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Sample records for blowfly chrysomya megacephala

  1. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

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    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  2. Species-level identification of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and other Diptera in China by DNA barcoding.

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    Qiu, Deyi; Cook, Charles E; Yue, Qiaoyun; Hu, Jia; Wei, Xiaoya; Chen, Jian; Liu, Dexing; Wu, Keliang

    2017-02-01

    The blowfly Chrysomya megacephala, or oriental latrine fly, is the most common human-associated fly of the oriental and Australasian regions. Chrysomya megacephala is of particular interest for its use in forensic entomology and because it is a disease vector. The larvae are economically important as feed for livestock and in traditional Chinese medicine. Identification of adults is straightforward, but larvae and fragments of adults are difficult to identify. We collected C. megacephala, its allies Chrysomya pinguis and Protophormia terraenovae, as well as flies from 11 other species from 52 locations around China, then sequenced 658 base pairs of the COI barcode region from 645 flies of all 14 species, including 208 C. megacephala, as the basis of a COI barcode library for flies in China. While C. megacephala and its closest relative C. pinguis are closely related (mean K2P divergence of 0.022), these species are completely non-overlapping in their barcode divergences, thus demonstrating the utility of the COI barcode region for the identification of C. megacephala. We combined the 208 C. megacephala sequences from China with 98 others from public databases and show that worldwide COI barcode diversity is low, with 70% of all individuals belonging to one of three haplotypes that differ by one or two substitutions from each other, reflecting recent anthropogenic dispersal from its native range in Eurasia.

  3. Behavior of the combined radial post-feeding larval dispersal of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae and implications for forensic entomology

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    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to study the life stages of Chrysomya megacephala in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersal from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa formed were analyzed. For the larvae of C. albiceps, females released buried deeper than males, reaching an average depth of 10.74 cm and C. megacephala larvae presented greater average results than C. albiceps for all variables, particularly distance, which was 16.02 cm for this species and 12.30 cm for C. albiceps. C. albiceps larvae preyed on 30 C. megacephala larvae in both experiments. These results could be used in forensic entomology because the evaluation of Post Mortem Interval (PMI was one of the most important aspects of legal medicine, and it could be underestimated if the older dispersing larvae or those that dispersed longer and faster or deeper, were not taken into account.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar estágios de vida de Chrysomya megacephala em uma arena circular permitindo a dispersão larval pós-alimentar combinada a partir do centro das larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa a distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso foram coletados. Do total de larvas soltas as fêmeas de C. albiceps se enterraram mais profundamente que os machos, alcançando uma profundidade de 10,74 cm. Apesar dessa diferença, as larvas de C. megacephala apresentaram resultado em média maiores para todas a variáveis, particularmente a distância, a qual foi 16,02 cm para essa espécie e 12,30 para C. albiceps. Além disso, as larvas de C. albiceps predaram 30 larvas de C. megacphala durante esse processo em ambos os experimentos. Esses estudos podem ser utilizados em Entomologia forense porque a estimativa do Intervalo Pós Morte (IPM é um dos aspectos mais

  4. Eicosanoids mediate nodulation reactions to bacterial Escherichia coli K 12 infections in larvae of the oriental blowfly,Chrysomya megacephala

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    Bing Chen; Yong Wang; Fen Zhu; Chao-Liang Lei

    2009-01-01

    Nodulation is the predominant cellular defense reaction to bacterial challenges in insects.In this study,third instar larvae of Chrysomya megacephala were injected with bacteria,Escherichia coli K 12 (10~6 CFU/mL,2μL),immediately prior to injection of inhibitors of eicosanoid biosynthesis,which sharply reduced nodulation response.Test larvae were treated with specific inhibitors of phospholipase A_2 (dexamethasone),cyclooxygenase (indomethacin,ibuprofen and piroxicam),dual cyclo-oxygenase/lipoxygenase (phenidone) and lipoxygenase (esculetin) and these reduced nodulation except esculetin.The influence of bacteria was obvious within 2 h of injection (5 nodules/larva),and increased to a maximum after 8 h (with 15 nodules/larva),and then significantly reduced over 24 h (9 nodules/larva).The inhibitory influence of dexamethasone was apparent within 2 h of injection (4 vs.5 nodules/larva),and nodulation was significantly reduced,compared to control,over 24 h (5 vs.8 nodules/larva).Increased dosages of ibuprofen,indomethacin,piroxicam and phenidone led to decreased numbers of nodules.Nodules continued to exist during the pupal stage.However,the effects of dexamethasone were reversed by treating bacteria-injected insects with an eicosanoid-precursor polyunsaturated fatty acid,arachidonic acid.These findings approved our view that eicosanoid can mediate cellular defense mechanisms in response to bacterial infections in another Dipteran insect C.megacephala.

  5. Growth of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) maggots in a morgue cooler.

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    Thevan, Kumara; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-11-01

    In estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using maggots obtained during autopsy, the forensic entomologist makes decisions regarding the effects of low-temperature storage of the body on the insects. In this case report, a corpse was found in an abandoned house in the residential area of Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. The maggots were found to be alive inside the mouth of the deceased although the corpse had been in the morgue cooler for 12 days. The maggots were reared and identified as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). The emerged adult flies were kept as a stock colony, and the duration of development under the indoor fluctuating temperature regime was studied. The total duration of developmental process of this species was 9.5 ± 0.5 days, and the PMI estimated was 3.2 ± 0.6 days. This case report demonstrates the survival of Ch. megacephala maggots for 12 days and their growth inside the morgue cooler.

  6. Associação entre larvas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius e Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius e Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (Calliphoridae, Diptera sob condições de laboratório Association between Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius larvae (Calliphoridae, Diptera, under laboratory conditions

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    Valéria Magalhães Aguiar-Coelho

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to recognize some aspects of interspecific relationships between Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and C. albiceps (Wiedemann and between C. megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius larvae in laboratory. A diet consisting of decomposing horse flesh was used, and the relation of 1 larva/g diet was established. The development of the two species was done in pure and associated cultures. The association with Chrysomya albiceps influenced the post-embrionary development period and the weight of mature larvae of the C. megacephala, reducing their. Such weight decrease, along with the predation of larvae of C. megacephala larvae, yelded a decrease in survival in all of the stages. Larvae of this species showed an increase in its weight when associated with Cochliomyia macellaria. The native species responded to the association by reducing its body weigth and its viability. This association doesnt influence the duration of post-embrionary development.

  7. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  8. Development of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), at five constant temperatures

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    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001–2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI).

  9. Effects of human contraceptive on reproduction and offspring in Chrysomya megacephala

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    Tarinee Chaiwong; Kabkaew L Sukontason; Urai Chaisri; Hiromu Kurahashi; Michelle Sanford; Kom Sukontason

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of human contraceptive(HC) as ability to suppress the reproductive success of blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius)(C. megacephala)and offspring under controlled laboratory conditions.Methods: AdultC. megacephala were fed with low (0.036 mg/mL) and high dose (0.072mg/mL)HC (Microgest®, Thailand), containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol, in their drinking water for7 days. Three experiments were set; experiment I with fed only in parental males, experiment II with fed only in parental females and experiment III with fed in both males and females. All experiments were then maintained for 3 generations after crossing and inbreeding.Results: A lower ovariole production and less fully mature ovarioles were evident inF1, F2 andF3 than control when parent males, females and both had been fed with high doseHC. Cellular changes during spermatogenesis inF1, F2 and F3 testes was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy(TEM), showing the low level of condensed chromatin, necrotic chromatin, irregularities and degenerated nuclear envelope in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, mitochondrial swelling, rough endoplasmic reticulum swelling as well as vacuolated cytoplasm were noticed. As for the spermper se, we found the degenerated nuclei and/or incomplete mitochondrial derivative, axoneme and vacuolated flagella. Regarding deformity in F1, F2andF3 ovariole, ultrastructural alteration observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)included malformations involving fragile enveloping peritoneal sheath, cracked ovarioles, peel away chorion, crumbled eggshell and incomplete development; whereasTEM presented malformed and disorganized mass of cells, proteic yolk granules and vacuolated vesicles. Conclusions: Administer ofHC to adultC. megacephala caused ovariole reduction, less matured ovariole and affected cellular changes in testes and ovariole of offspring up to F3.

  10. Chemotaxonomic Profile and Intraspecific Variation in the Blow Fly of Forensic Interest Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Paula, Michele C; Antonialli-Junior, William F; Mendonça, Angélica; Michelutti, Kamylla B; Eulalio, Aylson D M M; Cardoso, Claudia A L; de Lima, Thiago; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2017-01-01

    Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to the laboratory for oviposition and development of the immature stages. Chemical analysis of cuticular compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly between the two populations, as well as between developmental stages, supporting the use of these compounds as a complementary tool to help identify the species and its stages, along with geographical variability. This could greatly accelerate forensic investigations, eliminating the need to allow the fly larvae to develop until adult stage in order to confirm the species identity and sample origin.

  11. MOSCAS SINANTROPICAS PERJUDICIALES, UN DESAFÍO ACTUAL: Musca domestica L. (MUSCIDAE Y Chrysomya megacephala (FABRICIUS (CALLIPHORIDAE

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    Priscila Maria da Silva Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synanthropic animals of a particular locality corresponds to some species of wild native fauna that have adapted either temporary or permanently, the new environment modified by human action. Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala have a eusinantropico behavior, or their life cycle occurs in anthropized environment. So the article aims to contribute to the characterization of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae among the main species of harmful synanthropic flies food health importance. The control populations of harmful synanthropic species requires knowledge of the bionomics of the species. The adoption of advertising campaigns, environmental and health education projects, citizenship, to the biological vector control should be focused on: food waste reduction; Promotion programs (and expansion of existing ones of basic separation of organic waste, inorganic and risk of domestic origin, commercial and various public and private service activities; Mapping of special areas of risk to public health, especially areas with most polluting activity by human excreta and secretions and domestic animals, organic waste and wastewater focuses exposed to open air, aimed at implementing a continuous system of hygiene and sanitation, integrating the activities of various sectors of society in these areas DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20002

  12. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

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    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  13. Do climatic and physical factors affect populations of the blow fly Chrysomya megacephala and house fly Musca domestica?

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    Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Irvine, Kim N; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Prangkio, Chira; Somboon, Pradya; Sukontason, Kom

    2011-11-01

    The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and house fly, Musca domestica L., are medically and forensically important flies. The population dynamic of these flies is essential for both control and forensical aspects. The aim of this study was to investigate the climatic and physical factors affecting the population trend of both species in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand, using the Geographic Information System (GIS). Based on systematic random sampling, 18 study sites were selected in three districts (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong). Six land use types were involved in the study sites, i.e., disturbed mixed deciduous, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city, and paddy field. Adult flies were sampled every 2 weeks using an in-house prototype reconstructable funnel trap. Two types of bait were used--one with fresh beef viscera for luring M. domestica and the other with 1-day tainted beef viscera for luring C. megacephala. Collections were conducted from May 2009 to May 2010, and analysis of climatic factors (temperature, relative humidity, and light intensity) was carried out. Correlation bivariate analysis was performed initially to determine the relationship between climatic factors and the number of flies. Consequently, an ordinary co-kriging approach, in ArcGIS 9.2, was performed to predict the spatial distribution of flies with land use and climatic factors as co-variables. A total of 63,158 flies were captured, with C. megacephala being the most common species collected (68.37%), while only 1.3% were M. domestica, thus proving that C. megacephala was the most abundant species in several land use types. A significantly higher number of females than males was found in both species. Fly populations can be collected throughout most of the year with a peak in late summer, which shows a positive relation to temperature but negative correlation with relative humidity. C. megacephala was predicted to be abundant in every

  14. Effects on microhymenopteran progeny of different host exposure periods (Chrysomya megacephala, Calliphoridae to the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    Renata da Silva Mello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption that exposure of the host to parasitoid for long periods could provoke superparasitism, the aim of this work was to test the consequences on the immature development time, productivity of parasitoids per pupa, sex ratio and rate of parasitism of Nasonia vitripennis bred in Chrysomya megacephala pupae. Each individual pupa was placed in a glass tube with one parasitoid female for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h period of exposure, under controlled laboratory conditions. Twenty replicates of each period were performed. ANOVA with a 5% significance level was applied. The 72 h exposure caused the immature development time to increase. The mean parasitoids emergence per pupa did not vary significantly with the time of exposure. There were a significantly higher number of females than males and a trend in sex ratio deviation towards the females in all of the treatments. An increase in the number of unviable pupae rates were observed with increased exposure time.Para testar a hipótese que longos períodos de exposição do hospedeiro ao parasitóide podem ocasionar o superparasitismo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo testar as conseqüências sobre o tempo de desenvolvimento do imaturo, a produtividade de parasitóides, razão sexual e taxa de parasitismo de Nasonia vitripennis criadas em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala. Cada pupa foi individualizada e alocada em um tudo de ensaio com uma fêmea de N. vitripennis por 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h, sob condições laboratoriais controladas. Foram realizadas 20 réplicas para cada período de exposição. ANOVA com significância de 5 % foi aplicada. A exposição de 72 h causou um aumento no tempo desenvolvimento. A média de emergência de parasitóides não variou significativamente entre os tempos de exposição. Houve um número significativamente maior de fêmeas e uma tendência ao desvio da razão sexual para fêmeas em todos os tratamentos. Foi verificado um aumento no número de pupas invi

  15. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

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    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  16. Eicosanoids mediate nodulation reactions to a Mollicute bacterium in larvae of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala

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    Nodulation is the temporally and quantitatively most important cellular defense response to bacterial, fungal and some viral infections in insects. We tested the hypothesis that prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are responsible for mediating nodulation reactions to bacterial infection in larvae o...

  17. The bright zone, a specialized dorsal eye region in the male blowfly Chrysomyia megacephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Hardie, R.C.; Laughlin, S.B.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In the compound eye of the male Chrysomyia megacephala the facets in the ventral part of the eye are only ca. 20 µm in diameter, but increase abruptly to ca. 80 µm above the equator of the eye. Correspondingly there is a large and abrupt increase in the rhabdomere diameter from 2 to as much as 5 µm.

  18. The bright zone, a specialized dorsal eye region in the male blowfly Chrysomyia megacephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Hardie, R.C.; Laughlin, S.B.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    1. In the compound eye of the male Chrysomyia megacephala the facets in the ventral part of the eye are only ca. 20 µm in diameter, but increase abruptly to ca. 80 µm above the equator of the eye. Correspondingly there is a large and abrupt increase in the rhabdomere diameter from 2 to as much as 5

  19. The Effect of Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(®) ) on the Development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its Implications for Forensic Entomology.

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    Baia, Tainá Costa; Campos, Alessandra; Wanderley, Bruno Mattos Silva; Gama, Renata Antonaci

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of flunitrazepam (known as "date rape drug") on the developmental cycle of Chrysomya megacephala, an important forensic species, and their possible implications for the calculation of the PMI. A 1050 C. megacephala eggs were divided into five groups with seven replications each. The eggs were placed on artificial diet prepared with four drug concentrations of flunitrazepam (4, 8, 16, and 32 ng/g), besides the control group (prepared with water). Were evaluated the potential effects on development time, weight gain, and mortality during the cycles. The drug had no significant effect on development time or mortality although it did affect the weight of the pupae and adults (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The result can be deduced that the determination of the postmortem interval is not affected.

  20. In vitro repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oils on Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala flies.

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    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Radavelli, W M; Volpato, A; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C V; Vaucher, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Da Silva, A S

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) essential oils on two species of flies (Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala). For the in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To verify the repellency effect, an apparatus was constructed where H. irritans and C. megacephala were exposed to andiroba and tea tree oils (5.0%), as well as to a known repellent (citronella, 5.0%) to validate the test. The study demonstrated that all three oils used showed in vitro repellent effect against both species of flies. It is possible to conclude that the essential oils (tea tree and andiroba) have repellent effect on these species of flies used in this study.

  1. Microsatellite markers for population genetic studies of the blowfly Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Rosangela Aparecida Rodrigues

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the genetic variation and population structure of Chrysomya species is of great interest for both basic and applied research. However, very limited genetic information is available for this genus across its geographical distribution. Here, we describe 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Chrysomya putoria with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.1402-0.8312. These markers are of potential applied interest for forensic entomologists and for the characterisation of the genetic structure of C. putoria from recently colonised regions, with great promise for understanding the colonisation dynamics and spread of the genus Chrysomya in the New World.

  2. The forensically important blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is more likely to walk than fly to carrion at low light levels.

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    Smith, Joshua L; Palermo, Nicholas A; Theobald, Jamie C; Wells, Jeffrey D

    2016-09-01

    One factor that influences estimates of time since death using entomological evidence is whether or not blow flies nocturnally oviposit. Field studies focusing on egg laying have found it occurs on an inconsistent basis. A key but poorly understood factor in nocturnal oviposition is a blow fly's ability to locate carrion under low light levels. It has been speculated that blow flies are more likely to walk than fly to carrion during the night, but this has not been empirically tested. We directly compared guided walking versus flying using infrared sensors under low light levels in laboratory conditions for Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a blow fly previously described to be nocturnal. We found C. megacephala is more likely to walk than fly toward carrion under low light levels (p=0.016). We did not, however, find differences between males and females for walking (p=0.48) or flying (p=0.42) despite male C. megacephala possessing eyes better suited for increased light capture. These results demonstrate the need to better understand where blow flies go at night, as bodies found within a fly's walking distance are more likely to be colonized.

  3. 家蝇和大头金蝇在麦麸和猪瘦肉上的产卵选择和发育差异%Difference in oviposition preference and development between Musca Domestica (Diptera:Muscidae)and Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera:Calliphoridae) on wheat bran and pork muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王争艳; 莫建初

    2009-01-01

    In many areas in China, Chrysomya megacephala F. Has gradually invaded the ecological niches occupied by Musca domestica L. And become the dominant species at garbage sites in the urban areas. To explore the influence of foods on the development of M. Domestica and C. Megacephala larvae when theywere reared solely or jointly, the oviposition preference and life history of the F, generation of wild blowfly C. Megacephala and housefly M. Domestica on wet wheat bran, pork muscle and their mixture were observed in the laboratory. The results showed that: (1) Blowflies preferred to lay their eggs on substrates containing pork muscle while houseflies preferred to lay their eggs on substrates containing wheat bran. (2) Newly-hatched housefly and blowfly larvae could reach adulthood on diets containing pork muscle. When raised on wheat bran, newly-hatched housefly larvae could reach adulthood while newly-hatched and 2nd instar blowfly larvae all died before entering into the next instar, but some 3rd instar blowfly larvae could reach adulthood. (3) When the same number of newly-hatched housefly and blowfly larvae grew mixedly on diets containing pork muscle, blowflies exhibited shorter developmental duration and higher survival rate than houseflies. When reared mixedly with houseflies on wheat bran, blowflies showed shorter developmental duration and higher survival rate than the same instar blowflies that grew solely on wheat bran. These results suggest that in coexistence the housefly can promote the utilization of the vegetable resource by the blowfly. This might be one of important reasons why the blowfly can invade successfully the ecological niches occupied dominantly by the housefly.%在中国许多地区,大头金蝇 Chrysomya megacephala F.已侵入过去由家蝇Musca domestica L.占绝对优势的垃圾生态位,逐渐成为城市蝇类的优势种.为了解单独和混合饲养时食物种类对家蝇和大头金蝇幼虫生长发育的影响,在室内观察

  4. Aspectos fisiológicos de Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): metabolismo energético, termorregulação e neurofisiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Guilherme

    2012-01-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) foi introduzida no Brasil há algumas décadas atrás, e é uma espécie de mosca-varejeira de considerável importância médico-sanitária por ser veiculadora de enteropatógenos, poder causar miíases secundárias, e também ter grande importância em estudos forenses por auxiliar na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM) em cadáveres, além de ter importância agrícola, como polinizadora. Desta forma, diversos trabalhos utilizam esta espécie com...

  5. [Effect of different baits as attractant for blowflies (Diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, José M; Fraga, Mariana B

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in an area of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).

  6. Ocorrência de multiparasitismo em larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius em condições de campo Occurrence of multiparasitism in third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante experimento de pesquisa envolvendo o parasitismo de larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 em dois locais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, observou-se a ocorrência de multiparasitismo em 1,83% das pupas expostas no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC e em 2,16% expostas no Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. O experimento foi conduzido semanalmente de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000. Em ambos os locais, houve a co-ocorrência de duas espécies por pupa e os parasitóides encontrados foram os himenópteros Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 e Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836. 72,73% do multiparasitismo ocorreu no ZOO em julho de 2000. Em condições de multiparasitismo, T. zealandicus e P. vindemiae mantiveram seu hábito gregário e solitário, respectivamente, mas N. vitripennis foi encontrado solitário em algumas pupas.During research experiment involving parasitism of third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, it was found 1.83% of multiparasited pupae in Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC and 2.16% in Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. The exposition were conducted weekly from August 1999 to July 2000. The multiparasited pupae contained two Hymenoptera parasitoids species [Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 and either Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 or Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836]. 72.73% of the multiparasitism occurred at ZOO in July. T. zealandicus and P. vindemiae supported their respective gregarious and solitary natural conditions, respectively, but N. vitripennis sometimes behaved as solitary.

  7. Volume of larvae Is the most important single predictor of mass temperatures in the forensically important Calliphorid, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S. V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.; Turco, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    Calliphorid species form larval aggregations that are capable of generating heat above ambient temperature. We wanted to determine the relationship between volume, number of larvae, and different combinations of instars on larval mass heat generation. We compared different numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) larvae (40, 100, 250, 600, and 2,000), and different combinations of instars (∼50/50 first and second instars, 100% second instars, ∼50/50 second and third instars, and 100% third instars) at two different ambient temperatures (20 and 30 °C). We compared 13 candidate multiple regression models that were fitted to the data; the models were then scored and ranked with Akaike information criterion and Bayesian information criterion. The results indicate that although instar, age, treatment temperature, elapsed time, and number of larvae in a mass were significant, larval volume was the best predictor of larval mass temperatures. The volume of a larval mass may need to be taken into consideration for determination of a postmortem interval.

  8. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  9. Dynamics of experimental populations of native and introduced blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae: mathematical modelling and the transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAC Godoy

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium dynamics of native and introduced blowflies is modelled using a density-dependent model of population growth that takes into account important features of the life-history in these flies. A theoretical analysis indicates that the product of maximum fecundity and survival is the primary determinant of the dynamics. Cochliomyia macellaria, a blowfly native to the Americas and the introduced Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria, differ in their dynamics in that the first species shows a damping oscillatory behavior leading to a one-point equilibrium, whereas in the last two species population numbers show a two-point limit cycle. Simulations showed that variation in fecundity has a marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations and aperiodic behavior. Variation in survival has much less influence on the dynamics.

  10. Study of some biological aspects of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Layla A.H. Al-Shareef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We reared Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 unadult stages (first larval instar, second larval instar, third larval instar and pupal stage under four constant temperatures. Results proved that increasing temperature from 20 to 25, 30 and 35 °C reduced total larval stage duration (9–6, 4.83 and 4.75 days, respectively and pupal duration (7, 5.5, 4 and 1.5 days, respectively. C. albiceps larvae at first instar reached adult stage in the longest time at 20 °C (16 days, and in the shortest time at 35 °C (6.25 days. The accumulation degree-day (ADD at 20, 25, 30, 35 °C for first larval instar were 8.86, 13.86, 18.86, 23.86 DD, for second larval instar were 10.5, 12, 17, 22 DD and for third larval instar were 35.88, 42.08, 43.97, 56.43 DD. Heat requirements for larval stage at different temperatures; 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C (49.68, 63.12, 75.01 and 97.47 DD were more than the pupal requirements at the same temperatures (39.78, 58.76, 62.73 and 31.02 DD. Total heat requirements for C. albiceps to develop from the first larval instar to adult eclosion were the lowest at 20 °C (89.46 DD and the highest at 30 °C (129.138 DD. Decreasing of temperature increased larval body length at the same age. The development curves for C. albiceps were established at four constant temperatures using larval length and the time since egg hatching.

  11. 不同组织源食物对大头金蝇生长发育的影响%Effect of Feeding on Different Tissues on Larva Development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera : Calliphoridae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学博; 吕宙; 万立华; 王尧; 姚岚; 王清山

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察猪的不同脏器组织来源食物对大头金蝇(Chrysomya megacephala)生长发育的影响.方法 在25℃恒温条件下,分别利用猪的脑、肝、肌肉,以及肌肉与脂肪的混合物(7:3)各200g饲养大头金蝇幼虫,约200只/组.幼虫孵化16h后,每12h测量幼虫的体长和体重,并测各组蛹长和蛹重,每次取样10只.观察记录各组不同阶段的样本数量,并计算发育历期,统计各实验组幼虫及蛹的死亡率和成虫的性别比,比较各组之间的差异.结果 肝组幼虫生长缓慢,与其他3组比较达到最大体长和体重的时间延迟36 h,其2龄和3龄幼虫期及总发育历期明显大于其他3组(P<0.01).混合食物组幼虫最大体长[(14.89±0.39)mm]显著小于脑组、肌肉组和肝组[分别为(17.81±0.54)、(16.94±0.43)和(17.14±0.27) mm] (P<0.01),肝组和混合食物组幼虫最大体重[分别为(73.5±6.8)和(63.0+5.4) mg]均显著小于脑组和肌肉组[分别为(91.2±7.5)和(86.3±7.3) mg] (P<0.01).混合食物组蛹长显著小于脑组、肌肉组和肝组(P<0.01),混合食物组和肝组蛹重均显著小于脑组和肌肉组(P<0.01).混合食物组幼虫和蛹的死亡率分别为(9.8±3.1)%和(8.9±3.1)%,显著高于脑组[(5.5±3.1)%和(4.6±1.5)%]、肌肉组[(4.7±2.2)%和(3.8±2.0)%]和肝组[(5.4±2.3)%和(4.8±1.7)%)](均P<0.01),后3组之间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).各组成虫的性别比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 取食肝组织的大头金蝇幼虫发育历期较长,取食含有30%脂肪的混合食物的幼虫及蛹的体长和体重较小,死亡率亦较高.%Objective To observe the effect of feeding on different pig tissues on the development of Chrysomya megacephala larvae. Methods About 200 larvae each were reared on four different substrates, I.e. Pig's brain, liver, muscle and a mixture of minced pork muscle and fat (7 : 3) at a constant temperature of 25℃. Length and weight of larvae and

  12. Effect of differents baits as attractant for blowflies (diptera at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Efeito de diferentes iscas na atração de califorídeos (diptera no campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. D'almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out a survey of blowflies in a área of the Campus (Valonguinho of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine, bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively. The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%.Foi realizado um estudo sobre califorideos no Campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense. A pesquisa foi efetuada de dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004, com coletas feitas com armadilhas utilizando iscas à base de peixe (sardinha, fígado bovino, camarão e banana. Foram coletados 6015 califorideos, Chrysomya megacephala e Lucilia eximia foram as mais freqüentes (50,55% e 21, 52%, respectivamente. A isca mais atrativa foi peixe (38,32% com picos populacionais em fevereiro e março.

  13. Postfeeding radial dispersal in larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae): implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Zuben, Claudio José Von

    2005-12-01

    Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral breeding sites for larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, larvae begin dispersing in search of sites to pupate or additional food sources, a process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps, employing a circular arena to allow radial dispersion of larvae from the center. The results showed a positive correlation between burial depth and distance, and a negative correlation between distance and pupal weight. These results can be used in forensic entomology for the postmortem interval estimation of human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  14. Identification of forensically important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species using the second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark

    2008-05-20

    The identification of forensically important blowflies of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may be hampered by their close morphological similarities, especially as immatures. In contrast to most previous studies, the utility of a nuclear rather than mitochondrial genetic marker was investigated to solve this problem. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced from all nine Chrysomya species known from Australia. Difficulties encountered with direct sequencing of ITS2 for Chrysomya flavifrons necessitated cloning prior to sequencing for this species, which revealed a low level (0-0.23%) of intraindividual variation. Five restriction enzymes (DraI, BsaXI, BciVI, AseI and HinfI) were identified that were able to differentiate most members of the genus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed characteristic restriction profiles for all species except the closely related species pairs Chrysomya latifrons+Chrysomya semimetallica and Chrysomya incisuralis+Chrysomya rufifacies. Ch. incisuralis and Ch. rufifacies were able to be separated using the size differences resulting from amplification of the entire ITS region. The lack of intraspecific ITS2 sequence variation among eight Ch. incisuralis specimens was verified by the identical restriction profiles generated from these specimens. A DNA-based approach, such as PCR-RFLP, has the capacity to be useful for the identification of forensic entomological evidence in cases where morphological characters are unreliable.

  15. Abundância relativa e sazonalidade de espécies de Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) no Pantanal Sul-Mato-Grossense, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    As espécies do gênero Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) exercem papel importante na saúde pública por causarem miíases e por veicularem enteropatógenos. Este estudo visou estimar a abundância relativa e a sazonalidade das três espécies de Chrysomya (C. albiceps, C. putoria e C. megacephala) que ocorrem no Pantanal. Os dípteros foram capturados em quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento (Wind Oriented Trap - W.O.T.), iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas ...

  16. Survey of the Genetic Diversity of Forensically Important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Abeer M; Adham, Fatma K; Picard, Christine J

    2015-05-01

    Minimum postmortem interval estimations of a corpse using blow fly larvae in medicolegal investigations require correct identification and the application of appropriate developmental data of the identified fly species. Species identification of forensically relevant blow flies could be very difficult and time consuming when specimens are damaged or in the event of morphologically indistinguishable immature stages, which are most common at crime scenes. In response to this, an alternative, accurate determination of species may depend on sequencing and molecular techniques for identification. Chrysomyinae specimens (n = 158) belonging to three forensically important species [Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and Chrysomya marginalis (Wiedemann)] (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were collected from four locations in Egypt (Giza, Dayrout, Minya, and North Sinai) and sequenced across the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Phylogenetic analyses using neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony methods resulted in the same topological structure and confirmed DNA based identification of all specimens. Interspecific divergence between pairs of species was 5.3% (C. marginalis-C. megacephala), 7% (C. albiceps-C. megacephala), and 8% (C. albiceps-C. marginalis). These divergences are sufficient to confirm the utility of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in the molecular identification of these flies in Egypt. Importantly, the maximum intraspecific divergence among individuals within a species was <1% and the least nucleotide divergence between species used for phylogenetic analysis was 3.6%. This study highlights the need for thorough and diverse sampling to capture all of the possible genetic diversity if DNA barcoding is to be used for molecular identification.

  17. Using COI barcodes to identify forensically and medically important blowflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, L A; Wallman, J F; Dowton, M

    2007-03-01

    The utility of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA barcodes for the identification of nine species of forensically important blowflies of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae), from Australia, was tested. A 658-bp fragment of the COI gene was sequenced from 56 specimens, representing all nine Chrysomya species and three calliphorid outgroups. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura-two-parameter distance model and a neighbour-joining (NJ) analysis was performed to provide a graphic display of the patterns of divergence among the species. All species were resolved as reciprocally monophyletic on the NJ tree. Mean intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergences were 0.097% (range 0-0.612%, standard error [SE] = 0.119%) and 6.499% (range 0.458-9.254%, SE = 1.864%), respectively. In one case, a specimen that was identified morphologically was recovered with its sister species on the NJ tree. The hybrid status of this specimen was established by sequence analysis of the second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). In another instance, this nuclear region was used to verify four cases of specimen misidentification that had been highlighted by the COI analysis. The COI barcode sequence was found to be suitable for the identification of Chrysomya species from the east coast of Australia.

  18. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

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    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  19. Abundância relativa e sazonalidade de espécies de Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) no Pantanal Sul-Mato-Grossense, Brasil Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) relative abundance and species seasonality in the Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    As espécies do gênero Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) exercem papel importante na saúde pública por causarem miíases e por veicularem enteropatógenos. Este estudo visou estimar a abundância relativa e a sazonalidade das três espécies de Chrysomya (C. albiceps, C. putoria e C. megacephala) que ocorrem no Pantanal. Os dípteros foram capturados em quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento (Wind Oriented Trap - W.O.T.), iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas ...

  20. Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrheal diseases.

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    Steven W Lindsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chrysomya spp are common blowflies in Africa, Asia and parts of South America and some species can reproduce in prodigious numbers in pit latrines. Because of their strong association with human feces and their synanthropic nature, we examined whether these flies are likely to be vectors of diarrheal pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flies were sampled using exit traps placed over the drop holes of latrines in Gambian villages. Odor-baited fly traps were used to determine the relative attractiveness of different breeding and feeding media. The presence of bacteria on flies was confirmed by culture and bacterial DNA identified using PCR. A median of 7.00 flies/latrine/day (IQR = 0.0-25.25 was collected, of which 95% were Chrysomya spp, and of these nearly all were Chrysomya putoria (99%. More flies were collected from traps with feces from young children (median = 3.0, IQR = 1.75-10.75 and dogs (median = 1.50, IQR = 0.0-13.25 than from herbivores (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-0.0; goat, horse, cow and calf; p<0.001. Flies were strongly attracted to raw meat (median = 44.5, IQR = 26.25-143.00 compared with fish (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-19.75, ns, cooked and uncooked rice, and mangoes (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-0.0; p<0.001. Escherichia coli were cultured from the surface of 21% (15/72 agar plates of Chrysomya spp and 10% of these were enterotoxigenic. Enteroaggregative E. coli were identified by PCR in 2% of homogenized Chrysomya spp, Shigella spp in 1.4% and Salmonella spp in 0.6% of samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large numbers of C. putoria that can emerge from pit latrines, the presence of enteric pathogens on flies, and their strong attraction to raw meat and fish suggests these flies may be common vectors of diarrheal diseases in Africa.

