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Sample records for blowfly chrysomya megacephala

  1. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

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    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  2. Analysis of the transcriptome of blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae in responses to different edible oils.

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    Zhang, Min; Yu, Hao; Yang, Yanyan; Song, Chao; Hu, Xinjun; Zhang, Guren

    2013-01-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 39,098,662 clean reads were assembled into 27,588 unigenes with a mean length of 768 nt. All unigenes were searched against the Nt database, Nr database, Swiss-Prot, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) with the BLASTn or BLASTx algorithm (E-valueinsect.

  3. Analysis of the transcriptome of blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius larvae in responses to different edible oils.

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    Min Zhang

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE profiling using Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology.A total of 39,098,662 clean reads were assembled into 27,588 unigenes with a mean length of 768 nt. All unigenes were searched against the Nt database, Nr database, Swiss-Prot, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG with the BLASTn or BLASTx algorithm (E-value<0.00001 for annotations. In total, 7,081 unigenes and 14,099 unigenes were functionally classified into 25 COG categories and 240 KEGG pathways, respectively. Furthermore, 20,216 unigenes were grouped into 48 sub-categories belonging to 3 main Gene Ontology (GO categories (ontologies. Using the transcriptome data as references, we analyzed the differential gene expressions between a soybean oil-fed group (SOF and a lard oil-fed group (LOF, compared to the negative control group (NC, using the DGE approach. We finally obtained 1,566 differentially expressed genes in SOF/NC, and 1,099 genes in LOF/NC. For further analysis, GO and KEGG functional enrichment were performed on all differentially expressed genes, and a group of differentially expressed candidate genes related to lipometabolism were identified.This study provides a global survey of C. megacephala and provides the basis for further research on the functional genomics of this insect.

  4. Behavior of the combined radial post-feeding larval dispersal of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae and implications for forensic entomology

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    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to study the life stages of Chrysomya megacephala in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersal from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa formed were analyzed. For the larvae of C. albiceps, females released buried deeper than males, reaching an average depth of 10.74 cm and C. megacephala larvae presented greater average results than C. albiceps for all variables, particularly distance, which was 16.02 cm for this species and 12.30 cm for C. albiceps. C. albiceps larvae preyed on 30 C. megacephala larvae in both experiments. These results could be used in forensic entomology because the evaluation of Post Mortem Interval (PMI was one of the most important aspects of legal medicine, and it could be underestimated if the older dispersing larvae or those that dispersed longer and faster or deeper, were not taken into account.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar estágios de vida de Chrysomya megacephala em uma arena circular permitindo a dispersão larval pós-alimentar combinada a partir do centro das larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa a distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso foram coletados. Do total de larvas soltas as fêmeas de C. albiceps se enterraram mais profundamente que os machos, alcançando uma profundidade de 10,74 cm. Apesar dessa diferença, as larvas de C. megacephala apresentaram resultado em média maiores para todas a variáveis, particularmente a distância, a qual foi 16,02 cm para essa espécie e 12,30 para C. albiceps. Além disso, as larvas de C. albiceps predaram 30 larvas de C. megacphala durante esse processo em ambos os experimentos. Esses estudos podem ser utilizados em Entomologia forense porque a estimativa do Intervalo Pós Morte (IPM é um dos aspectos mais

  5. Study of the combined radial post-feeding dispersion of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Estudo da dispersão radial combinada de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius e C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Leonardo Gomes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete and ephemeral substrates to feed their larvae. After they run out of food, the larvae begin to disperse in order to find adequate places for pupation or additional food sources, a process named post-feeding larval dispersion. Some important aspects of this process were studied in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersion from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the arena was divided in 72 identical sections starting from the center. The distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa were evaluated. Statistical tests were done to verify the relation between weight, depth and distance for pupation. From the total an average of 976 larvae released (488 for each species were collected considering both experiments 456 C. megacephala pupae and 488 of C. albiceps. This demonstrates that C. albiceps probably preyed on 32 C. megacephala larvae during post-feeding dispersion. The study of this dispersion process can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI of human cadavers in legal medicine.As moscas- varejeiras utilizam-se de substratos discretos e efêmeros para alimentar suas larvas. Após deixarem o substrato alimentar, as larvas começam a dispersar em busca de locais adequados para pupação e fontes adicionais de alimento, um processo denominado dispersão larval pós-alimentar. Alguns aspectos importantes desse processo foram estudados em uma arena permitindo a dispersão radial combinada de larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa, a arena foi dividida em 72 setores iguais começando do centro. A distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso de cada pupa foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram feitos para verificar a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância para pupação. De um total em média de 976 larvas soltas (488 de cada esp

  6. Reading Mammal Diversity from Flies: The Persistence Period of Amplifiable Mammal mtDNA in Blowfly Guts (Chrysomya megacephala) and a New DNA Mini-Barcode Target.

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    Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical mammal species are threatened or data-deficient. Data collection is impeded by the traditional monitoring approaches which can be laborious, expensive and struggle to detect cryptic diversity. Monitoring approaches using mammal DNA derived from invertebrates are emerging as cost- and time-effective alternatives. As a step towards development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring in the biodiversity hotspot of Peninsular Malaysia, our objectives were (i) to determine the persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts through a laboratory feeding experiment (ii) to design and test primers that can selectively amplify mammal COI DNA mini-barcodes in the presence of high concentrations of blowfly DNA. The persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts was 24 h to 96 h post-feeding indicating the need for collecting flies within 24 h of capture to detect mammal mtDNA of sufficient quantity and quality. We designed a new primer combination for a COI DNA mini-barcode that did not amplify blowfly DNA and showed 89% amplification success for a dataset of mammals from Peninsular Malaysia. The short (205 bp) DNA mini-barcode could distinguish most mammal species (including separating dark taxa) and is of suitable length for high-throughput sequencing. Our new DNA mini-barcode target and a standardized trapping protocol with retrieval of blowflies every 24 h could point the way forward in the development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring.

  7. Reading Mammal Diversity from Flies: The Persistence Period of Amplifiable Mammal mtDNA in Blowfly Guts (Chrysomya megacephala) and a New DNA Mini-Barcode Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical mammal species are threatened or data-deficient. Data collection is impeded by the traditional monitoring approaches which can be laborious, expensive and struggle to detect cryptic diversity. Monitoring approaches using mammal DNA derived from invertebrates are emerging as cost- and time-effective alternatives. As a step towards development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring in the biodiversity hotspot of Peninsular Malaysia, our objectives were (i) to determine the persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts through a laboratory feeding experiment (ii) to design and test primers that can selectively amplify mammal COI DNA mini-barcodes in the presence of high concentrations of blowfly DNA. The persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts was 24 h to 96 h post-feeding indicating the need for collecting flies within 24 h of capture to detect mammal mtDNA of sufficient quantity and quality. We designed a new primer combination for a COI DNA mini-barcode that did not amplify blowfly DNA and showed 89% amplification success for a dataset of mammals from Peninsular Malaysia. The short (205 bp) DNA mini-barcode could distinguish most mammal species (including separating dark taxa) and is of suitable length for high-throughput sequencing. Our new DNA mini-barcode target and a standardized trapping protocol with retrieval of blowflies every 24 h could point the way forward in the development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring. PMID:25898278

  8. Reading Mammal Diversity from Flies: The Persistence Period of Amplifiable Mammal mtDNA in Blowfly Guts (Chrysomya megacephala and a New DNA Mini-Barcode Target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Shin Lee

    Full Text Available Most tropical mammal species are threatened or data-deficient. Data collection is impeded by the traditional monitoring approaches which can be laborious, expensive and struggle to detect cryptic diversity. Monitoring approaches using mammal DNA derived from invertebrates are emerging as cost- and time-effective alternatives. As a step towards development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring in the biodiversity hotspot of Peninsular Malaysia, our objectives were (i to determine the persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts through a laboratory feeding experiment (ii to design and test primers that can selectively amplify mammal COI DNA mini-barcodes in the presence of high concentrations of blowfly DNA. The persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts was 24 h to 96 h post-feeding indicating the need for collecting flies within 24 h of capture to detect mammal mtDNA of sufficient quantity and quality. We designed a new primer combination for a COI DNA mini-barcode that did not amplify blowfly DNA and showed 89% amplification success for a dataset of mammals from Peninsular Malaysia. The short (205 bp DNA mini-barcode could distinguish most mammal species (including separating dark taxa and is of suitable length for high-throughput sequencing. Our new DNA mini-barcode target and a standardized trapping protocol with retrieval of blowflies every 24 h could point the way forward in the development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring.

  9. Developmental Times of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at Constant Temperatures and Applications in Forensic Entomology.

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    Yang, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xue-Bo; Shao, Ru-Yue; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Gen-Ping; Xu, Lyu-Zi; Wan, Li-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic life stages of infesting blowflies (Calliphoridae) such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) are powerful evidence for estimating the death time of a corpse, but an established reference of developmental times for local blowfly species is required. We determined the developmental rates of C. megacephala from southwest China at seven constant temperatures (16-34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were constructed based on the larval length and time for each developmental event (first ecdysis, second ecdysis, wandering, pupariation, and eclosion), at each temperature. A thermal summation model was constructed by estimating the developmental threshold temperature D0 and the thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that, for complete development from egg hatching to eclosion, D0 = 9.07 ± 0.54°C and K = 3991.07 ± 187.26 h °C. This reference can increase the accuracy of estimations of postmortem intervals in China by predicting the growth of C. megacephala. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae: A new biodiesel resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhuoxue; Yang, Depo; Huang, Miaoling; Hu, Xinjun; Shen, Jiangang; Zhao, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ►Chrysomya megacephala larvae oil as a new resource transforming to biodiesel. ► Larvae were grown up on restaurant garbage for five days then oil was extracted. ► Oil content in larvae was 24.40 wt% to 26.29 wt% comparing to soybean of 20 wt%. ► Utilization of garbage reduces pollution and makes economic recycle possible. ► The properties of ultimately FAME reach the ASTM D6751 and EN 14124 standards. -- Abstract: The current energy crisis greatly affects worldwide economic development. Therefore, identifying for new energy resources is critically important. In this study, we introduce a potential biodiesel source: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae (CML), which are proliferative and can be fed with a variety of low cost materials, such as manure, wheat bran, rotted meat and decayed vegetation. The potential of C. megacephala (Fabricius) larvae oil (CMLO) for biodiesel applications was explored. Oil was extracted from the CML raised by feeding on restaurant garbage for five days. The oil content obtained from the dehydrated CML ranged from 24.40% to 26.29% since restaurant garbage varies in composition day to day. The acid value of the CMLO was tested to be 1.10 mg KOH/g. Four factors were subsequently considered to optimize the transesterification of CMLO to biodiesel. The optimized conditions included a 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.6% KOH catalyst, a reaction temperature of 55 °C and a reaction time of 30 min. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from CMLO was 87.71%. Finally, properties of the FAME were within the specifications of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Therefore, we concluded that C. megacephala (Fabricius) larvae represent a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production.

  11. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  12. Dieta para Larvas de Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya putoria e Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Adriana Ferraz

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. An evaluation was made of the post-embryonic development of three species of calliphorids in pasty dog food, which has a larger facility of storage, less cost and greater validity that nature diet (meat. The experimental phases took place in different conditions of temperature (T and humidity (RH: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (3rd generation in a climatized chamber (T: 30oC, RH: 60± 10%, 14 hours photophase, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (2nd generation in environmental conditions (T: 22.3 - 24.0ºC, RH: 60 - 90%, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1st generation in environmental conditions (T: 21.5 - 25.0 ºC, RH: 60 - 90%. Meat was used as the control. Each treatment was repeated four times, with 40 neolarvae/120 grams of diet/repetition. The duration of the C. megacephala stages and the survival rate (>85% were similar to those obtained with the control. In the artificial diet, the duration of the stages of larvae and of neolarvae to adult C. macellaria were significantly larger, but were not significant for the pupal stage, which showed smaller pupae and lower survival rates. The duration of the stages in C. putoria did not differ significantly, and the pupae were significantly smaller in the artificial diet, while the survival rates of the development stages were similar in the two diets. The artificial diet proved efficient for breeding C. megacephala and C. putoria.

  13. Laboratory Colonization of the Blow Flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

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    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Hogsette, Jerome A; Butler, Jerry F

    2014-10-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were colonized so that larval growth rates could be compared. Colonies were also established to provide insight into the protein needs of adult C. rufifacies and developmental rates of the ensuing larvae. The C. megacephala and C. rufifacies laboratory colonies were reared for five and six generations, respectively, at 28°C. C. megacephala developmental mean rate from egg to adult was 20.4 ± 0.38 d. First-instar larvae emerge in 1.4 ± 0.24 d, second-instar larvae develop in 2.6 ± 0.38 d and third instars occur at 6.3 ± 0.72 d. Development from egg to pupation occurred in 12 ± 1.10 d. C. rufifacies developed at a mean rate of 16.2 ± 0.78 d from egg to adult emergence. Each stage occurred in succession from first-instar larvae 1.1 ± 0.25 d, second-instar larvae developed 2.3 ± 0.25 d later, and the third-instar larvae developed 5.7 ± 0.41 d later. The larvae pupated 10.0 ± 0.57 d after oviposition. Both of these flies can be collected in the wild and easily colonized using conditioned chicken as an oviposition and larval medium. C. megacephala apparently prefers a lower development and maintenance temperature than C. rufifacies, as evidenced by the high pupal mortality. Laboratory-reared C. rufifacies benefited from bloodmeal as a protein supplement to enhance egg production. C. rufifacies larvae were not observed preying on each other and additional larval species were not provided to serve as prey. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  14. Rearing Chrysomya megacephala on artificial diets composed of varying concentrations of albumin

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    Paloma Martins Mendonça

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala were reared on an artificial diet composed of five different concentrations of albumin (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and the control group was fed on putrid bovine meat. No larvae developed in the 2 and 10% albumin concentrations. The period from newly hatched larvae to adults reared on 4, 6 and 8% albumin was 13.1, 13.1 and 13.6 days, respectively, whereas for the control group, it was 11.2 days. Concentrations of 4, 6 and 8% albumin proved viabile for larval periods of 29.3, 44.0 and 57.3%, respectively, whereas for the control group, it was 77.3%. Pupal viability was 77.3, 36.4 and 83.7%, while for the control group, it was 84.5%; the newly hatched larvae to adult viability was 21.3, 16.0 and 48.0%, respectively, and for the control group, it was 65.3%.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera: Calliphoridae em dietas artificiais à base de albumina nas concentrações de 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% e 10% de albumina e como controle foi utilizada a carne bovina moída putrefata. Não houve desenvolvimento nas dietas de concentração 2% e 10% de albumina. A duração do período de larva a adulto foi 13,1; 13,1 e 13,6 dias, respectivamente, e a do controle foi de 11,2 dias. As dietas artificiais nas concentrações 4, 6 e 8% de albumina apresentaram viabilidades larvais de 29,3; 44,0 e 57,3%, respectivamente e o controle 77,3%; as viabilidades de pupa foram 77,3; 36,4 e 83,7% e o controle 84,5%, respectivamente; as viabilidades de larva a adulto foram 21,3; 16,0 e 48,0% e o controle foi de 65,3%, respectivamente.

  15. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae) adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Marcelo Henrique de; Von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800). For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0), and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates...

  16. Larval morphology of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) using scanning electron microscopy.

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    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Thijuk, Natchanart; Olson, Jimmy K

    2003-06-01

    The larval morphology of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is presented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Extreme similarity of this species to Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), a species usually found concurrently inhabiting decomposing human corpses in Thailand, is seen only in the first-instar larvae. The relative thickness of the branches of the posterior spiracular hairs in these species could be used to differentiate them in this developmental stage. In contrast, the "hairy" appearance of C. rufifacies allows second- and third-instar larvae to be easily distinguished. Results of this study should help in future endeavors to differentiate C. megacephala from other larvae found in decomposing human corpses in Thailand.

  17. Estudo da dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar em Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Gomes Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or to additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in Chrysomya megacephala, utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the center. To determinate the localization of each pupa, the arena was split in 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farther are those with higher weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  18. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

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    Marcelo Henrique de Carvalho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800. For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0, and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates. Populational parameters such as the intrinsic growth rate (r and the finite growth rate (lambda were calculated as well.Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae é uma espécie de mosca-varejeira de considerável importância médico-sanitária que foi introduzida acidentalmente no Brasil nos anos 70. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da ecologia populacional desta espécie, analisando aspectos demográficos de adultos mantidos sob condições experimentais. Gaiolas de C. megacephala foram montadas com quatro diferentes densidades larvais (100, 200, 400 e 800. Para cada gaiola, foram confeccionadas duas tabelas: uma com parâmetros demográficos para a estimativa da expectativa de vida na idade inicial (e0, e outra com as estimativas de taxa reprodutiva e idade média de reprodução. Parâmetros populacionais tais como a taxa intrínseca de crescimento (r e a taxa finita de crescimento (lambda foram também calculados.

  19. Morfologia e duração do desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae em condições de laboratório

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    Karine Brenda Barros-Cordeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A morfologia e o tempo de desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius criada em condições de laboratório e em dieta de carne bovina, foi descrita e comparada ao de outras espécies. Os parâmetros analisados foram à duração dos instares larvais e a morfologia. Para isso as larvas foram fixadas e preservadas em intervalos de tempo de 2 horas, desde a eclosão das larvas até a 50ª hora, a fim de se determinar o tempo de desenvolvimento de cada estágio. O tempo total de desenvolvimento larval para C. megacephala foi de 98 horas, com média de comprimento 15,51 mm. Essa espécie tem comportamento necrobiontófago e de importância sanitária e médico-legal, usada na estimativa do intervalo post-mortem em investigação criminal.Morphology and duration of the post-embryonary development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae in laboratory conditions. The morphology and developmental time of the post-embryonic stage of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius reared in laboratory on a beef diet, is described and compared to those of other blow-flies species. The parameters analyzed were the duration of the larval stages and the morphology. Larvae were fixed and preserved at 2 hours intervals, from larval eclosion until the 50th hour of life, in order to determine the duration of each stage. The total period of larval development in C. megacephala was 98 hours and their mean length was 15.51 mm. This species presents a necrobiontophagous behavior and has sanitary and medico-legal importance, being used for estimating postmortem interval in criminal investigations.

  20. Development of the Oriental Latrine Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), at Five Constant Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, S V; Slone, D H; Capinera, J L; Turco, M P

    2017-03-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a forensically important fly that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. We calculated the accumulated development time and transition points for each life stage from eclosion to adult emergence at five constant temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C. For each transition, the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles were calculated with a logistic linear model. The mean transition times and % survivorship were determined directly from the raw laboratory data. Development times of C. megacephala were compared with that of two other closely related species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Phormia regina (Meigen). Ambient and larval mass temperatures were collected from field studies conducted from 2001-2004. Field study data indicated that adult fly activity was reduced at lower ambient temperatures, but once a larval mass was established, heat generation occurred. These development times and durations can be used for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Forensic Implications of Blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae: Diptera) Development Rates Affected by Ketum Extract

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Rashid; A. S. Siti; F. R. Siti; A. R. Reena; H. S. S. Sharifah; F. Z. Nurul; W. A. Nazni

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of ketum extract on development of Chrysomya rufifacies and to analyze the presence of mitragynine in the larvae samples. 110 newly emerged first instar larvae of C. rufifacies were introduced on ketum extract-mixed cow liver at doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60g. Blowfly development rate was determined with 12 hour intervals and mitragynine in larvae was extracted and quantitated. C. rufifacies in control group took about 192 hours to complete their...

  2. Morfometría geométrica alar para la identificación de Chrysomya albiceps y C. megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae de Venezuela Geometric wing morphometrics for Chrysomya albiceps and C. megacephala identification (Diptera: Calliphoridae from Venezuela

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    Marianela Vásquez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Calliphoridae es una de las familias con el mayor número de especies de importancia forense, donde sus fases inmaduras se alimentan y desarrollan sobre material en descomposición. En Venezuela, son pocos los estudios en este taxon, sin embargo se ha reportado la dominancia del género Chrysomya sobre los otros dípteros. El objetivo fue analizar la variación morfométrica en la arquitectura alar, como herramienta de apoyo a la identificación de dípteros de importancia forense. Se fotografiaron 168 alas de C. albiceps (n=111 y C. megacephala (n=57 y se registraron configuraciones de coordenadas (x, y, se alinearon mediante Análisis Generalizado de Procrustes. Se efectuaron Análisis de Componentes Principales y comparaciones pareadas entre distancia parcial de Procrustes. El análisis estadístico de varianza encontró diferencias en el tamaño isométrico del ala (Kruskal-Wallis. El ACP mostró la separación de ambas especies, y la prueba de configuraciones determinó diferencias significativas (F Goodall. Las principales diferencias entre ambas especies se encontraron en: ruptura de la subcosta, unión de R2+3 con el borde del ala, unión dm-cu, y unión de Cu con dm-cu, lo que confirma que la morfometría alar es una herramienta idónea en la discriminación de especies de Calliphoridae.Calliphoridae is one of the families with the greatest number of species with forensic importance, which immature stages feed and develop on decaying material. in Venezuela, there are few studies on this taxon reporting the dominance of Chrysomya over other carrion flies. The goal of this study was to analyze the variations on wing morphometrics, to support the identification of two forensic flies. For this we photographed a total of 168 wings from C. albiceps (n=111 and C. megacephala (n=57. Landmark coordinate (x, y configurations were registered and aligned by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Principal Component Analysis and shape significance test

  3. Bioprospection of immature salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffe, Ronaldo Roberto Tait; de Oliveira, Stefany Rodrigues; Gigliolli, Adriana Aparecida Sinópolis; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia Colla; Conte, Helio

    2018-06-08

    Larval therapy (LT) comprises the application of sterile Calliphoridae larvae for wound debridement, disinfection, and healing in humans and animals. Larval digestion plays a key role in LT, where the salivary glands and gut produce and secrete proteolytic and antimicrobial substances. The objective of this work was to bioprospect the salivary glands of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) larvae, using ultrastructural, morphological, and histological observations, and the total protein electrophoretic profile. The salivary glands present a deferent duct, originating from the buccal cavity, which bifurcates into efferent ducts that insert through a slight dilatation to a pair of tubular-shaped tissues, united in the region of fat cells. Histologically, the secretion had protein characteristics. Cell cytoplasm presented numerous free ribosomes, autophagic vacuoles, spherical and elongated mitochondria, atypical Golgi complexes, and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. In the apical cytoplasm, secretory granules and microvilli secretions demonstrated intense protein synthesis, basal cytoplasm with trachea insertions, and numerous mitochondria. The present work described the ultrastructure and morphology of C. megacephala third instar salivary glands, confirming intense protein synthesis and the molecular weight of soluble proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemotaxonomic Profile and Intraspecific Variation in the Blow Fly of Forensic Interest Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Michele C; Antonialli-Junior, William F; Mendonça, Angélica; Michelutti, Kamylla B; Eulalio, Aylson D M M; Cardoso, Claudia A L; de Lima, Thiago; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2017-01-01

    Necrophagous insects such as blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered crucial in forensic entomology. Identification at species level and determination of larval stage are the basis for estimation of postmortem interval (PMI). Insect evidence can also be used in the determination of crime scenes, since body displacement is common. The aim of this study was to determine the chemotaxonomic profile and intraspecific variability of the forensically important blow fly Chrysomya megacephala (F. 1794). Adults were collected in the municipalities of Dourados-MS (Brazil) and Rio Claro-SP (Brazil), and then transferred to the laboratory for oviposition and development of the immature stages. Chemical analysis of cuticular compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Cuticular chemical profiles varied significantly between the two populations, as well as between developmental stages, supporting the use of these compounds as a complementary tool to help identify the species and its stages, along with geographical variability. This could greatly accelerate forensic investigations, eliminating the need to allow the fly larvae to develop until adult stage in order to confirm the species identity and sample origin. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. First report of human myiasis caused by Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Thailand, and its implication in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-07-01

    We report a forensic entomology case associated with human myiasis in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. The remains of a 53-yr-old-male were concurrently infested with third instars of the two blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), near a severe tumor lesion presented on the lower right leg. The presence of third instars, approximately 5 d old, on the day following postmortem indicated that myiasis occurred before death. This is the first report of both fly species acting as a myiasis-producing agent in Thailand. Unsynchronized data between the age of fly larvae due to myiasis premortem and verified age/ condition of the corpse suggest a potential complication and error in the estimation of postmortem interval if other predisposition fly infestations are not considered.

  6. Influence of photoperiod on body weight and depth of burrowing in larvae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae and implications for forensic entomology A influência do fotoperíodo no peso corpóreo e na profundidade de enterramento em larvas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae e as implicações para entomologia forense

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    Leonardo Gomes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete, ephemeral breeding sites for larval nutrition. After exhaustion of the food supply, the larvae disperse in search of sites to pupate or to seek other sources of food in a process known as post-feeding larval dispersal. In this study, some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in larvae of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala exposed to a variety of light: dark (LD cycles (0:0 h, 12:12 h and 24:0 h and incubated in tubes covered with vermiculite. For each pupa, the body weight and depth of burrowing were determined. Statistical tests were used to examine the relationship of depth of burrowing and body weight to photoperiod at which burrowing occurred. The study of burial behavior in post-feeding larval dispersing can be useful for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI of human corpses in forensic medicine.Moscas-varejeiras usam substratos discretos e efêmeros para nutrição larval. Após a exaustão do suprimento de comida, as larvas dispersam na procura por locais para pupação na outros recursos de alimento em um processo conhecido como dispersão larval pós- alimentar. Nesse estudo, alguns dos aspectos mais importantes desse processo foram investigados em larvas de moscas-varejeiras Chrysomya megacephala expostas a uma variação de ciclos luz: escuro (LD (0:24h, 12:12h e 24:0h e incubadas em tubos cobertos com vermiculita. Para cada pupa, o peso corpóreo e a profundidade de enterramento foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram usados para examinar a relação entre profundidade de enterramento e o peso corpóreo e o fotoperíodo a que esse enterramento ocorreu. O estudo do comportamento de enterramento na dispersão larval pós-alimentar pode ser útil para estimar o intervalo pós-morte (IPM em cadáveres humanos em medicina forense.

  7. Larval competition of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): behavior and ecological studies of two blow fly species of forensic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Shiuh-Feng; Yeh, Ta-Chuan

    2008-07-01

    Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are two predominant necrophagous species in Taiwan. Larvae of the latter can prey on other maggots, including that of their own species as facultative food. This facultative characteristic of C. rufifacies may enhance its competitive advantage over other maggots and could also change the situation of other coexisting colonies. In this study, these two species were colonized in the laboratory, and the main objective was to try to understand the effect of competition on larval development. According to our results, intraspecific competition mostly occurred as competition for food; when the rearing density was increased, larvae pupated earlier, resulting in a lighter adult dry weight. The tendencies were similar in both species, but C. megacephala developed smaller viable adults and had higher survivorship at high densities. Although C. rufifacies could use the food resource of cannibalism, its survivorship was still low. Our results also showed there were significant interactions between intraspecific competition and the density factor. However, with interspecific competition, the first-instar larvae of C. rufifacies invaded maggot masses of C. megacephala to feed together. The third instars of C. rufifacies were able to expel C. megacephala larvae from food by using a fleshy protrusion on their body surface; C. megacephala was usually forced to pupate earlier by shortening its larval stages. The results indicated that a temporary competitive advantage could only be obtained by C. rufifacies under a proper larval density. In addition, the effects on different larval stages, the responses to different competition intensities, and the temperature-dependent effects on interspecific competition are also discussed. In general, under mixed-species rearing at different temperatures and densities, larval duration, adult dry weight, and survivorship of both species decreased. However, our results did not completely agree with

  8. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lucilia sericata (Meigen and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae Development Rate and its Implications for Forensic Entomology

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    Kapil Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology is basically a science that is based on the scientific study of the invasion and succession pattern of arthropods with their developmental stages of different species found on the decomposed cadavers during legal investigations. The developmental rate of Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya megacephala was studied in beef liver for the correlation of time duration in each phase with the temperature and climate. The obtained data belong to L. sericata at temperatures between 22°C and 26°C (mean - 24°C and relative humidity 50% ±10% and C. megacephala at temperatures between 23°C and 27°C (mean - 25°C and relative humidity 55% ±10%. From the analysis of results, it was observed that in the climatic conditions of the study area, time since death assessment involving L. sericata was found to be with a potential of maximum 10-11 days and C. megacephala with 8-9 days. The data emerged as results from the present work would be beneficial for investigations involving decomposed dead body remains for the assessment of time since death.

  10. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  11. Karyotypes, constitutive heterochromatin, and genomic DNA values in the blowfly genera Chrysomya, Lucilia, and Protophormia (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, Fritz-Helmut; Schöttke, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The karyotypes and C-banding patterns of Chrysomya species C. marginalis, C. phaonis, C. pinguis, C. saffranea, C. megacephala (New Guinean strain), Lucilia sericata, and Protophormia terraenovae are described. All species are amphogenic and have similar chromosome complements (2n = 12), including an XY-XX sex-chromosome pair varying in size and morphology between species. Additionally, the C-banding pattern of the monogenic species Chrysomya albiceps is presented. The DNA contents of these and of further species Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya varipes, and Chrysomya putoria were assessed on mitotic metaphases by Feulgen cytophotometry. The average 2C DNA value of the male genomes ranged from 1.04 pg in C. varipes to 2.31 pg in C. pinguis. The DNA content of metaphase X chromosomes varied from 0.013 pg (= 1.23% of the total genome) in C. varipes to 0.277 pg (12.20%) in L. sericata; that of Y chromosomes ranged from 0.003 pg (0.27%) in C. varipes to 0.104 pg (5.59%) in L. sericata. In most species, the corresponding 5 large chromosome pairs showed similar relative DNA contents. The data suggest that the interspecific DNA differences in most species are mainly due to quantitative variation of (repetitive) sequences lying outside the centromeric heterochromatin blocks of the large chromosomes. The results are also discussed with regard to phylogenetic relationships of some species.

