defoaming are not fully understood. Foams trap gas and are not desirable in some processes such as oil refining. Previously, it has been found that foaming may be strongly suppressed in a cold slit bubble reactor by fluidizing hydrophilic particles in the bubbly mixture below the foam. In this work, we fluidized hydrophobic and hydrophilic versions of two different sands in a cold slit foaming bubble reactor. We found that the hydrophobic sands suppress the foam substantially better than their hydrophilic counterparts. To study the capacity of foams to carry particles, we built a new slit foaming bubble reactor, which can be continuously fed with solid particles. Global gas, liquid, and solid holdups were measured for given gas and liquid velocities and solid flow rates. This research provides the fundamental ground work for the identification of flow types in a slit three-phase foaming bubble reactor with continuous injection of particles. Bitumen froth is produced from the oil sands of Athabasca, Canada. When transported in a pipeline, water present in the froth is released in regions of high shear (at the pipe wall). This results in a lubricating layer of water that allows bitumen froth pumping at greatly reduced pressures and hence the potential for savings in pumping energy consumption. Experimental results establishing the features of this self lubrication phenomenon are presented. The pressure gradient of lubricated flows closely follow the empirical law of Blasius for turbulent pipe flow with a constant of proportionality

  1. SBS改性沥青路用性能试验研究%Experimental Research on Pavement Performance of SBS Polymer Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁永灿; 覃德伟

    2012-01-01

    在沥青混凝土路面建设过程中,由于基质沥青性能受原油属性制约,其技术性能不能满足交通增长的需要.寻找优异的改性材料和改性方法,是提高沥青路面综合性能的有效途径.本文通过对各种聚合物改性沥青性能的比较,从中选择出改性效果较优的SBS,并分析其用量对沥青的温度敏感性、高温特性、低温抗裂性、弹性及耐久性的影响,提出SBS的最佳用量建议值.%In the construction of bitumen concrete pavement, the bitumen performance is restricted by the attribute of crude petroleum and is unable to technically fulfill the needs of transportation development. To develop the adaptive and excellent modified materials and modified methods is the effective approach to improve the bitumen pavement. In the paper the SBS with better modification has been selected by comparing the performances of diverse polymer modified bitumen. The influence of SBS usage volume upon the temperature sensitivity, high-temperature characteristics, iow-temperatu.ee crack resistance, elasticity and durability of bitumen is also analyzed and the optimum SBS usage volume recommended.

  2. Alberta's reserves 2002 and supply/demand outlook 2003-2012 : crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas and liquids, coal, sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document, stake holders find reliable information concerning the state of reserves, supply, and demand for Alberta's energy resources such as bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, coal, and sulphur. Estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential were also included in the report, along with a 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources. The development of Alberta's energy resources depend on factors such as reserve supply, costs of development, energy demands, conservation, and social, economic and environmental considerations. The energy development landscape in 2002 was determined in large part by changes in energy prices, drilling activity, and planned investments in the range of billions of dollars in oil sands projects. For the first time in 2001, conventional crude oil production was surpassed by raw bitumen production, and this growth continued in 2002. During 2002, 48 per cent of the province's crude oil and equivalent production was in the form of non-upgraded bitumen and synthetic crude oil production. This growth can be explained by increased bitumen production from oil sands mining. Levels similar to those of 2001 were achieved for in situ bitumen production. Approval was recently granted for several steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) schemes, and many are currently under review by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Higher volumes of commercial production are expected from those schemes in future years. Decline in natural gas production in 2002 was due to less drilling activity, but this is expected to increase in 2003. For the remaining forecast period, production is expected to decline. Continued growth in coalbed methane (CBM) development activity is expected for 2002 and for the next few years. In response to this increased activity, the EUB will begin to calculate CBM reserves. 31 tabs., 66 figs., 3 appendices

  3. Wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale upper surface blown-flap model having four engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, K.; Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale subsonic jet transport model with an upper surface blown flap system. The model had a 25 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 7.28 and four turbofan engines. The lift of the flap system was augmented by turning the turbofan exhaust over the Coanda surface. Results were obtained for several flap deflections with several wing leading-edge configurations at jet momentum coefficients from 0 to 4.0. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with four engines operating. In addition, longitudinal and lateral data are presented with an engine out. The maximum lift and stall angle of the four engine model were lower than those obtained with a two engine model that was previously investigated. The addition of the outboard nacelles had an adverse effect on these values. Efforts to improve these values were successful. A maximum lift of 8.8 at an angle-of-attack of 27 deg was obtained with a jet thrust coefficient of 2 for the landing flap configuration.

  4. Adaptation of Nitraria sphaerocarpa to wind-blown sand environments at the edge of a desert oasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiu-yan; ZHAO Wen-zhi; FANG Hai-yan

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the adaptation of Nitraria sphaerocarpa to blown sand at the edge of a desert oasis with regard to the aspects of soil seed banks, seedlings, and population. Horizontally, the total number of seeds per unit area decreased from the shrub canopy center to intershrub areas, and most seeds were found under shrub canopies. Vertically, the highest proportion of seeds was found at depths of 5-10 cm. The emergence percentage, seedling mass, and seedling height, which were significantly affected by both burial depth and seed size, were highest at the optimal burial depth of 2 cm, and decreased with increasing burial depth in each seed size-class. Although seedling mass was usually greatest for large seeds and least for small seeds at each burial depth, little difference was observed in seedling height at shallow burial depths of 0-3 cm. The population shows a patchy and discontinuous distribution pattern. Population height increases with increasing sand depth. Also the density increases with increasing depth of sand in the desert; however, there is a steady decrease when the depth of sand is more than 100 cm. This result indicates that the depth of sand that is most suitable for the growth of Nitraria sphaerocarpa is 100 cm. The size of the population is significantly correlated with the sand depth, which increases with increasing depth in the desert.

  5. The development and use of a laboratory scale reactor to study aspects of gasification in an air blown fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, A.; Zhuo, Y.; Reed, G.P.; Paterson, N.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    A laboratory scale reactor has been used to study aspects of air blown, spouted bed gasifiers. The effects of operating conditions on the release of fuel-N has been studied using both coal and sewage sludge. The work has clarified the reactions involved and shown that steam has an important effect on the formation of NH{sub 3} from both volatile-N and char-N. The HCN concentration depends strongly on the residence time at temperature and on the presence (and depth) of a char bed. Trace element results indicate that bed temperatures above 900{sup o}C enhanced depletion of Ba, Pb and Zn from the bed residue and their enrichment in the fines. Mercury and selenium were released and their subsequent capture required low temperature filters operating below 120{sup o}C. The reactor was modified to enable char samples to be prepared and collected under controlled conditions. Results show the decreasing reactivity of the char with increasing temperature, time, pressure and particle size. There appears to be an initial decrease in reactivity during pyrolysis and a further longer- term decrease caused by graphitisation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Ultravilolet-radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylamide onto the melt-blown polypropylene filter element by dynamic method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By dynamic method under UV irradiation, commercial melt-blown polypropylene (PPMB) filter element was modified with acrylamide (AAm) using benzophenone (BP) as initiator. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope verified that polyacrylamide chain was grafted on the fiber surface of PPMB filter element. Elemental content analysis with energy dispersive X-ray of fibers revealed that the polymerization content in the inner part of filter element was relatively higher than that in the outer. Degree of grafting changed with initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature and reached 2.6% at the reaction condition: CBP=0.06 mol/L, CAAm=2.0 mol/L, irradiation time: 80 min, 60℃. Relative water flux altered with the hydrophilicity and pore size of filter element. In the antifouling test, the modified filter gave greater flux recovery (approximately 70%) after filtration of the water extract of Liuweidihuang, suggesting that the fouling layer was more easily reversible due to the hydrophilic nature of the modified filter.

  7. Self-Sealing Shells: Blowouts and Blisters on the Surfaces of Leaky Wind-Blown-Bubbles and Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Pittard, Julian

    2013-01-01

    Blowouts can occur when a dense shell confining hot, high pressure, gas ruptures. The venting gas inflates a blister on the surface of the shell. Here we examine the growth of such blisters on the surfaces of wind-blown-bubbles (WBBs) and supernova remnants (SNRs) due to shell rupture caused by the Vishniac instability. On WBBs the maximum relative size of the blister (R_bstall/R) is found to grow linearly with time, but in many cases the blister radius will not exceed 20 per cent of the bubble radius. Thus blowouts initiated by the Vishniac instability are unlikely to have a major effect on the global dynamics and properties of the bubble. The relative size of blisters on SNRs is even smaller than on WBBs, with blisters only growing to a radius comparable to the thickness of the cold shell of SNRs. The small size of the SNR blowouts is, however, in good agreement with observations of blisters in the Vela SNR. The difference in relative size between WBB and SNR blisters is due to the much higher speed at whic...

  8. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  9. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium

  10. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertron, A., E-mail: bertron@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Jacquemet, N. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Erable, B. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France); Sablayrolles, C. [Université de Toulouse (France); INP (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, BP 44 362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); INRA (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), F-31029 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Albrecht, A. [Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  11. Carboxymethylated lignins with low surface tension toward low viscosity and highly stable emulsions of crude bitumen and refined oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang; Willoughby, Julie; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-11-15

    Kraft and organosolv lignins were subjected to carboxymethylation to produce fractions that were soluble in water, displayed a minimum surface tension as low as 34mN/m (25°C) and a critical aggregation concentration of ∼1.5wt%. The carboxymethylated lignins (CML), which were characterized in terms of their degree of substitution ((31)P NMR), elemental composition, and molecular weight (GPC), were found suitable in the formulation of emulsions with bitumens of ultra-high viscosity, such as those from the Canadian oil sands. Remarkably, the interfacial features of the CML enabled fuel emulsions that were synthesized in a very broad range of internal phase content (30-70%). Cryo-replica transmission electron microscopy, which was used here the first time to assess the morphology of the lignin-based emulsions, revealed the droplets of the emulsion stabilized with the modified lignin. The observed drop size (diametersdistribution. Such characteristics led to stable emulsified systems that are amenable for a wide range of applications. Emulsification with CML afforded bitumen emulsions with very high colloidal stability (no change was noted for over one month) and with a strong shear thinning behavior. Both features indicate excellent prospects for storage, transport and spraying, which are relevant in operations for power generation, which also take advantage of the high heating value of the emulsion components. The ability of CML to stabilize emulsions and to contribute in their combustion was tested with light fuels (kerosene, diesel, and jet fuel) after formulation of high internal phase systems (70% oil) that enabled operation of a fuel engine. A significant finding is that under certain conditions and compared to the respective pure fuel, combustion of the O/W emulsions stabilized by CML presented lower NOx and CO emissions and maintained a relatively high combustion efficiency. The results highlight the possibilities in high volume application for lignin

  12. Synthesis of quaternary derivatives of ortho-coco di-amido toluene and investigation of these compounds as cationic bitumen emulsifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh; Tayebi, Leila; Dezfouli, Hedieh; Kambarani, Masoud; Avval, Parviz Ahmadi [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). ACECR, Designing Chemical Process Research Group

    2012-05-15

    Bitumen emulsions are preferred over conventional pavement systems due to their biologically and environmentally acceptable formulation, safety, low viscosity, storage stability, and cost effectiveness. The present investigation deals with the systematic study to synthesize ortho-cocodi-amido toluene and four quaternary derivatives by amidation of coconut oil and ortho toluene diamine (OTD), followed by quaternization with formaldehyde, formic acid mixture, and acrylonitrile, resulted in a new quaternary compound useful as cationic emulsifier in bitumen emulsions. The roles of temperature and reaction time in determining optimum conditions were investigated as well. Emulsifying behavior of these quaternary compounds was studied by sieve residue test, settlement and storage stability test of emulsified asphalt, and water solubility. The results show that the acrylonitrile imidazolinium derivative of o-cocodi-amido toluene (VI) can be used as a rapid-medium setting emulsifier. (orig.)

  13. Leaching and comprehensive regulatory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance test results obtained from laboratory testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste are presented. A relatively viscous form of oxidized bitumen (ASTM D 312, Type III) has been tested and has been shown to meet all of the current regulatory performance criteria. Molded specimens were obtained using a 53-mm extruder. A surrogate, low-level, mixed, liquid waste was used. The surrogate waste contained ∼30 weight percent sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium, and strontium. Waste form specimens contained three levels of waste loading: 40, 50, and 60 weight percent salt. Results include thermal testing, extraction procedure toxicity tests, and 90-day American Nuclear Society 16.1 leach tests, as well as compressive strength tests

  14. Micrometer scale carbon isotopic study of bitumen associated with Athabasca uranium deposits: Constraints on the genetic relationship with petroleum source-rocks and the abiogenic origin hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangély, L.; Chaussidon, M.; Michels, R.; Brouand, M.; Cuney, M.; Huault, V.; Landais, P.

    2007-06-01

    In situ analytical techniques - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (μFTIR) and ion microprobe - have been used to unravel the origin of solid bitumen associated with the uranium deposits of Athabasca (Saskatchewan, Canada). Both aliphaticity and carbon isotopic compositions within the samples are heterogeneous but spatially organized in concentric zonations at the micrometer scale. Finally, the δ13C values are positively correlated to the aliphatic contents over an extremely large isotopic range from ˜ - 49‰ to ˜ - 31‰. We infer that this positive correlation may be related to the carbon isotopic fractionations associated with the synthesis of bitumen through the catalytic hydrogenation of CO 2, rather than the result of pre-existing petroleum product precipitation and/or alteration (such as radiolysis). This explanation is consistent with (i) published results of abiogenic synthesis experiments, in which the differences in δ13C values between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons range from + 2 and + 19‰, in contrast to the differences systematically observed in conventional bitumen and petroleum ranging from 0‰ to - 4‰; (ii) the absence of a similar positive correlation between aliphatic contents and δ13C values in the other bitumen analyzed in the present study, for which a biogenic origin has been unequivocally established (samples from Oklo, Gabon, and Lodève, France, uranium deposits); (iii) the presence of CO 2 and H 2 in the gas-phase of fluid inclusions in the Athabasca uranium deposits, H 2 resulting from water radiolysis. The present results suggest that the δ13C vs. aliphaticity correlation could be used as a criterion to discriminate between abiogenic vs. biogenic origin of macromolecular organic matter.

  15. An appraisal of the full geomagnetic vector in wind-blown sediments - does it have a future? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchinsky, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent progress in the relative paleointensity (RPI) studies of the loess and paleosol deposits of China demonstrate the applicability of the technique in some sections. The PRI record of the Lingtai section (Pan et al., 2001) is mostly comparable to the reference curves of Valet et al. (2005) and Channel et al. (2009). Climate driven chemical alterations of remnant magnetization signal is additionally suggested as an explanation to the intervals of dissimilarities. The newest results of Yang et al. (2012) reveal more complex situations. At the Baoji section, where pedogenesis is relatively weak, the RPI results might possibly suggest a reflection of global paleointensity variations. The record from the Xifeng section, where pedogenesis is stronger, does not reveal any interpretable results. Studies of the Luochuan section suggest that chemical remnant magnetization is strongly linked to the pedogenesis process implying serious constrains on the interpretation of the high resolution paleomagnetic records from the paleosol and the underlying loess intervals (Liu and Zhang, 2013). At the same time, recent paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic investigations indicate that the Alaskan loess is an excellent geomagnetic direction recorder in the upper Matuyama and Brunhes epoch (Evans et al., 2011). The fine structure of the geomagnetic field can be accurately evaluated for the intervals, which are reliably dated with modern techniques (Jensen, 2013). The strong magnetic signal carried by magnetite from the igneous rock sources overwrites complexities caused by the pedogenesis process, therefore our newly obtained Alaskan geomagnetic record is the first candidate for both reliable paleointensity data set from the wind-blown sediments and the fine structure of the full geoomagnetic vector (inclination, declination, RPI). High resolution geochronology and high latitude position of the Alaskan loess help resolving the fine features of the geomagnetic excursions which are

  16. 植物阻沙能力研究进展%Research Review of Capacity of Plant for Trapping Blown Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 刘连友; 屈志强; 胡霞; 郭兰兰; 吕艳丽; 曹恒武; 贾振杰; 杨岩岩

    2011-01-01

    Above-ground parts of the plant are key components that alter the wind flow and affect the movement of blown sand. The volume of dune body and sediment transport rate may be used to measure the capacity of plant for trapping blown sand, which is influenced by some factors such as plant morphology and structure, roughness concentration, community collocation and so on. Under the same circumstance, different plants may have different capacities for trapping blown sand due to differential crown morphology, flexibility of branch and leaf area. In different phonological phases of the same plant, the factors like crown morphology, flexibility of branch, leaf area and the resulting distribution pattern of aboveground biomass change significantly. There are several future research directions of capacity of plant for trapping blown sand.(1) How to determine and divide the flexibility levels of plant branch, and to develop evaluation indexes and system of capacity of plant for trapping blown sand; (2) how to make certain the critical roughness concentration of plant community for trapping blown sand; (3) how to enhance the diversity of configuration models when community roughness concentration reaches critical roughness concentration, and find the effectiveness and coordination among roughness concentration, community collocation (when distance between rows and hills changes) and utility maximization to contribute to the current practice of ecological construction.%植物单株与群落的阻沙能力可以用植物周围沉积的积沙体体积与输沙率来衡量,其受植物地上形态结构、粗糙元密集度以及群落配置等多种因素影响.相同区域环境下不同种类的植物以及同种植物在与风沙活动季节相对应的不同物候期内,阻沙能力受冠层形态、茎枝的柔韧性、叶面积以及由此导致的地上生物量分配模式等因素影响较大.因此,植物的阻沙能力应综合各参数进行评价.从植物个体的

  17. Geochemical characteristics of light hydrocarbons in cracking gases from chloroform bitumen A,crude oil and its fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The composition characteristics of light hydrocarbons from crude oil,chloroform bitumen A,saturated hydrocarbon fraction,aromatic hydrocarbon fraction,and asphaltene fraction during cracking have been studied systematically. The results revealed that the content of n-alkanes,branched alkanes and cycloalkanes in light hydrocarbons from the samples gradually decreased as the simulation temperature increased,and finally almost depleted completely,while the abundance of methane,benzene and its homologues increased obviously and became the main products. The ratios of benzene/n-hexane and toluene/n-heptane can be used as measures for oil cracking levels. Variation characteristics of maturity parameters of light hydrocarbons,for example,iC4/nC4,iC5/nC5,isoheptane value,2,2-DMC4/nC6,and 2-MC6+3-MC6/nC7 for different samples with increasing pyrolysis temperature,are consistent with those in petroleum reservoirs,indicating that these parameters may be efficient maturity index.

  18. Performance of NiWP/Al2O3 catalyst for hydroprocessing of light gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Boakye, A.; Ferdous, D.; Dalai, A.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    The quality of diesel fuel in terms of cetane number and coloring is diminished if it has a high content of aromatics which cause the formation of undesirable emissions in exhaust gases. These compounds typically occur as mono, di, tri and polyaromatics. In response to strict environmental regulations, middle distillates now have fewer aromatics. Sulphur and nitrogen compounds in diesel fuels also cause the formation of SOx and NOx in the atmosphere, but the aromatic hydrogenation of diesel fuels is more complex than any of the hydrodesulphurization (HDS) or hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) processes. The NiWP/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in a trickle-bed reactor was used under a range of temperature and pressure conditions to study the reactivity of vacuum, atmospheric and hydrocracked light gas oils produced from Athabasca bitumen. The hydrogen feed ratio was kept constant and product samples from different feedstocks were analyzed with respect to sulfur, nitrogen and aromatic content. The study also included a comparison of gasoline selectivity and kinetic parameters for HDS and HDN reactions for the feed materials.

  19. Native bitumens in surficial soils of the Athabasca oil sands region : preliminary characterization and assessment of contaminant mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, M.; Fleming, I. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Geological Engineering; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). National Hydrology Research Centre

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted on bitumen tarballs located in surficial soils in Alberta's Athabasca region. The tarballs occur in every soil type in the region, and pose a challenge to oil sands operators who hope to use the soils for reclamation activities. Chromatographic analyses have shown that the tarballs contain variable petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations and possess a characteristic chromatographic footprint. The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment has characterized the hydrocarbons according to various fractions. A soil-column leaching study is also being conducted by the University of Saskatchewan on heavily-impacted tarball soil under unsaturated conditions. Results of the study have indicated that the soil has low levels of contaminant mobility and degradation. Hydrocarbon concentrations in leachate water are less than 20 per cent of ground water guidelines for Alberta. It was concluded that after respiration over 9 months, the most active soil column in the study degraded only 2.7 g of an estimated 650 g.

  20. Nailing tailings : researchers close in on innovative ways to speed up reclamation of bitumen mine tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2009-09-15

    This article reviewed the collaborative research that is ongoing at the Canadian Oil Sands Network for Research and Development (CONRAD). Directive 74 issued by the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board stipulates that oilsand operators must accelerate their pace at developing tailings technologies. It requires the reduction of fluid tailings and their capture in ERCB-approved dedicated disposal areas. CONRAD's tailings consortium has representation from the 4 existing oilsands operators, namely Suncor Energy Inc., Syncrude Canada Ltd., Shell Canada Limited and Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL), as well as 3 companies with proposed projects. Technologies being considered include water capping, centrifugation, composite tails, mature fine tailings (MFT) drying, accelerated dewatering and the use of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). CO{sub 2} works chemically works on the fluid fine tails to create consolidated tailings, using MFT in the mix. Operators have the added advantage of receiving some credit for the CO{sub 2} that is sequestered in the tailings. These new processes are designed to reduce the footprint of the tailings pond, and by increasing the amount of water available for recycling, decrease the amount of river water needed to process bitumen. 3 figs.

  1. 铁路风沙防治工程投资初步分析%Preliminary Analysis on Project Investment for Wind-Blown Sand Control in Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王多青

    2012-01-01

    结合我国风沙地区铁路防沙工程实践,列举包兰铁路、青藏铁路、南疆铁路风沙防治工程实例,对不同风沙条件下的工程防沙体系、植物固沙体系的工程投资情况进行分析,供方案比选、防沙措施选择、防沙材料确定时参考.结论为:(1)工程防沙体系的工程投资与风沙活动程度、防沙材料息息相关,一般、中等、严重、极严重风沙地段,防沙工程投资分别为49~195万元/km、99~ 350万元/km、145~500万元/km、260 ~1036万元/km,大致比例关系为1∶2∶3∶4,其中方格沙障投资占比为70%~90%;(2)建设宽度约100m的防沙林带,每千米投资为200~260万元,其中设备或基础设施投资占比超过70%;形成植物固沙体系,每千米实际投资为345 ~675万元.%In combination with the experiences on sand-break project of railway in wind-blown sand region in China, this paper cites the projects of wind-blown sand control in Baotou-Lanzhou Railway, Qinghai-Tibet Railway and South Xinjiang Railway as the examples, and analyzes the project investments of the sand-break system with engineering measures and the sand fixation system with vegetation under different wind-blown sand conditions so as to offer the references for scheme comparison, measure selection, material selection of sand control project in future. The conclusions in this analysis are: (1) For sand-break system with engineering measures, the investment is closely related with the activities of wind-blown sand and the materials adopted; at the districts respectively with the general, medium, serious and the very serious wind-blown sand, the project investment per kilometer is respectively 49 ~ 195 ten thousand Yuan, 99 ~350 ten thousand Yuan, 145 -500 ten thousand Yuan and 260 ~ 1036 ten thousand Yuan, and the approximate ratio is 1 : 2 : 3 :4, in which the checkerboard sand barrier accounts for 70% ~90% of the investment. (2) For sand-break forest belt with a

  2. Ecotoxicological impacts of effluents generated by oil sands bitumen extraction and oil sands lixiviation on Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of Athabasca oil sands deposits in northern Alberta has known an intense development in recent years. This development has raised concern about the ecotoxicological risk of such industrial activities adjacent to the Athabasca River. Indeed, bitumen extraction generated large amounts of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which are discharged in tailing ponds in the Athabasca River watershed. This study sought to evaluate and compare the toxicity of OSPW and oil sands lixiviate water (OSLW) with a baseline (oil sands exposed to water; OSW) on a microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, at different concentrations (1.9, 5.5, 12.25, 25 and 37.5%, v/v). Chemical analyses of water-soluble contaminants showed that OSPW and OSLW were enriched in different elements such as vanadium (enrichment factor, EF = 66 and 12, respectively), aluminum (EF = 64 and 15, respectively), iron (EF = 52.5 and 17.1, respectively) and chromium (39 and 10, respectively). The toxicity of OSPW on cells with optimal intracellular esterase activity and chlorophyll autofluorescence (viable cells) (72 h-IC 50% 37.5%, v/v). OSLW was 4.4 times less toxic (IC 50% = 8.5%, v/v) than OSPW and 4.5 times more toxic than OSW. The inhibition of viable cell growth was significantly and highly correlated (<−0.7) with the increase of arsenic, beryllium, chromium, copper, lead, molybdenum and vanadium concentrations. The specific photosynthetic responses studied with JIP-test (rapid and polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence emission) showed a stimulation of the different functional parameters (efficiency of PSII to absorb energy from photons, size of effective PSII antenna and vitality of photosynthetic apparatus for energy conversion) in cultures exposed to OSPW and OSLW. To our knowledge, our study highlights the first evidence of physiological effects of OSPW and OSLW on microalgae.