  1. Abundância relativa e sazonalidade de espécies de Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Pantanal Sul-Mato-Grossense, Brasil Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae relative abundance and species seasonality in the Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Elaine Cristina Corrêa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As espécies do gênero Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae exercem papel importante na saúde pública por causarem miíases e por veicularem enteropatógenos. Este estudo visou estimar a abundância relativa e a sazonalidade das três espécies de Chrysomya (C. albiceps, C. putoria e C. megacephala que ocorrem no Pantanal. Os dípteros foram capturados em quatro armadilhas orientadas pelo vento (Wind Oriented Trap - W.O.T., iscadas com fígado bovino deteriorado. As armadilhas foram mantidas ativas durante todo o estudo, realizado na fazenda Nhumirim, base experimental da Embrapa Pantanal, sub-região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal Sul-Mato-Grossense. No período de dezembro/2004 a novembro/2007, foram capturados 159.086 espécimes de Calliphoridae, sendo 31,87% do gênero Chrysomya. A espécie mais abundante do gênero foi C. albiceps (30,86%, seguida de C. megacephala (0,67% e C. putoria (0,34%. As três espécies apresentaram flutuações sazonais semelhantes, com dois picos populacionais anuais, observados entre junho e agosto e entre outubro e dezembro.Species of the genus Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae play an important role in public health due to myiasis and transmission of enteropathogens. This study aimed to estimate the relative abundance and seasonality of the three Chrysomya species (C. albiceps, C. putoria, and C. megacephala that occur in the Pantanal region. The flies were caught by four Wind Oriented Traps, baited with decayed bovine liver. Traps were kept active all over the study carried out from December 2004 to November 2007 at Nhumirim ranch, located at the Nhecolândia subregion, Southern Pantanal. A total of 159,086 Calliphoridae flies were collected and 31.87% of them belonged to the genus Chrysomya. Among calliphorid dipterans the most abundant species was C. albiceps (30.86%, followed by C. megacephala (0.67%, and C. putoria (0.34%. The three Chrysomya species showed similar

  2. Developmental rates of immatures of three Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under the effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and methylphenidate hydrochloride associated with phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Fábio; Alonso, Marcela A; Souza, Carina M; Thyssen, Patrícia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2014-05-01

    Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0.29 mg/Kg), the concentrations tested were 10× TD, 50× TD, and 100× TD. For phenobarbital, the concentrations used were 1× TD (=150 mg/Kg), 3.3× TD, and 6.7× TD. For the association of the drugs, the combinations used were 10× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 1× TD-phenobarbital, 50× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 3.3× TD-phenobarbital, and 100× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 6.7× TD-phenobarbital. The control group, without addition of drug, was maintained under the same conditions of temperature (25 ± 1 °C), humidity (70 ± 10%), and photoperiod (12 h). Specimens of each group were weighed every 12 h until pupariation. The developmental rate of the three Chrysomya species immatures was monitored. For C. albiceps the developmental time was delayed in 24 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 12 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The effect was observed only at specific ages for C. megacephala, without altering the developmental time. For C. putoria, the developmental time was delayed in 12 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 24 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The emergence interval was similar among all experimental groups, but larval and pupal viabilities were affected in different ways.

  3. Distinction among the puparia of three blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae frequently found on unburied corpses

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    JA Amorim

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Calliphorid larvae are important in the decomposition of carrion. Since these larvae are present in the primary stages of succession on carcasses, they may be important indicators of death time and the movement of corpses in homicide investigations. In this study we examined the morphological differences among puparia of Chrysomya megacephala, C. putoria and Cochliomyia macellaria. Puparia of the three species (N=30, each were obtained from the F2 generation bred in culture medium at 25° C, and 60% relative humidity on a 12 h photoperiod. The interspecific differences found were related to the conspicuousness of six tubercles located in the region near the posterior spiracles and to the distance between the two peritrema involving the spiracles. The latter were (mean ± SD 15.2 ± 3.1 mum for C. megacephala, 18.8 ± 2.8 mum for C. putoria and 16.5 ± 3.5 mum for C. macellaria. The results of the present study may be useful in forensic entomology.

  4. Spatio-temporal dynamics and transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations in Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Wesley Augusto Conde Godoy

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of parameters that govern the stability of population size in Chrysomya albiceps and describe its spatial dynamics was evaluated in this study. The dynamics was modeled using a density-dependent model of population growth. Our simulations show that variation in fecundity and mainly in survival has marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations. C. albiceps exhibits a two-point limit cycle, but the introduction of diffusive dispersal induces an evident qualitative shift from two-point limit cycle to a one fixed-point dynamics. Population dynamics of C. albiceps is here compared to dynamics of Cochliomyia macellaria, C. megacephala and C. putoria.

  5. Beyond barcoding: a mitochondrial genomics approach to molecular phylogenetics and diagnostics of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Lambkin, Christine L; Batterham, Philip; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark; Whiting, Michael F; Yeates, David K; Cameron, Stephen L

    2012-12-15

    Members of the Calliphoridae (blowflies) are significant for medical and veterinary management, due to the ability of some species to consume living flesh as larvae, and for forensic investigations due to the ability of others to develop in corpses. Due to the difficulty of accurately identifying larval blowflies to species there is a need for DNA-based diagnostics for this family, however the widely used DNA-barcoding marker, cox1, has been shown to fail for several groups within this family. Additionally, many phylogenetic relationships within the Calliphoridae are still unresolved, particularly deeper level relationships. Sequencing whole mt genomes has been demonstrated both as an effective method for identifying the most informative diagnostic markers and for resolving phylogenetic relationships. Twenty-seven complete, or nearly so, mt genomes were sequenced representing 13 species, seven genera and four calliphorid subfamilies and a member of the related family Tachinidae. PCR and sequencing primers developed for sequencing one calliphorid species could be reused to sequence related species within the same superfamily with success rates ranging from 61% to 100%, demonstrating the speed and efficiency with which an mt genome dataset can be assembled. Comparison of molecular divergences for each of the 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, at a range of taxonomic scales identified novel targets for developing as diagnostic markers which were 117-200% more variable than the markers which have been used previously in calliphorids. Phylogenetic analysis of whole mt genome sequences resulted in much stronger support for family and subfamily-level relationships. The Calliphoridae are polyphyletic, with the Polleninae more closely related to the Tachinidae, and the Sarcophagidae are the sister group of the remaining calliphorids. Within the Calliphoridae, there was strong support for the monophyly of the Chrysomyinae and Luciliinae and for the sister

  6. Edge effects on the blowfly fauna (Diptera, Calliphoridae) of the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, B Q; Ribeiro, A C; Aguiar, V M; Mello-Patiu, C A

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution we examine the diversity, abundance and species richness of Calliphoridae in the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Specimens were collected monthly between September 2009 and August 2010, using sardines as bait, in three points: A, on the forest edge (22°56'846"S 43°17'496"W), B, 700 m from it (22°57'073"S 43°17'832"W) and C, 1,200 m into the forest (22°57'321"S 43°18'031"W), evaluating the indicator species at each point and the anthropogenic influences and abiotic factors that determine species distribution. A total of 16,364 Calliphoridae were collected and 17 species were identified. Species abundance was strongly positively correlated with temperature. The greatest number of flies was collected at A, but in this point, diversity was lower and most individuals collected belonged to the dominant species. Point C, conversely, had the lower abundance and the highest diversity. Chrysomya megacephala, an urban and synanthropic species, was dominant at point A, whereas Laneela nigripes and Mesembrinella peregrina, typically forest species, were considered indicators at points B and C, respectively, showing that the anthropogenic influence is more intense at the forest edge.

  7. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

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    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer. METHODOLOGY: We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein. CONCLUSION: A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  8. Blowfly flight and optic flow II. Head movements during flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hateren, JH; Schilstra, C

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax, The yaw turns of the tho

  9. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. II. Head Movements during Flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Schilstra, C.

    1999-01-01

    The position and orientation of the thorax and head of flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were measured using small sensor coils mounted on the thorax and head. During flight, roll movements of the thorax are compensated by counter rolls of the head relative to the thorax. The yaw turns of the tho

  10. Saccadic head and thorax movements in freely walking blowflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaj, G.; Hateren, J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Visual information processing is adapted to the statistics of natural visual stimuli, and these statistics depend to a large extent on the movements of an animal itself. To investigate such movements in freely walking blowflies, we measured the orientation and position of their head and thorax, with

  11. Focus stacking technique in identification of forensically important Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Noha A. Elleboudy

    2016-09-01

    Recommendations: Further studies on the blowfly species that occur in Egypt and documentation of their key for identification are recommended to facilitate the diverse applications of these important insects in forensic investigations.

  12. Oral Myiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana in Anterior Maxilla

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    Ankur Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, and severe halitosis. It arises from invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals by maggots or larvae of certain dipterian flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. We hereby report a rare case of oral myiasis in a 70-year-old female with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which numerous live maggots (larvae and seen emerging out and discuss the definition, etiology, predisposing factors, classification, and management of the same. Furthermore, the life cycle of the causative organism in the present case, that is, Chrysomya bezziana, has also been discussed.

  13. Prospect of a method of infected wound healing with a help of Calliphoridae blowfly screwworms

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    L. I. Faly

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of possibilities of infected wound healing with a help of screwworms of blowfly of the family Calliphoridae in the hospitals of Ukraineis offered. On the basis of available data the mechanism of therapeutic action is shown, and the medicinal properties of substances containing in the secretions and excretions of the blowfly screwworms are described. The gist of the treatment method and traits of the blowfly cultivation in a laboratory are highlighted. The quality standards for specialized biological laboratories are presented. The proposed wound healing method is proved as promising.

  14. On the Permanence of a Nonautonomous Nicholson's Blowflies Model with Feedback Control and Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Wei-ying

    2011-01-01

    A nonautonomous Nicholson's Blowflies model with feedback control and delay is investigated in this paper.We show that for this system,feedback control variable has no influence on the persistent property of the system.

  15. Histone deacetylase enzymes as drug targets for the control of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

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    Andrew C. Kotze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is an ecto-parasite that causes significant economic losses in the sheep industry. Emerging resistance to insecticides used to protect sheep from this parasite is driving the search for new drugs that act via different mechanisms. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs, enzymes essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription, are prospective new insecticides based on their capacity to kill human parasites. The blowfly genome was found here to contain five HDAC genes corresponding to human HDACs 1, 3, 4, 6 and 11. The catalytic domains of blowfly HDACs 1 and 3 have high sequence identity with corresponding human and other Dipteran insect HDACs (Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. On the other hand, HDACs 4, 6 and 11 from the blowfly and the other Dipteran species showed up to 53% difference in catalytic domain amino acids from corresponding human sequences, suggesting the possibility of developing HDAC inhibitors specific for insects as desired for a commercial insecticide. Differences in transcription patterns for different blowfly HDACs through the life cycle, and between the sexes of adult flies, suggest different functions in regulating gene transcription within this organism and possibly different vulnerabilities. Data that supports HDACs as possible new insecticide targets is the finding that trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid retarded growth of early instar blowfly larvae in vitro, and reduced the pupation rate. Trichostatin A was 8-fold less potent than the commercial insecticide cyromazine in inhibiting larval growth. Our results support further development of inhibitors of blowfly HDACs with selectivity over human and other mammalian HDACs as a new class of prospective insecticides for sheep blowfly.

  16. Field calibration of blowfly-derived DNA against traditional methods for assessing mammal diversity in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Gan, Han Ming; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Wilson, John-James

    2016-11-01

    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.

  17. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Southeastern Brazil

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    Antonia Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. As coletas foram realizadas com auxílio de armadilhas para dípteros e a isca utilizada foi peixe fresco.

  18. Larvicidal efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle on the larvae of the old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana April

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chrysomya bezziana are the commonest cause of wound myiasis in some parts of the world. This obligatory parasite is important in humans and in commercial livestock. Kumarasinghe et al have reported that essential oil of betel leaf (EOBL is larvicidal to C. megacephala but there are no publications on its effect on C. bezziana . This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle against the larvae of C. bezziana in vitro . EOBL was prepared at the Industrial Technology Institute Colombo, Sri Lanka, according to a standard protocol. The experiment on larvae was carried out at the Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences in Bogor, Indonesia. EOBL concentrations of 2%, 3% and 4% were prepared with Tween 80. Two ml of 4%, 3% and 2% EOBL in 1% Tween 80 (v/v/aq were poured into separate Petri dishes. Ten 1st and 2nd instar larvae were placed in each Petri dish. Asuntol (Chaumaphos 1% was used as positive control and distilled water with 1% tween 80 was the negative control. Larval mortality was assessed half-hourly. The experiment was repeated five times and averages were compared. Sustained immobility of the larvae, after exposure to the relevant substances was considered as death. The efficacy of EOBL depended on, the stages of C. bezziana larvae and the concentration. With 4% EOBL, all first instar larvae were killed within two hours and the second instar larvae were killed by four hours. The positive control showed no mortality until four hours but all larvae were weak, from the first 30 minutes. In the negative control, larvae were mobile and active. EOBL 3% killed all the first instar larvae by 150 minutes and 74% of the second instar at four hours. By 210 minutes, 2% preparation had killed 100% of the first instars. EOBL is an effective larvicidal for C. bezziana first and second instar larvae in vitro . This natural product has a great potential to be developed as a novel larvicide against this

  19. Isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S; Othman, M Z; Aziz, A H

    2000-06-01

    Four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from Chrysomya megacephala. Klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was predominantly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala and also from Musca domestica and Musca sorbens. A total of 18 bacterial species was isolated from the synanthropic flies trapped. Burkholderia pseudomallei had been reported for the first time.

  20. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  1. Localization of the glycoprotein Cb42 in larvae of the screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creig Eisemanni

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein Cb-peritrophin-42 was localized in third instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana using primary antibodies raised against a non-glycosylated bacterial recombinant form of this protein. Both immunofluorescent antibody techniques on unfixed whole mounts of gut tissues and immunogold electron microscopy techniques on ultra-thin sections of fixed and embedded tissues were employed. The protein was shown to be exposed over the whole of both surfaces of the peritrophic membrane and to occur throughout its thickness. Immunogold labelling indicated that Cb-peritrophin-42 was expressed in the peritrophic membrane-secreting cells of the cardia, a specialized peritrophic membrane-forming organ situated at the junction of the foregut and midgut. The accessibility of Cb-peritrophin-42 present in intact peritrophic membrane to the primary antibodies used in the immunofluorescent antibody localization indicates that this glycoprotein is a potential molecular target for vaccination of host animals against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana.

  2. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  3. Electrical coupling of neuro-ommatidial photoreceptor cells in the blowfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1986-01-01

    A new method of microstimulation of the blowfly eye using corneal neutralization was applied to the 6 peripheral photoreceptor cells (R1-R6) connected to one neuro-ommatidium (and thus looking into the same direction), whilst the receptor potential of a dark-adapted photoreceptor cell was recorded b

  4. Light dependence of calcium and membrane potential measured in blowfly photoreceptors in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J; Stavenga, DG

    1998-01-01

    Light adaptation in insect photoreceptors is caused by an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. To better understand this process, we measured the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in vivo as a function of adapting light intensity in the white-eyed blowfly mutant chalky. We developed a technique

  5. On spiking units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly. III. The sustaining unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1993-01-01

    We recorded from the spiking sustaining unit in the optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated both temporal and spatial properties of the light-adapted cell. The sustaining unit fails to follow the highest temporal frequencies followed by

  6. ON SPIKING UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY .3. THE SUSTAINING UNIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    1993-01-01

    We recorded from the spiking sustaining unit in the optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated both temporal and spatial properties of the light-adapted cell. The sustaining unit fails to follow the highest temporal frequencies followed by

  7. Light Reduces the Excitation Efficiency in the nss Mutant of the Sheep Blowfly Lucilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barash, S.; Suss, E.; Stavenga, D.G.; Rubinstein, C.T.; Selinger, Z.; Minke, B.

    1988-01-01

    The nss (no steady state) phototransduction mutant of the sheep blowfly Lucilia was studied electrophysiologically using intracellular recordings. The effects of the nss mutation on the receptor potential are manifested in the following features of the light response. (a) The responses to a flash or

  8. Blowfly flight and optic flow I. Thorax kinematics and flight dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, C; Van Hateren, JH

    1999-01-01

    The motion of the thorax of the blowfly Calliphora vicina was measured during cruising flight inside a cage measuring 40 cmx40 cmx40 cm, Sensor coils mounted on the thorax picked up externally generated magnetic fields and yielded measurements of the position and orientation of the thorax with a res

  9. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. I. Thorax Kinematics and Flight Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, C.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1999-01-01

    The motion of the thorax of the blowfly Calliphora vicina was measured during cruising flight inside a cage measuring 40cm×40cm×40 cm. Sensor coils mounted on the thorax picked up externally generated magnetic fields and yielded measurements of the position and orientation of the thorax with a resol

  10. ON-OFF UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY .2. SPATIAL PROPERTIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    1993-01-01

    We recorded from the spiking on-off unit in the first optic chiasm (between lamina and medulla) in the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated its spatial properties. The receptive field extends over (11.4+/-0.9)-degrees horizontally and (8.7+/-0.6)-degrees vertically, i.e. about 7 by 5 interomm

  11. Records of Chrysomya albiceps in Northern Italy: an ecological and forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vanin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the carrion-breeding insects present at a local level is important and necessary for defining the post-mortem interval. Climate changes and globalisation are affecting species ranges and population dynamics. In this note, we report the incidence of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae on dead human bodies and carrion in Northern Italy. These data confirm the spread of this species in the Northern regions. The partial sequencing of a 583-bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of an Adriatic population did not reveal any difference compared to the same genomic region in the African and South American populations of this species.

  12. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M.; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.; Paulo, Daniel F.; Marinho, Marco Antonio T.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2016-01-01

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394

  13. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-02-25

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.

  14. A note on the global attractivity of a discrete model of nicholson's blowflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we further study the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the discrete Nicholson's blowflies model Nn+1−Nn=−δNn+pNn−ke−aNn−k,        n=0,1,2,…. We obtain a new criterion for the positive equilibrium N∗ to be a global attractor, which improve the corresponding results obtained by So and Yu (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 193 (1995, 233–244.

  15. In vitro study of larvacidal effect of Chrysomya bezziana between atsiri oil (Piper betle leaf from Sri Lanka and Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of myiasis caused by the larvae of Chrysomya bezziana resulted variation results. The aim of the experiment are to compare larvacidal effect of atsiri oil of Piper betle leaf originated from Sri Lanka and Bogor agains Chrysomya bezziana larvae and to identify atsiri oil using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Silica gel plate GF254 with toluena and ethyl ecetate as diluents was used in TLC. L1 and L2 of Chrysomya bezziana larvae were used for in vitro assay using agar plate contained atsiri oil of three concentrations ie. 2, 3 and 4%. Asuntol 1% and aquadest sterile were used as positive and negative control, respectively. Ten larvae were used in five replicates. The larvae were observed every 30 minutes for four hours. Larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. The results showed there was a difference on migration distance between atsiri oil from Sri Lanka and Bogor on nRf 79-88 analysed using TLC. In vitro assay showed that both lethal concentration and lethal time of atsiri oil from Sri Lanka was higher than from Bogor. This results indicated that larvacidal effect of atsiri oil from Bogor was stronger than atsiri oil from Sri Lanka in in vitro both on L1 and L2.

  16. Permanence of a Nicholson’s Blowflies Model with Feedback Control and Multiple Time-varying Delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-ying; SHI Chun-ling

    2015-01-01

    This paper covers the dynamic behaviors for a class of Nicholson’s blowflies model with multiple time-varying delay and feedback control. By using the dierential inequality theory, a set of sucient conditions are obtained to ensure the permanence of the system. Our result shows that feedback control variables have no influence on the permanence of the system.

  17. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  18. Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about translat

  19. A review of postfeeding larval dispersal in blowflies: implications for forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde; von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-05-01

    Immature and adult stages of blowflies are one of the primary invertebrate consumers of decomposing animal organic matter. When the food supply is consumed or when the larvae complete their development and migrate prior to the total removal of the larval substrate, they disperse to find adequate places for pupation, a process known as postfeeding larval dispersal. Several important ecological and physiological aspects of this process were studied since the work by Green (Ann Appl Biol 38:475, 1951) 50 years ago. An understanding of postfeeding larval dispersal can be useful for determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human cadavers in legal medicine, particularly because this interval may be underestimated if older dispersing larvae or those that disperse longer, faster, and deeper are not taken into account. In this article, we review the process of postfeeding larval dispersal and its implications for legal medicine, in particular showing that aspects such as burial behavior and competition among species of blowflies can influence this process and consequently, the estimation of PMI.

  20. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria.

  1. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver.

  2. Nasal Nosocomial Myiasis Infection Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae Following the Septicemia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Farzin MIRCHERAGHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 74 yr old woman from Gonabad, southern part of Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran was admitted to a Hospital of Gonabad, because of respiratory distress, exertional dyspnea and fever. Close contact with domes­tic animals, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and completely resolved pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in remote past, were nota­ble parts of her past medical history. Due to clinical, paraclinical and radio­graphic findings and because of recent hospitalization, she was admitted to internal medicine ward with the diagnosis of health care associated pneumo­nia (HCAP. Despite the application of broad-spectrum antibiotics and ap­propriate supportive care, she had a poor response to the treatment. During the daily visit in Intensive Care Unit (ICU, numerous white larvae were de­tected in both nostrils. Further investigation of oropharynx and tracheal tube aspiration, showed no more larvae in mentioned parts. An hour later, nasal spontaneous bleeding occurred. Otorhinolaryngology consultation was per­formed and led to surgical procedure. In ENT examination, there were nu­merous larvae and massive clot formation in both inferior meatuses and distal nasal septum perforation. Thirty-seven extracted larvae were transferred to Medical Entomology lab by vial 70% ethanol and 5 live larvae for rearing. After pre­cise investigation by aid of light microscopy, the larvae were identified as Chrysomya bezziana. Due to discovered 2nd larvae stage and duration of hospitalization, this infestation was identified as nasal myiasis.

  3. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

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    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  4. Effects of methamphetamine and its primary human metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the development of the Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Christina; Keller, Paul A; Nugraha, Ari S; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    The larvae of necrophagous fly species are used as forensic tools for the determination of the minimum postmortem interval (PMI). However, any ingested drugs in corpses may affect larval development, thus leading to incorrect estimates of the period of infestation. This study investigated the effects of methamphetamine and its metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the forensically important Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia. It was found that the presence of the drugs significantly accelerated larval growth and increased the size of all life stages. Furthermore, drug-exposed samples remained as pupae for up to 78 h longer than controls. These findings suggest that estimates of the minimum PMI of methamphetamine-dosed corpses could be incorrect if the altered growth of C. stygia is not considered. Different temperatures, drug concentrations and substrate types are also likely to affect the development of this blowfly. Pending further research, the application of C. stygia to the entomological analysis of methamphetamine-related fatalities should be appropriately qualified.

  5. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  6. Dietas naturais na criação de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819; Diptera: Calliphoridae): estudo comparado Natural diets to rear Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819; Diptera: Calliphoridae): a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemary Cardoso Ribeiro; Eliane Maria Vieira Milward-de-Azevedo

    1997-01-01

    Procurou-se observar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya albiceps, testando-se, comparativamente, dietas à base de sardinha e carne eqüina. Os substratos frescos foram previamente mantidos a 30°C de temperatura durante duas horas. Foram inoculadas 50 neolarvas em 100g de dieta por repetição. Utilizaram-se quatro repetições por tratamento. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de laboratório. O peso médio das larvas após o abandono espontâneo das dietas foi de 91,19mg, no sub...

  7. Estudo morfologico e histoquimico das glandulas sexuais acessorias de chrysomya putoria durante a ovogenese (wiedemann) (diptera : calliphoridae)

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Chrysomya putoria é uma mosca varejeira normalmente associada a locais com precárias condições de higiene. Na natureza ela cria-se em carcaças e no esterco que acumula-se sob as gaiolas de galinhas poedeiras. Esta mosca está no Brasil a cerca de duas décadas mas na Áftica, seu local de origem, ela é descrita como díptero causador facultativo de miíase. As glândulas sexuais acessórias de temeas tem um importante papel em diferentes etapas da fertilização do ovo e sua ausência experimen...

  8. Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae as a parasitoid of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae: first report in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchiori C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata a primeira ocorrência do parasitóide Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius, 1787 parasitando estádios imaturos de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Brasil. Utilizaram-se armadilhas contendo como isca vísceras de galinha. As pupas foram obtidas pelo método de flutuação. Elas foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou dos parasitóides. Foram obtidas 29 pupas de C. albiceps, quatro das quais emergiram parasitóides. A prevalência de parasitismo foi de 13,7%.

  9. Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Blowfly Larvae of Porcine Tissue Contaminated with Gunshot Residue by ICP OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa C. Motta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, barium (Ba, and antimony (Sb concentrations were monitored in flies larvae (immature Chrysomya albiceps contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR from .40 caliber Taurus pistols during the period of 2 to 12 days after the death of a female pig in decomposition, during the winter, under the influence of rain and high relative humidity. The samples were also analyzed by the colorimetric test using sodium rhodizonate (Feigl-Suter reaction. It was possible to detect and quantify the three metals of interest by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES, where the concentrations of all three elements kept practically constant during the putrefaction stage. Minimum ([Pb] = 382.26 μg L−1; [Ba] = 140.50 μg L−1; [Sb] = 39.18 μg L−1 and maximum ([Pb] = 522.66 μg L−1; [Ba] = 190.30 μg L−1; [Sb] = 56.14 μg L−1 concentrations were found during the third and fifth days after death, respectively. ICP OES presented higher sensitivity in metals determination when compared to the conventional colorimetric test, which showed negative result for the GSR extracts obtained from the immature Chrysomya albiceps.

  10. Impact of abiotic factor changes in blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Irvine, Kim N; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Prangkio, Chira; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult fly surveys were carried out every 2 weeks from May 2009 to May 2010 at 18 systematically randomized study sites in three districts of Chiang Mai province (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong), using reconstructable funnel traps with 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. During the study period, 8,861 adult A. rufifacies were captured, with peak densities being observed at the end of winter (i.e., late February) and throughout most of the summer (May to March). Population density had a weak but significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with temperature (r = 0.329) and light intensity (r = 0.231), and a weak but significant (α = 0.05) negative correlation with relative humidity (r = -0.236). From the six ecological land use types (disturbed mixed deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city town, and paddy field), greater fly densities were observed generally in the disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village, but not in the paddy fields. In conclusion, A. rufifacies are abundant from the end of winter and throughout most of the summer in northern Thailand, with population density being weakly positively correlated with temperature and light intensity, but weakly negatively correlated with relative humidity. The greatest densities of this fly species were collected in disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village land uses. The prediction of annual and season specific distributions of A. rufifacies were provided in each season and all-year patterns using a co-kriging approach (ArcGIS9.2).

  11. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

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    Simon M Walker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for <3% of total flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the

  12. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon M; Schwyn, Daniel A; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-03-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the insect flight motor.

  13. Texture-defined objects influence responses of blowfly motion-sensitive neurons under natural dynamical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Ullrich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The responses of visual interneurons of flies involved in the processing of motion information do not only depend on the velocity, but also on other stimulus parameters, such as the contrast and the spatial frequency content of the stimulus pattern. These dependencies have been known for long, but it is still an open question how they affect the neurons’ performance in extracting information about the structure of the environment under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight. Free-flight of blowflies is characterized by sequences of phases of translational movements lasting for just 30-100 milliseconds interspersed with even shorter and extremely rapid saccade-like rotational shifts in flight and gaze direction. Previous studies already analyzed how nearby objects, leading to relative motion on the retina with respect to a more distant background, influenced the response of a class of fly motion sensitive visual interneurons, the HS cells. In the present study, we focused on objects that differed from their background by discontinuities either in their brightness contrast or in their spatial frequency content. We found strong object-induced effects on the membrane potential even during the short intersaccadic intervals, if the background contrast was small and the object contrast sufficiently high. The object evoked similar response increments provided that it contained higher spatial frequencies than the background, but not under reversed conditions. This asymmetry in the response behavior is partly a consequence of the depolarization level induced by the background. Thus, our results suggest that, under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight, i.e. on a very short timescale, the responses of HS cells represent object information depending on the polarity of the difference between object and background contrast and spatial frequency content.

  14. Stimulation of tarsal receptors of the blowfly by aliphatic aldehydes and ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHADWICK, L E; DETHIER, V G

    1949-03-20

    Rejection of eight aldehydes, eight ketones, five secondary alcohols, and 3-pentanol has been studied in the blowfly Phormia regina Meigen. The data agree with results previously reported for normal alcohols and several series of glycols in showing a logarithmic increase in stimulating effect with increasing chain length. The order of increasing effectiveness among the different species of compounds thus far investigated is the following: polyglycols, diols, secondary alcohols, iso-alcohols, normal alcohols, ketones, iso-aldehydes, normal aldehydes. Curves relating the logarithms of threshold concentration to the logarithms of chain length for diols, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show inflections in the 3 to 6 carbon range. Above and below the region of inflection the curves are nearly rectilinear. The slopes for the upper limbs (smaller molecules) are of the order of -2; for the lower limbs, about -10. Comparisons of the threshold data with numerical values for molecular weights, molecular areas and volumes, oil-water distribution coefficients, activity coefficients, standard free energies, vapor pressures, boiling points, melting points, dipole moments, dielectric constants, and degree of association are discussed briefly, and it is concluded that none of the comparisons serves to bring the data from the several series and from the two portions of each series into a single homogeneous system. A qualitative comparison with water solubilities shows fewer discrepancies. It is suggested that the existence of a combination of aqueous and lipoid phases at the receptor surface would fit best with what is presently known about the relationship between chemical structure and stimulating effect in contact chemoreception. In this hypothesis the smaller and more highly water-soluble compounds are envisaged as gaining access to the receptors partly through the aqueous phase, the larger molecules predominantly through the lipoid phase.

  15. Dietas naturais na criação de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819; Diptera: Calliphoridae: estudo comparado Natural diets to rear Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819; Diptera: Calliphoridae: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Cardoso Ribeiro

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se observar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya albiceps, testando-se, comparativamente, dietas à base de sardinha e carne eqüina. Os substratos frescos foram previamente mantidos a 30°C de temperatura durante duas horas. Foram inoculadas 50 neolarvas em 100g de dieta por repetição. Utilizaram-se quatro repetições por tratamento. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de laboratório. O peso médio das larvas após o abandono espontâneo das dietas foi de 91,19mg, no substrato à base de carne eqüina e 76,01mg, no substrato à base de sardinha, a diferença foi, portanto, significativa. A taxa de sobrevivência larval registrada foi superior a 80%, enquanto a taxa de sobrevivência pupal foi próxima a 100%. A razão sexual foi próxima a 0,5. A dieta à base de carne eqüina mostrou-se mais adequada ao desenvolvimento de C. albiceps, pois as larvas mantidas neste substrato apresentaram-se mais pesadas, o que potencializa a capacidade reprodutiva do adulto.The objective of the present study was to observe the postembryonic development of Chrysomya albiceps reared on sardines or horse meat and to compare the results. Fresh substratos were maintened m an oven ai 30°C for 2 hours. Fifty newly emerged larvas were inoculated into 100g diel per reptication. Four replications per treatment were used. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions. The mean weight of postfeeding larvas was 91.19mg for especimens reared on horse meat and 76.01mg for especimens reared on sardines, with a marked difference between diets. Larval viability was more than 80% for the two diets, while pupal viability was dose to 100%. The sex ratio was about 0.5. The horse meat diet proved to be more adequate for the development of C. albiceps since the larvas weighed more, with consequent potentiations of adult reproductive abilily.

  16. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

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    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  17. Diversity and synanthropy of Calliphoridae (Diptera) in the region of Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, C R; Zuben, C J V

    2012-06-01

    Dipteran blowflies (Calliphoridae) are of great medical and hygienic importance as vectors of pathogens and as parasites of living and dead tissue, and their association with carrion allows their use in forensic entomology. The objective of this study was to determine the synanthropic index of adult Calliphoridae (Diptera) collected in Rio Claro, São Paulo. Sampling occurred between September 2009 and August 2010. Traps baited with sardines, beef liver, and minced meat were assessed for five consecutive days per month in three distinct ecological areas representing urban, rural, and forest environments. The most abundant species was Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann), followed by Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia was the only species present in all seasons and the only species collected during the winter. The season with the lowest abundance was winter, with 69 (5.5%) specimens, and spring was the season with the greatest number of specimens collected (774-61.8%). The only species found outside inhabited areas (synanthropic) was Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), with a synanthropy index (SI) value of +5.7. The SI values for the other species were negative, showing a preference for uninhabited areas. The rural and urban areas were most similar in terms of species composition as were the beef and sardine baits. Among the baits used, liver attracted the greatest abundance of calliphorids, whereas minced meat attracted the greatest diversity.

  18. Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Beetles (Silphidae from Human Cadavers in Cali, Colombia

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    Barreto Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae, Musca domestica (Muscidae, Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented.

  19. Attraction and Oviposition of Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Resources Colonized by the Invasive Competitor Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindola, Aline F; Zheng, Le; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Thyssen, Patricia J

    2016-10-15

    The present study aimed to determine if the presence of immatures of the invasive blow fly species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) influences the adult behavior of the native species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) in Brazil. The level of attraction and oviposition by the native species was assessed in a dual-choice assay. The evaluation was based on sex and stage of ovarian development of L. eximia adults to a resource not colonized (NCR) or colonized (RPC) with eggs, different instars, or densities of C. albiceps A significant difference in attraction was observed based on sex and stages of ovarian development. Males and nongravid females were more attracted to RPC, whereas gravid females preferred NCR. Moreover, males exhibited the lowest response in all assays among the three sex categories examined. In general, adults preferably oviposited on NCR rather than RPC. Also, between the eggs and second instar treatments, L. eximia laid more eggs on RPC with eggs than second instars (predatory stage). Lucilia eximia attraction to second-instar C. albiceps at different densities was marginally significant. Overall, results indicate the invasive species, C. albiceps, is impacting the behavior of the native blow fly, L. eximia, with regards to its attraction and colonization of vertebrate carrion, which could explain why native blow fly populations have significantly decreased since the introduction of C. albiceps.