  12. Sequence variation in the cytochrome oxidase subunit I and II genes of two commonly found blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Hwa; Aris, Edah Mohd; Surin, Johari; Omar, Baharudin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Mohamed, Zulqarnain

    2009-08-01

    The mitochondiral DNA region encompassing the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) genes of two Malaysian blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) were studied. This region, which spans 2303bp and includes the COI, tRNA leucine and partial COII was sequenced from adult fly and larval specimens, and compared. Intraspecific variations were observed at 0.26% for Ch. megacephala and 0.17% for Ch. rufifacies, while sequence divergence between the two species was recorded at a minimum of 141 out of 2303 sites (6.12%). Results obtained in this study are comparable to published data, and thus support the use of DNA sequence to facilitate and complement morphology-based species identification.

  13. Effects on microhymenopteran progeny of different host exposure periods (Chrysomya megacephala, Calliphoridae to the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    Renata da Silva Mello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption that exposure of the host to parasitoid for long periods could provoke superparasitism, the aim of this work was to test the consequences on the immature development time, productivity of parasitoids per pupa, sex ratio and rate of parasitism of Nasonia vitripennis bred in Chrysomya megacephala pupae. Each individual pupa was placed in a glass tube with one parasitoid female for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h period of exposure, under controlled laboratory conditions. Twenty replicates of each period were performed. ANOVA with a 5% significance level was applied. The 72 h exposure caused the immature development time to increase. The mean parasitoids emergence per pupa did not vary significantly with the time of exposure. There were a significantly higher number of females than males and a trend in sex ratio deviation towards the females in all of the treatments. An increase in the number of unviable pupae rates were observed with increased exposure time.Para testar a hipótese que longos períodos de exposição do hospedeiro ao parasitóide podem ocasionar o superparasitismo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo testar as conseqüências sobre o tempo de desenvolvimento do imaturo, a produtividade de parasitóides, razão sexual e taxa de parasitismo de Nasonia vitripennis criadas em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala. Cada pupa foi individualizada e alocada em um tudo de ensaio com uma fêmea de N. vitripennis por 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h, sob condições laboratoriais controladas. Foram realizadas 20 réplicas para cada período de exposição. ANOVA com significância de 5 % foi aplicada. A exposição de 72 h causou um aumento no tempo desenvolvimento. A média de emergência de parasitóides não variou significativamente entre os tempos de exposição. Houve um número significativamente maior de fêmeas e uma tendência ao desvio da razão sexual para fêmeas em todos os tratamentos. Foi verificado um aumento no número de pupas invi

  14. [Identification of the genetic sex chromosomes in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae, Diptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1975-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown the sex determination in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies to be controlled by a cytologically not discernible homogametry-heterogamety mechanism in the female. Female-producing (thelygenic) females are assumed to be heterozygous for a dominant female sex realizer (F') with sex-predetermining properties, while male-producing (arrhenogenic) females as well as males are supposed to be homozygous for the recessive allele (f). In order to identify the genetic sex chromosomes of C. rufifacies among its five pairs of long euchromatic chromosomes (nos. 1-5) plus one pair of small heterochromatic ones (no. 6), all chromosomes were marked by reciprocal translocations induced by X-ray treatment of adult males. The inheritance of thirteen different heteroxygous translocations has been analyzed. All of the translocations (eleven) between two of the four longer chromosomes did not show sex-linked inheritance, thus demonstrating the autosomal character of the chromosomes nos 1, 2, 3 and 4. The same is true for the translocation T6 (2/6). Therefore the small heterochromatic chromosome no. 6, corresponding to the morphlogically differentiated six chromosomes within the amphogenic calliphorid species, remains without sex determining function in the monogenic fly. This could be confirmed by the analysis of monosomic (monosomy-6) and trisomic (trisomy-6) individuals, which resulted from meiotic non-disfunction in T6/+ translocation heterozygotes. Contrary to these translocations, the heteroxygous 5/2 translocation (T14) exhibited sex-linked inheritance: There was but a very low frequency (0,76 per cent) of recombinants resulting from crossing-over between F'/f and the translocation breakage point in theylgenic F1 T14/+females. The sex-linked inheritance of T14 was confirmed by the progeny of a thelygenic F1 T14/+ female crossed to a homozygous T14/T14 translocation male.Among the offspring of that F1 T14/+ female, which had received the

  15. Time of Death Revealed by Hydrocarbons of Empty Puparia of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae): A Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Xie, Liang-Xing; Luo, Hao; Wang, Dian; Lv, Jun-Yao; Xu, Xiao-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is crucial for investigating homicide. However, there are currently only limited methods available. Especially, once the PMI exceeds the duration of pre-adult development of the flies with the adult emergence, its determination is very approximate. Herein, we report the regular changes in hydrocarbon composition during the weathering process of the puparia in the field in Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), one of the common species of necrophagous flies. Correlation analysis showed that the relative abundance of nearly all of the branched alkanes and alkenes decreased significantly with the weathering time. Especially, for 9 of the peaks, over 88% of the variance in their abundance was explained by weathering time. Further analysis indicated that the regular changes caused mainly by the different weathering rates of various hydrocarbons. Additionally, the weathering rates were found to depend on the chemical structure and molecular weight of the hydrocarbons. These results indicate strongly that hydrocarbon analysis is a powerful tool for determining the weathering time of the necrophagous fly puparia, and is expected to markedly improve the determination of the late PMI. PMID:24039855

  16. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

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    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  17. The Effect of Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(®) ) on the Development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its Implications for Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baia, Tainá Costa; Campos, Alessandra; Wanderley, Bruno Mattos Silva; Gama, Renata Antonaci

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of flunitrazepam (known as "date rape drug") on the developmental cycle of Chrysomya megacephala, an important forensic species, and their possible implications for the calculation of the PMI. A 1050 C. megacephala eggs were divided into five groups with seven replications each. The eggs were placed on artificial diet prepared with four drug concentrations of flunitrazepam (4, 8, 16, and 32 ng/g), besides the control group (prepared with water). Were evaluated the potential effects on development time, weight gain, and mortality during the cycles. The drug had no significant effect on development time or mortality although it did affect the weight of the pupae and adults (Kruskal-Wallis, p Forensic Sciences.

  18. Microsatellite markers for population genetic studies of the blowfly Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Rosangela Aparecida Rodrigues

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the genetic variation and population structure of Chrysomya species is of great interest for both basic and applied research. However, very limited genetic information is available for this genus across its geographical distribution. Here, we describe 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from Chrysomya putoria with expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.1402-0.8312. These markers are of potential applied interest for forensic entomologists and for the characterisation of the genetic structure of C. putoria from recently colonised regions, with great promise for understanding the colonisation dynamics and spread of the genus Chrysomya in the New World.

  19. Some gamma radiation (60Co) effects on Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptira-Calliphoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.R.

    1987-03-01

    The effect of different gama radiation ( 60 Co) doses on Chrysomya megcephala (Fabricius) have been studied under laboratory conditions, in the Entomology Section of Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. The insects were collected close to sucking animals brooding areas, identified and reared on artificial diet, being kept in a temperature (26 +- 2 0 C) and humidity (66 +- 9%) controlled room, with 12L:12D photopheriod. A Gammabeam type 650 Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation source was used, with 28, 196x10 10 Bq activity at the beginning of the experiment. The pupae were submitted to increasing gamma radiation doses. To determine lethal doses, treatments were carried out at four different ages and to determine the sterilizing doses two-three day pupae were used. It was noted pupae radiosensitivity decreased with age, LD 50 varying from 14 - 513 Gy. The sterilizing dose for males was 40 Gy and for females 30 Gy. During the individuals life cycle, it was noted that there was a decrease in life expectancy (e x o ) of adults when the gamma radiation dose was increased. Treated males were more sensitive than females (Crossed with ''normals''), there occurring a marked reduction in the number of eggs and their viability when the used gamma radiation dose was increased. (author) [pt

  20. Oviposition preferences of two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2012-03-01

    Necrophagous blow fly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are the most important agents for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) in forensic entomology. Nevertheless, the oviposition preferences of blow flies may cause a bias of PMI estimations because of a delay or acceleration of egg laying. Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and C. rufifacies (Macquart) are two predominant necrophagous blow fly species in Taiwan. Their larvae undergo rather intense competition, and the latter one can prey on the former under natural conditions. To understand the oviposition preferences of these two species, a dual-choice device was used to test the choice of oviposition sites by females. Results showed when pork liver with and without larvae of C. rufifacies was provided, C. megacephala preferred to lay eggs on the liver without larvae. However, C. megacephala showed no preference when pork liver with and without conspecific larvae or larvae of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) was provided. These results indicate that females of C. megacephala try to avoid laying eggs around larvae of facultatively predaceous species of C. rufifacies. However, C. rufifacies showed significant oviposition preference for pork liver with larvae of C. megacephala or conspecific ones when compared with pork liver with no larvae. These results probably imply that conspecific larvae or larvae of C. megacephala may potentially be alternative food resources for C. rufifacies, so that its females prefer to lay eggs in their presence. When considering the size of the oviposition media, pork livers of a relatively small size were obviously unfavorable to both species. This may be because females need to find sufficient resources to meet the food demands of their larvae. In another experiment, neither blow fly species showed an oviposition preference for pork livers of different stages of decay. In addition, the oviposition preferences of both species to those media with larvae were greatly disturbed in a dark

  1. Effects of malathion on the insect succession and the development of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the field and implications for estimating postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Wei, Shi; Xiao-Shan, Liu; Hai-Yang, Wang; Run-Jie, Zhang

    2010-03-01

    A field study on the effects of malathion on insect succession and the development of carrion flies on corpses, and its quantitative determination from the larvae on decomposing rabbit carrion was conducted. The rabbits were treated with malathion at concentrations of lethal, half-lethal and fourth-lethal doses. Malathion altered decomposition rates and species diversity: Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was the most abundant adult species in all the experiments; third instar larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were not found on the toxic carcasses but were collected from the control; the appearance of beetles on the treated carcass was later by 1 to 3 days than on the control carcass. Development rate of the dominated species C. megacephala larvae and pupae was observed. Stepwise increases in the period of larval development, the maximum length of larvae, and weight of pupae were observed with increasing malathion concentrations. However, there was no significant difference in the duration of the pupal stage. The differences in development rate were sufficient to alter postmortem interval estimates based on larval development by 12 to 36 hours. The time of finding fresh pupae from the fourth-lethal carcass was 12 hours later than the control. Accumulations of the pesticide in larvae were observed, but no correlations were found between larvae concentrations and the initial quantity administered to rabbits.In conclusion, it is necessary to consider the effects of malathion present in decomposing bodies when estimating the postmortem interval based on entomological evidence. The results of this study have more practical implications for forensic investigations because it is under natural conditions.

  2. Dinâmica populacional e parasitismo de Himenópteros parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Population dynamics and parasitism of hymenopterans parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no período de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000 com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera, Calliphoridae e avaliar sua dinâmica populacional no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ e Jardim Zoológico, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. As coletas foram realizadas semanalmente através da exposição de larvas de terceiro instar da mosca e seu substrato de criação, carne bovina moída em putrefação. Foram identificadas três espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 (Encyrtidae, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae. Nos dois locais, T. zealandicus foi a espécie com maior taxa de parasitismo de C. megacephala, seguida por P. vindemiae e N. vitripennis. A população de parasitóides diminuiu drasticamente no verão (temperatura média = 28°C; precipitação = 6,5 mm.O pico populacional desses insetos foi verificado no final do outono e durante todo o inverno. No Jardim Zoológico, o lixo acumulado no local de coleta exerceu forte influência na dinâmica populacional dos himenópteros parasitóides identificados nesse estudo e o pico populacional de parasitismo foi verificado em junho e julho de 2000.This study was carried out from August 1999 to July 2000 to evaluate the population dynamics and to know the parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ and Jardim Zoológico, in Rio de Janeiro City. Samplings were conducted weekly with third instar larvae of the fly and putrefying ground beef. It was identified three species of hymenopterans parasitoids: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 (Encyrtidae, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae. In both sampling areas, T. zealandicus was the species with the highest parasitism rate of C

  3. Chronology of the Intrapuparial Development of the Blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Application in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Souza, Mônica; Couri, Márcia S; Aguiar, Valeria M

    2018-04-12

    Insects display different patterns of development, and blow flies have one of the most specialized patterns of intrapuparial development of all. In forensic entomology, pupae can be used as a tool to estimate the minimum postmortem time interval (minPMI). We analyzed the intrapuparial development of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Caloricidade), whose larvae had been fed pig lungs and reared in a climate-controlled room at 28°C day/26°C night, 70 ± 10% RH, and 12 h of photophase and monitored daily. After the third-instar larvae abandoned their diet, the process of pupariation and pupation was monitored. At pre-established times, five pupae were collected, euthanized, and fixed in 5% formaldehyde, inside polypropylene test tubes with caps. Since they were the first, they were classified as 0 h pupae. Twelve collections occurred until the emergence of the adults, at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 30, 48, 54, 72, 78, 96, and 99 h (n = 84). The fixed pupae were dissected under the microscope, with the aid of anatomical tweezers and hypodermic needles, and photographed. The stages of metamorphosis and the morphological alterations occurring during the process were identified, described, and recorded before and after pupation. These phases were: pupation, larval pupal apolysis, cryptocephalic, phanerocephalic, pharate adult, emergence, and adult. The cryptophalic phase occurred between 4 and 6 h after pupation; the phanerocephalic phase between 6 and 10 h after; the pharate adult phase between 24 and 96 h after; and the imago/emergence phase 99 h after pupation.

  4. Radiolabelling of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) and rearing of Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on eggs of this fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of the radiolabelling method for Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) was studied. Five males from 0 to 16 hours of age proceeding from artificial rearing, were labelled through its diet. The radioisotope used was Phosphorus-32, in the chemical form of sodium phosphate (Na 2 H 32 P O 4 ), mixed into a sucrose solution of 10% sugar. After 25 hours of labelling and feeding period, each male was placed into a cage together with 20 females of the same age, for mating. The radioactivity of each male and of the genitalia of each female was verified through liquid scintillation counting. It was observed that the males showed high activity levels, above 1,7 x 10 6 counts per minute at an average of 3,1 x 10 6 cpm. Much smaller and more variable was the activity showed by the genitalia of the females: between 123 and 35.323 cpm, at an average of 2.986 cpm. As a conclusion it could be observed that the methodology of tagging this species of flies with radioactive phosphorus is perfectly suitable for ecological and behavioural studies. During the experiments of radiolabelling it could be observed that the predator Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabr., 1801) (Col., Staphylinidae) caused severe attack to recently laid eggs of the flies. To verify the possibility of rearing this insect in the laboratory, adults of the predator were maintained into Petri dishes containing eggs and water. Eggs of the predator, newly hatched larvae, pupae and adults were transferred separately into other Petri dishes for daily observations. As results it could be observed that the egg phase of the predator was two days. The development of the larvae is 10,7 days, and 5,9 days of the pupae. As a remark it could be observed that the eggs of the flies were well accepted by the predator even if dead, after maintenance into a freezer. As a final conclusion it could be confirmed that rearing of Belonuchus rufipennis is perfectly feasible under laboratory conditions

  5. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  6. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hwan; Park, Chung Hyun; Zhang, Yong; Piao, Huguo; Chung, Ukhee; Kim, Seong Yoon; Ko, Kwang Soo; Yi, Cheong-Ho; Jo, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Juck-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI) is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd) genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera) were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae) and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science. PMID:23586044

  7. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food.

  8. Desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas crioconservadas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae: avaliação preliminar Reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae on Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae cryopreserved pupae: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria Vieira Milward-de-Azevedo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho reprodutivo de Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae previamente armazenadas a - 20ºC de temperatura, durante 77 dias, com e sem passagem prévia em nitrogênio líquido (NL por um, três e 15 minutos. O grupo controle foi caracterizado por pupas hospedeiras frescas. Os muscóides foram expostos aos parasitóides durante 72 horas. Utilizou-se a relação de uma pupa muscóide por fêmea parasitóide. A amostra de pupas frescas permitiu a emergência de 15 parasitóides/ pupa, em média, enquanto 10 parasitóides / pupa emergiram dos espécimens prévia e diretamente armazenados em freezer (-20ºC. Observou-se um acentuado decréscimo do desempenho reprodutivo dos microhimenópteros que exploraram os substratos previamente submetidos ao NL durante um, três e 15 minutos (: 6,1; 5,5 e 5,7, respectivamente. A dissecação das pupas hospedeiras revelou um expressivo número de pteromalídeos imaturos, nas amostras que foram expostas ao NL, e de adultos faratos, em todos os tratamentosThe reproductive performance of Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae was evaluated on pupae of Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae kept at -20ºC, during 77 days, with and no previous passage for liquid nitrogen (NL by one, three and 15 minutes. Control groups were characterized for fresh pupae hosts. There was one pupa for each parasitoid. The sample of fresh pupae exhibited average of 15 emergent parasitoids / pupa while pupae stored directly at freezer (-20ºC presented an average of 10 emergent parasitoids / pupa. In the samples exposed at one, three and 15 minutes in NL, accentuated decrease was observed on emergent hymenopterans reproductive performance (: 6.1; 5.5 and 5.7 respectively. The dissection of pupae revealed a large number of immature pteromalid in the groups with liquid nitrogen passage and farate adults in

  9. Mitochondrial DNA-based identification of some forensically important blowflies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preativatanyou, Kanok; Sirisup, Nantana; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2010-10-10

    Accurate identification of insects collected from death scenes provides not only specific developmental data assisting forensic entomologists to determine the postmortem interval more precisely but also other kinds of forensic evidence. However, morphological identification can be complicated due to the similarity among species, especially in the early larval stages. To simplify and make the species identification more practical and reliable, DNA-based identification is preferentially considered. In this study, we demonstrate the application of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase II (COII) sequences for differentiation of forensically important blowflies in Thailand; Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR yields a single 1324bp-sized amplicon in all blowfly specimens, followed by direct DNA sequencing. Taq(α)I and VspI predicted from the sequencing data provide different RFLP profiles among these three species. Sequence analysis reveals no significant intraspecific divergence in blowfly specimens captured from different geographical regions in Thailand. Accordingly, neighbor-joining tree using Kimura's 2-parameter model illustrates reciprocal monophyly between species. Thus, these approaches serve as promising tools for molecular identification of these three common forensically important blowfly species in Thailand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Droplet bubbling evaporatively cools a blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Guilherme; Köberle, Roland; Von Zuben, Claudio J; Andrade, Denis V

    2018-04-19

    Terrestrial animals often use evaporative cooling to lower body temperature. Evaporation can occur from humid body surfaces or from fluids interfaced to the environment through a number of different mechanisms, such as sweating or panting. In Diptera, some flies move tidally a droplet of fluid out and then back in the buccopharyngeal cavity for a repeated number of cycles before eventually ingesting it. This is referred to as the bubbling behaviour. The droplet fluid consists of a mix of liquids from the ingested food, enzymes from the salivary glands, and antimicrobials, associated to the crop organ system, with evidence pointing to a role in liquid meal dehydration. Herein, we demonstrate that the bubbling behaviour also serves as an effective thermoregulatory mechanism to lower body temperature by means of evaporative cooling. In the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala, infrared imaging revealed that as the droplet is extruded, evaporation lowers the fluid´s temperature, which, upon its re-ingestion, lowers the blowfly's body temperature. This effect is most prominent at the cephalic region, less in the thorax, and then in the abdomen. Bubbling frequency increases with ambient temperature, while its cooling efficiency decreases at high air humidities. Heat transfer calculations show that droplet cooling depends on a special heat-exchange dynamic, which result in the exponential activation of the cooling effect.

  11. Morphology and identification of first instar larvae of Australian blowflies of the genus Chrysomya of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Wallman, James F

    2016-10-01

    Light microscopy photographs, line illustrations and scanning electron microscopy micrographs are provided for first instar larvae of six Australian species of Chrysomya. All species have confirmed or potential in forensic investigations given their carrion-breeding habits. Morphology of the first instar larvae of Ch. nigripes, Ch. rufifacies, Ch. saffranea and Ch. varipes is revised, while larvae of Ch. incisularis and Ch. latifrons are described for the first time. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. Verification of earlier descriptions revealed major discrepancies between published data, especially in the case of Ch. nigripes. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of the existing information provided by numerous authors. Finally, an identification key for first instar larvae of Australian necrophagous Chrysomya is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Inheritance patterns of new genetic markers and occurrence of spontaneous mosaicism in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1996-11-27

    Four new genetic markers for Chrysomya rufifacies, a fly with maternal sex determination, were characterized. The markers include one body colour mutant, black body (bl), and three eye colour mutants, brown eye (br), apricot eye (ap), and red eye (wr). Two of the latter, br and wr, turn out to be sex linked, the others behave as autosomal genes belonging to different linkage groups. wr is a hypomorphic and w an apomorphic mutation of the white gene, w/w is epistatic to br/br and to ap/ap. A preliminary genetic linkage map with the sex realizer F'/f and the loci br and w residing in homomorphic sex chromosomes is established. Evidence is presented that crossing over is absent in the male sex. The possible causes of the spontaneous appearance of mosaics for eye colour observed among individuals heterozygous for recessive genes are discussed.

  13. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José O. de Almeida Silva; Fernando da S. Carvalho-Filho; Maria C. Esposito; Geniana A. Reis

    2012-01-01

    First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann). In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart) has only been reported from Argentina and Colom...

  14. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  15. Nutritional ecology of blowflies (Diptera, Calliphoridae: estimates of critical larval weight for pupation on two different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Silva Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under natural environmental conditions, blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral feeding resources such as decaying carcasses. Competition for food on such feeding substrates is usually very severe, and only the individuals that are capable of attaining the critical larval weight for pupation will be able to survive. This critical weight is hitherto unknown for several blowfly species; therefore, the current work is aimed at obtaining such a critical value for four blowfly species of the genera Chrysomya and Lucilia, deploying two types of feeding substrate, namely, artificial diet and macerated bovine meat. On the whole, the critical weights ranged from 30 to 35 mg. The lowest larval weight which permitted pupation was 30.0 mg for Chrysomya megacephala reared on macerated bovine meat. This species was also the best adapted to pupation at low larval weights in relation to the maximum larval weight for males. Regarding the pupation of females, the best-adapted individual was a C. albiceps specimen exhibiting a critical weight that was equal to 39.20 % of the maximum value obtained. Concerning all the species and diet types, the female individuals exhibited the lowest critical weights that produced viable pupae, probably representing an evolutionary strategy that favoured the survival of females, responsible for the egg formation, contributing to the establishment of future generations. Regarding the loss (in percentage of adult biomass in relation to the third instar larvae, the females of C. megacephala lost less weight than males in both feeding substrates. On the other hand, such a loss of weight occurred in males of C. albiceps and L. cuprina.

  16. Larvicidal effects of mineral turpentine, low aromatic white spirits, aqueous extracts of Cassia alata, and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle) on Chrysomya megacephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad W; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ihalamulla, Ranjan L; Arambewela, Lakshmi S R; Dissanayake, Roshinie D S C T

    2002-12-01

    Many methods have been employed, with variable success, in the treatment of cutaneous myiasis caused by Chrysomya species. Experiment 1: to assess the larvicidal effect of mineral turpentine (MT) and the main ingredient of MT, low aromatic white spirits (LAWS), on Chrysomya megacephala larvae in vitro. Experiment 2: to assess the larvicidal effects of aqueous extracts of winged senna (Cassia alata), and aqueous extracts, ethanolic extracts and essential oil of betel leaf (Piper betle). In experiment 1, two samples of LAWS were obtained from two industrialists (samples 1 and 2). Adult flies of C. megacephala were bred in the insectory of the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo. Petri dishes were prepared with pads of cotton wool. These cotton pads were soaked separately in MT, LAWS samples 1 and 2, and normal saline as a control. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. The activity of the larvae was observed and recorded half-hourly. MT and the two samples of LAWS were analyzed by chromatography. In experiment 2, volatile essential oil of betel was prepared using a standard steam distillation process. An ethanolic extract of betel was obtained after boiling the crushed leaf with water, and mixing the stock with ethanol. Betel oil dilutions of 1-4% were prepared using 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) as a solvent, with 0.05 g/100 mL sodium lauryl sulphate (as stabilizer) and 0.01 g/100 mL methyl paraben (as a preservative). Cotton wool swabs soaked in 1, 2, 3 and 4% essential oil of betel in 1% Tween 80 (v/v aq) prepared as above, 1, 2, 3 and 4% ethanolic extract of betel, 50 and 25% aqueous extract of C. alata, and 50 and 25% aqueous extract of betel were placed in separate Petri dishes. Ten larvae were placed in each Petri dish. 1% Tween 80 solvent with the stabilizer and the preservative, but without betel essential oil, was used as a negative control and MT was used as a positive control. Larval motility was assessed as before. MT and

  17. Study of some biological aspects of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla A.H. Al-Shareef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We reared Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 unadult stages (first larval instar, second larval instar, third larval instar and pupal stage under four constant temperatures. Results proved that increasing temperature from 20 to 25, 30 and 35 °C reduced total larval stage duration (9–6, 4.83 and 4.75 days, respectively and pupal duration (7, 5.5, 4 and 1.5 days, respectively. C. albiceps larvae at first instar reached adult stage in the longest time at 20 °C (16 days, and in the shortest time at 35 °C (6.25 days. The accumulation degree-day (ADD at 20, 25, 30, 35 °C for first larval instar were 8.86, 13.86, 18.86, 23.86 DD, for second larval instar were 10.5, 12, 17, 22 DD and for third larval instar were 35.88, 42.08, 43.97, 56.43 DD. Heat requirements for larval stage at different temperatures; 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C (49.68, 63.12, 75.01 and 97.47 DD were more than the pupal requirements at the same temperatures (39.78, 58.76, 62.73 and 31.02 DD. Total heat requirements for C. albiceps to develop from the first larval instar to adult eclosion were the lowest at 20 °C (89.46 DD and the highest at 30 °C (129.138 DD. Decreasing of temperature increased larval body length at the same age. The development curves for C. albiceps were established at four constant temperatures using larval length and the time since egg hatching.

  18. Utility of Multi-Gene Loci for Forensic Species Diagnosis of Blowflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary studies in forensic entomology exhaustively evaluate gene sequences because these constitute the fastest and most accurate method of species identification. For this purpose single gene segments, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in particular, are commonly used. However, the limitation of such sequences in identification, especially of closely related species and populations, demand a multi-gene approach. But this raises the question of which group of genes can best fulfill the identification task? In this context the utility of five gene segments was explored among blowfly species from two distinct geographic regions, China and Pakistan. COI, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), were sequenced for eight blowfly species including Chrysomya megacephala F. (Diptera: Calliphoidae), Ch. pinguis Walker, Lucilia sericata Meigen L. porphyrina Walker, L. illustris Meigen Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann, Aldrichina grahami Aldrich, and the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), from Hangzhou, China; while COI, CYTB, and ITS2 were sequenced for four species, i.e. Ch. megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, L. cuprina, and the flesh fly, Sarcophaga albiceps Meigen (Sarcophagidae), from Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. The results demonstrate a universal utility of these gene segments in the molecular identification of flies of forensic importance. PMID:21864153

  19. The dynamics of intraguild predation in Chrysomya albiceps Wied. (Diptera: Calliphoridae): interactions between instars and species under different abundances of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Gisele S; de Carvalho, Lidia R; dos Reis, Sergio F; Godoy, Wesley A C

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of larval interaction in blowflies confined with Chrysomya albiceps Wied. and C. rufifacies Maquart can be changed in response to the predatory behaviour of the two species to a contest-type process instead of the scramble competition that usually occurs in blowflies. Facultative predation is a frequent behaviour in C. albiceps and C. rufifacies that occurs as an alternative food source during the larval stage. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of intraguild predation by C. albiceps on other fly species in order to analyse interspecific and intraspecific survival in C. albiceps, C. megacephala and C. macellaria Fabricius. The experimental design of the study allowed us to evaluate how factors such as species, density and abundance of food influenced the survival of the calliphorid species. When C. albiceps was confined with C. megacephala or C. macellaria, only adults of C. albiceps survived at different larval densities and abundance of food. In addition, the survival of C. albiceps was higher in two-species experiments when compared to single species experiments. The implications of these results for the dynamics of C. albiceps were discussed.