  3. Make Quality Bitumen from Waxy Crudes Production de bitume de qualité à partir de bruts à base paraffinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl J. S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of quality bitumen from less suitable/non bitumen bearing crudes continues to be a challenging task for the refineries. Blending of short residues prior to processing is helpful to a limited extent. Generation of asphaltics low in wax through appropriate processing and their conversion to quality bitumen in admixture with suitable fluxes appears more practical approach. It is described with the help of experimental results. La production de bitume de qualité à partir de bruts contenant peu ou pas du tout de bitume naturel demeure une tâche difficile pour les raffineurs. Le problème est dû au déséquilibre de certains constituants des hydrocarbures, à savoir : les asphaltènes et les malthènes, composés de résines, de fractions aromatiques, de fractions naphténiques et de paraffine. Le traitement de ces matières premières ne permet pas d'obtenir des bitumes possédant des propriétés rhéologiques et physiques acceptables à haute et basse température. En fait, ces produits de base ont tantôt une teneur insuffisante en asphaltènes, tantôt une teneur excessive en paraffine, et parfois même les deux défauts. De plus, les matières premières à base paraffinique ont une forte densité API et une faible teneur en soufre. Le traitement des résidus de ces bruts doit donc être effectué par un procédé capable d'améliorer leurs propriétés et d'obtenir un bitume possédant les mêmes qualités que ceux que l'on tire des bruts bitumineux, comme ceux du Moyen Orient. La méthode préconisée par Ditman est peut-être la première tentative pour extraire des bitumes à partir des bruts à base paraffinique provenant d'Afrique du Nord. Les données ci-dessus et les expériences effectuées par les auteurs permettent de proposer les deux voies suivantes pour la production de bitumes de qualité à partir de résidus de bruts impropres : a Désalphatage des résidus courts. b Distillation des résidus courts sous pression

  4. Application of oxy-fuel CO2 capture for In-situ bitumen extraction from Canada's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Mark; Goold, Scott; Laux, Stefan; Sharma, Apoorva; Aasen, Knut; Neu, Ben

    2010-09-15

    The CO2 Capture Project, along with Praxair, Devon Canada, Cenovus Energy and Statoil are executing a project to demonstrate oxy-fuel combustion as a practical and economic method for CO2 capture from once-through steam generators used in the in-situ production of bitumen in the Canadian Oil Sands. The goal of the project is to develop a reliable, lower cost solution for capturing CO2 that will eliminate up to 90% of the GHG emissions from in-situ operations. The participants will present results of Phase I of this project, and will also outline the future Phases to pilot this technology.

  5. Does a more refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume and confounders alter risk estimates from a nested case-control study of lung cancer among European asphalt workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agostini, Michela; Ferro, Gilles; Burstyn, Igor;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study.......To investigate whether a refined assessment of exposure to bitumen fume among workers in the European asphalt industry within a nested case-control study resulted in a different interpretation pertaining to risk of lung cancer mortality compared with the cohort study....

  6. Real-Time Simulation of Aeolian Sand Movement and Sand Ripple Evolution: A Method Based on the Physics of Blown Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Bao-Gang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Simulation and visualization of aeolian sand movement and sand ripple evolution are a challenging subject.In this paper,we propose a physically based modeling and simulating method that can be used to synthesize sandy terrain in various patterns.Our method is based on the mechanical behavior of individual sand grains,which are widely studied in the physics of blown sand.We accounted significant mechanisms of sand transportation into the sand model,such as saltation,successive saltation and collapsing,while simplified the vegetation model and wind field model to make the simulation feasible and affordable.We implemented the proposed method on the programming graphics processing unit (GPU) to get real-time simulation and rendering.Finally,we proved that our method can reflect many characteristics of sand ripple evolution through several demonstrations.We also gave several synthesized desert scenes made from the simulated height field to display its significance on application.

  7. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 5, Appendix D: Cost support information: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, R.S.; Brown, M.J.; Harriz, J.T.; Ostrowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost estimate provided for the DOE sponsored study of Air Blown Coal Gasification was developed from vendor quotes obtained directly for the equipment needed in the 50 MW, 100 MW, and 200 MW sized plants and from quotes from other jobs that have been referenced to apply to the particular cycle. Quotes were generally obtained for the 100 MW cycle and a scale up/down factor was used to generate the cost estimates for the 200 MW and 50 MW cycles, respectively. Information from GTPro (property of Thermoflow, Inc.) was used to estimate the cost of the 200 MW and 50 MW gas turbine, HRSG, and steam turbines. To available the use of GTPro`s estimated values for this equipment, a comparison was made between the quotes obtained for the 100 MW cycle (ABB GT 11N combustion turbine and a HSRG) against the estimated values by GTPro.

  8. Antimicrobial Activity of Nisin and Natamycin Incorporated Sodium Caseinate Extrusion-Blown Films: A Comparative Study with Heat-Pressed/Solution Cast Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Basak Yilin; Peynichou, Pierre; Galland, Sophie; Oulahal, Nadia; Prochazka, Frédéric; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial edible films based on sodium caseinate, glycerol, and 2 food preservatives (nisin or natamycin) were prepared by classical thermomechanical processes. Food preservatives were compounded (at 65 °C for 2.5 min) with sodium caseinate in a twin-screw extruder. Anti-Listeria activity assays revealed a partial inactivation of nisin following compounding. Thermoplastic pellets containing food preservatives were then used to manufacture films either by blown-film extrusion process or by heat-press. After 24 h of incubation on agar plates, the diameters of K. rhizophila growth inhibition zones around nisin-incorporated films prepared by solution casting (control), extrusion blowing or heat pressing at 80 °C for 7 min of nisin-containing pellets were 15.5 ± 0.9, 9.8 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Since heat-pressing for 7 min at 80 °C of nisin-incorporated pellets did not further inactivate nisin, this indicates that nisin inactivation during extrusion-blowing was limited. Moreover, the lower diameter of the K. rhizophila growth inhibition zone around films prepared with nisin-containing pellets compared to that observed around films directly prepared by solution casting confirms that nisin inactivation mainly occurred during the compounding step. Natamycin-containing thermoplastic films inhibited Aspergillus niger growth; however, by contrast with nisin-containing films, heat-pressed films had higher inhibition zone diameters than blown films, therefore suggesting a partial inactivation of natamycin during extrusion-blowing.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Nisin and Natamycin Incorporated Sodium Caseinate Extrusion-Blown Films: A Comparative Study with Heat-Pressed/Solution Cast Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Basak Yilin; Peynichou, Pierre; Galland, Sophie; Oulahal, Nadia; Prochazka, Frédéric; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Antimicrobial edible films based on sodium caseinate, glycerol, and 2 food preservatives (nisin or natamycin) were prepared by classical thermomechanical processes. Food preservatives were compounded (at 65 °C for 2.5 min) with sodium caseinate in a twin-screw extruder. Anti-Listeria activity assays revealed a partial inactivation of nisin following compounding. Thermoplastic pellets containing food preservatives were then used to manufacture films either by blown-film extrusion process or by heat-press. After 24 h of incubation on agar plates, the diameters of K. rhizophila growth inhibition zones around nisin-incorporated films prepared by solution casting (control), extrusion blowing or heat pressing at 80 °C for 7 min of nisin-containing pellets were 15.5 ± 0.9, 9.8 ± 0.2, and 8.6 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Since heat-pressing for 7 min at 80 °C of nisin-incorporated pellets did not further inactivate nisin, this indicates that nisin inactivation during extrusion-blowing was limited. Moreover, the lower diameter of the K. rhizophila growth inhibition zone around films prepared with nisin-containing pellets compared to that observed around films directly prepared by solution casting confirms that nisin inactivation mainly occurred during the compounding step. Natamycin-containing thermoplastic films inhibited Aspergillus niger growth; however, by contrast with nisin-containing films, heat-pressed films had higher inhibition zone diameters than blown films, therefore suggesting a partial inactivation of natamycin during extrusion-blowing. PMID:27061434

  10. Defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6) overexpression threshold of over 60 fold can distinguish between adenoma and fully blown colon carcinoma in individual patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that alpha-defensin expression is enhanced in colon cancer. However, the expression of human alpha defensin 6 (DEFA 6) in earlier stages, such as adenoma, has so far not yet been studied in a patient resolved manner. By using quantitative Real Time-PCR, the gene expression pattern of DEFA 1-3 and DEFA 6 was analyzed in tissue of different stages of carcinogenesis, derived from colorectal cancer patients. In addition to paired normal and tumor tissue, matched normal near tumor and adenoma tissue samples were examined. The median gene expression of human defensin alpha 6 (DEFA 6) has been found to be moderately increased (~ 5 fold) in tumor samples derived from individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to their normal counterparts. However, when the data were analyzed in a patient-wise manner, a large expression variation among individual patients is found, making the use of DEFA 6 for individual diagnosis of fully blown colon carcinoma difficult. Surprisingly, in adenoma the gene expression analysis revealed a 100 fold increased median expression of DEFA 6 relative to normal colon tissue. 13/18 samples had an individual overexpression of more than 60 fold in adenoma but only 3/17 in carcinoma. In each of the individual patients, at least either the adenoma or the carcinoma showed strong DEFA 6 overexpression. We suggest that the expression of DEFA 6 preferably can be used as a potential diagnostic marker for adenoma and not as a marker for fully blown carcinoma. This is supported by the fact that DEFA 6 is a downstream target of the Wnt pathway, which is mutational active during the earliest stage of cancer development

  11. Alberta's reserves 2001 and supply/demand outlook 2002-2011 : crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas and liquids, coal, sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides stakeholders with a reliable source of information on the state of reserves, supply and demand for Alberta's energy resources including crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, sulphur and coal. The report also includes estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential. A 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources is also presented. The economic factors that determine the development of Alberta's energy resources depend on resource supply, development costs, energy demand, conservation and environmental and social considerations. Energy development in 2001 was driven in part by changes in energy prices, drilling activity and planned investments of billions of dollars in the oil sands projects. Production of raw bitumen exceeded conventional crude oil for the first time in 2001, with the first commercial steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) production. Several SAGD schemes have been approved and more are under review. Although natural gas production is expected to decline in the second half of the forecast period, interest in coalbed methane development will likely increase. Alberta has the largest oil sands resource in the world, with nearly 50 billion cubic meters that are potentially recoverable. Alberta's remaining established reserves of conventional crude oil was estimated at 278 million cubic metres. 35 tabs., 55 figs., 3 appendices

  12. Implication of cytochrome P-450 1A isoforms and the AH receptor in the genotoxicity of coal-tar fume condensate and bitumen fume condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genevois, C; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A; Boillot, K; Brandt, H; Castegnaro, M

    1998-06-01

    During the hot application of bitumen- or coal-tar-containing materials, fumes are emitted that contain polycyclic aromatic compounds. Although workers' exposure to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. No study has reported the metabolic pathways involved in the genotoxicity of coal tar or bitumen fume condensates (CTFC, BFCs). We have therefore studied the DNA adducts formed by incubation of CTFC or BFCs with liver microsomes from several type of mice and with yeast microsomes expressing individual human CYP enzymes. Our results demonstrates that: (1) the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important role in the biotransformation of BFCs and to a lesser extent of CTFC; (2) for CTFC, both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A isoforms are involved in the formation of genotoxic compounds, and the reactive metabolites formed via CYP 1A1, are substrates for epoxide hydrolase (mEH); (3) for BFCs, the genotoxicity is partially dependent upon CYP 1A1 and the reactive metabolites are not substrates for mEH; (4) CYP 1A isoforms are not exclusively responsible for the genotoxicity of the CTFC and BFCs as other CYPs and also enzymes of the [AH] gene battery, may play an important role. PMID:21781875

  13. Proceedings of the 3. NCUT meeting on upgrading and refining of heavy oil, bitumen and synthetic crude oil and the 2. symposium on stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference highlights new developments in refining processes for heavy oil, bitumen, and synthetic crudes. The oil sands/heavy oil industry in Canada has grown significantly in the last decade and could triple by 2012 to reach 2.6 million barrels per day. Experts from the petroleum industry, government organizations and technology providers attended this conference which identified technology gaps and areas where improvements are needed. The presentations demonstrated that many new technologies associated with heavy oil bitumen upgrading and refining have posed compatibility and stability challenges for pipeliners, upgraders and refiners. One of the issues addressed at the conference was the effect of upgrading technologies on market price due to the expected increase in production. Another important issue is how production of bitumen can be increased without significantly increasing greenhouse gas emissions from the refineries and upgrading facilities. The sessions of the conference were entitled: new technology developments in bitumen upgrading; secondary upgrading developments and expanded product opportunities; environmental issues and expanded oil sands development; and, stability and compatibility during the production, transportation and refining of petroleum. Twenty six presentations were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  14. Inhibition of the radiolytic hydrogen production in the nuclear waste of 'bitumen coated' type: study of the interaction between hydrogen and cobalt hydroxo-sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxo sulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an 'inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production'. However, the origin of this phenomenon was not clearly identified. In order to propose an explanation to this inhibition phenomenon, model organic molecules were used to represent the components of the bitumen. Irradiations were carried out by protons to simulate the alpha radiolysis. The organic molecules irradiations by a proton beam showed that cobalt hydroxo sulphide CoSOH, does not act as a hydrogenation catalyst of unsaturated hydrocarbons, nor as a radicals scavenger, but consists of a trap of hydrogen. Experiments of hydrogen trapping at ambient temperature were carried out according to two techniques: gravimetry and manometry. The solid was characterized before and after interaction with hydrogen (infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction). The initial solid was composed of amorphous cobalt hydroxo sulphide and a minor phase of cobalt hydroxide. The gravimetry and manometry experiments showed that the maximum of hydrogen trapping capacity is equal to 0.59 ± 0.18 mole of hydrogen per mole of cobalt. After interaction with hydrogen, the Co(OH)2 phase disappeared and a new solid phase appeared corresponding to Co9S8. These observations, as well as the analysis of the gas phase, made it possible to conclude with the following reaction (1): 9 CoSOH + 11/2 H2 = Co9S8 + 9 H2O + H2S (1). Gravimetry experiments at temperatures between 50 and 210 C revealed the desorption of water but not of hydrogen sulphide. The absence of hydrogen sulphide in gaseous phase and the Co(OH)2 phase disappearance

  15. Techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Development of a techno-economic model for UCG-CCS and SMR-CCS. • Estimation of H2 production costs with and without CCS for UCG and SMR. • UCG is more economical for H2 production with CCS. • SMR is more cost efficient for H2 production without CCS. • Cost competiveness is highly sensitive to the IRR differential between UCG and SMR. - Abstract: This paper examines the techno-economic viability of hydrogen production from underground coal gasification (UCG) in Western Canada, for the servicing of the oil sands bitumen upgrading industry. Hydrogen production for bitumen upgrading is predominantly achieved via steam methane reforming (SMR); which involves significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with considerable feedstock (natural gas) cost volatility. UCG is a formidable candidate for cost-competitive environmentally sustainable hydrogen production; given its negligible feedstock cost, the enormity of deep coal reserves in Western Canada and the favourable CO2 sequestration characteristics of potential UCG sites in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin (WCSB). Techno-economic models were developed for UCG and SMR with and without CCS, to estimate the cost of hydrogen production including delivery to a bitumen upgrader. In this paper, at base case conditions, a 5% internal rate of return (IRR) differential between UCG and SMR was considered so as to account for the increased investment risk associated with UCG. The cost of UCG hydrogen production without CCS is estimated to be $1.78/kg of H2. With CCS, this increases to range of $2.11–$2.70/kg of H2, depending on the distance of the site for CO2 sequestration from the UCG plant. The SMR hydrogen production cost without CCS is estimated to be $1.73/kg of H2. In similar fashion to UCG, this rises to a range of $2.14 to $2.41/kg of H2 with the consideration of CCS. Lastly, for hydrogen production without CCS, UCG has a superior cost competitiveness in comparison to SMR for an IRR

  16. A multiple lines of evidence approach for the ecological risk assessment of an accidental bitumen release from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) well in the Athabasca oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert G; Aslund, Melissa Whitfield; Sanders, Greg; Charlebois, Michael; Knopper, Loren D; Bresee, Karl E

    2016-01-15

    To assess the ecological impacts of two independent accidental bitumen releases from two steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in the Athabasca oil sands region, a multiple lines of evidence (LOE) approach was developed. Following the release in 2010, action was taken to minimize environmental impact, including the selective removal of the most highly impacted vegetation and the use of oil socks to minimize possible runoff. An ecological risk assessment (ERA) was then conducted based on reported concentrations of bitumen related contaminants in soil, vegetation, and water. Results of biological assessments conducted at the site were also included in the risk characterization. Overall, the conclusion of the ERA was that the likelihood of long-term adverse health effects to ecological receptors in the area was negligible. To provide evidence for this conclusion, a small mammal sampling plan targeting Southern red-back voles (Myodes gapperi) was carried out at two sites and two relevant reference areas. Voles were readily collected at all locations and no statistically significant differences in morphometric measurements (i.e., body mass, length, foot length, and adjusted liver weight) were found between animals collected from impact zones of varying levels of coverage. Additionally, no trends corresponding with bitumen coverage were observed with respect to metal body burden in voles for metals that were previously identified in the source bitumen. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was statistically significantly elevated in voles collected from the high impact zones of sites compared to those collected from the reference areas, a finding that is indicative of continued exposure to contaminants. However, this increase in EROD was not correlated with any observable adverse population-wide biological outcomes. Therefore the biological sampling program supported the conclusion of the initial ERA and supported the hypothesis of no significant

  17. CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND CARBONIZATION BEHAVIORS OF AIR-BLOWN PITCHES%氧化沥青化学结构及成焦行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀平; 吕春祥; 李开喜; 刘春林; 凌立成

    2001-01-01

    无喹啉不溶物煤焦油在300?℃空气吹扫氧化2?h~12?h制备了一系列氧化沥青,氧化沥青的化学结构通过1H-NMR,13C-NMR,FT-IR,元素分析和族组成分析进行,结果表明:空气吹扫可促进脱氢缩合反应的进行,随着空气吹扫时间的增加,α-氢显著减少,氧化沥青中氧含量并没有大的增加。在480?℃,0.1?MPa和1.6?MPa下分别将氧化沥青进行焦化,考察了焦收率以及光学组织结构变化情况。结果表明,空气吹扫氧化可提高煤焦油沥青的焦收率,轻度氧化对中间相组织影响不大,重度氧化抑制中间相组织的发展。%A series of pitches were prepared from QI-free coal tar through air-blowing at 300?℃ for 2?h~12?h. The air-blown pitches and raw coal tar were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1?H-NMR,13?C-NMR, solubility, and optical microscopy. The results showed that air blowing could promote the dehydrogenative condensation reaction between pitch moleculars. The α-hydrogen in raw coal tar decreased with air blowing time, while oxygen content had no significant increase in the resulted pitch. The air-blown pitches and raw coal tar were carbonized at 480?℃ under 0.1?MPa and 1.6?MPa respectively. It demonstrated that the air blowing at low temperatures was a simple procedure for increasing the coke yield, although it tended to suppress the growth of optical anisotropy at the following carbonization process.

  18. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste; Avaliacao de pastas e argamassas para o embalado de rejeitos radioativos betuminizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O., E-mail: msg@cdtn.br, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository.

  19. Underwater behaviour of bitumen coated radioactive wastes: experimental validation of the Colonbo degradation model; Comportement sous eau des dechets radioactifs bitumes: validation experimentale du modele de degradation Colonbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwinner, B

    2004-03-01

    In the release scenario considered for geologic repository, water is thought to be the main aggressive agent with regards to bituminized radioactive waste (composed in general of 60 weight % of bitumen, 40% of soluble/insoluble salts and a few ppm of radionuclides). Since liquid water can diffuse in pure bitumen, leaching of bituminized waste results in the dissolution of the most soluble salts and leads to the development of a more or less concentrated saline solution-filled pore structure (called permeable layer). In consequence of the generation of a porous layer in the bituminized waste, leaching of salts and radionuclides can then take place. Research performed at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) aims therefore at understanding the consequences of ground-water immersion on the transport properties and radionuclides leaching of bituminized waste materials. To this end, a constitutive model (called COLONBO) which describes mathematically the leaching of bituminized waste has been developed. The COLONBO model is based on the following assumptions: 1. Water and dissolved salts migrate in the permeable layer according to Fick's first law. The diffusion of water and salts are quantified by effective diffusion coefficients which are unknown. 2. The mechanical properties of the bitumen matrix are not considered during leaching (free swelling). Up to now, the COLONBO model has been used only to model experimental water uptake and salt leach curves, leading (theoretical) estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. The aim of this work was to validate experimentally the numerical results obtained with the COLONBO model. First, the correspondence between experimental and simulated water uptake and salt leach rates obtained on various bituminized waste materials is checked, leading estimates of the effective diffusion coefficients of water and salts in the permeable layer. Second, the evolution of the thickness and of

  20. Characterizing baseline concentrations, proportions, and processes controlling deposition of river-transported bitumen-associated polycyclic aromatic compounds at a floodplain lake (Slave River Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes, Matthew C; Wiklund, Johan A; Van Opstal, Stacey R; Wolfe, Brent B; Hall, Roland I

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate knowledge of baseline conditions challenges ability for monitoring programs to detect pollution in rivers, especially where there are natural sources of contaminants. Here, we use paleolimnological data from a flood-prone lake ("SD2", informal name) in the Slave River Delta (SRD, Canada), ∼ 500 km downstream of the Alberta oil sands development and the bitumen-rich McMurray Formation to identify baseline concentrations and proportions of "river-transported bitumen-associated indicator polycyclic aromatic compounds" (indicator PACs; Hall et al. 2012) and processes responsible for their deposition. Results show that indicator PACs are deposited in SD2 by Slave River floodwaters in concentrations that are 45 % lower than those in sediments of "PAD31compounds", a lake upstream in the Athabasca Delta that receives Athabasca River floodwaters. Lower concentrations at SD2 are likely a consequence of sediment retention upstream as well as dilution by sediment influx from the Peace River. In addition, relations with organic matter content reveal that flood events dilute concentrations of indicator PACs in SD2 because the lake receives high-energy floods and the lake sediments are predominantly inorganic. This contrasts with PAD31 where floodwaters increase indicator PAC concentrations in the lake sediments, and concentrations are diluted during low flood influence intervals due to increased deposition of lacustrine organic matter. Results also show no significant differences in concentrations and proportions of indicator PACs between pre- (1967) and post- (1980s and 1990 s) oil sands development high flood influence intervals (t = 1.188, P = 0.279, d.f. = 6.136), signifying that they are delivered to the SRD by natural processes. Although we cannot assess potential changes in indicator PACs during the past decade, baseline concentrations and proportions can be used to enhance ongoing monitoring efforts.

  1. Amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture in air-blown IGCC systems with cold and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hot fuel gas clean-up is a very favorable technology for IGCC concepts. • IGCC net efficiency reduces to 41.5% when realizing post-combustion CO2 capture. • Complex IGCC layouts are necessary if exhaust gas recirculation is realized. • IGCC performance does not significantly vary with exhaust gas recirculation. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the thermodynamic performance of air-blown IGCC systems with post-combustion CO2 capture by chemical absorption. Two IGCC technologies are investigated in order to evaluate two different strategies of coal-derived gas clean-up. After outlining the layouts of two power plants, the first with conventional cold gas clean-up and the second with hot gas clean-up, attention is paid to the CO2 capture station and to issues related to exhaust gas recirculation in combined cycles. The results highlight that significant improvements in IGCC performance are possible if hot coal-derived gas clean-up is realized before the syngas fuels the combustion turbine, so the energy cost of CO2 removal in an amine-based post-combustion mode is less strong. In particular, IGCC net efficiency as high as 41.5% is calculated, showing an interesting potential if compared to the one of IGCC systems with pre-combustion CO2 capture. Thermodynamic effects of exhaust gas recirculation are investigated as well, even though IGCC performance does not significantly vary against a more complicated plant layout

  2. Development and testing of a unique carousel wind tunnel to experimentally determine the effect of gravity and the interparticle force on the physics of wind-blown particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R. N.; Greeley, Ronald; White, Bruce R.; Iversen, James D.

    1987-01-01

    In the study of planetary aeolian processes the effect of gravity is not readily modeled. Gravity appears in the equations of particle motion along with the interparticle forces but the two are not separable. A wind tunnel that perimits multiphase flow experiments with wind blown particles at variable gravity was built and experiments were conducted at reduced gravity. The equations of particle motion initiation (saltation threshold) with variable gravity were experimentally verified and the interparticle force was separated. A uniquely design Carousel Wind Tunnel (CWT) allows for the long flow distance in a small sized tunnel since the test section if a continuous loop and develops the required turbulent boundary layer. A prototype model of the tunnel where only the inner drum rotates was built and tested in the KC-135 Weightless Wonder 4 zero-g aircraft. Future work includes further experiments with walnut shell in the KC-135 which sharply graded particles of widely varying median sizes including very small particles to see how interparticle force varies with particle size, and also experiments with other aeolian material.

  3. Acoustic characteristics of a large-scale wind tunnel model of an upper-surface blown flap transport having two engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falarski, M. D.; Aoyagi, K.; Koenig, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The upper-surface blown (USB) flap as a powered-lift concept has evolved because of the potential acoustic shielding provided when turbofan engines are installed on a wing upper surface. The results from a wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale USB model powered by two JT15D-1 turbofan engines are-presented. The effects of coanda flap extent and deflection, forward speed, and exhaust nozzle configuration were investigated. To determine the wing shielding the acoustics of a single engine nacelle removed from the model were also measured. Effective shielding occurred in the aft underwing quadrant. In the forward quadrant the shielding of the high frequency noise was counteracted by an increase in the lower frequency wing-exhaust interaction noise. The fuselage provided shielding of the opposite engine noise such that the difference between single and double engine operation was 1.5 PNdB under the wing. The effects of coanda flap deflection and extent, angle of attack, and forward speed were small. Forward speed reduced the perceived noise level (PNL) by reducing the wing-exhaust interaction noise.

  4. Experimental study of acoustic loads on an upper-surface-blown STOL airplane configuration. [Langley full-scale wind tunnel tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, C. M.; Schoenster, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure levels were measured on the flap and fuselage of an upper-surface-blown jet-flap airplane configuration in a wind tunnel. The model tested had turbofan engines with a bypass ratio of 3 and a thrust rating of 10 kN. Rectangular nozzles were mounted flush with the upper surface at 35 percent of the wing chord. Test parameters were flap deflection angle, jet impingement angle, angle of attack, free-stream velocity, spanwise location of the engine, and jet dynamic pressure. Load levels were high throughout the jet impingement region, with the highest levels (about 159 dB) occurring on the fuselage and near the knee of the flap. The magnitude of the forward-velocity effect appeared to depend upon the ratio of free-stream and jet velocities. Good agreement was obtained between fluctuating pressure spectra measured at jet dynamic pressures of 7 and 22 kPa when the spectra were scaled by nondimensional functions of dynamic pressure, velocity, and the empirical relationship between dynamic pressure and overall fluctuating pressure level.

  5. 长效液体乳聚乙烯吹塑薄膜阻隔性能研究%A Study on Barrier Property of Polyethylene Blown Film for Liquid Milk with Long Shelf-life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧英

    2014-01-01

    通过对包装用聚乙烯吹塑薄膜的水蒸气透过量、氧气透过量进行研究,在满足液体牛奶保鲜期要求前提下,能够最大限度地降低对聚乙烯吹塑薄膜的阻透性要求,从而降低液体牛奶产品的包装成本。%Through a study on the vapor and oxygen permeability of polyethylene blown film for packaging, on the premise of guaranteeing the shelf-life of liquid milk, the requirement for polyethylene blown film’s barrier property can be minimized with a view of lowering the cost of liquid milk packaging.