  20. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

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    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  1. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets.

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    Kress, Daniel; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell's response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride-coupled responses are discussed.

  2. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets

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    Daniel eKress

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell’s response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride

  3. Rates of energy processing by blowflies: the uses for a joule vary with food quality and quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F R; Fisher, G; Precup, E

    1990-05-01

    Data on the variation of crop volumes with time for blowflies (Phormia regina Meigen) fed various volumes and concentrations of fructose or sucrose (from Gelperin, 1966, and Edgecomb et al. 1987) were used to characterize energy processing rates to test the assumption of food energy addivity of optimal foraging theories. Six regression models (linear, square root, cube root, hyperbolic, inverse cube root and exponential) were compared for data from Edgecomb et al. (1987) with measurements of crop volumes from 10 min to 5 h after blowflies were fed 9.7 or 14.5 microliters of 0.25 moll-1 sucrose. Only the hyperbolic regression could be discriminated as statistically different, and the linear model was selected as most parsimonious for examining rates of energy processing. About the same volume bypassed the crop for flies fed 9.7 or 14.5 microliters. Volume rates of crop emptying (from Gelperin, 1966) did not change at intermediate concentrations but decreased from lowest and to highest concentrations. Energy processing patterns indicate that long-term storage rates increase with meal size and at intermediate concentrations and decrease (3.0 moll-1 fructose) or remain constant (2.0 moll-1 sucrose) at high concentrations, so the uses for a unit of energy are not additive across concentrations and meal sizes. Animals that process energy in this way should attempt to maximize meal size and include high-energy foods in their diet out of proportion to the amount of energy gained for the time spent foraging.

  4. Seasonal Blowfly Distribution and Abundance in Fragmented Landscapes. Is It Useful in Forensic Inference about Where a Corpse Has Been Decaying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Jabi; Díaz, Beatriz; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Blowflies are insects of forensic interest as they may indicate characteristics of the environment where a body has been laying prior to the discovery. In order to estimate changes in community related to landscape and to assess if blowfly species can be used as indicators of the landscape where a corpse has been decaying, we studied the blowfly community and how it is affected by landscape in a 7,000 km2 region during a whole year. Using baited traps deployed monthly we collected 28,507 individuals of 10 calliphorid species, 7 of them well represented and distributed in the study area. Multiple Analysis of Variance found changes in abundance between seasons in the 7 analyzed species, and changes related to land use in 4 of them (Calliphora vomitoria, Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). Generalised Linear Model analyses of abundance of these species compared with landscape descriptors at different scales found only a clear significant relationship between summer abundance of C. vomitoria and distance to urban areas and degree of urbanisation. This relationship explained more deviance when considering the landscape composition at larger geographical scales (up to 2,500 m around sampling site). For the other species, no clear relationship between land uses and abundance was found, and therefore observed changes in their abundance patterns could be the result of other variables, probably small changes in temperature. Our results suggest that blowfly community composition cannot be used to infer in what kind of landscape a corpse has decayed, at least in highly fragmented habitats, the only exception being the summer abundance of C. vomitoria. PMID:24918607

  5. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of serotonin 5-HT2α and 5-HT7 receptors in the salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

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    Claudia Röser

    Full Text Available Secretion in blowfly (Calliphora vicina salivary glands is stimulated by the biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, which activates both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3/Ca(2+ and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling pathways in the secretory cells. In order to characterize the signal-inducing 5-HT receptors, we cloned two cDNAs (Cv5-ht2α, Cv5-ht7 that share high similarity with mammalian 5-HT(2 and 5-HT(7 receptor genes, respectively. RT-PCR demonstrated that both receptors are expressed in the salivary glands and brain. Stimulation of Cv5-ht2α-transfected mammalian cells with 5-HT elevates cytosolic [Ca(2+] in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50 = 24 nM. In Cv5-ht7-transfected cells, 5-HT produces a dose-dependent increase in [cAMP](i (EC(50 = 4 nM. We studied the pharmacological profile for both receptors. Substances that appear to act as specific ligands of either Cv5-HT(2α or Cv5-HT(7 in the heterologous expression system were also tested in intact blowfly salivary gland preparations. We observed that 5-methoxytryptamine (100 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(2α receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (300 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(7 receptor, and clozapine (1 µM antagonizes the effects of 5-HT via Cv5-HT(7 in blowfly salivary glands, providing means for the selective activation of each of the two 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study represents the first comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT receptors in the blowfly and permits the analysis of the physiological role of these receptors, even when co-expressed in cells, and of the modes of interaction between the Ca(2+- and cAMP-signalling cascades.

  6. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  7. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

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    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  8. Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand

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    Monum, Tawatchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Sukontason, Kom; Samerjai, Chutharat; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Suwannayod, Suttida; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Wannasan, Anchalee

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available. PMID:28285509

  9. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cecília Kosmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The corpse of a man was found in a Brazilian highland savanna (cerrado in the state of Minas Gerais. Fly larvae were collected at the crime scene and arrived at the laboratory three days afterwards. From the eight pre-pupae, seven adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 emerged and, from the two larvae, two adults of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 were obtained. As necrophagous insects use corpses as a feeding resource, their development rate can be used as a tool to estimate the postmortem interval. The post-embryonary development stage of the immature collected on the body was estimated as the difference between the total development time and the time required for them to become adults in the lab. The estimated age of the maggots from both species and the minimum postmortem interval were four days. This is the first time that H. segmentaria is used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case.

  10. Do necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) lay their eggs in wounds?: Experimental data and implications for forensic entomology.

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    Charabidze, Damien; Depeme, Aurore; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the common belief that necrophagous blowflies lay their eggs in wounds. The egg-laying behaviour of Lucilia sericata was observed under controlled conditions on wet, artificially wounded or short-haired areas of rat cadavers. Flies laid significantly more eggs on the wet area and the area with short hair than on the dry area or area with long hair. No eggs were observed inside the wounds in any of the replicates. The effect of egg immersion (body fluids often exudes in wounds) on the survival rate of larvae was also investigated. In low water condition, an average of 72.7±7.9% of the larvae survived and they reached a mean length of 7.5±0.6mm. In contrast, submerging eggs under a high volume of water strongly affected their survival rate (25±3.7%) and development. Similar results were observed using unfrozen pig blood instead of water. These data question the information found in the literature regarding the preferential egg-laying behaviour of Calliphorids flies in wounds.

  11. Organisation and expression of a cluster of yolk protein genes in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina.

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    Scott, Maxwell J; Atapattu, Asela; Schiemann, Anja H; Concha, Carolina; Henry, Rebecca; Carey, Brandi-lee; Belikoff, Esther J; Heinrich, Jörg C; Sarkar, Abhimanyu

    2011-01-01

    The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina is a major pest for the Australian and New Zealand sheep industries. With the long-term aim of making a strain of L. cuprina suitable for a genetic control program, we previously developed a tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic system in Drosophila. A key part of this system is a female-specific promoter from a yolk protein (yp) gene controlling expression of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator (tTA). Here we report the sequence of a 14.2 kb genomic clone from L. cuprina that contains a cluster of three complete yp genes and one partial yp gene. The Lcyp genes are specifically expressed in females that have received a protein meal. A bioinformatic analysis of the promoter of one of the yp genes (LcypA) identified several putative binding sites for DSX, a known regulator of yp gene expression in other Diptera. A transgenic strain of L. cuprina was made that contained the LcypA promoter driving the expression of the Escherichia coli lacZ reporter gene. Transgenic females express high levels of β-galactosidase after a protein meal. Thus the LcypA promoter could be used to obtain female-specific expression of tTA in transgenic L. cuprina.

  12. Lucilia sericata strain from Colombia: Experimental colonization, life tables and evaluation of two artificial diets of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Bogotá, Colombia strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years.

  13. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

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    Toru eMaeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER. Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying

  14. Periodic heartbeat reversals cause cardiogenic inspiration and expiration with coupled spiracle leakage in resting blowflies, Calliphora vicina.

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    Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2014-05-01

    Respiration in insects is thought to be independent of the circulatory system because insects typically lack respiratory pigments and because oxygen transport occurs in the gaseous phase through a ramified tracheal system by diffusion and convection directly to the tissues. In the blowfly, as in other insects with periodic heartbeat reversal, the haemolymph is periodically shifted between the anterior body and abdomen, exerting alternating pressure changes on the compliant tracheae in the thorax and in the abdomen. Simultaneous pressure and O2 optode measurements show that, during negative pressure periods, the tracheal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) increases by 0.5 kPa. In the quiescent fly, tracheal PO2 is rather high (17.5-18.9 kPa), although the thoracic spiracles remain constricted. Microscopic video recordings and reflectance measurements revealed that the dorsal soft edges of the valve lips of the second spiracle leave a very small leak, which is passively widened during backward pulses of the heart. Thus, negative pressure, combined with increased leakage of the spiracle Sp2 valve enable inspiration in the thorax. The positive pressure periods are correlated with a new type of convective CO2 micro-bursts as shown in flow-through measurements. The bulk of the CO2 is, however, released after longer interbursts in macro-bursts with actively opening valves reminiscent of the open phase in a cyclic gas exchange. When the valves open, the PO2 in the thoracic air sacs unexpectedly drops by a mean of 2.75±1.09 kPa, suggesting a displacement of O2 by the transient accumulation of CO2 in the tracheal system before its release.

  15. The effect of the coupled oxidation of substrate on the permeability of blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria to potassium and other cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, R G; Lehninger, A L

    1972-02-01

    1. Blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria respiring in the absence of phosphate acceptor (i.e. in state 4) take up greater amounts of K(+), Na(+), choline, phosphate and Cl(-) (but less NH(4) (+)) than non-respiring control mitochondria. 2. Uptake of cations is accompanied by an increase in the volume of the mitochondrial matrix, determined with the use of [(14)C]-sucrose and (3)H(2)O. The osmolarity of the salt solution taken up was approximately that of the suspending medium. 3. The [(14)C]sucrose-inaccessible space decreased with increasing osmolarity of potassium chloride in the suspending medium, confirming that the blowfly mitochondrion behaves as an osmometer. 4. Light-scattering studies showed that both respiratory substrate and a permeant anion such as phosphate or acetate are required for rapid and massive entry of K(+), which occurs in an electrophoretic process rather than in exchange for H(+). The increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations is probably the result of a large increase in the exposed area of inner membrane surface in these mitochondria, with no intrinsic increase in the permeability per unit area. 5. No increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations occurs during phosphorylation of ADP in state 3 respiration.

  16. Fluorescence measurements of serotonin-induced V-ATPase-dependent pH changes at the luminal surface in salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Julia; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Hille, Carsten; Lang, Ingo; Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto

    2006-05-01

    Secretion in blowfly salivary glands is induced by the neurohormone serotonin and powered by a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) located in the apical membrane of the secretory cells. We have established a microfluorometric method for analysing pH changes at the luminal surface of the secretory epithelial cells by using the fluorescent dye 5-N-hexadecanoyl-aminofluorescein (HAF). After injection of HAF into the lumen of the tubular salivary gland, the fatty acyl chain of the dye molecule partitions into the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane and its pH-sensitive fluorescent moiety is exposed at the cell surface. Confocal imaging has confirmed that HAF distributes over the entire apical membrane of the secretory cells and remains restricted to this membrane domain. Ratiometric analysis of HAF fluorescence demonstrates that serotonin leads to a reversible dose-dependent acidification at the luminal surface. Inhibition by concanamycin A confirms that the serotonin-induced acidification at the luminal surface is due to H(+) transport across the apical membrane via V-ATPase. Measurements with pH-sensitive microelectrodes corroborate a serotonin-induced luminal acidification and demonstrate that luminal pH decreases by about 0.4 pH units at saturating serotonin concentrations. We conclude that ratiometric measurements of HAF fluorescence provide an elegant method for monitoring V-ATPase-dependent H(+) transport in the blowfly salivary gland in vivo and for analysing the spatiotemporal pattern of pH changes at the luminal surface.

  17. Numerical approximation of a class Nicholson' s blowflies model with two delays%具双时滞Nicholson果蝇系统的数值逼近

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏新; 李冬松; 张敬

    2013-01-01

    The numerical approximation of a class Nicholson's blowflies model with harvesting rate and two delays is studied. First, discrete system is gained by using Euler method and the delay deference equation is written as a map. Then, employing the theories of bifurcation for discrete blowflies system, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of Hopf bifurcations for numerical approximation are given. It also proved that for sufficient small step, the numerical Hopf bifurcation value is approximate to that of the original equation.%研究一类带有捕捞项的具有双时滞的Nicholson果蝇系统的数值逼近问题.采用欧拉方法,得到相应的离散果蝇系统,将该时滞差分方程表示为映射,然后利用离散动力系统的分支理论,给出该离散果蝇系统的数值Hopf分支存在的充分条件.证明当步长充分小时,离散果蝇系统的数值Hopf分支值逼近于相应连续果蝇系统的Hopf分支值.

  18. Efeito da escopolamina sobre o desenvolvimento de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae e sua importância para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A presença de drogas nos tecidos de um corpo pode afetar o desenvolvimento de larvas de moscas necrófagas que são encontradas alimentando-se neste substrato. Essa observação já foi constatada para várias drogas tais como heroína, cocaína, certos analgésicos, e compostos anfetamínicos e benzodiazepínicos, entre outras. Assim, neste estudo investigamos o efeito da escopolamina – uma droga amplamente usada como analgésico – sobre a taxa de desenvolvimento de larvas de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, visando também avaliar e quantificar as conseqüências de tal interferência para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM. Os resultados aqui obtidos mostram claramente que a escopolamina afetou significativamente a taxa de desenvolvimento de imaturos de C. putoria, quando presente em seu substrato alimentar. Tendo em vista que o IPM em muitos casos é calculado levando em consideração o peso ou a idade dos imaturos coletados em um corpo, a não consideração deste fator de interferência negativa pode conseqüentemente levar a uma subestimativa do tempo de morte em até 48 horas, em certos casos.

  19. Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae): a preliminary study of the utility of museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J R; MacLeod, N; Wardhana, A H

    2014-10-01

    The Old World screwworm (OWS) fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a major economic and welfare problem for humans and animals in the Old World tropics. Using a bootstrapped log likelihood ratio test of the output of Procrustes principal components and canonical variates analyses for a small sample of museum specimens from which 19 2D wing landmarks had been collected: (1) a consistent and statistically significant difference exists between landmark configurations derived from wings of pinned specimens and those removed from the body and mounted on slides; (2) a highly statistically significant sexual dimorphism in wing morphometry was identified; and (3) a highly statistically significant difference in wing morphometry between populations of the OWS fly from Africa (Tanzania, South Africa Sudan, Zaire, Zimbabwe,) and Asia (Sumba, Indonesia) exists. These results show that wing orientation and gender must be considered when conducting morphometric investigations of OWS fly wings. The latter result is also consistent with results from previous molecular and morphological studies, which indicate there are two distinct genetic lineages within this species. Wing morphometry holds great promise as a practical tool to aid in identification of the geographical origin of introductions of this important pest species, by providing diagnostic markers to distinguish geographical populations and complement molecular diagnostics.

  20. Numerical approximation of a class Nicholson's blowflies model with delay%一类时滞Nicholson果蝇系统数值Hopf分支分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏新; 张敬; 周莉

    2012-01-01

    The numerical approximation of a class Nicholson's blowflies model with delay was studied in this paper.The existence conditions of Hopf bifurcations of the discrete system were discussed. It also proved that for sufficient small step,the numerical Hopf bifurcation value is approximate to that of the original equation.%研究了一类具时滞的果蝇系统的数值Hopf分支问题,讨论了该系统的离散化系统数值Ropf分支的存在条件,并证明了当步长充分小时,数值Hopf分支值逼近于原系统的Hopf分支值。

  1. Existence of Two Positive Periodic Solutions for Nicholson's Blowflies Functional Differential Equations%Nicholson's blowflies泛函微分方程两个正周期解的存在性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光; 范志勇

    2012-01-01

    利用锥不动点理论,得到了Nicholson's blowflies泛函微分方程存在两个正周期解的充分条件.%By using the fixed-point theorem in cone,some new results are obtained which guarantee the existence of two positive periodic solutions of Nicholson's blowflies functional differential equations with periodic coefficients.

  2. Morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K

    2013-06-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.

  3. Experiential effects of appetitive and nonappetitive odors on feeding behavior in the blowfly, Phormia regina: a putative role for tyramine in appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisimura, Tomoyosi; Seto, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kyoko; Miyama, Mayumi; Nagao, Takashi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2005-08-17

    In humans, appetite is affected by food experiences and food flavors. In the blowfly Phormia regina, we found that feeding threshold to sugar increased in the presence of the odor of D-limonene and decreased in the presence of the odor of dithiothreitol (DTT). Using these odors as representative nonappetitive and appetitive flavors, we demonstrated the role played by tyramine (TA) in appetite regulation by experiences of food flavors. When fed with sucrose flavored with D-limonene for 5 d after emergence, flies showed subsequent decreased appetite to plain sucrose, whereas when they were fed with sucrose flavored by DTT they showed increased appetite. However, mushroom body (MB)-ablated flies did not show these patterns. This suggests that MB, one of the primary memory centers of the insect brain, is necessary for the flies to apply previous experiences of food flavors to appetitive learning behaviors. In addition, flies' previously acquired decreased or increased appetites showed parallel changes with both octopamine (OA) and tyramine levels in the brain. However, injection experiments with OA, TA, or their agonist and antagonist indicated that TA more directly mediates feeding threshold determination, which was affected by acquired memories of food flavors.

  4. Hopf Bifurcation of Traveling Wave of Delayed Nicholson's Blowflies Equation%时滞Nicholson's Blowflies方程中行波解的Hopf分支

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨高翔; 赵临龙

    2011-01-01

    主要利用时滞微分方程中Hopf分支理论探讨时滞Nicholson's Blowflies方程中行波解随时滞量τ大小变化的分支行为.结果发现时滞量经过某一数值τ0=1/cω0arcsin-cω0/p时,原系统会产生分支现象,最终导致形成周期性行波解.%Mainly employing Hopf bifurcation theory of delayed differential equation to study the bifurcation behavior of the traveling wave solution of the delayed Nicholson's Blowflies equation as the delayed term (T)changes. The results showed that when the delayed term(T)pass through(T)0= (1/cω0) arcsin (-cω0/p), the original system will take place bifurcation phenomenon and eventually lead to become the periodic traveling wave solution.

  5. 三种蝇类昆虫(双翅目)足爪垫结构的超微形态研究%ULTRASTRUCTURAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE PULVILLI IN MUSCA DOMESTICA, BERCAEA CRUENTATA AND CHRYSOMYA PINGUIS (DIPTERA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学书; 梁爱萍

    2012-01-01

    利用扫描电子显微镜对双翅目3种蝇类昆虫即家蝇Musca domestica L.(蝇科)、红尾粪麻蝇Bercaea cruentata(Meigen)(麻蝇科)和肥躯金蝇Chrysomya pinguis (Walker)(丽蝇科)足的爪垫超微形态结构进行了研究,研究发现每种蝇类的前、中、后足爪垫的面积存在一定的差别,中足和后足爪垫面积较前足大;爪垫腹面均密被刚毛,每根刚毛由刚毛杆(setal shaft)和末端平板(terminal plate)组成,刚毛主要有铲状、勺状和柳叶状3种类型;后足爪垫上刚毛的密度和刚毛末端面积一般小于前、中足;位于爪垫边缘处的刚毛较长.研究还发现爪垫上的刚毛均为中空结构,且丽蝇科昆虫的刚毛末端具开口.%The ultrastructure of the pulvilli of three fly species, viz. Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), Bercaea cruentata ( Meigen ) ( Sarcophagidae ) and Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) (Calliphoridae) was studied with the scanning electron microscopy. In each species, the size of the ventral surface of pulvilli on the fore, middle and hind legs is different. The ventral area of pulvilli on the middle and hind legs is larger than that of the fore legs. The ventral surface of pulvilli is fully covered with numerous tenent setae. The setae consists of the basal elongate setal shaft and an distal tip. Three kinds of tenent setae, viz. spatula-like, spoon-like and willow leaf-like tenent setae were found. The setal shaft on marginal area of the pulvillus is longer than that in other areas. Both the size of the tip area and the density of tenent setae of pulvilli on hind legs are smaller than those on die fore and middle legs. The setal shaft is hollow centrally. A ventral opening on the setal tip was observed in Chrysomya pinguis (Calliphoridae).

  6. Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Bhoopat, Tanin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Piangjai, Somsak; Bunchu, Nophawan; Vongvivach, Somsak; Samai, Wirachai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Ngern-Klun, Rachadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Srimuangwong, Chaowakit; Hanterdsith, Boonsak; Chaiwan, Khankam; Srisuwan, Chalard; Upakut, Surasak; Moopayak, Kittikhun; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, northern Thailand, from 2000 to 2006. Variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. The fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family Calliphoridae, and consisted of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), and two unknown species. Flies of the family Muscidae [Hydrotaea spinigera Stein, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp)], Piophilidae [Piophila casei (L.)], Phoridae [Megaselia scalaris (Loew)], Sarcophagidae [Parasarcophaga ruficornis (F.) and three unknown species], and Stratiomyiidae (Sargus sp.) were also collected from these human remains. Larvae and adults of the beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), were also found in some cases. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats associated with both urban and forested areas, while C. nigripes was commonly discovered in forested places. S. nudiseta was collected only from corpses found in an indoor death scene.

  7. Dosage Compensation of X-Linked Muller Element F Genes but Not X-Linked Transgenes in the Australian Sheep Blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Rebecca J; Belikoff, Esther J; Scott, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    In most animals that have X and Y sex chromosomes, chromosome-wide mechanisms are used to balance X-linked gene expression in males and females. In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage compensation mechanism also generally extends to X-linked transgenes. Over 70 transgenic lines of the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina have been made as part of an effort to develop male-only strains for a genetic control program of this major pest of sheep. All lines carry a constitutively expressed fluorescent protein marker gene. In all 12 X-linked lines, female larvae show brighter fluorescence than male larvae, suggesting the marker gene is not dosage compensated. This has been confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for selected lines. To determine if endogenous X-linked genes are dosage compensated, we isolated 8 genes that are orthologs of genes that are on the fourth chromosome in D. melanogaster. Recent evidence suggests that the D. melanogaster fourth chromosome, or Muller element F, is the ancestral X chromosome in Diptera that has reverted to an autosome in Drosophila species. We show by quantitative PCR of male and female DNA that 6 of the 8 linkage group F genes reside on the X chromosome in L. cuprina. The other two Muller element F genes were found to be autosomal in L. cuprina, whereas two Muller element B genes were found on the same region of the X chromosome as the L. cuprina orthologs of the D. melanogaster Ephrin and gawky genes. We find that the L. cuprina X chromosome genes are equally expressed in males and females (i.e., fully dosage compensated). Thus, unlike in Drosophila, it appears that the Lucilia dosage compensation system is specific for genes endogenous to the X chromosome and cannot be co-opted by recently arrived transgenes.

  8. 具双时滞的Nicholson果蝇系统的动力学性质%Dynamical analysis in Nicholson blowflies system with two delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向华

    2011-01-01

    为更好地维护生态系统和谐与稳定,研究了具双时滞的Nicholson果蝇动力系统的稳定性.对系统在正平衡点附近的稳定性,局部Hopf分支的存在性,发生条件、Hopf分支的方向,分支周期解的稳定性以及分支随参数变化其周期解的周期变化进行了讨论.然后通过数值模拟有力地支撑了前面分析得到的理论结果,并且得到在正平衡点附近Hopf分支的全局存在性.用分支理论解释了生态系统得以循环不息的原因.%In order to maintain the harmony and stability of ecosystems,in this paper,the stability of Nicholson's blowflies model with time delay was investigated.The distribution of the characteristic roots,the stability of the equilibrium,the existence of Hopf bifurcation and its conditions were discussed.Meanwhile,some simulations were carried out,which supported the theoretical results obtained previously and the global existence of Hopf bifurcation near the positive equilibrium point was got.At last,the reasons of circulating ecosystems were explained by the bifurcation theory.

  9. Positive Almost Periodic Solution for a Class of Nicholson's Blowflies Model with Infinite Delays%一类具无穷时滞Nicholson's blowflies模型的正概周期解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周辉; 周宗福

    2012-01-01

    通过利用锥上的不动点定理,本文主要研究具无穷时滞Nicholson's blowflies模型的正概周期解的存在唯一性.从而得到此正概周期解存在唯一性和指数收敛的充分条件.最后给出一个例子说明本文结果的可行性.%By utilizing a fixed theorem in cones,we study the existence of the unique positive almost periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies model with infinite delays.Some sufficient conditions which ensure the existence and exponential convergence of a unique positive almost periodic solution are derived.An example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed result.

  10. Permanence for a Delayed Nicholson' s Blowflies Model with a Nonlinear Density-dependent Mortality Term%一类具有非线性死亡率的时滞Nicholson 飞蝇方程的持久性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄祖达

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study a generalized Nicholson' s blowflies model with a nonlinear density-dependent mortality term. Under the admissible initial conditions, by using continuous dependence theorem, some criteria to guarantee the positivity and global existence of solutions are obtained. Then, by applying differential inequality techniques, we give the positive lower bound and upper bound of solutions, and get the permanence of this model. Moreover, we present an example to illustrate our main results.%研究了一类具有非线性死亡率的广义时滞Nicholson飞蝇方程.在容许初值的条件下,利用解的延拓定理,首先证明了该方程的所有解是正的并且是整体存在的,然后利用微分不等式的技巧,证明了该方程所有解具有正的上下确界,获得了该方程所有解具有持久性的充分条件.由于所考虑的模型比同类文献中的模型更加广泛,从而改进和推广了已有文献中的相关结果,并给出了一个具体的例子.

  11. Capture of Caliptrate flies with different breeding substrates on beaches in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mário D'Almeida

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscidae flies belonging to four Familia and 13 species in a total number of 3.652 specimens were collected from beaches at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using different breeding substrates, and subsequently bred in the laboratory. Captures were done from April to November 1989, using in a first phase different substrates: fruits (banana and papaya, vegtable (tomato, animal viscera (bovine liver, marine animals (fish, crab, shrimp, squid, mouse carcass and feaces (human and canine. The species collected more often were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Chrysomya megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Peckya chrysostoma, Musca domestica and Atherigona orientalis. In a later phase, only fish was used, as bait and placed directly on the beach sand. From a total of 189 pupae, the following adult specimen were obtained: Peckia chrysostoma (58.06%, Chrysomya megacephala (30.64% and in lesser numbers Synthesiomyia nudiseta and Phaenicia eximia.

  12. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.

  13. Ocorrência e Sazonalidade de Muscóides (Diptera, Calliphoridae de Importância Sanitária no Município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Batista-da-Silva

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. This work was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of Calliphoridae flies (Diptera in Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil and quantify the predominant species of health importance. The flies were captured in eight different points in the city over a one year period, always using fish as bait, separated by species and kept properly in an entomological box in the Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense - IOC / FIOCRUZ, RJ. A total of 1792 Calliphoridae flies were captured, belonging to seven (7 species: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0.11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87.94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6.70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1.23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0.56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0.33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3.13%.

  14. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  15. Identification of necrophagous fly species from 12 different cities in China using ISSR and SCAR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueli Zheng; Jialin Hu; Santhosh Puthiya Kunnon; Chen Xiaoguang

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To identify necrophagous fly speies from different regions in China using inter simple sequenc repeat (ISSR) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) melocular markers and to analyze their gene difference and genetic relationship. Methods:Five carrion fly species were collected from 12 cities and regions in China, including Musca domestica (M. domestica), Lucilia sericata (L. sericata), Chrysomya megacephala (C. megacephala), Helicophagella melanura (H. melanura), Boethcherisca peregrina, and they were studied using ISSR and SCAR markers. Results:Eight ISSR primers were used for amplification of 121 samples. 679 clear and stable bands were identified, of which 516 bands were polymorphic. Several species-specific ISSR fragment were cloned and sequenced as an initial effort to derive the SCAR markers. Using M. domestica SCAR specific primers, SCAR-PCR amplification was performed for 8 M. domestca population sample DNA from different regions in China as well as L. sericata, C. megacephala, H. melanura and Lucillia cupirina. The result showed only M. domestica produced specificalty 600 bp fragment, but L. sericata, C. megacephala, H. melanura and Lucillia cupirina did not produce the same specific fragment. Clustering analysis showed clustering of most flies of M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. sericata. M. domestica samples from different regions in China yielded different banding patterns. Conclusions:Application of ISSR-PCR and SCAR markers to identify necrophagous fly species from 12 cities and regions in China is first reported. ISSR-PCR and SCAR markers provide a quick reliable molecular marker technique for the identification of different species of necrophagous fly.

  16. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  17. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  18. Rearing five species of Diptera (Calliphoridae of forensic importance in Colombia in semicontrolled field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Vélez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Calliphoridae is widely known to lead the colonization of corpses and their development rates are frequently used to estimate the postmortem interval. This study presents the larval growth of five forensically important species of Calliphoridae in Colombia. Rearing took place in semicontrolled field conditions where the egg masses were collected. We show curves of larval growth, larval length and time intervals to reach all immature stages for Lucilia eximia and Cochliomyia macellaria at two sites with different climatic conditions and for Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Calliphora nigribasis at one site. Overall, high temperatures speeded up the development of the species reared at two different sites, whereas low temperatures for C. nigribasis, lengthened the total development time. Differences between this study and others can be explained by the experimental conditions in the field without the possibility of strict laboratory rearing controls.La familia Calliphoridae es ampliamente conocida por liderar la colonización de los cadáveres y sus tasas de desarrollo son frecuentemente utilizadas para estimar el intervalo postmortem. Este estudio presenta el crecimiento larval de cinco especies de Calliphoridae de importancia forense en Colombia, considerando que la cría se dio en condiciones de campo semicontroladas en los lugares donde las masas de huevos fueron colectadas. Mostramos también, los intervalos de longitud y el tiempo empleado en alcanzar todos los estadios inmaduros para Lucilia eximia y Cochliomyia macellaria en dos lugares con diferentes condiciones climáticas y Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala y Calliphora nigribasis, en un solo lugar. En general, las altas temperaturas producen una aceleración en el desarrollo de las especies criadas en dos sitios diferentes, mientras que bajas temperaturas para C. nigribasis, alargaron el tiempo utilizado para completar el desarrollo. Las diferencias

  19. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V; Slone, Daniel H

    2014-05-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2-6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30 degrees C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  20. Comportamento de dípteros muscóides frente a substratos de oviposição, em laboratório, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Behavior of caliptrate diptera in relation to the choose of oviposition substrates under laboratory conditions in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available How adult females of calyptrate Diptera recognize the appropriate breeding substrate is a matter of controversy. Among holometabolic insects, the feeding opportunities of immature stages are generally determined by the adult female choice of an oviposition site. The ovipositional and larvipositional substrate preference for the synanthropic flies (Chrysomya megacephala, C. putoria, Phaenicia cuprina: Calliphoridae; Atherigona orientalis, Synthesiomyia nudiseta: Muscidae; Ravinia belforti, Parasarcophaga ruficornis, Peckia chrysostoma: Sarcophagidae is presented in this work. The substrate used for testing were the following: bovine minced meat, fish (sardine, bovine liver, shrimp, squid, human faeces and banana. Bovine minced meat was the ovipositional and larvipositional substrate preferred by seven species. Human faeces were preferred by R. belforti.

  1. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marilia A R Q; Ferraz, Julianny B; Junior, Miguel A A; Moura, Andrew D; da Costa, Maria E S M; Costa, Fagner J M D; Neto, Valter F A; Neto, Renato M; Gama, Renata A

    2015-03-01

    This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer's retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design.

  2. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2–6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30°C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  3. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia A.R.Q. Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer′s retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design.

  4. Dípteros muscóides como vetores mecânicos de ovos de helmintos em jardim zoológico, Brasil Muscoid dipterans as helminth eggs mechanical vectors at the zoological garden, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Cristina de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as espécies de dípteros muscóides capazes de veicular ovos e larvas de helmintos e avaliar o potencial de contaminação dos dípteros capturados. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi realizada em dois pontos distintos do Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, no período de maio de 1996 a abril de 1998. As capturas dos dípteros foram realizadas semanalmente com armadilhas contendo peixe em putrefação, que permaneceram expostas durante uma hora nos dois pontos: local 1- próximo à lixeira do zoológico e o local 2- perto do recinto do hipopótamo e das aves de rapina. Foram capturadas 41.080 moscas, sendo a espécie Chrysomya megacephala mais representativa com 69,34%, seguida de Chrysomya albiceps 11,22%, Musca domestica 7,15%, Chrysomya putoria 4,52%, Fannia sp. 3,12%, Ophyra sp. 2,53% e Atherigona orientalis 2,08%. As moscas capturadas tiveram a superfície dos corpos lavadas com água destilada e os tubos digestivos dissecados. RESULTADOS: Das espécies estudadas, C. megacephala e M. domestica apresentaram maior quantidade de ovos de helmintos na superfície do corpo e no conteúdo intestinal. Ovos de Ascaridoidea e Trichinelloidea prevaleceram no conteúdo intestinal de C. megacephala. Dos ovos de helmintos encontrados na superfície do corpo e no conteúdo intestinal foram identificados: Ascaris sp., Toxascaris sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Oxiurídeos, Triconstrogilídeos e Acantocephala. Também foram encontradas larvas de helmintos na superfície do corpo dos dípteros. Houve diferenças significativas (nível de 5%, pelo teste F entre os diferentes pontos de capturas em relação ao número de ovos de helmintos encontrados nos dípteros. CONCLUSÕES: As fezes dos animais do jardim zoológico, encontradas freqüentemente nos abrigos e lixeiras, contribuíram para a proliferação dos dípteros muscóides, que assumem importante papel na veiculação de ovos de helmintos, principalmente pelo

  5. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

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    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  6. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and that the variation of the tides also affected the abundance of C. putoria (r = 0.40, p < 0.00), C. macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species.