  20. Sex ratio and dynamic behavior in populations of the exotic blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae Razão sexual e comportamento dinâmico em populações da espécie de mosca varejeira exótica Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    H. Serra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex ratio is an essential component of life history to be considered in population growth. Chrysomya albiceps is a blowfly species with a naturally biased sex ratio. In this study, we evaluated the impact of changes in sex ratio on the dynamic behavior of C. albiceps using a density-dependent mathematical model that incorporated demographic parameters such as survival and fecundity. These parameters were obtained by exponential regression, with survival and fecundity being estimated experimentally as a function of larval density. Bifurcation diagram of the results indicated the evolution of stable equilibrium points as a function of sex ratio. A continually increasing sex ratio yielded a hierarchy of bifurcating stable equilibrium points that evolved into a chaotic regime. The demographic parameters obtained by exponential regression were also changed to maximum and minimum values in order to analyze their influence on dynamic behavior with sex ratio being considered as an independent variable. Bifurcations with periodicity windows between chaos regimes were also found.A razão sexual é um componente essencial da biologia de organismos a ser considerado em crescimento populacional. Chrysomya albiceps é uma espécie de mosca varejeira que exibe um desvio na razão sexual em relação à proporção 1:1. Neste estudo avaliamos o impacto de alterações na razão sexual sobre o comportamento dinâmico de C. albiceps utilizando um modelo matemático dependente da densidade que incorpora parâmetros demográficos como sobrevivência e fecundidade. Os parâmetros foram obtidos por regressão exponencial, com sobrevivência e fecundidade sendo estimadas experimentalmente em função da densidade larval. O diagrama de bifurcação gerado pelos resultados indicou a evolução de pontos de equilíbrio estável em função da razão sexual. A sucessão contínua dos valores da razão sexual resultou em uma hierarquia de pontos de equilíbrio est

  1. First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil

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    José O. de Almeida Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae from Brazil. In addition to its native fauna, the Neotropical region is known to be inhabited by four introduced species of blow flies of the genus Chrysomya. Up until now, only three of these species have been recorded in Brazil - Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann. In South America, C. rufifacies (Macquart has only been reported from Argentina and Colombia. This study records C. rufifacies from Brazil for the first time. The specimens were collected in an area of cerrado (savanna-like vegetation in the municipality of Caxias in state of Maranhão, and were attracted by pig carcasses.

  2. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  3. Larval morphology of Chrysomya nigripes (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Boonchu, Noppawan; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Piangjai, Somsak; Sukontason, Kom

    2005-05-01

    The morphology of all instars of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a blow fly species of forensic importance, is presented with the aid of both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological features of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, and dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax are highlighted. No consistent features were found, even using SEM, for distinguishing the first instar of C. nigripes from that of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) or Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), two other commonly associated blow fly species in corpses in Thailand. Several features observed in second and third instars proved to be valuable characteristics for separating these species.

  4. A fly in the ointment: evaluation of traditional use of plants to repel and kill blowfly larvae in fermented fish.

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    Hugo J de Boer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit onto fermenting fish which results in infestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish is common and widespread in Lao PDR. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish? MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical survey throughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality and repellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L. H. Ohashi (Fabaceae, Uraria crinita (L. Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae and Bambusa multiplex (Lour. Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane, Lao PDR. RESULTS: The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, is significantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidal effect combined for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh material of T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%, and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the production of fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars.

  5. The dynamics of intraguild predation in Chrysomya albiceps Wied. (Diptera: Calliphoridae): interactions between instars and species under different abundances of food

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Gisele S.; Carvalho, Lidia R. de; Reis, Sergio F. dos; Godoy, Wesley A.C.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of larval interaction in blowflies confined with Chrysomya albiceps Wied. and C. rufifacies Maquart can be changed in response to the predatory behaviour of the two species to a contest-type process instead of the scramble competition that usually occurs in blowflies. Facultative predation is a frequent behaviour in C. albiceps and C. rufifacies that occurs as an alternative food source during the larval stage. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of intraguild predation by...

  6. The dynamics of intraguild predation in Chrysomya albiceps Wied. (Diptera : Calliphoridae): Interactions between instars and species under different abundances of food

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Gisele S.; de Carvalho, Lidia R.; dos Reis, Sergio F.; Godoy, Wesley A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of larval interaction in blowflies confined with Chrysomya albiceps Wied. and C. rufifacies Maquart can be changed in response to the predatory behaviour of the two species to a contest-type process instead of the scramble competition that usually occurs in blowflies. Facultative predation is a frequent behaviour in C. albiceps and C. rufifacies that occurs as an alternative food source during the larval stage. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of intraguild predation by...

  7. An update of the blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of the Galápagos Islands, and first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) from mainland Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, Tarek I; Sinclair, Bradley J

    2013-12-19

    Seven species of Calliphoridae are reported from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador: Lucilia pionia (Walker), L. setosa (James), L. deceptor (Curran), L. eximia (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia is newly recorded from the islands. Lucilia sp. near pionia is recorded from the island of Española. The distribution and collection records of these species are discussed and listed, and a key to their identification is provided. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is reported for the first time from mainland Ecuador and the identification of this species is outlined.

  8. The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, Calliphoridae s. l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado e Castro, Catarina; Szpila, Krzysztof; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rego; Silva, Isamberto; Serrano, Artur R.M.; Boieiro, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and distribution of blowflies from the Madeira Archipelago is updated. New and interesting findings are reported for poorly studied islands and islets of this archipelago, together with a brief analysis of the diversity of Macaronesian Calliphoridae s. l. Seven blowfly species were collected during this study, including the first records of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794) and Stomorhina lunata (Fabricius, 1805) from Porto Santo, and of Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata and Stomorhina lunata from Desertas Islands. The presence of Calliphora loewi Enderlein, 1903 in Madeira Laurisilva forest is discussed and its first instar larva is redescribed, revealing important differences in relation to its original description. An identification key to the adult Madeiran blowflies is provided for the first time. PMID:27917052

  9. Identification of forensically important Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species using the second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark

    2008-05-20

    The identification of forensically important blowflies of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may be hampered by their close morphological similarities, especially as immatures. In contrast to most previous studies, the utility of a nuclear rather than mitochondrial genetic marker was investigated to solve this problem. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was amplified and sequenced from all nine Chrysomya species known from Australia. Difficulties encountered with direct sequencing of ITS2 for Chrysomya flavifrons necessitated cloning prior to sequencing for this species, which revealed a low level (0-0.23%) of intraindividual variation. Five restriction enzymes (DraI, BsaXI, BciVI, AseI and HinfI) were identified that were able to differentiate most members of the genus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR-RFLP analysis revealed characteristic restriction profiles for all species except the closely related species pairs Chrysomya latifrons+Chrysomya semimetallica and Chrysomya incisuralis+Chrysomya rufifacies. Ch. incisuralis and Ch. rufifacies were able to be separated using the size differences resulting from amplification of the entire ITS region. The lack of intraspecific ITS2 sequence variation among eight Ch. incisuralis specimens was verified by the identical restriction profiles generated from these specimens. A DNA-based approach, such as PCR-RFLP, has the capacity to be useful for the identification of forensic entomological evidence in cases where morphological characters are unreliable.

  10. Effects of larval population density on rates of development and interactions between two species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in laboratory culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbrod, J R; Goff, M L

    1990-05-01

    Rearing of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in pure cultures at seven different population densities (larvae per gram of liver) demonstrated an inverse relationship between density and the duration of the larval stage. In pure cultures, larval mortality rates decreased with increasing density until an optimum density was reached (8 larvae/g liver for C. megacephala and 10 larvae/g liver for C. rufifacies), then decreased directly with density. Puparial and adult weights varied inversely with density for both species in pure cultures. Internal feeding mass temperatures were above ambient temperatures for all cultures, with maximum temperatures recorded in cultures with 20 and 40 larvae/g liver for G. rufifacies and C. megacephala, respectively. In paired encounters, larvae of C. rufifacies were cannibalistic and predatory on C. megacephala larvae after the first instar. In mixed cultures of these two species, the larval mortality of C. rufifacies remained relatively stable, whereas the larval mortality of C. megacephala increased directly with population density.

  11. Observations of the third instar larva and puparium of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Piangjai, S; Boonsriwong, W; Bunchu, N; Ngern-klun, R; Vogtsberger, R C; Sukontason, K

    2006-11-01

    Observations on the ultrastructure of the third instar larva and puparium of the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are presented utilizing both light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results of this study indicate that the shape of the intersegmental spines between the pro- and mesothorax markedly differ from other blow fly species (Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Lucilia cuprina) in being broad-based with sharp recurved tips. Other characters such as the posterior spiracles, number of papillae on the anterior spiracles, oral grooves, and posterior spiracular hairs also differ. The strong and robust mouthhooks may explain the ability of larvae to penetrate deeply into human tissues. Perforated sieve plates covered with antler-like projections were observed within the anterior spiracles of the puparium of C. bezziana. The posterior spiracular discs each bear three spiracular slits with approximately 2-microm wide openings that were viewed either open or closed by a membrane underneath. This study expands our knowledge of the fine details of the external morphology of both the third instar larva and puparium of C. bezziana, which is an obligatory myiasis-producing species in many regions. A key to differentiate the third instar of C. bezziana from other blow flies in Thailand is given.

  12. Insecticidal effects of Ocimum sanctum var. cubensis essential oil on the diseases vector Chrysomya putoria

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    Idelsy Chil-Núñez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: The blowfly Chrysomya putoria is widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region and, besides transmitting pathogens; they could cause secondary myiasis. Botanical insecticides provide an alternative to synthetic pesticides because the excessive use of synthetic insecticides resulted in a progressive resistance of the pests to these chemicals, diminishing their effectiveness and generating consequences with negative environmental impact. The essential oil extracted from Ocimum sanctum (basil has showed insecticidal activity against some insects but has no reported studies on the activity of this plant against flies. Aims: To evaluate the insecticidal effects of Ocimum sanctum var. cubensis Gomes essential oil on the post embryonic development of Chrysomya putoria. Methods: The colonies of Chrysomya putoria were established and maintained at the Laboratório de Entomologia Médica e Forense (FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The basil essential oil was tested in six concentrations (4.13, 8.25, 20.63, 41.25, 61.87 and 80,25 mg/mL. Mortality and changes in life cycle were recorded daily. Results: β-caryophyllene, β-selinene and eugenol, were the main constituents of the basil essential oil. The experiments demonstrated that in all concentrations tested, this essential oil shortening the duration of all post embryonic stages having a direct impact in the viability of this fly estimating the LC50 in 7.47 mg/mL of concentration. In addition, the essential oil caused morphological alterations in abdomen, wings and ptilinum at lower concentrations. Conclusions: This essential oil emerge as a good option for the control of the disease vector blowfly Chrysomya putoria.

  13. Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrheal diseases.

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    Steven W Lindsay

    Full Text Available Chrysomya spp are common blowflies in Africa, Asia and parts of South America and some species can reproduce in prodigious numbers in pit latrines. Because of their strong association with human feces and their synanthropic nature, we examined whether these flies are likely to be vectors of diarrheal pathogens.Flies were sampled using exit traps placed over the drop holes of latrines in Gambian villages. Odor-baited fly traps were used to determine the relative attractiveness of different breeding and feeding media. The presence of bacteria on flies was confirmed by culture and bacterial DNA identified using PCR. A median of 7.00 flies/latrine/day (IQR = 0.0-25.25 was collected, of which 95% were Chrysomya spp, and of these nearly all were Chrysomya putoria (99%. More flies were collected from traps with feces from young children (median = 3.0, IQR = 1.75-10.75 and dogs (median = 1.50, IQR = 0.0-13.25 than from herbivores (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-0.0; goat, horse, cow and calf; p<0.001. Flies were strongly attracted to raw meat (median = 44.5, IQR = 26.25-143.00 compared with fish (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-19.75, ns, cooked and uncooked rice, and mangoes (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-0.0; p<0.001. Escherichia coli were cultured from the surface of 21% (15/72 agar plates of Chrysomya spp and 10% of these were enterotoxigenic. Enteroaggregative E. coli were identified by PCR in 2% of homogenized Chrysomya spp, Shigella spp in 1.4% and Salmonella spp in 0.6% of samples.The large numbers of C. putoria that can emerge from pit latrines, the presence of enteric pathogens on flies, and their strong attraction to raw meat and fish suggests these flies may be common vectors of diarrheal diseases in Africa.

  14. Molecular identification of Malaysian Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) using life stage specific mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian, A M

    2013-06-01

    DNA identification of blow fly species can be a very useful tool in forensic entomology. One of the potential benefits that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has offered in the field of forensic entomology is species determination. Conventional identification methods have limitations for sibling and closely related species of blow fly and stage and quality of the specimen used. This could be overcome by DNA-based identification methods using mitochondrial DNA which does not demand intact or undamaged specimens. Mitochondrial DNA is usually isolated from whole blow fly and legs. Alternate sources for mitochondrial DNA isolation namely, egg, larva, puparium and empty puparium were explored in this study. The sequence of DNA obtained for each sample for every life cycle stage was 100% identical for a particular species, indicating that the egg, 1st instar, 2nd instar, 3rd instar, pupa, empty puparium and adult from the same species and obtained from same generation will exhibit similar DNA sequences. The present study also highlighted the usefulness of collecting all life cycle stages of blow fly during crime scene investigation with proper preservation and subsequent molecular analysis. Molecular identification provides a strong basis for species identification and will prove an invaluable contribution to forensic entomology as an investigative tool in Malaysia.

  15. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically Important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M N; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K; Carter, David O; Turner, Helen

    2016-11-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analyzing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis, or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically important blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins. We established fixation and mounting protocols, defined a set of measurable morphometric criteria and captured developmental transitions of 2nd instar to 3rd instar using both fluorescence microscopy and anti-ecdysone receptor Western blot analysis. The data show that these instars can be distinguished on the basis of robust, nonbleaching, autofluorescence of larval posterior spiracles. High-content imaging techniques using confocal microscopy, combined with morphometric and biochemical techniques, may therefore aid forensic entomologists in estimating TOC. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Larval Distribution and Behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Relative to Other Species on Florida Black Bear (Carnivora: Ursidae) Decomposing Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiger, S L; Hogsette, J A; Butler, J F

    2014-02-01

    Larval interactions of dipteran species, blow flies in particular, were observed and documented daily over time and location on five black bear carcasses in Gainesville, FL, USA, from June 2002 - September 2004. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) or Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) larvae were collected first, after which Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) oviposited on the carcasses in multiple locations (i.e., neck, anus, and exposed flesh) not inhabited already by the other blow fly larvae. Within the first week of decomposition, C. rufifacies larvae grew to ≥12 mm, filling the carcasses with thousands of larvae and replacing the other calliphorid larvae either through successful food source competition or by predation. As a result, C. macellaria and C. megacephala were not collected past their third instar feeding stage. The blow fly species, C. megacephala, C. macellaria, Lucilia caeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), and C. rufifacies, completed two developmental cycles in the 88.5-kg carcass. This phenomenon might serve to complicate or prevent the calculation of an accurate postmortem interval.

  17. Distinction among the puparia of three blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae frequently found on unburied corpses

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    JA Amorim

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Calliphorid larvae are important in the decomposition of carrion. Since these larvae are present in the primary stages of succession on carcasses, they may be important indicators of death time and the movement of corpses in homicide investigations. In this study we examined the morphological differences among puparia of Chrysomya megacephala, C. putoria and Cochliomyia macellaria. Puparia of the three species (N=30, each were obtained from the F2 generation bred in culture medium at 25° C, and 60% relative humidity on a 12 h photoperiod. The interspecific differences found were related to the conspicuousness of six tubercles located in the region near the posterior spiracles and to the distance between the two peritrema involving the spiracles. The latter were (mean ± SD 15.2 ± 3.1 mum for C. megacephala, 18.8 ± 2.8 mum for C. putoria and 16.5 ± 3.5 mum for C. macellaria. The results of the present study may be useful in forensic entomology.

  18. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) as a forensically-important fly species in Thailand: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, K L; Sukontason, K; Narongchai, P; Lertthamnongtham, S; Piangjai, S; Olson, J K

    2001-12-01

    The first documented use of the larvae of the hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies, for estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) of a decomposing human corpse in Thailand is reported. A honeycomb-like wound observed on one leg of the corpse was infested with numerous third-stage C. rufifacies larvae. Based on the pupae and larvae present in accordance with the ambient temperature previously recorded, six days postmortem was estimated for a corpse at the time of its discovery and investigation. Since adult C. rufifacies specimens have been collected in many parts of both urban and mountainous areas in Thailand, more biological information about this blowfly species is needed to increase the accuracy of forensic investigations where the fly is present.

  19. Developmental rates of immatures of three Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under the effect of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and methylphenidate hydrochloride associated with phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Fábio; Alonso, Marcela A; Souza, Carina M; Thyssen, Patrícia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2014-05-01

    Entomotoxicology is focused on obtaining data on necrophagous entomofauna, for criminal investigations purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of methylphenidate hydrochloride, phenobarbital, and their association on the developmental rate, larval and pupal survivorship, and the interval of emergence of adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Considering the therapeutic dose (TD) of methylphenidate hydrochloride (0.29 mg/Kg), the concentrations tested were 10× TD, 50× TD, and 100× TD. For phenobarbital, the concentrations used were 1× TD (=150 mg/Kg), 3.3× TD, and 6.7× TD. For the association of the drugs, the combinations used were 10× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 1× TD-phenobarbital, 50× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 3.3× TD-phenobarbital, and 100× TD-methylphenidate hydrochloride plus 6.7× TD-phenobarbital. The control group, without addition of drug, was maintained under the same conditions of temperature (25 ± 1 °C), humidity (70 ± 10%), and photoperiod (12 h). Specimens of each group were weighed every 12 h until pupariation. The developmental rate of the three Chrysomya species immatures was monitored. For C. albiceps the developmental time was delayed in 24 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 12 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The effect was observed only at specific ages for C. megacephala, without altering the developmental time. For C. putoria, the developmental time was delayed in 12 h for methylphenidate hydrochloride group and in 24 h for the phenobarbital and the drugs association groups. The emergence interval was similar among all experimental groups, but larval and pupal viabilities were affected in different ways.

  20. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Coevolving Symbiont-Harboring Insect Trypanosomatids, and Their Neotropical Dispersal by Invader African Blowflies (Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcilla C. Borghesan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas, and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46% over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas. Among Angomonas spp., A. deanei was much more common than the two-other species, A. desouzai and A. ambiguus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS rDNA sequences revealed a marked genetic diversity within A. deanei, which comprised four infraspecific genotypes (Dea1–Dea4, and four corresponding symbiont genotypes (Kcr1–Kcr4. Host and symbiont phylogenies were highly congruent corroborating their co-divergence, consistent with host-symbiont interdependent metabolism and symbiont reduced genomes shaped by a long coevolutionary history. We compared the diversity of Angomonas/symbionts from three genera of blowflies, Lucilia, Chrysomya and Cochliomyia. A. deanei, A. desouzai, and A. ambiguus were found in the three genera of blowflies in South America. In Africa, A. deanei and A. ambiguus were identified in Chrysomya. The absence of A. desouzai in Africa and its presence in Neotropical Cochliomyia and Lucilia suggests parasite spillback of A. desouzai into Chrysomya, which was most likely introduced four decades ago from Africa into the Neotropic. The absence of correlation between parasite diversity and geographic and genetic distances, with identical genotypes of A. deanei found in the Neotropic and Afrotropic, is consistent with disjunct distribution due to the recent human-mediated transoceanic dispersal of Angomonas by Chrysomya. This

  1. Polytene chromosomes of monogenic and amphogenic Chrysomya species (Calliphoridae, Diptera): analysis of banding patterns and in situ hybridization with Drosophila sex determining gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalla, S

    1994-03-01

    Standard maps for the five banded polytene chromosomes found in trichogen cell nuclei of the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies and the amphogenic Chrysomya pinguis are presented. The chromosomes are highly homologous in the two species; differences in banding patterns are predominantly caused by one pericentric and ten paracentric inversions. In chromosome 5 of the amphogenic Chrysomya phaonis, also analysed in this paper, an additional paracentric inversion was observed. The distribution of species specific inversions indicates that the monogenic C. rufifacies is phylogenetically older than the amphogenic species. The maternal sex realizer locus F'/f on polytene chromosome 5 of C. rufifacies is not associated with a structural heterozygosity. Chromosome pair 6 of C. rufifacies and the sex chromosome pair of C. pinguis are under-replicated in polytene nuclei; they consist of irregular chromatin granules, frequently associated with nucleolus material. Evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in Chrysomya is probably correlated with heterochromatin accumulation. A search for sex determining genes in Chrysomya was initiated using sex determining sequences from Drosophila melanogaster for in situ hybridization. The polytene band 41A1 on chromosome 5 of monogenic and amphogenic Chrysomya species contains sequences homologous to the maternal sex determining gene daughterless (da). Homology to the zygotic gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) of Drosophila is detected in band 39A1 on chromosome 5 of C. rufifacies. The findings reported here are the first evidence for a possible homology between the da gene of Drosophila and the maternal sex realizer F' of C. rufifacies. An hypothesis for the evolution of the maternal effect sex determination of C. rufifacies is proposed.

  2. Spatio-temporal dynamics and transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations in Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Wesley Augusto Conde Godoy

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of parameters that govern the stability of population size in Chrysomya albiceps and describe its spatial dynamics was evaluated in this study. The dynamics was modeled using a density-dependent model of population growth. Our simulations show that variation in fecundity and mainly in survival has marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations. C. albiceps exhibits a two-point limit cycle, but the introduction of diffusive dispersal induces an evident qualitative shift from two-point limit cycle to a one fixed-point dynamics. Population dynamics of C. albiceps is here compared to dynamics of Cochliomyia macellaria, C. megacephala and C. putoria.

  3. Field assessment of synthetic attractants and traps for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, R; Green, P E; Brown, G W; Spradbery, J P; Tozer, R S; Mayer, D G; Tack Kan, Y

    2012-07-06

    The performance of newly developed trapping systems for the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana has been determined in field trials on cattle farms in Malaysia. The efficacy of non-sticky traps and new attractants to trap C. bezziana and non-target flies was compared with the standard sticky trap and Swormlure. The optimal trap was a modified LuciTrap(®) with a new attractant mixture, Bezzilure-2. The LuciTrap/Bezzilure-2 caught on average 3.1 times more C. bezziana than the sticky trap with Swormlure (PChrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies with factors of 5.9 and 6.4, respectively. The LuciTrap also discriminates with factors of 90 and 3.6 against Hemipyrellia sp. and sarcophagid flesh flies respectively, compared to the sticky trap. The LuciTrap/Bezzilure-2 system is recommended for screwworm fly surveillance as it is more attractive and selective towards C. bezziana and provides flies of better quality for identification than the sticky trap. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sasha C; Magni, Paola; Dadour, Ian; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842. Puparia were dissected to determine the presence/absence of eight internal morphological development characteristics (legs, wings, labella, abdominal segments, antennae, thoracic bristles, orbital/facial bristles and eye colour and arista). Based on linear discriminant analysis and independent validation of HSI data, reflectance features from puparia could be used to successfully (1) distinguish the two species (classification accuracy = 92.5 %), (2) differentiate dorsal and ventral sides of puparia (classification accuracy C. dubia = 81.5 %; Ch. rufifacies = 89.2 %) and (3) predict the presence of these morphological characteristics and therefore the developmental stage of puparia (average classification accuracy using dorsal imaging: C. dubia = 90.3 %; Ch. rufifacies = 94.0 %). The analytical approach presented here provides proof of concept for a direct puparial age relationship (i.e. days since the onset of pupation) between external puparial reflectance features and internal morphological development. Furthermore, this approach establishes the potential for further refinement by using a non-invasive technique to determine the age and developmental stage of blowflies of forensic importance.

  5. Beyond barcoding: a mitochondrial genomics approach to molecular phylogenetics and diagnostics of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Lambkin, Christine L; Batterham, Philip; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark; Whiting, Michael F; Yeates, David K; Cameron, Stephen L

    2012-12-15

    Members of the Calliphoridae (blowflies) are significant for medical and veterinary management, due to the ability of some species to consume living flesh as larvae, and for forensic investigations due to the ability of others to develop in corpses. Due to the difficulty of accurately identifying larval blowflies to species there is a need for DNA-based diagnostics for this family, however the widely used DNA-barcoding marker, cox1, has been shown to fail for several groups within this family. Additionally, many phylogenetic relationships within the Calliphoridae are still unresolved, particularly deeper level relationships. Sequencing whole mt genomes has been demonstrated both as an effective method for identifying the most informative diagnostic markers and for resolving phylogenetic relationships. Twenty-seven complete, or nearly so, mt genomes were sequenced representing 13 species, seven genera and four calliphorid subfamilies and a member of the related family Tachinidae. PCR and sequencing primers developed for sequencing one calliphorid species could be reused to sequence related species within the same superfamily with success rates ranging from 61% to 100%, demonstrating the speed and efficiency with which an mt genome dataset can be assembled. Comparison of molecular divergences for each of the 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, at a range of taxonomic scales identified novel targets for developing as diagnostic markers which were 117-200% more variable than the markers which have been used previously in calliphorids. Phylogenetic analysis of whole mt genome sequences resulted in much stronger support for family and subfamily-level relationships. The Calliphoridae are polyphyletic, with the Polleninae more closely related to the Tachinidae, and the Sarcophagidae are the sister group of the remaining calliphorids. Within the Calliphoridae, there was strong support for the monophyly of the Chrysomyinae and Luciliinae and for the sister

  6. DIVERSITY OF NECROPHAGOUS BLOWFLY (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE OF MEDICAL AND VETERINARY IMPORTANCE IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS IN CÓRDOBA (ARGENTINA

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    Moira Battán-Horenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex nature of urban environments can have different effects on species diversity and composition. The aim of this work was to characterize the assemblage of Calliphoridae regarding its richness, abundance, and synanthropy in Córdoba City, Argentina. Three sampling sites differing in their distance to the border of the city and degree of urbanization were selected. In each site, collections were carried out with 12 traps baited with cow liver (200 g per trap that were operated for five consecutive days during three different times of the year, in April, June and August 2013. A total of 341 adult calliphorids from nine species, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, L. eximia (Wiedemann, L. cuprina (Wiedemann, L. cluvia (Walker, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, C. megacephala (Fabricius and C. chloropyga (Wiedemann were collected. Lucilia sericata was the most abundant species followed by C. vicina. Species diversity, composition and abundance changed between sites, richness being lowest at the most urbanized site. All species are cosmopolitan except Sarconesia chlorogaster, whose distribution is restricted to South America. These results are consistent with a homogenization of the fauna in urban environments.

  7. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

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    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer.We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein.A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  8. Analysis of the predetermining effect of a sex realizer by ovary transplantations in the monogenic flyChrysomya rufifacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, Fritz-Helmut

    1980-02-01

    In the heterozygousF'/f female-producing females of the strictly monogenic blowflyChrysomya rufifacies the gene product of the dominant or epistatic female sex realizerF' which causes sexpredetermination is thought to be synthesized either by cells of the germ line (oocytes, nurse cells or oogonia) or by somatic cells and then transferred into the oocytes. To determine the possible site of synthesis, reciprocal transplantations were made of prepupal ovaries between female-producing (thelygenic; t) and male-producing (arrhenogenic; a) females ofChrysomya rufifacies. In another series of experiments prepupal host females of the wild t-type and a-type were each provided with one additional ovary either from a0type (f/f) or a t-type (F'/f) prepupa (neither were distinguishable by their phenotypes). In all these experiments the donor females were marked by the recessive sex-linked mutation 'white' (w/w); white eyes, white Malpighian tubules). In a considerable number of cases the implanted ovaries were in contact with the host's own oviduct and grew normally, but the rate of hatched adults was somewhat reduced. Crosses between such host females andw/w males (f/f) produced female or male offspring with white eyes from the eggs of the implantedw/w ovary, as well as flies with wild-type eyes (+/w) which had developed in the host's own ovaries. In all cases so far examined, the genetically thelygenic (or arrhenogenic) host females with an additional ovary implanted from an arrhenogenic (thelygenic) donor, produced progeny of both sexes: sons (daughters) from the eggs of the donor's ovary and daugthers (sons) from the eggs of the host's own gonads.These results demonstrate that the ovaries of the t-females ofChrysomya rufifacies at least from the early prepupal stage, are autonomous for the product of theF' gene. Transplantations of the premordial germ cells (pole cells) are planned to find out whether the predeterminingF' gene product is synthesized before the prepupal

  9. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonia de Castro; UNIRIO; Cardoso, Debora; UESB; Lessa, Cláudia Soares dos Santos; UNIRIO; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo Efrain; UFRRJ; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães; UNIRIO

    2013-01-01

    The present note reports the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) in Southeastern Brazil, in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. The collecting was conducted with Diptera traps using fresh fish as bait. Primeiro Registro de Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) no Sudeste do Brasil Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Serop&...

  10. The sense of water in the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Paolo; Masala, Carla; Falchi, Angela Maria; Sollai, Giorgia; Liscia, Anna

    2010-12-01

    The gustatory system of the blowfly, Protophormia terraenovae, is a relatively simple biological model for studies on chemosensory input and behavioral output. It appears to have renewed interest as a model for studies on the role of water channels, namely aquaporins or aquaglyceroporins, in water detection. To this end, we investigated the presence of water channels, their role in "water" and "salt" cell responsiveness and the transduction mechanism involved. For the first time our electrophysiological results point to the presence of an aquaglyceroporin in the chemoreceptor membrane of the "water" cell in the blowfly taste chemosensilla whose transduction mechanism ultimately involves an intracellular calcium increase and consequently cell depolarization. This hypothesis is also supported by calcium imaging data following proper stimulation. This mechanism is triggered by "water" cell stimulation with hypotonic solutions and/or solutes such as glycerol which crosses the membrane by way of aquaglyceroporins. Behavioral output indicates that the "sense" of water in blowflies is definitely not dependent on the "water" cell only, but also on the "salt" cell sensitivity. These findings also hypothesize a new role for aquaglyceroporin in spiking cell excitability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Function and coding in the blowfly H1 neuron during naturalistic optic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Kern, R.; Schwerdtfeger, G.; Egelhaaf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli, reconstructed from measured eye movements of flying blowflies, were replayed on a panoramic stimulus device. The directional movement-sensitive H1 neuron was recorded from blowflies watching these stimuli. The response of the H1 neuron is dominated by the response to fast

  12. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon

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    Eduardo Amat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%. A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembrinella benoisti (Séguy 1925 and Hemilucilia sp., whose occurrence was observed only in a single locality. Apparently, Amazon rivers are not efficient geographical barriers to influence the current composition of necrophagous blowfly assemblages. Also, most of the blowfly species did not show a noticeable specificity for any specific forest among the interfluvial areas of the ombrophilous forest. Finally, an updated checklist of necrophagous blowfly species of the Amazonas state in Brazil is presented.