  6. Laboratory test results on the thermal resistance of polyisocyanurate foamboard insulation blown with CFC-11 substitutes: A cooperative industry/government project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, D.L.; Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01

    The fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFC-11 and CFC-12) are used as blowing agents for foam insulations for building and appliance applications. The thermal resistance per unit thickness of these insulations is greater than that of other commercially available insulations. Mandated reductions in the production of these chemicals may lead to less efficient substitutes and increase US energy consumption by one quad or more. This report describes laboratory thermal and aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminate boardstock to evaluate the viability of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFSs) as alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorcarbon-11 (CFC-11). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC- 123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b. These HCFC gases have a lower ozone depletion potential than CFC-11 or CFC-12. Apparent thermal conductivity (k) was determined from 0 to 50{degrees}C. Results on the laminate boards provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The measured laboratory increase in k was between 8 and 11% after a 240-d field exposure in the RTRA. Results are reported on a thin-specimen, aging procedure to establish the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. These thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 75 and 150{degrees}F for up to 300 d. The resulting k-values were correlated with an exponential dependency on (diffusion coefficient {times} time){sup {1/2}}/thickness and provided diffusion coefficients for air components into, and blowing agent out of, the foam. This aging procedure was used to predict the five-year thermal resistivity of the foams. The thin-specimen aging procedure is supported with calculations by a computer model for aging of foams. 43 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs.

  7. A computational model for the rise and dispersion of wind-blown, buoyancy-driven plumes—II. Linearly stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    A multi-dimensional computational model of wind-blown, buoyancy-driven flows is applied to study the effect of atmospheric stratification on the rise and dispersion of plumes. The model utilizes Lagrangian transport elements, distributed in the plane of the plume cross section normal to the wind direction, to caoture the evolution of the vorticity and density field, and another set of elements to model the dynamics in the atmosphere surrounding the plume. Solutions are obtained for a case in which atmospheric density changes linearly with height. Computational results show that, similar to the case of a neutrally stratified atmosphere, the plume acquires a kidney-shaped cross section which persists for a long distance downstream the source and may bifurcate into separate and distinct lumps. Baroclinic vortivity generated both along the plume boundary and in the surroundings is used to explain the origin of the distortion experienced by the plume and the inhibiting effect of a stratified atmosphere, respectively. The vorticity within the plume cross section forms two large-scale coherent eddies which are responsible for the plume motion and the entrainment. Prior to reaching the equilibrium height, the computed plume trajectory is found to follow the two-thirds law, when extended to include the initial plume size, reasonably well. Entrainment and added mass coefficients equal to 0.49 and 0.7 respectively, are obtained from the numerical results over a wide range of the buoyancy ratio, defined as the ratio between the plume buoyancy and the degree of background stratification. In the case of strong stratification, the plume trajectory shows weak, fast decaying oscillations around the equilibrium height.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Three-phase Fluid Flow in a Bottom-blown Steelmaking Ladle%底吹钢包三相流的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江山; 李京社; 杨静波; 刘宏伟; 佟志新

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) method was used to simulate argon-steel-slag three-phase flow in a bottom-blown steelmaking ladle. Transient multiphase flow features in the ladle were described and compared with steady simulation. Slag eye diameter and droplet dispersion height were quantified under different gas flow rates, showing that as gas flow rate rose, slag eye diameter and slag droplet dispersion height increased and jumped at 600 L/min, so critical gas flow rate was 600 L/min. Slag eye diameter dropped sharply from 455 to 110 mm, and the possibility of slag entrapment increased, when the slag layer height rose from 150 to 300 mm at the gas flow rate of 300 L/min.%采用多相流体积法对某钢厂的LF炉底吹钢包建立了氩气/钢液/钢渣三相瞬态数学模型.描述了钢包内多相流动的基本形貌,并与稳态计算的结果进行了对比;研究了不同吹气流量对渣滴卷入深度和渣眼直径的影响.计算结果表明,渣滴卷入深度和渣眼直径随吹气流量的增加而增加,且在吹气流量为600 L/min时发生骤增,该流量为临界卷渣吹气流量;在保持吹气流量为300 L/min的条件下,当渣层厚度从150mm增加到300mm时,渣眼直径由455mm减小至110mm,且此时更容易发生卷渣现象.

  9. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs.

  10. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by {sup 32}P-postlabelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.; Genevois, C.; Brandt, H.; Laget, M.; Bartsch, H.; Castegnaro, M. [Laboratoire de Biogenotoxicologie et Mutagenese Environnementale, Marseille (France). Faculte de Pharmcie

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during road paving. Exposure of workers to these fumes might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Thus a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens which were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays. Results were related to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates were tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for their formation. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. In vitro studies of the genotoxic effects of bitumen and coal-tar fume condensates: comparison of data obtained by mutagenicity testing and DNA adduct analysis by 32P-postlabelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Méo, M; Genevois, C; Brandt, H; Laget, M; Bartsch, H; Castegnaro, M

    1996-08-14

    Bitumens contain traces of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), a part of which will end up in the fumes emitted during hot handling of bitumen-containing products, e.g. during roadpaving. Although exposure of workers to these fumes is low, it might lead to health problems. Studies on bitumen fume condensates (BFCs) showed weak to moderate mutagenic activities, but studies on DNA adduct formation have not been reported. Therefore, a study was initiated in which fumes were generated from two road grade bitumens, in such a way that they were representative of the fumes produced in the field. The combined vapour/particulates were tested in vitro for their ability to produce DNA adducts and in modified Ames mutation assays, using a number of different strains. An attempt was made to relate the results to chemical data, such as the content of a number of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and with a measure for the total PAC content. As a reference material fume condensate from coal-tar (coal-tar pitch volatiles; CTPV) were subjected to the same tests. All fume condensates tested were mutagenic to all strains and induced the formation of DNA adducts. The patterns of DNA adducts, obtained by 32P-postlabelling, arising from the BFCs were qualitatively different from the patterns of adducts obtained from the CTPVs, implying qualitative differences in the nature of the compounds responsible for the formation of these adducts. This is corroborated by the observation that for BFCs quantitative adduct levels are higher than would be expected based on the PAH content. These data thus indicate that the PAHs analysed are not the sole components responsible for adduct formation from BFCs, but that an important contribution comes from other (hetero- and/or substituted-) PACs. PMID:8760390

  12. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina M. Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están decoloradas, alteradas y muy permeables por la ausencia de óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro, la disolución total a parcial de los cementos, losfeldespatos y líticos volcánicos y la alteración de estos últimos aargilominerales (illita> caolinita. Los minerales de cobre estándiseminados, en tubos o nódulos siempre en contacto con bitumen. Consisten enrestos de calcosina, covellina, trazas de calcopirita y una variedad deminerales de cobre supergénicos (malaquita, con crisocola, brochantita,azurita, tenorita, turquesa, atacamita, volbortita. También hay piritadiseminada y trazas de psilomelano. En las muestras con las mayoresconcentraciones de Cu (16% se detectaron anomalías de Mo (810 ppm, U (9,43ppm, Th (40,6 ppm y V (127-221 ppm. La geoquímica del bitumen indica que setrata de un residuo dejado por la migración de hidrocarburos generados a partirde rocas de origen marino del Jurásico (Formaciones Los Molles o Vaca Muerta.Las aguas de formación ricas en cloruros que migraron junto con loshidrocarburos, pudieron transportar el cobre y el azufre en solución. Lamigración de estos fluidos desde las rocas fuentes hacia los reservorios através de las fallas y estratos permeables, habría desempeñado un rol muyimportante en la extracción del cobre a partir del lavado de los óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro de los estratos rojos continentales infrayacentes. En sutransporte y en contacto con los niveles permeables de la Formación Portezuelo

  13. Heavy oil and bitumen : thinking caps on : researchers look at new and greener ways to get at the heavy oil prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, L.

    2008-01-15

    New steam stimulation processes developed by the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy were discussed. The J-well and gravity-assisted steam stimulation (JAGD) process uses a steam injection well located within the top few metres of a reservoir and a production well comprised of an inclined J-shaped well. JAGD is a transitional cold production-to-thermal-production technology. High pressure steam is used to heat and loosen the bitumen so that it flows to the producer well below. The configuration was designed to cut through mud and shale layers and is suitable for poor quality reservoirs. Simulations conducted in Athabasca reservoirs have demonstrated that JAGD uses approximately 75 per cent of the steam typically used in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes. The iSAGD process was designed to reposition parallel wells in order to increase oil mobility. Researchers at the centre are also investigating a catalytic air-stream process called CASPAR which aims to upgrade oil from 10 degrees API to 16 degrees API within the reservoir. The process involves a mixture of heat, catalyst hydrogen, steam, air and water in the reservoir. The process leaves heavier ends of oil underground as well as fractions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Research is also being conducted on expanding-solvent SAGD (ES-SAGD) a process that adds butane to steam in order to reduce water use. 3 figs.

  14. 泡沫沥青冷再生混合料力学特性试验%Test of Mechanical Property of Cold Recycled Mixture with Foamed Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐金枝; 郝培文; 刘丽

    2011-01-01

    采用间接拉伸强度、无侧限抗压强度及抗压回弹模量试验,分析了沥青路面旧料掺量及水泥用量对泡沫沥青冷再生混合料力学特性的影响.研究表明:随旧料掺量的增大或其中旧沥青含量的增多,泡沫沥青冷再生混合料设计最佳沥青用量减少,冷再生混合料抗拉、抗压、抗剪性能呈下降趋势,而抗压回弹模量逐渐增大;水泥用量的增大有助于提高冷再生混合料的强度、刚度及其水稳定性,但用量过大不利于冷再生混合料的抗裂性能,建议不超过2%;水泥用量较小(≤1.5%)的冷再生混合料强度增长主要集中于室温养生的24h以及40℃烘箱养生的第1个24h内,而水泥用量较大(1.5%~3%)的冷再生混合料养生期内强度增长比较匀速.%By indirect tensile strength test, unconfined compressive strength test and compressive resilient modulus test, the influences of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) content and cement content on mechanical property of cold recycled mixture with foamed bitumen ( CRMFB) were studied. The results indicate that ( 1) Increase of RAP content or content of old bitumen in RAP led to decrease of optimum foamed asphalt content and tensile, compressive, and shear strengths, but increase of compressive resilient modulus for CRMFB. (2) Increase of cement content contributed to the enhancement of mechanical property and water susceptibility of CRMFB. However, an excess of cement would have negative effect on crack resistance of CRMFB, so the cement content is suggested to be limited to 2% or less. (3) For the CRMFB with lower cement content ( ≤1. 5% ) , the strength increase mainly concentrated in the period of the 24 h at open air curing and the first 24 h at 40 t oven curing, while for the CRMFB with higher cement content (1.5% -3% ) , an uniform strength increase appeared in the whole curing period.

  15. Preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for samples from Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata, Maverick Basin, south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Gesserman, Rachel M.; Ridgley, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, a regionally occurring limestone and shale interval of 500-600-ft maximum thickness (Rose, 1986), is being evaluated as part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in onshore Lower Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to release preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for Pearsall Formation, Glen Rose Formation, Hosston Formation, Austin Group, and Eagle Ford Group samples from the Maverick Basin in south Texas in order to aid in the characterization of these strata in this area. The preliminary nature of this report and the data contained herein reflect that the assessment and characterization of these samples is a work currently in progress. Pearsall Formation subdivisions are, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Bexar Shale Members (Loucks, 2002). The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation is also part of the USGS Lower Cretaceous assessment and produces oil in the Maverick Basin (Loucks and Kerans, 2003). The Hosston Formation was assessed by the USGS for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2006 (Dyman and Condon, 2006), but not in south Texas. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Group is being assessed as part of the USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Upper Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico and, along with the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, is considered to be an important source rock in the Smackover-Austin-Eagleford Total Petroleum System (Condon and Dyman, 2006). Both the Austin Group and the Eagle Ford Group are present in the Maverick Basin in south Texas (Rose, 1986).

  16. Experimental study on the effects of water mist suppressing spray bitumen fires%细水雾抑制沥青喷雾火的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘李伟; 廖光煊; 卢兆明

    2011-01-01

    通过实验研究了沥青喷雾燃烧特性以及细水雾抑制沥青喷雾火的有效性.细水雾雾场特性由LDV/APV系统测量.实验中的温度数据由热电偶测量,沥青喷雾火自由燃烧时火焰结构则由热像仪获取.实验结果显示,喷雾火燃烧时最高温度发生在火焰团内部.当压力比比较高时(pw/Pf>2.65),细水雾对沥青喷雾火有较好的抑制熄灭作用;而当压力比比较低高时(pw/pt≤2.65),细水雾只能抑制包围火焰团而无法彻底熄灭火焰.较高压力的细水雾能够有效地抑制熄灭沥青喷雾火.%Burning behaviors of the spray bitumen mixture were investigated experimentally.Investigations of the suppression methods of this typical kind of fire were also included. The characteristics of water mist were tested by LDV/APV system. Temperatures were measured by thermocouples and the internal structure was observed by Thermography. Results indicated that the highest temperature was measured in the core of the spray. At the lower pressure ratio (pw/pf≤2.65), the water mist envelops the spray fire into a ball of fire. At the higher pressure ratio (pw/pf>2. 65), the water mist suppressed the spray fire within a short time. The higher pressure water mist demonstrated higher efficiency for the suppression of spray fires.

  17. 聚氧化乙烯挤出吹塑成型研究%Research on PEO’s Extrusion-Blown Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝喜海; 阳家菊; 文舒

    2015-01-01

    为能获得性能良好的PEO水溶性薄膜,采用直接对PEO挤出吹塑、先造粒再吹塑与改性后造粒再吹塑等方法进行了研制,并针对改性剂(如增塑剂、稳定剂)的选择与改性剂配比量的选择进行了探讨。选用甘油为增塑剂、乙二醇为稳定剂,并设置了PEO与增塑剂、稳定剂的质量之比分别为18:1:1,8:1:1,6:1:1,7:1:1.2的4组实验进行对比研究。随着增塑剂甘油添加质量分数的增加,PEO的熔融温度降低;稳定剂乙二醇的加入增加了PEO的热稳定性,有效阻止了实验过程中的氧化现象。最后确定了吹塑与造粒的工艺路线与工艺条件,找出了改性前后PEO的最佳造粒温度与最佳吹塑温度,改性前造粒机机头位置至膜口位置的最佳温度分别为120,122,125,129℃;而改性剂用量不同,最佳吹塑温度也不同,且随改性剂用量的增加而减小。改性前后吹塑出的制品均出现黏度小的现象,在以后的研究中需加入增加黏度的改性剂。%In order to produce the high performance PEO water-soluble film, the methods were researched by adopt-ing direct PEO extrusion-blown molding, blow molding after granulation, and modified, granulated and then blow-molding. The choice of modifier such as plasticizer and stabilizer and the proportion of different modifiers were discussed. Experimen-tal comparative study was conducted under the condition of the plasticizer being glycerol, stabilizer being ethylene glycol, the proportion of PEO and plasticizer, stabilizer being 18:1:1, 8:1:1, 6:1:1, 7:1:1.2 respectively. With the increase of plasticizer content of glycerol, the melting temperature of PEO is decreased. Stabilizer ethylene glycol increased the thermal stability of PEO, which effectively prevented the oxidation in the process of experiment. The process routes and process conditions of blow molding and granulating were determined. The optimal

  18. 四川盆地东北部海、陆相储层沥青组成特征及来源%Compositional characteristics and origin of marine and terrestrial solid reservoir bitumen in the northeast Sichuan basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱扬明; 李颖; 郝芳; 邹华耀; 郭彤楼

    2012-01-01

    Solid reservoir bitumens collected from Xujiahe ( Upper Triassic, T,x) , Feixianguan ( Lower Triassic T/) and Chanxing Formation (Upper Permian, P2c) in Puguang and Yuanba gas fields and from Huanglong Formation (Middle Carboniferous, C2/j) in western Hubei-eastern Chongqing region, the northeast of Sichuan basin, were systematically analyzed for bulk and molecular compositions, to investigate their genesis, character and origin. These bitumens are primarily characterized by poor solubility ( ratios of chloroform extract over TOC 1.4% ) and low H/C atomic ratios ( to 24%o, indicating a proportion of them possibly resulted from TSR. Unusual biomarker composition and distribution, such as bimodal distribution in n-alkanes, reduced Pr/Ph value, undifferentiated distribution in steranes and terpanes and reversal isomerization in sterane, are observed in these over-mature bitumens, and thus their conventional geochemical significances appear lost. However, the ratios of 2,6-/2,10-DMP, 1,7-/1,9-DMP and 4-/1-MDBT in aromatic fraction are considered to be useful indicators for biological organic source and sedimentary environment of the source rocks from which the initial oils for the bitumens are derived. The aromatic ratios are relatively high in the bitumens of Xujiahe terrestrial reservoir, indicating a dominant terrigenous source input and oxic depositional environment for their source rocks. In contrast, they are significantly lower in the bitumens of Feixianguan, Changxing and Huanglong marine reaservoirs, suggesting an organic source predominated by aquatic organisms and a reducing condition. According to correlation between bitumens and source rocks by carbon isotopes and relative composition of dibenzothiophene series, the reservoir bitumens in Xujiahe Formation are believed to originate from adjacent source rock within this sequence, and those in Feixianguan and Changxing formations both from Permian source rock. Since Huanglong solid reservoir bitumen studied

  19. Application of thermodynamics to the estimation of the biodegradation of bitumen wastes package underground stored; Application de la thermodynamique a l'evaluation de la biodegradation des colis de dechets bitumes en situation de stockage profond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libert, M.F.; Besnainou, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2001-07-01

    A modelling approach to evaluate microbial activity in a geological system is adopted. It focusses upon the availability of key nutrients (C, H, O, N, P, S) and energy sources required for bacterial growth. The model is applied to determine the possible consequences of such microbiological activity in the presence of bitumen embedded waste in a repository for low - and intermediate - level waste. Taking into account this particular environment, thermodynamic and experimental results are given in terms of gas and organic complexant production. (authors)

  20. Morphology and genesis of the solid bitumen from the Changxing Formation-Feixianguan Formation in northeastern Sichuan%川东北地区长兴组-飞仙关组固体沥青的形貌特征与成因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜勇; 傅恒; 李仲东; 李秀华; 达丽亚

    2011-01-01

    The SEM examination of the solid bitumen from the Upper Permian to the Lower Triassic reservoirs m northeastem Sichuan shows the morphological features of the solid bitumen including crustiform, hotryoidal,nodular, vermiform and dried persimmons-like features, of which the crustiform and botryoidal solid bitumen is dispersed in the Triassic reservoirs, while the nodular, vermiform and dried persimmons-like solid bitumen occurs in the Permian reservoirs. The differences in occurrence represent distinct genesis and evolutionary phases of the bitumen. It is inferred from the scaly textures and pelleted mesophase textures that the bitumen has entered into high-grade evolutionary stages.%利用扫描电镜观察川东北某地区上二叠统、下三叠统储层固体沥青时,发现固体沥青与显微镜下的无定形、它形充填构造不同,按其外形可分为皮壳状、葡萄状、瘤状、蠕虫状和柿饼状5种类型.其中皮壳状、葡萄状沥青分布在飞仙关组,瘤状、蠕虫状和柿饼状沥青分布在长兴组.根据固体沥青内部鳞片状结构和球粒中间相结构推测其已达高演化阶段.

  1. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén Alteration,Cu mineralization and bitumen in the Barda González prospect, Neuquén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina M. Pons

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están decoloradas, alteradas y muy permeables por la ausencia de óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro, la disolución total a parcial de los cementos, losfeldespatos y líticos volcánicos y la alteración de estos últimos aargilominerales (illita> caolinita. Los minerales de cobre estándiseminados, en tubos o nódulos siempre en contacto con bitumen. Consisten enrestos de calcosina, covellina, trazas de calcopirita y una variedad deminerales de cobre supergénicos (malaquita, con crisocola, brochantita,azurita, tenorita, turquesa, atacamita, volbortita. También hay piritadiseminada y trazas de psilomelano. En las muestras con las mayoresconcentraciones de Cu (16% se detectaron anomalías de Mo (810 ppm, U (9,43ppm, Th (40,6 ppm y V (127-221 ppm. La geoquímica del bitumen indica que setrata de un residuo dejado por la migración de hidrocarburos generados a partirde rocas de origen marino del Jurásico (Formaciones Los Molles o Vaca Muerta.Las aguas de formación ricas en cloruros que migraron junto con loshidrocarburos, pudieron transportar el cobre y el azufre en solución. Lamigración de estos fluidos desde las rocas fuentes hacia los reservorios através de las fallas y estratos permeables, habría desempeñado un rol muyimportante en la extracción del cobre a partir del lavado de los óxidos ehidróxidos de hierro de los estratos rojos continentales infrayacentes. En sutransporte y en contacto con los niveles permeables de la Formación Portezuelo

  2. 转炉喷吹CO2+O2混合气体基础研究%Basic Study on Mixture Gas Including CO2 and O2 Blown into Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万雪峰; 曹东; 朱晓雷; 郭春媛

    2015-01-01

    Based on the thermod ynamic analysis of mixture gas including CO2 and O2 blown into BOF together with the experimental results of blowing mixture gas including CO2 and O2 into simulative converter at the final blowing stage in laboratory, the feasibility of blowing CO2 and O2 into the top blown converter for decarburization and control of oxygen is discussed. It is concluded that the product of carbon and oxygen reduces and the influence of the lance location on the prod-uct weakens as the ratio of CO2 in mixture gas increases, but the quantity of rephosphoration in-creases. when the ratio of CO2 in mixture gas increases to the 1 to 1 degree of CO2 and O2, the product of carbon and oxygen can be controlled between 0.23 ×10-6 and 0.25 ×10-6 in top blown converter and the average quantity of rephosphoration 0.001% while the theoretical maximum ratio of CO2 in mixture gas can increase up to 79.1%.%通过对转炉喷吹CO2+O2混合气体的热力学分析,结合实验室模拟转炉吹炼末期喷吹CO2+O2实验结果,探讨了在顶吹转炉中应用CO2+O2进行脱碳抑氧的可行性。得出结论,混合气体中CO2比例增大,碳氧积降低,枪位对碳氧积的影响减弱,但回磷量增加,当CO2比例增大到CO2:O2=1:1时,顶吹转炉碳氧积可控制在0.23×10-6~0.25×10-6,平均回磷量0.001%,混合气体中CO2最大理论比例可增加到79.1%。

  3. Effects of Water Levels on Morphologies and Mechanical Properties of Water-Blown Polyurethane%水用量对全水发泡聚氨酯泡沫形态和力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 杜海晶; 米岩; 高振华

    2012-01-01

    采用扫描电镜(SEM)和红外光谱(FT-IR)并结合物理力学性能测试,对高水用量(3phr~11phr)所制备的全水发泡低密度聚氨酯泡沫的形态和力学性能进行表征,结果表明,水用量逐渐从3phr增加到11phr,发泡聚氨酯物料的乳白时间、凝胶时间和不粘手时间逐渐延长,泡沫中的取代脲结构含量和氢键化程度逐渐增加,泡沫密度和力学性能逐渐降低,泡孔平均孔径呈先增大、后减小的趋势,然而泡沫的比强度和氨基甲酸酯含量变化不大。%The morphologies and mechanical properties of water-blown polyurethane (PU) foams with various water levels (3-11phr) were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and physi-mechanical evaluations. The results indicate that water level has various effect on the chemical compositions and microstructures of water-blown PU foams and affectes the physi-mechanical properties because water not only formed the gas for foaming but also involved with the chain-extension of polyurea-urethane resin. As water level increased from 3 phr to llphr, the cream time, gel time, tack-free time, polyurea content and hydrogen bonding of PU foams increased gradually, while the density and mechanical properties of PU foam decreased accordingly. The water-blown PU foams with low density but good performances can be prepared by adjusting the water level.

  4. Optimum phase-behavior formulation of surfactant/oil/water systems for the determination of chromium in heavy crude oil and in bitumen-in-water emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguera, José L; Avila-Gómez, Rita M; Burguera, Marcela; Antón de Salager, Raquel; Salager, Jean-Louis; Bracho, Carlos L; Burguera-Pascu, Margarita; Burguera-Pascu, Constantin; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo; Petit de Peña, Yaneita

    2003-11-01

    An "oil in water" formulation was optimized to determine chromium in heavy crude oil (HCO) and bitumen-in-water emulsion (Orimulsion-400(R)) samples by transversally heated electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (TH-ET AAS) using Zeeman effect background correction. The optimum proportion of the oil-water mixture ratio was 7:3 v/v (70 ml of oil as the internal phase) with a non-ionic surfactant concentration (Intan-100) in the emulsion of 0.2% w/w. Chromium was determined in different crude oil samples after dilution of the emulsions 1:9 v/v with a 0.2% w/w solution of surfactant in order to further reduce the viscosity from 100 to 1.6 cP and at the same time to bring the concentration of chromium within the working range of the ET AAS technique. The calibration graph was linear from 1.7 to 100 mug Cr l(-1). The sensitivity was of 0.0069 s l mug(-1), the characteristic mass (m(o)) was of 5.7 pg per 0.0044 s and the detection limit (3sigma) was of 0.52 mug l(-1). The relative standard deviation of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of three crude oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 2.6%. Recovery studies were performed on four Venezuelan crude oils, and the average chromium recovery values varied between 95.9-104.8, 90.6-107.6, 95.6-104.0 and 98.8-103.9% for the Cerro Negro, Crudo Hamaca and Boscán crude oils and for the Orimulsión(R)-400, respectively. The results obtained in this work for the Cerro Negro, Crudo Hamaca and Boscán crude oils and for the Orimulsión(R)-400 following the proposed procedure were of 0.448+/-0.008, 0.338+/-0.004 0.524+/-0.021 and 0.174+/-0.008 mg Cr l(-1), respectively, which were in good agreement with the values obtained by a tedious recommended standard procedure (respectively: 0.470+/-0.05, 0.335+/-0.080, 0.570+/-0.021 and 0.173+/-0.009 mg Cr l(-1)). PMID:18969194

  5. The influence of organic complexing agents upon the mobilization and migration of radionuclides from ILW contained in cement and bitumen under nearfield conditions for a repository in a salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of this project the influence of the synthetic organic complexing agents dibutylphosphate, tributylphosphate, ethylenediamine-tetra acetic acid, citrate and oxalate on the solubilities, the migration and sorption behaviour of the elements iodine, cesium, uranium neptunium, plutonium and americium was investigated in electrolyte solutions, representing the conditions of a near field of a waste repository in a salt dome after an intrusion of brines, considered as a hypothetical scenario. The electrolyte solutions were saturated NaCl solution and Q-brine, which were equilibrated with corrosion products of the matrices Portland 35-F cement and bitumen (Shell Mexphalte R 80-100) before starting the experiments, in order to simulate their influence on the chemical behaviour of the solutions used for the experiments. The temperature, at which the experiments were carried out, was 298 K. After determining the relevant pH- and Eh-values, pH was adapted to 12.3 for saturated NaCl solution equilibrated with cement and to 6.4 for Q-brine also being at equilibrium with cement. The electrolyte systems on the other hand containing bitumen were kept at those pH-values, which resulted from saturation with the complexing agents. 120 tabs., 87 figs., 67 refs

  6. Application and Analysis of Emulsified Bitumen Slurry Seal in Maintenance of Highway%乳化沥青稀浆封层在公路养护中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠

    2014-01-01

    Abrasion and deterioration problem often happens in the use of a period of time for most of the asphalt pavement due to long-term suffers from the vehicle load. The applied technology of emulsified bitumen slurry seal can make the pavement has a high wear-resistant performance, skid resista-nce performance and waterproof performance, in order to achieve the purpose of maintaining. This article analyses the application of emulsified bitumen slurry seal in maintenance of highway.%由于长期承受车辆的载荷作用,大部分沥青路面在使用一段时间后会出现路面的磨损、老化问题。沥青路面应用乳化沥青稀浆封层,可以使沥青路面具有耐磨、抗滑、防水等能力,以达到养护的目的。本文分析了乳化沥青稀浆封层在公路养护中的应用。

  7. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems. Volume 2, Appendix A: Fixed bed gasifier and sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem computer model development: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blough, E.; Russell, W.; Leach, J.W.