  7. [Ovicidal activity of nine essential oils against Chrysomya megacephara in bacon and kipper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-Rong; Li, Hong-Yan; Zhou, Yan-Gang; Gu, Song; Lou, Yong-Gen

    2007-10-01

    To exploit safe ovicides against the flies that attack bacon and kipper, the ovicidal activity of 9 plant essential oils was investigated by a modified egg-dipping method. The results indicated that the essential oils from Cinnamomun cassia, Eugenia caryophyllata and Illicum verum had higher ovicidal activity, with their LC50 values being 0.428, 1.605 and 2.489 mg x ml(-1), respectively. Through GC/MS analysis, a total of 22 components were identified from C. cassia oil, among which, cinamaldehyde was the most predominant one, accounting for 92.33% of the total. The LC50 of synthesized cinamaldehyde (97.33%) was 0.281 mg x ml(-1), being a little higher than the LC50 of C. cassia oil, suggesting that cinamaldehyde was the main ovicidal component of C. cassia oil and could replace the latter as an ovicide against harmful flies.

  8. Characterisation of the small RNAs in the biomedically important green-bottle blowfly Lucilia sericata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie Blenkiron

    Full Text Available The green bottle fly maggot, Lucilia sericata, is a species with importance in medicine, agriculture and forensics. Improved understanding of this species' biology is of great potential benefit to many research communities. MicroRNAs (miRNA are a short non-protein coding regulatory RNA, which directly regulate a host of protein coding genes at the translational level. They have been shown to have developmental and tissue specific distributions where they impact directly on gene regulation. In order to improve understanding of the biology of L. sericata maggots we have performed small RNA-sequencing of their secretions and tissue at different developmental stages.We have successfully isolated RNA from the secretions of L. sericata maggots. Illumina small RNA-sequencing of these secretions and the three tissues (crop, salivary gland, gut revealed that the most common small RNA fragments were derived from ribosomal RNA and transfer RNAs of both insect and bacterial origins. These RNA fragments were highly specific, with the most common tRNAs, such as GlyGCC, predominantly represented by reads derived from the 5' end of the mature maggot tRNA. Each library also had a unique profile of miRNAs with a high abundance of miR-10-5p in the maggot secretions and gut and miR-8 in the food storage organ the crop and salivary glands. The pattern of small RNAs in the bioactive maggot secretions suggests they originate from a combination of saliva, foregut and hindgut tissues. Droplet digital RT-PCR validation of the RNA-sequencing data shows that not only are there differences in the tissue profiles for miRNAs and small RNA fragments but that these are also modulated through developmental stages of the insect.We have identified the small-RNAome of the medicinal maggots L. sericata and shown that there are distinct subsets of miRNAs expressed in specific tissues that also alter during the development of the insect. Furthermore there are very specific RNA fragments derived from other non-coding RNAs present in tissues and in the secretions. This new knowledge has applicability in diverse research fields including wound healing, agriculture and forensics.

  9. The Stiles-Crawford Effect in the Eye of the Blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1985-01-01

    Stiles-Crawford-like effects (that is, directional sensitivity of the retina) were investigated in the fly’s eye. Intracellular recordings from the visual sense cells were made, and the radiation patterns emerging from the photoreceptors with antidromic light were photographed, and evaluated with a

  10. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpila, K.; Hall, M. J. R.; Pape, T.;

    2013-01-01

    First instars of Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar Linnaeus, Lucilia cuprina Weidemann, Lucilia richardsi Collin, Lucilia sericata Meigen and Lucilia silvarum Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are thoroughly documented with scanning electron microscopy images, light microscopy photograp...

  11. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  12. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

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    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  13. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  14. Analysis of Different Population of Necrophagous Fly Species from China by PCR-SSCP%应用PCR-SSCP分析我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇类的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑学礼; 胡佳林

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the various necrophagous fly species using PCR-SSCP and to analyze the genetic differences of the ITS2 regions. Methods Five carrion fly species,including Musca domestica,Lucilia sericata, Chrysomya megacephala, Helicophagella melanura and Boettcherisca peregrina, were collected from different cities and regions in China. Their rDNA-ITS2 gene was analyzed using PCR-SSCP. Results The electrophoretic mobility rate of ssDNA of rDNA-ITS2 gene of these five species were all different.This observation indicated the genetic polymorphism of the ITS-2. Conclusion This study revealed the genetic diversity and genotype of necrophagous flies collected from different geographic regions.%目的 探讨应用PCR-SSCP分析我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇类,揭示其亲源关系及基因差异.方法 采集了中国部分城市,即广州、深圳、阳江、南京、长春、宜昌、北京、武汉、成都等地的常见嗜尸蝇类:家蝇(Muscdomestica),丝光绿蝇(Lucilia sericata),大头金蝇(Chrysomya megacephcda),黑尾麻蝇(Helicophagella melanura),棕尾麻蝇(Boettcherisca peregrina)等.用PCR.SSCP分析我国不同嗜尸蝇类的rDNA-ITS2基因片段.结果 PCR-SSCP分析结果显示,Chrysomya megacephata,Aldrichina grahami(巨尾阿丽蝇),Helicophagella melanura,Muscdomestica,Boettcherisca peregrina rDNA-ITS2基因的单链DNA(ssDNA)迁移率均有明显差异,我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇种类rDNA-ITS2基因单链DNA迁移图型呈现多态性.结论 我国不同地区常见嗜尸蝇种类的rDNA-ITS2基因存在种内、种间及地理的基因多态性.

  15. An acetone extract of Clausena anisata may be a potential control agent for flies encountered in cutaneous myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Mukandiwa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat myiasis and as an insect repellent by various communities. We have previously demonstrated the effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly feeding and development in our laboratory. The impact of C. anisata leaf extracts on populations of different fly species on farms in Mpumalanga, South Africa was investigated in this study under field conditions. Flies were exposed to liver baits treated with acetone leaf extracts of C. anisata (150 mg/mL. Fly numbers and composition on two farms, with and without C. anisata treated liver, were compared during a period of 12 weeks when fly populations were expected to be high. Observations were made on fly behaviour and development, adult sizes and numbers. The flies exposed to liver treated with the leaf extract of C. anisata had a decreased rate of development, prolonged larval period, smaller body sizes and more sluggish behaviour compared to those subjected to the control treatment. No significant differences were, however, found between the numbers and sizes of flies on the treated and on the control farm, which was most likely due to the limited nature of the baiting programme we followed. The effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly behaviour and development observed in previous laboratory studies were confirmed in this field evaluation. Although the extracts did not have a significant effect on the overall population size in this experiment, we believe that the C. anisata leaf extract could be useful in integrated pest management based on its effect on larval development. In addition, species such as Lucilia cuprina and Chrysomya marginalis seemed to have been repelled by the C. anisata treated liver; as a result, further work should explore this aspect and how it can be used for the protection of animals.

  16. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  17. Durations of immature stage development period of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) under laboratory conditions: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2009-01-01

    Some microhymenopterans are parasitoids of flies of forensic importance. Their parasitic habit can alter the duration of post-embryonic development of these flies, altering the postmortem interval. In order to analyze possible alterations occurring during the immature development period of Nasonia vitripennis, this study tested different quantitative associations between female parasitoids and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala, which were defined by: (a) one pupa was exposed to different numbers of female parasitoids (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9, 1:11) and (b) different numbers of pupae were exposed to one female parasitoid (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1). Analysis of variance (5% significance level) and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a tendency of prolongation of the duration of parasitoid development, both by increasing the number of female parasitoids and by increasing the number of hosts in the associations. By increasing the number of female parasitoids per host, there is a possibility of increasing the occurrence of superparasitism, leading to competition for food source, then prolonging the duration of the immature development period. Increasing the number of hosts in the associations, females may distribute their postures among the available pupae and can cause reduction of the number of eggs per host. Since these insects are gregarious, the reduction of the number of eggs may delay the offspring development.

  18. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Different Vegetation Types on Necrophagous Fly Communities (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae): Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Juen, Leandro; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in five different phytogeographic zones of the Brazilian state of Maranhão, three of which (the Amazon Forest, Cerrado, and Palm Groves) are more heterogeneous, whereas the other two (Marshlands and Mangroves) are more homogeneous. In each zone, nine sites were visited for the collection of necrophagous flies using bait traps in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The calliphorid and sarcophagid communities observed at each site were compared in terms of species richness, composition, and abundance. The more heterogeneous zones had higher species richness, except in the case of the sarcophagids in the forest habitats. The calliphorids Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau- Desvoidy, 1830), Mesembrinella bicolor (Fabricius, 1805), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) were more closely associated with the Cerrado, Palm Grove and Amazon Forest zones, and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 194) with the Mangrove. In the sarcophagids, Peckia (Euboettcheria) subducta (Lopes, 1935) and P. (Pattonella) palidipilosa (Curran & Walley, 1934) were associated with the Amazon Forest, and P. (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830) and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (Fabricius, 1794) with the Palm Grove and Cerrado zones. In the calliphorids, the greatest dissimilarity was recorded between the Amazon Forest and the Mangrove and Lowland grassland zones. In the sarcophagids, by contrast, the greatest dissimilarities were recorded between the Amazon Forest and all the other four zones. In general, then, the phytogeographic zones with the highest environmental heterogeneity were characterized by the greatest species richness and abundance of necrophagous flies. PMID:27798664

  20. Seasonality of insect succession on exposed rabbit carrion in Guangzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Wei Shi; Xiao-Shan Liu; Hai-Yang Wang; Run-Jie Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns for insect fauna,spanning four seasons,on rabbit carcasses were studied in Guangzhou China from 2006 to 2008.A total of 49 taxa belonging to three orders and 15 families were collected and identified.Four decomposition stages were recognized:fresh,bloated,decay and dry stage.Taxa diversity was higher in bloated and decay stages than fresh and dry stages.Internal and ambient temperatures were measured.Maximum internal temperature arrived earlier in warmer seasons.The sequence of insect succession in this study follows the same general patterns:the Diptera peaked initially,and the Coleoptera peaked later.Chrysomya megacephala was the dominant species in four seasons.Its time point of different development stages on carrion could be the most important indicators for PMI (postmaortem interval) estimation in Guangzhou.Yearly and seasonal differences in activities of insects were compared.Alpha diversity indices were calculated.There were no significant differences in Shannon-Wiener index,evenness (J) and dominance (C) between seasons and years.From the Jaccard similarity index,the highest similarity was between winter and spring,while the lowest was between summer and winter.Some species occurring exclusively in one season may be important to characterize different seasons.A list of the insect taxa associated with above-ground rabbit carrion during the four seasons was compiled,which can be used for estimating time since death in similar bio-climate areas.

  1. Seasonal, Locality, and Habitat Variation in Assemblages of Carrion-Associated Diptera in Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, N J; Mansell, M W; Weldon, C W

    2016-11-01

    Seasonal, spatial, and habitat responses of carrion-associated Diptera assemblages can provide valuable information about the presence or absence of species and their relative abundance, and thereby enhance understanding of their responses to environmental variables and how this may have an impact on forensic investigations. Three different nature reserves (localities) within the Municipality of Tshwane, South Africa, were selected to determine whether species assemblages of carrion-feeding flies differ between seasons, localities, and habitat types. A total of 59,511 adult Diptera, identified to 35 species in eight different families, were collected using modified Redtop hanging traps, baited with liver and fish, during four seasons in three different habitat types. Species assemblages differed temporally, with season being the main factor determining species diversity and not locality or habitat. However, savanna and human-disturbed habitats supported a higher abundance and species richness than grassland habitats. Areas adjacent to the localities, such as large urban expanses in Dinokeng or agricultural holdings in Rietvlei, led to an increase in the abundance and mean species richness of carrion-associated Diptera, and in increased numbers of pest or invasive species such as Chrysomya megacephala (F.). Despite this, the overall species assemblages present in human-disturbed areas were very similar to those recorded in natural habitats.

  2. Global attractivity in a discrete model of Nicholson's Blowflies with several delays%具有多个时滞的Nicholson's Blowflies 离散模型的全局吸引性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东保; 王爱丽

    2005-01-01

    研究了具有多个时滞的Nichson's Blowflies模型的全局吸引性,分别讨论了在其正平衡态存在和不存在的条件下,模型解的全局性态,利用微分不等式得到了其解全局吸引的充分条件.

  3. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of neurons in the blowfly optic lobe reacting with antisera to RFamide and FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nässel, D R; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Johansson, K U;

    1988-01-01

    medulla. Each of these amacrines supplies the entire mosaic with fine processes. The remaining local RF-like immunoreactive neurons are present in relatively large numbers (one type in more than 2000 copies in each medulla) and-supply the medulla, lobula and lobula plate neuropils with fine varicose...... processes. In the medulla the RF-like immunoreactive processes are arranged in strict layers whereas in the lobula complex the distribution is diffuse. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry, using both pre-embedding immuno peroxidase-antiperoxidase and post-embedding protein A-gold labeling, was employed...

  4. Investigation on mosquito and fly species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park%上海化工区口岸蚊蝇调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙义涛; 郭光亮; 曹敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the composition and distribution of mosquito and fly species through field investigation in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park,so as to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and treatment of biological vectors.Methods Lamp-baiting and scooping method were used for the investigation of mosquitoes,and cage-trap method was used for the catching of flies.Results During the investigation from 2009 to 2011,10 species of mosquitoes belonging to 6 genera were monitored,with Culex tritaeniorhynchus being the dominant specie.The ecological wetland was the prime breeding place of mosquitoes,and its peak time of activity was from June to August.Coquillettidia ochracea and Ochlerotatus dorsalis,which were rarely found in Shanghai,were also collected during the investigation there.Fifty-nine species of flies belonging to 31 genera of 5 families were monitored,with Chrysomya megacephala,Hemipyrellia liqurriens and Atherigona oryzae being the dominant species,and its peak time of activity was from June to September.Population distribution displayed the feature of diversification.Conclusions Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Chrysomya megacephala were the dominant species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park and were the prime vectors for prevention and control,and comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken in accordance with their breeding habits and features,as well as changes in seasons of a year.%目的 调查上海化工区口岸蚊蝇,了解本区域蚊蝇种群的组成和分布,为口岸病媒防治工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用灯诱法和捞勺法,蝇类采用诱蝇笼法.结果 2009-2011年,化工区口岸蚊类有6属10种,三带喙库蚊为优势种群,活动高峰在6-8月,生态湿地周围是蚊虫主要孳生地,捕获到上海地区较少见的黄色轲蚊和背点骚扰蚊;蝇类有5科31属59种,优势蝇种为大头金蝇、瘦叶带绿蝇和芒蝇,6-9月是活动高峰,种群分

  5. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  6. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION PATTERN OF THE INSECT SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CARCASS OF THE FREE-RANGING URBAN DOG, Canis domesticus (L.: A TOOL FOR FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZANA PERVEEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-ranging urban dog, Canis domesticus (L. carcass decomposition in tropical region, i.e., Takht-i-Bahi, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 15-25 May 2011 was characterized by 5 stages, i.e., fresh (12 h, bloated (13-48 h, active (49-96 h, advanced (97-144 h and dry (145-265 h and the ecological succession pattern of insect species collected were identified into 11 species of 3 orders. The insect species associated with the carcass of C. domesticus found that the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart and house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 were found in the fresh, bloat and active decay stages. However, the blow fly, C. megacephala (Fabricius; flesh fly, Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Meigen and the hornet wasp, Vespa orientalis (Linnaeus were existed in the fresh and bloat stages. Moreover, cheese fly, Piophila casei (Linnaeus was found bloat and active decay stages. Further, the hide beetle, Dermestes maculates (Geer, clown beetle, Hister sp. (Gullenhal; ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (Fabricus and skin beetle, Trox sp. (Harold completed their life cycle in active decay, advance decay and dry stages. Furthermore, the jummper ant, Myrmecia pilosula (Smith was collected from only fresh stage. The specimens of insect species were collected minimum 0.8% of V. orientalis and maximum 21.3% of 2 species, i.e., C. rufifacies and M. domestica. The temperature, humidity and rainfalls were found affected insect larvae, pupae and adults, and rate of decomposition of C. domesticus. The average temperature, humidity and rainfalls were 35.34±1.54, 38.8% and 3.8 mm, respectively, of 11 experimental days. This research will be helpful for forensic entomologist for a case study of death to investigate of crimes in tropical region of Pakistan.

  7. 2008-2009年柳州市蚊蝇密度监测分析%Monitoring and analysis the density of mosquitoes and flies in Liuzhou during 2008 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟柳青; 陈蔚恩; 罗静; 谢丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the pattem of annual vanation and population constitute of mosquitoes and flies ,to provide scientific basis for establishing control and prevention measures. Method Using manual - power - per - hour -trapping and cage trapping to monitor the density of mosquitoes and flies respectively. Results The density peak of mosquitoes appeared at the second and the fourth quarter, Culex quinquefasciatus was the dominant specie. There were two density peaks of flies in February and July of 2008 , and in April, June, August and September of 2009. Lucillia sericata, chrysomya megacephala and aldrichina grahami were the dominant species. Conclusions The density of mosquitoes and flies were higher in Liuzhou. At the basis of comprehensive prevention and control measures, combined the ecology characteristics of population and density fluctuation, canied on prevention and control strategies.%目的 了解柳州市城区蚊、蝇类季节消长规律及种群构成,为制订防制对策提供科学依据.方法 蚊密度监测用人工小时法,蝇密度监测用诱蝇笼法.结果 蚊在第二、四季度出现密度高峰,致倦库蚊为优势种群;蝇类密度2008年分别在2、7月出现高峰,2009年则在4、6、8、9月出现高峰,以丝光绿蝇、大头金蝇和巨尾阿丽蝇为优势种群.结论 柳州市区蚊蝇密度较高,应在以环境治理为主的综合防制策略基础上,结合种群和密度消长等生态学特点科学开展防制.

  8. The Community Succession of Sarcosaphagous Insects on Pig Carcasses in Summer Indoor and Outdoor Environment in Shenzhen Area%深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上嗜尸性昆虫的群落演替

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓钧; 马孟云; 周晖; 赖跃; 王江峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:根据深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上主要嗜尸性昆虫的生长发育和群落演替规律来推断死亡时间(PMI)。方法从2013年5月初到8月初,在深圳市公安局法医检验中心模拟的室内、外场地分别放置成年猪尸体两头,观察尸体腐败的过程和猪尸体上出现主要昆虫的种类,记录猪尸体腐败各阶段的历期,以及主要昆虫在尸体上的群落演替。结果室内、外的猪尸体分别经历了412.5 h和325 h进入白骨化阶段。主要的嗜尸性昆虫,蝇类以大头金蝇、绯颜裸金蝇、星岛金蝇,甲虫类以大隐翅甲、赤颈郭公甲、丽腐阎甲、白腹皮蠹为优势代表性种类。室外猪尸体在较多雨水的影响下,优势蝇群明显产生二代,室内的猪尸体上未见较大规模二代产生。结论深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上主要昆虫的群落演替有规律性,7种代表性昆虫及其幼虫整体的活动规律对推断PMI有较大的意义。%Objective To explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcos-aphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Methods From early May to August in 2013, in Forensic Med-ical Examination Center of Shenzhen Public Security Bureau, the main insect species and the decomposi-tion process were observed in two adult pig carcasses of simulative indoor and outdoor environment. The different decomposition stages and the community succession of insects were recorded. Results The indoor and outdoor pig carcasses showed skeleton 412.5 and 325 hours after death, respectively. The main species of flies on pig carcasses were Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya chani. The main species of beetles were Crecphilus maxillosus, Necrobia ruficollis, Saprinus splendens and Dermestes maculatu. The dominant species of flies in the outdoor pig carcasses obviously

  9. Blowfly strike in sheep flocks as an example of the use of a time-space scan statistic to control confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M P

    2001-04-13

    The use of a time-space scan statistic--defined by a cylindrical window with a circular geographic base and height corresponding to time--was investigated as a method of detecting clustering in veterinary epidemiology whilst controlling confounding. The example data set consisted of farmer-recorded occurrence of body strike and breech strike between August 1998 and May 1999 in 26 sheep flocks located in two local government areas of southeastern Queensland, Australia. This information was derived from a questionnaire survey mailed to farmers. Potentially confounding factors included in the investigation were flock size ( median), flock structure (proportion of lambs, wethers, ewes and rams), pesticide application for flystrike control (yes, no) and rainfall ( median). The total sheep population within selected flocks was 92,660; 1012 (1.09%) and 518 (0.56%) cases of body strike and breech strike were reported in 16 and 10 flocks, respectively.Clustering analyses of body strike and breech strike were undertaken separately, because different predisposing factors are associated with these diseases. Significant clustering of body strike (28.76 degrees S, 151.82 degrees E) during March 1999 and breech strike (28.73 degrees S, 151.16 degrees E) between February and May 1999 was detected. Adjusting for flock structure, flock size, pesticide use and rainfall did not alter the most likely cluster of body strike identified--although the relative risk changed (> 10%) after adjusting for flock structure. Adjustment for flock structure and rainfall resulted in different clusters of breech strike being identified.

  10. Establishing Lower Developmental Thresholds for a Common BlowFly: For Use in Estimating Elapsed Time since Death Using Entomologyical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    succession and decompositional studies on carrion in British Columbia. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby. DRDC CSS CR 2011-23 15 Hobischak, N. R...flies in carrion . Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 19, 31-32. Reiter, C., & Grassberger, M. (2002). Post-mortem interval estimation...VanLaerhoven, S. L. (1997). Successional biodiversity in insect species on buried carrion in the Vancouver and Cariboo regions of British Columbia. Simon

  11. 关于Nicholson's Blowflies模型周期正解的存在性%Existence of the Positive Solution for Nicholson's Blowflies Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐再良

    2005-01-01

    利用非线性分析方法,以锥映射的拓扑度为工具,研究了Nicholson's Blowflies模型周期正解的存在性问题;证明了在周期环境下,Nicholson's Blowflies模型方程存在周期正解.

  12. 具时滞含扩散项的Nicholson蝴蝶模型的行波解%Traveling Wavefronts of Diffusive Nicholson's Blowflies Equation with Single Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琦蓉

    2011-01-01

    运用与已知文献不同的方法研究具时滞含有扩散项的Nicholson蝴蝶模型行波解的存在性,所得行波解为相应的不含扩散项时滞Nicholson蝴蝶模型异宿轨的扰动.

  13. Oscillations for a diffusive Nicholson's blowflies equation with several arguments%含扩散项的多时滞Nicholson苍蝇模型的振动性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 李志祥

    2005-01-01

    研究了含扩散项的多时滞Nicholson苍蝇模型在Neumann边值条件下的振动性,通过对多元函数解曲线或曲面的结构的分析和构造上下解,得到了含扩散项的多时滞Nicholson苍蝇模型在Neumann边值条件下振动的充分条件:当eδτi-aN*piτi(aiN*-1)>(1)/(e),i=1,2,…,n时,方程的所有正解N(t,x)都关于正平衡点N*振动.

  14. 具反馈控制的Nicholson's blowflies模型的概周期解%Almost periodic solution of a Nicholson's blowflies model with feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余胜斌

    2010-01-01

    研究一类具有反馈控制的Nicholson's blowflies模型,通过利用微分方程比较原理和构造适当的Lyapunov函数得到保证系统持久、全局渐进稳定和相应概周期系统存在唯一全局渐进稳定的概周期正解的充分性判据,并举例说明结果的可行性.

  15. 一类Nicholson's blowflies模型的全局吸引性和振动性%Global Attractivity and Oscillation in a Kind of Nicholsons Blowflies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秋香; 燕居让

    2002-01-01

    本文研究了带有多个滞后变量的Nicholson's blowflies动态模型N(t)=-δN(t)+∑PtN(t-т)e-αtN(t-тt)的全局吸引性和振动性,获得了该方程的正平衡解为全局稳定的充分条件以及其所有正解关于该平衡解振动的充分条件.

  16. Efficacy of different fly baits%不同诱饵对蝇类引诱效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 贾凤龙; 梁焯南; 张韶华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of three kinds of baits (rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar) against flies to offer the ideal option for vector monitoring. Methods Fly traps with different baits were deployed simultaneously in five experimental sites. The captured flies were identified in the laboratory. Results No significant differences in the captured species was found between the baits. Flies captured by the rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar accounted for 66.99%, 32.07% and 0.94%, respectively. Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica were the dominant species in the rotten fish group. Lucilia cuprina was more easily attracted by sugar-vinegar baits. Rotten eggs were more attractive to C. Megacephala and Hemipyrellia ligurriens. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were more easily attracted by rotten fish, while Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae and Anthomyiidae preferred rotten eggs. Conclusion Sugar-vinegar baits did not reflect seasonal changes as they attracted a very small number of flies. Rotten fish attracted a large number of flies from only a few species. Rotten eggs could attract a proper number of flies from a balanced collection of species, and thus could be used for fly monitoring.%目的 比较分析腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃、红糖食醋以及腐败鸡蛋3种诱饵对不同蝇种的引诱力差别,以筛选媒介蝇类监测的最佳诱饵.方法 采用诱蝇笼法,选取5个实验点同时使用3种饵料进行诱集,诱得的蝇类在实验室进行鉴定.结果 3种诱饵诱集的蝇种区别不明显,诱集个体数量上按多少排列依次为腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵、腐败鸡蛋饵、红糖食醋饵,分别占捕蝇总数的66.99%、32.07%和0.94%;不同诱饵诱集的优势种差别较大,腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵诱集的优势种为大头金蝇和家蝇,红糖食醋饵为铜绿蝇,腐败鸡蛋饵为大头金蝇和瘦叶带绿蝇;丽蝇科和蝇科趋向于被腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵吸引,而丽蝇科、麻蝇科和花蝇

  17. 九种植物精油对腌肉及咸鱼害虫大头金蝇的杀卵作用%Ovicidal activity of nine essential oils against Chrysomya megacephara in bacon and kipper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈立荣; 李红艳; 周彦钢; 顾松; 娄永根

    2007-01-01

    为开发腌肉和咸鱼害蝇的安全性杀卵剂,采用改进的浸卵法,进行了9种植物精油对大头金蝇的杀卵活性测定.结果表明: 肉桂、丁香、八角茴香3种植物精油较为有效,它们的杀卵毒力(LC50)依次为0.428、1.605和2.489 mg·ml-1,以肉桂油的毒力最强.通过GC/MC成分分析,从肉桂油检出22个成分,主成分桂皮醛占92.33%.合成桂皮醛(含量97.33%) 的毒力为0.281 mg·ml-1,略高于肉桂油,表明桂皮醛是肉桂油的主要杀卵活性成分,可替代肉桂油作为害蝇杀卵剂利用.

  18. 巴西东南部夏、冬季吹蝇幼虫的食后扩散%Post-feeding larval dispersal in blowflies during summer and winter seasons in southeast Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leonardo GOMES; Guilherme GOMES; Helena Gutierrez OLIVEIRA; Margareth Maria de Carvalho QUEIROZ; Claudio José Von ZUBEN

    2008-01-01

    估计死亡和案发之间的最短时间是法医昆虫学的重要目标之一.在估计死亡时间时,研究吹蝇扩散至关重要.如果低估了最早扩散的幼虫距离和深度就可能低估死亡的时间.因此,掌握影响吹蝇幼虫扩散的有关因素,包括竞争、同类相食、在食源上的聚集密度、光周期、温湿度等以及潜入习性,进而推测吹蝇幼虫在尸体附近或远离尸体化蛹等都会影响估计死亡时间的准确性.本研究分析了从2006年夏季至2007年冬季在巴西南部自然状态下吹蝇食后的扩散.除趋光性外,扩散距离在季节上的不同(夏季3.1 m对应冬季的1.2 m)是由于环境条件起了重要作用.在用屠宰动物模拟实验时显示,吹蝇幼虫在低温低湿环境下扩散的时间滞后,扩散的距离也缩短.本研究表明温度(也许包括湿度)影响吹蝇幼虫的扩散, 环境条件也决定吹蝇何时开始扩散.

  19. 一类半线性Nicholson果蝇方程的精确解的个数%Exact Multiplicity of Solutions for a Class of Semi Linear Nicholson Blowflies Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝贺; 宋成东

    2008-01-01

    在Rn(n≥1)的单位球Bn上研究带有第一类边值条件的果蝇模型:{△u+λf(u)=0 for x∈Bn u=0 for x∈(e)Bn(其中λ>0,f=u(-1+be-au))的精确解的个数,并得到了精确的全局分支结构.利用Rabinowitz从单特征值出发的分支定理,得到该方程的解的结构,特别地,得到了方程的正解的存在性及正解的个数等结果.这些结果将在生物经济中有广泛的应用.%The exact multiplicity results were considered for Dirichlet boundary value problem from Nicholson'sblowflies Model:{△u+λf(u)=0 for x∈Bn u=0 for x∈(e)Bn In which on a unit ball Bn in Rn,n≥1,λ>0,and the nonlinearity f to be considered here is f= u(-1+be-au),where a>0,b>0. Precise global bifurcation graphics is obtained. The structure of the solution of this equation is also got by using Rabinowitz bifurcation theory. Especially,we also obtain the existence of the positive solution of this equation and the numbers of the positive solution,and etc. These will have the wide applications in biological economy area.

  20. Asymptotic Behavior of Solutions and Hopf Bifurcation for a Diffusive Nicholson Blowflies Equation%一类含扩散项的Nicholson苍蝇模型解的渐近行为及其Hopf分支

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 李志祥

    2005-01-01

    本文研究了一类含扩散项的Nicholson苍蝇模型在Neumann边值条件下解的渐近行为和Hopf分支,得到了其正解收敛于不同平衡点的充分条件和由平衡点分支出Hopf分支的充分条件.

  1. Travelling wavefronts for the diffusive Nicholson's blowflies equation with spatio-temporal delay%带时空时滞的扩散Nicholson苍蝇方程的波前解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓习军

    2006-01-01

    研究了一类带有非局部时空时滞的扩散Nicholson苍蝇方程,重点考察了该方程连接两一致静态解的波前解的存在性.利用几何奇异摄动理论及线性链技巧,证明了对一类特定形式的卷积核,只要时滞充分小,该方程的波前解仍然能得以保持.

  2. 一类时滞脉冲广义Nicholson果蝇模型的正周期解%Positive Periodic Solution for a Class of Delay Impulsive Generalized Nicholson's Blowflies Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若军; 杨春雨; 刘芳

    2016-01-01

    研究了一类时滞脉冲广义Nicholson果蝇模型的正周期解问题,利用锥拉伸与锥压缩不动点定理、Laypunov方法及不等式技巧得到了这类模型正周期解存在唯一的充分条件,并通过一个实例和仿真说明了结论的有效性,推广和改进了已有文献的结果.

  3. 参数依赖时滞的Nicholson生态模型的稳定性和分支%Stability and Bifurcations in a Delayed Nicholson Blowflies Equation with Delay-dependent Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范丽; 史忠科; 陈斯养

    2010-01-01

    研究了参数依赖时滞的Nicholson生态模型的稳定性和分支问题.利用几何分析方法和摄动法,给出了系统唯一正平衡态的稳定性和Hopf分支存在条件,得到了分支周期解的近似解析表达式和周期解稳定性判别式,通过若干实例验证了理论分析和数值计算的一致性.

  4. Wavefront Solutions in the Diffusive Nicholson's Blowflies Equation With Nonlocal Delay%具有非局部时滞的扩散Nicholson苍蝇方程的波前解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存华; 颜向平

    2010-01-01

    研究了具有非局部时滞的扩散Nicholson苍蝇方程,其中时滞由一个定义在所有过去时间和整个一维空间区域上的积分卷积表示.当时滞核是强生成核时, 根据线性链式技巧和几何奇异扰动理论,获得了小时滞时波前解的存在性.

  5. 一类具有脉冲的Nicholson果蝇模型周期解的存在性和全局吸引性%EXISTENCE AND GLOBAL ATTRACTIVITY OF POSITIVE PERIODIC SOLUTIONS FOR THE NICHOLSON'S BLOWFLIES MODEL WITH IMPULSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周刚; 时宝; 许广山; 黄咏芳

    2008-01-01

    研究了下列具有脉冲现象的Nicholson果蝇模型{N'(t)=-δ(t)N(t)+p(t)N(t-mω)e-a(t)N(t-mω),t>0,t≠tk N(t+k)-N(tk)=bkN(tk),k=1,2,…的正周期解(N)(t)的存在性问题及其部分动力学行为.当m=0时,得到上述方程存唯一正周期解(N)(t),并且是全局渐近稳定的;当m≠0时,给出了(N)(t)是全局吸引的充分条件.

  6. Travelling Waves of Diffusive Nicholson's Blowflies Equation with Delay and Non-local Effect%具有非局部反应的时滞扩散Nicholson方程的行波解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建明; 彭亚红

    2006-01-01

    对具有扩散项的时滞Mcholson方程的行波解进行了研究.特别是考虑到生物个体在空间位置上的迁移,研究了具有非局部反应的时滞扩散模型.对于弱生成时滞核,运用几何奇异摄动理论,在时滞充分小的情况下,证明了行波解的存在性.

  7. Stochastic Stability of Equilibrium Points x* =1/blnr(t)/c of Nicholson's Blowflies Model with Markovian Switching%马尔可夫调制飞蝇模型平衡点x*=1/blnr(t)/c稳性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王众

    2015-01-01

    将Nicholson飞蝇模型推广到带Markov调制的情形,并研究了该模型的平衡点问题,得到了平衡点x*=1/blnr(t)/c随机稳定性的一个充分条件.最后通过实例验证了结果.