  13. Wolbachia and genetic variability in the birdnest blowfly Protocalliphora sialia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, E; Bartos, J; Emerson, K; Whitworth, T; Werren, J H

    2003-07-01

    Wolbachia are widespread cytoplasmically inherited bacteria that induce various reproductive alterations in host arthropods, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), an incompatibility between sperm and egg that typically results in embryonic death. CI has been invoked as a possible mechanism for reproductive isolation and speciation in arthropods, by restricting gene flow and promoting maintenance (and evolution) of genetic divergence between populations. Here we investigate patterns of Wolbachia infection and nuclear and mitochondrial differentiation in geographical populations of the birdnest blowfly Protocalliphora sialia. Blowflies in western North America are infected with two A-group Wolbachia, with some individuals singly and others doubly infected. Individuals in eastern North America mostly show single infections with a B-group Wolbachia. Populations in the Midwest are polymorphic for infections and show A- or B-group infection. There is a low level of mitochondrial divergence and perfect concordance of mitochondrial haplotype with infection type, suggesting that two Wolbachia-associated selective sweeps of the mitochondrion have occurred in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of nuclear genetic variation shows genetic differentiation between the eastern-Midwestern and western populations. Both Midwestern and eastern flies infected with A-Wolbachia show eastern nuclear genetic profiles. Current results therefore suggest that Wolbachia has not acted as a major barrier to gene flow between western and eastern-Midwestern populations, although some genetic differentiation between A-Wolbachia infected and B-Wolbachia infected individuals in eastern-Midwestern populations cannot be ruled out.

  14. Photoreceptor Redox State Monitored In Vivo by Transmission and Fluorescence Microspectrophotometry in Blowfly Compound Eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    The transmission and fluorescence of the compound eye of living, intact blowflies Calliphora erythrocephala, mutant chalky, were studied microspectrophotometrically. Transmission spectra were recorded under four conditions. The fly was either in the normal air environment or in a nitrogen

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Chrysomya albiceps and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J D; Sperling, F A

    1999-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA was used to infer the phylogeny and genetic divergences of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and C. rufifacies (Maquart) specimens from widely separated localities in the Old and New World. Analyses based on a 2.3-kb region including the genes for cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II indicated that the 2 species were separate monophyletic lineages that have been separated for > 1 million years. Analysis of DNA, in the form of either sequence or restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) data, will permit the identification of problematic specimens.

  16. Field calibration of blowfly-derived DNA against traditional methods for assessing mammal diversity in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Gan, Han Ming; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Wilson, John-James

    2016-11-01

    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.

  17. Focus stacking technique in identification of forensically important Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae

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    Noha A. Elleboudy

    2016-09-01

    Recommendations: Further studies on the blowfly species that occur in Egypt and documentation of their key for identification are recommended to facilitate the diverse applications of these important insects in forensic investigations.

  18. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Geoffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of

  19. Morphological comparison between Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae) puparia, forensically important blow flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Bunchu, Nophawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kom

    2006-12-20

    In Thailand, the hairy maggots of the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, are of forensic importance. Both flies are closely related species, not only in the morphological appearance of their larvae and puparia, but also on the aggressive feeding habit of the former. In our continuing studies of forensically important flies, identification of immature ones needs particular attention. In this study, we reported the morphological comparison between the puparia of these two blow fly species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Observation revealed that the cuticular sculpture of tubercles along the dorsal and lateral segments had markedly different features: with C. rufifacies having many sharp spines assembling only at the tip, while of C. villeneuvi bore stout spines throughout the tubercle. A larger number of globules at the bubble membrane on the dorsolateral border of the fifth segment was found in C. villeneuvi (average 225) than in C. rufifacies (average 35), and more papillae was observed on the anterior spiracle in C. villeneuvi (13-15) than in C. rufifacies (9-12). However, the morphology of distinct net-like patches of the integument and structure of the posterior spiracle of both species were almost identical. Morphological comparison in this study permitted identification of the puparia of both fly species, particularly in areas where they co-exist.

  20. Effects of temperature on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, J H; Butler, J F

    1997-05-01

    Growth curves were studied for the egg, larva, and pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) under mean cyclic temperatures of 15.6, 21.1, 26.7, and 35.0 degrees C and a constant temperature of 25.0 degrees C. Development from egg to adult under all regimes ranged from 190 to 598 h. A constant temperature of 25 degrees C produced a range of pupation times from 134 to 162 h, with adult emergence ranging from 237 to 289 h. The maximal preferential temperature of 35.1 degrees C was determined for maggots using a gradient system. Highly predictable developmental time, minimal larval length variation, and low cohort variation emphasize the utility of this species in entomological-based postmortem interval determinations. Therefore, C. rufifacies should be of primary forensic importance when recovered alone or in conjunction with other species of Calliphoridae.

  1. Surface ultrastructure of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Lertthamnongtham, Sirisuda; Kuntalue, Budsabong; Thijuk, Natchanart; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K

    2003-05-01

    The surface ultrastructure of all larval instars of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is described by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological changes were greatest from the first to the second instar, but less from the second to the third instar. Most of these changes involved the structure of the anterior spiracle, posterior spiracle, integument of the body, and mouthhooks. Modification of the mouthhooks, especially in the third instar, are helpful in explaining the ferocious feeding ability of the older maggots. The common name of "hairy-maggot" for C. rufifacies is only appropriate for the second and third instars because of their elongated tubercles along the body, whereas this name is not descriptive of the first instar that lack tubercles.

  2. Oral Myiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana in Anterior Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, and severe halitosis. It arises from invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals by maggots or larvae of certain dipterian flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. We hereby report a rare case of oral myiasis in a 70-year-old female with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which numerous live maggots (larvae and seen emerging out and discuss the definition, etiology, predisposing factors, classification, and management of the same. Furthermore, the life cycle of the causative organism in the present case, that is, Chrysomya bezziana, has also been discussed.

  3. Time Spent by Calliphora Spp. Blowflies on Standard Traps Baited with Liver and Ammonia

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    Florica Morariu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of blowflies from the Calliphoridae family cause fly strikes in sheep and other species of economic importance. Impaired wool, decrease of ewe fertility, and even death can occur in heavy infestations. This paper describes the Calliphora spp. blowflies’ behavior on and around a trap baited with liver and ammonia before they entered in. More than half of Calliphora spp. blowflies (50.88% stayed a medium time (eight to fourteen seconds on the standard trap, while only 1.79% of them spent a longer time (26 to 30 seconds before entering the trap.

  4. RECEPTOR POTENTIAL AND LIGHT-INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL ACTIVATION IN BLOWFLY PHOTORECEPTOR MUTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOJET, MH; TINBERGEN, J; STAVENGA, DG

    1991-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurements of the receptor potential and the light-induced mitochondrial activation were performed in white-eyed blowflies Calliphora vicina, mutant chalky, and Lucilia cuprina, mutants w(F) and w'nss. The intensity dependence and the temporal dynamics were investigated. 2. The

  5. Exponential Extinction of Nicholson's Blowflies System with Nonlinear Density-Dependent Mortality Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generalized Nicholson’s blowflies system with patch structure and nonlinear density-dependent mortality terms. Under appropriate conditions, we establish some criteria to guarantee the exponential extinction of this system. Moreover, we give two examples and numerical simulations to demonstrate our main results.

  6. Light Reduces the Excitation Efficiency in the nss Mutant of the Sheep Blowfly Lucilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barash, S.; Suss, E.; Stavenga, D.G.; Rubinstein, C.T.; Selinger, Z.; Minke, B.

    1988-01-01

    The nss (no steady state) phototransduction mutant of the sheep blowfly Lucilia was studied electrophysiologically using intracellular recordings. The effects of the nss mutation on the receptor potential are manifested in the following features of the light response. (a) The responses to a flash or

  7. On the computations analyzing natural optic flow : Quantitative model analysis of the blowfly motion vision pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, J.P.; Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Ritter, H.; Egelhaaf, M.

    2005-01-01

    For many animals, including humans, the optic flow generated on the eyes during locomotion is an important source of information about self-motion and the structure of the environment. The blowfly has been used frequently as a model system for experimental analysis of optic flow processing at the

  8. High innate attractiveness to black targets in the blue blowfly, Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Otranto, Domenico; Caselli, Alice; Romano, Donato; Remorini, Damiano; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Stefanini, Cesare; Mele, Marcello; Canale, Angelo

    2018-06-01

    Calliphora vomitoria is a myiasis-causing fly in many animal species including humans. The control of blowflies is still anchored on the use of chemicals. However, mass trapping and lure-and-kill techniques represent a promising alternative to pesticides. Visual and olfactory cues are the main stimuli routing the fly's landing behavior. Notably, color attractiveness has been barely explored in flies of medical and veterinary importance, with special reference to blowflies. In this study, we investigated the innate color preferences in C. vomitoria adults, testing binary combinations of painted targets under laboratory conditions. The identity of tested species C. vomitoria was confirmed by DNA sequencing (18S and cox1 genes). C. vomitoria flies showed a significant preference for black colored targets in all tested binary color combinations, after 5, 15, 30 and 60 min of exposure. Black targets were significantly preferred over blue, red, yellow and white ones. Spectral characteristics of all tested color combinations were quantified and the innate attraction of blowflies towards black targets was discussed in relation to their behavioral ecology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on innate color preferences in the Calliphora genus. Our findings can be useful to develop new, cheap and reliable monitoring traps as well as "lure and kill" tools to control blowfly pests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  10. Chrysomya albiceps and C. rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): contribution to an ongoing taxonomic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawi, T I; Greenberg, B

    1993-05-01

    Until recently, the two biologically equivalent blow flies Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) had disjunct distributions outside the Americas; the former was Palaearctic, the latter Australasian and Oriental. The two species are now spreading throughout the Americas and coexist in Argentina. The predatory "hairy" larvae of both species are difficult to separate, which could result in taxonomic errors. New diagnostic characters are presented to differentiate the third instars of the two species. The usefulness of the prostigmatic bristle as a diagnostic taxonomic character in distinguishing adults of these species is questioned.

  11. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. As coletas foram realizadas com auxílio de armadilhas para dípteros e a isca utilizada foi peixe fresco.

  12. Phenotypic polymorphism of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) may lead to species misidentification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Maicon D; Savino, André G; Paulo, Daniel F; Mendes, Felipe M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana M L; Queiroz, Margareth M C; Thyssen, Patricia J; Linhares, Arício X

    2015-01-01

    Species identification is an essential step in the progress and completion of work in several areas of biological knowledge, but it is not a simple process. Due to the close phylogenetic relationship of certain species, morphological characters are not always sufficiently distinguishable. As a result, it is necessary to combine several methods of analysis that contribute to a distinct categorization of taxa. This study aimed to raise diagnostic characters, both morphological and molecular, for the correct identification of species of the genus Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) recorded in the New World, which has continuously generated discussion about its taxonomic position over the last century. A clear example of this situation was the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Brazilian territory in 2012. However, the morphological polymorphism and genetic variability of Chrysomya albiceps studied here show that both species (C. rufifacies and C. albiceps) share very similar character states, leading to misidentification and subsequent registration error of species present in our territory. This conclusion is demonstrated by the authors, based on a review of the material deposited in major scientific collections in Brazil and subsequent molecular and phylogenetic analysis of these samples. Additionally, we have proposed a new taxonomic key to separate the species of Chrysomya found on the American continent, taking into account a larger number of characters beyond those available in current literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.P.; Sands, D.P.A.; Spradbery, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for 32 P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

  14. Larvicidal efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle on the larvae of the old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhana April

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Chrysomya bezziana are the commonest cause of wound myiasis in some parts of the world. This obligatory parasite is important in humans and in commercial livestock. Kumarasinghe et al have reported that essential oil of betel leaf (EOBL is larvicidal to C. megacephala but there are no publications on its effect on C. bezziana . This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle against the larvae of C. bezziana in vitro . EOBL was prepared at the Industrial Technology Institute Colombo, Sri Lanka, according to a standard protocol. The experiment on larvae was carried out at the Research Institute for Veterinary Sciences in Bogor, Indonesia. EOBL concentrations of 2%, 3% and 4% were prepared with Tween 80. Two ml of 4%, 3% and 2% EOBL in 1% Tween 80 (v/v/aq were poured into separate Petri dishes. Ten 1st and 2nd instar larvae were placed in each Petri dish. Asuntol (Chaumaphos 1% was used as positive control and distilled water with 1% tween 80 was the negative control. Larval mortality was assessed half-hourly. The experiment was repeated five times and averages were compared. Sustained immobility of the larvae, after exposure to the relevant substances was considered as death. The efficacy of EOBL depended on, the stages of C. bezziana larvae and the concentration. With 4% EOBL, all first instar larvae were killed within two hours and the second instar larvae were killed by four hours. The positive control showed no mortality until four hours but all larvae were weak, from the first 30 minutes. In the negative control, larvae were mobile and active. EOBL 3% killed all the first instar larvae by 150 minutes and 74% of the second instar at four hours. By 210 minutes, 2% preparation had killed 100% of the first instars. EOBL is an effective larvicidal for C. bezziana first and second instar larvae in vitro . This natural product has a great potential to be developed as a novel larvicide against this

  15. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  16. Identifikasi komponen aktif minyak atsiri daun Vitex trifolia Linn yang berperan sebagai penolak serangga terhadap Chrysomya sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Soewandi J. S

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Dried leves powder of Vitex trifolia, Linn, is used tradisionally as insect repellent. The activity of the essential oil (isolated from the leaves and this fractions were studied as a repellent against Chrysomya sp. Fraction E contained a single component and has proven as the most effective to repel Chrysomya sp.According to the spectra of UV, IR, and GC-MS analysis, the single component of fraction E was identified as 4-methyl-1-(methylethy3-cyclohexnol.

  17. Calcium inhibition of the NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, B A; Thomas, B J; Sacktor, B

    1984-08-25

    Free Ca2+ was shown to inhibit the NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria. Inhibition by free Ca2+ concentrations of 40 microM or greater was found in the absence or presence of ADP and citrate, two known activators of the enzyme. Calcium decreased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate, the magnesium DL-isocitrate chelate; no change in the apparent V of the reaction was observed. Calcium was inhibitory when activity was measured in the presence of fixed concentrations of magnesium DL-isocitrate chelate in the presence of several fixed concentrations of either free isocitrate3-, an activator, or free Mg2+, an inhibitor of the enzyme. That NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria was not activated by micromolar free Ca2+ is consistent with the view that calcium does not play a role in regulating the flux through the tricarboxylate cycle in this species.

  18. Head orientation of walking blowflies is controlled by visual and mechanical cues

    OpenAIRE

    Monteagudo Ibarreta, José; Lindemann, Jens Peter; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2017-01-01

    During locomotion, animals employ visual and mechanical cues in order to establish the orientation of their head, which reflects the orientation of the visual coordinate system. However, in certain situations, contradictory cues may suggest different orientations relative to the environment. We recorded blowflies walking on a horizontal or tilted surface surrounded by visual cues suggesting a variety of orientations.We found that the different orientations relative to gra...

  19. Hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu

    2003-11-01

    We reported on the hairy maggot of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, collected from a human corpse in Thailand. Although the general morphology of the third instar closely resembled the more common hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the spines along the tubercles of each body segment could be used as a feature to distinguish between these species, with those of C. villeneuri bearing sharp-ended spines that encircle the entire tubercle. Not only has the resemblance of a hairy appearance between C. villeneuvi and C. rufifacies larvae been documented but also their similarity in predacious feeding behavior. The differentiation between these two species is necessary for post-mortem interval estimation in the corpse.

  20. On the predation of fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) by a spider, Oxyopes sp. Latreille (Oxyopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.

  1. Genetic structure, nestmate recognition and behaviour of two cryptic species of the invasive big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fournier

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are recognized as a major cause of biodiversity decline and have considerable impact on the economy and human health. The African big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is considered one of the world's most harmful invasive species.To better understand its ecological and demographic features, we combined behavioural (aggression tests, chemical (quantitative and qualitative analyses of cuticular lipids and genetic (mitochondrial divergence and polymorphism of DNA microsatellite markers data obtained for eight populations in Cameroon. Molecular data revealed two cryptic species of P. megacephala, one inhabiting urban areas and the other rainforests. Urban populations belong to the same phylogenetic group than those introduced in Australia and in other parts of the world. Behavioural analyses show that the eight populations sampled make up four mutually aggressive supercolonies. The maximum distance between nests from the same supercolony was 49 km and the closest distance between two nests belonging to two different supercolonies was 46 m. The genetic data and chemical analyses confirmed the behavioural tests as all of the nests were correctly assigned to their supercolony. Genetic diversity appears significantly greater in Africa than in introduced populations in Australia; by contrast, urban and Australian populations are characterized by a higher chemical diversity than rainforest ones.Overall, our study shows that populations of P. megacephala in Cameroon adopt a unicolonial social structure, like invasive populations in Australia. However, the size of the supercolonies appears several orders of magnitude smaller in Africa. This implies competition between African supercolonies and explains why they persist over evolutionary time scales.

  2. Efeito do tipo de substrato para pupação na dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae Effect of the substrate for pupation in the postfeeding larval dispersal of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    Full Text Available As moscas-varejeiras utilizam substratos discretos e efêmeros para posturas dos ovos e para alimentação das larvas. Após a exaustão de recursos, as larvas começam a procurar por um sítio de pupação no habitat ou por mais fonte de alimento adicional (dispersão larval pós-alimentar. No entanto, o tipo de substrato de dispersão pode afetar este processo; assim, procurou-se avaliar o comportamento de dispersão de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 por meio da localização das pupas em arenas circulares preenchidas com vermiculita, comparando-se com outros estudos feitos em serragem. As arenas foram dividas em 72 setores iguais a partir do centro de dispersão para facilitar a localização das pupas no substrato. A massa, a distância de dispersão do centro de arena, e a profundidade de cada pupa foram determinadas e verificou-se a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância do centro de dispersão. Pôde-se constatar que as larvas com menor massa foram as que percorreram maior distância do centro de dispersão, como também foi observado em estudos anteriores que empregaram outros substratos. O sítio de pupação da maioria dos indivíduos foi entre 2 e 8 cm de profundidade (média 4,96±2,97 cm. Tal estudo do processo de dispersão pode ser útil na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM para corpos humanos em investigações médico-criminais.Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for pupation sites or for additional food sources, a process referred to as postfeeding larval dispersal. However the nature of the substrate can affect this process. Some of the most important aspects of this behavior were here investigated in Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, utilizing a circular arena covered with vermiculite allowing the post-feeding larval dispersal from the center and to comparing with others studies that used

  3. A note on the global attractivity of a discrete model of nicholson's blowflies

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    B. G. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we further study the global attractivity of the positive equilibrium of the discrete Nicholson's blowflies model Nn+1−Nn=−δNn+pNn−ke−aNn−k,        n=0,1,2,…. We obtain a new criterion for the positive equilibrium N∗ to be a global attractor, which improve the corresponding results obtained by So and Yu (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 193 (1995, 233–244.

  4. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  5. Na+/K(+)pump activity in photoreceptors of the blowfly Calliphora : A model analysis based on membrane potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerster, U; Stavenga, DG; Backhaus, W

    Na+/K+-pump activity and intracellular Na+ and K+ concentration changes in blowfly photoreceptors are derived from intracellular potential measurements in vivo with a model based on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz theory for membrane currents. The relation between the intracellular Na+ concentration and

  6. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of neurons in the blowfly optic lobe reacting with antisera to RFamide and FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nässel, D R; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Johansson, K U

    1988-01-01

    Different antisera to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRFamide, and its fragment, RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2), label a distinct population of neurons in the optic lobe of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala. Seven morphological types of RFamide/FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons could be ...

  7. A review of postfeeding larval dispersal in blowflies: implications for forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde; von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-05-01

    Immature and adult stages of blowflies are one of the primary invertebrate consumers of decomposing animal organic matter. When the food supply is consumed or when the larvae complete their development and migrate prior to the total removal of the larval substrate, they disperse to find adequate places for pupation, a process known as postfeeding larval dispersal. Several important ecological and physiological aspects of this process were studied since the work by Green (Ann Appl Biol 38:475, 1951) 50 years ago. An understanding of postfeeding larval dispersal can be useful for determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human cadavers in legal medicine, particularly because this interval may be underestimated if older dispersing larvae or those that disperse longer, faster, and deeper are not taken into account. In this article, we review the process of postfeeding larval dispersal and its implications for legal medicine, in particular showing that aspects such as burial behavior and competition among species of blowflies can influence this process and consequently, the estimation of PMI.

  8. Blowfly puparia in a hermetic container: survival under decreasing oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Despite widely accepted standards for sampling and preservation of insect evidence, unrepresentative samples or improperly preserved evidence are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Here, we report the results of laboratory studies on the survival of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) intra-puparial forms in hermetic containers, which were stimulated by a recent case. It is demonstrated that the survival of blowfly intra-puparial forms inside airtight containers is dependent on container volume, number of puparia inside, and their age. The survival in both species was found to increase with an increase in the volume of air per 1 mg of puparium per day of development in a hermetic container. Below 0.05 ml of air, no insect survived, and above 0.2 ml of air per 1 mg of puparium per day, survival reached its maximum. These results suggest that blowflies reveal a single, general pattern of survival under decreasing oxygen conditions and that this pattern is a product of number of developing insects, their age and the initial amount of available air. Implications for forensic entomology are discussed.

  9. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.Desenvolvimento intra-pupal de fêmeas de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae A cronologia e as mudanças morfológicas que ocorrem durante o desenvolvimento intra-pupal de Chrysomya albiceps são descritos com base em 254 espécimes criados em laboratório. As larvas foram obtidas a partir os ovos postos por uma única fêmea. As pré-pupas foram separadas de acordo com a redução do comprimento larval, o grau de pigmentação e esclerotização da cutícula, depois da formação das pupas, 10 indivíduos foram fixados em solução de Carnoy e conservados em etanol

  10. Effect of Gamma Rays on Some Biological performance of Chrysomya bezziana(VILL.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Seria, M. H.; Al Taweel, A.A.; Ahmed, A.M.; Al Izzi, M.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different does of gamma rays on some biological performance of Old World Screwworm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana exposed as pupae at different ages were investigated. Results reveealed that the ages of produced adults were effected significantly as the dose of gamma rays increased and the ages of irradiated pupae decreased While no effect was observed in sex ratio of emerged adults at any ages of irradiated pupae. The results have also showed that the female fecundity and percent of egg hatch were significantly effected as the dose of gamma ray increased for both type of mating investigated.

  11. Records of Chrysomya albiceps in Northern Italy: an ecological and forensic perspective

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    S Vanin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the carrion-breeding insects present at a local level is important and necessary for defining the post-mortem interval. Climate changes and globalisation are affecting species ranges and population dynamics. In this note, we report the incidence of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae on dead human bodies and carrion in Northern Italy. These data confirm the spread of this species in the Northern regions. The partial sequencing of a 583-bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of an Adriatic population did not reveal any difference compared to the same genomic region in the African and South American populations of this species.

  12. Blowfly succession from possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) carrion in a sheep-farming zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, M D; Allen, G R; Horton, B J

    2006-12-01

    The significance of brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr (Diprotodontia: Phalangeridae) carcasses to the succession and production of Diptera species and its relevance to fly strike management in Tasmania, Australia was examined. Calliphora stygia (Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were found to be the most abundant and Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) always the least abundant (Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Chrysomya varipes (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and putative tertiary flies (Hydrotaea rostrata Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Muscidae)) to the number of C. vicina or C. stygia to emerge. There was enormous variability in the numbers of secondary/tertiary fly species to emerge from carcasses (0-11 450) that negatively correlated with the proportion of all flies to emerge that were primary, and with the mean size of adult L. sericata. Although carcass temperatures, especially those with a large larval population, were elevated, this did not appear to result in significant pre-adult fly mortality. The most important primary fly strike species L. cuprina was only found in insignificant numbers, whereas three other members of the fly strike fauna C. stygia, L. sericata and Ch. rufifacies did use possum carrion as an important breeding resource, but left implications for fly strike management inconclusive.

  13. Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Pujol-Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intra-puparial development of the females of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The chronology and morphological changes that take place during intra-puparial development of Chrysomya albiceps is described based on 254 specimens reared in the laboratory. Larvae were obtained from the eggs laid by a single female. The pre-pupae were separated according to the reduction of larval length and the degree of pigmentation and sclerotization of the cuticle. After pupation, 10 individuals were fixed in Carnoy's solution and preserved in 70% ethanol, 10 individuals were fixed every 3 hours up to complete the first 24 hours (n = 80, the remaining individuals were fixed every six hours up to the 90th hour (n = 110 when 54 females emerged. The pupae were immersed in 5% formic acid for 48 hours and maintained in 70% ethanol, and then dissected and analyzed. C. albiceps shows four intra-puparial stages, each of which were described and compared with those described for Musca domestica, Calliphora erythrocephala, Sarcophaga bullata, Cuterebra tenebrosa, Oestrus ovis and Dermatobia hominis. Four developmental stages may be described: (1 the larva-pupa apolysis, after three hours; (2 the criptocephalic pupa, after six hours; (3 the phanerocephalic pupa, after nine hours; (4 the pharate pupa, after nine hours. The pharate adult is completely formed after 81 hours.

  14. Towards the automated identification of Chrysomya blow flies from wing images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, N; Hall, M J R; Wardhana, A H

    2018-04-15

    The Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is an important agent of traumatic myiasis and, as such, a major human and animal health problem. In the implementation of OWSF control operations, it is important to determine the geographical origins of such disease-causing species in order to establish whether they derive from endemic or invading populations. Gross morphological and molecular studies have demonstrated the existence of two distinct lineages of this species, one African and the other Asian. Wing morphometry is known to be of substantial assistance in identifying the geographical origin of individuals because it provides diagnostic markers that complement molecular diagnostics. However, placement of the landmarks used in traditional geometric morphometric analysis can be time-consuming and subject to error caused by operator subjectivity. Here we report results of an image-based approach to geometric morphometric analysis for delivering wing-based identifications. Our results indicate that this approach can produce identifications that are practically indistinguishable from more traditional landmark-based results. In addition, we demonstrate that the direct analysis of digital wing images can be used to discriminate between three Chrysomya species of veterinary and forensic importance and between C. bezziana genders. © 2018 The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2018 Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Potential use of hydrocarbons for aging Lucilia sericata blowfly larvae to establish the postmortem interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies on Diptera have shown the potential for the use of cuticular hydrocarbons' analysis in the determination of larval age and hence the postmortem interval (PMI) for an associated cadaver. In this work, hydrocarbon compounds, extracted daily until pupation from the cuticle of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae), have been analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show distinguishing features within the hydrocarbon profile over the period of the larvae life cycle, with significant chemical changes occurring from the younger larvae to the postfeeding larvae. Further interpretation of the chromatograms using principal component analysis revealed a strong correlation between the magnitudes of particular principal components and time. This outcome suggests that, under the conditions of this study, the cuticular hydrocarbons evolve in a systematic fashion with time, thus supporting the potential for GC-MS analysis as a tool for establishing PMI where such a species is present. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Volatile organic compounds released by blowfly larvae and pupae: new perspectives in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickx, C; Dekeirsschieter, J; Brostaux, Y; Wathelet, J-P; Verheggen, F J; Haubruge, E

    2012-06-10

    To evaluate postmortem intervals (PMIs), one should take into account the determined age of necrophagous flies present on the cadaver. However, PMI determination needs further improvement, and rapid and accurate approaches have therefore to be developed. While previous studies have focussed on insect cuticular hydrocarbons, here we explore the volatile profile released by larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We monitored changes in volatile compounds daily, by headspace solid-phase microextraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Branched and unbranched hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and acids were identified, and the volatile profile was shown to vary, in both composition and quantity, with the age of the larva/pupa under investigation. We concluded, based on the analysis of the released volatile organic compounds, that it is possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated PMI, through improved estimation of the age of blowflies present on the cadaver. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Would Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae be a beneficial species? Seria Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae uma espécie benéfica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Madeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya albiceps (Widemann develops on animal carcasses and may cause secondary myiases. An adult female Merino sheep presented a lesion of roughly circular shape with a 7.5cm radius in the anterior part of the thorax. A large number of second-instar larvae was removed from the lesion in addition to first-instar larvae from the wool. A third-instar larva was also obtained from the same lesion site and in the laboratory gave origin to a Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel adult insect. The larvae retrieved from the lesion were nurtured in laboratory. Pairs consisting of 100 individuals were formed with the adult specimens obtained from the larvae and kept in two cages. In all of the 800 adults reared in the laboratory and examined (100 per generation the propisternal seta was absent in the spiracle on both sides, this trait was highly stable. The 200 larvae examined, 15 per generation, did not present spines in the column of the ventral process of the penultimate abdominal segment and the column of the ventral process was triangular and the apex of the column process presented numerous spines. These characteristics allowed identifying these specimens as C. albiceps. However, since C. albiceps has the ability to damage intact tissues, it may be causing relevant aggravation when associated with C. hominivorax and can not be considered innocuous.Chrysomya albiceps (Widemann é uma mosca que se desenvolve em carcaças e opcionalmente pode causar miíase secundária. Larvas de segundo estádio foram removidas de uma lesão existente em uma ovelha da raça Merino em Botucatu. Entre a lã, ao redor da lesão, foram encontradas larvas de primeiro estádio. Também no interior da lesão foi obtida uma larva de terceiro estádio. As larvas foram mantidas em laboratório e delas obtidos insetos adultos, com 50 casais formados e mantidos em gaiolas por oito gerações. De cada geração, 100 adultos eram sacrificados e examinados morfologicamente, com os

  18. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    OpenAIRE

    Toru eMaeda; Miwako eTamotsu; Ryohei eYamaoka; Mamiko eOzaki

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nec...