    1990-08-01

    Computer models have been developed for evaluating conceptual designs of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants. An overall system model was developed for performing thermodynamic cycle analyses, and detailed models were developed for predicting performance characteristics of fixed bed coal gasifiers and hot gas clean up subsystem components. The overall system model performs mass and energy balances and does chemical equilibrium analyses to determine the effects of changes in operating conditions, or to evaluate proposed design changes. An existing plug flow model for fixed bed gasifiers known as the Wen II model was revised and updated. Also, a spread sheet model of zinc ferrite sulfur sorbent regeneration subsystem was developed. Parametric analyses were performed to determine how performance depends on variables in the system design. The work was done to support CRS Sirrine Incorporated in their study of standardized air blown coal gasifier gas turbine concepts.

  8. 口模间隙对聚乙烯挤出吹塑薄膜性能的影响%Effect of die gap on properties of extrusion blown films of polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志海; 高建明; 张晓红; 赖金梅

    2013-01-01

    The film extrusion blowing experiments of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) were performed through different width of die gaps (die gap 1 mm and 2 mm). The tear strength and haze of the blown films were tested. The results indicate that the width of the die gaps has different influences on the blown films of LDPE and LLDPE. The haze and tear strength in machine and transverse direction of the LLDPE film prepared by the narrow die gap are superior to those of the film by the wide die gap. Therefore, the narrow die gap is suitable to blow LLDPE film. The haze, transparency and tear strength of LDPE film prepared by the wide die gap are better than those of the film by the narrow die gap. Consequently, wide die gap is appropriate for film blowing of LDPE.%分别用间隙为1,2mm的口模做低密度聚乙烯(LDPE)和线型低密度聚乙烯(LLDPE)的挤出吹塑薄膜试验,测试了薄膜的撕裂强度和雾度。结果表明:口模间隙对吹塑薄膜的影响不同。窄(即小间隙)口模得到的LLDPE薄膜的雾度和横、纵向撕裂强度均优于宽口模(即大间隙),因此,窄口模适合生产LLDPE吹塑薄膜;宽口模得到的LDPE薄膜的雾度、透光率及撕裂强度在适当的条件下优于窄口模,因此,宽口模适合生产LDPE吹塑薄膜。

  9. 沥青样品铼-锇同位素分析溶解实验研究%Dissolving Experimental Research of Re-Os Isotope System for Bitumen Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 屈文俊; 王登红; 陈郑辉; 杜安道; 张长青

    2011-01-01

    The content of Re-Os in asphalt samples is relatively low, and CO2 are released in digestion because of large amounts of organic matter. It is important to control the amount of asphalt in the sample and the proportion of oxidant to ensure the Os recovery and stability of the measured signal. The method for the Re-Os isotope was improved because of large amounts of organic matter contained in bitumen samples. The Oxidants was changed to 3 mL HC1, 4 mL HNO3 and 3mL H2 O2 from the original 3 mL HC1 and 6 mL HNO3, the improved method making the Os measured signal approximately 2 times larger than before. Changes in oxidants composition increase the amount of the bitumen sample weight greatly from th eoriginal 0.2 g to 0. 4 g. Influence of H2 O2 added with routine reverse aqua regia and direct distillation from a Carius tube on the signal intensity of osmium measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-MassSpectrometry( ICP-MS ). Was studied. Bitumen samples were dissolved and equilibrated with a known amount of 185Re and 190Os tracers in 2 mL HC1, 5 mL HNO3 and 2 mL H2O2 by a Carius tube at 200℃ for 12 h and 240℃ for 12 h, with the Os and Re separated using direct distillation or routine distillation and solvent extraction techniques, respectively. 187Re/185 Re, 187Os/190Os and 192Os/190Os were determined by ICP-MS. Bitumen samples in lead-zinc deposits from Yunnan Province were analyzed. The isochron ages was (60 ± 2 ) Ma ( MSWD = 2. 5, n = 7 ), and the initial 187Os/188Os values was 4. 36 ±0. 14. The results show that Re-Os isotope is an effective tool to date bitumen samples and the Os in the bitumen originated from the crust. The established method can be used to date and trace the source of bitumen samples.%沥青样品中Re、Os含量较低,且组成复杂,因含有大量有机质,在溶样过程中会释放大量CO2,需要大量氧化剂.控制样品称样量和氧化剂比例、用量对保证Os的回收率以及测量信号的稳定性非常重要.本文根

  10. Recent technological advances in the application of nano-catalytic technology to the enhanced recovery and upgrading of bitumen and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira Almao, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Advances in Nanotechnology, such as manufacturing of nano-catalysts allow the online (during processing) and on site production of nano-catalysts for heavy oils upgrading. These inventions have also facilitated the development of two lines of heavy oils upgrading processes that make use of nano-catalysts for producing upgraded oil: In Situ Upgrading and Field Upgrading. Producing chemical upgrading of heavy oils is achievable and economically viable at lower temperatures and lower pressures than used in most upgraders if the use of nano-catalysts were implemented. The spontaneity of thermal, steam and hydro processing reactions for converting the different chemical families of hydrocarbons present in the heaviest fractions of heavy oils and bitumen (HO-B) into lighter products was shown recently. Spontaneity was measured by the value of the change of free energy at low pressure. These undesirable paths are spontaneous and uncontrollable under thermal cracking conditions, and require providing years of residence time for intermolecular hydrogen redistribution to minimize olefins polymerization, if at all possible. Instead, hydroprocessing in the presence of hydrogen activating catalysts would create an abundance of hydrogen radicals impeding large molecules condensation and olefins proliferation. In Situ Upgrading: performs coupled Enhanced Oil Recovery with In Reservoir Upgrading via Hot Fluid Injection (HFI). The heat handling of this HFI process and the production of transportable oil with no need of diluent from the start of operation completes the originality of it. This technology uses heavy fractions separated from produced oil to reintroduce heat into the reservoir along with suspended nano-catalysts and hydrogen. These components react in the well bore and inside the reservoir to release more heat (hydroprocessing reactions are exothermic) producing light gases and volatile hydrocarbons that contribute to increase oil detachment from the rock resulting in

  11. 策勒绿洲-荒漠过渡带风沙前沿近地面不同方向的输沙特征%Study on Wind-blown Sand Characteristics at Different Directions near the Surface in the Frontier of an Oasis-desert Ecotone in Qira County,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴华; 何清; 霍文; 程玉景

    2012-01-01

    Aeolian sand transport is serious in many arid regions in the world,and it is considered to be as a significant part of global biogeochemical cycles.Furthermore,wind-blown sand brings often disasters.Therefore,widespread attention has been paid to the significance of aeolian sand transport in many fields,such as geomorphology,climatology,meteorology,ecology and environmental science.Wind-blown sand direction is a base for both studying the formation and evolution of aeolian geomorphology and carrying out the sand damage control measures.In this study,a statistical analysis on wind-blown sand direction in an oasis-desert ecotone in Qira County,located in the south marginal zone of the Tarim Basin,was carried out during the period from 2010 to 2011.Some preliminary conclusions are as follows:(1) In the study area,the wind directions of sand-driving wind are mainly W and WNW,and the change of wind direction is comparatively simple;(2) In the study area,the wind directions at which the values of sediment discharge are high are dominated by NW,WNW,W,SW and WSW,and the occurring frequency is as high as 68.3%.An aeolian sediment discharge of 96 kg passing through a height extent of 0-40 cm and 1-cm width occurred.The annual resultant wind-blown sand amount is 45.9 kg,and the resultant wind-blown sand direction is 102.5°;(3) In the study area,the wind-blown sand potential and resultant wind-blown sand potential are 43.2 VU and 31.04 VU respectively.There is a considerable difference between the direction of wind-blown sand potential and the measured sediment discharge.It is recognized that wind-blown sand is a complex process,and various factors affecting wind-blow sand,such as wind speed,wind direction and underlying surface,should be comprehensively considered and researched.%利用策勒绿洲-荒漠过渡带风沙前沿输沙资料及风速风向资料,分析这一区域近地面输沙的方向分布特征。结果表明:①风沙前沿起沙风风向以W、WNW为

  12. In situ and laboratory investigation of the alteration of Boom Clay (Oligocene) at the air–geological barrier interface within the Mol underground facility (Belgium): Consequences on kerogen and bitumen compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boom Clay formation (Oligocene) is studied as a reference host rock for methodological studies on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. During excavation of galleries within the Clay formation (HADES underground research facility, Mol, Belgium), the physico-chemical conditions are significantly modified as an air–clay interface is created. In order to study the long-term impact of the air–clay contact on the organic matter contained in the Boom Clay, two types of samples were studied: (1) a reference series of clay samples having been in contact with the atmosphere of the HADES gallery for increasing times up to several years and (2) unaltered clay samples submitted to artificial oxidation in a ventilated oven at 80 °C. The evolution of geochemical data of the two series was compared using Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC–MS and size exclusion chromatography. The organic matter of the unaltered clays sampled in the HADES galleries is dominated by type III kerogen (terrestrial) with some contribution of type II (marine) and is thermally immature. The evolution of geochemical parameters during air alteration for the two series are very similar. They show progressive oxidation of kerogen accompanied by the release of bitumen enriched in low molecular weight constituents. Molecular analysis evidences the presence of a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic O-bearing compounds, inherited from the degradation of kerogen as well as from the clay catalyzed oxidation of the bitumen. These results show that (1) air oxidation is a major process in the in situ alteration of the organic matter of Boom Clay within the HADES galleries, (2) laboratory oxidation experiments at 80 °C yield similar results as in situ air alteration of Boom Clay and (3) artificial air oxidation may be used to assess the long term exposure of the organic matter to air.

  13. The Application of Melt Blown/Dry-Laid Composite Web in Automobile Sound-Absorbing Material and its Process%熔喷/干法纤网在线复合汽车吸音棉的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛长征; 邵庆国; 黄象安

    2012-01-01

    为了实现熔喷/干法纤网复合汽车吸音棉的在线生产,以开发300 g/m2的复合吸音棉为例,对熔喷工艺、干法纤网工艺以及熔喷/干法纤网在线复合等内容进行了分析介绍.结果表明:采用熔融指数150 g/min的聚丙烯切片,并控制好模头温度、热空气喷射角、热空气压力、接收距离等熔喷工艺参数,采用纤度为3.3 dtex的三维卷曲涤纶中空短纤维和阻燃涤纶短纤维组成的干法纤网,纤网加入熔喷丝的角度在75~83°之间时,能够得到较好的复合吸音棉材料.%To realize the on-line production of melt blown-dry laid composite automobile sound-absorbing material, the 300 g/m2 nonwoven is developed and the processes of melt blown fiber, dry-laid web and lamination of melt blown dry-laid web are investigated. The result indicates that the perfect composite sound-absorbing material can be obtained with following conditions: polypropylene chip with melt index 150 g/min, controlled die temperature, regulated hot air pressure and collection distance for melt blowing, the dry-laid web using 3.3 dtex three dimensional crimp PET hollow staple fiber and flame retardant PET staple fiber for dry-laid web, the jet angle of melt blown fiber with the web is 75~83°.

  14. EUB Decision 2006-112 : Suncor Energy Inc. application for expansion of an oil sands mine (North Steepbank mine extension) and a bitumen upgrading facility (Voyageur Upgrader) in the Fort McMurray area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    needed to increase the recovery of bitumen resources and provide the upgrading capacity required by Suncor for additional bitumen production from its mining and in situ projects. 1 fig

  15. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtron Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Dennis Sparks; Wilson Shafer

    2010-09-30

    The successful adaptation of conventional cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts for use in converting biomass-derived syngas hinges in part on understanding their susceptibility to byproducts produced during the biomass gasification process. With the possibility that oil production will peak in the near future, and due to concerns in maintaining energy security, the conversion of biomass-derived syngas and syngas derived from coal/biomass blends to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products to liquid fuels may provide a sustainable path forward, especially considering if carbon sequestration can be successfully demonstrated. However, one current drawback is that it is unknown whether conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt will be suitable without proper development because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using an entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier) than solely from coal, other byproducts may be present in higher concentrations. The current project examines the impact of a number of potential byproducts of concern from the gasification of biomass process, including compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the second year, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. Cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts were also subjected to a number of the same compounds in order to evaluate their sensitivities.

  16. Mixing effect of jet flow in the bottom-blown furnace based on CFD%基于 CFD的喷吹气流对底吹炉熔池的搅拌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝海鹏; 温治; 刘训良; 苏福永; 楼国锋; 郝晓红

    2014-01-01

    Using fluent software, a numerical model was set up based on a bottom-blown smelting furnace whose size is Ф4.4 ×16.5m.In the model, VOF model was used to simulate the blowing process and reactions between gas and liquid in the bath.The results show that 7°oxygen lance forms a better symmetric flow and better integrity than the 22°one, thus, leading to a bigger dead zone range because of worse agitations;in the range of 10~50m3/h, with the increase of the blowing flow rate, the jet stream is more continuous and concentrative, mixing effect of gas jet in the molten pool increa-ses, level fluctuation becomes larger.%利用Fluent软件,以规格为Ф4.4×16.5m的底吹熔炼炉为研究对象建立数学模型,选择VOF两相流模型对其氧枪吹氧过程和气液两相流在熔池中的相互作用进行数值模拟计算,结果表明:7°氧枪比22°氧枪在熔池内形成旋流的对称性和完整性好,但搅拌作用较差,死区范围较大;底吹流量在10~50m3/h范围内,随着底吹流量增加,射流流股变得连续和集中,气体对熔池内液相搅拌作用增强,液面波动变大。

  17. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalystes to Poisons form High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Khalid Azzam; Janet ChakkamadathilMohandas; Wilson Shafer

    2009-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations.

  18. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in effluents from the production of petroleum bitumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Makoś, Patrycja; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    We present a new procedure for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in samples of postoxidative effluents from the production of petroleum bitumens using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The eight extraction parameters were optimized for 43 oxygenated volatile organic compounds. The detection limits obtained ranged from 0.07 to 0.82 μg/mL for most of the analytes, the precision was good (relative standard deviation below 2.91% at the 5 μg/mL level and 4.75% at the limit of quantification), the recoveries for the majority of compounds varied from 70.6 to 118.9%, and the linear range was wide, which demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure. The developed procedure was used for the determination of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in samples of raw postoxidative effluents and in effluents after chemical treatment. In total, 23 compounds at concentration levels from 0.37 to 32.95 μg/mL were identified in real samples. The same samples were also analyzed in the SCAN mode, which resulted in four more phenol derivatives being identified and tentatively determined. The studies demonstrated the need for monitoring volatile organic compounds content in effluents following various treatments due to the formation of secondary oxygenated volatile organic compounds.

  19. Application of foamed bitumen cold-place recycling in heavy repair of highway%泡沫沥青就地冷再生在公路大修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勇

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces the application of the foamed bitumen cold-place recycling in the heavy repair of highways in Anhui province, illustrates the scheme selection and construction craft, and evaluates the application effect from conomy, the durability and well resistant reflection crack in foundation, so it provides experience for the selection for heavy repair of highways and the recycling utility of pavement used materials.%介绍了泡沫沥青就地冷再生在安徽省公路大修工程中的应用情况,就其方案比选及施工工艺流程进行了阐述,从其经济性、耐久性及良好的抗基层反射裂缝等方面对其使用效果进行了评价,为公路大修方案的选择及路面废旧料再生利用提供了可借鉴的经验.

  20. Blown away; new non-fiction

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    Review of 'The Manhattan Project' by Jeff Hughes which sets the mammoth collaboration into scientific context, showing how it both developed from and accelerated a research trend that was already underway (1/2 page).

  1. Atmospheric science: Blown with the wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang

    2014-02-01

    Wind systems determine the transport pathways of air pollutants such as ozone. Simulations with a chemistry-climate model suggest that decadal shifts in atmospheric circulation have helped shape season-specific trends in surface ozone levels in Hawaii since the 1990s.

  2. Radiated noise from an externally blown flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N. N.; Yu, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The far field noise from subsonic jet impingement on a wing-flap with a 45 deg bend was experimentally investigated. The test parameters are jet Mach number and flap length. For long flaps, the primary source mechanisms are found to be turbulent mixing and flow impingement. For short flaps, the interaction of turbulent flow with the flap trailing edge appears to strongly influence the radiated noise.

  3. Jet blown PTFE for control of biocompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibner, Evan Scott

    The development of fully hemocompatible cardiovascular biomaterials will have a major impact on the practice of modern medicine. Current artificial surfaces, unlike native vascular surfaces, are not able to control clot and thrombus formation. Protein interactions are an important component in hemocompatibility and can result in decreased patency due to thrombus formation or surface passivation which can improve endothelization. It is believed that controlling these properties, specifically the nanometer sizes of the fibers on the material's surface, will allow for better control of biological responses. The biocompatibility of Teflon, a widely used polymer for vascular grafts, would be improved with nanostructured control of surface features. Due to the difficultly in processing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), it has not been possible to create nanofibrous PTFE surfaces. The novel technique of Jet Blowing allows for the formation of nanostructured PTFE (nPTFE). A systematic investigation into controlling polymer properties by varying the processing conditions of temperature, pressure, and gas used in the Jet Blowing allows for an increased understanding of the effects of plasticization on the material's properties. This fundamental understanding of the material science behind the Jet Blowing process has enabled control of the micro and nanoscale structure of nPTFE. While protein adsorption, a key component of biocompatibility, has been widely studied, it is not fully understood. Major problems in the field of biomaterials include a lack of standard protocols to measure biocompatibility, and inconstant literature on protein adsorption. A reproducible protocol for measuring protein adsorption onto superhydrophobic surfaces (ePTFE and nPTFE) has been developed. Both degassing of PBS buffer solutions and evacuation of the air around the expanded PTFE (ePTFE) prior to contact with protein solutions are essential. Protein adsorption experiments show a four-fold difference in the measure of proteins adsorbed using radiometry (I-125 labeled human serum albumin (HSA)) and electrophoresis (unlabeled HSA). This provides evidence that the standard method of radiolabeled protein for measuring adsorption does not fully account for changes to the HSA molecules due to labeling. The differences between measured protein values can be attributed to the radiolabel affecting the HSA hydrophobicity resulting in a change in the protein's interactions with the hydrophobic surface. Additionally, our work has provided repeatable results showing that the amount of protein adsorbed onto the polymer surface, after washing, accounted for only 65% of the amount of protein that was removed from solution based on depletion analysis. This implies that measurement of the amount of strongly bound protein on the material significantly underestimates the actual amount of protein adsorbing into the surface region of the material interface. HSA adsorption isotherms demonstrate an increase in protein adsorption capacity on the nPTFE surface compared to adsorption on the same surface area of ePTFE. Preliminary cell work shows that the nPTFE surfaces had a larger number of cells growing on the surface of the material when compared to ePTFE surfaces. The research also shows that while most endothelial cells were not viable on the ePTFE surface after 96 hours, they remained alive on the nPTFE surface during that same time period. Surface functionalization using ammonia plasma has been performed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed the presence of amine groups on the nPTFE surface. The amine groups can be used to couple polypeptides onto the PTFE surface in the future. The selection of different peptides will allow for selective control of cell adhesion. This research shows that nPTFE has potential for improved biocompatibility over standard ePTFE, based on increased protein adsorption capacity, increased viability of endothelial cells, and the ability to plasma modify the PTFE surface.

  4. Sensitivity of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Water-Gas Shift Catalysts to Poisons from High-Temperature High-Pressure Entrained-Flow (EF) Oxygen-Blown Gasifier Gasification of Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton Davis; Gary Jacobs; Wenping Ma; Dennis Sparks; Khalid Azzam; Janet Chakkamadathil Mohandas; Wilson Shafer; Venkat Ramana Rao Pendyala

    2011-09-30

    There has been a recent shift in interest in converting not only natural gas and coal derived syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis products, but also converting biomass-derived syngas, as well as syngas derived from coal and biomass mixtures. As such, conventional catalysts based on iron and cobalt may not be suitable without proper development. This is because, while ash, sulfur compounds, traces of metals, halide compounds, and nitrogen-containing chemicals will likely be lower in concentration in syngas derived from mixtures of coal and biomass (i.e., using entrained-flow oxygen-blown gasifier gasification gasification) than solely from coal, other compounds may actually be increased. Of particular concern are compounds containing alkali chemicals like the chlorides of sodium and potassium. In the first year, University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) researchers completed a number of tasks aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of cobalt and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FT) catalysts and a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to alkali halides. This included the preparation of large batches of 0.5%Pt-25%Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 100Fe: 5.1Si: 3.0K: 2.0Cu (high alpha) catalysts that were split up among the four different entities participating in the overall project; the testing of the catalysts under clean FT and WGS conditions; the testing of the Fe-Cr WGS catalyst under conditions of co-feeding NaCl and KCl; and the construction and start-up of the continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for poisoning investigations. In the second and third years, researchers from the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) continued the project by evaluating the sensitivity of a commercial iron-chromia high temperature water-gas shift catalyst (WGS) to a number of different compounds, including KHCO{sub 3}, NaHCO{sub 3}, HCl, HBr, HF, H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and a combination of H

  5. 亲水熔喷聚丙烯非织造镍氢电池隔膜%Hydrophilic polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven as Ni/MH battery separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 沙长泓; 靳向煜

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophilic polypropylene melt-blown nonwoven fabrics were hot-pressed as MH-Ni battery separator.The influences of pressing temperature,time and pressure on the thickness,alkaline absorbing volume and speed of samples were investigated.Separator with surface density of 92 g/m2,alkaline absorbing volume of 760% and speed of 64 mm/30 min was obtained under the condition of hot-pressing at 55 ℃ and 2 MPa for 30 s.The initial specific capacity of Ni/MH battery assembled with 5 kinds of battery separators with different alkaline absorbing properties and porosity was higher than 70% of the theory value.When cycled 35 times in 0.9 ~2.0 V with 0.3 C,the discharge capacity retention was higher than 90%.%将亲水改性熔喷聚丙烯(PP)非织造材料模压后用作镍氢电池隔膜,研究了模压温度、时间和压力对样品厚度、吸碱率及吸碱速率的影响.在模压时间30 s、模压压力2 MPa、模压温度55℃的条件下,可以得到吸碱率为760%、吸碱速率为64 mm/30 min的电池隔膜(面密度为92 g/m2).5种具有不同吸收率、吸碱速率和孔隙率等性能的隔膜组装的镍氢电池,初始放电比容量均高于理论值的70%,以0.3C在0.9~2.0V循环35次,放电容量保持率都在90%以上.