  8. 常见嗜尸性昆虫mtDNA提取方法的比较%Comparison of mtDNA Extracting Methods for Common Sarcosaphagous Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶清; 郭亚东; 李茂枝; 熊枫; 李剑波; 蔡继峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide,CTAB)法、十二烷基硫酸钠-醋酸钾(sodium dodecyl sulfate-potassium acetate,SDS-KAc)法和十二烷基硫酸钠-蛋白酶K(sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein K,SDS-PK)法对法医学常见嗜尸性昆虫mtDNA的提取效果.方法 随机采集放置在长沙地区室外草地家兔尸体上的大头金蝇、双色葬甲、金龟科、墨胸胡蜂4种72只常见嗜尸性昆虫,分别采用CTAB、SDS-KAc、SDS-PK 3种方法提取总DNA.核酸蛋白测定仪检测DNA纯度及浓度,用mtDNA特异性引物进行PCR扩增,琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测PCR产物,对PCR产物进行序列测定,将测序结果上传到GenBank.结果 3种方法均能成功提取4种嗜尸性昆虫的mtDNA,SDS-PK法提取效果最好,CTAB法对陈旧性样本提取效果优于另两种方法,SDS-KAc法对各类样本的提取效果相近.结论 实验中应根据不同情况,选择最恰当的提取方法.制备高质量DNA推荐使用SDS-PK法,陈旧性样本推荐使用CTAB法,在各类预实验中可采取低成本的SDS-KAc法.%Objective To compare effects of three different methods for mtDNA extraction from common sarcosaphagous insects including cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method, sodium dodecyl sul-fate-potassium acetate (SDS-Kac) method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-proteinase K (SDS-PK) method. Methods Seventy-two insects from four species [Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1784), Eusilpha bi-color (Fairmaire, 1896), Paraeutrichopus pecoudi (Mateu, 1954), Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, 1836)] were collected from the corpses of the rabbits in Changsha district. The total DNA of above samples was extracted by CTAB, SDS-Kac and SDS-PK methods. The purity and concentration of DNA were examined by protein-nucleic acid spectrophotometry, and mtDNA were amplified by specific primers and PCR products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Then PCR products were sequenced and subsequently uploaded to

  9. 2005-2010年浙江省磐安县病媒生物监测结果分析%Analysis of vector density surveillance in Pan' an county, Zhejiang province from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应凯满; 郑柏福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the density of primary vector species and their seasonal fluctuation in Pan 'an county for improvement of prevention and control strategies. Methods Light traps, cage traps, roach pastes and night traps were used to capture mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents, respectively, for density calculations. Results From 2005 to 2010, the average density of mosquitoes in Pan'an county was 2.04 per lamp-hour, with the prominent species being Culex pipiens pallens /Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus accounting for 71.81%. The average density of flies was 1.83 per cage with Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica as the predominant species, which accounted for 52.62% and 37.81%, respectively. The density of cockroaches was 0.91 per paste, with Blattella germanica as the predominant species (92.10%). The rodent density was 0.89%with Niviventer fulvescens as the predominant species (37.60%). Most mosquitoes and flies appeared in May; the former became most active in July and the latter in June through August. Cockroaches and rats were observed throughout the year with relatively high roach density from March to October and generally peak rodent density in September. Conclusion The population composition and seasonal fluctuation of primary vectors in Pan'an county are clarified.%目的 掌握浙江省磐安县主要病媒生物种群密度及其消长规律,为控制病媒生物的危害提供科学依据.方法 采用诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度,粘捕法监测蜚蠊密度,夹夜法监测鼠密度.结果 2005-2010年磐安县蚊类平均密度为2.04只/(灯·h),以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的71.81%;蝇密度指数为1.83只/笼,优势种为家蝇和大头金蝇,分别占捕获总数的52.62%和37.81%;蜚蠊密度为0.91只/张,优势种为德国小蠊,占捕获总数的92.10%;鼠密度为0.89%,优势种为针毛鼠,占捕获总数的37.60%.蚊和蝇5月开始活动,蚊类于7

  10. Research on population and distribution of three medical insects in Yulin urban area of Shaanxi province%陕西省榆林市城区3种病媒昆虫种群及分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建军; 吕文; 高鸿; 李东波; 孙养信

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the population composition, density and distribution of vectors in Yulin urban area, providing evidence for control of these insects. Methods Human baited net trap method and lamp baited trap method were employed for mosquito collection, cage-trapping for fly collection and sticky-paste for cockroach collection. Results Mosquitoes caught belonged to 5 species 4 genera, with Culex pipiens pallens being the dominant species. The average density based on the human baited net trap method was 19.11 per net per hour, or 1.61 per lamp per hour based on lamp baited trap method. The density in the urban area was higher than that in the villages. Flies belonged 23 species 19 genera 5 family, and the common species were Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia sericata, Musca domestica, Muscina stabulans, Boettcherisca peregrine and L. cuprina, accounting for 36.49%, 20.41%, 14.78%, 10.61%, 8.65% and 2.61%, respectively. The average density was 4.42/ cage, the highest density observed in the farm produce markets. Cockroach density was 16.28/piece ? night, highest observed in the restaurants, with Blattella germanica being the predominant species. The peak of flies and cockroaches was in August, and that of mosquitoes in July. Conclusion The population composition, density and distribution of vectors were basically grasped. Integrated measures should be taken with focus on such major areas as restaurants, farm produce markets and residential areas.%目的 调查榆林市城区蚊、蝇、蜚蠊3种病媒昆虫种类、数量及分布,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用入帐诱法和诱蚊灯法,蝇类采用笼诱法,蜚蠊采用粘捕法.结果 捕获蚊类4属5种,淡色库蚊为优势种,帐诱法总密度为19.11只/(顶·h),诱蚊灯法总密度为1.61只/(灯·h),蚊密度城区高于周边农村.捕获蝇类5科19属23种,常见蝇种有大头金蝇、丝光绿蝇、家蝇、厩腐蝇、棕尾别麻蝇和铜

  11. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2013, the aim is to provide scientific and technical support for the prevention and control of vectors. Methods Mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches were monitored with mosquito lamps, cage traps, traps set at night and glue traps. Results From 2011 to 2013, the mosquito density was 1.52, 1.33 and 1.62 per lamp⁃hour, respectively, with the highest density found in livestock pens, and the dominant species were Culex pipiens pallen (sure not Cx. quinquefasciatus), accounting for 57.44%. Mosquitoes appeared from April and peak in June through August. The fly density was 8.77, 5.67 and 3.47 per cage, respectively, with the dominant species were Chrysomya megacephala from 2011 to 2012, which became Musca domestica in 2013. The rodent density was 0.89%, 0.81%and 0.78%, respectively, with the dominant species were Rattus norvegicus, accounting for 57.70%. Rodents were observed throughout the whole year. The cockroach density was 0.54, 0.37 and 0.35 per glue trap, respectively, with the dominant species were Blattella germanica, accounting for 88.42%. Conclusion Species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province were analyzed through 3-year surveillance, mitigation measures should be taken accordingly to control vectors.%目的:了解2011-2013年浙江省居民区病媒生物种群构成、密度及其变化趋势,为浙江省病媒生物防控提供理论基础。方法蚊、鼠、蝇、蜚蠊分别采用诱蚊灯法、夹夜法、笼诱法和粘捕法进行监测。结果2011-2013年浙江省蚊密度分别为1.52、1.33和1.62只/(灯·h),牲畜棚最高,以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的57.44%,高峰期为6-8月;蝇密度分别为8.77、5.67和3.47只/笼,2011-2012年以大头金蝇为主要优势蝇种,其次为家蝇,2013年则以家蝇为主

  12. 2010-2011年深圳世界大学生运动会相关场所主要病媒生物监测结果分析%Analysis of surveillance results of main vectors in Shenzhen Universiade venues from 2010 to 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志峰; 庄厚雄; 王永刚; 方琼; 曹丽; 林宝妮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To surveil the population distribution and density fluctuation of the main yeetors in Shenzhen Universiade venues from 2010 to 2011, and to provide a scientific basis for controlling vectors. Methods The CO2 light trap was used for the surveillance of adult mosquitoes, the raosq - ovilrap for Aedes albopictus, the cage for flies and rats, and sticky board for cockroaches. Results Culex pipiens pallens was the dominant species of mosquitoes caught in Shenzhen Universiade venues, accounting for 89.47% (476/532), and Ae. Albopictus accounted for 9.96% of all caught mosquitoes. The dominant species of caught flies was Chrysomya megacephala (37.83% , 2428/6419), followed by Lucilia cuprina (19.16% , 1230/6419), and Boettcherisca peregrina (17.36%, 1114/6419). Rattus norvegicus was the dominant species of caught rats, accounting for 88.37% (38/43). Blallella germanica was the dominant species of caught cockroaches, accounting for 97.15% (477/491). Compared with the data obtained in 2010, the densities of main vectors decreased significantly in 2011. During the Universiade held in Shenzhen, the densities oi main vectors were kept at low levels. The density of adult mosquitoes decreased by 20.55%, and the mosquito and oviposition positive index of Ae. Albopiclus decreased by 77.70%, and the densities of flies, rats, and cockroaches decreased by 91.29%, 44.38%, and 73.10%, respectively. Conclusion Surveillance and control significantly decreased the densities of the main vectors in Shenzhen Universiade venues and prevented the adverse effects of vectors during Universiade.%目的 2010-2011年通过对大学生运动会(大运会)相关场所主要病媒生物进行监测,掌握病媒生物的种群分布和密度消长情况,为病媒生物控制提供科学依据.方法 成蚊监测采用C02诱蚊灯法,伊蚊专项监测采用诱蚊诱卵器法,蝇类、鼠类监测采用笼诱法,蜚蠊监测采用粘捕法.结果 大运会场馆蚊虫的优势种为

  13. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  14. Existence and Global Asymptotic Stability of Almost Periodic Positive Solution for Nicholson's Blowflies Model with Linear Harvesting Term on Time Scales%时标上的具有线性收获项的Nicholson's Blowflies模型概周期正解的存在性及全局渐近稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志健

    2015-01-01

    本文研究时标上的具有线性收获项的Nicholson's blowflies模型,运用压缩映射不动点定理获得存在唯一概周期正解的充分条件.此外,通过利用Liapunov函数研究概周期正解的全局渐近稳定性.

  15. 一类Nicholson飞蝇模型的脉冲正伪概周期解的存在性和指数稳定性%The Existence and Exponential Stability of Impulsive Positive Pseudo Almost Periodic Solutions for a Nicholson's Blowfly's Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    2016-01-01

    对一类Nicholson飞蝇模型的脉冲正伪概周期解进行了研究,给出了脉冲伪概周期型函数的定义.利用压缩映射原理和格朗沃不等式,得出了解的存在性和指数稳定性.

  16. Uniqueness and Exponential Convergence of the Positive Almost Periodic Solution for a Difference Model of the Nicholson's Blowflies with Linear Harvesting Term%具有线性收获项的Nicholson's Blowflies差分模型正概周期解的存在唯一性与指数收敛性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚志健

    2014-01-01

    本文研究具有线性收获项的Nicholson's Blowflies差分模型,运用压缩映射不动点定理,获得存在唯一的正概周期解的充分条件.此外,通过利用Liapunov泛函研究正概周期解的指数收敛性,解决了L.Berezansky 2010年提出的一个公开问题.

  17. The most relictual fungus-farming ant species cultivates the most recently evolved and highly domesticated fungal symbiont species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Brady, Seán G; Lopes, Cauê T; Mueller, Ulrich G; Bacci, Mauricio; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2015-05-01

    Fungus-farming (attine) ant agriculture is made up of five known agricultural systems characterized by remarkable symbiont fidelity in which five phylogenetic groups of ants faithfully cultivate five phylogenetic groups of fungi. Here we describe the first case of a lower-attine ant cultivating a higher-attine fungus based on our discovery of a Brazilian population of the relictual fungus-farming ant Apterostigma megacephala, known previously from four stray specimens from Peru and Colombia. We find that A. megacephala is the sole surviving representative of an ancient lineage that diverged ∼39 million years ago, very early in the ∼55-million-year evolution of fungus-farming ants. Contrary to all previously known patterns of ant-fungus symbiont fidelity, A. megacephala cultivates Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a highly domesticated fungal cultivar that originated only 2-8 million years ago in the gardens of the highly derived and recently evolved (∼12 million years ago) leaf-cutting ants. Because no other lower fungus-farming ant is known to cultivate any of the higher-attine fungi, let alone the leaf-cutter fungus, A. megacephala may provide important clues about the biological mechanisms constraining the otherwise seemingly obligate ant-fungus associations that characterize attine ant agriculture.

  18. Chromosome evolution in tiger beetles: Karyotypes and localization of 18S rDNA loci in Neotropical Megacephalini (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia J.R. Proença

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Neotropical tiger beetle species, three from the genus Megacephala and one from the genus Oxycheila, currently assigned to the tribe Megacephalini were examined cytogenetically. All three Megacephala species showed simple sex chromosome systems of the X0/XX type but different numbers of autosomal pairs (15 in M. cruciata, 14 in M. sobrina and 12 in M. rutilans, while Oxycheila tristis was inferred to have a multiple sex chromosome system with four X chromosomes (2n = 24 + X1X2X3X4Y/X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a PCR-amplified 18S rDNA fragment as a probe revealed the presence of rDNA clusters located exclusively on the autosomes in all the Megacephala species (five clusters in M. cruciata, eight in M. sobrina and three in M. rutilans, indicating variability in the number of clusters and the presence of structural polymorphisms. The same methodology showed that O. tristis had six rDNA clusters, apparently also located on the autosomes. Although our data also show cytogenetic variability within the genus Megacephala, our findings support the most accepted hypothesis for chromosome evolution in the family Cicindelidae. The description of multiple sex chromosomes in O. tristis along with phylogenetic analyses and larval morphological characters may be assumed as an additional evidence for the exclusion of the genus Oxycheila and related taxa from the tribe Megacephalini.

  19. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  20. Calculating time since death in a mock crime case comparing a new computational method (ExLAC) with the ADH method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibe-Pal, Saskia; Madea, Burkhard

    2015-03-01

    We compared the results of calculating a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) in a mock crime case using two different methods: accumulated degree hours (ADH method) and a newly developed computational model called ExLAC. For the ADH method we further applied five reference datasets for the development time of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from 5 different countries and our results confirmed the following: (1) Reference data for blowfly development that has not been sampled using a local blowfly colony should not, in most circumstances, be used in estimating a PMI in real cases; and (2) The new method ExLAC might be a potential alternative to the ADH method.

  1. Parasites and mortality of Sable Hippotragus niger niger (harris, 1838 in the Matopos, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is indicated as the main cause of mortality of sable Hippotragus niger niger in Matopos, Zimbabwe. The main external parasites were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. evertsi and the larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. The main internal parasite was Haemonchus and to a lesser extent Taenia multiceps. Babesia and anaplasmosis were identified in blood smears.

  2. Temperature Dependence of Receptor Potential and Noise in Fly (Calliphora erythrocephala) Photoreceptor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroek, J.G.H.; Tjonger, M. van; Stavenga, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the response to light of photoreceptors of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala. The latency and the time-to-peak of the responses become shorter as the temperature increases; Q10 = 2.8 ± 0.6. The response amplitude is independent of the temperature in t

  3. Lamb tail docking: a controlled field study of the effects of tail amputation on health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N P; Wall, R; Morgan, K L

    1994-04-30

    A detailed study of the effects of tail docking on lamb health and productivity was prompted by current concern about the welfare aspects of lamb tail amputation. Using a controlled field trial, comparing over 3000 docked and undocked lambs on seven farms, the effects of tail docking on mortality, blowfly strike and production variables were examined. The incidence of blowfly strike was strongly and consistently higher in undocked than docked lambs (rate ratio 6.03, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 2.99 to 12.19 for male lambs and 4.25, 95 per cent CI 2.25 to 8.01 for female lambs). The incidence of faecal soiling of the breech was slightly higher in undocked lambs and was identified as an important independent risk factor for blowfly strike. Both the mortality and production parameters were similar for docked and undocked lambs. It was concluded that tail docking protected against blowfly strike, with little evidence of any detrimental effect on lamb mortality and production.

  4. FliMax, a novel stimulus device for panoramic and highspeed presentation of behaviourally generated optic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, J.P.; Kern, R.; Michaelis, C.; Meyer, P.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    2003-01-01

    A high-speed panoramic visual stimulation device is introduced which is suitable to analyse visual interneurons during stimulation with rapid image displacements as experienced by fast moving animals. The responses of an identified motion sensitive neuron in the visual system of the blowfly to behav

  5. Noise improves collective decision-making by ants in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussutour, A; Beekman, M; Nicolis, S C; Meyer, B

    2009-12-22

    Recruitment via pheromone trails by ants is arguably one of the best-studied examples of self-organization in animal societies. Yet it is still unclear if and how trail recruitment allows a colony to adapt to changes in its foraging environment. We study foraging decisions by colonies of the ant Pheidole megacephala under dynamic conditions. Our experiments show that P. megacephala, unlike many other mass recruiting species, can make a collective decision for the better of two food sources even when the environment changes dynamically. We developed a stochastic differential equation model that explains our data qualitatively and quantitatively. Analysing this model reveals that both deterministic and stochastic effects (noise) work together to allow colonies to efficiently track changes in the environment. Our study thus suggests that a certain level of noise is not a disturbance in self-organized decision-making but rather serves an important functional role.

  6. Disruption of a protective ant-plant mutualism by an invasive ant increases elephant damage to savanna trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Corinna; Karande, Megan A; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Palmer, Todd M

    2015-03-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect ecosystem processes via the disruption of mutualisms. The mutualism between the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) and four species of symbiotic ants is an ecologically important one; ants strongly defend trees against elephants, which can otherwise have dramatic impacts on tree cover. In Laikipia, Kenya, the invasive big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) has established itself at numerous locations within the last 10-15 years. In invaded areas on five properties, we found that three species of symbiotic Crematogaster ants were virtually extirpated, whereas Tetraponera penzigi co-occurred with P. megacephala. T. penzigi appears to persist because of its nonaggressive behavior; in a whole-tree translocation experiment, Crematogaster defended host trees against P. megacephala, but were extirpated from trees within hours. In contrast, T. penzigi retreated into domatia and withstood invading ants for >30 days. In the field, the loss of defensive Crematogaster ants in invaded areas led to a five- to sevenfold increase in the number of trees catastrophically damaged by elephants compared to uninvaded areas. In savannas, tree cover drives many ecosystem processes and provides essential forage for many large mammal species; thus, the invasion of big-headed ants may strongly alter the dynamics and diversity of East Africa's whistling thorn savannas by disrupting this system's keystone acaciaant mutualism.

  7. Forensic entomology and the estimation of the minimum time since death in indoor cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugelli, Valentina; Forni, David; Bassi, Luciani Alessandro; Di Paolo, Marco; Marra, Damiano; Lenzi, Scilla; Toni, Chiara; Giusiani, Mario; Domenici, Ranieri; Gherardi, Mirella; Vanin, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Eight cases that occurred indoors in which the insects played an important role in the mPMI estimation are presented. The bodies of socially isolated people and old people living alone were discovered in central Italy between June and November. mPMI ranged from a few days to several weeks. Insects were collected during the body recovery and the postmortem. Climatic data were obtained from the closest meteorological stations and from measurements performed on the site. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae species were present in 75% of the cases with Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya albiceps collected in 50% of the cases. Chrysomya albiceps was always found in association with Lucilia species. Scuttle flies (Phoridae) were found in 37.5% of the cases, confirming the ability of these species in indoor body colonization. We show that if sealed environment may delay, the insect arrival dirty houses may create the environment where sarcosaprophagous insects are already present.

  8. Agricultural Bioterrorism: Why It Is A Concern And What We Must Do

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    spongiform encephalopathy Sheep and goat diseases Equine diseases • Ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis) • Caprine and ovine brucellosis (excluding B...Vesicular Stomatitis • Bluetongue • Sheep Pox and Goat Pox 9 • Swine Vesicular Disease • Rinderpest • Peste des Petits Ruminants • Contagious Bovine...Cochliomyia hominivorax) • Old World screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana) • Bovine anaplasmosis • Bovine babesiosis • Bovine brucellosis • Bovine genital

  9. The Medical Biology of Brazilian Calliphoridae: Mechanism for Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    well to a consideration of the myiasis producers C. hominivorax, Chrysomya albiceps, and Dermatobia hominis . The latter is a serious pest of people...The habits, distribution, % and life cycles of the majority of these flies are largely unknown. These facts are neces- sary to (1) identify the...distribution, and life cycles of the majority of these flies are largely unknown. These facts are necessary to (1) identify the potentially important vectors

  10. Checklist and distribution maps of the blow flies of Venezuela (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Mesembrinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Yelitza; Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Isabel; Thomas, Arianna; Rojo, Santos

    2017-01-01

    A checklist of the 39 species of blow flies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) so far known to occur in Venezuela is provided, based on a thorough literature review and the examination of ca. 500 specimens deposited in the main entomological collections of the country. Data from the literature and museum collections were used to generate distribution maps for 37 species. Three species are recorded from Venezuela for the first time: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830), Mesembrinella spicata Aldrich, 1925 and Mesembrinella umbrosa Aldrich, 1922.

  11. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Skowronek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR sequences and short tandem repeat (STR profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  12. "Epidermal Streaming" and associated phenomena displayed by Larvae of Chrysomyia marginalis (Wd. (Diptera: CALLIPHORIDAE at carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.O Braack

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Competition with vertebrate scavengers for carrion necessitates blow-fly larvae to make rapid and effective use of dead animals. Blow-fly eggs are deposited in shaded, concealed positions at a carcass, and the larvae need to enter the body to feed on muscle and other soft tissues as soon as possible after eclosion. They do so by digesting away the skin with enzymes, but this is often preceded by an exploratory phase in which larvae migrate over the carcass to find wounds by which they are able to gain more rapid entry into the body. Epidermal streaming is one method of performing this exploratory phase, and involves movement by small larvae below the superficial outermost layer of skin. Several possible benefits of this behaviour are discussed.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA and STR analyses for human DNA from maggots crop contents: a forensic entomology case from central-southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Cai, J F; Guo, Y D; Xiong, F; Zhang, L; Feng, H; Meng, F M; Fu, Y; Li, J B; Chen, Y Q

    2011-08-01

    Insect larvae and adult insects found on human corpses can provide important forensic evidence however it is useful to be able to prove evidence of association. Without this, it could be claimed that the insect evidence was a contaminant or had been planted on the body. This paper describes how mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and STR analysis of the crop contents of larvae of the blowfly Aldrichina grahami collected from separated body parts was used to provide evidence of association.

  14. United States Air Force Graduate Student Research Program. 1989 Program Technical Report. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    xanthopterin, isoxanthopterin, and riboflavin -) present in receptor cells provide candidate accessory pigments that (a) populate the triplet state with...of a pteridine pigment (s) present in the visual cells. Since a large portion of the fly head is the compound eye, these animals are considered to be...cells of the blowfly contain an antenna pigment that absorbs near-UV light and transfers energy by a radiationless process to a visual pigment

  15. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    during sample hydrolysis. Mono- and dichlorotyrosine are also present in cuticular samples from other insect species, such as the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, the moth Hyalophora cecropia, the cockroach Blaberus craniifer, and the bug Rhodnius prolixus, but not in the sclerotized puparial cuticle...... of the blowfly, Calliphora vicina, or in sclerotized ootheca from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Cuticular sclerotization and formation of chlorotyrosines occur simultaneously in locust legs; sclerotized cuticles tend to have a higher content of chlorotyrosines than unsclerotized cuticles...

  16. Using miniature sensor coils for simultaneous measurement of orientation and position of small, fast-moving animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, C.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1998-01-01

    A system is described that measures, with a sampling frequency of 1 kHz, the orientation and position of a blowfly (Calliphora vicina) flying in a volume of 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.4 m(3). Orientation is measured with a typical accuracy of 0.5 degrees, and position with a typical accuracy of 1 mm. This is acc

  17. New insight in the epidemiology of avian botulism outbreaks: necrophagous flies as vectors of Clostridium botulinum type C/D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anza, Ibone; Vidal, Dolors; Mateo, Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Avian botulism outbreaks spread through the bird carcass-maggot cycle, in which Clostridium botulinum and blowflies interact to ensure their reproduction in a mutualistic relationship where neurotoxin/spore-bearing maggot is one of the keystones. Here we investigated the hypothesis that adult blowflies may also play a significant role in botulism outbreaks by carrying C. botulinum cells between carcasses. We carried out a field experiment placing bird carcasses free of C. botulinum type C/D in containers only accessible to necrophagous flying insects in wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks were occurring and in control sites. Additionally, we performed laboratory trials to evaluate if blowflies may carry C. botulinum type C/D and for how long. Maggots bearing C. botulinum type C/D developed in 27.5% of carcasses placed in wetlands during botulism outbreaks. Calliphoridae flies in laboratory trials were able to transfer C. botulinum between two points and excreted it in their spots for up to 24 h after an infective feeding. Our results confirm that adult necrophagous flies play a role in the spreading of botulism outbreaks, which have implications in the epidemiology of this disease.

  18. Substratos utilizados para a criação de dípteros caliptratos no jardim zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio-Zoo) Breeding media used for rearing flies in the Zoological Garden of Rio de Janeiro (Rio - Zoo)

    OpenAIRE

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1989-01-01

    No Rio-Zoo, foram criados 7.377 dípteros caliptratos, pertencentes a quatro famílias e 22 espécies. As criações foram efetuadas de agosto de 1987 a abril de 1988. Foram utilizados como substratos de criação: banana, camarão, carcaça de camundongo,fezes caninas, fezes humanas, fígado bovino, lula, mamão, peixe, siri e tomate. As espécies criadas com maior freqüência foram: Fannia sp. (subgrupo pusio), Atherigona orientalis, Chrysomyia megacephala, Phaenicia eximia. Paraphrissopoda chrysosotoma...

  19. Substratos utilizados para a criação de dípteros caliptratos em uma área urbana do Município do Rio de Janeiro Breeding media used for rearing of flies in an urban area of the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario D'Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área urbana do município do Rio de Janeiro, foram criados 10.988 dípteros caliptratos, pertencentes a quatro famílias e 22 espécies. As criações foram efetuadas em quatro etapas durante os anos de 1986 a 1987. Foram utilizados como substratos: peixe, fígado, carcaça de camundongo, fezes humanas e caninas, camarão, siri, banana, manga mamaão e tomate. As espécies criadas com maior freqüência foram: Fania sp (subgrupo pusio, Atherigona orientalis, Phaenicia eximia, Paraphrissopoda chrisostoma, Chrisomyia megacephala, Ophyra solitaria, Musca domestica, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Phaenicia cuprina, Ophyra aenescens, Sarcophagula occidua, Morellia flavicornis, e Sarcodexia innota.In an urban area of Municipality of rio de Janeiro were bred 10,988 calliptrate flies belonging to 4 families and 22 species. Breeding was effectuated in four steps during the years of 1986 and 1987. It were used as larvae substrate; fish, liver, mouse carcas, human and dog faeces, shrimp, crab, banana, mango, papaya and tomato. The species bred with frequency were: Fannia sp 9sub grouppusio, Atherigona orientalis, Phaenicia eximia, Paraphrissopoda chrysostoma, Chrysomyia megacephala, Ophyra solitaria, Musca domestica, Sarcophagula occidua, Morellia flavicornis e Sarcodexia innota.

  20. A survey of the interaction of calcium ions with mitochondria from different tissues and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafoli, E; Lehninger, A L

    1971-05-01

    A survey was made of the capacity of mitochondria isolated from a number of different tissues and species to accumulate Ca(2+) from the suspending medium during electron transport. The species examined included the rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster, guinea pig, cow, chicken, turtle, blowfly, yeast and Neurospora crassa. The tissues examined included vertebrate liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, thyroid and adrenal cortex, and the flight muscle of the blowfly. The mitochondria from all vertebrate tissues examined showed: (a) stimulation of State 4 respiration by added Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)/~ activation ratio about 2.0), accompanied by accumulation of Ca(2+) and ejection of H(+), with a H(+)/Ca(2+) ratio about 1.0; (b) a requirement of phosphate for accumulation of large amounts of Ca(2+); (c) respiration-independent high-affinity binding sites for Ca(2+); (d) endogenous Ca(2+), which is largely released by uncoupling agents. However, mitochondria from yeast and blowfly flight muscle are unable to accumulate Ca(2+) in a respiration-dependent process and possess no high-affinity Ca(2+)-binding sites. These findings support the view that the high-affinity sites represent the ligand-binding sites of a specific Ca(2+) ;permease' or transport system in the membrane. The relatively high affinity for Ca(2+), which equals or exceeds the affinity for ADP, and the generally uniform characteristics of Ca(2+) transport in all the vertebrate mitochondria tested strongly suggest that respiration-linked Ca(2+) accumulation plays a general and fundamental role in vertebrate cell physiology.

  1. [Delay and cessation of aging processes by manipulation of reproduction, food intake and development in insects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collatz, K-G

    2004-06-01

    Insects can serve as excellent models to show that the genetically determined life span of organisms as well as that of other traits is characterized by high phenotypic plasticity. Depending on different environmental conditions the life cycle strategy can therefore be highly variable. Thus developmental and aging processes are subjected to delaying or accelerating influences or can even be interrupted. Availability of protein to fulfill reproductive requirements, intermittent starvation, and the photoperiodic induction of reproductive diapause were taken as examples for the study of selected abiotic factors which influence the life history of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae and the beetle Gastroidea viridula.

  2. Determination of methylphenidate in Calliphorid larvae by liquid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry - Forensic entomotoxicology using an in vivo rat brain model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bushby, Sarah K.; Thomas, Nicky; Priemel, Petra A.;

    2012-01-01

    and Calliphorid larvae) by liquid-liquid extraction with recovery of >80%, and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The LC-MS/MS assay was validated for entomotoxicological use and initially applied to male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6) that were dosed with MPH (20mg/kg) ante......The aim of this study was to examine the potential forensic utilisation of blowfly larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as an alternative toxicological specimen for the detection of the psychotropic model drug methylphenidate (MPH). MPH was extracted from biological matrices (rat brain, serum...

  3. Miíase por Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae em Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia: Didelphidae no Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cansi

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. In May 2009 were collected 18 larvae of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, a fly responsible for primary and secondary myiasis in livestock and humans. The larvae were taken from the myiasis on anal and auricular regions of an opossum Didelphis albiventris (Lund, in Brasília Zoo, and later identified in the laboratory. After 15 days, 15 adults emerged from L. eximia. This is the first record of this blowfly causing a primary myiasis in a marsupial species in the Brasília Cerrado.

  4. 具有时滞和收获的Nicholson模型周期正解%Positive Periodic Solution for Nicholson's Model with Both Delay and Harvesting Term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春苗; 赵维锐

    2012-01-01

    Krasnoselskii's fixed point theorem was applied to obtain a sufficient condition for the existence of positive periodic solutions for Nicholson's blowflies model with both delay and harvesting term. Two examples and numerical simulation were given to illustrate the effectiveness of the result.%利用Krasnoselskii不动点定理,得到了具有时滞和收获项的Nicholson果蝇模型正周期解存在的充分条件.给出的两个例子和数值模拟验证了结果的有效性.

  5. Stability and Bifurcation in a Delayed Reaction-Diffusion Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shangjiang; Ma, Li

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a diffusive equation with time delay subject to Dirichlet boundary condition in a bounded domain. The existence of spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solution is investigated by applying Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction. The existence of Hopf bifurcation at the spatially nonhomogeneous steady-state solution is derived by analyzing the distribution of the eigenvalues. The direction of Hopf bifurcation and stability of the bifurcating periodic solution are also investigated by means of normal form theory and center manifold reduction. Moreover, we illustrate our general results by applications to the Nicholson's blowflies models with one- dimensional spatial domain.

  6. A checklist of arthropods associated with pig carrion and human corpses in Southeastern Brazil

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    LML Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, are attracted to specific stages of carcass decomposition, in a process of faunistic succession. They are very important in estimating the postmortem interval, the time interval between the death and the discovery of the body. In studies done with pig carcasses exposed to natural conditions in an urban forest (Santa Genebra Reservation, located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 4 out of 36 families of insects collected - Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae (Diptera and Dermestidae (Coleoptera - were considered of forensic importance, because several species were collected in large numbers both visiting and breeding in pig carcasses. Several species were also observed and collected on human corpses at the Institute of Legal Medicine. The species belonged to 17 different families, 6 being of forensic importance because they were reared from human corpses or pig carcasses: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Piophilidae (Diptera, Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera. The most important species were: Diptera - Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya putoria, Hemilucilia segmentaria, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Calliphoridae, Pattonella intermutans (Sarcophagidae, Ophyra chalcogaster (Muscidae, Piophila casei (Piophilidae; Coleoptera - Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae, Oxyletrum disciolle (Silphidae and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae.

  7. Insectos de los remanentes de bosques secos andinos del norte de Ecuador

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    A. Troya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Las investigaciones biológicas en los bosques secos de Ecuador se centran en aspectos botánicos y ecológicos, mientras que el conocimiento de la entomofauna es casi nulo. Utilizando trampas Malaise , de caída, y golpeteo, se realizaron muestreos en cuatro localidades de bosque seco Andino con el objetivo de identificar la composición de la fauna de insectos terrestres a nivel de familia. Se registraron 14 órdenes y 117 familias, entre las cuales las hormigas (Formicidae representaron el mayor porcentaje de la abundancia total. Se hace referencia a un posible registro de la hormiga Pheidole megacephala , una de las especies invasoras más importantes de mundo. Aunque en forma preliminar, este trabajo constituye el primer aporte al conocimiento de la entomofauna en el ecosistema probablemente más amenazado de este territorio.