  19. BEHAVIOR AND CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride AFTER PASSAGE IN Chrysomya albiceps

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    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride are entomopathogenic fungi with proved action against several species of insects. In this work, the behavior and cytology of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (PL43 and M. flavoviride var. flavoviride (CG291 were evaluated after the passage in eggs, larvae and adults Chrysomya albiceps, an important causer of secondary myiais. The experiment was carried out under an acclimatized environment's humidity and temperature of 60 ± 10% and 28 ± 1oC. The most expressive results of the biological parameters studied (percentage of germination, quantity of conidia, quantity and diameter of colonies were reached from re-isolated fungi of larvae. No significant differences were observed in the cytological aspects of the life cycle of the fungi post-passage in eggs, larvae and adults. These results suggest the possibility of the use of the fungi in the control of C. albiceps fly.

  20. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Taweel, Ayad A.; Al-Izzi, Mohammed A.J.; Jassim, Fadhil A.

    2000-01-01

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  1. Morphology of second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton (Diptera: Calliphoridae), a fly species of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Narongchai, Paitoon; Samai, Wirachai; Boonchu, Noppawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda

    2005-11-25

    The morphology of the second and third instars of Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, a fly species of forensic importance, was presented by use of light microscopy. Both instars were of hairy appearance, bearing elongated tubercles along the abdominal and caudal segments. The anterior spiracle had 13-15 papillae. Minute dark spots were observed to thoroughly cover the tubercle's surface, with 4-6 strong dark tips. Regarding the third instar, the intersegmental spines between the prothorax and mesothorax were heavily pigmented. The posterior spiracle had a thick and heavily pigmented incomplete peritreme. The surface and tip of the tubercles was covered with heavily pigmented sharp spines. The integument of the body was covered with numerous distinct net-like patches. A comparison with another well-known hairy maggot, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), was discussed.

  2. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically-important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)*

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical me...

  3. The effect of temperature on development of Sarconesia chlorogaster, a blowfly of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheta, Melise Cristine; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; Moura, Mauricio Osvaldo

    2015-12-01

    The blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is of limited forensic use in South America, due to the poorly known relationship between development time and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine development time of S. chlorogaster at different constant temperatures, thereby enabling the forensic use of this fly. Development time of this species was examined by observing larval development at six temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 °C). The thermal constant (K), the minimum development threshold (t 0), and development rate were calculated using linear regressions of the development time interval at five temperatures (10-30 °C). Development interval from egg to adult varied from 14.2 to 95.2 days, depending on temperature. The t0 calculated for total immature development is 6.33 °C and the overall thermal constant is 355.51 degree-days (DD). Temperature affected the viability of pupae, at 35 °C 100 % mortality was observed. Understanding development rate across these temperatures now makes development of S. chlorogaster a forensically useful tool for estimating postmortem interval.

  4. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelder, Mark P.; McCreadie, John W.; Major, Clinton S.

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA) during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart). Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., C...

  5. Calliphoridae (Diptera en parches de Selva Pedemontana con distinto grado de intervención antrópica en Tucumán (Argentina Calliphoridae (Diptera in pedemontane forest patches with different degrees of human intervention in Tucumán (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía M. Olea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de la Argentina, se encuentra la ecoregión de las Yungas, donde existe escasa información ecológica sobre Calliphoridae. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre la riqueza, la composición y la abundancia de Calliphoridae en tres parches selváticos, en áreas con distinto grado de urbanización. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente desde noviembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010 en tres localidades: San Miguel de Tucumán (sitio urbano, Nueva Esperanza (sitio rural y El Taficillo (selva. Se registraron 8 especies: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello y Calliphora nigribasis Macquart. Para las especies más abundantes, se calculó el Índice de Sinantropía (IS. La asociación entre la abundancia de las especies y los sitios fue examinada mediante un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP. Lucilia cluvia fue dominante en todos los sitios y muestras, con una leve predominancia hacia sectores menos afectados por la urbanización. Los resultados del presente estudio reflejan la composición de los ensambles de Calliphoridae representativos de la Selva Pedemontana de las Yungas de Tucumán, caracterizados por una fuerte dominancia de especies del genero Lucilia.The Yungas ecoregion is located in the northwest of Argentina, where the ecological information on Calliphoridae is scarce. The aim of this work was to provide the information on richness, composition and abundance of Calliphoridae along urban-rural gradients in the Yungas. Monthly samples were obtained between November 2009 and May 2010 from three localities: San Miguel de Tucumán (urban site, Nueva Esperanza (rural site and El Taficillo (forest. Eight blowfly species were collected: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya

  6. Effects of the antibiotics Gentamicin on the postembryonic development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; Silva, Débora C; Figueiredo, Adriana L; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Aguiar, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Development changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in Chrysomya rufifacies larvae: potential for determining larval age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Ye, G Y; Hu, C; Xu, X H; Li, K

    2006-12-01

    Age determination is the basis of determining the postmortem interval using necrophagous fly larvae. To explore the potential of using cuticular hydrocarbons for determining the ages of fly larvae, changes of cuticular hydrocarbons in developing larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were investigated using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This study showed that the larvae produced cuticular hydrocarbons typical of insects. Most of the hydrocarbons identified were alkanes with the carbon chain length of 21-31, plus six kinds of alkenes. The hydrocarbon composition of the larvae correlated with age. The statistical results showed that simple peak ratios of n-C29 divided by another eight selected peaks increased significantly with age; their relationships with age could be modelled using exponential or power functions with R(2) close to or > 0.80. These results suggest that cuticular hydrocarbon composition is a useful indicator for determining the age of larval C. rufifacies, especially for post-feeding larvae, which are difficult to differentiate by morphology.

  8. Effects of temperature and tissue type on Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Macquart) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2014-12-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a forensically important fly often encountered on human and other vertebrate remains in temperate and tropic regions throughout the world including Australia, Asia, Central America and North America. C. rufifacies was reared under controlled laboratory conditions on three muscle types (i.e., porcine, equine and canine) at three temperatures (i.e., 20.8, 24.8 and 28.3°C). Rate of larval weight gain across time was statistically significant between muscle types (P≤0.0001) and approaching significance across time between temperatures (P=0.0511). This research represents the first development study for C. rufifacies from central Texas, USA and the first study to examine the impact of tissue type on its development. Furthermore, these data, when compared to those available in the literature, indicate developmental differences that could be due to genetic differences in populations or possibly methods employed during the studies. Caution should be emphasized when applying development data for this species from one region to forensic investigations in other ecoregions as such differences in development based on tissue fed upon by larvae, population genetics, and methodologies used in the studies could represent error in estimating the time of colonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human wound colonization by Lucilia eximia and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): myiasis, perimortem, or postmortem colonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Whitworth, Terry L; Phatak, Darshan R

    2014-05-01

    The infestation of human or animal tissues by fly larvae has been given distinctive terminology depending on the timing and location of colonization. Wounds and orifices colonized by Diptera in a living human or animal are typically referred to as myiasis. When the colonization occurs after death, it is referred to as postmortem colonization and can be used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. What happens when the human, as in the case presented here, has a necrotic limb while the human remains alive, at least for a short period of time? The case presented here documents perimortem wound colonization by Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) and the considerations for approximating development temperatures and estimating the time of colonization (TOC). This represents the first record of L. eximia in human myiasis in the United States and the first record of the co-occurrence of L. eximia and C. rufifacies in human myiasis in the United States. The TOC was estimated using both ambient and body temperature. Insect colonization before death complicates the estimation of TOC and minimum postmortem interval and illustrates the problem of temperature approximation in forensic entomology casework.

  10. SUSCEPTIBILIDADE DE Chrysomya albiceps A Beauveria bassiana EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHRYSOMYA ALBICEPS TO BEAUVERIA BASSIANA IN LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Célia Rodrigues Athayde

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann é um importante vetor de doenças de animais e humanos, e também causador de miíases secundárias. Avaliou-se a patogenicidade de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, in vitro, sobre ovos, larvas e adultos em condições de laboratório climatizado sob a temperatura de 28 ± 1 °C. Foram feitas suspensões de conídios (104, 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios.mL-1, para análise dos parâmetros biológicos. No bioensaio com ovos, o percentual de eclosão variou de 84,81% a 97,22%. No bioensaio com larvas, o período de pré-pupa variou de 1 a 1,04 e de pupa, de 5,00 a 5,09 dias; o percentual de emergência de adultos a partir de larvas tratadas variou de 30,88% a 80,82%. No bioensaio com adultos, a longevidade para machos e fêmeas foi de 4,51 a 6,77 e 10,19 a 14,67 dias, respectivamente; a mortalidade acumulada no 7° dia variou de 47,50 % a 81,20% para machos e de 23,70 % a 55,00% dias para fêmeas; o período de postura variou de 10 a 17,75 dias e o percentual de larvas eclodidas a partir de fêmeas infectadas variou de 71,39% a 91,25%.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Fungo entomopatogênico, parâmetros biológicos, patogenicidade.

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann is an important vector of animal and diseases as well as causer of secondary myiasis. In order to minimize the effect of the problems caused by C. albiceps, the pathogenicity of the Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin (URM 3447, in vitro, over eggs, larvae and adults in acclimatized laboratorial conditions under the temperature of 28 ± 1 °C was evaluated. Suspensions of conidia (104, 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia.mL-1

  11. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Walker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for <3% of total flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the

  12. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon M; Schwyn, Daniel A; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-03-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the insect flight motor.

  13. Effects of methamphetamine and its primary human metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the development of the Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Christina; Keller, Paul A; Nugraha, Ari S; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    The larvae of necrophagous fly species are used as forensic tools for the determination of the minimum postmortem interval (PMI). However, any ingested drugs in corpses may affect larval development, thus leading to incorrect estimates of the period of infestation. This study investigated the effects of methamphetamine and its metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the forensically important Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia. It was found that the presence of the drugs significantly accelerated larval growth and increased the size of all life stages. Furthermore, drug-exposed samples remained as pupae for up to 78 h longer than controls. These findings suggest that estimates of the minimum PMI of methamphetamine-dosed corpses could be incorrect if the altered growth of C. stygia is not considered. Different temperatures, drug concentrations and substrate types are also likely to affect the development of this blowfly. Pending further research, the application of C. stygia to the entomological analysis of methamphetamine-related fatalities should be appropriately qualified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J

    2003-07-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle.

  15. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle

  16. Intrinsic nitric oxide regulates the taste response of the sugar receptor cell in the blowfly, Phormia regina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Mashiko, Masashi; Ozaki, Mamiko; Amakawa, Taisaku; Nakamura, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    The taste organ in insects is a hair-shaped taste sensory unit having four functionally differentiated contact chemoreceptor cells. In the blowfly, Phormia regina, cGMP has been suggested to be a second messenger for the sugar receptor cell. Generally, cGMP is produced by membranous or soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which can be activated by nitric oxide (NO). In the present paper, we electrophysiologically showed that an NO scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl (PTIO), an NO donor, 1-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-(N-methyl-3-aminopropyl)-3-methyl-1-triazene (NOC 7) or an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) specifically affected the response in the sugar receptor cell, but not in other receptor cells. PTIO, when introduced into the receptor cells in a sensillum aided by sodium deoxycholate (DOC, pH 7.2), depressed the response of sugar receptor cells to sucrose but did not affect those of the salt or water receptor cells. NOC 7, given extracellularly, latently induced the response of sugar receptor cells; and L-NAME, when introduced into the receptor cells, depressed the response of sugar receptor cells. The results clearly suggest that NO, which may be produced by intrinsic NOS in sugar receptor cells, participates in the transduction cascade of these cells in blowfly.

  17. Study on the pupal morphogenesis of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting; Huang, Jia; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2015-08-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) is one of the most common species of blow flies at the scene of death in Southern China. Pupae are useful in postmortem interval (PMI) estimation due to their sedentary nature and longer duration of association with the corpse. However, to determine the age of a pupa is more difficult than that of a larva, due to the fact that morphological changes are rarely visible during pupal development. In this study, eggs of C. rufifacies were reared in climatic chambers under four different constant temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32°C each±1°C, respectively) with same rearing conditions such as foodstuff, substrate, photoperiod and relative humidity. Ten duplicate pupae were sampled at 8-h intervals from prepupae to emergence under the different constant temperatures, respectively. The pupae were sampled, killed, fixed, dissected and with the puparium removed, the external morphological changes of the pupae were observed, recorded and photographed. The morphological characters of C. rufifacies pupae were described. Based on the visible external morphological characters during pupal morphogenesis at 28°C±1°C, the developmental period of C. rufifacies was divided into nine developmental stages and recorded in detailed description. Based on above-mentioned nine developmental stages, some visible external morphological characters were selected as indications for developmental stages. These indications mapped to 8-h sampling intervals at the four different constant temperatures were also described in this study. It is demonstrated that generally the duration of each developmental stage of C. rufifacies pupae is inversely correlated to appropriate developmental temperatures. This study provides relatively systematic pupal developmental data of C. rufifacies for the estimation of PMI. In addition, further work may improve by focus on other environmental factors, histological analysis, more thorough external examination by shortening sampling

  18. Nasal Nosocomial Myiasis Infection Caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae Following the Septicemia: A Case Report

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    Seyed Farzin MIRCHERAGHI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 74 yr old woman from Gonabad, southern part of Khorasan Razavi Province of Iran was admitted to a Hospital of Gonabad, because of respiratory distress, exertional dyspnea and fever. Close contact with domes­tic animals, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and completely resolved pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in remote past, were nota­ble parts of her past medical history. Due to clinical, paraclinical and radio­graphic findings and because of recent hospitalization, she was admitted to internal medicine ward with the diagnosis of health care associated pneumo­nia (HCAP. Despite the application of broad-spectrum antibiotics and ap­propriate supportive care, she had a poor response to the treatment. During the daily visit in Intensive Care Unit (ICU, numerous white larvae were de­tected in both nostrils. Further investigation of oropharynx and tracheal tube aspiration, showed no more larvae in mentioned parts. An hour later, nasal spontaneous bleeding occurred. Otorhinolaryngology consultation was per­formed and led to surgical procedure. In ENT examination, there were nu­merous larvae and massive clot formation in both inferior meatuses and distal nasal septum perforation. Thirty-seven extracted larvae were transferred to Medical Entomology lab by vial 70% ethanol and 5 live larvae for rearing. After pre­cise investigation by aid of light microscopy, the larvae were identified as Chrysomya bezziana. Due to discovered 2nd larvae stage and duration of hospitalization, this infestation was identified as nasal myiasis.

  19. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

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    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  20. Regulation of pyruvate oxidation in blowfly flight muscle mitochondria: requirement for ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, B A; Thomas, B J; Shukla, S P; Sacktor, B

    1984-11-01

    Blowfly (Phormia regina) flight muscle mitochondria oxidized pyruvate ( + proline) in the presence of either ADP (coupled respiration) or carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP-uncoupled respiration). There was an absolute requirement for ADP (Km = 8.0 microM) when pyruvate oxidation was stimulated by FCCP in the presence of oligomycin. This requirement for ADP was limited to the oxidation of pyruvate; uncoupled alpha-glycerolphosphate oxidation proceeded maximally even in the absence of added ADP. Atractylate inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation whether added before (greater than 99%) or after (95%) initiation of respiration with FCCP. In the presence of FCCP, oligomycin, and limiting concentrations of ADP (less than 110 microM), there was a shutoff in the uptake of oxygen. This inhibition of respiration was completely reversed by the addition of more ADP. Plots of net oxygen uptake as a function of the limiting ADP concentration were linear; the observed ADP/O ratio was 0.22 +/- 0.025. An ADP/O ratio of 0.2 was predicted if phosphorylation occurred only at the succinyl-CoA synthetase step of the tricarboxylate cycle. Experiments performed in the presence of limiting concentrations of ADP, and designed to monitor changes in the mitochondrial content of ADP and ATP, demonstrated that the shutoff in oxygen uptake was not due to the presence of a high intramitochondrial concentration of ATP. Indeed, ATP, added to the medium prior to the addition of FCCP, inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation; the apparent KI was 0.8 mM. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio that is one of the controlling factors in determining the rate of flux through the tricarboxylate cycle. Changes in the mitochondrial content of citrate, isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and malate during uncoupled pyruvate oxidation in the presence of a limiting concentration of ADP were consistent with the hypothesis that the

  1. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  2. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets

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    Daniel eKress

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell’s response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride

  3. Biolarvacidal activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana fly

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    Wardhana AH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis or “belatungan” is the infestation of live human and vertebrate animal tissue with dipterous larvae, Chrysomya bezziana. In general, synthetic insecticides were applied to control the disease. However, it causes negative impact on animal product, so that it is required to find an alternative treatment using herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to access activity of methanol extract of Kipahit leaves (Tithonia diversifolia against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2 and L3. Five treatments were applied with five replications, i.e. control/water (P0, 0,5%, 1%, 2% of the extract for PI, PII and PIII, respectively. Another treatment was 0,05% Asuntol for positive control (PIV. Each treatment was added with1% DMSO and twenty larvae were examined for each replication. Bioassay of L1 and L2 was addressed to investigate effect of intestinal toxicity by mixing the extract with Meat-Blood Mixture (MBM and Larval Rearing Media (LRM for L1 and L2, respectively. Bioassay of L3 was to investigate effect of contact toxicity through soaking the larvae into the extract solution for 10 seconds followed by incubating in vermiculite at 36oC. All living larvae after being treated by various concentration of the extract were reared to pupae and allowed to emerge as imago. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. All data were analysed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett test at 95% confidential limit. For L2, larval mortality were counted and probit analysed using POLO-PC software, therefore the lethal concentration (LC50 and LC95 and lethal time (LT50 and LT95 were defined. Results demonstrated that 1% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill the larvae and decrease the pupae weight. It also caused to fail pupation and imago emergence. The further study might be pursued to investigate in vivo assay of the extract in infested livestock.

  4. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  5. Seasonal Blowfly Distribution and Abundance in Fragmented Landscapes. Is It Useful in Forensic Inference about Where a Corpse Has Been Decaying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Jabi; Díaz, Beatriz; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Blowflies are insects of forensic interest as they may indicate characteristics of the environment where a body has been laying prior to the discovery. In order to estimate changes in community related to landscape and to assess if blowfly species can be used as indicators of the landscape where a corpse has been decaying, we studied the blowfly community and how it is affected by landscape in a 7,000 km2 region during a whole year. Using baited traps deployed monthly we collected 28,507 individuals of 10 calliphorid species, 7 of them well represented and distributed in the study area. Multiple Analysis of Variance found changes in abundance between seasons in the 7 analyzed species, and changes related to land use in 4 of them (Calliphora vomitoria, Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). Generalised Linear Model analyses of abundance of these species compared with landscape descriptors at different scales found only a clear significant relationship between summer abundance of C. vomitoria and distance to urban areas and degree of urbanisation. This relationship explained more deviance when considering the landscape composition at larger geographical scales (up to 2,500 m around sampling site). For the other species, no clear relationship between land uses and abundance was found, and therefore observed changes in their abundance patterns could be the result of other variables, probably small changes in temperature. Our results suggest that blowfly community composition cannot be used to infer in what kind of landscape a corpse has decayed, at least in highly fragmented habitats, the only exception being the summer abundance of C. vomitoria. PMID:24918607

  6. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of serotonin 5-HT2α and 5-HT7 receptors in the salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röser, Claudia; Jordan, Nadine; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Walz, Bernd; Baumann, Otto; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Secretion in blowfly (Calliphora vicina) salivary glands is stimulated by the biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), which activates both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3))/Ca(2+) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signalling pathways in the secretory cells. In order to characterize the signal-inducing 5-HT receptors, we cloned two cDNAs (Cv5-ht2α, Cv5-ht7) that share high similarity with mammalian 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(7) receptor genes, respectively. RT-PCR demonstrated that both receptors are expressed in the salivary glands and brain. Stimulation of Cv5-ht2α-transfected mammalian cells with 5-HT elevates cytosolic [Ca(2+)] in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) = 24 nM). In Cv5-ht7-transfected cells, 5-HT produces a dose-dependent increase in [cAMP](i) (EC(50) = 4 nM). We studied the pharmacological profile for both receptors. Substances that appear to act as specific ligands of either Cv5-HT(2α) or Cv5-HT(7) in the heterologous expression system were also tested in intact blowfly salivary gland preparations. We observed that 5-methoxytryptamine (100 nM) activates only the Cv5-HT(2α) receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (300 nM) activates only the Cv5-HT(7) receptor, and clozapine (1 µM) antagonizes the effects of 5-HT via Cv5-HT(7) in blowfly salivary glands, providing means for the selective activation of each of the two 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study represents the first comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT receptors in the blowfly and permits the analysis of the physiological role of these receptors, even when co-expressed in cells, and of the modes of interaction between the Ca(2+)- and cAMP-signalling cascades.

  7. Molecular and pharmacological characterization of serotonin 5-HT2α and 5-HT7 receptors in the salivary glands of the blowfly Calliphora vicina.

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    Claudia Röser

    Full Text Available Secretion in blowfly (Calliphora vicina salivary glands is stimulated by the biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, which activates both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3/Ca(2+ and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling pathways in the secretory cells. In order to characterize the signal-inducing 5-HT receptors, we cloned two cDNAs (Cv5-ht2α, Cv5-ht7 that share high similarity with mammalian 5-HT(2 and 5-HT(7 receptor genes, respectively. RT-PCR demonstrated that both receptors are expressed in the salivary glands and brain. Stimulation of Cv5-ht2α-transfected mammalian cells with 5-HT elevates cytosolic [Ca(2+] in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50 = 24 nM. In Cv5-ht7-transfected cells, 5-HT produces a dose-dependent increase in [cAMP](i (EC(50 = 4 nM. We studied the pharmacological profile for both receptors. Substances that appear to act as specific ligands of either Cv5-HT(2α or Cv5-HT(7 in the heterologous expression system were also tested in intact blowfly salivary gland preparations. We observed that 5-methoxytryptamine (100 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(2α receptor, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (300 nM activates only the Cv5-HT(7 receptor, and clozapine (1 µM antagonizes the effects of 5-HT via Cv5-HT(7 in blowfly salivary glands, providing means for the selective activation of each of the two 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study represents the first comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterization of two 5-HT receptors in the blowfly and permits the analysis of the physiological role of these receptors, even when co-expressed in cells, and of the modes of interaction between the Ca(2+- and cAMP-signalling cascades.

  8. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  9. Fluorescence Imaging of Posterior Spiracles from Second and Third Instars of Forensically-important Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Danielle; Miller, Amy L.; Showman, Angelique; Tobita, Caitlyn; Shimoda, Lori M.N.; Sung, Carl; Stokes, Alexander J.; Tomberlin, Jeffrey K.; Carter, David O.; Turner, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Entomological protocols for aging blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae to estimate the time of colonization (TOC) are commonly used to assist in death investigations. While the methodologies for analysing fly larvae differ, most rely on light microscopy, genetic analysis or, more rarely, electron microscopy. This pilot study sought to improve resolution of larval stage in the forensically-important blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies using high-content fluorescence microscopy and biochemical measures of developmental marker proteins. We established fixation and mounting protocols, defined a set of measurable morphometric criteria and captured developmental transitions of 2nd instar to 3rd instar using both fluorescence microscopy and anti-ecdysone receptor Western blot analysis. The data show that these instars can be distinguished on the basis of robust, non-bleaching, autofluorescence of larval posterior spiracles. High content imaging techniques using confocal microscopy, combined with morphometric and biochemical techniques, may therefore aid forensic entomologists in estimating TOC. PMID:27706817

  10. Flies (Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Beetles (Silphidae from Human Cadavers in Cali, Colombia

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    Barreto Mauricio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, Lucilia sp. (Calliphoridae, Musca domestica (Muscidae, Oxelytrum discicolle (Silphidae and Sarcophagidae were recovered from 12 human cadavers in Cali, Valle, Colombia. Information regarding these findings is presented.

  11. Mass rearing the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahon, R.J.; Hamdan bin Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    Many countries within the tropics are afflicted with one of two species of screw-worm, either the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (NWSWF), or the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve (OWSWF). In nature, larvae of both species are obligate parasites and feed on the living flesh of mammals and to a lesser extent, birds. Female flies lay eggs at the site of a pre-existing wound or near body orifices of the host. First instar larvae feed superficially on the wound; however, larger larvae use their hooked mouthparts to burrow deep into the flesh of the host. Damaged blood vessels provide a steady stream of blood and plasma that typically oozes from the infested wound. The wound also acquires a characteristic odour. Presumably, some of the volatile components emanating from the wound, also provide strong signals to gravid female flies, as once infested, wounds become far more attractive as a site to lay eggs than uninfested wounds. As the number of larvae increases, the myiasis enlarges and the well-being of the host is threatened. In areas where gravid female SWF are numerous, the wound has little chance to heal, thus death of the host is likely unless the wound is treated and re-infestation prevented. While New and Old World species are distantly related, they are remarkably similar ecologically and in their biological characteristics. Wherever either species occurs, it is considered a serious pest of livestock. Australia is fortunate that neither species of the screw-worm is present despite evidence that extensive areas appear environmentally suitable. The OWSWF is considered the most serious threat to Australia as it is present in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. It is envisaged that the sterile insect release method (SIRM) will be employed to eradicate the OWSWF if it becomes established in Australia. To facilitate such a programme, and to reduce delays in constructing a suitable mass rearing

  12. Morfologia e duração dos ínstares larvais de Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae, em laboratório Morphology and duration of larval instars of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae, in laboratory

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    Marcio Sacramento de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou descrever a morfologia e o tempo de desenvolvimento das larvas de Chrysomya putoria, um importante díptero para saúde pública e medicina legal. As amostras foram coletadas a cada duas horas e, a partir da 56ª hora, as coletas foram realizadas com intervalos de 12 horas até o abandono das larvas maduras do meio de criação. As larvas de C. putoria apresentaram um tempo total de desenvolvimento de 92 horas quando mantidas a 27 ºC com comprimento médio de 13,42 mm e características morfológicas peculiares que as diferenciam das outras espécies exóticas e autóctones do Brasil. O esqueleto cefalofaringeano das larvas de terceiro ínstar é robusto e esclerotizado; o gancho labial é completamente pigmentado e curvo, a parte posterior é mais larga que a anterior, mostrando-se levemente pontiagudo. Estas larvas não possuem esclerito oral acessório e o corno dorsal e o ventral apresentam áreas menos pigmentadas. Nota-se uma região não pigmentada em continuação aos cornos, destacando-se no tamanho na região do corno ventral com uma incisão média bem demarcada. Apresentam de 10 a 11 ramificações no espiráculo anterior, peritrema incompleto e presença do botão espiracular, a partir do segundo ínstar.The objective of this work was to describe the morphology and the developmental time of Chrysomya putoria larvae, a fly of public health and forensic importance. The samples were collected at 2 hr intervals, during the first 56 hr and at 12 hr intervals thereafter, until all mature larvae had abandoned the diet. The total developmental time for Chrysomya putoria larvae at 27 ºC was 92 hr, with a mean length of 13.42 mm. The larvae presented unique morphological characteristics which differentiated them from other exotic and autochthonous species found in Brazil. The cephalopharyngeal skeleton of the third instar larvae is robust and sclerotized; the mouth hook is completely pigmented and curved; the posterior

  13. Dietas naturais na criação de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819; Diptera: Calliphoridae: estudo comparado Natural diets to rear Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819; Diptera: Calliphoridae: a comparative study

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    Rosemary Cardoso Ribeiro

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se observar o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Chrysomya albiceps, testando-se, comparativamente, dietas à base de sardinha e carne eqüina. Os substratos frescos foram previamente mantidos a 30°C de temperatura durante duas horas. Foram inoculadas 50 neolarvas em 100g de dieta por repetição. Utilizaram-se quatro repetições por tratamento. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de laboratório. O peso médio das larvas após o abandono espontâneo das dietas foi de 91,19mg, no substrato à base de carne eqüina e 76,01mg, no substrato à base de sardinha, a diferença foi, portanto, significativa. A taxa de sobrevivência larval registrada foi superior a 80%, enquanto a taxa de sobrevivência pupal foi próxima a 100%. A razão sexual foi próxima a 0,5. A dieta à base de carne eqüina mostrou-se mais adequada ao desenvolvimento de C. albiceps, pois as larvas mantidas neste substrato apresentaram-se mais pesadas, o que potencializa a capacidade reprodutiva do adulto.The objective of the present study was to observe the postembryonic development of Chrysomya albiceps reared on sardines or horse meat and to compare the results. Fresh substratos were maintened m an oven ai 30°C for 2 hours. Fifty newly emerged larvas were inoculated into 100g diel per reptication. Four replications per treatment were used. The experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions. The mean weight of postfeeding larvas was 91.19mg for especimens reared on horse meat and 76.01mg for especimens reared on sardines, with a marked difference between diets. Larval viability was more than 80% for the two diets, while pupal viability was dose to 100%. The sex ratio was about 0.5. The horse meat diet proved to be more adequate for the development of C. albiceps since the larvas weighed more, with consequent potentiations of adult reproductive abilily.