  6. 接枝杜仲胶对干法橡胶沥青混合料的改性机理与效果%Modification mechanism and effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum on dry-process rubber bitumen mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 李聪; 蔡敏东

    2014-01-01

    Domestic natural rubber, the eucommia ulmoides gum( EUG) , was used to create chemi-cal links between rubber crumb and asphalt.After rubber crumb was mixed with EUG, it was found that by the microscopic analysis and macroscopic representation of mixture, EUG owns double bond structure which could be vulcanized with the sulfur of rubber crumb.EUG was grafted with maleic anhydride ( MA) reacting with the asphalt amino-group, and thus chemical links were built between the EUG and asphalt.Then the modification effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum, EUG and imports was experimented by the microscopic and performance test of rubber bitumen, the high and low temperature performance, water stability and mechanical property of dry-process rubber bitumen mixture.Test results show that EUG can contribute to the vulcanization of rubber crumb, but it can-not create the reaction network between the vulcanized rubber crumb and asphalt,so the rubber as-phalt mixture performance improvement is not obvious.EUG grafted with MA establishes the re-sponse network of vulcanized rubber crumb and asphalt, so the rubber asphalt mixture performance improvement is obvious, and the modification effect can reach the level of foreign products.There-fore, EUG can only achieve chemical reaction between rubber powder and asphalt through grafting, which is the fundament of the dry rubber asphalt mixture.%利用国内特有天然橡胶---杜仲胶来建立橡胶粉与沥青之间的化学链接。首先通过橡胶粉干拌杜仲胶后的微观分析和宏观表象,发现杜仲胶的双键结构可以与橡胶粉的硫交联硫化;并将杜仲胶接枝于沥青氨基反应的马来酸酐,在杜仲胶与沥青之间产生化学链接。然后通过对橡胶沥青微观和路用性能,以及干法橡胶沥青混合料高低温、水稳性及力学性能进行试验,研究了杜仲胶、国外进口橡胶反应剂的改性效果。试验结果表明:杜仲胶可以促进橡胶粉的硫化

  7. 接枝杜仲胶对干法橡胶沥青混合料的改性机理与效果%Modification mechanism and effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum on dry-process rubber bitumen mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 李聪; 蔡敏东

    2014-01-01

    利用国内特有天然橡胶---杜仲胶来建立橡胶粉与沥青之间的化学链接。首先通过橡胶粉干拌杜仲胶后的微观分析和宏观表象,发现杜仲胶的双键结构可以与橡胶粉的硫交联硫化;并将杜仲胶接枝于沥青氨基反应的马来酸酐,在杜仲胶与沥青之间产生化学链接。然后通过对橡胶沥青微观和路用性能,以及干法橡胶沥青混合料高低温、水稳性及力学性能进行试验,研究了杜仲胶、国外进口橡胶反应剂的改性效果。试验结果表明:杜仲胶可以促进橡胶粉的硫化,但没有建立硫化橡胶粉和沥青反应的网络,橡胶沥青混合料性能提高不明显;杜仲胶接枝马来酸酐后,建立了硫化橡胶粉与沥青的反应网络,橡胶沥青混合料性能提高明显,改性效果达到国外产品的水平。因此,杜仲胶只有通过接枝,才能真正达到使橡胶粉与沥青产生化学反应的目的,而这正是干法橡胶沥青混合料的根本。%Domestic natural rubber, the eucommia ulmoides gum( EUG) , was used to create chemi-cal links between rubber crumb and asphalt.After rubber crumb was mixed with EUG, it was found that by the microscopic analysis and macroscopic representation of mixture, EUG owns double bond structure which could be vulcanized with the sulfur of rubber crumb.EUG was grafted with maleic anhydride ( MA) reacting with the asphalt amino-group, and thus chemical links were built between the EUG and asphalt.Then the modification effect of grafted eucommia ulmoides gum, EUG and imports was experimented by the microscopic and performance test of rubber bitumen, the high and low temperature performance, water stability and mechanical property of dry-process rubber bitumen mixture.Test results show that EUG can contribute to the vulcanization of rubber crumb, but it can-not create the reaction network between the vulcanized rubber crumb and asphalt,so the rubber as

  8. Comparison of P-containing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni-Mo bimetallic carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts for HDN and HDS of gas oils derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaramurthy, V.; Dalai, A.K. [Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Adjaye, J. [Syncrude Edmonton Research Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-09-01

    Phosphorus containing {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported bimetallic Ni-Mo carbide, nitride and sulfide catalysts have been synthesized from an oxide precursor containing 12.73wt.% Mo, 2.54wt.% Ni and 2.38wt.% P and characterized by elemental analysis, pulsed CO chemisorption, surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction and DRIFT spectroscopy of CO adsorption. DRIFT spectroscopy of adsorbed CO on activated catalysts showed that carbide and nitride catalysts have surface exposed sites of Mo{sup o+} (0bitumen in the temperature range 340-370 and 375-400{sup o}C respectively at 8.8MPa. The gradual transformation of Ni-Mo carbide and nitride phases into Ni-Mo sulfide phases was observed during precoking period, and the formed Ni-Mo sulfide phases enhanced the HDN and HDS activities of carbide and nitride catalysts. The {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Ni-Mo bimetallic sulfide catalyst was found to be more active for HDN and HDS of light gas oil and heavy gas oil than the corresponding carbide and nitride catalysts on the basis of unit weight. (author)

  9. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms

  10. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Laurent; Helgeson, Harold C.

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for ˜360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17α(H)- and 17β(H)-hopanes, 5α(H),14α(H)-, 5β(H),14α(H)-, 5α(H),14β(H)-, and 5β(H),14β(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive

  11. Decontamination by fractional distillation of a radioactive mixture of perchlorethylene, bitumen, and sludges from chemical co-precipitations; Decontamination par distillation fractionnee d'un melange radioactif constitue par du perchlorethylene, du bitume et des boues de coprecipitation chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefillatre, G.; Hullo, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    It is not possible to incinerate the contaminated organic waste containing chlorine, produced at the Marcoule Centre. The only valid method for these solvents of average activity is fractional distillation. This report presents a pilot fractional distillation plant designed for decontaminating the residual solvents produced by the Centre's Waste Processing Station. These contaminated solvents come from the decontamination of a screw extrusion apparatus with perchlorethylene; this equipment is used for coating the radioactive sludges with bitumen. The pilot plant operates discontinuously and is used to decontaminate the perchlorethylene, to separate the perchlorethylene from the water, and to process the distillation residue. The electrically heated boiler is fitted with a removable base in the form of a disposable container. The installations decontamination factor is 3.4 x 10{sup 6} when solvents with a specific activity of 0.23 Ci/m{sup 3} are used. The average flow-rate for a distillation run is 10 l/hr at atmospheric pressure, and 21 l/hr at a residual pressure of 40 torr. The decontamination factor for the installation is better at atmospheric pressure than in a vacuum. (authors) [French] Les effluents organiques contamines chlores du Centre de Marcoule ne peuvent etre incineres. Le seul mode de traitement qui s'impose pour ces solvants de moyenne activite s'avere etre la distillation fractionnee. Ce rapport presente une installation pilote de distillation fractionnee qui a ete concue pour decontaminer des solvants residuaires provenant de la Station de Traitement des Effluents du Centre. Ces solvants contamines resultent de la decontamination au moyen de perchlorethylene d'une extrudeuse a vis servant a l'enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de cette station. L'installation pilote fonctionne en discontinu et assure a la fois la decontamination du perchlorethylene, la separation du perchlorethylene et de l'eau et le

  12. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties. Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. We propose the use of bioDiesel such as fatty acids methyl ester as a surfactant additive reducing heavy oil/bitumen-water interfacial tension in steam assisted recovery processes. Advantages of using bioDiesel as a surfactant additive are that bioDiesel is chemically stable under the operating pressure and temperature of the reservoir, it causes no harm on bitumen fuel quality and on release water chemistry and its use is economically feasible. We conducted a series of steam assisted bitumen recovery experiments to clarify the additional recovery potential and efficiency improvement capacity of bioDiesel. High pressure steam at 1.8 MPa pressure, 205°C was used in these tests at a 900 g/h feed rate. The porous media used was a normal grade oil sands ore obtained from a surface mine operation in Northern Alberta, Canada. Oil sands ore was packed in a basket and placed in a high pressure cell. Bitumen recovery experiments were performed by spraying canola oil fatty acid methyl ester on oil sands ore at a 2 g/kg-bitumen dosage. These tests show that bitumen recovery efficiency increases over 40%. In another series of tests, tall oil fatty acids methyl ester was injected into a high pressure steam line at a 8.3 g-bioDiesel/kg-steam dosage. Because of the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen, the effect of bioDiesel on bitumen recovery could not be accurately concluded. Vapor pressure measurements performed on canola oil and tall oil derived bioDiesel samples suggest that saturation

  13. 半干旱区城镇周边防沙——以内蒙古乌审旗达布察克镇为例%Protecting Cities and Towns from Blown-sand Disasters in Semi-arid Area of China —A case study of Dabqig Town in Uxin Banner of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓旭; 邹学勇; 张艺磊

    2013-01-01

    Sand-blown disasters frequently occur in semi-arid area of China where cities and towns are relatively densely located. It is imperative to protect cities and towns from sand-blown disasters in semi-arid Area. Based on field survey of sand source and vegetation cover, as well as wind-tunnel measurement of independent vegetation and mechanical windbreaks, a configuration model for sand-blown prevention and control measures are proposed. Based on principles of sand-control engineering system and sand-control measures construction for different underlying surfaces around the towns in semi-arid area, a sand-control model for protecting Dabqig Town of the Uxin Banner from sand-blown disasters can be outlined as a " three-ring" model. The innermost ring is landscape greenbelt zone with Dabqig Town at the core. This zone is located around Dabqig Town with the maximum distance of 600 - 900 m from the town. The second ring is sand dune enclosure and agriculture-stock production zone, including two sub-zones. The facility agriculture sub-zone has a width of about 1 km. The exurb sub-zone of sand dune/land enclosure and individual agriculture-stock production covers a larger area, and an outstanding feature of this sub-zone is that its main area is used for ecological environment construction as well protection, and a relatively small area is used for agriculture-stock production. The outermost ring is sand dune/land enclosure and protection zone. This zone is located in northwest of the Uxin Banner. It mainly includes mobile and semi-mobile dune chains and flat drifting sand-land, thus is the main sand/dust source for Dabqig Town. Therefore this zone should be enclosed and protected using corresponding sand-control measures.%中国半干旱区城镇众多,风沙灾害频发,开展城镇风沙灾害防治研究势在必行.以毛乌素沙地的乌审旗达布察克镇为例,对其周边沙尘源地和植被进行实地调查;在此基础上,结合单项植物、机械沙

  14. Solution-blown nanofiber mats from fish sarcoplasmic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sett, S.; Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; Yarin, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, solution-blowing was adopted to form nanofibers from fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSPs). Nanofiber mats containing different weight ratios (up to 90/10) of FSP in the FSP/nylon 6 blended nanofibers were formed from formic acid solutions, and compared to electrospun fibers made...... techniques were similar, but with some exceptions. The fiber diameter of the electrospun fibers was slightly smaller than those made using solution-blowing, however in both cases the fiber diameter increased with increasing FSP content. Interestingly, for uniform fibers the stretchability of the fibers...... that the production rate of solution-blowing was increased 30-fold in relation to electrospinning. Overall, this study reveals FSP as an interesting biopolymeric alternative to synthetic polymers, and the introduction of FSP to nylon 6 provides a composite with controlled properties....

  15. Orbital emphysema: nose blowing leading to a blown orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, M Saad

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with a painful swelling around the right eye few hours after blowing her nose, presented to the accident and emergency department. There was no associated history of facial trauma. Examination revealed a grossly swollen right eye and palpable subcutaneous emphysema. The patient's visual acuity and eye movements were normal. A CT scan of the orbit confirmed orbital emphysema secondary to a fracture of the floor of the orbit into the maxillary sinus, as a result of increased intranasal pressure during nose blowing. The patient was admitted and managed conservatively with antibiotics. She made a full recovery with complete resolution of all her symptoms. A nasal bone fracture was also seen on CT scan and even though the patient could not recall any history of facial trauma, it was an incidental finding. PMID:26516251

  16. Surface Haze and Surface Morphology of Blown Film Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajen; Ratta, Varun; Saavedra, Pepe; Li, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Reduction in surface haze is a very attractive way to improve the optical properties of most polyolefin films. This route becomes very viable for coextruded multilayer films where the inner layers may be utilized to provide the desired mechanical properties, such as high modulus, controlled shrinkage, and good tear strength while the outer 'skin' layers are utilized to give low surface and ...

  17. Comet mission is blown off course by faulty rocket

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2003-01-01

    ESA has announced that the launch of the Rosetta probe, has been delayed indefinitely because of problems with the unreliable Ariane-5 rocket on which it was to fly. The project will now have to be redesigned completely to target a different comet at a later date (1/2 page).

  18. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Response Law of Wind-blown Sand Flow around Wind-break Wall in Gobi Area%风沙流对戈壁地区挡风墙响应规律的数值模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓军; 蒋富强

    2016-01-01

    Numerical Simulation of the motion characteristics of wind-blown sand flow around the existing wind-break wall along Lanzhou-Urumqi Railway based on FLUENT eulerian two-fluid model is conducted to identify the distribution features of the flow field and accumulated sand at the leeward side of wind-break. The results show that, wind profile change law shows an exponential increasing tendency at the leeward side of wind-break wall, the changes at the height of 0. 5 m to wind-break wall itself are complex and tend to decrease and then increase;the airflow velocity on near-surface at the leeward side of wind-break wall is increased in the reserve direction, reduced to 0 along the direction of the initial velocity, continued to increase to the initial velocity, and the maximum wind speed increase rate remains at about 50%, the higher the wind speed, the more obvious the airflow of weakening effect; when the initial velocity is small, less sand is accumulated on the line, and sand accumulation is concentrated at the corner of the leeward side of wind-break wall; with the increase of wind speed, more sand passes through the windbreak in unit time and even more sand is deposited along the line due to the reduction of flow cross-section and diffusion of air; in strong wind areas, the surface conditions affecting wind direction should be investigated before wind-break wall is located, engineering measures should be taken where sand source is rich to reduce sand flow density and prevent sand invasion.%基于FLUENT欧拉双流体模型,对兰新铁路沿线既有挡风墙周围风沙两相流运动特性进行数值模拟,得到挡风墙背风侧的流场分布特点以及积沙情况。结果表明:挡风墙背风侧风速廓线变化规律呈指数增长趋势,在0.5 m至挡风墙自身高度区间内变化较为复杂,呈先减小后增加的趋势;挡风墙背风侧近地表气流速度反向增大后沿着初始速度的方向减小为0且继续增大至初

  19. 风积砂质高浓度胶凝充填材料性能与粉煤灰掺量关系分析%RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENGINEERING PERFORMANCE AND MIX PROPORTION OF FLY ASH FOR CEMENTED AND HIGH CONCENTRATION BACKFILL MATERIAL WITH WIND-BLOWN SAND AS AGGREGATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东

    2016-01-01

    In coal mining with backfill,backfill material dominates the benefit,efficiency and effect.In order to get the characteristics varying pattern of cemented and high concentration backfill material with wind-blown sand as aggregate,fly ash is selected as variables to test and analyze the characteristics varying pattern of backfill material with the mix proportion of fly ash.The results show that,as the mix proportion of fly ash increases in a proper range in backfill material,the compressive strength increases,the bleeding rate decreases in general,the layered degree declines by linear pattern,the coagulation time grows up by exponential pattern,and the slump is growing consecutively.But,with the higher mix proportion of fly ash,the compressive strength and slump will drop comparatively.When the mix proportion of fly ash is in proper range,the fly ash optimizes the particle size gradient of backfill material,and makes water and cement distribution uniform in backfill material.As a result,the strength characteristic and rheological performance can be improved.However,some characteristics will degenerate with higher mix proportion of fly ash.%充填材料是决定煤炭充填开采效益、效率、效果的最主要因素.为了掌握风积砂质高浓度胶凝充填材料的性能变化规律,本文以粉煤灰的质量掺入比作为变量,试验研究和理论分析了粉煤灰对该充填材料性能的影响规律.结果表明,粉煤灰的适量添加可以提高充填材料的强度,大掺量导致强度相对降低;泌水率随着粉煤灰掺量的增大总体上呈减小趋势,较大掺量试样泌水速率相对较低;分层度随着粉煤灰掺量的增大线性降低;凝结时间随着粉煤灰掺量增大呈现指数增大;坍落度总体上随粉煤灰掺量的升高而增大,但大掺量会使其出现相对降低.分析认为,适量粉煤灰的掺入,使风积砂质高浓度胶凝充填材料的颗粒粒度、水分分布和水泥分散均匀,而使材

  20. Bitumen coating of the radio-active sludges from the effluent treatment plant at the Marcoule centre. Review of the progress reports 1, 2, 3 and 4 (1963); Enrobage par le bitume des boues radioactives de la station de traitement des effluents du centre de Marcoule. Mise au point des etats d'avancement 1, 2, 3 et 4. (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Scheidhauer, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    Besides the very high activity liquids containing fission products, the chemical treatment of irradiated fuels produces a large volume of aqueous effluents and solid waste of relatively low radioactivity. These weakly active products can be eliminated in the ground, in a hydrographic land system or in the sea. Techniques of evaporation, of resin concentration, and of coprecipitation give rise to inorganic sludges with a high water content. All these residues occupy a large volume and represent a far from negligible weight. In the case of the sludge, their relative fluidity necessitates a conditioning guaranteeing safe storage. The solution to the problem will consist in passing directly from a liquid or a suspension, to a solid whose structure is homogeneous and whose matter is inert with respect to the storage medium (soil, sea, etc. ). We have proposed to coat the radioactive products with bitumen. This article is designed to give a review of the studies undertaken on this method. It consists of a progress report rather than a final assessment. (authors) [French] En dehors des liquides de tres haute activite contenant des produits de fission, le traitement chimique des combustibles irradies produit un volume important d'effluents aqueux et de residus solides de radioactivite relativement faible. Ces produits, faiblement actifs, peuvent etre elimines dans le sol, dans un systeme hydrographique terrestre ou dans la mer. Les techniques d'evaporation, de concentration sur resine, de coprecipitation, permettent la decontamination prealable des liquides. La coprecipitation donne naissance a des boues minerales dont la teneur en eau est elevee. Tous ces residus occupent un volume important et representent un poids non negligeable. Dans le cas des boues, leur fluidite relative exige un conditionnement donnant toutes garanties de securite au stockage. La solution du probleme consistera a passer directement d'un liquide ou d'une suspension a un solide

  1. Inhibition of the radiolytic hydrogen production in the nuclear waste of 'bitumen coated' type: study of the interaction between hydrogen and cobalt hydroxo-sulphide; Inhibition de la production d'hydrogene radiolytique dans les dechets nucleaires de type 'enrobes bitumineux': etude de l'interaction entre l'hydrogene et l'hydroxosulfure de cobalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, C

    2006-11-15

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxo sulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an 'inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production'. However, the origin of this phenomenon was not clearly identified. In order to propose an explanation to this inhibition phenomenon, model organic molecules were used to represent the components of the bitumen. Irradiations were carried out by protons to simulate the alpha radiolysis. The organic molecules irradiations by a proton beam showed that cobalt hydroxo sulphide CoSOH, does not act as a hydrogenation catalyst of unsaturated hydrocarbons, nor as a radicals scavenger, but consists of a trap of hydrogen. Experiments of hydrogen trapping at ambient temperature were carried out according to two techniques: gravimetry and manometry. The solid was characterized before and after interaction with hydrogen (infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction). The initial solid was composed of amorphous cobalt hydroxo sulphide and a minor phase of cobalt hydroxide. The gravimetry and manometry experiments showed that the maximum of hydrogen trapping capacity is equal to 0.59 {+-} 0.18 mole of hydrogen per mole of cobalt. After interaction with hydrogen, the Co(OH){sub 2} phase disappeared and a new solid phase appeared corresponding to Co{sub 9}S{sub 8}. These observations, as well as the analysis of the gas phase, made it possible to conclude with the following reaction (1): 9 CoSOH + 11/2 H{sub 2} = Co{sub 9}S{sub 8} + 9 H{sub 2}O + H{sub 2}S (1). Gravimetry experiments at temperatures between 50 and 210 C revealed the desorption of water but not of hydrogen sulphide. The absence of hydrogen

  2. Oil generation history of Paleozoic source rocks and its implications for the origin of Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in Northeastern Sichuan Basin%川东北地区古生界烃源岩生油模拟及其对飞仙关组储层沥青来源的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳飞; 王一刚

    2013-01-01

    The origin of Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in the Northeastern Sichuan Basin has been controversial for a long time.Previous knowledge mostly was based on geochemical data,and less hydrocarbon generation procedure was taken into account.In this study,basin modeling was used to investigate oil generation histories and resource potentials of three probable hydrocarbon source rocks (the Lower Cambrian,the Lower Permian and the Upper Permian mudstones) for the Feixianguan reservoir bitumens in Northeastern Sichuan basin.The results showed that the main oil generation stages occurred in the Permian-early Triassic period,early-middle Triassic period and late Triassic-early Jurassic period for the Lower Cambrian,Lower Permian and Upper Permian mud source rocks,respectively.With respect to resource potentials,the Lower Silurian mudstone source rocks produced the largest amount of oils during the whole middle-late Triassic period,accounting for 80%-90% of the total oils generated by the three sets of source rocks.During the early Jurassic sedimentary period,the Upper Permian shale was the primary oil source rocks in the Puguang area and the Lower Silurian shale became sub-ordinary,only accounting for 10%-20% of total oils generated during this period.However,the Lower Silurian shale source rocks contributed about 80% of oils in the Luojiazhai area.Considering absolute oil quantities generated in the middle-late Triassic period much more than those in the early Jurassic period,the oils in Feixianguan giant paleo-pools were believed to be sourced from the Lower Silurian hydrocarbon source rock and a minor contribution from the Permian shale source rock,and its contribution is variable in different regions.It was worthy to note that the huge quantities of oils generated from the Lower Cambrian shale were not trapped in the Feixianguan paleo-pools,because their generation was prior to the formation of Feixianguan reservoirs.They might be trapped in the Paleozoic

  3. Characteristics of two-component epoxy modified bitumen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Y.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Su, Z.; Zandvoort, F.

    2010-01-01

    Coal tar bearing emulsions were used in the Netherlands as binder in anti-skid surfaces for runways because of their perfect adhesion and fuel resistance properties. They are however toxic and will not be allowed anymore after 2010. Therefore alternatives need to be developed. As one of the alternat

  4. Contribution to improving of the sands-bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, S.; Saoula, S.; Muñoz, M. E.; Santamaría, A.

    2012-09-01

    Algeria is a country made up of about 75% desert. It is a country rich in sand dune. Roads made in these regions have had very significant damage. Their repairs are very expensive because there are generally isolated roads and supporting low traffic. Aggregates represent about 94% of the asphalt mixture. Aggregate quarries which have good characteristics for bituminous concrete are found in northern Algeria. The transport of these aggregates from north to south is extremely expensive. This makes the project to the south of Algeria very expensive. In order to overcome the lack of aggregates, the use of local materials becomes a necessity. In this study we were interested in the sand dunes in two regions of southern Algeria: El-Oued and Ouargla. The objective of this work is to find ways to improve the mechanical properties of these sands to increase the life of pavements with low traffic in these areas. We have associated with these sands: crushed sand of the north, cement, lime and sulfur. Hubbard Field test, Marshall test, and Duriez test were applied to the different bituminous mixtures. This study showed that some associations have given encouraging results.

  5. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report

  6. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  7. Response Modelling of Bitumen, Bituminous Mastic and Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on testing and modelling the viscoelastic response of bituminous binders. The main goal is to find an appropriate response model for bituminous binders. The desired model should allow implementation into numerical environments such as ABAQUS. On the basis of such numerical envi

  8. Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Li Bo; Xiao-Jing Zheng; Shao-Zhen Duan; Yi-Rui Liang

    2013-01-01

    In the research of windblown sand movement,the lift-off and incident velocities of saltating sand particles play a significant role in bridging the spatial and temporal scales from single sand particle's motion to windblown sand flux.In this paper,we achieved wind tunnel measurements of the movement of sand particles near sand bed through improving the wind tunnel experimental scheme of paticle image velocimetry (PIV) and data processing method.And then the influence of observation height on the probability distributions of lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles was analyzed.The results demonstrate that the observation height has no obvious influence on the distribution pattern of the lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles,i.e.,the probability distribution of horizontal and vertical velocities of lift-off and incident sand particles follow a Gaussian distribution and a negative exponential distribution,respectively.However,it influences the center of the Gaussian distribution,the decay constant and the amplitude of the negative exponential distribution.

  9. Specific features of a stopped pipe blown by a turbulent jet: Aeroacoustics of the panpipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvray, Roman; Fabre, Benoît; Meneses, Felipe; de la Cuadra, Patricio; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2016-06-01

    Flute-like instruments with a stopped pipe were widely used in ancient cultures and continue to be used in many musical expressions throughout the globe. They offer great flexibility in the input control parameters, allowing for large excursions in the flux and in the geometrical configuration for the lips of the instrumentalist. For instance, the transverse offset of the jet axis relative to the labium can be shifted beyond the operational limits found in open-open pipes, and the total jet flux can be increased up to values that produce highly turbulent jets while remaining on the first oscillating regime. Some of the fundamental aspects of the acoustics and hydrodynamics of this kind of instrument are studied, like the instability of the jet wave and the static aerodynamic balance in the resonator. A replica of an Andean siku has been created to observe, through the Schlieren flow visualization, the behavior of both excitation and resonator of the instrument. PMID:27369145

  10. Thermo-mechanical behavior and structure of melt blown shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L; Boothby, Jennifer M; Kelly, Cambre N; Beatty, Kyle; Lakhera, Nishant; Frick, Carl P; Lin, Angela; Guldberg, Robert E; Griffis, Jack C

    2016-09-01

    New processing methods for shape-memory polymers allow for tailoring material properties for numerous applications. Shape-memory nonwovens have been previously electrospun, but melt blow processing has yet to be evaluated. In order to determine the process parameters affecting shape-memory behavior, this study examined the effect of air pressure and collector speed on the mechanical behavior and shape-recovery of shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens. Mechanical behavior was measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile testing, and shape-recovery was measured by unconstrained and constrained recovery. Microstructure changes throughout the shape-memory cycle were also investigated by micro-computed tomography. It was found that increasing collector speed increases elastic modulus, ultimate strength and recovery stress of the nonwoven, but collector speed does not affect the failure strain or unconstrained recovery. Increasing air pressure decreases the failure strain and increases rubbery modulus and unconstrained recovery, but air pressure does not influence recovery stress. It was also found that during the shape-memory cycle, the connectivity density of the fibers upon recovery does not fully return to the initial values, accounting for the incomplete shape-recovery seen in shape-memory nonwovens. With these parameter to property relationships identified, shape-memory nonwovens can be more easily manufactured and tailored for specific applications. PMID:27310570

  11. Hydrological Implications of Covering Wind-Blown Snow Accumulations with Geotextiles on Mount Aragats, Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Nestler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Snow is an excellent water reservoir, naturally storing large quantities of water at time scales from a few days to several months. In summer-dry countries, like Armenia, runoff due to snow melt from mountain regions is highly important for a sustained water supply (irrigation, hydropower. Snow fields on Mount Aragats, Armenia’s highest peak, often persist until July, providing vital amounts of melt water. Artificially managing these wind-driven snow accumulations as a natural water reservoir might have considerable potential. In the context of the Swiss-Armenian joint venture, Freezwater, snow fields are covered with geotextiles in order to delay snow melt long enough to provide additional melt water in the dry season of the year. In this study, we analyze the hydrological effectiveness of the artificial management of the natural snow cover on Mount Aragats based on various field measurements acquired over a three-year period and numerical modeling. Over the winter season, partly more than five meter-thick snow deposits are formed supported by snow redistribution by strong wind. Repeated mappings of snow fields indicate that snow cover patterns remain highly consistent over time. Measurements of ablation below manually applied geotextiles show a considerable reduction of melt rates by more than 50%. Simulations with an energy-balance model and a distributed temperature-index model allow assessing the hydrological effect of artificial snow management for different initial snow depths and elevations and suggest that coverage is needed at a large scale in order to generate a significant impact on discharge.