  8. Ant Community Structure (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Two Neighborhoods with Different Urban Profiles in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Alcione Piva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species are highly abundant in cities, may form huge unicolonial populations with thousands of individuals able to displace native fauna, and impoverish ecological relationships in urban environments. In this work, we study the ant community in two neighborhoods with different urban profiles, one recently populated and another from the 1900s in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Two hundred and ninety houses were sampled with baits for ant collections. Results show that the recent urbanized neighborhood with greater disturbance favors opportunistic and dominant species to colonize it, like Tapinoma melanocephalum. We also made a temporal analysis in the ancient neighborhood, collecting ants after ten years from a first survey. T. melanocephalum has a broader range than ten years ago, displaced other ant species, but confronts with Pheidole megacephala that was not found in the recent urbanized neighborhood.

  9. Substratos utilizados para a criação de dípteros caliptratos no jardim zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio-Zoo Breeding media used for rearing flies in the Zoological Garden of Rio de Janeiro (Rio - Zoo

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    José Mario D'Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available No Rio-Zoo, foram criados 7.377 dípteros caliptratos, pertencentes a quatro famílias e 22 espécies. As criações foram efetuadas de agosto de 1987 a abril de 1988. Foram utilizados como substratos de criação: banana, camarão, carcaça de camundongo,fezes caninas, fezes humanas, fígado bovino, lula, mamão, peixe, siri e tomate. As espécies criadas com maior freqüência foram: Fannia sp. (subgrupo pusio, Atherigona orientalis, Chrysomyia megacephala, Phaenicia eximia. Paraphrissopoda chrysosotoma, Ophyra aenescens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Ophyra chalcogaster, Oxisarcodexia fluminensis e Hemilucilia segmentaria. Foi efetuado um estudo, ainda que incompleto, das espécies que se desenvolvem em fezes de animais cativos do Rio-Zoo. Dentre as mais freqüentes destacam-se: Fannia sp., Sarcophagula occidua, Ophyra chalgogaster, Ravinia belforti e Phaenicia eximia.In Rio-Zoo 7,377 Callyptrate flies, belonging to 4 families and 22 species were bred, from August 1987 to April 1988. The substrate media used were: banana, shrimp, mouse carcas, dog faeces, human faeces, bovine liver, squid, papaya, fish, crab and tomato. The frequency of the bred species are as follows: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Atherigona orientalis, Chrysomyia megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Paraphrissopoda chrysostoma, Ophyra genescens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Ophyra chalcogaster, Oxysarcodexia fluminensis and Hemilucilia segmentaria. Data concerning the development of the larvae in captive animal faeces is presented. The most prevalent species were Fannia sp., Sarcophagula occidua, Ophyra chalcogaster, Ravinia belforti and Phaenicia eximia.

  10. Rate of development of forensically-important Dipterain southern Brazil

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    Rodrigo F. Krüger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran larvae were collected from rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. carcasses during the four seasons in 2005 in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larvae were fed ground beef at ambient temperatures following collection from carcasses. The development of each species under these conditions was estimated. The most abundant species in the carcasses were Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Calliphoridae, and they were found in all seasons. The data were fitted to a linear model that describes the relationship between temperature and linear developmental rating. These two species are primary forensic indicators in southern Brazil. Other species such as Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani (Calliphoridae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, Muscina stabulans (Fallen (Muscidae, and Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Fanniidae were forensically less important because they only occurred in high frequency in certain seasons and during the first days of carcass decomposition.

  11. First Report of Necrophagous Insects on Human Corpses in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajmi, R A; AlGhufaili, H; Farrukh, A; Aljohani, H; Mashaly, A M A

    2016-11-01

    Necrophagous species of insects provide useful complementary data to estimate the postmortem interval in forensic cases. Here, for the first time, we report on insect specimens collected from human corpses in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. During the study, 14 beetle larvae were collected from the outdoor corpse (case report one) and five flies and seven beetles were collected from the indoor corpse (case report two). Sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as the prospective basis of an identification technique. The sequencing focused on a section of the cytochrome oxidase I encoding region of mtDNA. Two beetle species, Dermestes frischii (Kugelann) and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), and one fly species, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were identified. These results will be instrumental in the implementation of a Saudi database of forensically relevant insects.

  12. Curva de sobrevivência e estimativa de entropia em Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae Survivorship curve and estimate of entropy in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Francely M. Fernandes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830 is a cosmopolite blowfly species of medical and veterinary importance because it produces myiasis, mainly in ovine. In order to evaluate the demographic characteristics of this species, survivorship curves for 327 adult males and 323 adult females, from generation F1 maintained under experimental conditions, were obtained. Entropy was utilized as the estimator of the survival pattern to quantify the mortality distribution of individuals as a function of age. The entropy values 0.216 (males and 0.303 (females were obtained. These results denote that, considering the survivorship interval until the death of the last individual for each sex, the males present a tendency of mortality in more advanced age intervals, in comparison with the females.

  13. The history of forensic entomology in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach, H; Krettek, R; Bratzke, H; Püschel, K; Zehner, R; Amendt, J

    2004-09-10

    Megnin's book "La fauna des cadaveres" published in 1894 in France is generally accepted as a mile-stone in forensic entomology. It is hardly known that at the same time this topic was likewise explored in the German-speaking countries. Even PMI estimation based on developmental data of blowflies was performed. After a more descriptive period in the first half of the 20th century the complexity and variability of insects' biological behavior were detected and formally investigated. Improved technical facilities, enhanced comprehension of scientific studies and multidisciplinary cooperation, enabled rapid progress in forensic entomology during the last decades. With the European Association for Forensic Entomology founded in 2002 the frame work for a high standard of competency at an international level was constituted.

  14. [Identification and isolation of the protein insect toxin (alpha-latroinsectotoxin from venom of the spider Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevskaia, G I; Pashkov, V N; Bulgakov, O V; Fedorova, I M; Magazanik, L G; Grishin, E V

    1990-08-01

    The crude venom of spider Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus was fractionated by the combination of anion exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. The biological activity of fraction was tested by means of: 1) estimation of toxicity for housefly larva; 2) intracellular recording of miniature excitatory potentials (MEPSPs) in blowfly larvae muscle fibres. As a result of sequential procedures of chromatography separation a homogeneous protein of 120 kilodalton molecular weight was obtained. This protein referred to alpha-latroinsectotoxin produced: 1) a great increase of the frequency of MEPSPs in the dose of 4.2.10(-10) M and its paralytic dose for fly larva was approximately 20 ng/species; 2) no influence of the MEPSPs after application in the dose of 1.2.10(-7) M to the neuromuscular junction of the frog.

  15. Periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations in population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Padhi, Seshadev; Srinivasu, P D N

    2014-01-01

    This book provides cutting-edge results on the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations. It demonstrates how the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem can be applied to study the existence of two or three positive periodic solutions of functional differential equations with real-world applications, particularly with regard to the Lasota-Wazewska model, the Hematopoiesis model, the Nicholsons Blowflies model, and some models with Allee effects. Many interesting sufficient conditions are given for the dynamics that include nonlinear characteristics exhibited by population models. The last chapter provides results related to the global appeal of solutions to the models considered in the earlier chapters. The techniques used in this book can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of analysis. This book offers a valuable reference guide for students and researchers in the field of differential equations with applications to biology, ecology, a...

  16. Web-building spiders attract prey by storing decaying matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman-Chiswell, Bojun T.; Kulinski, Melissa M.; Muscat, Robert L.; Nguyen, Kim A.; Norton, Briony A.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Westhorpe, Gina E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    The orb-weaving spider Nephila edulis incorporates into its web a band of decaying animal and plant matter. While earlier studies demonstrate that larger spiders utilise these debris bands as caches of food, the presence of plant matter suggests additional functions. When organic and plastic items were placed in the webs of N. edulis, some of the former but none of the latter were incorporated into the debris band. Using an Y-maze olfactometer, we show that sheep blowflies Lucilia cuprina are attracted to recently collected debris bands, but that this attraction does not persist over time. These data reveal an entirely novel foraging strategy, in which a sit-and-wait predator attracts insect prey by utilising the odours of decaying organic material. The spider's habit of replenishing the debris band may be necessary to maintain its efficacy for attracting prey.

  17. Infectious offspring: how birds acquire and transmit an avian polyomavirus in the wild.

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    Jaime Potti

    Full Text Available Detailed patterns of primary virus acquisition and subsequent dispersal in wild vertebrate populations are virtually absent. We show that nestlings of a songbird acquire polyomavirus infections from larval blowflies, common nest ectoparasites of cavity-nesting birds, while breeding adults acquire and renew the same viral infections via cloacal shedding from their offspring. Infections by these DNA viruses, known potential pathogens producing disease in some bird species, therefore follow an 'upwards vertical' route of an environmental nature mimicking horizontal transmission within families, as evidenced by patterns of viral infection in adults and young of experimental, cross-fostered offspring. This previously undescribed route of viral transmission from ectoparasites to offspring to parent hosts may be a common mechanism of virus dispersal in many taxa that display parental care.

  18. Neural coding of naturalistic motion stimuli

    CERN Document Server

    Lewen, G D; De van Steveninck, R R

    2001-01-01

    We study a wide field motion sensitive neuron in the visual system of the blowfly {\\em Calliphora vicina}. By rotating the fly on a stepper motor outside in a wooded area, and along an angular motion trajectory representative of natural flight, we stimulate the fly's visual system with input that approaches the natural situation. The neural response is analyzed in the framework of information theory, using methods that are free from assumptions. We demonstrate that information about the motion trajectory increases as the light level increases over a natural range. This indicates that the fly's brain utilizes the increase in photon flux to extract more information from the photoreceptor array, suggesting that imprecision in neural signals is dominated by photon shot noise in the physical input, rather than by noise generated within the nervous system itself.

  19. Statistical properties of spike trains universal and stimulus-dependent aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, N; Bialek, W; De van Steveninck, R R

    1999-01-01

    Statistical properties of spike trains measured from a sensory neuron in-vivo are studied experimentally and theoretically. Experiments are performed on an identified neuron in the visual system of the blowfly. It is shown that the spike trains exhibit universal behavior over short time, modulated by a stimulus-dependent envelope over long time. A model of the neuron as a nonlinear oscillator driven by noise and an external stimulus, is suggested to account for these results. The model enables a theoretic distinction of the effects of internal neuronal properties from effects of external stimulus properties, and their identification in the measured spike trains. The universal regime is characterized by one dimensionless parameter, representing the internal degree of irregularity, which is determined both by the sensitivity of the neuron and by the properties of the noise. The envelope is related in a simple way to properties of the input stimulus as seen through nonlinearity of the neural response. Explicit f...

  20. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

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    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  1. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications

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    Madhu Bala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precision, particularly in the older developmental stages, so there is a need of some alternative aging methods. The range of techniques available for age grading of adult insects is reviewed, with particular emphasis on species of medical importance. The techniques described include pteridine fluorescence analysis, internal morphological analysis, cuticular hydrocarbon analysis, gene expression analysis, cuticular banding pattern analysis, volatile organic compounds analysis released by larvae and pupae.

  2. Reciprocal inhibitory connections within a neural network for rotational optic-flow processing

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    Juergen Haag

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the visual system of the blowfly have large receptive fields that are selective for specific optic flow fields. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms underlying flow-field selectivity in proximal Vertical System (VS-cells, a particular subset of tangential cells in the fly. These cells have local preferred directions that are distributed such as to match the flow field occurring during a rotation of the fly. However, the neural circuitry leading to this selectivity is not fully understood. Through dual intracellular recordings from proximal VS cells and other tangential cells, we characterized the specific wiring between VS cells themselves and between proximal VS cells and horizontal sensitive tangential cells. We discovered a spiking neuron (Vi involved in this circuitry that has not been described before. This neuron turned out to be connected to proximal VS cells via gap junctions and, in addition, it was found to be inhibitory onto VS1.

  3. Persistence, Permanence and Global Stability for an $n$ n -Dimensional Nicholson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Teresa; Röst, Gergely

    2014-09-01

    For a Nicholson's blowflies system with patch structure and multiple discrete delays, we analyze several features of the global asymptotic behavior of its solutions. It is shown that if the spectral bound of the community matrix is non-positive, then the population becomes extinct on each patch, whereas the total population uniformly persists if the spectral bound is positive. Explicit uniform lower and upper bounds for the asymptotic behavior of solutions are also given. When the population uniformly persists, the existence of a unique positive equilibrium is established, as well as a sharp criterion for its absolute global asymptotic stability, improving results in the recent literature. While our system is not cooperative, several sharp threshold-type results about its dynamics are proven, even when the community matrix is reducible, a case usually not treated in the literature.

  4. Maggot metabolites and their combinatory effects with antibiotic on Staphylococcus aureus

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    Lim Chu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maggot therapy has been in practice for effective debridement, disinfection and healing of chronic wounds. Due to their antiseptic action during wound healing, their metabolites have been investigated in the past for antibacterial activity. They have been particularly useful for treatment of wounds infected with multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotics, on the other hand, can predispose bacteria to develop resistance. Substances that are able to modulate or delay the occurrence of resistance in bacteria are under investigation by many researchers around the world. In the present study, antibacterial activity in excretions/secretions (ES from maggots of Lucilia cuprina blowfly was demonstrated. The extracts were also screened in combination with antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. Methods L. cuprina blowfly maggots were reared for extraction of its metabolites. The ES extracted was screened against S. aureus, alone and in combination with ciprofloxacin, both for short term and long term exposure analysis. A microchannel-based device and system was used for experiments instead of conventional techniques. Results The original ES had shown partial bacterial growth inhibition. However, in combination with ciprofloxacin, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, certain combinations revealed anti-staphylococcal activity, with bacterial reduction of up to 50%, after 24 hours. The six day study on S. aureus exposed to ES-ciprofloxacin combination suggested a potential delay in development of adaptive resistance as opposed to when ciprofloxacin was used as single agent. Conclusions The combination effect of ES and ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC levels showed enhanced antibacterial activity compared to the effect of ES and ciprofloxacin as single agents. Based on the results of ES-ciprofloxacin combinations, a more effective means of treatment for S. aureus can be proposed.

  5. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

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    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  6. Keragaman Jenis dan Prevalensi Lalat Pasar Tradisional di Kota Bogor (DIVERSITY AND PREVALENCE OF FLIES AT TRADITIONAL MARKETS IN BOGOR CITY

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    Puguh Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogor city is one of the greater Jabodetabek area which has a fairly high growth of the modern market.This should not shift the role of traditional market, if accompanied with an increase in the number andquality of traditional markets, among others by controlling infestations of flies on the market that can bea vector of various diseases.This research was conducted to identify the diversity and infestation of fliesspesies in five old Bogor traditional markets. The flies were collected using insect nets and then killed withchloroform to count and identification purposes. Measuring the prevalence of flies infestation in eachmarket were using sticky fly paper on block sale of meat, fish and outside market environment. Therewere ten fly spesies belong to four main families that Calliphoridae (C. megacephala, C. saffranea, C.rufifacies, and Lucilia sericata, Muscidae (M. domestica, M. conducens, and M. fasciata, Sarcophagidae (S.haemorroidalis, and S. fuscicauda, and Drosophilidae (Drosophila repleta. The others three families werePhoridae, Anthomyiidae, and Syrphidae. Fly diversity index on each markets were 1.203 (Bogor Market,1.038 (Sukasari Market, 2.678 (Anyar Market, 1.017 (Jambu Dua Market, and 1.618 (Gunung BatuMarket. Measurement of Calliphorid flies infestations as an indicator of the presence of litterdecomposition of organic material showed a high concentration in the market environment.These resultsillustrate the general environmental sanitation of traditional markets are bad.

  7. Susceptibility of twolined spittlebug (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) life stages to entomophagous arthropods in turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Punya; Guillebeau, L P; Braman, S K; All, J N

    2006-10-01

    Prosapia bicincta (Say) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), the twolined spittlebug, is an economic pest of turfgrass in the southeastern United States. No data concerning natural enemies of P. bicincta in turfgrass have been reported previously. We compared predation of spittlebug eggs, nymphs, and adults in the laboratory by potential generalist predators commonly found in turfgrass: bigeyed bugs Geocoris uliginosus Say and Geocoris punctipes Say; red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren; wolf spiders (Lycosa sp. Walckenaer); carabid beetles Harpalaus pensylvanicus DeGeer and Calosoma sayi Dejean; and tiger beetles Megacephala carolina carolina L. Eggs were readily consumed by generalist predators. S. invicta consumed 100% of the eggs offered. H. pensylvanicus and C. sayi were also significant predators of P. bicincta eggs. Nymphs live in spittlemasses that protect them from attack by predators, but exposed nymphs were susceptible to attack when mechanically removed from their spittlemasses. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina caused significant mortality of exposed nymphs. P. bicincta adults are aposematic and have the ability to reflex bleed; however, reflex bleeding did not prevent attack by predators. S. invicta and M. carolina carolina killed 100% of the adult spittlebugs offered in laboratory bioassays. Lycosa sp. are less voracious predators of adults. Sound background knowledge about P. bicincta and its potential natural enemy complex is important for the development and implementation of a detailed, site-specific, biologically based pest management program in turfgrass.

  8. CARÁBIDOS Y HORMIGAS DEL SUELO EN DOS ÁREAS CULTIVADAS CON MARACUYÁ AMARILLO (Passiflora edulis EN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Arenas Clavijo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó la fauna de carábidos (Coleoptera: Carabidae y de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae que sobreviven en el suelo de un cultivo de maracuyá bajo condiciones de manejo convencional en Roldanillo,Valle del Cauca, en los meses de marzo y mayo (período lluvioso y junio y julio (período poco lluvioso de 2012. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos de intensidad mensual en dos lotes con edades contrastantes, registrándose las especies presentes. Se encontraron 149 individuos de Carabidae distribuidos en diez especies y 2447 hormigas distribuidas en 19 morfoespecies. La especie más abundante de hormigas fue Solenopsis geminata, mientras que Megacephala (Tetracha sobrina fue la especie más abundante de Carabidae. Se encontró además que la abundancia y riqueza de carábidos tienden a ser mayor en la temporada lluviosa, mientras que algunas especies de hormigas mostraron una preferencia por alguno de los períodos estacionales. Se concluye que en el área de estudio sobrevive una rica fauna de carábidos y hormigas del suelo, que podrían contribuir al control de poblaciones de insectos fitófagos asociados al cultivo de maracuyá.

  9. CARÁBIDOS Y HORMIGAS DEL SUELO EN DOS ÁREAS CULTIVADASCON MARACUYÁ AMARILLO (Passiflora edulis EN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA

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    ANDERSON ARENAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinó la fauna de carábidos (Coleoptera: Carabidae y de hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae que sobreviven en el suelo de un cultivo de maracuyá bajo condiciones de manejo convencional en Roldanillo, Valle del Cauca, en los meses de marzo y mayo (período lluvioso y junio y julio (período poco lluvioso de 2012. Se realizaron cuatro muestreos de intensidad mensual en dos lotes con edades contrastantes, registrándose las especies presentes. Se encontraron 149 individuos de Carabidae distribuidos en diez especies y 2447 hormigas distribuidas en 19 morfoespecies. La especie más abundante de hormigas fue Solenopsis geminata, mientras que Megacephala (Tetracha sobrina fue la especie más abundante de Carabidae. Se encontró además que la abundancia y riqueza de carábidos tienden a ser mayor en la temporada lluviosa, mientras que algunas especies de hormigas mostraron una preferencia por alguno de los períodos estacionales. Se concluye que en el área de estudio sobrevive una rica fauna de carábidos y hormigas del suelo, que podrían contribuir al control de poblaciones de insectos fitófagos asociados al cultivo de maracuyá.

  10. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

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    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  11. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest.

  12. A genomics-informed, SNP association study reveals FBLN1 and FABP4 as contributing to resistance to fleece rot in Australian Merino sheep

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    Norris Belinda J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fleece rot (FR and body-strike of Merino sheep by the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina are major problems for the Australian wool industry, causing significant losses as a result of increased management costs coupled with reduced wool productivity and quality. In addition to direct effects on fleece quality, fleece rot is a major predisposing factor to blowfly strike on the body of sheep. In order to investigate the genetic drivers of resistance to fleece rot, we constructed a combined ovine-bovine cDNA microarray of almost 12,000 probes including 6,125 skin expressed sequence tags and 5,760 anonymous clones obtained from skin subtracted libraries derived from fleece rot resistant and susceptible animals. This microarray platform was used to profile the gene expression changes between skin samples of six resistant and six susceptible animals taken immediately before, during and after FR induction. Mixed-model equations were employed to normalize the data and 155 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE. Ten DE genes were selected for validation using real-time PCR on independent skin samples. The genomic regions of a further 5 DE genes were surveyed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP that were genotyped across three populations for their associations with fleece rot resistance. Results The majority of the DE genes originated from the fleece rot subtracted libraries and over-representing gene ontology terms included defense response to bacterium and epidermis development, indicating a role of these processes in modulating the sheep's response to fleece rot. We focused on genes that contribute to the physical barrier function of skin, including keratins, collagens, fibulin and lipid proteins, to identify SNPs that were associated to fleece rot scores. Conclusions We identified FBLN1 (fibulin and FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4 as key factors in sheep's resistance to fleece rot. Validation of these

  13. Estimativa do intervalo pós-morte em um canino (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus 1758 pela entomologia forense em Cabedelo-PB, Brasil: relato de caso

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    G. Martins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo pós-morte (IPM é um instrumento importante de diagnóstico relacionado à prática forense. O uso de insetos tem sido relatado como um modo eficiente para estimá-lo, quando o cadáver encontra-se em estágio avançado de decomposição. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar o IPM com base em evidências entomológicas em um canino. Foram coletadas larvas de moscas no cadáver e encaminhadas ao laboratório de entomologia, onde foram criadas e eclodiram adultos da espécie Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. Somando-se os dados abióticos de temperatura e umidade relativa do local de coleta e do local de criação, estimou-se um IPM mínimo de 3,34 dias do momento da postura dos ovos pelas moscas até a coleta das larvas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a entomologia forense, como ferramenta para estimativa do IPM, mostrou-se eficaz e determinante na elucidação do caso em questão.

  14. Forensic entomology in Kuwait: the first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mesbah, Hanadi; Al-Osaimi, Zarraq; El-Azazy, Osama M E

    2011-03-20

    To date, entomology has not been used in legal investigations in Kuwait. Indeed, this is true of most Arab countries in the Middle East. There are no known studies on necrophagous species in the region, nor any knowledge of cadaver succession with which to compare case material. Here we report the first case of application of forensic entomology in Kuwait. In Al-Rowdah district, a man was found dead in his bedroom which was air-conditioned and the windows were closed. The temperature of the room was 20°C. The cause of death was morphine overdose. At autopsy, fly larvae were collected from the blanket with which the body was wrapped and were identified as postfeeding 3rd instars of Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis using molecular analysis. In addition, the face and neck were extensively and exclusively colonized by different stages of Chrysomya albiceps (secondary fly). Based on the age of P. ruficornis full mature 3rd instars and the location of the body, approximately 7.5-8.5 days postmortem was estimated for the corpse at the time of its discovery.

  15. Isolation and identification of associated bacteria and maggots from myiasis affected wounds of cattle and goats in Bangladesh

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    Md. Touhidul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the associated maggots and bacteria in myiasis affected wound in animals. Total 37 myiasis affected cattle (n=25 and goats (n=12 were examined in this study, of which 21 samples were collected from the Veterinary clinics of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU, Mymensingh, and the remaining 16 samples were collected from Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Gouripur, Mymensingh. The maggots were collected from the wounds, and were identified under microscope. For microbial identification, samples (n=10 were collected aseptically by using sterile cotton swab. The samples were allowed to grow in media. Colony and staining characteristics were studied. Traumatic, creeping or migratory myiasis wounds were identified in the examined animals. In this study, subcutaneous wound was mostly recorded, of which 43% (n=9/21 was found at the Veterinary Clinics, BAU, and 44% (n=7/16 was found at the Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Gouripur. The maggots were identified as Chrysomya bezziana, commonly known as Old World screwworm. Occurrence of myiasis due to C. bezziana larvae was recorded as 100%. The associated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus spp. In conclusion, the myiasis wounds are associated with both Staphylococcus spp. and larvae of C. bezziana. Preventive and control measures against the C. bezziana and Staphylococcus spp. can be undertaken to save the livestock from myiasis in Bangladesh.

  16. Human Extensive Head Skin Myiasis

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    M Soleimani Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nChrysomya bezziana Villeneuve is the most important fly, which produces myiasis, exists as an obligate ectoparasite in the ani­mals, and afflicts human. Poor hygiene and working in contaminated areas particularly during warm seasons provide a situa­tion to infest by this parasite. Infestation in human and livestock are often observed in wounds, normal body orifices such as eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. The manifestations include pruritus, pain, inflammation, redness, eosinophilia, and secon­dary bacterial infections and rarely death. A 5-year-old boy with severe headache and agitation symptoms was fol­lowed up. After physical examination and endoscopy, larvae of third instar fly were obtained from his scalp. Our precise identifica­tion indicated that the flies were the C. bezziana. This is the second report of the human scalp myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iran. This study confirmed that the old world screwworm fly was distributed in the southern of Iran and proba­bly could be one of the most important agents of myiasis in this area.

  17. Levantamento e caracterização da dipterofauna necrófaga em uma localidade de Brasília - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.456

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    Gabriel Alonzo Carreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros representam um grupo de extrema relevância para a criminalística graças a sua capacidade de encontrar corpos em decomposição, permitindo a estimativa do intervalo post mortem. A dificuldade de identificação dos dípteros é um problema que muitos dos profissionais têm que lidar para obter informações acuradas que possam ser utilizadas como provas de crime. Para resolver este problema as identificações por marcadores moleculares se mostram um método eficiente. O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever a população de dípteros de interesse forense em Brasília por meio de marcadores moleculares baseados em DNA. Os resultados indicaram que marcadores RAPD e de DNAmt podem ser usados para a identificação de Chrysomya albiceps. Sendo assim, estabeleceu-se um método molecular de identificação de uma espécie de interesse forense que poderá servir de auxílio na elucidação de crimes na região ou na identificação de vestígios incompletos ou imaturos de dípteros.

  18. Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia

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    Yardany Ramos-Pastrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia. This is the first report studying insects associated to indoor body decay process of a white pig (Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla, Suidae in a controlled indoor environment in an urban area of Florencia city, Amazonia Piedmont, Colombia. For a period of 54 days, 9,220 individuals (immature and adults, distributed in 3 orders, 5 families, 10 genera, and 10 species were collected using entomological nets and tweezers. Five decaying stages are described (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. During the fresh stage we recorded Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; during the bloating stage C. macellaria, C. albiceps, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819, Hemilucillia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758, O. aenescens, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp., Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 and Lasiphanes sp.; during the active decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, L. eximia, M. domestica, O. aenescens, Lepidodexia sp. D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp.; during the advanced decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, M. domestica, Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; and during the remains stage C. albiceps, D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp. The insects were sorted out in 3 ecological categories; necrophagous, predators and parasites and sarco-saprophagous. According to Chao and Jack estimators, total richness was observed on day 20, with 100% of the expected species.

  19. Sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages in natural habitats in central Spain: spatial and seasonal changes in composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A

    2013-03-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research.

  20. [Dipterans of forensic interest in two vegetation profiles of cerrado in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Thiago A; Babata, Micaela L Y; De Souza, Carina M; De Sousa, Danielle; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Mendes, Júlio

    2009-01-01

    Carrion breeding insects may be of great utility in crimes briefing. Studies on forensic entomology are restricted to few localities in Brazil and very few of them were done in the cerrado vegetation (a type of Savannah) until now. This work aimed to survey the main species of dipterans associated with the decomposition process of Sus scrofa and the insect succession pattern in carcasses in the Cerrado. The study was carried out in the dry and humid season of the year, in two cerrado vegetation profiles in Uberlândia, MG. Two pig carcasses were placed in each vegetation profile and time period of the year. The decomposition process was slower and insects were more abundant in the dry season. Differences in temperature, air humidity and pluvial precipitation seemed to be the main physical factors responsible for the differences in the time of decomposition of the pig carcasses between the two seasons. Fourteen species of dipterans (59,467 specimens) bred in the decomposing carcasses. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was the species more abundantly breed in the two periods. The other species that breed in the carcasses were: C. putoria (Wiedemann), Hemilucilia segmentaria(Fabricius), Lucilia eximia(Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans(Walker), Peckia (Squamatoides) trivitatta(Curran), Sarcodexia lambens(Wiedemann) (Sarcophagidae), Musca domestica(L.), Ophyra aenescens(Wiedemann), Stomoxys calcitransL. (Muscidae), Fannia pusio(Wiedemann), Fannia sp. (Fanniidae), Hermetia illuscens L. (Stratiomyidae) and Phoridae sp. The Cerrado of this region presents many dipterans potential forensic indicators.

  1. Traumatic myiasis agents in Iran with introducing of new dominant species, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera:Sarcophagidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Rafinejad; Kamran Akbarzadeh; Yavar Rassi; Jamasp Nozari; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat; Mostafa Hosseini; Hamzeh Alipour; Abdolmajid Ranjbar; Danial Zeinali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study agents of animal wound myiasis in various geographical districts of Fars province.Methods:of 10358 domestic animals have been visited from April 2011 to March 2012. The infected wounds in any parts of animal body were sampled by means of forceps.Results:This study has been done in Fars province, located in the southern part of Iran. Sums The most wound myiasis cases due to this species occurred in central part of Fars province. There wasn’t any significant difference between sheep and goat in infestation with myiasis (P>0.05). The infestation rate of myiasis in cattle community was 0.86%. About 61% of all animal wound myiasis were caused by larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Conclusions: The infestation rate of livestock was lower than other works in Iran and some other countries like Saudi Arabia. Chrysomya bezziana has been mentioned as main myiasis agent in Iran. But in this study it cleared that similarly to some European countries, the common animal myiasis agent in Iran is Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Introducing new species as principal agent for myiasis can help public health and animal husbandry policy makers to prepare sufficient and effective control and/or preventive measures for this disease.

  2. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago, E-mail: mastrang@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CBMEG/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genetica; Neto, Paulo C.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: pcassier@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10{sup th} day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  3. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nyasha Mabika; Ron Masendu; Gilbert Mawera

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Methods: Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the end of the 7 weeks. Maggots were also collected from the decomposing carcasses and reared.Results:Five dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae) were identified from the sun-exposed carcass. Species collected included Luciliacuprina (L. cuprina), Chrysomya albiceps (C. albiceps), Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp. and Drosophila sp. Four families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae) were identified from the shaded carcass. Representatives of these families included L. cuprina, C. albiceps, Musca domestica, and Hydrotaea sp. Three Coleopteran families (Histeridae, Cleridae and Dermestidae) were identified from both carcasses. The observed species were Saprinus sp., Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes sp. Formicidae (Hymenoptera) was represented by only one species (Pheidole sp.). Flies which emerged from the rearing units were L. cuprina, Lucilia sp., C. albiceps, Sarcophaga sp. and Sepsis sp.). Conclusions: Of the dipteran species collected during the study, L. cuprina and C. albiceps could be important for further forensic studies since they were collected from the carcasses and also observed from the rearing units.

  4. Determination of Calliphoridae (Diptera) fauna and seasonal distribution on carrion in Ankara province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanoğlu, Burcu; Sert, Osman

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted from March 2006 to 2007. The aim of the study was to determine the forensically significant Calliphoridae (Diptera) species and their seasonal distribution in Ankara province at Beytepe Campus. Pig carcasses were killed by a veterinary using pentobarbital sodium with intervals from 2 to 3 weeks to a month. Samples were collected from the carcass everyday in the morning, in the afternoon, and at sunset. Temperature and parameters of weather, such as cloudy, sunny, rainy, and snowy, were recorded at each visit. Phaenicia sericata (Meigen), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) species, which belong to Calliphoridae family, were collected. It was shown that the seasonal distribution of the collected species was different from each other. The species were determined on carcass between the following times; P. sericata, from April to November; C. albiceps, from May to November; Ca. vomitoria, from February to June and from September to December; and Ca. vicina, from February to May and in June and September. Calliphoridae fauna and its annual seasonal distribution in Turkey on 12 pig carcasses were reported for the first time in this study.

  5. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others.

  6. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue.

  7. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  8. Lucilia silvarum Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a new species of interest for forensic entomology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Szpila, Krzysztof; Huijbregts, Johannes; Lindström, Anders; Zehner, Richard; Amendt, Jens

    2012-10-10

    In Europe, the blowfly genus Lucilia is represented in Forensic Entomology mainly by the species L. ampullacea, L. caesar, L. illustris and L. sericata. In the US, Lucilia silvarum is rarely recorded as a carrion breeding species but usually as a more or less exclusive parasite of frogs and toads. We present three forensic cases from different European countries reporting, for the first time, L. silvarum on human bodies that were found close to lakes, wetlands, or riversides. To use this species for post-mortem interval estimations, thermal development data is needed. The first step is accurate identification by morphological and molecular means. Therefore, we analysed a 611 bp part of the mitochondrial COI region for 23 specimens of L. silvarum from 9 different geographical regions, all of which give the same haplotype. Differences within the haplotype varied by up to 0.2%. Comparison between the haplotype found and those published on GenBank showed up to 1.2% variance. Moreover, we present an updated key for the morphological identification of the third larval instars of European Lucilia spp. of forensic importance, adding not only L. silvarum, but also L. cuprina which was recorded in Europe for the first time about 20 years ago.

  9. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected.