  14. Daun Binahong (Andredera cordifolia Steenis Sebagai Alternatif Insektisida Terhadap Miasis yang Disebabkan Lalat Chrysomya bezziana (ANREDERA CORDIFOLIA STEENIS (BINAHONG LEAF AS AN ALTERNATIVE INSECTICIDE AGAINST CHRYSOMYA BEZZIANA CAUSED MYIASIS

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    Ietje Wientarsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Larvae Chrysomya bezziana caused myiasis in most livestock in Indonesia. Drugs of choice for treating myasis are synthetic insecticides. Unfortunately the insecticides has negative effect on animal product, killed insect non target and insect resistenst. The research was conducted on the activity of ethanol extract of binahong leaves against various stages of C. bezziana larvae (L1, L2, and L3. Five treatments group tested were: group without any treatment (negative control, groups treated with ethanol extracts of binahong leaves 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively, positive control were given coumaphos. The treatments were applied with five replications. Number of living larvae and pupae, pupae weight and number of imago were observed. The results demonstrated that 0.5% of the extract effective consentration which was able to kill the larvae (L1 and L2. Finally 2% of the extract was the most effective concentration which was able to kill larvae (L3 and decrease the pupae weight. Ethanol extract of binahong leaves was significantly able to reduce the growth of C. bezziana larvae due to contact and digestive effect of the active compounds contained in Anredera cordifolia leaf. ABSTRAK Miasis merupakan infestasi larva lalat yang terdapat pada jaringan hidup. Penyakit ini umum menyerang hewan maupun manusia. Obat yang digunakan sebagai pengendalian kasus miasis di lapangan sampai saat ini sangat terbatas dan menggunakan insektisida sintetik. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat aktivitas ekstrak etanol daun binahong terhadap larva lalat Chrysomya bezziana pada stadium L1, L2, dan L3. Penelitian dibagi menjadi lima kelompok perlakuan dengan lima ulangan. Kelompok perlakuan terdiri dari kontrol negatif (tanpa pemberian obat, kelompok perlakuan yang diberikan ekstrak binahong dengan konsentrasi berturut-turut 0,5%, 1%, 2%, dan kelompok yang diberikan coumaphos (kontrol positif. Peubah yang diamati adalah jumlah larva yang hidup dan berkembang menjadi pupa

  15. Electrophysiological studies of salty taste modification by organic acids in the labellar taste cell of the blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Kataoka-Shirasugi, Naoko; Amakawa, Taisaku

    2002-01-01

    Using the labellar salt receptor cells of the blowfly, Phormia regina, we electrophysiologically showed that the response to NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions was enhanced and depressed by acetic, succinic and citric acids. The organic acid concentrations at which the most enhanced salt response (MESR) was obtained were found to be different: 0.05-1 mM citric acid, 0.5-2 mM succinic acid and 5-50 mM acetic acid. Moreover, the degree of the salt response was not always dependent on the pH values of the stimulating solutions. The salt response was also enhanced by HCl (pH 3.5-3.0) only when the NaCl concentration was greater than the threshold, indicating that the salty taste would be enhanced by the comparatively lower concentrations of hydrogen ions. Another explanation for the enhancement is that the salty taste may also be enhanced by undissociated molecules of the organic acids, because the MESRs were obtained at the pH values lower than the pKa(1) or pKa(2) values of these organic acids. On the other hand, the salty taste could be depressed by both the lower pH range (pH 2.5-2.0) and the dissociated organic anions from organic acid molecules with at least two carboxyl groups.

  16. Do necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) lay their eggs in wounds?: Experimental data and implications for forensic entomology.

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    Charabidze, Damien; Depeme, Aurore; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the common belief that necrophagous blowflies lay their eggs in wounds. The egg-laying behaviour of Lucilia sericata was observed under controlled conditions on wet, artificially wounded or short-haired areas of rat cadavers. Flies laid significantly more eggs on the wet area and the area with short hair than on the dry area or area with long hair. No eggs were observed inside the wounds in any of the replicates. The effect of egg immersion (body fluids often exudes in wounds) on the survival rate of larvae was also investigated. In low water condition, an average of 72.7±7.9% of the larvae survived and they reached a mean length of 7.5±0.6mm. In contrast, submerging eggs under a high volume of water strongly affected their survival rate (25±3.7%) and development. Similar results were observed using unfrozen pig blood instead of water. These data question the information found in the literature regarding the preferential egg-laying behaviour of Calliphorids flies in wounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Perception of noxious compounds by contact chemoreceptors of the blowfly, Phormia regina: putative role of an odorant-bindingpProtein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mamiko; Takahara, Teruhiko; Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Seno, Keiji; Amakawa, Taisaku; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Nakamura, Tadashi

    2003-05-01

    The blowfly, Phormia regina, has sensilla with four contact-chemoreceptor cells and one mechanoreceptor cell on its labellum. Three of the four chemoreceptor cells are called the sugar, the salt and the water receptor cells, respectively. However, the specificity of the remaining chemoreceptor cell, traditionally called the "fifth cell", has not yet been clarified. Referring to behavioral evaluation of the oral toxicity of monoterpenes, we measured the electrophysiological response of the "fifth cell" to these compounds. Of all the monoterpenes examined, D-limonene exhibited the strongest oral toxicity and induced the severest aversive behavior with vomiting and/or excretion in the fly. D-Limonene, when dispersed in an aqueous stimulus solution including dimethyl sulfoxide or an odorant-binding protein (OBP) found in the contact-chemoreceptor sensillum, the chemical sense-related lipophilic ligand-binding protein (CRLBP), evoked impulses from the "fifth cell". Considering the relationship between the aversive effects of monoterpenes and the response of the "fifth cell" to these effects, we propose that the "fifth cell" is a warning cell that has been differentiated as a taste system for detecting and avoiding dangerous foods. Here we suggest that in the insect contact-chemoreceptor sensillum, CRLBP carries lipophilic members of the noxious taste substances to the "fifth cell" through the aqueous sensillum lymph. This insect OBP may functionally be analogous to the von Ebner's grand protein in taste organs of mammals.

  18. A report on the pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

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    Kumara, T K; Abu Hassan, A; Che Salmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2010-04-01

    The pupae of Desmometopa sp. (Diptera: Milichiidae) were collected from a human corpse found indoor in active decay stage together with the larvae of Sarcophagidae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). This research note is the first report of the Desmometopa sp. recovered from a human corpse in Malaysia.

  19. Larval development rates of Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart, 1842 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) within its native range in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanmanee, Surasuk; Husemann, Martin; Benbow, Mark Eric; Suwannapong, Guntima

    2016-09-01

    Chrysomya rufifacies represents an important indicator species in forensic entomology that is often used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) in crime scene investigation. However, developmental rates differ locally, so that estimates should be based on regionally generated development data. Therefore, we determined the developmental rates of C. rufifacies within its native range in Thailand under nine constant temperature regimes: 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36 and 39°C. Developmental times from egg to adult varied among the temperatures and were longest at 15°C (618h) and shortest at 33°C (168h). No pupae emerged at 39°C. We used linear regression models to estimate the minimum development threshold temperatures for each life stage: egg stage=9.5°C, first to second instar=10.8°C, second to third instar=11.5°C, third instar to pupariation=11.4°C, pupariation to adults=5.0°C; the minimum threshold to complete all larvae stages was 11.1°C and to complete all life stages from eggs to adult was 9.5°C. We further generated isomorphen and isomegalen diagrams that can be used to quickly estimate the PMImin for forensic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictable weathering of puparial hydrocarbons of necrophagous flies for determining the postmortem interval: a field experiment using Chrysomya rufifacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-Hui; Jia, Zheng-Jun; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Ku-Sheng; Chen, Lu-Shi; Lv, Jun-Yao; Eric Benbow, M

    2017-05-01

    Preadult development of necrophagous flies is commonly recognized as an accurate method for estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). However, once the PMImin exceeds the duration of preadult development, the method is less accurate. Recently, fly puparial hydrocarbons were found to significantly change with weathering time in the field, indicating their potential use for PMImin estimates. However, additional studies are required to demonstrate how the weathering varies among species. In this study, the puparia of Chrysomya rufifacies were placed in the field to experience natural weathering to characterize hydrocarbon composition change over time. We found that weathering of the puparial hydrocarbons was regular and highly predictable in the field. For most of the hydrocarbons, the abundance decreased significantly and could be modeled using a modified exponent function. In addition, the weathering rate was significantly correlated with the hydrocarbon classes. The weathering rate of 2-methyl alkanes was significantly lower than that of alkenes and internal methyl alkanes, and alkenes were higher than the other two classes. For mono-methyl alkanes, the rate was significantly and positively associated with carbon chain length and branch position. These results indicate that puparial hydrocarbon weathering is highly predictable and can be used for estimating long-term PMImin.

  1. Interdisciplinary workshop yields new entomological data for forensic sciences: Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Albert, A Midori; Byrd, Jason H; Hall, David W

    2006-11-01

    ABSTRACT Workshops are used for educating law enforcement personnel on the application of entomological, anthropological, and botanical techniques to gather forensically important information from a body recovery site. From 8 to 11 June 2004, such a workshop was conducted in the metropolitan area of Charlotte, NC, by the American Academy of Applied Forensics at Central Piedmont Community College. For this workshop, three pig carcasses weighing individually between 40 and 60 kg were placed in the field 4 June, whereas three pigs similar in size were placed in the field 7 June. During the afternoon session on 11 June, workshop participants collected three Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) third instar larvae from a pig carcass placed in the field on 7 June. These data represent the first records of this forensically important insect in North Carolina; furthermore, these data provide evidence of this species expansion into new geographic regions of the United States. This finding is an example of the benefits derived from an experiential and interdisciplinary approach to educating death scene investigators. Learners acquired new knowledge, put it into practice through the "body" recovery exercise, and ultimately contributed to science by way of the discovery and first documentation of a forensically important insect previously not known to inhabit North Carolina.

  2. Post-embriononic development of Chrysomya putoria(Diptera: Calliphoridae on a diet containing ampicillin in different concentrations

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    ADRIANA C.P. FERRAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we evaluate the effects of different concentrations of the antibiotic ampicillin on the growth and development of Chrysomya putoria. Third-generation, first instar larvae (L1 reared on 60 grams of homogenate+agar 65% were treated with ampicillin sodium. The experiment consisted of four replicates (40 larvae/replicate of each antibiotic concentration tested (T1: 466µg/mL ; T2: 81.33 mg/mL and T3: 166.66mg/mL and a T4: control. The body mass of the mature larvae, after they abandoned the diet, were recorded in batches of five. The variation between the mean body mass of larvae and the duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of the development, viability and normal rates were analyzed by ANOVA. There were no significant differences between the four treatments in the following parameters: body mass of larvae that discontinued the diet as well as the duration of larval, pupal, and total development. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from those expected. Normality rates were 100% for all treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments for larval and overall viability, but pupal viability differed significantly between T1 and the control, T1 and T2, and between the control and T3. The antibiotic did not appear to significantly alter the development of C. putoria.

  3. Attraction and Oviposition of Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Resources Colonized by the Invasive Competitor Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindola, Aline F; Zheng, Le; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Thyssen, Patricia J

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine if the presence of immatures of the invasive blow fly species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) influences the adult behavior of the native species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) in Brazil. The level of attraction and oviposition by the native species was assessed in a dual-choice assay. The evaluation was based on sex and stage of ovarian development of L. eximia adults to a resource not colonized (NCR) or colonized (RPC) with eggs, different instars, or densities of C. albiceps. A significant difference in attraction was observed based on sex and stages of ovarian development. Males and nongravid females were more attracted to RPC, whereas gravid females preferred NCR. Moreover, males exhibited the lowest response in all assays among the three sex categories examined. In general, adults preferably oviposited on NCR rather than RPC. Also, between the eggs and second instar treatments, L. eximia laid more eggs on RPC with eggs than second instars (predatory stage). Lucilia eximia attraction to second-instar C. albiceps at different densities was marginally significant. Overall, results indicate the invasive species, C. albiceps, is impacting the behavior of the native blow fly, L. eximia, with regards to its attraction and colonization of vertebrate carrion, which could explain why native blow fly populations have significantly decreased since the introduction of C. albiceps. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

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    Toru eMaeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER. Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying

  5. Effects of Floral Scents and Their Dietary Experiences on the Feeding Preference in the Blowfly, Phormia regina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toru; Tamotsu, Miwako; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying mechanisms associated with

  6. The effect of the coupled oxidation of substrate on the permeability of blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria to potassium and other cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, R G; Lehninger, A L

    1972-02-01

    1. Blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria respiring in the absence of phosphate acceptor (i.e. in state 4) take up greater amounts of K(+), Na(+), choline, phosphate and Cl(-) (but less NH(4) (+)) than non-respiring control mitochondria. 2. Uptake of cations is accompanied by an increase in the volume of the mitochondrial matrix, determined with the use of [(14)C]-sucrose and (3)H(2)O. The osmolarity of the salt solution taken up was approximately that of the suspending medium. 3. The [(14)C]sucrose-inaccessible space decreased with increasing osmolarity of potassium chloride in the suspending medium, confirming that the blowfly mitochondrion behaves as an osmometer. 4. Light-scattering studies showed that both respiratory substrate and a permeant anion such as phosphate or acetate are required for rapid and massive entry of K(+), which occurs in an electrophoretic process rather than in exchange for H(+). The increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations is probably the result of a large increase in the exposed area of inner membrane surface in these mitochondria, with no intrinsic increase in the permeability per unit area. 5. No increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations occurs during phosphorylation of ADP in state 3 respiration.

  7. Nonconsumptive Effects of Predatory Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larval Cues on Larval Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Micah; Crippen, Tawni L; Longnecker, Michael; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2017-09-01

    Forensic entomologists often rely on development data associated with a given species to estimate when it colonized human or other vertebrate remains. In most instances, these development studies are based on single species reared in isolation in the laboratory. This study examined the impact of excretions and secretions (ES) associated with third-instar Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), a predator, on the development of its prey, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.). Not surprisingly, Ch. rufifacies ES did not impact the development of first- or second-instar C. macellaria, which are typically not preyed on by Ch. rufifacies. However, development of third-instar C. macellaria, which do experience predation, was impacted. First, larvae were longer than those in the control (deionized water, dH2O). Filtering the ES and removing the associated bacteria and byproducts >0.2 µm dampened the previous impact observed by the unfiltered ES on third-instar C. macellaria. Second, third-instar C. macellaria treated with unfiltered ES completed pupariation 8 h quicker than the controls. Filtering the ES lessened this effect by 50%. And finally, third-instar C. macellaria treated with filtered or unfiltered Ch. rufifacies ES reached adulthood ∼5 h faster than controls treated with dH2O. In summary, these data have large ramifications for forensic entomology, as multiple species being present on decomposing remains is not uncommon. Understanding the impact of associated ES produced by interspecific cohorts on associated development could lead to more precise estimates of the minimum postmortem interval for forensic investigation of decomposing remains. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. icacy test of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seeds for Chrysomya bezziana larvae growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya bezziana is primer agent causing myiasis in livestock and human throughout Africa to Asia. At present, treatment of myiasis using chemical synthetic insecticide causing environment and livestock production contaminations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Annona squamosa L seed to kill C. bezziana as botanical insecticide. Three level and method preparation of larvae (L1, L2 and L3 were carried out. Meat blood mixture (MBM and larval rearing media (LRM were mixed with hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed and tested to 625 and 750 larvae (L1and L2 respectively, while for L3 625 larvae were soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract. This last preparation was carried out to observe the effect of toxic contact. Each larvae treatment was divided into 5 levels such as negative control using distillation water (PO, given 0.25% hexane extract (P I; 0.50% (P II; 0.75% (P III and positive control was given with 0.10% Asuntol®. This assay was to know digest toxic effect of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for those larvae. Number of 625 instar III larvae (L3 was soaked in the solution containing the hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed for 10 second, placed into vermicullite and incubated on 36oC. This assay was to know contact toxic effect of them. All of larvae were allowed to become pupae. Parameters oberserve were number of larvae death, pupae weight and number of pupae become into fly. The data was analyzed using Anova (5% and Z test (5% then smallest significant difference test (BNT 5%. The results showed that 0.50% of hexane extract of A. squamosa L seed was able to decrease pupae weight for L1 and L2 and to cause fail pupae become fly (P0.05.

  9. Development of odour-baited flytraps for sampling the African latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of enteric diseases.

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    Thomas C Lindsay

    Full Text Available African pit latrines produce prodigious numbers of the latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrhoeal pathogens. We set out to develop a simple, low-cost odour-baited trap for collecting C. putoria in the field. A series of field experiments was carried out in The Gambia to assess the catching-efficiency of different trap designs. The basic trap was a transparent 3L polypropylene box baited with 50 g of fish, with a white opaque lid with circular entrance holes. We tested variations of the number, diameter, position and shape of the entrance holes, the height of the trap above ground, degree of transparency of the box, its shape, volume, colour, and the attractiveness of gridded surfaces on or under the trap. Traps were rotated between positions on different sampling occasions using a Latin Square design. The optimal trapping features were incorporated into a final trap that was tested against commercially available traps. Features of the trap that increased the number of flies caught included: larger entrance holes (compared with smaller ones, p<0.001, using conical collars inside the holes (compared with without collars, p = 0.01, entrance holes on the top of the trap (compared with the side or bottom, p<0.001, traps placed on the ground (compared with above ground, p<0.001, the box having transparent sides (compared with being opaque, p<0.001, and with no wire grids nearby (compared with those with grids, p = 0.03. This trap collected similar numbers of C. putoria to other common traps for blow flies. The optimum trap design was a transparent box, with a white plastic lid on top, perforated with 10 conical entrance holes, placed on the ground. Our simple trap provides a cheap, low-maintenance and effective method of sampling C. putoria in the field.

  10. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cecília Kosmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The corpse of a man was found in a Brazilian highland savanna (cerrado in the state of Minas Gerais. Fly larvae were collected at the crime scene and arrived at the laboratory three days afterwards. From the eight pre-pupae, seven adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 emerged and, from the two larvae, two adults of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 were obtained. As necrophagous insects use corpses as a feeding resource, their development rate can be used as a tool to estimate the postmortem interval. The post-embryonary development stage of the immature collected on the body was estimated as the difference between the total development time and the time required for them to become adults in the lab. The estimated age of the maggots from both species and the minimum postmortem interval were four days. This is the first time that H. segmentaria is used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case.

  11. Forensically Important Blow Flies Chrysomya pinguis, C. villeneuvi, and Lucilia porphyrina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Case of Human Remains in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monum, Tawatchai; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Sukontason, Kom; Samerjai, Chutharat; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Suwannayod, Suttida; Klong-klaew, Tunwadee; Wannasan, Anchalee

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to report Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) and Lucilia porphyrina (Walker) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as forensically important blow fly species from human cadavers in Thailand, in addition to Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) already known in Thailand. In 2016, a fully decomposed body of an unknown adult male was discovered in a high mountainous forest during winter in Chiang Mai province. The remains were infested heavily with thousands of blow fly larvae feeding simultaneously on them. Morphological identification of adults reared from the larvae, and molecular analysis based on sequencing of 1,247 bp partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (CO1) of the larvae and puparia, confirmed the above mentioned 3 species. The approving forensic fly evidence by molecular approach was described for the first time in Thailand. Moreover, neighbor-joining phylogenetic analysis of the CO1 was performed to compare the relatedness of the species, thereby affirming the accuracy of identification. As species of entomofauna varies among cases in different geographic and climatic circumstances, C. pinguis and L. porphyrina were added to the list of Thai forensic entomology caseworks, including colonizers of human remains in open, high mountainous areas during winter. Further research should focus on these 3 species, for which no developmental data are currently available. PMID:28285509

  12. Predation on pupa of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by parasitoid, Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Ophyra spinigera larva (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Heo Chong; Ahmad, Nazni Wasi; Lim, Lee Han; Jeffery, John; Omar, Baharudin; Dhang, Chen Chee; Weng, Lau Koon; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2009-12-01

    A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.

  13. Morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K

    2013-06-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.

  14. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efeito da escopolamina sobre o desenvolvimento de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae e sua importância para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte

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    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A presença de drogas nos tecidos de um corpo pode afetar o desenvolvimento de larvas de moscas necrófagas que são encontradas alimentando-se neste substrato. Essa observação já foi constatada para várias drogas tais como heroína, cocaína, certos analgésicos, e compostos anfetamínicos e benzodiazepínicos, entre outras. Assim, neste estudo investigamos o efeito da escopolamina – uma droga amplamente usada como analgésico – sobre a taxa de desenvolvimento de larvas de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae, visando também avaliar e quantificar as conseqüências de tal interferência para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM. Os resultados aqui obtidos mostram claramente que a escopolamina afetou significativamente a taxa de desenvolvimento de imaturos de C. putoria, quando presente em seu substrato alimentar. Tendo em vista que o IPM em muitos casos é calculado levando em consideração o peso ou a idade dos imaturos coletados em um corpo, a não consideração deste fator de interferência negativa pode conseqüentemente levar a uma subestimativa do tempo de morte em até 48 horas, em certos casos.

  16. The potential uses of sarcosaprophagous flesh flies and blowflies for the evaluation of the regeneration and conservation of forest clearings: a case study in the Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Roberto Pereira; Esposito, Maria Cristina; Carvalho Filho, Fernando da Silva; Juen, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    The level of association between dipterans of the families Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae and habitats with different levels of vegetation cover was analyzed at Porto Urucu in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aim of identifying the potential of these taxa as bioindicators for the assessment of forest regeneration and conservation. The flies were collected in 16 sample areas, 12 of which were clearings at different stages of regeneration (C1--early regeneration; C2--moderate regeneration; and C3--advanced regeneration) and 4 in continuous forest (F). According to the IndVal analysis, nine sarcophagid species--Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann), Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Wiedemann), Peckia (Squamatodes) ingens (Walker), Sarcofahrtiopsis cuneata (Townsend), Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker), Peckia (Euboettcheria) collusor (Curran & Walley), Oxysarcodexia fringidea (Curran & Walley), Oxysarcodexia amorosa (Schiner), and Helicobia pilifera (Lopes)--were associated indiscriminately with clearings (C1 + C2 + C3). In contrast, only one calliphorid species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was associated with clearings in the early moderate regeneration (C1 + C2) phases, and four calliphorids were associated with continuous forest or mature clearings (C3 + F): Mesembrinella bicolor (F.), Eumesembrinella randa (Walker), Mesembrinella bellardiana (Aldrich), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann). These results indicate that sarcophagids may be useful for evaluating the degree of anthropogenic impact but are not suitable for the detection of minor variations in forest cover. In contrast, calliphorids may be appropriate for the evaluation of both anthropogenic impacts and the degree of forest regeneration and conservation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Laboratory Assessment for the Efficacy of Some botanical oils to Prevent Animal Wound Myiasis by Flesh Fly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A. A.; Amin, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of certain plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba, marjoram and cinnamon) each applied at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40% as protectants of meat from myiasis caused by Chrysomya albiceps was studied. Experiments conducted revealed that at a concentration of 20% cinnamon oil with an exposure period of three days were more efficient than jojoba, thyme, ginger and marjoram oils at the highest concentration 40% with exposure period 7 days of treated meat against the larvae. Most treatments caused high mortality within exposure period of one week, while both cinnamon and jojoba oils caused 100% larval mortality at concentration 40% with exposure period 3 and 7 days which leads to zero % infestation. It is clear that there was a latent effect of the six tested oils applied at all concentrations on the reduction of adult emergence. No adult emergence of C. albiceps was occurred from meat treated with cinnamon or jojoba oil at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Percent malformation increased by increasing the concentration of tested oils where, the highest percent malformation was obtained at concentration 40% of thyme oil and at concentration 10% of jojoba, being 86.66 and 66.66 %, respectively. The sex ratio was in favor of males in the most tested oils at all levels of treated meat. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a variable number of electrophoretic protein bands in the whole body tissue of third instar larvae exposed to untreated meat (control) and meat treated with tested plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba and cinnamon) at concentration 40%. Fourteen bands were separated and their molecular weight ranged between 15.85 and 104.0 KDa. The appearance of new protein band might be due to increasing of protein synthesis while the disappearance of other could be attributed to their breakdown as a result of toxicity of oils

  18. Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Bhoopat, Tanin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Piangjai, Somsak; Bunchu, Nophawan; Vongvivach, Somsak; Samai, Wirachai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Ngern-Klun, Rachadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Srimuangwong, Chaowakit; Hanterdsith, Boonsak; Chaiwan, Khankam; Srisuwan, Chalard; Upakut, Surasak; Moopayak, Kittikhun; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, northern Thailand, from 2000 to 2006. Variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. The fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family Calliphoridae, and consisted of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), and two unknown species. Flies of the family Muscidae [Hydrotaea spinigera Stein, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp)], Piophilidae [Piophila casei (L.)], Phoridae [Megaselia scalaris (Loew)], Sarcophagidae [Parasarcophaga ruficornis (F.) and three unknown species], and Stratiomyiidae (Sargus sp.) were also collected from these human remains. Larvae and adults of the beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), were also found in some cases. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats associated with both urban and forested areas, while C. nigripes was commonly discovered in forested places. S. nudiseta was collected only from corpses found in an indoor death scene.

  19. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrastructure of male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Wannasan, Anchalee; Sukontason, Kom; Amendt, Jens; Yasanga, Tippawan; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2018-03-01

    Male genitalia of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are distinctive in their morphological features and are often used for species identification. The aim of this work was to investigate the male genitalia of blow flies of medical and forensic importance from Thailand at the ultrastructural level, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flies in two subfamilies were examined: Chrysomyinae [Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin, and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton] and Luciliinae [Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot), Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia papuensis Macquart, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), and Lucilia sinensis Aubertin]. Particular attention was paid to the main distinguishing features such as the shapes of the cercus and the surstylus, and the complex structure of the distiphallus. The differentiation of the male genitalia of these species at the SEM level is discussed and compared to the conditions in closely related species such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). A key for the identification of 14 blow fly species based on male genitalia is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Forensic use of a subtropical blowfly: the first case indicating minimum postmortem interval (mPMI) in southern Brazil and first record of Sarconesia chlorogaster from a human corpse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Karine P; Corrêa, Rodrigo C; Lecheta, Melise C; Caneparo, Maria F; Mise, Kleber M; Preti, Daniel; de Carvalho, Claudio J B; Almeida, Lucia M; Moura, Mauricio O

    2015-01-01

    Southern Brazil is unique due to its subtropical climate. Here, we report on the first forensic entomology case and the first record of Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) in a human corpse in this region. Flies' samples were collected from a body indoors at 20°C. Four species were found, but only Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and S. chlorogaster were used to estimate the minimum postmortem interval (mPMI). The mPMI was calculated using accumulated degree hour (ADH) and developmental time. The S. chlorogaster puparium collected was light in color, so we used an experiment to establish a more accurate estimate for time since initiation of pupation where we found full tanning after 3 h. Development of C. albiceps at 20°C to the end of the third instar is 7.4 days. The mPMI based on S. chlorogaster (developmental time until the third instar with no more than 3 h of pupae development) was 7.6 days. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Identification of forensically important fly eggs using a potassium permanganate staining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Piangjai, Somsak; Boonchu, Noppawan; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Hope, Michelle; Olson, Jimmy K

    2004-01-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be utilized as entomological evidence in forensic investigations of deaths if the species of fly and the developmental rate at a temperature similar to the death scene are known. The species identification of fly eggs is particularly important, and previously, scanning electron microscope has been used for this purpose. Herein, we report a simple technique, using light microscopy, to identify forensically important eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya pacifica Kurahashi, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Aldrichina grahami (Aldrich), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Musca domestica L. and Megaselia scalaris (Loew). A 1% potassium permanganate solution was used to stain egg surfaces for 1 min, followed by dehydration in 15, 70, and 95%, absolute alcohol (each solution for 1 min) and the eggs were permanently mounted. The characteristics are based on the width of plastron, morphology of plastron area surrounding the micropyle and chorionic sculpturing, with the length of egg being used as supplemental feature.

  3. Capture of Caliptrate flies with different breeding substrates on beaches in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    José Mário D'Almeida

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscidae flies belonging to four Familia and 13 species in a total number of 3.652 specimens were collected from beaches at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using different breeding substrates, and subsequently bred in the laboratory. Captures were done from April to November 1989, using in a first phase different substrates: fruits (banana and papaya, vegtable (tomato, animal viscera (bovine liver, marine animals (fish, crab, shrimp, squid, mouse carcass and feaces (human and canine. The species collected more often were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Chrysomya megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Peckya chrysostoma, Musca domestica and Atherigona orientalis. In a later phase, only fish was used, as bait and placed directly on the beach sand. From a total of 189 pupae, the following adult specimen were obtained: Peckia chrysostoma (58.06%, Chrysomya megacephala (30.64% and in lesser numbers Synthesiomyia nudiseta and Phaenicia eximia.