  12. Poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and Polylactide/Polytrimethylene Carbonate Blown Films

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongli; Chang, Jiangping; Qin, Yuyue; Wu, Yan; Yuan, Minglong; Zhang, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and polylactide/ polytrimethylene carbonate films are prepared using a film blowing method. The process parameters, including temperature and screw speed, are studied, and the structures and properties of the P(LA-TMC) and PLA/PTMC films are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that upon improving the content of TMC and PTMC, the lamellar structures of the films are obviously changed. With increasing TMC monomer...

  13. CPC air-blown integrated gasification combined cycle project. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The overall project cost and schedule. The combustion turbine commercial operation date is scheduled for 7/1/95 with the combined cycle commercial operation date of 7/1/96. A two year demonstration period will commence after IGCC commercial operation. Details of costs on a total project and DOE Envelope basis along with detailed schedule components were covered. Major cost variances to date were discussed. The major variances this year relate to contracts which were anticipated to be finalized mid 1992 but which are not executed. These include GEESI, the ASU and key vessels. Some of these contracts are almost in place and others are scheduled for the first quarter 1993. Numerous project specifications, process flow diagrams, piping and instrument diagrams and other drawings have been reviewed and approved as part of the preliminary engineering process.

  14. Thermo-mechanical behavior and structure of melt blown shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safranski, David L; Boothby, Jennifer M; Kelly, Cambre N; Beatty, Kyle; Lakhera, Nishant; Frick, Carl P; Lin, Angela; Guldberg, Robert E; Griffis, Jack C

    2016-09-01

    New processing methods for shape-memory polymers allow for tailoring material properties for numerous applications. Shape-memory nonwovens have been previously electrospun, but melt blow processing has yet to be evaluated. In order to determine the process parameters affecting shape-memory behavior, this study examined the effect of air pressure and collector speed on the mechanical behavior and shape-recovery of shape-memory polyurethane nonwovens. Mechanical behavior was measured by dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile testing, and shape-recovery was measured by unconstrained and constrained recovery. Microstructure changes throughout the shape-memory cycle were also investigated by micro-computed tomography. It was found that increasing collector speed increases elastic modulus, ultimate strength and recovery stress of the nonwoven, but collector speed does not affect the failure strain or unconstrained recovery. Increasing air pressure decreases the failure strain and increases rubbery modulus and unconstrained recovery, but air pressure does not influence recovery stress. It was also found that during the shape-memory cycle, the connectivity density of the fibers upon recovery does not fully return to the initial values, accounting for the incomplete shape-recovery seen in shape-memory nonwovens. With these parameter to property relationships identified, shape-memory nonwovens can be more easily manufactured and tailored for specific applications.

  15. Distribution and provenance of wind-blown SE Pacific surface sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saukel, C.; Lamy, F.; Stuut, J.B.W.; Tiedemann, R.; Vogt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of low-latitude ocean-atmosphere interactions is one of the major issues of (paleo-) environmental studies. The trade winds, extending over 20 degrees to 30 degrees of latitude in both hemispheres, between the subtropical highs and the intertropical convergence zone, are major com

  16. The lived body in schizophrenia: Transition from basic self-disorders to full-blown psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eIrarrázaval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the results of a phenomenological study of patients with schizophrenia during their first psychiatric hospitalisation. The study aims at clarify aspects related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and to reach a greater understanding of the illness, with a view to contribute to prevention and psychotherapeutic intervention models. Firstly, the paper offers a description of the patients’ disembodiment manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, it presents a description of the subjective anomalies that may be considered as disorders of ipseity or of pre-reflexive self-awareness. Thirdly, the description is extended to encompass secondary disturbances to processes of establishing consensual intersubjectivity that lead to difficulties in shared communication practices and a progressive withdrawal from the intersubjective world. The conclusion states that a structural element, a key part of the personal processes involved in schizophrenia, is the diminishment of self-presence in experience, which manifests on both individual and social levels.

  17. The lived body in schizophrenia: transition from basic self-disorders to full-blown psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irarrázaval, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the results of a phenomenological study of patients with schizophrenia during their first psychiatric hospitalization. The study aims at clarify aspects related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and to reach a greater understanding of the illness, with a view to contribute to prevention and psychotherapeutic intervention models. First, the paper offers a description of the patients' "disembodiment" manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Second, it presents a description of the subjective anomalies that may be considered as disorders of "ipseity" or of pre-reflexive self-awareness. Third, the description is extended to encompass secondary disturbances to processes of establishing consensual intersubjectivity that lead to difficulties in shared communication practices and a progressive withdrawal from the intersubjective world. The conclusion states that a structural element, a key part of the personal processes involved in schizophrenia, is the diminishment of self-presence in experience, which manifests on both individual and social levels.

  18. Blown by the wind. Replacing nuclear power in German electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only three days after the beginning of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, Japan, on 11 March 2011, the German government ordered 8 of the country's 17 existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) to stop operating within a few days. In summer 2011 the government put forward a law – passed in parliament by a large majority – that calls for a complete nuclear phase-out by the end of 2022. These government actions were in contrast to its initial plans, laid out in fall 2010, to expand the lifetimes of the country's NPPs. The immediate closure of 8 NPPs and the plans for a complete nuclear phase-out within little more than a decade, raised concerns about Germany's ability to secure a stable supply of electricity. Some observers feared power supply shortages, increasing CO2-emissions and a need for Germany to become a net importer of electricity. Now – a little more than a year after the phase-out law entered into force – this paper examines these concerns using (a) recent statistical data on electricity production and demand in the first 15 months after the German government's immediate reaction to the Fukushima accident and (b) reviews the most recent projections and scenarios by different stakeholders on how the German electricity system may develop until 2025, when NPPs will no longer be in operation. The paper finds that Germany has a realistic chance of fully replacing nuclear power with additional renewable electricity generation on an annual basis by 2025 or earlier, provided that several related challenges, e.g. expansion of the grids and provision of balancing power, can be solved successfully. Already in 2012 additional electricity generation from renewable energy sources in combination with a reduced domestic demand for electricity will likely fully compensate for the reduced power generation from the NPPs shut down in March 2011. If current political targets will be realised, Germany neither has to become a net electricity importer, nor will be unable to gradually reduce fossil fuel generated electricity. Whether the reduction in fossil fuel use will be sufficient to adequately contribute to national greenhouse gas mitigation targets significantly depends on an active policy to promote electricity savings, continuous efforts to increase the use of renewables and a higher share of natural gas (preferably used in combined heat and power plants) in fossil fuel power generation.

  19. Distribution and provenance of wind-blown SE Pacific surface sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Saukel, C.; Lamy, F; J. B. W. Stuut; Tiedemann, R; Vogt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of low-latitude ocean-atmosphere interactions is one of the major issues of (paleo-) environmental studies. The trade winds, extending over 20 degrees to 30 degrees of latitude in both hemispheres, between the subtropical highs and the intertropical convergence zone, are major components of the atmospheric circulation and little is known about their long-term variability on geological time-scales, in particular in the Pacific sector. We present the modern spatial pattern of...

  20. Poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and polylactide/polytrimethylene carbonate blown films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Chang, Jiangping; Qin, Yuyue; Wu, Yan; Yuan, Minglong; Zhang, Yingjie

    2014-01-01

    In this work, poly(lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate) and polylactide/ polytrimethylene carbonate films are prepared using a film blowing method. The process parameters, including temperature and screw speed, are studied, and the structures and properties of the P(LA-TMC) and PLA/PTMC films are investigated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that upon improving the content of TMC and PTMC, the lamellar structures of the films are obviously changed. With increasing TMC monomer or PTMC contents, the elongation at the break is improved, and the maximum is up to 525%. The water vapor permeability (WVP) results demonstrate that the WVP of the PLA/PTMC film increased with the increase in the PTMC content, whereas the WVP of the P(LA-TMC) film decreased. Thermogravimetric (TG) measurements reveal that the decomposition temperatures of the P(LA-TMC) and PLA/PTMC films decrease with increases in the TMC and PTMC contents, respectively, but the processing temperature is significantly lower than the initial decomposition temperature. P(LA-TMC) or PLA/PTMC film can extend the shelf life of apples, for instance, like commercial LDPE film used in fruit packaging in supermarkets. PMID:24534806

  1. A supergiant supernova-blown bubble in the spiral galaxy NGC 1620

    CERN Document Server

    Vader, J P; Vader, J Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present UBR and H\\alpha imaging of NGC 1620, a highly inclined spiral galaxy that contains a large scale, arc-like feature of radius 3 kpc in its outer disk at a distance of \\sim 11 kpc from the center. What is unusual about this arc-like feature is its stellar nature and the presence of a luminous star cluster at its center. The arc is fragmented into HII region complexes and OB star clusters and shows two kinks in optical continuum light. It spans an angle of 220^{\\circ} on our U image and a full, though fragmented, circle on an unsharp masked R image. It is centered on a young star cluster that is the most luminous clump in blue optical continuum light besides the nucleus of the galaxy. This central star cluster has UBR colors and a surface brightness similar to those of other HII regions, but is a relatively weak H\\alpha emitter. It consists of at least three unresolved condensations in optical continuum light. Its location at the center of the arc and its prominence within the galaxy suggests that it ...

  2. Evaluating Properties of Middle East Bitumen and Preparing Modified Bitumen%中东基质沥青评价及改性沥青研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉同; 黄婉利; 沈家永

    2013-01-01

    选用高温、中温、低温性能较优的Bahrain沥青作为改性沥青的原料沥青,采用SBS、GN-1及GN-2改性剂进行复合,制备了PG 76-16、PG 76-22、PG 82-16、PG 82-22四个系列改性沥青产品,优化配方,降低成本,其技术方案在中东地区应用,具有较好的经济效益.

  3. Bitumen and biocarbon : land use conversions and loss of biological carbon due to bitumen operations in the Boreal forests of Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, P.; Cheng, R.

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed land use changes, biological carbon content, and the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by existing and future oil sands mining and in situ extraction in Alberta, Canada. The study focused on estimating changes to the natural ecosystems caused by open pit mines, tailings ponds, mine waste, overburden piles and other major infrastructure put in place by surface mining activities. The study showed that a total of 488,968 ha of peatlands, mineral wetlands, and upland forest ecosystems have undergone changes as a result of oil sands mining activities. Natural ecosystems that have undergone land use changes as a result of exploration wells, production wells, access roads, pipelines, and other infrastructure related to existing and potential in situ operations totalled 1,124,919 ha. If all 578.9 megatonnes of carbon produced by oil sands mines in Alberta were emitted, it is likely that 873.4 megatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be released into the atmosphere. The average annual release of CO{sub 2} was estimated at 8.7 megatonnes over a 100 year period. 59 refs., 11 tabs., 12 figs.

  4. A unified model for prediction of CSOR in steam-based bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmunds, N.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A model was used to estimate the cumulative steam-oil ratio (CSOR) of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes in high-permeability reservoirs. The aim of the model was to correlate the CSOR performance of current SAGD projects against single reservoir variables, and was designed for use in evaluations and economic analyses. The model assumed that depletion was gravity driven, and that produced oil from the steam zone was uniformly reduced to residual oil saturation. An empirical constant was used to account for heat stored below the chamber as a factor of the overburden transient losses. CSOR was predicted as a function of time. Model parameters were tested at EnCana's Foster Creek McMurray project and at Canadian Natural Resources' Primrose Grand Rapids site, while CSS data were obtained from the Cold Lake Clearwater project. The model was then used to compare SAGD and CSS projects. Results showed that vertical-radial geometry was thermally inefficient when compared to the horizontal trough used in SAGD operations. Vertical CSS methods also made inefficient use of the gravity potential of oil, due to the radial inflow constriction in the near-wellbore region. It was concluded that horizontal drainage geometry was able to sustain higher production rates at higher bottom hole viscosities.10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  5. Biotechnological methods for upgrading of bitumen, heavy oil, and residue. Final report for phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, G.; Rioux, S.; Scharer, J.M.; Moo-Young, M.

    1989-01-01

    Research was conducted on establishing the most suitable organisms and growth conditions for microbially upgrading Lloydminster crude. A series of comparative experiments were performed, using a variety of bacterial species and growth conditions for both Lloydminster crude and a synthetic analogue. These early experiments indicated a superiority of one organism, Arthrobacter paraffineus, in viscosity and interfacial surface tension reduction and for sulfur removal. Optimum growth conditions and medium compositions were determined. In a series of studies aimed at optimizing the performance of Arthrobacter paraffineus in a continuously stirred tank reactor, various combinations of media, aeration, and growth conditions were investigated using Lloydminster crude as a substrate. It was found that 12% of the organic sulfur could be removed during a six-day incubation period under aerobic conditions. Sulfur removal was dependent on growth conditions. Comparative studies under anaerobic conditions were performed with Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. Anoxic conditions were maintained by sparging the continuous stirred reactor with nitrogen. The sulfur removal ranged from 10.7% in synthetic media to 0.17% sulfur from crude oil. The low sulfur removal from crude oil was attributed to growth-inhibitory compounds in the crude. These preliminary results indicate that limited sulfur removal from crude oil is possible using monocultures of Arthrobacter paraffineus or Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. A concurrent beneficial effect is a reduction of viscosity (by biosurfactants) and surface tension obtainable under these conditions. 8 refs., 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Solution gas flaring and venting at Alberta primary crude bitumen operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board is mandated by the Government of Alberta to ensure fair, responsible development and delivery of energy resources and utilities services in Alberta while maintaining the best public interest. One of the agencies' priorities is the reduction of solution gas flaring and venting. The performance of solution gas flaring and venting in Alberta and best practices respecting solution gas conservation are discussed. Data was presented on solution gas production, solution gas conserved, and solution gas conservation efficiency. The paper described best practices solutions such as increased gas to oil (GOR) test frequency; predetermination of economic gas conservation; collaboration with county gas utilities; and utilization of portable and scalable gas compression. The paper also presents a discussion of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA), a non-profit multistakeholder that recommended enhancements to Guide 60. Requirements discussed include the requirement to conserve solution gas at certain sites exceeding established flare and vent volumes, gas conservation prebuild requirements, and enhanced economic evaluation process. 5 figs.

  7. Recycled tyre rubber modified bitumens for road asphalt mixtures: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Presti, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, only a small percentage of waste tyres are being land-filled. The Recycled Tyre Rubber is being used in new tyres, in tyre-derived fuel, in civil engineering applications and products, in moulded rubber products, in agricultural uses, recreational and sports applications and in rubber modified asphalt applications. The benefits of using rubber modified asphalts are being more widely experienced and recognized, and the incorporation of tyres into asphalt is likely to increase. The te...

  8. Physico-mechanical properties of asphalt concrete based on road bitumen modified by rapeseed oil epoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Nykypanchuk, Mykhailo; Hrynchuk, Yurii; Olchovyk, Mykola

    2013-01-01

    The investigation results of type B fine asphalt concrete and its form modified by rapeseed oil epoxide are represented. The efficiency of ERO addition and its positive effect on the physico-mechanical properties of asphalt concrete has been established.

  9. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: the analytical tool for heavy oil and bitumen characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Thomas B.P; Brown, Melisa; Hsieh, Ben; Larter, Steve [Petroleum Reservoir Group (prg), Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICRMS), developed in the 1970's by Marshall and Comisarow at the University of British Columbia, has become a commercially available tool capable of analyzing several hundred thousand components in a petroleum mixture at once. This analytical technology will probably usher a dramatic revolution in geochemical capability, equal to or greater than the molecular revolution that occurred when GCMS technologies became cheaply available. The molecular resolution and information content given by the FTICRMS petroleum analysis can be compared to the information in the human genome. With current GCMS-based petroleum geochemical protocols perhaps a few hundred components can be quantitatively determined, but with FTICRMS, 1000 times this number of components could possibly be resolved. However, fluid and other properties depend on interaction of this multitude of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon components, not the components themselves, and access to the full potential of this new petroleomics will depend on the definition of this interactome.

  10. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  11. Steam zone classification in the recovery of bitumen by SAGD technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimm, H.F. [Thimm Petroleum Technologies Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In an oil field, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is used as a thermal recovery process. The presence of gas in the steam zone can affect the ease with which the process can be simulated. The behaviour of gases in the steam zone is strongly influenced by the solubility of these gases in water. The aim of the paper is to look at the behaviour of the gases present in SAGD operations in terms of high temperature solution thermodynamics. The theoretical model was first demonstrated and then results were compared with the field results from several operations in the Athabasca and Cold Lake areas. Field calculations confirmed both the results from the theoretical model and the existence of three distinct types of steam zones in the SAGD process. This paper examined the behaviour of gases in SAGD processes and highlighted the fact that the presence of three types of steam zones has to be taken into consideration in simulations and in field operations.

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  13. Processing of concentrated radioactive wastes into cement and bitumens following calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief characteristic is presented of the most frequently used processes of solidification of liquid radioactive wastes, viz., bituminization, cementation and their combination with calcination. The effect of individual parameters is assessed on the choice of the type of solidification process as is their importance in the actual process, in temporary storage, during transportation and under conditions of long-term storage. It has been found that a combination of the procedures could lead to a modular system of methods and equipment. This would allow to approach optimal solidification of wastes in the present period and to establish a research reserve for the development of more modern, economically advantageous and safer procedures. A rough estimate is made of the costs of the solidification of 1 m3 of radioactive concentrate from the V-1 power plant at a production of 380 m3/year, this for the cementation-calcination and bituminization-calcination procedures. The said rough economic analysis only serves to identify the major operating components which have the greatest effect on the economic evaluation of the solidification procedures. (Z.M.)

  14. Influences of the Basin Brines on Extractable Bitumen of Kupferschiefer from southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉壮

    2000-01-01

    A study of the influences of the basin brines on hydrocarbon generation of the Kupferschiefer in southwestern Poland has been carried out.The samples from the Konrad and Polkowics mines were analyzed by orgainc geochemical,microscopic and FTIR methods.The results indicate that organic matter of Kupferschiefer tends to decrease with the ascending,oxidizing brines,In the Konrad profile,the Kupferschiefer was strongly oxidized.The extract yields were depleted up to 50mg Ext/g Corg.Gas chromatography(GC) and gas chromatography-mass spctrometry(GC/MS) data indicate that the depletion occureed predominantly in saturated hydrocarbon compounds.The identified n-alkanes in smpale KD1 were depleted at least to 5000μg/g Corg.The aromatic compounds show a fidderent trend of variation.The concentrations of phenanthrene+ alkylphenanthrenes(Ph-PAH) and naphthalene+alkylnaphthalenes(Na-PAH) show a decrease,whereas sulfur polyaromatic hydrocarbons(S-PAH)and oxygen polyaromatic hydrocarbons(O-PAH) show an incrase under the influences of oxidizing brines,In the Polkowice profile,organic matter under the influences of oxidizing fluids shows a simlar trend of varation as in the Konrad mine.Analyses of polar compounds shed light on the oxidation processes at the molecule level.The dominant products of oxidation are aliphatic acid.alcohol and ester.FTIR results indicate that the oxidation of organic matter led to a decrease in aliphatic CH3 and an increase in C-O,C=O bands.

  15. Remediation of crude oil contaminated soils by means of bitumen emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas Sánchez, María Teresa; Páez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Effective remediation of contaminated sites with oils, heavy metals and other chemical agents is one of the most important environmental problems all over the world. Contaminated soils by petroleum from different sites and origins, might contaminate groundwater aquifers and then be spread by rain. Many years and the requirement of remedial techniques may be needed to remediate them. However, previous experiences show the uselessness of these methods for the solution of all problems. As ...

  16. 包装托盘用的弹性套膜%Blown film boom for stretch hoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2006-01-01

    随着弹性套膜(stretch hoods)包装的应用领域不断扩大,正推动着吹塑薄膜加工行业获得良好的发展机遇。英国适用市场信息咨询(AMI)公司(位于布理斯托尔)的分析家指出,到2007年,欧洲市场仅对弹性套膜包装产品的年需求增长率就超过22%,而同期欧洲市场对拉伸薄膜制品的需求年增长率仅为5.5%。

  17. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems, Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    This appendix is a compilation of work done to predict overall cycle performance from gasifier to generator terminals. A spreadsheet has been generated for each case to show flows within a cycle. The spreadsheet shows gaseous or solid composition of flow, temperature of flow, quantity of flow, and heat heat content of flow. Prediction of steam and gas turbine performance was obtained by the computer program GTPro. Outputs of all runs for each combined cycle reviewed has been added to this appendix. A process schematic displaying all flows predicted through GTPro and the spreadsheet is also added to this appendix. The numbered bubbles on the schematic correspond to columns on the top headings of the spreadsheet.

  18. Gas mixing in a pilot scale (500 KW{sub th}) air blown circulating fluidised bed biomass gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersten, S.R.A.; Moonen, R.H.W.; Oosting, T.P. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); Prins, W.; Van Swaaij, W.P.M. [Faculty of Chemical Engineering, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    To study the gas mixing capacity of circulating fluidised bed (CFB) biomass gasifiers, radial and axial gas concentration profiles have been measured and interpreted in both a hot pilot scale biomass gasifier (100 kg/hr fuel) and a cold-flow set-up. The presented data of the pilot scale gasifier are unique and provide new insight in the radial gas mixing capacity of circulating fluidised bed gasifiers. Gas mixing is an important process because the effectiveness of a CFB biomass gasifier, regarding conversion of carbon and tars in the product gas, depends among other things on the degree of reactant mixing. At five different axial positions, in the pilot plant, especially developed probes are installed to withdraw gases from the interior of the reactor. They can be moved freely over the reactor diameter, so full radial profiles can be obtained at each axial position. In the cold-flow set-up similar probes are used to determine radial dispersion coefficients as a function of process variables such as solids flux, gas velocity and additional internals. Considerable radial gas phase concentration gradients have been observed in the pilot plant gasifier, with a difference between wall and centre concentrations up to a factor 3. It must be concluded that the radial gas mixing is far from ideal. On basis of these pilot plant data and a suitable reactor model it can be concluded that the radial Peclet number of the dilute region is in the order of 1000. Such a value excludes the radial mixing of gases almost entirely. Simulations indicate that the occurrence of a parabolic gas velocity profile (also observed in earlier hydrodynamic studies) and a possibly non-uniform biomass distribution, are major causes for steep gradients in the radial gas concentration profiles. From the experiments in the cold-flow set-up it can be concluded that in the dilute region of the riser the radial mixing intensity decreases due to presence of solids. This can be ascribed to a reducing effect of the solids-gas interaction on the degree of gas phase turbulence. In the lower dense region the degree of mixing appears to pass through a minimum when the solids flux is increased from zero to a value of four times the gas mass flux. Beyond this minimum the solids movement increasingly dominates gas mixing. 37 refs.

  19. Acoustic source location in the secondary mixing region of a jet-blown flap using a cross-correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R. S.; Maus, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the acoustic sources in the secondary mixing region of a laboratory-scale jet-flap was made using a causality correlation technique. The processed signal of a hot-film anemometer probe was cross correlated with the output signal of a far-field microphone. Axial acoustic source strength distributions were measured for three far-field microphone locations: plus or minus 45 deg in the flyover plane and 45 deg in the sideline plane. These measurements showed that the acoustic sources in the secondary mixing region are highly directional, radiating much more effectively to the -45 deg-microphone, located below the plane of the flap surface. A relative maximum in the acoustic source strength measured for the microphones in the flyover plane occurred very near the flap trailing edge, which may be due to an edge amplification effect predicted by the theoretical work of Ffowcs Williams and Hall.

  20. Analytical calculation of the minimum wind speed required to sustain wind-blown sand on Earth and Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Jasper F

    2010-01-01

    The wind-driven hopping motion of sand grains, known as saltation, forms dunes and ripples and ejects fine dust particles into the atmosphere on both Earth and Mars. While the wind speed at which saltation is initiated, the fluid threshold, has been studied extensively, the wind speed at which it is halted, the impact threshold, has been poorly quantified for Mars conditions. We present an analytical model of the impact threshold, which we show to be in agreement with measurements and recent numerical simulations for Earth conditions. For Mars conditions, we find that the impact threshold is approximately an order of magnitude below the fluid threshold, in agreement with previous studies. Saltation on Mars can thus be sustained at wind speeds an order of magnitude less than required to initiate it, leading to the occurrence of hysteresis. These results confirm earlier simulations with a detailed numerical saltation model, and have important implications for the formation of sand dunes, ripples, and dust storm...

  1. Hybrid upper surface blown flap propulsive-lift concept for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Carros, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hybrid upper surface blowing concept consists of wing-mounted turbofan engines with a major portion of the fan exhaust directed over the wing upper surface to provide high levels of propulsive lift, but with a portion of the fan airflow directed over selected portions of the airframe to provide boundary layer control. NASA-sponsored preliminary design studies identified the hybrid upper surface blowing concept as the best propulsive lift concept to be applied to the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) that is planned as a flight facility to conduct flight research at low noise levels, high approach lift coefficients, and steep approaches. Data from NASA in-house and NASA-sponsored small and large-scale wind tunnel tests of various configurations using this concept are presented.

  2. Beyond Str\\"omgren Spheres and Wind-Blown Bubbles: An Observational Perspective on H II Region Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Povich, Matthew S

    2012-01-01

    Massive stars produce copious quantities of ultraviolet radiation beyond the Lyman limit, photoionizing the interstellar medium (ISM) and producing H II regions. As strong sources of recombination- and forbidden-line emission, infrared continuum, and thermal (free-free) radio continuum, H II regions serve as readily-observable beacons of massive star formation in the Milky Way and external galaxies. Along with supernovae, H II regions are dominant sources of feedback in star-forming galaxies, injecting radiative and mechanical luminosity into the ISM. H II regions may prove more important than supernovae as triggers of star formation through localized compression of cold cloud cores. In this review, I give a broad overview of the structure and time-evolution of H II regions, emphasizing complications to the theoretical picture revealed by multiwavelength observations. I discuss a recent controversy surrounding the dominant feedback mechanism in 30 Doradus, the most luminous H II region in the Local Group. I s...