  10. Influence of weather conditions on fly abundance and its implications for transmission of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus in the North Island of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, J; Schnitzler, F-R; Pfeiffer, D U; Davies, P

    2005-09-01

    Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are potential vectors of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) in New Zealand. The associations between habitat and weather factors on the abundance of these flies were investigated. Between October 1999 and June 2001, flies were trapped on open pasture and in dense vegetation patches on farmland in the Himatangi area of the North Island. Five calliphorid species were trapped commonly at scrub edges and the most abundant sarcophagid, Oxysarcodexia varia Walker, was trapped mainly on open pasture. An abundance peak of O. varia was probably associated with the occurrence of a rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) outbreak in the study area. Overall abundance of flies varied according to habitat and species, and species numbers differed between seasons and years. The all-day minimum temperature 3 weeks before trapping was a significant variable in all models of fly abundance, whereas average rainfall did not affect fly abundance. The all-day temperature range was significant only for O. varia. The influence of other climatic factors varied between fly species. Climate dependent variations in fly abundance may contribute to the risk of transmission of RHD, which occurred intermittently on the site during the study period.

  11. Testing the evolvability of an insect carboxylesterase for the detoxification of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Chris W; Jackson, Colin J; Sutherland, Tara; Hart, Peter J; Devonshire, Alan L; Russell, Robyn J; Oakeshott, John G

    2012-05-01

    Esterases have been implicated in metabolic resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in several insect species but little is yet known of the molecular basis for these effects. In this work modern directed evolution technology was used to test to what extent it is possible to genetically enhance the pyrethroid hydrolytic activity of the E3 carboxylesterase from the blowfly Lucilia cuprina. High throughput screening of a random mutant library with individual stereoisomers of fluorogenic analogues of two type II pyrethroids identified 17 promising variants that were then also tested with the commercial pyrethroid deltamethrin. Between them, these variants displayed significantly improved activities for all the substrates tested. Amino acid substitutions at ten different residues were clearly implicated in the improvements, although most only enhanced activity for a subset of the stereoisomers. Several new combinations of the most promising amino acid substitutions were then made, and negative epistatic effects were found in most of the combinations, but significant improvements were also found in a minority of them. The best mutant recovered contained three amino acid changes and hydrolysed deltamethrin at more than 100 times the rate of wild-type E3. Structural analysis shows that nine of the ten mutated residues improving pyrethroid or analogue activities cluster in putative substrate binding pockets in the active site, with the three mutations of largest effect all increasing the volume of the acyl pocket.

  12. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  13. Do Orientation-Based Differences in Nestbox Temperature Cause Differential Ectoparasite Load and Explain Patterns of Nest-Site Selection and Offspring Condition in Great Tits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne E. Goodenough

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nest ectoparasites have been linked previously to patterns of nest-site choice and breeding success in birds. Recent research has shown nestboxes facing south-southwest are occupied less frequently by great tits (Parus major than identical boxes facing other directions, and are associated with reduced offspring condition. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that these findings are due to ectoparasite load being directionally nonuniform, possibly because of nonuniformity in nestbox internal temperature. Nests contained, in order of prevalence, hen fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae, haematophagous blowflies (Protocalliphora spp., biting lice (Ischnocera, and ticks/mites (Acari. Although southwest-facing nestboxes were significantly warmer than other boxes, there was no directional difference in total ectoparasite load or abundance of particular species. Similarly, there was no relationship between abundance of any ectoparasite species (either per-nest or per-chick and avian offspring condition determined using wing length or relative mass. We discuss several possible, nonmutually exclusive, explanations for this, including compensatory responses, costs of parasitism being transferred to parents, and condition-dependent effects.

  14. Molecular basis of the remarkable species selectivity of an insecticidal sodium channel toxin from the African spider Augacephalus ezendami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.

    2016-07-01

    The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1–S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species.

  15. The necrophagous fly anthrax transmission pathway: empirical and genetic evidence from wildlife epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Van Ert, Matthew; Mullins, Jocelyn C; Hadfield, Ted L; Hugh-Jones, Martin E

    2014-08-01

    Early studies confirmed Bacillus anthracis in emesis and feces of flies under laboratory conditions, but there is little empirical field evidence supporting the roles of flies in anthrax transmission. We collected samples during outbreaks of anthrax affecting livestock and native and exotic wildlife on two ranches in West Texas (2009-2010). Sampling included animal carcasses, maggots, adult flies feeding on or within several meters of carcasses, and leaves from surrounding vegetation. Microbiology and PCR were used to detect B. anthracis in the samples. Viable B. anthracis and/or PCR-positive results were obtained from all represented sample types. Genetic analysis of B. anthracis samples using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) confirmed that each ranch represented a distinct genetic lineage. Within each ranch, we detected the same genotype of B. anthracis from carcasses, maggots, and adult flies. The results of this study provide evidence supporting a transmission cycle in which blowflies contaminate vegetation near carcasses that may then infect additional browsing animals during anthrax outbreaks in the shrubland environment of West Texas.

  16. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil against Lucilia cuprina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, J T; James, P J

    2012-03-23

    Laboratory studies were conducted to assess the effect of tea tree oil (TTO) from Melaleuca alternifolia (terpinen-4-ol chemotype) against different stages of the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina. When applied to wool, 3% TTO formulation repelled gravid female L. cuprina and prevented oviposition for six weeks. Formulations containing 1% TTO caused 100% mortality of L. cuprina eggs and 1st instar larvae and 2.5% TTO caused mortality of most second and third instar larvae in agar feeding assays. In experiments where third instar larvae were dipped in TTO formulations for 60s, concentrations of up to 50% TTO gave less than 50% kill. TTO at concentrations of 0.5%, 2% and 5% was strongly repellent to third instar larvae and caused them to evacuate treated areas. Inclusion of TTO in formulations with diazinon, ivermectin and boric acid reduced mortality in comparison with the larvicides used alone, at least partially because of avoidance behaviour stimulated by the TTO. Addition of TTO to wound treatments may aid in wound protection and myiasis resolution by preventing oviposition by L. cuprina adults, insecticidal action against L. cuprina eggs and larvae, stimulating larvae to leave the wound and through antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties that aid in wound healing.

  17. Molecular basis of the remarkable species selectivity of an insecticidal sodium channel toxin from the African spider Augacephalus ezendami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Volker; Ikonomopoulou, Maria; Smith, Jennifer J.; Dziemborowicz, Sławomir; Gilchrist, John; Kuhn-Nentwig, Lucia; Rezende, Fernanda Oliveira; Moreira, Luciano Andrade; Nicholson, Graham M.; Bosmans, Frank; King, Glenn F.

    2016-01-01

    The inexorable decline in the armament of registered chemical insecticides has stimulated research into environmentally-friendly alternatives. Insecticidal spider-venom peptides are promising candidates for bioinsecticide development but it is challenging to find peptides that are specific for targeted pests. In the present study, we isolated an insecticidal peptide (Ae1a) from venom of the African spider Augacephalus ezendami (family Theraphosidae). Injection of Ae1a into sheep blowflies (Lucilia cuprina) induced rapid but reversible paralysis. In striking contrast, Ae1a was lethal to closely related fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) but induced no adverse effects in the recalcitrant lepidopteran pest Helicoverpa armigera. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that Ae1a potently inhibits the voltage-gated sodium channel BgNaV1 from the German cockroach Blattella germanica by shifting the threshold for channel activation to more depolarized potentials. In contrast, Ae1a failed to significantly affect sodium currents in dorsal unpaired median neurons from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. We show that Ae1a interacts with the domain II voltage sensor and that sensitivity to the toxin is conferred by natural sequence variations in the S1–S2 loop of domain II. The phyletic specificity of Ae1a provides crucial information for development of sodium channel insecticides that target key insect pests without harming beneficial species. PMID:27383378

  18. Preliminary data on carrion insects in urban (indoor and outdoor) and periurban environments in central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz, Arturo; Botías, Cristina; Martín-Vega, Daniel; Cifrián, Blanca; Díaz-Aranda, Luisa M

    2015-03-01

    Although most cases involving entomological evidence occur in urban environments and under indoor conditions, there is a lack of studies determining the insect fauna of forensic importance in those environments. In the current paper we provide the first data on the composition of the forensically important insect species occurring in periurban and both indoor and outdoor urban environments in central Spain. Insects were collected fortnightly by means of carrion-baited traps, uninterruptedly during one year. Most species and individuals were collected in the periurban site, whereas the indoor urban site showed the lowest number of species and captures. Moreover, the composition of species differed among environments and seasons. A few species occurred under both indoor and outdoor conditions, including the blowfly Calliphora vicina and some Sarcophagidae species. These preliminary results suggest interesting differences in the insect composition between environments and conditions which may be of forensic importance, and represent a first step to further research into the application of insects to forensic investigations in urban environments of central Spain.

  19. Nutritional state modulates the neural processing of visual motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longden, Kit D; Muzzu, Tomaso; Cook, Daniel J; Schultz, Simon R; Krapp, Holger G

    2014-04-14

    Food deprivation alters the processing of sensory information, increasing neural activity in the olfactory and gustatory systems in animals across phyla. Neural signaling is metabolically costly, and a hungry animal has limited energy reserves, so we hypothesized that neural activity in other systems may be downregulated by food deprivation. We investigated this hypothesis in the motion vision pathway of the blowfly. Like other animals, flies augment their motion vision when moving: they increase the resting activity and gain of visual interneurons supporting the control of locomotion and gaze. In the present study, walking-induced changes in visual processing depended on the nutritional state-they decreased with food deprivation and recovered after subsequent feeding. We found that changes in the motion vision pathway depended on walking speed in a manner dependent on the nutritional state. Walking also reduced response latencies in visual interneurons, an effect not altered by food deprivation. Finally, the optomotor reflex that compensates for visual wide-field motion was reduced in food-deprived flies. Thus, walking augmented motion vision, but the effect was decreased when energy reserves were low. Our results suggest that energy limitations may drive the rebalancing of neural activity with changes in the nutritional state.

  20. Conservation and sex-specific splicing of the doublesex gene in the economically important pest species Lucilia cuprina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carolina Concha; Fang Li; Maxwell J. Scott

    2010-09-01

    Genetic control of sex determination in insects has been best characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, where the master gene Sxl codes for RNA that is sex specifically spliced to produce a functional protein only in females. SXL regulates the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) RNA which, in turn, regulates the splicing of dsx RNA to produce functional male and female proteins. In the Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina), the tra gene (Lctra) is required for female development and Lctra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced such that only female Lctra mRNA codes for functional protein. In males, a factor encoded by the Y-linked male determining gene is thought to prevent the female-mode of splicing of Lctra RNA. To further our understanding of the sex determination regulatory hierarchy in L. cuprina, we have isolated the dsx gene (Lcdsx) from this species. We found that the Lcdsx transcripts are sex-specifically spliced in a similar manner as their counterparts in D. melanogaster, housefly and tephritids. The LcDSX proteins are well conserved and the male form of DSX contains a motif encoded by a male-specific exon that is within the female-specific intron. This intron/exon arrangement had previously been found only in the housefly dsx gene, suggesting this may be a unique feature of dsx genes of Calyptratae species.

  1. Visual ecology and potassium conductances of insect photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Roman; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Weckström, Matti

    2016-04-01

    Voltage-activated potassium channels (Kv channels) in the microvillar photoreceptors of arthropods are responsible for repolarization and regulation of photoreceptor signaling bandwidth. On the basis of analyzing Kv channels in dipteran flies, it was suggested that diurnal, rapidly flying insects predominantly express sustained K(+) conductances, whereas crepuscular and nocturnally active animals exhibit strongly inactivating Kv conductances. The latter was suggested to function for minimizing cellular energy consumption. In this study we further explore the evolutionary adaptations of the photoreceptor channelome to visual ecology and behavior by comparing K(+) conductances in 15 phylogenetically diverse insects, using patch-clamp recordings from dissociated ommatidia. We show that rapid diurnal flyers such as the blowfly (Calliphora vicina) and the honeybee (Apis mellifera) express relatively large noninactivating Kv conductances, conforming to the earlier hypothesis in Diptera. Nocturnal and/or slow-moving species do not in general exhibit stronger Kv conductance inactivation in the physiological membrane voltage range, but the photoreceptors in species that are known to rely more on vision behaviorally had higher densities of sustained Kv conductances than photoreceptors of less visually guided species. No statistically significant trends related to visual performance could be identified for the rapidly inactivating Kv conductances. Counterintuitively, strong negative correlations were observed between photoreceptor capacitance and specific membrane conductance for both sustained and inactivating fractions of Kv conductance, suggesting insignificant evolutionary pressure to offset negative effects of high capacitance on membrane filtering with increased conductance.

  2. Identifying prototypical components in behaviour using clustering algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Braun

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis of animal behaviour is a requirement to understand the task solving strategies of animals and the underlying control mechanisms. The identification of repeatedly occurring behavioural components is thereby a key element of a structured quantitative description. However, the complexity of most behaviours makes the identification of such behavioural components a challenging problem. We propose an automatic and objective approach for determining and evaluating prototypical behavioural components. Behavioural prototypes are identified using clustering algorithms and finally evaluated with respect to their ability to represent the whole behavioural data set. The prototypes allow for a meaningful segmentation of behavioural sequences. We applied our clustering approach to identify prototypical movements of the head of blowflies during cruising flight. The results confirm the previously established saccadic gaze strategy by the set of prototypes being divided into either predominantly translational or rotational movements, respectively. The prototypes reveal additional details about the saccadic and intersaccadic flight sections that could not be unravelled so far. Successful application of the proposed approach to behavioural data shows its ability to automatically identify prototypical behavioural components within a large and noisy database and to evaluate these with respect to their quality and stability. Hence, this approach might be applied to a broad range of behavioural and neural data obtained from different animals and in different contexts.

  3. Distribuição de Carabidae e Staphylinidae em agroecossistemas Distribution of Carabidae and Staphylinidae in agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a distribuição da riqueza de espécies e a preferência pelo habitat de Carabidae e Staphylinidae (Coleoptera, em áreas com rotação de soja e milho, em plantio direto e convencional, e em áreas adjacentes a estas com fragmento florestal e povoamento de pínus, respectivamente. Os besouros foram amostrados por meio de armadilhas de solo distribuídas em dois transectos de 100 m de comprimento. A distribuição da riqueza de espécies nas culturas, no fragmento florestal e no pínus foi avaliada por meio de análise de regressão linear. A análise de agrupamento foi empregada para identificar as espécies quanto à preferência pelos habitats: fragmento florestal, pínus, cultura e interface. A distribuição da riqueza de espécies de Carabidae e Staphylinidae não variou em relação à posição no transecto, enquanto a riqueza de espécies observada nas interfaces foi elevada em comparação com a encontrada nos demais habitats. A ocorrência de espécies de Carabidae diferiu conforme o tipo de cobertura vegetal: Megacephala sp. e Scarites sp. preferiram áreas cultivadas em sistema de rotação soja-milho; Odontochila nodicornis (Dejean preferiu o fragmento florestal e o povoamento de pínus. A espécie Abaris basistriatus Chaudoir caracterizou-se como generalista quanto à preferência pelo habitat.The objective of this work was to determine the distribution of species richness and habitat preference of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in two areas cultivated with soybean/corn under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems and in adjacents areas with forest fragment and a Pinus stand, respectively. Beetles were sampled by pitfall traps which were distributed in two transects of 100 m. The distribution of species richness in the crops and forest fragment/Pinus was evaluated by regression analysis. Cluster analysis was used to identify species in relation to preference for the forest

  4. Pollination biology and breeding system of Craigia yunnanensis in fragmented habitat%片断化生境中滇桐传粉生物学和繁育系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高则睿; 张长芹; 韩智强; 李忠; 魏杰; 施红林

    2012-01-01

    通过野外观察和人工授粉试验方法,对云南省文山州西畴县法斗分布区片断化生境中濒危植物滇桐(Craigia yunnanensis)的传粉生物学特征和繁育系统进行研究.结果表明:滇桐每个聚伞花序有2~9朵两性花,单花花期为3~4d,单花雌雄蕊在时空上有一定的隔离;杂交指数(OCI) >4,花粉-胚珠比(P/O)为1381±53;有效传粉昆虫为大头丽蝇(Chrysomyia megacephala);同株异花授粉结实率低;滇桐的繁育系统属于异交为主,部分自交亲和,传粉过程需要传粉者;自然状态下滇桐的座果率(56.67%±3.85%)和结籽率(6.26%±0.75%)均较低,而异株异花授粉均可显著提高座果率及结籽率(P<0.01),这与当前片断化生境中传粉昆虫少、效率低下等有关,表明生境片断化正在影响滇桐植株的早期生殖成功.%By the methods of field observation and artificial pollination, this paper studied the characteristics of pollination biology and breeding system of endangered species Craigia yunnanensis in the fragmented habitats of Fadou distribution area, Xichou County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Each cyme of the C. yunnanensis had 2-9 hermaphroditic flowers, and the lifespan of a single hermaphroditic flower was approximately 3-4 days. There existed certain temporal isolation ( dichogamy) and spatial isolation ( herkogamy) between the pistils and stamens of each hermaphroditic flower. The outcrossing index ( OCI) was >4, and the ratio of pollen to ovule (P/O) was 1381+53. The most frequent and effective pollinator was Chrysomyia megacephala. The fruiting rate of geitonogamous pollination was rather low, and thus, the breeding system of C. yunnanensis was mainly belonged to outcrossing, with partial self-compatibility, and the pollinator insects were essential. Both the fruit-setting ratio and the seed-bearing ratio under natural conditions were low as 56. 67% ±3. 85% and 6. 26% ±0. 75% , respectively, whereas

  5. Comunidades de formigas (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica situados em áreas urbanizadas Ants' communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in fragments of the Atlantic Rain Forest situated in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Santina de C. Morini

    Full Text Available As comunidades de formigas que vivem em fragmentos de Mata Atlântica rodeados por um ecossistema urbano bem desenvolvido, foram investigadas. Avaliou-se a riqueza, a freqüência de ocorrência das espécies bem como a similaridade entre três áreas da cidade de São Paulo: Parque da Previdência (PP, Reserva Florestal "Armando Salles de Oliveira" (CUASO e Horto Oswaldo Cruz (HOC. Foram colocadas armadilhas do tipo "pitfall" em locais onde não ocorre visitação pública, durante uma semana, nos meses de março, junho, setembro e dezembro de 2001. Em todos os fragmentos foram coletadas 79 espécies de formigas, pertencentes a nove subfamílias e 32 gêneros. A subfamília Myrmicinae e os gêneros Pheidole e Hypoponera foram os mais ricos. No PP foram registradas 62 espécies, na CUASO 46 e no HOC 43, sendo que PP e CUASO são mais similares entre si. Tal similaridade possivelmente esteja relacionada ao tamanho de ambas as áreas e, também, a uma semelhança nos sítios de nidificação e de alimentação. No geral, a fauna de formigas é generalista, com a presença de alguns gêneros especialistas, como Discothyrea, Acanthognathus, Gnamptogenys, Oxyepoecus e Pyramica; ou de gêneros cujos hábitos alimentares ainda são desconhecidos (Heteroponera e Myrmelachista. A presença de espécies caracteristicamente de áreas domiciliares também foi constatada: Pheidole megacephala Fabricius, 1793, Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868, Wasmannia auropunctata Roger, 1863, Paratrechina fulva Mayr, 1862, P. longicornis Latreille, 1802 e Tapinoma melanocephalum Fabricius, 1793.In this paper were investigated the ants' communities that inhabit the Atlantic Rainforest fragments surrounded by an urban ecosystem well developed. The richness, the species frequency of occurrence, as well the similarity between the three areas of the city of São Paulo were investigated: Parque da Previdência (PP, Reserva Florestal "Armando Salles de Oliveira" (CUASO and Horto

  6. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  7. Ants of the national park of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    American Samoa makes up the eastern end of the Samoan Archipelago. On the islands of Tutuila, Taʽū and Ofu, the National Park of American Samoa (NPSA) protects about 4,000 ha of coastal, mid-slope and ridge-top forest. While the ant fauna of the Samoan Archipelago is considered relatively well documented, much of NPSA has never been surveyed for ants, leaving the fauna and its distribution poorly known. To address this shortfall, we systematically surveyed ants within the Tutuila and Taʽū units of NPSA using standard methods (hand collecting, litter sifting, and baits) at 39 sites within six vegetation types ranging from 8 to 945 m elevation. Forty-four ant species were identified, 19 of which are exotic to the Samoan Archipelago. Two notoriously aggressive species, Anoplolepis gracilipes and Pheidole megacephala were detected at two and seven sites, respectively. Both of these species largely excluded all other ants from bait, although their impact on ant community composition is unclear. A suite of habitat variables measured at each site was assessed to explain park-wide ant distributions. Of eight variables evaluated, only elevation was associated with ant community structure, as the ratio of native to exotic ant species increased significantly with elevation on Tutuila. Our survey documented two species not previously reported from American Samoa. Strumigenys eggersi, detected at 12 sites, appears to be a new immigrant to the Pacific Basin. A species of Pheidole was collected that likely represents an undescribed species. Solenopsis geminata, an aggressive species first reported on Tutuila in 2002, was not detected during our survey.

  8. Overview of the Distribution, Habitat Association and Impact of Exotic Ants on Native Ant Communities in New Caledonia.

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    Maïa Berman

    Full Text Available Ants are among the most ubiquitous and harmful invaders worldwide, but there are few regional studies of their relationships with habitat and native ant communities. New Caledonia has a unique and diverse ant fauna that is threatened by exotic ants, but broad-scale patterns of exotic and native ant community composition in relation to habitat remain poorly documented. We conducted a systematic baiting survey of 56 sites representing the main New Caledonian habitat types: rainforest on ultramafic soils (15 sites, rainforest on volcano-sedimentary soils (13, maquis shrubland (15, Melaleuca-dominated savannas (11 and Acacia spirorbis thickets (2. We collected a total of 49 species, 13 of which were exotic. Only five sites were free of exotic species, and these were all rainforest. The five most abundant exotic species differed in their habitat association, with Pheidole megacephala associated with rainforests, Brachymyrmex cf. obscurior with savanna, and Wasmannia auropunctata and Nylanderia vaga present in most habitats. Anoplolepis gracilipes occurred primarily in maquis-shrubland, which contrasts with its rainforest affinity elsewhere. Multivariate analysis of overall ant species composition showed strong differentiation of sites according to the distribution of exotic species, and these patterns were maintained at the genus and functional group levels. Native ant composition differed at invaded versus uninvaded rainforest sites, in the absence of differences in habitat variables. Generalised Myrmicinae and Forest Opportunists were particularly affected by invasion. There was a strong negative relationship between the abundance of W. auropunctata and native ant abundance and richness. This emphasizes that, in addition to dominating many ant communities numerically, some exotic species, and in particular W. auropunctata, have a marked impact on native ant communities.

  9. Overview of the Distribution, Habitat Association and Impact of Exotic Ants on Native Ant Communities in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Maïa; Andersen, Alan N; Hély, Christelle; Gaucherel, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Ants are among the most ubiquitous and harmful invaders worldwide, but there are few regional studies of their relationships with habitat and native ant communities. New Caledonia has a unique and diverse ant fauna that is threatened by exotic ants, but broad-scale patterns of exotic and native ant community composition in relation to habitat remain poorly documented. We conducted a systematic baiting survey of 56 sites representing the main New Caledonian habitat types: rainforest on ultramafic soils (15 sites), rainforest on volcano-sedimentary soils (13), maquis shrubland (15), Melaleuca-dominated savannas (11) and Acacia spirorbis thickets (2). We collected a total of 49 species, 13 of which were exotic. Only five sites were free of exotic species, and these were all rainforest. The five most abundant exotic species differed in their habitat association, with Pheidole megacephala associated with rainforests, Brachymyrmex cf. obscurior with savanna, and Wasmannia auropunctata and Nylanderia vaga present in most habitats. Anoplolepis gracilipes occurred primarily in maquis-shrubland, which contrasts with its rainforest affinity elsewhere. Multivariate analysis of overall ant species composition showed strong differentiation of sites according to the distribution of exotic species, and these patterns were maintained at the genus and functional group levels. Native ant composition differed at invaded versus uninvaded rainforest sites, in the absence of differences in habitat variables. Generalised Myrmicinae and Forest Opportunists were particularly affected by invasion. There was a strong negative relationship between the abundance of W. auropunctata and native ant abundance and richness. This emphasizes that, in addition to dominating many ant communities numerically, some exotic species, and in particular W. auropunctata, have a marked impact on native ant communities.

  10. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  11. Chrpsomva bezziana, The Cause of Myiasis on animal And Human : Problem and Control

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    April H Wardhana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an infestation of larvae (Diptera into the live host tissue of warm-blooded animals including humans . This disease is often found in tropical countries, particularly in the community with low socio-economic level. From many flies causing myiasis, Chrysomya bezziana is medically the most important agent due to its obligate parasite property and causing economies losses . Some myiasis cases on humans and animals in Indonesia are caused by C. bezziana larvae infestation or mixed infestation with Sarcophaga sp . Sulawesi, East Sumba, Lombok, Sumbawa, Papua and Java islands were reported as myiasis endemic areas . Myiasis cases on animals occurred after parturition (vulval myiasis then is followed by umbilical myiasis on their calf or traumatic wounds, while myiasis on humans are caused by untreated fresh wounds or chronic wounds such as leprosy, diabetes, etc . Besides, nature holes like nose, eyes, ears or mouth are also reported as entry port for those larvae . Clinical signs of myiasis are various and non-specific depends on location of infested part of body, i.e . fever, inflammation, pruritus, headache, vertigo, swelling and hipereosinophilia . There would be serious conditions with secondary infection by bacteria . Myiasis treatment on animals is simpler than humans . Surgical operation is often carried out on infested human part of bodies . Insecticides were used to treat animal myiasis but had raised resistant . Myiasis treatment on humans may be done locally or systemically . Antibiotic broad spectrum or which is suitable with culture and resistance status of bacteria were given for systemic treatment . Chloroform and turpentine with ratio 1 : 4 were used for local treatment . Some of essential oils have also been tested in laboratory as an alternative medicine for both humans and animals myiasis .

  12. The development of an “in vivo assay technique” as a tool for measuring protective immune responses of vaccine against myiasis in sheep

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    S. Partoutomo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available An “in vivo assay technique” is urgently needed for measuring protective immune effects of a myiasis vaccine in sheep. Such a technique is being developed simultaneously with the development of a vaccine against myiasis caused by the screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana under a collaborative project undertaken by Balitvet, ITB and CSIRO (Australia and funded by ACIAR. Experiments were conducted in naive sheep. C. bezziana larvae were allowed to develop on abraded skin in aluminium rings which had been attached to the sheep by means of a glue (Aibon on the day prior to infection. Rings were arranged on clipped areas close to the mid line of the sheep’s back, two rings on the right side and two rings on the left. Four trials were performed, involving studies on the effects of including wet sponges in the rings to maintain humidity (Trial 1; the effects of sponge and blended meat as counting and transferring media during infection (Trial 2; the effects of the repellants citronella, eucalyptus oil and neem extract in assisting the recovery of larvae (Trial 3; and the effects of the reducing the infective dose from 50 to 25 1st instar larvae/ring and using a fine brush for counting and transferring larvae instead of using a forceps as in the previous groups (Trial 4 on the larval recovery rates (LRR. The results indicated that the inclusion of wet sponges in the rings, the use of sponge and blended meat as counting and transferring media during infection, and the application of repellants all increased the LRR to some extent; however, variations among individual rings remained high. On the other hand, the reduction of infective dose of larvae from 50 to 25 1st instar larvae/ring and using a fine brush for counting and transferring larvae sharply increased the LRR while substantially decreasing the coefficient variations.

  13. [Synanthropic flies (Diptera: Cyclorrapha) and their microhymenoptera parasitoids (Insecta: Hymenoptera) at Monte Mor poultry production system, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marisa R; do Prado, Angelo P

    2006-01-01

    A survey of synanthropic flies and their microhymenopteran parasitoids was conducted at the Capuavinha poultry farm, municipality of Monte Mor, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1992. Bird manure samples were collected biweekly for examined and selected by the following methods: flotation in water, dissected pupae, and sentinel pupae. The species of flies more abundant were: Chrysomya putoria (Wiedeman) (41.2% - Calliphoridae), Muscidae: Muscina stabulans( Fallén) (27.3%), Musca domestica Linnaeus (23.9%), Fannia pusio (Stein) (5.3% - Fanniidae) e Sepsidae (2.3%). The pupal parasitoids were: Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Ashmead) (72.4% - Encyrtidae), Pteromalídeos: Spalangia gemina Boucek (9.2%), S. cameroni (Perkins) (7.3%), S. endius (Walker) (3.7%), Muscidifurax raptoroides (Kogan e Legner) (1.5%), Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (0.8%), Nasonia vitripennis Walker (0.06%). Trichopria sp. Nixon (Diapriídeo 5.5%) detected only in C. putoria pupae (t=-1,5269; P <0,1296). Some significant mean values were obtained for parasitoids in the collected hosts (t = 0.9540; Pr <0.0001), proportion of collected pupae and parasitoids with respect to the collecting site (F = 60.85; Pr <0.0001; F = 358.35; P <0.0001) and for the host species and parasitoid species (F = 2.58; Pr <0.0001; F = 9. 48; P <0.0001). The dissected host species was significant for proportion dissected pupae (F = 1.57; Pr <0.2053). These results concerning the insect fauna can be of help for an appropriate management of this poultry farm in terms of the control of synanthropic flies.

  14. Primer estudio de artropodofauna cadavérica sobre modelos experimentales porcinos en el noreste de la provincia del Chubut, Argentina

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    Ana P. ARMANI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió el proceso de descomposición y la composición de insectos presentes en biomodelos porcinos, en el NE de la provincia del Chubut. El objetivo fue determinar la composición específica, abundancia y riqueza de la artropodofauna carroñera en el ambiente de estepa. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales durante tres años consecutivos utilizándose tres cerdos domésticos para cada muestreo, colocados dentro de jaulas de madera cubiertas de alambre tejido. Diariamente se colectaron los artrópodos en el cuerpo, debajo y alrededor de este. Se registraron 36.157 individuos pertenecientes a 78 especies de 18 familias distribuidas entre los órdenes Diptera, Coleoptera e Hymenoptera. Se citan por primera vez de la provincia de Chubut tres especies de Calliphoridae: Paralucilia pseudolyrcea Mello, Paralucilia fulvinota Bigot y Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann; y una especie de Muscidae: Arthurella choelensis Patitucci & Mariluis. Se incorpora como primera cita para la fauna cadavérica argentina a Sarcophaga (Lipoptilocnema margaretae Lahille (Sarcophagidae. Se trata del primer estudio sobre entomología forense realizado en Patagonia que permite conocer los procesos de descomposición cadavérica y la fauna de insectos carroñeros presentes en esta zona. Por lo tanto, aporta información relevante que puede utilizarse en la resolución de casos forenses humanos en la región.

  15. Seasonal structure and dynamics of sarcosaprophagous fauna on pig carrion in a rural area of Cordoba (Argentina): their importance in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battán Horenstein, Moira; Rosso, Beatriz; García, M Dolores

    2012-04-10

    Four experiments, one in each season, were carried out during 2004 in a rural area of Córdoba, central Argentina. Two pigs (Sus scrofa L.), weighing approximately 8 kg each, were used in each of the four experiments. The animals were killed by a sharp blow to the head and immediately placed in an appropriate arthropod trap. One pig was placed in the shade and the other under direct sunlight. This research was conducted to determine the seasonal structure and dynamics of arthropods that constitute the sarcosaprophagous community in a given area of the central region of Argentina. The decomposition process was divided into five stages: fresh, bloated, decay, advanced decay and dry. The duration of each stage varied in different seasons, showing that the temperature and humidity are the most important variables that influence this process. A total of 51,500 adults and 36,909 immature were collected. More than 80% of the specimens collected belong to Insecta, and within this, Diptera were the most abundant order. The flies were mainly represented by adults and immature of the following species: Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Musca domestica Linnaeus (Muscidae) and Fannia femoralis (Stein) (Fanniidae). Coleoptera were mainly represented by adults and immature of the species Creophilus maxillosus (Linnaeus) (Staphylinidae) and Dermestes maculatus (Geer) (Dermestidae). More than 50% of hymenopteran fauna collected belong to Formicidae. The trophic levels associated with the decomposition of the remains included five categories: necrophagous, parasites and predators of the necrophagous species, omnivores, opportunists and adventives. During faunal succession a strong dominance of the necrophagous species of the family Calliphoridae and Muscidae was observed, mainly during the early stages of decay process in all seasons.

  16. Seasonality of Old World screwworm myiasis in the Mesopotamia valley in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddig, A; Al Jowary, S; Al Izzi, M; Hopkins, J; Hall, M J R; Slingenbergh, J

    2005-06-01

    Following the first recorded introduction of the Old World screwworm fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), into the Mesopotamia valley in Iraq in September 1996, cases of livestock myiasis caused by OWS developed a distinctly seasonal pattern. The annual cycle of clinical OWS cases is explained here on the basis of environmental variables that affect the different life-cycle stages of C. bezziana. This analysis suggests that low temperatures restricted pupal development during the winter, whereas the dispersal of adult flies was constrained by hot/dry summer conditions. A restricted number of OWS foci persisted throughout the year. In these foci, pupal development was fastest during the autumn months. In autumn, rapid multiplication, lasting several OWS generations, allowed subsequent adult fly dispersal across the valley floor during the winter. Hence, the monthly incidence of clinical OWS cases in livestock peaked during December-January and was lowest during July-August. In addition to temperature and humidity, vegetation cover played a role in OWS distribution. Hence the majority of OWS cases were clustered in the medium density type of vegetation [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values of 0.2-0.4] along the main watercourses in the marshy Mesopotamia valley. Although sheep were the host most commonly infested by C. bezziana, local sheep density was not found to be a major factor in disease spread. Satellite imagery and the application of Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were found to be valuable in understanding the distribution of OWS in relation to vegetation and watercourses. The presence of screwworm in Iraq, at the perimeter of the intercontinental OWS distribution, may give rise to major seasonal flare-ups.