  4. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.

  5. Morfometria geométrica alar como ferramenta para a identificação de três espécies de califorídeos (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Macedo

    2017-04-01

    Abstract. Chrysomya albiceps (Weidemann, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae are among the fly species of forensic interest commonly found in Brazil. The correct identification of the specimen, or fragment of a specimen, collected at a crime scene is a crucial step for the use of forensic entomology as a tool in criminal investigations. In this study, the discrimination of these three species of Calliphoridae based on wing morphology, by means of geometric morphometric analysis was investigated. Right wings of 139 specimens were analyzed, 55 C. albiceps, 42 C. megacephala e 42 H. segmentaria, through Canonical Variate Analysis, Discriminant Analysis and Cross Validation tests. Of the 278 pairwise comparison, six misidentifications were recorded for discriminant analysis (2.1%, while 22 (7.9 % misclassification for cross-validation tests, which points to a high technical reliability index. More studies are needed to validate this technique for use in forensic practice.

  6. Ommatidia of blow fly, house fly, and flesh fly: implication of their vision efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Piangjai, Somsak; Upakut, Sorawit; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kom

    2008-06-01

    This work aims to elucidate the number of ommatidia or facets (the outwardly visible units of each ommatidium) for compound eyes in blow flies [Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann)], house flies (Musca domestica L.), and flesh flies (Liosarcophaga dux Thomson) by manual counts of the corneal spreads. The head of the fly in each species was soaked in 20% potassium hydroxide solution at room temperature for 7 days, and the clear compound eye was dissected into six small parts, each of which was placed onto a slide and flattened using a coverslip. Images of each part were obtained using a microscope connected to a computer. The printed images of each part were magnified, and the total number of ommatidia per eye was manually counted. For males, the mean number of ommatidia was statistically different among all flies examined: L. dux (6,032) > C. rufifacies (5,356) > C. nigripes (4,798) > C. megacephala (4,376) > L. cuprina (3,665) > M. domestica (3,484). Likewise, the mean number of facets in females was statistically different: L. dux (6,086) > C. megacephala (5,641) > C. rufifacies (5,208) > C. nigripes (4,774) > L. cuprina (3,608) > M. domestica (3433). Scanning electron microscopy analysis of adult flies revealed the sexual dimorphism in the compound eye. Male C. megacephala had large ommatidia in the upper two thirds part and small ommatidia in the lower one third part, whereas only small ommatidia were detected in females. Dense postulate appearance was detected in the external surface of the corneal lens of the ommatidia of C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, and C. nigripes, while a mix of dense postulate appearance and variable groove array length was detected in L. cuprina and M. domestica. The probable functions of ommatidia are discussed with reference to other literature.

  7. Insects on pig carcasses as a model for predictor of death interval in forensic medicine

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    Sunny Wangko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forensic entomology has not been acknowledged in Indonesia so far. Indonesian carrion insects are very rarely reported. The aim of this study was to obtain the types of insects on pig carcasses that could be used for the estimation of post-mortem interval.Methods: Four domestic pigs sacrificed with different methods were used as a model. The carcasses were observed twice daily (around 9 a.m and 4 p.m during 15 days to assess the stages of decomposition and to collect insects, both in mature and immature stages. The immature insects were reared and the mature insects were indentified in the Laboratory of Pests and Plant Diseases, University of Sam Ratulangi, Manado. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were identified both morphologically and with deoxyribose-nucleic acid (DNA techniques.Results: Five stages of decomposition (fresh, bloated, active decay, post-decay, and skeletonization were observed. A total of 11 Diptera and 8 Coleoptera species were found during a 15-days succession study. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens colonized in all carcasses.Conclusion: Insects found on four different pig carcasses consisted mainly of widespread Diptera and Coleoptera. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and Hermetia illucens seemed to be primary candidates for the estimation of the post-mortem interval.

  8. Occurrence of oriental flies associated with indoor and outdoor human remains in the tropical climate of north Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumara, T K; Disney, R H L; Abu Hassan, A; Flores, Micah; Hwa, Tan Siew; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; CheSalmah, M R; Bhupinder, S

    2012-06-01

    Flies attracted to human remains during death investigations were surveyed in north Peninsular Malaysia. Six families, eight genera, and 16 species were identified from human remains, with the greatest fly diversity occurring on remains recovered indoors. The total relative frequency of species was led by Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (46%), followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, 1842) (22%), Sarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis (Fabricius, 1974) (5%), Sarcophaga spp. (4%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta Wulp, 1883 (6%), Megaselia spp. (3%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), (2%), Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz, 1938 (2%), and Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, 1922 (2%). Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot, 1877), Desmometopa sp., Megaselia curtineura (Brues, 1909), Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann 1830, Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga princeps Wiedemann 1830, Piophila casei (Linnaeus, 1758), and unidentified pupae each represented 1%, respectively. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Molecular identification of blow flies recovered from human cadavers during crime scene investigations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2012-12-01

    Forensic entomology applies knowledge about insects associated with decedent in crime scene investigation. It is possible to calculate a minimum postmortem interval (PMI) by determining the age and species of the oldest blow fly larvae feeding on decedent. This study was conducted in Malaysia to identify maggot specimens collected during crime scene investigations. The usefulness of the molecular and morphological approach in species identifications was evaluated in 10 morphologically identified blow fly larvae sampled from 10 different crime scenes in Malaysia. The molecular identification method involved the sequencing of a total length of 2.2 kilo base pairs encompassing the 'barcode' fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), cytochrome oxidase II (COII) and t-RNA leucine genes. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya nigripes. In addition, one unidentified blow fly species was found based on phylogenetic tree analysis.

  10. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

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    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  11. Ocorrência e Sazonalidade de Muscóides (Diptera, Calliphoridae de Importância Sanitária no Município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil

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    José Batista-da-Silva

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. This work was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of Calliphoridae flies (Diptera in Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil and quantify the predominant species of health importance. The flies were captured in eight different points in the city over a one year period, always using fish as bait, separated by species and kept properly in an entomological box in the Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense - IOC / FIOCRUZ, RJ. A total of 1792 Calliphoridae flies were captured, belonging to seven (7 species: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0.11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87.94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6.70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1.23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0.56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0.33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3.13%.

  12. [Functional morphology of blowfly Calliphora vicina hemocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, T V

    2012-01-01

    In the hemolymph of Calliphora seven types of hemocytes were revealed. These are prohemocytes, which are the stem cells, stable and unstable hyaline cells, thrombocytoids, spindle cells, juvenile plasmatocytes and plasmatocytes I-IV, which represent sequential stages of one cell line differentiation were registered. The margin between them is completion of the crop emptying and beginning of wandering stage. In the feeding and crop emptying larvae take place rising of hyaline cells, thrombocytoids and hyaline cells amount with parallel growth of their defense function. The second wave of hemogenesis occur in the end of crop emptying period. It is accompanied by burst of plasmatocyte I production with their subsequent differentiation to plasmatocytes II-IV. Production of stable hyaline cells and respectively prothrombocytoids may be regulated not only by hormonal background but also by inorganic or organic particles invaded into the hemocel. Three types of hemocytes are involved in loosing of hemolymph from alien particles, notably thrombocytoids, juvenile plasmatocytes and plasmatocytes I and II. Thrombocytoids are responsible for parasitic eggs encapsulation. In addition they can phagocytize tiny organic and inorganic particles. Juvenile plasmatocytes respond to alien invasion almost as quickly as thrombocytoids at the onset of invasion. Plasmatocytes I and II start phagocytosis more slowly, hours post invasion, frequently accumulating the particles previously catched by thrombocytoids. Plasmatocytes I can absorb foreign particles and group in morules and can also surround filled thrombocytoids forming distinctive capsules. Both morules and capsules are temporary structures and disintegrate some hours lately. It is supposed the existence of three levels of immune defence: the fast response reaction of thrombocytoids and juvenile plasmatocytes and slow cellular reactions of plasmatocytes I. They are prerequisites for more extensive humoral response.

  13. Review of Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, D L

    1993-03-01

    The taxonomy, distribution, bionomics, and medical and veterinary importance of C. rufifacies are reviewed and summarized. Late instars are beneficial as predators of the maggots of pathogen-transmitting and myiasis-producing flies, but strains from parts of Australia, India, and Hawaii are harmful as secondary myiasis agents. The effects of invasions, possible competition, and displacement of native calliphorids are discussed. The developmental duration of the immature stadia at different temperatures are reviewed. The primary literature (274 papers) dealing with this fly is given and cross-referenced by subject to serve as a reference to research entomologists and governmental agencies involved in the control of this livestock parasite in the Americas and Australia.

  14. The Importance of Habitat in the Ecology of Decomposition on Rabbit Carcasses in Malaysia: Implications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silahuddin, Siti Aisyah; Latif, Baha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Walter, David Evans; Heo, Chong Chin

    2015-01-01

    The stages of decomposition and the faunal succession on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats, namely jungle, rural, and highland areas, were studied. Three New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses weighing ∼2 kg were sampled daily until the decomposition process was completed. Representative specimens of adult flies, larvae, pupa, and mites were collected from the carcasses and processed in the laboratory. There were differences in decomposition rate and faunal succession between the carcasses. The fastest rate of decomposition was recorded in rural area, and the slowest rate of decomposition was recorded in highland area. The carcasses exhibited the same pattern of colonization by adult flies, but the dominant species of larvae and adult flies on each carcass in specific habitats were different. The primary species of flies recorded in jungle were Chrysomya megacephala F., Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya villenuevi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot), Hypopyiopsis fumipennis (Walker), Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart), and Hydrotaea spinigera Stein represented by both adults and larvae. Musca domestica L., Atherigona sp., Lioproctia pattoni (Senior-White), Lioproctia saprianovae Pape & Bänziger, and Seniorwhitea princeps (Wiedemann) were represented by adults only. The biodiversity of flies in the rural area were C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, H. ligurriens, Fannia canicularis L., Hydrotaea chalcogaster (Wiedemann), and Hyd. spinigera represented by both adults and larvae, meanwhile M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Boettcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Parasarcophaga taenionota Wiedemann, Parasarcophaga scopariiformis Senior-White, and S. princeps were represented by adults only. The species of flies collected in the highland area were Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, C

  15. A new subspecies of Megacephala murchisona from North-Queensland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Walther

    1907-01-01

    Differt a typo et capite et prothorace et elytris multo latioribus robustioribus, statura majore, fronte antica foveis 2 profundioribus discoidalibus ornata, pronoti sulcis transversis in disco fere evanescentibus, cristae epipleuro-pronotalis parte posteriore plus minusve dilacerata aut minus

  16. Variation in the Time of Colonization of Broiler Carcasses by Carrion Flies in Nakhonsawan Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ruankham, Watcharapong; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Bunchu, Nophawan

    2017-09-01

    Carrion flies are the primary insects colonizing vertebrate carrion; however, limited information is available on the variation in the time of colonization (TOC) as related to time of placement (TOP) and time of death (TOD), particularly in Thailand. Three seasonal sets of nine broiler carcasses (euthanized and placed in field within 0.5 h after death) were placed in mesh enclosures within a disturbed deciduous dipterocarp forest at Nakhonsawan Province, upper-central Thailand, for 3 d to determine the colonization time by carrion flies. In total, 21,536 arthropods were collected using traps placed over each carcass. Carrion flies of the family Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae predominated (93.42%). Of these, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) were the dominant species being 36.18% and 35.36%, respectively, across season. These species arrived immediately (5 min) after placement of the carrion in the field during the rainy season, while they were delayed 1-2 h during the dry season. Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies, and Parasarcophaga dux (Thomson) colonized the remains. Time of colonization by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies occurred mostly at ∼1600-1700 hours (10-11 h after placement) for all seasons. In contrast, TOC by P. dux was delayed for 1 d during rainy and dry season. These results mark the first record of carrion fly colonization in this area and also may deserve important information for the further study as they demonstrate time of colonization differs from TOP and most importantly TOD. © Crown copyright 2017.

  17. Insect succession on a decomposing piglet carcass placed in a man-made freshwater pond in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    This entomological study was conducted in a man-made freshwater pond in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor from 23 July 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model. A 1.5 month old piglet (5 kg), which died of asphyxia after being accidentally crushed by its mother, was thrown into a pond. Observation was made for ten days; one visit per day and climatological data were recorded. On the first two days, the piglet carcass sunk to the bottom of the pond. The carcass floated to the surface on the third day but no fly activities were seen. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies started to oviposit on the fourth day. Other than adult flies, a spider (Arachnida) was also observed on the carcass. Bubbles accumulated at the mouthpart, and the abdomen was greenish black. A lot of blow fly eggs were seen on the body surface on the fifth day (floating decay), along with first and second instars C. megacephala crawling under the piglet's skin. On the sixth day, adult blow fly, C. megacephala,and C. rufifacies,and muscid flies, Ophyra spinigera and Musca domestica were observed on to the carcass. High numbers of first and second instars of flies were observed wandering around the body surface with C. megacephala larvae being the predominant species. Two prominent maggot masses occurred on seventh and eighth days. Bloated deterioration stage began on day eighth exposing rib bones, humerus bones and intestines. Carcass was partially sinking and the maggot masses were at the water level. On day ninth, the carcass was partially sinking and three maggot masses were observed on the exposed surface. There were very few adult flies, including a scarab beetle was sighted on the carcass at this stage. The carcass along with the maggots sunk on day tenth, leaving an oily layer on the water surface.

  18. Applicability of partial characterization of cytochrome oxidase I in identification of forensically important flies (Diptera) from China and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa Mohamed; Wen, Jifang

    2013-07-01

    Precise species identification of every insect sample collected from criminal scenes play an essential role in the accurate estimation of postmortem interval. The morphological similarity poses a great challenge for forensic entomologists. DNA-based method can be used as a supplemental means of morphological method. In the present study, we demonstrate the applicability of the 304-bp cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment in molecular identification of forensically important Diptera. We analyzed 75 specimens belonging to 19 species of 3 families originating from China (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes, Aldrichina grahami; Lucilia bazini, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia porphyrina; Muscidae: Musca autumnalis, Musca domestica, Fannia canicularis, Stomoxys calcitrans; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga albiceps, Sarcophaga dux, Helicophagella melanura) and Egypt (Calliphoridae: C. megacephala, C. albiceps, L. sericata; Muscidae: M. domestica, F. canicularis, S. calcitrans, Synthesiomyia nudiseta; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga argyrostoma). This region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing of the amplification products. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the Kimura two-parameter distance model and a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree generated. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0-0.8 % and interspecific variation occurred between 1-19 %. Although all examined specimens were assigned to the correct species and formed distinct monophyletic clades, the data of the phylogenetic analysis were not completely in accordance with the traditional morphological classification. As both C. nigripes and A. grahami unexpectedly joined with Muscidae and Sarcophagidae groups respectively. Moreover, both Calliphorinae and Luciliinae clades failed to represent Calliphoridae as a separate group. Therefore, although molecular methods are beneficial

  19. Ocorrência e Sazonalidade de Muscóides (Diptera, Calliphoridae de Importância Sanitária no Município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Batista-da-Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo contribuir com o conhecimento da entomofauna de Calliphoridae (Diptera no município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil e quantificar as espécies mais predominantes de importância sanitária. As moscas foram capturadas em oito diferentes pontos no período de um ano, usando sempre isca de peixe. Após triagem, as espécies foram separadas por espécie e inseridas na coleção entomológica do Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - IOC/FIOCRUZ. Foram capturadas 1792 moscas pertencentes a sete (7 espécies da família Calliphoridae: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0,11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87,94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6,70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1,23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0,56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0,33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3,13%.Occurrence and seasonality of muscoid (Diptera, Calliphoridae of public healthimportance in Itaboraí (RJ, BrazilAbstract. This work was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of Calliphoridae flies (Diptera in Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil and quantify the predominant species of health importance. The flies were captured in eight different points in the city over a one year period, always using fish as bait, separated by species and kept properly in an entomological box in the Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense - IOC / FIOCRUZ, RJ. A total of 1792 Calliphoridae flies were captured, belonging to seven (7 species: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0.11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87.94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6.70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1.23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0.56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0.33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3.13%.

  20. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  1. Temperature-dependent development of the parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus on five forensically important carrion fly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S C; Spafford, H; Dadour, I R

    2010-06-01

    The influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees C. T. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C on five species of Calliphoridae, Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch, Calliphora dubia Macquart, Lucilia sericata Meigen, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. No adult parasitoids emerged from any of the host species reared at 30 degrees C. Temperature and host species significantly influenced development time, emergence success and progeny size. Development was significantly longer on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies at 18-24 degrees C and significantly longer on Ch. rufifacies and C. albifrontalis at 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Parasitoid emergence success was greatest at 21 degrees C, declined at the temperature extremes (15 degrees C and 27 degrees C) and was significantly lower on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than on the three other host species. Progeny numbers per host pupa were highest at 21-24 degrees C, declined on either side of this temperature range and were significantly lower on L. sericata, Ch. rufifacies and Ch. megacephala than on either C. dubia or C. albifrontalis. An effect of host species on sex ratio was only observed at 27 degrees C, at which a higher proportion of T. zealandicus females emerged from Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than from the other host species. The thermal requirements for development (developmental thresholds, thermal constant, optimum temperature) of T. zealandicus in each host species were estimated using linear and non-linear models. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 29.90 degrees C and 31.73 degrees C, and 9.73 degrees C and 10.08 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated at between 25

  2. Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukontason Kabkaew L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of eucalyptol were evaluated against the house fly, Musca domestica L., and blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.. The bioassay of adults, using topical application, indicated that M. domestica males were more susceptible than females, with the LD50 being 118 and 177 mg/fly, respectively. A higher LD50 of C. megacephala was obtained; 197 mg/fly for males and 221 mg/fly for females. Living flies of both species yielded a shorter life span after being treated with eucalyptol. The bioassay of larvae, using the dipping method on the third instar, showed that M. domestica was more susceptible than C. megacephala, with their LC50 being 101 and 642 mg/ml, respectively. The emergence of adults, which had been treated with eucalyptol in larvae, decreased only in M. domestica. Having the volatile property, fumigation or impregnated paper test of eucalyptol or the efficacy of repellence or attractiveness merits further investigations to enhance bio-insecticidal efficacy.

  3. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera) under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiravi, AH; Mostafavi, R; Akbarzadeh, K; Oshaghi, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. Methods: Rate of development (ROD) and accumulated degree day (ADD) of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C) was calculated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata) in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K) were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD) for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively. Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study. PMID:22808410

  4. Temperature Requirements of Some Common Forensically Important Blow and Flesh Flies (Diptera under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Shiravi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of his study was to determine development time and thermal requirements of three myiasis flies including Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp.Methods: Rate of development (ROD and accumu­lated degree day (ADD of three important forensic flies in Iran, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia sericata, and Sarcophaga sp. by rearing individuals under a single constant temperature (28° C was calcu­lated using specific formula for four developmental events including egg hatching, larval stages, pupation, and eclosion. Results: Rates of development decreased step by step as the flies grew from egg to larvae and then to adult stage; however, this rate was bigger for blowflies (C. albiceps and L. sericata in comparison with the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. Egg hatching, larval stages, and pupation took about one fourth and half of the time of the total pre-adult development time for all of the three species. In general, the flesh fly Sarcophaga sp. required more heat for development than the blowflies. The thermal constants (K were 130–195, 148–222, and 221–323 degree-days (DD for egg hatching to adult stages of C. albiceps, L. sericata, and Sarcophaga sp., respectively.Conclusion: This is the first report on thermal requirement of three forensic flies in Iran. The data of this study provide preliminary information for forensic entomologist to establish PMI in the area of study.

  5. Review of forensically important entomological specimens in the period of 1972 - 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H L; Krishnasamy, M; Abdullah, A G; Jeffery, J

    2004-12-01

    Forensic entomological specimens received by the Unit of Medical Entomology, IMR., from hospitals and the police in Malaysia in the last 3 decades (1972 - 2002) are reviewed. A total of 448 specimens were received. From these, 538 identifications were made with the following results: Eighteen species of cyclorrphaga flies were identified consisting of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) 215 cases (47.99%), Ch. rufifacies (Masquart) 132 (29.46%), Ch. villeneuvi Patton 10 (2.23%), Ch. nigripes Aubertin 7 (1.56%), Ch. bezziana Villeneuve 4 (0.89%), Ch. pinguis (Walker) 1 (0.22%), Chrysomya sp. 47 (10.49%), Sarcophaga sp. 28 (6.25%), Lucilia sp. 21 (4.69%), Hermetia sp. 15 (3.35%), He. illucens (Linnaeus) 1 (0.22%), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) 3 (0.67%), Hemipyrellia sp. 2 (0.45%), Ophyra spinigera 1 (0.22%), Ophyra sp. 6 (1.34%), Calliphora sp. 24 (5.36%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) 1 (0.22%) and Eristalis sp. 1 (0.22%). Other non - fly insect specimens are Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus) (Pubic louse) 2 (0.45%) and Coleoptera (Beetles) 1 (0.22%). Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in cadavers from different ecological habitats. Sy. nudiseta is an uncommon species, thus far found only on cadavers from indoors. Sy. nudiseta is reported for the second time in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 329 cases (73.44%) had a single fly infestation, 109 cases (24.33%) had double fly infestation and 10 cases (2.23%) had triple fly infestation. Five cases (1.12%) had eggs and 3 cases (0.67%) had larval stages that were not identifiable. No arthropods were retrieved from cadavers in 8 cases (1.79%). In conclusion, although large number of fly species were found on human cadavers, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya.

  6. Calliphoridae (Diptera en parches de Selva Pedemontana con distinto grado de intervención antrópica en Tucumán (Argentina

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    Sofía M. OLEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En el noroeste de la Argentina, se encuentra la ecoregión de las Yungas, donde existe escasa información ecológica sobre Calliphoridae. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo ampliar el conocimiento sobre la riqueza, la composición y la abundancia de Calliphoridae en tres parches selváticos, en áreas con distinto grado de urbanización. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente desde noviembre de 2009 hasta mayo de 2010 en tres localidades: San Miguel de Tucumán (sitio urbano, Nueva Esperanza (sitio rural y El Taficillo (selva. Se registraron 8 especies: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia sp., Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, Paralucilia pseudolyrcea (Mello y Calliphora nigribasis Macquart. Para las especies más abundantes, se calculó el Índice de Sinantropía (IS. La asociación entre la abundancia de las especies y los sitios fue examinada mediante un Análisis de Componentes Principales (ACP. Lucilia cluvia fue dominante en todos los sitios y muestras, con una leve predominancia hacia sectores menos afectados por la urbanización. Los resultados del presente estudio reflejan la composición de los ensambles de Calliphoridae representativos de la Selva Pedemontana de las Yungas de Tucumán, caracterizados por una fuerte dominancia de especies del genero Lucilia.

  7. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882) including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244) and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244). Others (n=155) including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart) and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication "Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan" (Zaidi et al., 2016) [1].

  8. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Zaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921 including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037. A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21% while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34% targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882 including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244 and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244. Others (n=155 including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker, Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication “Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan” (Zaidi et al., 2016 [1].

  9. [The community succession of sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Jun; Ma, Meng-Yun; Zhou, Hui; Lai, Yue; Wang, Jiang-Feng

    2014-06-01

    To explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcosaphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). From early May to August in 2013, in Forensic Medical Examination Center of Shenzhen Public Security Bureau, the main insect species and the decomposition process were observed in two adult pig carcasses of simulative indoor and outdoor environment. The different decomposition stages and the community succession of insects were recorded. The indoor and outdoor pig carcasses showed skeleton 412.5 and 325 hours after death, respectively. The main species of flies on pig carcasses were Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya chani. The main species of beetles were Crecphilus maxillosus, Necrobia ruficollis, Saprinus splendens and Dermestes maculatu. The dominant species of flies in the outdoor pig carcasses obviously produced the second generations due to the effect of mass rainfall, nor in the indoor pig carcasses. There are regular patterns on the community succession of insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area. The activity patterns of seven typical insects and their larva show important value for estimating PMI.

  10. The effect of starvation on the larval behavior of two forensically important species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devinder; Bala, Madhu

    2009-12-15

    The postfeeding larval stage in blow flies is generally an irreversible condition when the fully grown third instar larvae stop feeding and give no response towards food. The larvae of most species then disperse away from their feeding medium and pupariate. There are several cases reported about the use of postfeeding larvae as forensic evidence. It is a matter of common observation that the postfeeding stage can be reached earlier than the expected time if food becomes unavailable. However, no information is available on whether postfeeding stage induced by scarcity of food is also irreversible. Similarly, the minimum period of development required by the larvae of different blow flies species to enable their survival as postfeeding larvae and pupariation in the absence of food is unknown. It was observed during the present studies that the larvae of two Chrysomya species must feed for at least 35 h at 28 degrees C in order to be capable of reaching the postfeeding stage and subsequent pupariation. Duration of the starvation period required to induce postfeeding behavior decreases with increasing age of larvae. In the case of Chrysomya megacephala, 35, 45, 55 and 65 h old larvae attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 30, 20, 12 and 2 h of starvation, respectively. Similarly, larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies that were 35, 45, 55 and 60 h old attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 25, 16, 6 and 2 h of starvation, respectively.

  11. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p tides also affected the abundance of C. putoria (r = 0.40, p < 0.00), C. macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species.

  12. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  13. Insect Fauna of Human Cadavers in Tehran District

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    Fahimeh Talebzadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entomological data can provide valuable information for crime scene investigations especially in post- mortem interval (PMI estimation. This study performed to determine insect fauna of human corpses in Tehran dis­trict.Methods: Insect specimens were collected from 12 human cadavers during spring and summer 2014 and were identi­fied using morphological characteristics.Results: Four fly species including two blowflies Chrysomya albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Calliphoridae, one flesh fly Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Sarcophagidae, and one phorid fly Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae and a beetle Der­mestes maculatus (Dermestidae was observed on the human cadavers. Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant species on the corpses temporally and spatially.Conclusion: Chrysomya albiceps was the most dominant insect species on human cadavers in the area study spatio­temporally. The data make C. albiceps as a valuable entomological indicator for PMI estimation in Tehran and other parts of the country. However, further biological and ecological data such as its behavior, life tables, and consistent developmental time should be investigated when establishing a PMI in the region.

  14. Rearing five species of Diptera (Calliphoridae of forensic importance in Colombia in semicontrolled field conditions

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    María C. Vélez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Calliphoridae is widely known to lead the colonization of corpses and their development rates are frequently used to estimate the postmortem interval. This study presents the larval growth of five forensically important species of Calliphoridae in Colombia. Rearing took place in semicontrolled field conditions where the egg masses were collected. We show curves of larval growth, larval length and time intervals to reach all immature stages for Lucilia eximia and Cochliomyia macellaria at two sites with different climatic conditions and for Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Calliphora nigribasis at one site. Overall, high temperatures speeded up the development of the species reared at two different sites, whereas low temperatures for C. nigribasis, lengthened the total development time. Differences between this study and others can be explained by the experimental conditions in the field without the possibility of strict laboratory rearing controls.La familia Calliphoridae es ampliamente conocida por liderar la colonización de los cadáveres y sus tasas de desarrollo son frecuentemente utilizadas para estimar el intervalo postmortem. Este estudio presenta el crecimiento larval de cinco especies de Calliphoridae de importancia forense en Colombia, considerando que la cría se dio en condiciones de campo semicontroladas en los lugares donde las masas de huevos fueron colectadas. Mostramos también, los intervalos de longitud y el tiempo empleado en alcanzar todos los estadios inmaduros para Lucilia eximia y Cochliomyia macellaria en dos lugares con diferentes condiciones climáticas y Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala y Calliphora nigribasis, en un solo lugar. En general, las altas temperaturas producen una aceleración en el desarrollo de las especies criadas en dos sitios diferentes, mientras que bajas temperaturas para C. nigribasis, alargaron el tiempo utilizado para completar el desarrollo. Las diferencias

  15. Blow fly maggots (Diptera: Calliphoridae)from a human corpse in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Monum, Tawachai; Wannasan, Anchalee; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kom; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-09-01

    Correct species identification and development data of insects associated with a cadaver can help estimate the time of colonization which could be used to infer a minimal post-mortem interval (minPMI) for forensic investigations. Human remains are found in a variety of locations ranging from open fields to inside automobiles. We report the investigation of blow fly larvae collected from a decomposing body located in the trunk of a car. There were two blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species: Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Blow flies can enter the vehicle and colonize human remains. Based on age estimations of third stage larvae of A. rufifacies, the minPMI was estimated to be 4-5 days, which was within the range of 3-5 days estimated by other forensically relevant information.

  16. Atratividade de diferentes iscas e sua relação com as fases de desenvolvimento ovariano em calliphoridae e sarcophagidae (insecta, diptera Attractiveness of differents baits and its relation with ovarian development fases in Calliphoridae ano Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Attrativeness of differents baits (fish, faeces and banana upon ovarian development fases of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae was evaluated. The insects were captured in Distrito Federal (urban area and Rio de Janeiro city (beach, zoological garden, urban area and Tijuca forest. The most frequent species captured were: Calliphoridae - Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 78,9% and Chtysomya puloria (Wiedemann, 1818 5,4% - and Sarcophagidae - Sarcophagula Wulp, 1887 2,3% and Peckya chrysostoma (Wiedemann. 1830 2,2%. Fish was more attractive to females of Calliphoridae flies in intense ovarian vitelogenesis, although banana atracted more flies with mature eggs. Faeces and fish were more atractive for Sarcophagidae in the beggining of vitelogenesis.