  3. Shape and evolution of wind-blown bubbles of massive stars: on the effect of the interstellar magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    van Marle, Allard Jan; Marcowith, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The winds of massive stars create large (>10 pc) bubbles around their progenitors. As these bubbles expand they encounter the interstellar coherent magnetic field which, depending on its strength, can influence the shape of the bubble. We wish to investigate if, and how much, the interstellar magnetic field can contribute to the shape of an expanding circumstellar bubble around a massive star. We use the MPI-AMRVAC code to make magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of bubbles, using a single star model, combined with several different field strengths: B=5, 10, and 20 muG for the interstellar magnetic field. This covers the typical field strengths of the interstellar magnetic fields found in the galactic disk and bulge. Furthermore, we present two simulations that include both a 5 muG interstellar magnetic field and a 10,000 K interstellar medium and two different ISM densities to demonstrate how the magnetic field can combine with other external factors to influnece the morphology of the circumstellar bubbles. O...

  4. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Hafeez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200 sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4% in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design asphalt contents (3.83%, for asphalt concrete having PMA and 100% lime stone dust. Designed mix was laid on Southbound Turnol Taxila National Highway Section (N-5, Pakistan as a trial in year 2003. The study reveals that filler to asphalt ratio affects the mix properties to a greater extent and mix laid at site have shown relatively better performance during its service life of initial four critical years. For coarse graded mixes with low asphalt contents, designed especially for heavy loading and high temperatures regions like Pakistan, filler to asphalt ratio less than equal to 1.0 yields better results.

  5. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall,…

  6. Comparison of column phase configurations for comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatographic analysis of crude oil and bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T.C.; Harynuk, J.; Marriott, P. [RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Logan, G.A.; Grosjean, E. [Geoscience Australia, Canberra (Australia); Ryan, D. [Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga (Australia). School of Science and Technology

    2006-09-15

    An inverted phase (polar to non-polar) column set has been compared with a non-polar to polar column set for the GC x GC separation of petroleum hydrocarbons. This column configuration is shown to provide greatly enhanced resolution for less polar compounds and makes greater use of the two dimensional separation space. It improves resolution of a greater number of components within one analysis and offers new possibilities for crude oil fingerprinting. (Author)

  7. C and S isotope characteristics of bitumen, calcite, Fe and Cu sulfides in the metallogenic analysis of the Ocoita metallotec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of a significant increase in the rate of convergence of the Phoenix and South American plates during the Early Cretaceous (120 -100 Ma.), a basin, defined by Aberg et al., (1984) as an 'Aborted Marginal Basin', developed in Central Chile. In the late stages of this back-arc marine basin, submarine lava flows extruded through the thinned continental crust underlying the bottom of the shallow sea. The porphyritic lavas of the Pabellon Formation are the northernmost units of this event and are very similar to those of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation (Cisternas et al. 1999). The lava sequence lies conformably above calcareous rocks of the Pabellon Formation (Barremian-Aptian) and average 70 meters of thickness. The whole sequence dips to the east with a north-south directed strike. A notable characteristic of these lavas are the abundant (>40%) centimeter-size plagioclase phenocrysts, which can be associated with the 'lavas ocoiticas' or 'ocoitas' of the Ocoa member in the Veta Negra Formation of Central Chile. Geochemical analysis of the Pabellon formation lavas indicates that these lavas were derived from K-rich calc-alkaline to transitional magmas, typical of a continental margin subduction, however with an important component of intra-plate contamination (Galindo 1998; Cisternas et al., 1999). The basal rocks are cut by intrusives (119-93 ma.), the same age as the lavas. These intrusives are believed to be the source of heat needed for the thermal maturation of organic matter in the underlying beds. The organic matter rich limestones of the Nantoco formation are the most probable source of the hydrocarbons, which were mobilized by hydrothermal fluids and deposited in veinlets and voids in the lavas (au)

  8. Effects of Mineral Filler to Polymer Modified Bitumen Ratio on the Design Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt and its Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Hafeez; MUMTAZ AHMED KAMAL

    2010-01-01

    Current development in the design of asphalt concrete especially in the upper layers of flexible pavements contains about acceptable proportion of mineral fillers passing 75?m (# 200) sieve, which contributes towards the mix cohesion, resistant to rutting and improves serviceability. Three filler to PMA (Polymer Modified Asphalt) ratios (i.e. 2.4, 3.4. and 4.4%) in Marshall Method of mix design were used in order to determine the optimum filler content at relatively low design ...

  9. UHMWPE共混改性HDPE薄膜性能的研究%Study on Property of HDPE/UHMWPE Blown Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左建东; 庞纯; 蒋智杰; 黄汉雄; 赵建青

    2006-01-01

    采用中等摩尔质量聚乙烯(MMWPE)首先对超高摩尔质量聚乙烯(UHMWPE)进行改性,然后通过两步共混法制备了HDPE/UHMWPE共混吹塑薄膜,研究了共混物的力学、流变性能以及MMWPE对UHMWPE力学和流变性能的影响.实验结果表明,当改性UHMWPE中的MMWPE的质量分数为40%时,改性UHMWPE的力学性能下降不大,而流变性能大大改善.两步法制得的HDPE/UHMWPE薄膜表面的晶点明显减少,比一步法得到的薄膜的拉伸强度和撕裂强度分别提高了20%和12%,比纯HDPE的分别提高45%和21%.

  10. 内蒙古地区风沙防护机理分析%Analysis of Protective Mechanism of Sand Blown by the Wind in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂力功

    2012-01-01

    Research purposes: The analysis and research were made and done on the composition mechanisms of the sand - stabilization belt system and the sand - resistant belt system, on the the conditions of sand protection with project ( machinery) and plant, on the determination of the protection width, on the plant selection and arrangement principle and on the feeding and irrigation conditions. The allocation requirements of the persons for the maintenance works in later stage was given out. The measures for sand protection were presented. The trend of the sand protection with plant was introduced. Research conclusions: (1 ) When the rainfall is less than 160 mm and the groundwater can not meet the irrigation requirement, the sand protection with the project (machinery) should adopted. When the rainfall is from 160 to 280 mm,the sand protection with the project should be used along with the plant and small irrigation. When the rainfall is bigger than 280mm, it is unnecessary to conduct small irrigation, but needs pouring water on the plant root. (2) The plant protection of trees and shrubbery belt should be arranged with intervals, and the tree spacing should be 2 m x 3 m and the shrubbery spacing should be 2m×l m or2m×l.5m. 3 The corresponding specifications of grid and the topography should be adopted along with some sand - protection barriers to the sand protection with the project. The branch or earthwork grid should be 1 m x 1 m and the downsand height should be 2 -3 m. In the far sight situation, one or two sand -protection barrier should be used with height of above 3m,but in no far sight situation, the two or three sand - protection barriers should be used. (4) If the included angle between the alignment of a road or railway with the wind direction is less than 30 degree, the protective width should be L * sin β according to the current code (β is the included angle between the wind direction and the track). (5) The film catchment, organic plant and fungi hatching cover can be used for the sand protection. (6) The sand protection should be combined with the tourism and economic development. In the early stage, the investment can increase appropriately.%研究目的:分析研究固沙带和阻沙带防风沙体系组成机理,分析工程防沙(机械)和植物防沙条件、防护宽度确定、植物选择依据和布置原则、养灌条件等,提出后期养护与维修工作及人员配置要求,提出新的风沙防护措施,分析植物风沙防护发展趋势.研究结论:(1)降雨量小于160 mm,地下水不能满足植物浇灌水量时采用工程防沙(机械防沙);降雨量160 ~ 280mm,采用工程防沙+植物防沙相结合、微灌养灌;降雨量大于280 mm不需要微灌养灌、只需浇定根水.(2)植物防护采用乔灌木条带间隔布设,乔木株行距2m×3m、灌木采用2m×1 m或2m×1.5m.(3)工程防沙:采用相应规格的方格和适应地形的数道高立式沙障相结合防护(树枝或土工网方格采用1 m×1 m;沙丘高度2~3m,一般能远视,可以设1~2道高立式沙障,沙丘高度大于3 m,无法远视时设置2 ~3道高立式沙障).(4)防护宽度:一条公路或铁路走向与风向夹角小于30.、防护宽度应按现行规范宽度L×sinβ(β为风向与线路的夹角).(5)风沙防护新措施:地膜集水及有机植物加茵类孵化覆盖防沙.(6)植物防护风沙应与旅游、经济发展相结合,前期可适当增加投资.

  11. Coenzyme Q10 prevented full blown splenomegaly and decreased melarsoprol-induced reactive encephalopathy in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James Nyabuga Nyariki; John Kibuthu Thuita; Grace Kemunto Nyambati; Alfred Orina Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modulatory effects of coenzyme Q10 on experimental trypanosome infections in mice and evaluate the risk of occurrence and severity of melarsoprol-induced post treatment reactive encephalopathy (PTRE). Methods: Female Swiss white mice were orally administered with 200 mg/kg of coenzyme Q10 after which they were intraperitoneally inoculated with Trypanasoma brucei rhodesiense (T. b. rhodesiense). The resultant infection was allowed to develop and simulate all phases of human African trypanosomiasis and PTRE. Parasitaemia development, packed cell volume, haematological and pathological changes were determined. Results:A histological study in the brain tissue of T. b. rhodesiense infected mice demonstrated neuroinflammatory pathology which was highly amplified in the PTRE-induced groups. A prominent reduction in the severity of the neuroinflammatory response was detected when coenzyme-Q10 was administered. Furthermore, the mean tissue weight of spleen to body ratio in coenzyme Q10 supplemented group was significantly (P Conclusions: The capacity of coenzyme Q10 to alter the pathogenesis of T. b. rhodesiense infection in mice and following treatment with melarsoprol, may find application by rendering humans and animals less susceptible to deleterious effects of trypanosome infection such as splenomegaly and melarsoprol-induced PTRE and neurotoxicity.

  12. On the gasification of biomass in a steam-oxygen blown CFB gasifier with the focus on gas quality upgrading: technology background, experiments and mathematical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents and discusses the results of the research on the gasification of biomass in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed, with a mixture of steam and oxygen as fluidization / gasification medium. The main objectives of this research were to investigate and improve the gasification pro

  13. Modified sulphur cement: A low porosity encapsulation material for low, medium and alpha waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified sulphur cement, available under the trade name Chement 2000, is a thermoplastic candidate material for the matrix of low, intermediate and alpha radioactive waste. The main source of sulphur is the desulphurization of fossil fuels. In view of the future increase of this product a modified compound of sulphur has been developed at the US Bureau of Mines. Modified sulphur cement as matrix material has properties in common with Portland or blast furnace cement and bitumen. The mechanical strength is comparable to hydraulic cement products. The process to incorporate waste materials is identical to bitumization. The leachability and the resistance to attack by chemicals is nearly the same as for bituminized products. This study showed also that the radiation resistance is high without radiolytic gas production and without change in dimensions (swelling). The rigidity of the matrix is a disadvantage when internal pressures are built up. The thermal conductivity and the heat of combustion of sulphur is low resulting in slow damage to the waste form under fire conditions, even when the temperature of self ignition in air is 2200C. The low leachability, the very slow effective diffusion of H2O and HTO, and the low permeability is due to the small pore diameters in the modified sulphur matrix. The loading capacity of modified sulphur cement depends on grain size and distribution and is for ungraded ashes, precipitates, dried sludges, etc., in the order of 40-50% of weight. The price of Chement 2000 per tonne is equal to those of blown bitumen

  14. Development of standardized air-blown coal gasifier/gas turbine concepts for future electric power systems, Volume 4. Appendix C: Design and performance of standardized fixed bed air-blown gasifier IGCC systems for future electric power generation: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-02-01

    This appendix is a compilation of work done to predict overall cycle performance from gasifier to generator terminals. A spreadsheet has been generated for each case to show flows within a cycle. The spreadsheet shows gaseous or solid composition of flow, temperature of flow, quantity of flow, and heat heat content of flow. Prediction of steam and gas turbine performance was obtained by the computer program GTPro. Outputs of all runs for each combined cycle reviewed has been added to this appendix. A process schematic displaying all flows predicted through GTPro and the spreadsheet is also added to this appendix. The numbered bubbles on the schematic correspond to columns on the top headings of the spreadsheet.

  15. Mass balance calculation of the pyrolysates generated from marine crude oil: A prediction model of oil cracking gas resources based on solid bitumen in reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG TongShan; GENG AnSong; XIONG YongQiang; GENG XinHua

    2007-01-01

    Oil cracking gas plays an important role in the resources of natural gas in the basins with high and over mature marine source rocks in China. The prediction of the oil cracking gas resources becomes necessary and urgent in the gas exploration in these basins. A marine crude oil sample was pyrolyzed using sealed gold tubes system. The pyrolysates including gas, liquid and solid were quantitatively analyzed. Based on the pyrolysis data and kinetic calculation, the yield correlativity among gas, liquid and solid products was regressed with high correlative coefficients to establish a prediction model suitable for the resource estimation of oil cracking gas. The verification formula for this model was also established on the principle of mass conservation. The affecting factors and the application preconditions of this prediction model were discussed. This model would enlighten and provide some new ideas for the resource assessment of natural gas in the high and over mature marine carbonate source rock areas in China. It is expected to be valuable in gas exploration.

  16. Quantitative assessment of mono- and polysulphide-linked carbon skeletons of S-rich macromolecular aggregates present in bitumens and oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Baas, M.; Kock-van Dalen, A.C.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Polar fractions of three immature sulphur-rich sediments and four sulphur-rich oils, all of Miocene age, were studied using two selective chemolytic methods, namely methyl lithium/methyl iodide, which selectively cleaves polysulphide bonds, and Raney nickel or nickel boride which cleave both mono-an

  17. 氯丁胶乳乳化沥青稀浆封层的初探%The Study on Chloroprene Rubber Latex Emulsified Bitumen Slurry Seal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光明

    2005-01-01

    掺少量氯丁胶乳改善阳离子乳化沥青性能,用于大交通量和水泥路面稀浆封层铺筑,效果良好,简要介绍了氯丁胶乳改性乳化沥青稀浆封层的部分技术,供参考.

  18. Physical and Rheological Properties of Aged Rubberised Bitumen%橡胶沥青老化后物理和流变特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海波

    2013-01-01

    该文通过沥青物理-流变特性的改变,研究了橡胶粉改性剂(CRM)对沥青流变特性的影响。通过动态剪切流变(DSR)试验,布氏粘度试验,软化点试验和针入度试验研究了老化对沥青物理和流变特性的影响。结果表明,橡胶粉降低了老化对沥青物理和流变特性的影响。随橡胶粉掺量增加,粘度老化指数和G*/sinδ老化指数降低,而tanδ老化指数增加,表明,橡胶粉可以提高沥青的抗老化能力。橡胶粉改性使软化点增量(ΔS)和橡胶沥青针入度老化率(PAR)大幅度降低。此外,橡胶粉掺量越高,PAV老化后G*sinδ越低,沥青抗疲劳开裂能力提高。%In this paper, through the asphalt physical-changes in rheological properties were studied crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on the rheological properties of the asphalt. Through dynamic shear rheology (DSR) test, brookfield viscosity test, softening point test and penetration test study of aging on asphalt physical and rheological characteristics. The results show that the aging of rubber on asphalt powder reduces physical and rheological characteristics. With rubber powder content increases, the viscosity aging index and G*/sinδ aging index decreased, while tanδ aging index increased, indicating that asphalt rubber powder can improve the anti-aging ability. Rubber powder modified so that the softening point increment (ΔS) and rubber asphalt penetration aging rate (PAR) significantly reduced. In addition, the higher dosage rubber powder,PAV aging G*sinδ lower resistance to fatigue cracking of asphalt increased.

  19. GLR-6乳化沥青设备的生产工艺及应用%The GLR-6 emulsified bitumen equipment's technique of production and applies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广平

    2009-01-01

    介绍了GLR-6型乳化沥青设备在金塘桥面铺装项目部的使用情况,重点介绍了乳化沥青设备的结构组成和乳化沥青的生产工艺、操作流程、以及在使用过程中需要注意的问题.通过与外购乳化沥青进行比较,发现利用乳化沥青设备自产的乳化沥青各项指标均可达到规范的要求,价格上也比外购成品乳化沥青要低很多,可节约大量乳化沥青的购置费用.

  20. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina M. Pons; Marta Franchini; Adolfo Giusiano; Agnes Impiccini; Marta Godeas

    2009-01-01

    Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén) y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están ...

  1. 细水雾抑制熄灭沥青喷雾火实验研究%Experimental study of water mist extinguishing bitumen spray fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高作龙; 秦俊

    2013-01-01

    通过实验室尺度实验,对细水雾抑制并扑灭沥青喷涂状态下的喷雾火灾进行了研究,并通过对实验数据进行比较,运用理论分析和数据分析得出了细水雾扑灭此类火灾的依赖因素以及变化规律.

  2. Untersuchung von Bitumina zur Herstellung von Öl-in-Wasser-Emulsionen

    OpenAIRE

    Czubak, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This work shows the differences between O/W emulsifiable (droplets smaller than 1 micron) and not O/W emulsifiable bitumens (forming droplets much bigger than 1µm). The findings of this study were used for the production of small-scale bitumen emulsions with an initially not emulsifiable bitumen to drop sizes below 1 micron. On the way there, first the bitumen was examined itself. Bitumens, which form bitumen emulsions with big droplets, show micro-phase separations at AFM. Bitumens forming...

  3. Alteración,mineralización de Cu y bitumen en el prospecto Barda González, Neuquén Alteration,Cu mineralization and bitumen in the Barda González prospect, Neuquén

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina M. Pons; Marta Franchini; Adolfo Giusiano; Agnes Impiccini; Marta Godeas

    2009-01-01

    Barda González esun prospecto de Cu hospedado en las rocas sedimentarias cretácicas de la FormaciónPortezuelo (Grupo Neuquén) y localizado en la zona de fallas de la dorsal deHuincul, próximo a los yacimientos hidrocarburíferos Barda González, Bajo BardaGonzález y Puesto Espinosa. La mineralización de Cu se extiende en un frente de600 m por 2.000 m de largo en sentido nornoreste, siguiendo los niveles deareniscas gruesas y conglomerádicas que demarcan paleocanales fluviales. Estasrocas están ...

  4. 交通荷载作用下风积沙路基动力响应分析%Dynamic response analysis of blown sand subgrade under traffic loading action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊文; 马涛; 杨长卫; 周新文

    2010-01-01

    基于风积沙的特性,采用快速拉格朗日有限差分程序FLAC3D,对交通荷载作用下风积沙路基内部永久位移、动应力和加速度的时空分布规律进行研究.研究结果表明,风积沙路基永久位移和动应力都随重复荷载作用次数的增加而增大并逐渐达到稳定;永久位移、动应力和加速度都随深度的增加急剧衰减,在路基横向位置,永久位移和动应力在车轮处作用最大,并向两侧衰减扩散;动附加应力具有累积效应.

  5. The Construction, Performance and Key Parameters of Air-Blown Microcable%浅谈气吹微缆的结构、性能和关键参数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军霞; 周晓亮

    2014-01-01

    气吹微缆敷设技术是光缆布线的一项新技术,其主要利用气吹微缆具有的外径小、重量轻、摩擦因数小等特点,使微缆在气吹敷设过程中大大增加了管道的利用率,减少初期成本投入,同时气吹敷设方便快捷,有效缩短工程建设周期,近几年在国际市场上的需求量逐年增加.

  6. 松套层绞式气吹微缆的低温极限值的改善方法%Improved Method of the Low-Temperature Limit of Loose Tube Stranded Air-Blown Microcable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘步勇

    2016-01-01

    气吹微型光缆(微缆)的结构极度微型,使其低温特性面临较大挑战.通过完善传统光缆的设计方法和思路,并借助光缆的综合线膨胀系数对气吹微缆的低温极限值进行了预估,以判断其能否在指定的低温环境下正常工作.同时,给出改善气吹微缆低温极限值的方法.

  7. Estudo do reprocessamento de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD reciclado do processamento de extrusão de filmes tubulares Study of the reprocessing of low density polyethylene (LDPE recycled from extruded blown films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pistor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de reciclagem para os polímeros termoplásticos encontra-se atualmente em acentuada ascensão. Os materiais reciclados são vistos como materiais de propriedades inferiores em relação ao material virgem. O presente trabalho avaliou as características viscoelásticas e térmicas do polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD reciclado. As amostras foram reprocessadas até dez vezes em condições extremas de processamento (300 °C/80 rpm em uma extrusora monorosca, a fim de avaliar modificações estruturais nas suas propriedades. Foram realizadas análises de reometria oscilatória de placas paralelas e calorimetria exploratória de varredura (DSC. A partir das análises de reometria oscilatória foram calculados espectros de relaxação e retardação pelo programa de regularização não-linear (NLREG e através das análises de DSC no primeiro aquecimento foram calculados os parâmetros cinéticos pelos métodos de Avrami e Freeman-Carroll. Os resultados do estudo reológico demonstraram que as amostras reprocessadas acima de quatro vezes apresentaram aumento da viscosidade complexa e dos módulos de armazenamento e perda, além de fenômenos de relaxação e retardação mais largos. Entretanto, os termogramas de DSC e os parâmetros cinéticos de fusão demonstraram que o PEBD estudado manteve sua estabilidade térmica, independentemente da modificação de suas características viscoelásticas.The recycling market of thermoplastic polymers is currently in a sharp increase. Recycled materials are regarded as having inferior properties compared to the virgin material. Here we investigated the viscoelastic and thermal properties of the recycled low density polyethylene (LDPE. The samples were reprocessed up to ten times under extreme processing conditions (300 °C/80 rpm in a single screw extruder in order to evaluate structural changes in their properties. Analyses were performed in an oscillatory rheometer with parallel plates and in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. From the analysis of the oscillatory rheometry, relaxation and retardation spectra were obtained upon applying a non-linear adjustment using a computational program (NLREG, while the kinetics parameters were estimated from the results of the first DSC heating using the Avrami and Freeman-Carroll methods. From the rheological study we inferred that the samples reprocessed more than four times had an increase in complex viscosity, storage and loss moduli, also displaying wider relaxation and retardation phenomena. However, the DSC thermograms and the melt kinetic parameters showed that the LDPE studied maintained their thermal stability, regardless of the modification in their viscoelastic properties.

  8. 风沙土钾素特征及对酿酒葡萄的影响%Characteristic of Potassium in Wind-blown Send Soil and Its Effect to Grape Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚红莺; 梁锦绣; 白国胜

    2002-01-01

    应用化学分析和生物耗竭方法,系统研究了风沙土钾有效性及对酿酒葡萄生长的影响.结果表明:风沙土钾素含量较低,在土壤经过耗竭后.速效钾大幅度下降,其中以沙土下降幅度最大.随着种植次数的增加,植株对土壤钾素吸收逐茬下降,且耗竭过程中出现稳定“最低值”.钾素对于植株鲜重、根长、根数、百粒重、结果枝率等均有明显的影响,且可使酿酒葡萄含糖量、酒精和出汁率增加,而使总酸度降低.

  9. 富邦富氧侧吹炼铜炉二次风改造生产实践%Reformation and Production Practice for Secondary Air of Fubang Oxygen-enriched Side Blown Copper Melting Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志超; 李东泽; 李国军

    2014-01-01

    2011年6月13日投产的富邦炉属于熔池熔炼范畴,为消除单体硫和挥发份的不利影响,富邦炉在三层铜水套侧墙上设置了二次风口,经过运行表明,该位置引入二次风极易生成炉结,给富邦炉以及硫酸系统生产带来很大隐患。富邦铜业针对这一问题进行了分析总结,提出了炉顶设置三次风口以及三次风换热的办法。改造运行至今,效果明显。%Fubang furnace coming into production on June 13 , 2011 falls under the category of bath smel-ting . In order to eliminate negative influences of free sulfur and volatile matter , Fubang furnace has set secondary tuyere on the side wall of three -layer copper water jacket . It demonstrated through operation that bringing secondary air into this position will easily create furnace accretion and bring great passivity to the production of Fubang furnace and sulfuric acid system . Fubang copper industry has made analysis and summary directing at this problem and proposed solutions to install thirdary tuyere on furnace roof and make heat transfer of thirdary air . Effect has been obvious through reformation and operation up to now .

  10. Flow Calculation Study on the Lower Reynolds Number for Cube-Shaped Blown Sand%立方体风沙粒子的低雷诺数绕流计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮; 钱光平

    2009-01-01

    采用计算流体力学软件Fluent计算了均匀来流条件下立方体颗粒的三维绕流流场,得到了立方体颗粒在不同来流方向下的速度分布、压力分布,给出了拟合的立方体阻力系数经验公式.结果表明:绕流阻力受来流方向的影响明显,而传统的非球型颗粒阻力经验公式给出的是来流方向垂直于立方体表面时的阻力.

  11. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerbol Tileuberdi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  12. Use of rubber crumb for preparation of asphalt-concrete mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Yerbol Tileuberdi; S. Kozbakarova; Yerdos Ongarbayev; B. Tuleutaev; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In this article use of rubber crumb from spent tire for preparation of rubber-bitumen compounds is investigated. Then the rubber-bitumen compositions are used in composition of asphalt concrete mixes .

  13. To Determine Impact of Shape of Course Aggregate on DBM Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaniyapurackal Jilu Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates are the principal material in pavement construction. The shape of aggregate particle has significant influence on performance of the Bitumen pavement. The strength serviceability requirements of Bitumen mixes such as stability, flow, voids in mineral aggregate , voids filled with bitumen and air voids are highly depend on the physical properties of aggregate.

  14. Exploration and production. Know-how. Extra-heavy oils and bitumen. Reserves for the future; Exploration et production. Savoir-faire. Bruts extra-lourds et bitumes. Des reserves pour demain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    How can ever-expanding needs be met without jeopardizing reserve life? The answers can be summed up in a single word: the innovation. In this framework the Group Total developed their research and development activities, which are endowed with a annual budget of more than 100 million dollars. Tools from seismic imaging to thermodynamic modeling of fluids and flows in any type of reservoir can be used in combination in order to steadily reduce uncertainties and control risks. These tools will help make technologically and economically feasible to produce new resources such extra-heavy crudes, very acid gases, deeply-buried reservoirs or oil and gas reserves situated in ultra deep waters. (A.L.B.)