  17. Methods for external disinfection of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs prior to use in wound debridement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Adrienne L; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-03-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided; yet the external surface of Calliphoridae eggs is often heavily contaminated with bacteria. Studies of external disinfection of dipteran eggs have been reported, but neither their efficacy nor effect on egg viability has been adequately assessed. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ten disinfection techniques involving immersion, rinse, or a combination of both in formalin, Lysol, formaldehyde, bleach, ethanol, Sporgon, or benzalkonium chloride. All techniques resulted in significant decreases in culturable, aerobic bacterial load on Lucilia cuprina eggs. For L. cuprina, a 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion was the most efficacious, disinfecting 96.67% of egg samples, while resulting in 31.84% egg mortality. The 5% formalin immersion was least efficacious, disinfecting only 3.33% of L. cuprina egg samples, while resulting in 33.51% egg mortality. A formaldehyde immersion, one of the most commonly used disinfection techniques, was moderately effective, disinfecting 66.7% of egg samples, while resulting in 40.16% egg mortality. For Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria egg samples, the 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion disinfected 100% of the samples, and for Lucilia sericata, 80% of egg samples, while resulting in 33.97%, 7.34%, and 36.96% egg mortality, respectively. H2 CO disinfected 16.67% of Ch. rufifacies, 26.67% of C. macellaria, and 56.67% of L. sericata egg samples, while resulting in 21.98%, 10.18%, and 32.19% egg mortality, respectively. Due to its high disinfection efficacy and relatively low egg mortality, a 10 minutes 3% Lysol immersion is recommended for sterilizing Calliphoridae eggs prior to rearing of larvae for use in MDT.

  18. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  19. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare,Zimbabwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nyasha; Mabika; Ron; Masendu; Gilbert; Mawera

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare.Methods:Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head.One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade.The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the end of the 7 weeks.Maggots were also collected from the decomposing carcasses and reared.Results:Five dipteran families(Galliphoridae,Muscidae,Sarcophagidae,Phoridae and Drosophilidae)were identified from the sun-exposed carcass.Species collected included Lucilia cuprina(L.cuprina),Chrysomya albiceps(C.albiceps),Musca domestica,Sarcophaga sp.and Drosophila sp.Four families(Calliphoridae,Muscidae,Phoridae,Anthomyiidae)were identified from the shaded carcass.Representatives of these families included L cuprina,C.albiceps,Musca domestica,and Hydrotaea sp.Three Coleopteran families(Histeridae,Cleridae and Dermestidae)were identified from hodt carcasses.The observed species were Saprinus sp,Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes sp.Fomicidae(Hymenoptera)was represented by only one species(Pheidoie sp.)Flies which emerged from the rearing units were L cuprina,Lucilia sp.,C.albiceps,Sarcophaga sp.and Sepsis sp.).Conclusions:Of the dipteran species collected during the study,L cuprina and C.albiceps could be important for further forensic studies since they were collected from the carcasses and also observed from the rearing units.

  20. Eigenanalysis of a neural network for optic flow processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, F.; Eichner, H.; Cuntz, H.; Borst, A.

    2008-01-01

    Flies gain information about self-motion during free flight by processing images of the environment moving across their retina. The visual course control center in the brain of the blowfly contains, among others, a population of ten neurons, the so-called vertical system (VS) cells that are mainly sensitive to downward motion. VS cells are assumed to encode information about rotational optic flow induced by self-motion (Krapp and Hengstenberg 1996 Nature 384 463-6). Recent evidence supports a connectivity scheme between the VS cells where neurons with neighboring receptive fields are connected to each other by electrical synapses at the axonal terminals, whereas the boundary neurons in the network are reciprocally coupled via inhibitory synapses (Haag and Borst 2004 Nat. Neurosci. 7 628-34 Farrow et al 2005 J. Neurosci. 25 3985-93 Cuntz et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA). Here, we investigate the functional properties of the VS network and its connectivity scheme by reducing a biophysically realistic network to a simplified model, where each cell is represented by a dendritic and axonal compartment only. Eigenanalysis of this model reveals that the whole population of VS cells projects the synaptic input provided from local motion detectors on to its behaviorally relevant components. The two major eigenvectors consist of a horizontal and a slanted line representing the distribution of vertical motion components across the fly's azimuth. They are, thus, ideally suited for reliably encoding translational and rotational whole-field optic flow induced by respective flight maneuvers. The dimensionality reduction compensates for the contrast and texture dependence of the local motion detectors of the correlation-type, which becomes particularly pronounced when confronted with natural images and their highly inhomogeneous contrast distribution.

  1. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control

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    Naveed eEjaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioural outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviours may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly-robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell’s spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell’s signalling range, and (iii the cell’s gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations.Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell’s responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell’s sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous

  2. Effect of morphine on the growth rate of Calliphora stygia (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and possible implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Green, Lauren M; Conlan, Xavier A; Toop, Tes

    2009-12-15

    Insect specimens collected from decomposing bodies enable forensic entomologists to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval (PMI). Drugs and toxins within a corpse may affect the development rate of insects that feed on them and it is vital to quantify these effects to accurately calculate minimum PMI. This study investigated the effects of morphine on growth rates of the native Australian blowfly, Calliphora stygia (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Several morphine concentrations were incorporated into pet mince to simulate post-mortem concentrations in morphine, codeine and/or heroin-dosed corpses. There were four treatments for feeding larvae; T 1: control (no morphine); T 2: 2 microg/g morphine; T 3: 10 microg/g morphine; and T 4: 20 microg/g morphine. Ten replicates of 50 larvae were grown at 22 degrees C for each treatment and their development was compared at four comparison intervals; CI 1: 4-day-old larvae; CI 2: 7-day-old larvae; CI 3: pupae; and CI 4: adults. Length and width were measured for larvae and pupae, and costae and tibiae were measured for adults. Additionally, day of pupariation, day of adult eclosion, and survivorship were calculated for each replicate. The continued presence of morphine in meat was qualitatively verified using high-performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection. Growth rates of C. stygia fed on morphine-spiked mince did not differ significantly from those fed on control mince for any comparison interval or parameter measured. This suggests that C. stygia is a reliable model to use to accurately age a corpse containing morphine at any of the concentrations investigated.

  3. Selective presynaptic insectotoxin (alpha-latroinsectotoxin) isolated from black widow spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magazanik, L G; Fedorova, I M; Kovalevskaya, G I; Pashkov, V N; Bulgakov, O V; Grishin, E V

    1992-01-01

    A homogenous protein of 120,000 mol. wt isolated from black widow spider (Lactrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus) venom and referred to as alpha-latroinsectotoxin was highly potent (4 nM) in the induction of an increase of the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials in blowfly (Calliphora vicina) larvae neuromuscular preparations. In the frog nerve ending, however, even 50 nM alpha-latroinsectotoxin failed to affect transmitter release. Pretreatment of insect preparations with alpha-latrotoxin or frog preparations with alpha-latroinsectotoxin did not prevent the specific effect of consequent applications of alpha-latroinsectotoxin (insect) and alpha-latrotoxin (frog), respectively. The binding of labelled [125I]alpha-latroinsectotoxin to insect and [125I]alpha-latrotoxin to bovine membrane preparations was saturable and highly specific. The presynaptic effect, but not the binding of alpha-latroinsectotoxin, was dependent on the presence of divalent cations in the external medium. Mg2+ could readily substitute for Ca2+ and increase of transmitter release induced by alpha-latroinsectotoxin also occurred in Ca(2+)-free solutions. Pretreatment of preparations with 300 micrograms/ml concanavalin A completely abolished both the presynaptic effect of alpha-latroinsectotoxin and its binding to insect membrane preparations. Thus, the phenomenology of alpha-latroinsectotoxin action on insects resembles in general that described for the action of alpha-latrotoxin on vertebrates. The selectivity of alpha-latrotoxin and alpha-latroinsectotoxin seems to be due to differences in the structure of neurotoxin receptors in nerve endings of vertebrates and insects, although the mode of presynaptic action has a great deal in common.

  4. A scorpion venom neurotoxin paralytic to insects that affects sodium current inactivation: Purification, primary structure, and mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitan, M.; Fowler, E.; Herrmann, R.; Duval, A.; Pelhate, M.; Zlotkin, E. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-06-26

    A new toxin, Lqh alpha IT, which caused a unique mode of paralysis of blowfly larvae, was purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, and its structural and pharmacological properties were compared to those of three other groups of neurotoxins found in Buthinae scorpion venoms. Like the excitatory and depressant insect-selective neurotoxins, Lqh alpha IT was highly toxic to insects, but it differed from these toxins in two important characteristics: (a) Lqh alpha IT lacked strict selectivity for insects; it was highly toxic to crustaceans and had a measurable but low toxicity to mice. (b) It did not displace an excitatory insect toxin, 125I-AaIT, from its binding sites in the insect neuronal membrane; this indicates that the binding sites for Lqh alpha IT are different from those shared by the excitatory and depressant toxins. However, in its primary structure and its effect on excitable tissues, Lqh alpha IT strongly resembled the well-characterized alpha scorpion toxins, which affect mammals. The amino acid sequence was identical with alpha toxin sequences in 55%-75% of positions. This degree of similarity is comparable to that seen among the alpha toxins themselves. Voltage- and current-clamp studies showed that Lqh alpha IT caused an extreme prolongation of the action potential in both cockroach giant axon and rat skeletal muscle preparations as a result of the slowing and incomplete inactivation of the sodium currents. These observations indicate that Lqh alpha IT is an alpha toxin which acts on insect sodium channels.

  5. Natural antimicrobial peptide complexes in the fighting of antibiotic resistant biofilms: Calliphora vicina medicinal maggots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordya, Natalia; Yakovlev, Andrey; Kruglikova, Anastasia; Tulin, Dmitry; Potolitsina, Evdokia; Suborova, Tatyana; Bordo, Domenico; Rosano, Camillo; Chernysh, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms’ resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio) provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable. PMID:28278280

  6. Interacting effects of aromatic plants and female age on nest-dwelling ectoparasites and blood-sucking flies in avian nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, G; Merino, S; Martínez-de la Puente, J; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Rivero-de Aguilar, J; Del Cerro, S

    2012-06-01

    Some avian species incorporate aromatic plants to their nests. The "nest protection hypothesis", which posits that volatile secondary compounds contained in these plants may have antiparasite properties, has not received full support. All previous tests of this hypothesis have only considered effects on nest-dwelling ectoparasites, but not on blood-sucking flies. The "drug hypothesis" posits that aromatic plants may stimulate nestling immune system, development, or condition. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in wild blue tits, Cyanistes caeruleus, a species that adds aromatic plants to their nests. We supplemented aromatic plants to half of a sample of nests, while adding grass to the other half of nests. We quantified abundance of two groups of blood-sucking flies (blackflies and biting midges) at two different stages of the reproductive period, and abundance of three nest-dwelling ectoparasites (fleas, mites, and blowflies). Experimental supplementation of aromatic plants reduced abundance of fleas only in nests of yearling females and not in nests of older females. Blackflies and biting midges were both more numerous in nests of yearling females than in nests of older females. Mass of aromatic plants added by females was negatively related with abundance of fleas in control nests but not in experimental nests supplied with aromatic plants. Mass of plants added by females was also positively related with abundance of blackflies during the nestling stage. Finally, aromatic plants did not affect nestling growth or immune responses. We conclude that several factors such as female experience and their ability to add plants to the nest interact to explain effects of aromatic plants on different parasites.

  7. Repellent effect of some household products on fly attraction to cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Bourel, Benoit; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier

    2009-08-10

    The most common task of a forensic entomologist is to determine an accurate minimum post-mortem interval (PMI) using necrophagous fly larvae found on carrion. More often, blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the first insects to detect the cadaver and, if the circumstances are favourable, to leave eggs on the body. However, several studies reveal that products such as gas or paint found on the cadaver induce a delay in the colonisation of the body, leading to an under-estimate of the PMI. Six common household products (gas, mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, bleach, hydrochloric acid and soda) were added to dead rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a field (Lille Forensic Institute, France). The presence of necrophagous flies was checked at regular intervals during 1 month. This experiment was repeated at the same period for four consecutive years. Results clearly showed the repellent effect of three of the six tested substances: gas (petroleum spirit), perfume and mosquito citronella repellent, which resulted in a mean delay of several days in the appearance of the first Dipteran species. Experiments were then carried out in controlled conditions in order to confirm previous observations. An olfactometer was specially designed to observe the behaviour of female Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in response to mice (Mus musculus) cadaver odour stimuli combined with household products. Dead mouse odour was a strong attractive stimulus for most of the tested individuals. Furthermore, it was noticed that the presence of mosquito citronella repellent, perfume, hydrochloric acid and paradichlorobenzene produced a significant repellent effect on female flies. All these results together confirm the repellent effect of some household products on flies and the necessity for forensic entomologists to consider this hypothesis when estimating the PMI.

  8. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Naveed; Krapp, Holger G; Tanaka, Reiko J

    2013-01-01

    Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioral outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviors may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell's spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i) the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii) the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell's signaling range, and (iii) the cell's gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations. Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell's responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell's sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous robots.

  9. Isolation of poxvirus from debilitating cutaneous lesions on four immature grackles (Quiscalus sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Long, R.I.R.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Locke, L.N.

    1991-01-01

    Poxvirus was isolated from nodules on four immature grackles (Quiscalus sp.) collected in two residential areas of Victoria, Texas. All of the birds were emaciated and had nodules on the eyelids, bill, legs, toes, and areas of the skin on the wings, neck, and ventral abdomen. These pox nodules were extensive and probably interfered with both sight and flight. The preliminary diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation, histopathology, and electron microscopy. Poxvirus was isolated on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated hen's eggs and in Muscovy duck embryo fibroblast cell culture. Phaenicia calliphoridae (blowfly) larvae were found in one of the pox nodules, raising the possibility of mechanical transmission of the virus by contaminated adult blowfiles. /// Se aisl?? virus de viruela a partir de n??dulos presentes en cuatro estorninos inmaduros (Quiscalus sp.) capturados en dos ?!reas residenciales de Victoria, Texas. Las cuatro aves estaban emaciadas y presentaron n??dulos en los p?!rpados, pico, patas, dedos, y algunas ?!reas de la piel de las alas, cuello, y regi??n inferior del abdomen. Estos n??dulos producidos por viruela eran extensos y probablemente interfirieron con la visi??n y el vuelo. El diagn??stico presuntivo fue confirmado mediante aislamiento viral, histopatolog?-a, y microscop?-a electr??nica. Se aisl?? el virus de viruela en la membrana corioalantoidea de huevos embrionados de gallina y en cultivos celulares de fibroblasto de embri??n de pato. Se encontraron larvas de mosca azul (Phaenicia calliphoridae) en uno de los n??dulos de viruela, increment?!ndose as?- la posibilidad de transmisi??n mec?!nica del virus mediante moscas adultas contaminadas.

  10. Intracellular pH regulation in unstimulated Calliphora salivary glands is Na+ dependent and requires V-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Bettina; Blenau, Wolfgang; Walz, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Salivary gland cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) that lies in their apical membrane and energizes the secretion of a KCl-rich primary saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Whether and to what extent V-ATPase contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in unstimulated gland cells is unknown. We used the fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH(i) regulation microfluorometrically and show that: (1) under resting conditions, the application of Na(+)-free physiological saline induces an intracellular alkalinization attributable to the inhibition of the activity of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter; (2) the maintenance of resting pH(i) is Na(+), Cl(-), concanamycin A and DIDS sensitive; (3) recovery from an intracellular acid load is Na(+) sensitive and requires V-ATPase activity; (4) the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in pH(i) recovery after a NH(4)Cl prepulse; and (5) at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter and the V-ATPase maintain recovery from an intracellular acid load. Thus, under resting conditions, the V-ATPase and at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter maintain normal pH(i) values of pH 7.5. We have also detected the presence of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter, which seems to act as an acid loader. Despite this not being a common pH(i)-regulating transporter, its activity affects steady-state pH(i) in C. vicina salivary gland cells.

  11. Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Irish

    Full Text Available The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003 with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001, and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01 were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03. The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

  12. Statistical inference for noisy nonlinear ecological dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Simon N

    2010-08-26

    Chaotic ecological dynamic systems defy conventional statistical analysis. Systems with near-chaotic dynamics are little better. Such systems are almost invariably driven by endogenous dynamic processes plus demographic and environmental process noise, and are only observable with error. Their sensitivity to history means that minute changes in the driving noise realization, or the system parameters, will cause drastic changes in the system trajectory. This sensitivity is inherited and amplified by the joint probability density of the observable data and the process noise, rendering it useless as the basis for obtaining measures of statistical fit. Because the joint density is the basis for the fit measures used by all conventional statistical methods, this is a major theoretical shortcoming. The inability to make well-founded statistical inferences about biological dynamic models in the chaotic and near-chaotic regimes, other than on an ad hoc basis, leaves dynamic theory without the methods of quantitative validation that are essential tools in the rest of biological science. Here I show that this impasse can be resolved in a simple and general manner, using a method that requires only the ability to simulate the observed data on a system from the dynamic model about which inferences are required. The raw data series are reduced to phase-insensitive summary statistics, quantifying local dynamic structure and the distribution of observations. Simulation is used to obtain the mean and the covariance matrix of the statistics, given model parameters, allowing the construction of a 'synthetic likelihood' that assesses model fit. This likelihood can be explored using a straightforward Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, but one further post-processing step returns pure likelihood-based inference. I apply the method to establish the dynamic nature of the fluctuations in Nicholson's classic blowfly experiments.

  13. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  14. Development of myiasis vaccine: In vitro detection of immunoprotective responses of peritrophic membrane protein, first instar larva Ll supernatant and pellet antigen of fly Chrysomyia bezziana in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis control by means of individual treatment of animals which are mainly rised extensively is time consumed and expensive. The alternative way to control this disease by vaccination is considered effective and economically accepted. However the expected vaccine is now still being developed under a collaborative project between CSIRO, Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology-ITB and Research Institute for Veterinary Science and funded by ACIAR. There are several antigens have been identified as vaccine candidates and an in vitro bioassay technique has been developed for assessing the immunoresponses of vaccine in sheep. Three antigens were used for vaccines in this study, these included protein peritrophic membrane (PM, soluble extract (SE and pellet extract (PE of 1st instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. Twenty four experimental sheep were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals, 3 groups of animals were injected with PM, SE and PE vaccines with the dose rate of 0.5 g PM/head, 0.8 g PE/head and 4.2 ml LE/head respectively, and the other one group was injected with 4 ml PBS/head as a control group. Vaccination with the same dose was repeated 4 weeks after the 1st vaccination as a booster, and 2 weeks after the booster the sheep were challenged with live larvae, 3 days after challenge animals were killed. Sera were collected at the day of vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, 2 weeks after booster, and 3 days after challenge. An in vitro bioassay technique was conducted by culturing 1st instar larvae on five media containing sera collected from each experimental animal. The effects of sera on cultivated larvae were assessed by means of larval weight and larval mortality rate. The results indicated that the growth rate and survival of cultivated larvae in media containing anti-PM sera were significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to the larvae cultivated on media with sera on the day of vaccination. The larval weight depression by anti- PM sera

  15. Postmortem Attraction of Sarcosaprophagous Diptera to Tramadol-Treated Rats and Morphometric Aspects of the Developed Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZied, E M

    2016-06-01

    The presence of some specific drugs in animal tissues may affect the time of minimal postmortem intervals estimated during forensic entomological investigations. To test the effects of a specific drug on decomposition, a field study was conducted at Fayoum University campus, Egypt, from March to May 2013, using tramadol, a synthetic analgesic opioid used to treat moderate to severe pain in humans. Albino rats were used as the animal model during this study. The duration of the fresh stage of tramadol treated rat (Ttr) carcasses was significantly shorter (2.4 ± 0.27 days) compared to tramadol free rat (Tfr) carcasses (6.4 ± 0.49 days). The dry carcass stage of Ttr lasted longer (10.3 ± 0.99 days) as compared to (7.4 ± 0.18 days) the Tfr carcass. The decomposition process of the (Ttr) carcass was not significantly faster (24.9 ± 1.58 days) as compared to (Tfr) carcasses (29.5 ± 1.69). Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), and Musca domestica L. were less attracted to Ttr carcass-baited traps than traps with Tfr carcasses. However, females of Sarcophaga spp. showed a greater attraction to Ttr carcasses. Females of another sarcophagid fly, Wohlfahrtia spp. exhibited similar attraction tendencies to both types of trap baits. Larvae of S. argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) collected from Ttr carcasses developed to a significantly longer total body length (10.4 ± 0.04 mm) as compared to the average length of the larvae collected from Tfr carcasses (8.9 ± 0.34 mm). During days 9-13 after rat death, the relative lengths of larvae from Ttr carcasses were not significantly different from Tfr carcasses. Larvae fed on Ttr carcasses pupated 2 days later than the control larvae.

  16. Insect Fauna Associated with Exposed Pig Carcasses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ries

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. O conhecimento dos padrões de insetos que visitam carcaças em decomposição e a análise dos parâmetros relacionados a sua presença auxilia na determinação do intervalo post-mortem (IPM. Estas informações dependem de estudos regionais, pois a diversidade de insetos e as condições ambientais interferem neste contexto. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a entomofauna que coloniza carcaças expostas em diferentes estágios de decomposição na área de estudo. O experimento foi conduzido no sul do Brasil utilizando três porcos domésticos (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, abatidos no local. Insetos adultos associados às carcaças foram amostrados diariamente com rede entomológica, coleta manual e armadilhas pitfall. Foram realizados testes estatísticos para avaliar a diversidade de insetos. Durante o processo de decomposição (14 dias, espécimes de Scarabaeidae (25% e Calliphoridae (23% foram os mais abundantes, considerando-se a totalidade das amostras. A diversidade de insetos é distinguível quando são analisados todos os parâmetros. A fase de Putrefação negra (IV exibiu a maior diversidade de acordo com os métodos aplicados. O padrão de sucessão foi estabelecido a partir do índice de dominância das espécies: fase Fresca - Lucilia eximia Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae, fase Cromática e de Inchamento – Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae, e fase de Putrefação Negra e de Esqueletização – Aphodiinae sp. 1 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae.

  17. Lamsiekte (botulism: Solving the aetiology riddle

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    Rudolph D. Bigalke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The reason or reasons why it took Sir Arnold Theiler so many years to unravel the riddle of the aetiology of lamsiekte in cattle and whether P.R. Viljoen’s lifelong grudge for receiving insufficient credit from Theiler for his research contribution was justified are analysed in this paper. By 1912, Theiler knew that Duncan Hutcheon had advocated the use of bonemeal as a prophylactic against the disease in the early 1880s. Hutcheon’s colleague, J.D. Borthwick, had shown conclusively in a field experiment in 1895 that lamsiekte did not occur in cattle fed a liberal allowance of bonemeal; and bone-craving had been identified by Hutcheon and several farmers as being associated with the occurrence of the disease (a ‘premonitory’ sign. Hutcheon regarded a phosphate deficiency of the pastures as the direct cause of lamsiekte. However, Theiler did not accept this, was convinced that intoxication was involved and developed a ‘grass toxin’ theory. Viljoen (1918 also latched onto the grass toxin theory. He did not believe that osteophagia existed, stating categorically that he had not observed it on the experimental farm Armoedsvlakte where > 100 cases of lamsiekte had occurred during the > 3 years that he spent there. Moreover, he did not believe in the prophylactic value of bonemeal. However, careful analysis of a subsequent publication, of which he was a co-author, revealed that in late 1918 and early 1919 he reproduced the disease by drenching cattle with blowfly pupae and larvae as well as with crushed bones from decomposing bovine carcasses. For this breakthrough he did not get proper credit from Theiler. Reappointed to study lamsiekte on Armoedsvlakte in the autumn of 1919, Theiler, probably already aware that the toxin he was seeking was in the decomposing bones or carcass material rather than the grass, deliberately ‘walked with the cattle’ on the farm to encounter a classic manifestation of bone-craving (osteophagia. The penny

  18. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  19. Intracellular pH homeostasis and serotonin-induced pH changes in Calliphora salivary glands: the contribution of V-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Bettina; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Walz, Bernd

    2008-03-01

    Blowfly salivary gland cells have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in their apical membrane that energizes secretion of a KCl-rich saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). We have used BCECF to study microfluometrically whether V-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation, and we have localized CA activity by histochemistry. We show: (1) mean pH(i) in salivary gland cells is 7.5+/-0.3 pH units (N=96), higher than that expected from passive H(+) distribution; (2) low 5-HT concentrations (0.3-3 nmol l(-1)) induce a dose-dependent acidification of up to 0.2 pH units, with 5-HT concentrations >10 nmol l(-1), causing monophasic or multiphasic pH changes; (3) the acidifying effect of 5-HT is mimicked by bath application of cAMP, forskolin or IBMX; (4) salivary gland cells exhibit CA activity; (5) CA inhibition with acetazolamide and V-ATPase inhibition with concanamycin A lead to a slow acidification of steady-state pH(i); (6) 5-HT stimuli in the presence of acetazolamide induce an alkalinization that can be decreased by simultaneous application of the V-ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A; (7) concanamycin A removes alkali-going components from multiphasic 5-HT-induced pH changes; (8) NHE activity and a Cl(-)-dependent process are involved in generating 5-HT-induced pH changes; (9) the salivary glands probably contain a Na(+)-driven amino acid transporter. We conclude that V-ATPase and CA contribute to steady-state pH(i) regulation and 5-HT-induced outward H(+) pumping does not cause an alkalinization of pH(i) because of cytosolic H(+) accumulation attributable to stimulated cellular respiration and AE activity, masking the alkalizing effect of V-ATPase-mediated acid extrusion.

  20. 缙云山自然保护区常见菊科植物花粉形态特征分析%Study on Pollen Morphology of Compositae in Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德怀; 韩晓丽; 孙爱芝; 代然然; 郭洪亮

    2013-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 17 compositae plants from Jinyun Mountain Nature Reserve in Chongqing Municipality are observed and analyzed under light microscope (LM). The results show that the pollen grains are radially symmetrical, spherical or subsphaeroidal in shape, and the polar view is 3-labed-rounded. They all have 3 colporates. By their pollen morphological features, the 17 species are divided into 4 types. (1) The pollen has big reticulation veins. The representative plants are in three genera: Yoμngia japonica ( L. ) DC, Ixeris polycephala Cass, Paraprenanthes heptantha Shih et D. J. Liou and P. sororia (Miq. ) Shih. (2) The pollen is characterized by sharp, dense and long spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Bidens Pilosa L. , Galinsoga parviflora Cav. , Siegesbeckia orientaiis L. and Bidens tripartite L. (3) Its main characteristics are that the base of spine is swelling and the spine is blunt. The representative plants are in four genera: Sinosenecio oldhamiaus (Maxim.) B. Nord, Senecio scandens Buch. -Ham, Blumea megacephala (Randeria)Chang et Tseng and Kalimeris indica (L. ) Sch. -Bip. (4)This type is characterized by sparse, short, and uniform spines. The representative plants are in four genera: Vernonia cumingiana Diels, Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth. ) S. Moore (Gynura crepidioides Benth) , Eclip-ta prostrate L. and Gnaphaliμm of fine D. Don. Pollen morphology is different between different plants, but plants with similar pollen morphology can come from different tribes-genera.%应用光学显微镜对缙云山自然保护区17种常见菊科植物的花粉形态进行了观察和分析,结果显示花粉粒均为辐射对称,大多为近球形-长球形,萌发孔均为三孔沟,极面观为三裂圆形.根据花粉形态特征分析,17种菊科植物花粉类型可分为4大类:①花粉形态以粗大网状纹饰为主要特征,以黄鹤菜、苦荬菜、雷山假福王草、假福王草植物为代表;②花粉形态以刺

  1. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  2. 家蝇抗菌物质诱导表达后的电泳分析%Induction of antibacterial peptide from Musca domestica and preliminary isolation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许兵红; 曾莉萍; 董卫华

    2011-01-01

    in the blowfly.

  3. Distribution of invasive ants and methods for their control in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert W.; Banko, Paul C.; Snook, Kirsten; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2013-01-01

    The first invasive ants were detected in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) more than 80 years ago. Ecological impacts of these ants are largely unknown, but studies in Hawai`i and elsewhere increasingly show that invasive ants can reduce abundance and diversity of native arthropod communities as well as disrupt pollination and food webs. Prior to the present study, knowledge of ant distributions in HAVO has primarily been restricted to road- and trail-side surveys of the Kīlauea and Mauna Loa Strip sections of the park. Due to the risks that ants pose to HAVO resources, understanding their distributions and identifying tools to eradicate or control populations of the most aggressive species is an important objective of park managers. We mapped ant distributions in two of the most intensively managed sections of the park, Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku. We also tested the efficacy of baits to control the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala), two of the most aggressive and ecologically destructive species in Hawai`i. Efficacy testing of formicidal bait was designed to provide park managers with options for eradicating small populations or controlling populations that occur at levels beyond which they can be eradicated. Within the Mauna Loa Strip and Kahuku sections of HAVO we conducted systematic surveys of ant distributions at 1625 stations covering nearly 200 km of roads, fences, and transects between August 2008 and April 2010. Overall, 15 ant species were collected in the two areas, with 12 being found on Mauna Loa Strip and 11 at Kahuku. Cardiocondyla kagutsuchi was most widespread at both sites, ranging in elevation from 920 to 2014 m, and was the only species found above 1530 m. Argentine ants and big-headed ants were also found in both areas, but their distributions did not overlap. Surveys of Argentine ants identified areas of infestation covering 560 ha at Mauna Loa Strip and 585 ha at Kahuku. At both sites

  4. Nomenclatural Studies Toward a World List of Diptera Genus-Group Names. Part IV: Charles Henry Tyler Townsend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenhuis, Neal L; Pont, Adrian C; Whitmore, Daniel

    2015-06-25

    ]; Eustomatodexia insulensis Townsend, 1892, n. stat. [Tachinidae].       The following genus-group names, not listed in previous regional catalogs, are treated here: Arabisca Townsend, 1935 [Sarcophagidae]; Eupeleteria Townsend, 1908 [Tachinidae]; Macropatelloa Townsend, 1931 [Tachinidae]; Neohypostena Townsend, 1915 [Tachinidae]; Neometapodia Townsend, 1892 [Sarcophagidae]; Tricyclopsis Townsend, 1916 [Calliphoridae]; Trongia Townsend, 1916 [Calliphoridae].        Previous First Reviser actions for multiple original spellings that were overlooked by other workers are given for the following: Genus-group names-Microchaetona Townsend, 1919 [Tachinidae]; Neopodomyia Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Opsophytopsis Townsend, 1918 [Sarcophagidae]; Prohypotachina Townsend, 1933 [Tachinidae]; Rhinomyodes Townsend, 1933 [Tachinidae]; Servilliodes Townsend, 1926 [Tachinidae]; Tephromyiella Townsend, 1918 [Sarcophagidae]; Thelairochaetona Townsend, 1919 [Tachinidae]; Xanthopteromyia Townsend, 1926 [Tachinidae]. Species-group names-Brachybelvosia brasiliensis Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae]; Neocraspedothrix nova Townsend, 1927 [Tachinidae].        The following nominal genera enter into new synonymies: Bathytheresia Townsend, 1915 under Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Brachycoma Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1889 under Brachicoma Rondani, 1856, n. syn. [Sarcophagidae]; Chaetolyga Brauer, 1880 under Carcelia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chaetoprosopa Marschall, 1873 under Choeteprosopa Macquart, 1851, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Chlororhynchomyia Senior-White, Aubertin & Smart, 1940 under Metallea Wulp, 1880, n. syn. [Rhiniidae]; Chrysomyia Macquart, 1835 under Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, n. syn. [Calliphoridae]; Echinomyia Fischer von Waldheim, 1808 under Echinomya Latreille, 1805, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Euhypochaetopsis Townsend, 1928 under Campylocheta Rondani, 1859, n. syn. [Tachinidae]; Graphomyia Macquart, 1834 under Graphomya Robineau

  5. The effects of DDT upon the survival and growth of nestling songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R.T.; Blagbrough, H.P.; VanEtten, R.C.

    1953-01-01

    area contained 17 times as many insects as the sprayed area in 1949 and 6 times as many in 1950. Six weeks elapsed in 1949 and 8 weeks in 1950 before the invertebrate populations in the two areas became similar. Since the density of insects necessary to sustain bird life in any area is unknown, it is uncertain to what extent this reduction in food contributed to the mortality of nestlings in the sprayed area or to their being underweight in comparison with the checks. The blowfly parasite, A paulina sialia (S.&B.),did not occur in sufficient numbers in 1950 to offer evidence as to whether DDT provided any protection to nestlings as was suggested by observations in 1949. The chemical analyses of dead birds collected dwing the course of experimentation show a wide range in quantities of DDT present. For instance, quantities of DDT detected chemically in nestlings thought to have died from lethal dosages of DDT ranged from 2.6 to 77.0 micrograms per gram of body weight, and one set of wrens exhibiting symptoms of DDT poisoning contained 3.8 mcg./g. Runts from four different nests assumed to have died as a result of unsuccessful competition with their larger nestmates, however, were found to contain quantities of DDT ranging from 14.3 to 38.0 mcg./g. It is conceivable that nestlings inadequately fed or for other reasons being low in vitality could succumb to small quantities of DDT, whereas healthier individuals being nourished normally by their parents might survive for a longer period even though they consumed more DDT. Furthermore, it must be kept in mind that the amount of DDT that constitutes a minimum lethal dose for juvenile birds is still unknown. Also, there is no standard for correlating the quantity of DDT found in tissues and the quantity ingested.