  15. Numerical analysis of bitumen-surface highway dynamic response under vehicle loads%汽车荷载作用下沥青路面公路动力响应数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健; 李振存; 郭昕; 王健

    2012-01-01

    运用ANSYS软件建立沥青路面与路基三维动力分析模型,采用双频率正弦波动荷载模拟车辆动荷载,分析了三轴六轮组的东风重型货车在车速为72 km/h时,满载和超载80%两种工况下路面和路基动力响应.计算结果表明:轮距中心左右各2m的范围内,面层结构横向应力分布呈双峰状,轮迹处最大,然后向两边衰减;且随着深度增加,应力逐渐由压应力转化为拉应力,拉应力在面层下56 cm处达到最大;竖向动应力在路基内随着深度的增加逐渐减小,沿横向在路基表面呈马鞍状分布,且随着深度增加逐渐变为单峰分布;满载及超载80%时动荷载影响深度分别为2.2m和2.6m,影响宽度分别为4 m和6.5m.%3 d dynamic analysis models of asphalt pavement and subgrade were established by finite element software ANSYS. Vehicle dynamic loads were simulated by dual frequency sine wave. The dynamic response of pavement and subgrade were analyzed under the action of Dongfong truck when the speed is 72 km/h with full load and over load 80%. The calculated results show that within the scope of each 2 m around tread center, transverse stress distribution of the surface layer structure is bimodal shape. The maximum appears in place of wheel track and then attenuates toward both sides. With the increase of the depth, the stress changes gradually from the compressive stress into tensile stress, and the maximum tensile stress appears 56 cm under surface layer. Vertical dynamic stress decreases gradually with the increase of the depth in the subgrade. Vertical dynamic stress shows saddle - shaped distribution along the horizontal surface of the subgrade, and with increase of the depth, it increasingly becomes unimodal distribution. The influence depth of the dynamic loads with the action of full load and overload of 80% are 2.2 m and 2.6 m, the width are 4 m and 6.5 m.

  16. Application of the Superpave bitumen pavement technology on Gan-Yue Expressway%Superpave沥青路面技术在赣粤高速公路上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家明

    2004-01-01

    该文通过Superpave技术在赣粤高速公路中的应用,进行了Superpave沥青混合料目标配合比和生产配合比设计,对混合料路用性能进行了评价,确定了施工工序,为今后推广使用Superpave沥青路面技术,提高沥青路面施工质量提供一些有益的参考.

  17. 香港东海工业大厦SBS沥青旧屋面防水翻修%Repair of the Old SBS Bitumen Membrane Roof Waterproof of Hongkong Oriental Industrial Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建平; 刘志聪

    2014-01-01

    香港东海工业大厦钢混SBS沥青卷材新旧屋面年久渗漏,经清理后采用暴露型单组分聚脲液体涂层材料并植入胎基布作为主要弹性防水层,不仅可作为屋面加强层,还可防止裂缝的产生,预期新屋面的防水效果能达到香港建筑寿命质保期的要求.

  18. 连续式沥青油毡瓦冲切工艺及设备的设计%Design of continuous punching process of bitumen shingles and its equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮政卿

    2004-01-01

    介绍了连续冲切式沥青油毡瓦的生产工艺及设备.此生产方式既克服了一般冲切式不能连续作业的局限性,实现了连续工作的目标,又避免了滚切式中滚切辊一次性使用的弊端.

  19. 废旧橡胶粉在道路改性沥青中的应用研究%Research on Application of Waste Rubber Powder in Road Modified Bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鹏

    2012-01-01

    随着我国经济的发展,汽车工业得到迅速的发展,但是我们也面临着一个严峻的问题,那就是汽车的废旧轮胎的处理问题.我国每年产生的废弃轮胎大约有1400kt.废旧轮胎对环境有着严重的污染作用.因为这种材料不容易分解,需要相当长的时间.植物的生长会因之破坏,随之滋生的蚊虫也会影响人类的健康.因此,如何处理废旧轮胎成了亟待解决的问题.现在有一种工艺,可以变废为宝.那就是将废旧轮胎磨成橡胶粉,将其用于道路改性沥青当中.经实验证明,这种沥青能够改善沥青的高温与低温性能,大大降低路面的损害,同时能在很大程度上改善废旧轮胎产生的污染问题.目前,我国针对这方面的研究还不够成熟,相关的标准也不完善.%As the development of national economy, the development of auto industry is rapid, but we also face a serious problem, namely the problem of dealing with cars' scrap tires. It produces disused tires about 1400 kt in China annually. Scrap tires has severe pollution effect on the environment. Because the material is not easy to break down, needing quite a long time, the growth of plants will be damaged, thereupon, the breeding of mosquito also can affect human health. Therefore, how to deal with scrap tires becomes a problem to be solved. Taking the scrap tires ground into rubber powder and making the rubber powder applied in road modified asphalt is an effective method of dealing with above problem. By the experiment, it proves this kind of asphalt can improve the high temperature and low temperature performance of asphalt, greatly reduce the damage of the road, at the same time, it can largely improve pollution from waste tires. However, it is still not mature for the research of this aspect in our country at present, and the relevant standards is not improved.

  20. 沥青砼路面目标配合比设计的确定与优化%The Determination and Optimization of Bitumen Concrete Pavement Goal Mix Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪泳

    2003-01-01

    通过对曲菏高速公路沥青砼面层配合比设计的验证,对沥青用量及材料级配进行了调整和优化,使之更加符合和满足设计要求,为施工生产提供了科学的依据。

  1. 基于氢氧化镁的沥青阻燃机理研究%Study of flame-retardant mechanism of Mg(OH)2 on bitumen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚东; 朱凯; 吴珂; 张欣; 黄志义

    2013-01-01

    采用热重法研究了基质沥青和Mg(OH)2阻燃沥青的燃烧特性.实验发现:为了保证沥青的低温抗裂性能,Mg(OH)2添加比例不宜超过25%;添加Mg(OH)2后沥青的阻燃性能明显提高,其燃烧的挥发分析出阶段的峰值温度推后49℃,随后的胶质分解阶段和沥青质残炭燃烧阶段也均被延迟;通过Guass分峰验证了Mg(OH)2的阻燃机理为其分解反应产生的吸热、稀释和阻隔等物理作用.

  2. 阻燃沥青混合料在上海地区的研究和应用%Study and Application of Fire-retardant Bitumen Mixture in Shanghai Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严军; 寿之敏; 朱天同; 曹亚东

    2010-01-01

    随着隧道数量的不断增多,隧道沥青铺装的安全性越来越受重视.该文阐述了在隧道中采用阻燃沥青混合料,可以提高铺装结构的阻燃能力,沥青的氧指数达到28以上,阻燃沥青混合料的高温稳定性和水稳定性得到改善.阻燃沥青混合料的生产施工工艺有异于常规沥青混合料,实铺工程表明,阻燃沥青路面显示出良好的路用性能.

  3. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  4. “Compression Dynamometamorphic Solid Bitmen” and Its Significance in Oil and Gas Exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There is natural occurrence of pressure-induced solid bitumen, here referred to as “compression dynamometamorphic solid bitumen”. It differs in physical properties and chemical structure from thermal metamorphic solld bitumen. Under a high pressure and moderate temperature, the solid bitumen forms crystals and its refleetance rises rapidly with increasing crystallization. Accordingly, its reflectance can reach a very high value without having been exposed to a high level of thermal stress. Laboratory simulation confirms the formation of pressure-induced solid bitumen at moderate temperatures. The revelation of this new bitumen type is very helpful in the accurate maturity determination of carbonate organic matter.

  5. 40 CFR 60.296 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production rate correction =227 g/hr for container glass, pressed and blown (soda-lime and lead) glass, and pressed and blown (other than borosilicate, soda-lime, and lead) glass. =454 g/hr for pressed and blown... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  6. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on the fatigue properties of LDHs were evaluated by dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and indirect tensile fatigue test. Results indicated that the introduction of LDHs could change the fatigue properties of bitumen under a stress control mode. The mixture with modified bitumen showed better fatigue resistance than the mixture with base bitumen. The results illustrated that the LDHs would be alternative modifiers used in the bitumen to improve the lifetime of asphalt pavements.

  7. Survey on product properties of bituminized waste concentrates from reprocessing, nuclear installations and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey on the product properties after solidification with bitumen of waste concentrates from reprocessing plants, nuclear research installations and nuclear power plants. The leach behaviour of bitumen products in water and saturated salt solutions is described as well as the radiolytic and thermal stability of the products. The reports also contain some data on sedimentation of salts fixed in bitumen. (orig.)

  8. University of Utah Oil Sand Research and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the Oil Sand Research and Development Program at the University of Utah will be presented. It will include resource characterization of the Uinta Basin oils and deposits and bitumens and bitumen-derived liquid recovery and upgrading technology and product utilization. The characterization studies will include the Whiterocks and Asphalt Ridge oil sands. The discussion of recovery and upgrading technologies will include aqueous separation, thermal recovery processes; solvent extraction, and thermal and catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen-derived heavy oils. Product evaluation studies will include jet fuels, diesel fuel, asphalt and specialty chemicals. Plans for the future of the project will be discussed.

  9. 聚乙烯吹塑农用地面覆盖薄膜拉伸负荷测量不确定度评定%The Uncertainty Evaluation and Measurement of the Tensile Load of the Polyethylene Blown Mulch Film for Agricultural Uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张熙; 雷振凯

    2015-01-01

    文章按照《测量不确定度评定与表示》(JJF 1059.1-2012)的方法,分析了对聚乙烯吹塑农用地面覆盖薄膜拉伸试验测量不确定度评定有较大影响的一些因素,阐述了按《GB/T 1040.3-2006》标准规定的方法进行的薄膜拉伸负荷项目的测量不确定度的评定过程,文中所述示例的拉伸负荷σ=(3.443±0.431)N;k=2.

  10. 纳米SiO2对聚乙烯醇/淀粉熔融吹塑薄膜性能的影响%Effect of Nano-SiO2 on Performance of Extrusion-Blown PVA/Starch Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤; 陈弦; 何波兵

    2012-01-01

    用甘油和水为增塑剂对高醇解度聚乙烯醇和玉米淀粉复配增塑改性,并选用不同的纳米SiO2,对聚乙烯醇/玉米淀粉基体进行纳米改性,熔融吹望制备聚乙烯醇/玉米淀粉/纳米SiO2薄膜.结果表明:加入纳米SiO2后,聚乙烯醇/玉米淀粉/纳米SiO2薄膜的拉伸性能显著提高,热性能也发生了较明显的变化;探讨了纳米SiO2对薄膜性能影响的机理.%The PVA/corn starch films were prepared with some glycerol and water as plasticizers through extrusion blowing method, and then different kinds of nano-SiO2 were used to modify the PVA/ corn starch films. The results show that: after adding nano-Si02, the mechanical performance of PVA/corn starch films improves significantly, and the thermal performance also changes obviously. The influencing mechanism of nano-SiO, on the properties of the film was discussed.

  11. Influence of solvent swelling effect on filtration efficiency of melt-blown polypropylene electret nonnwoven web used as air filter%溶剂溶胀对聚丙烯熔喷非织造布过滤性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖慧明; 陈钢进; 张树文

    2009-01-01

    通过跟踪测试表面电位和过滤效率,研究了聚丙烯熔喷非织造布驻极体空气过滤材料经不同溶剂浸泡后过滤性能的变化及其与驻极体电场的相关性.结果表明:聚丙烯熔喷非织造布的高过滤效率主要源于驻极体电场产生的静电效应,而过滤阻力的大小则由其本身的结构所决定;驻极体电场的稳定性依赖于溶剂的溶胀作用.根据Flory-Huggins的溶剂溶胀理论探讨了溶剂浸泡对材料电荷存储能力和过滤效率的影响规律.

  12. Characterization of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching tests on real wastes embedded in cement, bitumens or resins are realized to study leachability of alpha-emitters or fission products and anion-cation exchange between leachate and embedded materials. Radionuclide distribution is examined by spectrogammametry on cores taken from cemented wastes. Qualitative results concerning degradation of waste blocks embedded in bitumens by bacteria in the ground are given

  13. Laboratory and Field Asphalt Fatigue Performance, Matching Theory with Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramesti, F.P.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between predicted and observed fatigue life of asphalt. This study also investigates the positive effects of modifying bitumen with Retona, a bitumen modifier produced in Indonesia from natural asphalt rock sources, on pavement performance in terms of increa

  14. Improving the quality of asphalt coating with carbon nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisa, Urkhanova; Nikolay, Shestakov; Aleksandr, Semenov; Natalya, Smirnyagina; Irina, Semenova

    2015-07-01

    This article deals with the possibility of modifying the binder by adding carbon nanomodifier to bitumen to improve the quality of asphalt. Addition of 0.05%-0.5% of nanomodifier significantly changes the properties of bitumen. Asphalt with this astringent has increased strength, heat resistance and shear resistance.

  15. DOE ZERH Case Study: Charles Thomas Homes, Anna Model, Omaha, NE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the cold climate that got a HERS 48 without PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, ocsf at rim joists, basement with plus 2x4 stud walls with R-23 blown fiberglass, with R-20 around slab, R-38 under slab; a vented attic with R-100 blown cellulose; 95% AFUE furnace, 14 SEER AC, ERV; heat pump water heater.

  16. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  17. Characterisation of bitumenised waste in SFR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste deposited in the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste, SFR, consists in part of waste solidified in bitumen. Bitumen is considered to have favourable chemical and physical properties to act as a fixation material for radioactive waste. However, during interim storage and subsequent disposal bitumen's properties may change. This may influence the stability of the bitumen matrix to retain radionuclides. This report discusses different processes affecting the long-term performance of bitumenised waste, and an evaluation of these properties in waste deposited in SFR 1 is made. The possible effect of a bitumen barrier on the release rate of radionuclides from SFR 1 is assessed. Based on leaching experiments reviewed in this study, it could take some thousand years, possibly more, to release all radionuclides in a 200-litre drum. The results are, however, extrapolated from experiments performed during a short period of time. Long- term deteriorating effects and the effect of a low temperature on the bitumen matrix are not very well documented. The literature focuses principally on bitumenised evaporator concentrate, but the bitumenised waste deposited in SFR 1 consists mainly of ion exchange resins. There are indications that the non-radioactive waste products usually investigated overestimate bitumen's ability to retain waste. Radiolytic effects has been estimated in this work to be negligible for waste categories F.17, F.20 and B.20 deposited in SFR 1, but for categories B.05, B.06 and F.18 the possibility of increased water uptake rate due to radiolysis can not be excluded. A more reasonable assumption is that bitumen will act as an effective barrier for radionuclide release during a time span from some hundreds to thousand of years. Generally, the majority of the inventory of radionuclides in SFR 1 is not solidified in bitumen. By taking the bitumen barrier into account in the modelling of release of radio- nuclides from SFR 1, the total

  18. Study on Production of Heavy-Traffic Asphalt by Blending Suizhong Crude Oil with Canada Oil-Sand Bitumen%绥中原油混炼加拿大油砂沥青生产重交通道路沥青研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李守亭; 张荩夫; 卞玉涛; 张田英

    2013-01-01

    对绥中原油、加拿大油砂沥青进行了物性分析,对两种原油混炼生产重交通道路沥青进行了工业试验.试验结果表明绥中原油混炼加拿大油砂沥青生产的重交通道路沥青性能,特别是沥青蜡含量、低温性能以及SBS改性沥青相溶性等性能有明显的改善.

  19. Application of Non-penetrating PVC Flexible Waterproofing System in Repair Engineering of Failed Self-adhesive Bitumen Membrane Roof%无穿孔PVC柔性系统在失效自粘沥青卷材屋面维修工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万常彪; 韩啸

    2016-01-01

    杭州地铁2号线蜀山车辆段综合基地屋面为轻质太空板钢网架结构,新建时采用自粘型SBS防水卷材,两年后即由于卷材老化等原因出现漏水.本文介绍了采用PVC防水卷材无穿孔施工工艺,对该屋面进行翻修的技术,重点对屋面变形缝、气楼、天窗等细部节点的处理作了阐述.

  20. 加利福尼亚州史前印第安人的健康衰退和天然沥青中的多环芳烃(PAHs)暴露有关联吗?%Could the Health Decline of Prehistoric California Indians be Related to Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Natural Bitumen?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian K.T.S.W(a)rml(a)nder; Sabrina B.Sholts; Jon M.Erlandson; Thor Gjerdrum; Roger Westerholm; 周江

    2013-01-01

    [背景]多环芳烃对健康的负面影响已经在现代人群中充分证实,但是在史前环境中的健康影响至今尚无研究.多环芳烃是化石沥青的主要成分,而沥青是一种天然形成的物质,曾被古代人类社会例如加利福尼亚州的丘马什印第安人用作粘合剂、防水剂以及医疗用途.丰富的考古学和人种历史学记录显示,沿海丘马什人曾暴露于沥青多环芳烃,其多种摄入途径包括直接接触、烟雾吸入、以及从受污染的饮水和海产品经口摄入. [目的]研究天然沥青中多环芳烃对加利福尼亚州史前丘马什印第安人健康损害的可能性.[结论]古代丘马什印第安人与有毒多环芳烃的接触,在7500年的时期内逐渐增加,这是因为沥青在丘马什人技术中应用的增多、以及他们的饮食转向了受多环芳烃污染的海产食物.骸骨分析显示同时期内的人群健康衰退可能与多环芳烃摄入有关.然而,如果不知道这些人群的实际暴露程度,要证实这种关联实质上是不可能的.未来的方法学研究也许会提供一些可以确定古代骨骼材料中多环芳烃水平的技术,为史前人类健康研究和人类多环芳烃暴露的长期影响的研究提供新的途径.

  1. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in upgrading and refining of Canada's oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model-FUNNEL-GHG-OS (FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs- based ModeL for Estimation of GreenHouse Gases in the Oil Sands) based on fundamental engineering principles was developed to estimate the specific energy consumption and GHGs (greenhouse gas emissions) for upgrading bitumen to produce SCO (synthetic crude oil). The model estimates quantity of SCO produced, the consumption of hydrogen, steam, natural gas and power in two different upgrading operations, namely delayed coking and hydroconversion. Hydroconversion upgrading is more energy and GHG (433.4 kgCO2eq/m3 of bitumen) intensive than delayed coker upgrading (240.3 kgCO2eq/m3 of bitumen) but obtains a higher yield of SCO. This research explores bitumen pathways in oil sands – upgrading bitumen to SCO, followed by transporting and refining SCO as compared to transporting and refining dilbit. The energy consumption, GHG emissions and volume of transportation fuels obtained from refining of different oil sands feeds has been investigated. Refining of oil sands products produce 7.9 to 15.72 gCO2eq per MJ of refined product. Refining of SCO to transportation fuels produces 41% and 49% less emissions than dilbit and bitumen respectively. - Highlights: • A model to estimate energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the oil sands is presented. • The model is developed from fundamental engineering principles. • Upgrading and refining of bitumen in oil sands is explored. • Upgrading of bitumen produces 240.3 and 433.4 kgCO2eq GHGs per m3 of bitumen. • Refining of oil sand products produces 7.9 to 15.72 gCO2eq per MJ of refined product

  2. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  4. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  5. Source rock geochemistry and liquid and solid petroleum occurrences of the Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J. A.

    Crude oils, solid bitumens and potential oil source rocks of the frontal and central Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma are examined. The organic matter in each of these materials is characterized, and oils are correlated to potential source rocks in the Ouachita Mountains. Four Ouachita Mountain oils and seven solid bitumens (grahamite and impsonite) are analyzed. The oils are paraffinic and range from 31.8 to 43.1 API gravity. The oils are thermally mature and generally unaltered. All four oils are commonly sourced, by n-alkane, sterane and hopane distributions, stable isotope ratios, infrared spectra and vanadium/nickel ratios. A common source for the solid bitumens is also suggested by isotope ratios and pyrolyzate characteristics. An origin due to crude oil biodegradation is suggested for these solids, based on carbon isotope ratios, elemental analyses, and sterane distributions of the solid bitumen pyrolyzates.

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Tar Sand Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Tar sands represent a significant source of hydrocarbons in the United States. Also known by several other names including bitumen-bearing rocks, natural asphalt,...

  7. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  8. 40 CFR 60.591 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bitumen) is a black or dark brown solid or semi-solid thermo-plastic material possessing waterproofing and... hydrogen ratio. It is essentially non-volatile at ambient temperatures with closed cup flash point of...

  9. A procedure for fixing a mixture of diphenyl and diphenyl oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spent organic mixture, after its use for cooling spent fuel elements, is added to bitumen in a proportion of 0.5/9.5 to 1.0/9.0, and the whole is treated in an evaporator together with radioactive concentrates; the diphenyl-diphenyloxide-bitumen-concentrate system is fed into the evaporator through a separate piping. Alternatively, spent organic radioactive sorbents or dry radioactive calcinate are added to this bitumen-containing mixture. The whole is then fixed in suitable vessels for long-term storage. The diphenyl-diphenyloxide mixture together with the bitumen and the liquid radioactive wastes is fed into the evaporator through a separate piping. (M.D.)

  10. 40 CFR 98.250 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., naphtha, kerosene, distillate fuel oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, or asphalt (bitumen) through...; asphalt blowing operations; blowdown systems; storage tanks; process equipment components (compressors..., tanker truck, and similar loading operations; flares; sulfur recovery plants; and non-merchant...

  11. Alkylthiophenes as sensitive indicators of palaeoenvironmental changes : a study of a Cretaceous oil shale from Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen samples of the immature, Cretaceous Jurf ed Darawish oil shade (Jordan) were analysed quantitatively for aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylthiophenes in the bitumens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after isolation of appropriate fractions.

  12. Effect of transesterification degree and post-treatment on the in-service performance of NCO-functionalized vegetable oil bituminous products

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen modification through polyurethane prepolymers presents significant benefits for the manufacture of bituminous products for the paving industry. In this sense, this work explores the use, as bitumen modifier, of a novel reactive prepolymer synthesized by reaction of 4,4´,diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a vegetable oil-based polyol, castor oil (CO), previously transesterified with pentaerythritol. On the one hand, thermal analysis on transesterified CO revealed a highly stabl...

  13. Rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bituminous mastics : a comparative analysis between physical and chemical modification

    OpenAIRE

    Shivokhin, Maxim; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Gallegos Montes, Críspulo

    2012-01-01

    Mastic, a bitumen/filler blend which naturally forms when bitumen is mixed with aggregates is the actual product used to bind coarse mineral particles in the asphalt mixtures. As a result, the characterisation of mastics is essential to improve the understanding of the response and performance of asphalt concrete pavements. On the other hand, the lack of experimental data concerning the behaviour of mastics and, above all, polymer-modified mastics has been lately claimed. In that sense, this ...

  14. Screening of zonal isolation agents for SAGD EOR applications

    OpenAIRE

    Danyalov, Asset

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) features is currently one of the most widely applied technologies for production of bitumen oil in Canadian oil sand fields. However, as in most oil and gas reservoirs, the bitumen oil reservoirs also differ depending on their reservoir structure; for the Surmont field case in Athabasca oil sands region, the lack of natural sealing and presence of overlying thief zones became a point of concern for a conventional application of the SAGD me...

  15. Nitrate reducing bacterial activity in concrete cells of nuclear waste disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht A.; Rafrafi Y.; Sablayrolles C.; Bertron A.; Kassim C.; Alquier M.; Erable B.

    2013-01-01

    International audience Leaching experiments of solid matrices (bitumen and cement pastes) have been first implemented to define the physicochemical conditions that microorganisms are likely to meet at the bitumen-concrete interface (see the paper of Bertron et al.). Of course, as might be suspected, the cement matrix imposes highly alkaline pH conditions (10 < pH < 11). The screening of a range of anaerobic denitrifying bacterial strains led us to select Halomonas desiderata as a model bac...

  16. Studi Pengaruh Penggunaan Bahan Tambah Zat Adiktif Yang Berbasis Hydrocarbon Terhadap Marshall dan Indirect Tensile Strenght

    OpenAIRE

    HAKIM, LUKMAN

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRAK Liquid Asbuton adalah nama suatu produk ekstraksi batuan aspal alam dari Pulau Buton melalui pengembangan teknologi, liquid Asbuton memiliki penetrasi yang sangat rendah, sehingga digolongkan sebagai aspal keras. pada umumnya mengandung 60% sampai dengan 75% kadar bitumen sisanya adalah mineral 25%-40% sebagai bahan pengisi alam, bitumen sebagian besar dibentuk oleh asphaltene dan sedikit maltene kadar stabilitas yang tinggi dan malten, yang terdiri dan polyaromatics resin (dengan...

  17. Fatigue Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Modified Asphalt and Its Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Ling Pang; Yue Xiao; Pan Pan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) on the fatigue properties of asphalt mixture. In this paper, different aging levels (thin film oven test (TFOT) and ultraviolet radiation aging (UV aging for short)) of bitumen modified with various mass ratios of the LDHs were investigated. The TFOT and UV aging process were used to simulate short-term field thermal-oxidative aging and long-term field light UV aging of bitumen, respectively. The influences of LDHs on t...

  18. Utilization of Electronic Waste Plastic in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek S. Damal; Saurabh S. Londhe

    2015-01-01

    In India, bitumen pavements are commonly used for highways. Due to the increasing traffic intensity, distress such as rutting and cracking of pavements are very common in Indian roads. Under varying seasonal temperature, flexible pavements tend to become soft in summer and brittle in winter. Investigations revealed that properties of concrete can be better than bitumen roads. But now a day‟s concrete roads are used commonly because concrete roads have more life span than the bi...

  19. Inhibition de la production d'hydrogène radiolytique dans les déchets nucléaires de type « enrobés bitumineux » :
    étude de l'interaction entre l'hydrogène et l'hydroxosulfure de cobalt

    OpenAIRE

    Pichon, Caroline

    2006-01-01

    In the nuclear field in France, the bitumen is mainly used for the conditioning of the radioactive muds generated by the fuel reprocessing. However, the self-irradiation of the bitumen induces a production of hydrogen which generates safety problems. The comparison of various storage sites showed that the presence of cobalt hydroxosulphide limited such a production. Consequently, this compound was regarded as an « inhibitor of radiolytic hydrogen production » However, the origin of this pheno...

  20. Environmental Evaluation of gravel emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    GOYER, Sarah; Dauvergne, Michel; Wendling, Louisette; Fabre, Jean Claude; De La Roche, Chantal; Gaudefroy, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of a study on environmental impact of road construction techniques with bitumen emulsion. This review was limited to overall indicators (GreenHouse Gas emissions, energy and natural resources consumption). Road materials with bitumen emulsion are compared with conventional techniques as Hot Mixes Asphalts. Then, three cases of road maintenance are shown (lightly or highly deformed reshaping, and structural maintenance). Several maintenance solutions are proposed ...