  17. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil

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    Marilia A.R.Q. Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer′s retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design.

  18. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    , and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of E. coli and genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. RESULTS: Rice was at greater risk (p ... with E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (p ...-landings, the average CFU per fly-landing was > 0·6 x 103 CFU. Genes of diarrheagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified; the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). CONCLUSION: Flies may...

  19. Species composition of carrion blow flies in northern Thailand: altitude appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  20. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL

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    Kittikhun Moophayak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (44.7%, C. pinguis (Walker (15.1%, C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%, C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%; Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart (10.5%, A. villeneuvi (Patton (2.2%; Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%, L. porphyrina (Walker (12.4%, L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%; Hemipyrellia ligurriens(Wiedemann (1.3%, H. pulchra(Wiedemann (0.1%; Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot (0.6%, Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2% and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%. Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.

  1. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

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    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  2. A preliminary study on insects associated with pig (Sus scrofa) carcasses in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichat, Vitta; Wilawan, Pumidonming; Udomsak, Tangchaisuriya; Chanasorn, Poodendean; Saengchai, Nateeworanart

    2007-12-01

    preliminary study on insects associated with pig carcasses was conducted in Phitsanulok, northern Thailand. Five decomposition stages of pig carcasses were categorized: fresh (0-1 day after death), bloated (2 days after death), active (3 days after death), advanced (4- 6 days after death) and dry (7-30 days after death). The arthropod species collected from the corpses in the field sites were mainly classified belonging to two orders and nine families, namely order Diptera (family Calliphoridae: Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala, family Muscidae: Musca domestica, family Faniidae: Fannia canicularis, family Sarcophagidae: Parasarcophaga ruficornis and family Piophilidae: Piophila casei,) and order Coleoptera (family Dermestidae: Dermestes maculatus, family Histeridae: Hister sp., family Cleridae: Necrobia rufipes and family Trogidae: Trox sp). The forensically dominant fly was C. rufifacies, while the beetle was D. maculatus. The beetles associated with pig carcasses found in this study are first reported in Phitsanulok, Thailand. In addition, ants, bees, spiders and millipedes were also associated with the carcasses. These findings may provide data for further use in legal investigations in Thailand.

  3. DNA typing of Calliphorids collected from human corpses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, R; Tan, T C; Lee, H L; Nazni, W A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2013-03-01

    Estimation of post-mortem interval (PMI) is crucial for time of death determination. The advent of DNA-based identification techniques forensic entomology saw the beginning of a proliferation of molecular studies into forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera). The use of DNA to characterise morphologically indistinguishable immature calliphorids was recognised as a valuable molecular tool with enormous practical utility. The local entomofauna in most cases is important for the examination of entomological evidences. The survey of the local entomofauna has become a fundamental first step in forensic entomological studies, because different geographical distributions, seasonal and environmental factors may influence the decomposition process and the occurrence of different insect species on corpses. In this study, calliphorids were collected from 13 human corpses recovered from indoors, outdoors and aquatic conditions during the post-mortem examination by pathologists from the government hospitals in Malaysia. Only two species, Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies were recovered from human corpses. DNA sequencing was performed to study the mitochondrial encoded COI gene and to evaluate the suitability of the 1300 base pairs of COI fragments for identification of blow fly species collected from real crime scene. The COI gene from blow fly specimens were sequenced and deposited in GenBank to expand local databases. The sequenced COI gene was useful in identifying calliphorids retrieved from human corpses.

  4. Diversity of Sarcosaprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) on Sandy Beaches Exposed to Increasing Levels of Urbanization in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Taciano Moura; Carmo, Rodrigo Felipe Rodrigues; Silva, Leonardo Pereira; Sales, Raissa Guerra; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2017-06-01

    Sandy beaches are among the most impacted ecosystems worldwide, and the effects of urbanization on the biodiversity of these habitats are largely unknown, particularly in Brazil. We investigated the composition and structure of assemblages of sarcosaprophagous insects (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae) on six sandy beaches exposed to differential levels of human impact in Pernambuco State, Brazil. In total, 20,672 adults of 40 species were collected, of which 70% were Calliphoridae. Sarcophagidae had the highest diversity with 26 species of nine genera. A strong overlap in the composition of the assemblages across the six beaches was observed, with only a few species being restricted to one type of beach. The flesh flies Dexosarcophaga carvalhoi (Lopes), Peckia intermutans (Walker), and Titanogrypa larvicida (Lopes) occurred exclusively in beaches under low anthropogenic impact. Species with strong medical and veterinary importance such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) occurred even in beaches under low human presence. The invasive species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Calliphoridae) were dominant in all beaches, which exposes the vulnerability of sandy beaches to exotic species. Our data imply that sarcosaprophagous flies can be used as early biological indicators to suggest urbanization in coastal environments. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition.

  6. Development Period of Forensic Importance Calliphoridae (Diptera: Brachycera in Urban Area Under Natural Conditions in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alex Barros-Souza

    2012-06-01

    Resumo. Para descrever o tempo de desenvolvimento dos imaturos de Calliphoridae sob condições naturais, dois experimentos foram realizados no Campus II do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas, um na estação chuvosa e o outro na estação menos chuvosa. Cadáveres de porcos domésticos (25kg cada foram utilizados como substrato atrativo para a ovipostura dos califorídeos. Fêmeas grávidas de Calliphoridae foram coletadas e os ovos foram transferidos para potes plásticos contendo placas de Petri com carne bovina moída. As espécies criadas, com respectivo tempo de desenvolvimento de ovo a adulto (em dias, na estação mais chuvosa e menos chuvosa, foram: Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 14,5 e 9,4 dias, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 10,7 e 9,4, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 11,5 e 10,7 Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann 19,4 e 14,3 e Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 11,8 dias, essa criada somente na estação menos chuvosa. Este é o primeiro registro do tempo de desenvolvimento de P. paraensis.

  7. [Sequencing of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene in sarcosaphagous flies from 14 provinces in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Cai, Jifeng; Wen, Jifang; Guo, Yadong

    2010-08-01

    To detect the 278 bp region of gene of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in mitochondral DNA (mtDNA) of sarcosaphagous flies, identify the species of sarcosaphagous flies, and provide reference for forensic application. Samples were collected in Baotou and Chifeng of Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Nanning, Fuzhou, Linyi of Shandong, Shijiazhuang, Yinchuan, Lanzhou, Huairou of Beijing, Xinxiang and Nanyang of Henan, Datong of Shanxi, Wuhu of Anhui, Quzhou of Zhejiang, Changsha, Zhuzhou and Yongzhou of Hunan. A total of 38 flies were randomly collected from rabbits, dogs and pigs which were set outdoors, then the flies' mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were extracted by the improved small insects DNA homogenate method. Amplification was conducted by Perkin-Elmer 9600 thermal cycler, then vertical non-denaturing 7% polyacrylamide gelectrophoresis. PCR products were purified using the nucleic acid purification kit. Sequences of both strands were obtained by direct sequence of the double-stranded PCR product using one of the PCR primers and the ABI PRISM big dye terminator cycle sequencing dit. Sequence reactions were electrophorsed on ABI Model 3730 DNA Sequencers. A UPGMA tree was contrasted using the maximum composite likelihood method in MEGA4. The 38 sarcosaphagous flies belonged to 3 families(Muscidae, Calliphoridae, and Sarcophagidae), 10 genuses (Musca Linnaeus, Hydrotaea Robineau-Desvoidy, Aldrichina Townsend, Hemipyrellia Townsend, Achoetandrus Bezzi, Protophormia Townsend, Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy, Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, Helicophagella Enderlein, and Boettcherisca Rohdendorf), and 12 species [Musca domestica (Linnaeus), Hydrotaea (Ophyra) capensis (Wiedemann), Lucilia caesar (Linnaeus), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Aldrichina graham (Aldrich), Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Achoetandrus (Chrysomya) rufifacies (Macquary), Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Helicophagella melanura (Meigen), and

  8. A preliminary study of insect succession on a pig carcass in a palm oil plantation in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; Ahmad Firdaus, M S; Jeffery, J; Baharudin, Omar

    2007-12-01

    This preliminary study was carried out in a palm oil plantation in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor in 17 May 2007 by using pig (Sus scrofa) as a carcass model in forensic entomological research. A 3 month old pig (8.5 kg) that died of pneumonio was placed in the field to observe the decomposition stages and the fauna succession of forensically important flies. Observation was made for two weeks; two visits per day and all climatological data were recorded. The first visitor to the pig carcass was a muscid fly, seen within a minute, and followed by ants and spiders. Within half an hour, calliphorid flies came over. On the second day (fresh), few calliphorid and sarcophagid flies were found on the carcass. Two different species of moths were trapped in the hanging net. The first larva mass occurred on the third day (bloated) around the mouthpart, with some L1 and L2 found in the eyes. Reduvid bugs and Staphylinidae beetles were recovered on the fourth day (active decay), and new maggot masses occurred in the eyes and anus. L3 larvae could be found beneath the pig carcass on the fourth day. On the fifth day (active decay), new maggot masses were found on neck, thorax, and hind legs. Advance decay occurred on the sixth day with abundant maggots covering all over the body. The main adult fly population was Chrysomya megacephala (day 2 to day 6), but the larvae population was mainly those of Chrysomya rufifacies (day 4 to day 14). The dry stage began on the eighth day. Hermetia illucens adult was caught on day-13, and a larvae mass of Chrysomya rufifacies was seen burrowing under the soil. This forensic entomological research using pig carcass model was the first record in this country.

  9. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardhana, A H [Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom); Department of Parasitology, Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science, Bogor (Indonesia); Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hall, M J.R.; Ready, P D; Mahamdallie, S S [Department of Entomology, Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom); Muharsini, S [Department of Parasitology, Indonesian Research Centre for Veterinary Science, Bogor (Indonesia); Cameron, M M [Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor 1{alpha}( EF-1{alpha}) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (717 bp, 754 specimens), EF-1{alpha} (361 bp, 256 specimens) and white (577 bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two African and nine Asian countries, including 10 Indonesian islands. We show that OWSF occurs as distinctive African and Asian lineages based on cyt b and white, and that there is a marked differentiation between Sumatran and Javan populations in Indonesia, supported by the genealogy and analysis of molecular variance of cyt b alone. Four cyt b sub-lineages are recognised in Asia: only 2.1 occurs on the Asian mainland, from Yemen to Peninsular Malaysia; only 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 occur in central Indonesia; 2.4 predominates on New Guinea; and 2.1 co-occurs with others only on Sumatra in western Indonesia. This phylogeography and the genetic distances between cyt b haplotypes indicate pre-historic, natural dispersal of OWSF eastwards into Indonesia and other Malesian islands, followed by vicariant evolution in New Guinea and central Indonesia. OWSF is absent from Australia, where there is surveillance for importation or natural invasion. Judged by cyt b haplotype markers, there is currently little spread of OWSF across sea barriers, despite frequent shipments of Australian livestock through Indonesian seas to the Middle East Gulf region. These findings will inform plans for integrated pest management, which could be applied progressively, for example starting in East Nusa Tenggara (central Indonesia) where OWSF has regional cyt b markers, and progressing westwards to Java where any invasion from Sumatra is unlikely. Cyt b markers would help identify the source of any re-emergence in treated areas

  10. The influence of temperature and humidity on abundance and richness of Calliphoridae (Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo R. Azevedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The blowfly species are important components in necrophagous communities of the Neotropics. Besides being involved in the degradation of animal organic matter, they may serve as vectors for pathogens and parasites, and also cause primary and secondary myiasis. The occurrence pattern of these species is well defined, yet it is still not very clear which of these environmental factors determine the structure of the assemblies. This paper was developed to evaluate the influence of mean temperature and relative humidity variation in the abundance and richness of blowflies in the Brazilian southernmost state, Rio Grande do Sul, where temperature variation is well marked throughout the year. To evaluate this objective, WOT (Wind Oriented Trap were installed with beef liver as bait in three environments for 10 consecutive days in each month between July 2003 and June 2004. A total of 13,860 flies were collected distributed among 16 species with a higher frequency of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. The mean temperature and relative humidity influence the richness of blowflies, with greater richness and abundance in late spring and early summer, whereas abundance was only influenced by temperature. Each species responded differently with respect to these variables, where L. eximia is not influenced by any of the two abiotic factors, despite the high abundance presented. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity for the presence or absence of species of Calliphoridae and on the variation of the abundance of these species under regime temperature changes and relative humidity with implications for public health and animal management.

  11. Technical Note: "Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA approaches for reliable identification of Lucilia (Diptera, Calliphoridae) species of forensic interest from Southern Europe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    GilArriortua, Maite; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Cainé, Laura M; Pinheiro, Fátima; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2015-12-01

    In forensic entomology, rapid and unambiguous identification of blowfly species is a critical prerequisite for accurately estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI). The conventional diagnosis of cadaveric entomofauna based on external characters is hampered by the morphological similarities between species, especially in immature stages. Genetic analysis has been shown to allow precise and reliable diagnosis and delimitation of insect species. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of some species remains unresolved. This study was focused on improving the effectiveness and accuracy of analysis based on the widely used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region (COI barcode, 658 bp), complemented by other mitochondrial and nuclear regions, such as cytochrome b (Cyt-b, 307 bp) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2, 310-331 bp), for the identification of Southern European blowflies. We analyzed a total of 209 specimens, collected from 38 human corpses, belonging to three Calliphoridae genera and seven species: Chrysomya (Ch. albiceps), Calliphora (C. vicina and C. vomitoria), and Lucilia (L. sericata, L. ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). These species are the most common PMI indicators in Portugal. The results revealed that unambiguous separation of species of the Lucilia genus requires different loci from the barcode region. Furthermore, we conclude that the ITS2 (310-331 bp) molecular marker is a promising diagnostic tool because its inter-specific discriminatory power enables unequivocal and consistent distinctions to be made, even between closely related species (L. caesar-L. illustris). This work also contributes new genetic data that may be of interest in performing species diagnosis for Southern European blowflies. Notably, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first records of the Cyt-b (307 bp) locus for L. illustris and the ITS2 (310-331 bp) region for Iberian Peninsula Lucilia species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  12. An Experimental Investigation Into the Colonization of Concealed Cadavers by Necrophagous Blowflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, D.; Hedouin, V.; Gosset, D.

    2015-01-01

    We used seven baited boxes with different combinations of access holes and odor diffusion surfaces to study the arrival of necrophagous flies. During laboratory experiments, 30 gravid Lucilia sericata females were kept in a chamber with one of the boxes. The box with the largest odor diffusion surface (99 cm2) combined with the lowest accessibility (one 1 cm2 entrance hole) was entered least (5 ± 3.7 flies per run). In contrast, the most frequently entered box (one 9 cm2 entrance hole with no additional odor diffusion surface) caught a mean of 24.6 ± 3.4 flies per run. These results indicate that 1) L. sericata entered nearly inaccessible places and 2) both odor diffusion and accessibility impacted the number of flies caught. During field experiments, the seven boxes were placed together outdoors. The box with the most entrances (ten 9-cm2 holes) caught the most flies (55.6–99.4% of the total). Only a few flies entered the other boxes. Access to the less accessible boxes (poor odor diffusion and small entrances) was also delayed. The major conclusions of the field experiments are that 1) boxes with low accessibility took longer to be accessed; 2) larger odor diffusion surfaces were more attractive to flies; and 3) flies accessed boxes more readily through larger holes than through an equivalent surface area made up of smaller holes. With these conclusions in mind, attempts to quantify the preappearance interval or to interpret the number of flies observed in indoor forensic entomology cases should be approached with caution. PMID:26496788

  13. Motion adaptation leads to parsimonious encoding of natural optic flow by blowfly motion vision system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitwerth, J.; Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    Neurons sensitive to visual motion change their response properties during prolonged motion stimulation. These changes have been interpreted as adaptive and were concluded, for instance, to adjust the sensitivity of the visual motion pathway to velocity changes or to increase the reliability of

  14. Encoding of Naturalistic Optic Flow by a Population of Blowfly Motion-Sensitive Neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karmeier, K.; Hateren, J.H. van; Kern, R.; Egelhaaf, M.

    In sensory systems information is encoded by the activity of populations of neurons. To analyze the coding properties of neuronal populations sensory stimuli have usually been used that were much simpler than those encountered in real life. It has been possible only recently to stimulate visual

  15. Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) established in the vicinity of Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, S A; Hall, R D; Haskell, N H; Merritt, R W

    2000-07-01

    The hairy maggot blow fly, Chrsomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was collected in large numbers as both adults and immatures in the Knoxville, Tennessee, area during 1998 and is likely established there. The distribution of this species in the Old World, isothermal data, and its collection from mid-Michigan during 1998 suggest that it will eventually occupy most of the U.S. The forensic importance of C. rufifacies makes it probable that it will factor into an increasing number of medicolegal cases, but the expanding distribution of this species decreases its utility as a geographic indicator when postmortem movement of decedents is suspected.

  16. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  17. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  18. A preliminary study on the decomposition and dipteran associated with exposed carcasses in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Abu Hassan, A

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah using monkey carcasses and focuses in documenting the decomposition and dipteran colonization sequences in 50 days. This is the first study of Diptera associated with the exploitation of carcasses conducted in the north of peninsular Malaysia during the dry and wet seasons thereat. During the process of decomposition in both seasons, five phases of decay were recognized namely fresh, bloated, active decay, advance decay and dry remain. In this decomposition study, biomass loss of carcass occurred rapidly during the fresh to active decay stage due to the colonization and feeding activity of the Diptera larvae. The duration of the fresh and bloated stages of decay were the same in wet and dry seasons but later stages of decay were markedly shorter during the wet season. Twenty one species of adult Diptera were identified colonizing carcasses in the study period. Among the flies from the family Calliphoridae, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius and Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin were recognized as the earliest arrivals on the first day of exposure. Adult Ch. nigripes was abundant for approximately two weeks after placement of the carcasses. By comparing the percentages of adults collected during the study period, the calliphorids abundance in percentages in wet season was 50.83%, but in dry season, the abundance was only about 35.2%. In contrast, the percentage of Sphaeroceridae in wet season was only 3.33%, but in the dry season, the abundance was 20.8%. Dipteran in family Phoridae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae, Drosophilidae and Dolichopodidae colonized the carcasses for a long period of time and were categorized as long term colonizers.

  19. Comparative fly species composition on indoor and outdoor forensic cases in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, Rizal Abdullah; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Firdaus Mohd Salleh; Hidayatulfathi, Othman; Shahrom, Abd Wahid

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification. Five families, seven genera and nine species of flies were identified from human remains. The results of the study showed Chrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) maggots occurred on corpses with the highest frequency (70.6%), followed by Ch. rufifacies (Calliphoridae) (44.1%), sarcophagid fly (Sarcophagidae) (38.2%), Synthesiomya nudiseta (Muscidae) (20.6%), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) (14.7%), Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Ch. nigripes (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Eristalis spp. (Syrphidae) (5.9%) and Hydrotaea spinigera (Muscidae) (2.9%). The greatest fly diversity occurred on remains recovered indoors (eight species) compared to outdoors (three species). Whilst, single and double infestations were common for both indoor and outdoor cases, multiple infestation of up to six species was observed in one of the indoor cases. Although large numbers of fly species were found on human remains, the predominant species were still those of Chrysomya, while S. nudiseta was found only on human remains recovered from indoors. The present study provides additional knowledge in the context of Malaysian forensic entomology and the distribution of forensically important flies which is of relevance to forensic science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Gamma irradiation for disinfestation of salted and dried fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1975-01-01

    About 60-70% of commercially salted and dried fish were found to be infested by flies of 6 different species, i.e. the Cheese skipper (Piophila casei, L.) the Bronze bottle fly (Paenicia cuprina), the Screw worm fly (Chrysomya megacephala, Fab.), the Red-tailed flesh fly (Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, Fallen), Lucilia illustris, Meigen and Chrysomya marginalis, Weidemann. Larvae of the Cheese skipper were found to be the least radiation-sensitive, as 225 krad was required to prevent 99% of the larvae from developing into pupae. This dose was completely lethal to other developmental stages of the Cheese skipper and to all stages of other species. Irradiation at this doselevel also has some beneficial microbiological effects. Doses between 3 and 12,5 krad prevented larvae of all insects mentioned above from reaching the adult stage, though they did not inhibit the transition into the pupal form. No significant difference was observed on the organoleptic properties between salted and dried mackerel and Pla salid (Trichogaster pectoralis, Regan), a fresh water fish, irradiated up to 300 krad and those of untreated samples when tested up to 6 months of storage time at room temperature. Polypropylene bags of 0,13 and 0,20 mm thickness and polyethylene bags of 0,20 mm thickness could prevent re-infestation of the samples. Transportation tests by truck for a distance of 800 km revealed that both polypropylene and polyethylene bags of 0,13 and 0,20 mm thickness were suitable to package the mackerel samples but only polypropylene bags of 0,20 mm thickness were sufficient to protect the Pla salid samples. It appeared that salted and dried mackerel irradiated up to 300 krad and stored for 4 months was not considered rancid. No change in fat, protein and ash contents of irradiated samples was observed. It was concluded that gamma irradation could be considered as an effective method for disinfesting and preserving salted and dried fish. (author)

  1. Effect of massing on larval growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    Estimation of minimum postmortem interval commonly relies on predicting the age of blowfly larvae based on their size and an estimate of the temperatures to which they have been exposed throughout their development. The majority of larval growth rate data have been developed using small larval masses in order to avoid excess heat generation. The current study collected growth rate data for larvae at different mass volumes, and assessed the temperature production of these masses, for two forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya rufifacies and Calliphora vicina. The growth rate of larvae in a small mass, exposed to the higher temperatures equivalent to those experienced by large masses, was also assessed to determine if observed differences were due to the known temperature effects of maggot masses. The results showed that temperature production increased with increasing mass volume, with temperature increases of 11 °C observed in the large Ch. rufifacies masses and increases of 5 °C in the large C. vicina masses. Similarly, the growth rate of the larvae was affected by mass size. The larvae from small masses grown at the higher temperatures experienced by large masses displayed an initial delay in growth, but then grew at a similar rate to those larvae at a constant 23 °C. Since these larvae from masses of equivalent sizes displayed similar patterns of growth rate, despite differing temperatures, and these growth rates differed from larger masses exposed to the same temperatures, it can be concluded that larval growth rate within a mass may be affected by additional factors other than temperature. Overall, this study highlights the importance of understanding the role of massing in larval development and provides initial developmental data for mass sizes of two forensically important blowfly species commonly encountered in Australian forensic casework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana, A H; Hall, M J R; Mahamdallie, S S; Muharsini, S; Cameron, M M; Ready, P D

    2012-07-01

    Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (717bp, 754 specimens), EF-1α (361bp, 256 specimens) and white (577bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two African and nine Asian countries, including 10 Indonesian islands. We show that OWSF occurs as distinctive African and Asian lineages based on cyt b and white, and that there is a marked differentiation between Sumatran and Javan populations in Indonesia, supported by the genealogy and analysis of molecular variance of cyt b alone. Four cyt b sub-lineages are recognised in Asia: only 2.1 occurs on the Asian mainland, from Yemen to Peninsular Malaysia; only 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 occur in central Indonesia; 2.4 predominates on New Guinea; and 2.1 co-occurs with others only on Sumatra in western Indonesia. This phylogeography and the genetic distances between cyt b haplotypes indicate pre-historic, natural dispersal of OWSF eastwards into Indonesia and other Malesian islands, followed by vicariant evolution in New Guinea and central Indonesia. OWSF is absent from Australia, where there is surveillance for importation or natural invasion. Judged by cyt b haplotype markers, there is currently little spread of OWSF across sea barriers, despite frequent shipments of Australian livestock through Indonesian seas to the Middle East Gulf region. These findings will inform plans for integrated pest management, which could be applied progressively, for example starting in East Nusa Tenggara (central Indonesia) where OWSF has regional cyt b markers, and progressing westwards to Java where any invasion from Sumatra is unlikely. Cyt b markers would help identify the source of any re-emergence in treated areas. Copyright © 2012

  3. Indoor decomposition study in Malaysia with special reference to the scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja M. Zuha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae are a diversified insect group of forensic importance. Their frequent presence on human corpses indoors and in concealed environments can be the sole indicators to estimate the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin. However, bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcasses are rarely documented indoors. The objective of this research is to observe and document the occurrence of scuttle flies on decomposing animal carcass placed inside a portable cabin maintained at room temperature (≈25.0 °C in Bangi, Malaysia. This study was conducted in two rounds for a period of 40-day each and samplings were carried out in different intervals. Adult scuttle flies were aspirated directly from the carcass and preserved in 70% ethanol. Their larvae and pupae were reared until adult stage to facilitate identification. Megaselia scalaris (Loew, Megaselia spiracularis (Schmitz and Dohrniphora cornuta (Bigot were the scuttle flies found on the carcasses with M. scalaris being the earliest and dominant to colonize the body. This cosmopolitan species proved to be the best indicator to estimate PMImin indoor but in the increased presence of other fly species, it might be relegated to a secondary role. The scuttle flies were also found to coexist with other dipterans of forensic importance in an indoor environment, mainly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae. This information expands the knowledge on the bionomics of scuttle flies on decomposing animal remains indoors.

  4. Can Escherichia coli fly? The role of flies as transmitters of E. coli to food in an urban slum in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Phelps, Matthew; Tulsiani, Suhella; Farhana, Israt; Begum, Anowara; Jensen, Peter Kjaer Mackie

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the transmission of faecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. Over a period of 2 months, paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the numbers of flies landing on the exposed rice were counted. Following exposure, the surface of the rice was microbiologically and molecularly analysed for the presence of Escherichia coli and genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella strains. Rice was at greater risk (P E. coli if flies landed on the rice than if no flies landed on the rice (odds ratio 5·4 (P 0·6 × 103 CFU. Genes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli and Shigella species were detected in 39 of 60 (65%) of exposed rice samples. Two fly species were identified: the common housefly (Musca domestica) and the oriental latrine fly (Chrysomya megacephala). Flies may transmit large quantities of E. coli to food under field settings. The findings highlight the importance of implementing control measures to minimise exposure of food to flies to ensure food safety. Fly control measures should be considered for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases caused by E. coli. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human myiasis in rural South Africa is under-reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuria, Simon Kamande; Kingu, H J C; Villet, M H; Dhaffala, A

    2015-01-08

    Myiasis is the infestation of live tissue of humans and other vertebrates by larvae of flies. Worldwide, myiasis of humans is seldom reported, although the trend is gradually changing in some countries. Reports of human myiasis in Africa are few. Several cases of myiasis were recently seen at the Mthatha Hospital Complex, Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa (SA). Because of a paucity of literature on myiasis from this region, surgeons and scientists from Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, decided to document myiasis cases presenting either at Nelson Mandela Academic Hospital or Umtata General Hospital from May 2009 to April 2013. The objective was to determine the incidence, epidemiology, patient age group and gender, and fly species involved. The effect of season on incidence was also investigated. Twenty-five cases (14 men and 11 women) were recorded in the 4-year study period. The fly species involved were Lucilia sericata, L. cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. chloropyga and Sarcophaga (Liosarcophaga) nodosa, the latter being confirmed as an agent for human myiasis for the first time. The patients were 3 - 78 years old (median 56). Cases were most numerous during spring and summer, and were associated with underlying pathologies typical of ageing. Myiasis is a more common medical condition than expected in the Mthatha region. The study shows that human myiasis is still frequently encountered in SA, and there is a need to understand its epidemiology better.

  6. Evaluating the Effects of Different Vegetation Types on Necrophagous Fly Communities (Diptera: Calliphoridae; Sarcophagidae): Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Juen, Leandro; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in five different phytogeographic zones of the Brazilian state of Maranhão, three of which (the Amazon Forest, Cerrado, and Palm Groves) are more heterogeneous, whereas the other two (Marshlands and Mangroves) are more homogeneous. In each zone, nine sites were visited for the collection of necrophagous flies using bait traps in 2010, 2011, and 2012. The calliphorid and sarcophagid communities observed at each site were compared in terms of species richness, composition, and abundance. The more heterogeneous zones had higher species richness, except in the case of the sarcophagids in the forest habitats. The calliphorids Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau- Desvoidy, 1830), Mesembrinella bicolor (Fabricius, 1805), Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) were more closely associated with the Cerrado, Palm Grove and Amazon Forest zones, and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 194) with the Mangrove. In the sarcophagids, Peckia (Euboettcheria) subducta (Lopes, 1935) and P. (Pattonella) palidipilosa (Curran & Walley, 1934) were associated with the Amazon Forest, and P. (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830) and Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (Fabricius, 1794) with the Palm Grove and Cerrado zones. In the calliphorids, the greatest dissimilarity was recorded between the Amazon Forest and the Mangrove and Lowland grassland zones. In the sarcophagids, by contrast, the greatest dissimilarities were recorded between the Amazon Forest and all the other four zones. In general, then, the phytogeographic zones with the highest environmental heterogeneity were characterized by the greatest species richness and abundance of necrophagous flies. PMID:27798664

  7. COII "long fragment" reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sanaa M; Mahmoud, Shereen M

    2016-01-01

    Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII) in identification of forensically important flies. Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species (Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps, C. rufifacies, C. megacephala, Lucilia sericata, L. cuprina; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria, S. dux, S. albiceps, Wohlfahrtia nuba; Muscidae: Musca domestica, M. autumnalis) were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter) distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining) phylogenetic tree was constructed. All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  8. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  9. Morphological Features of Regurgitate and Defecatory Stains Deposited by Five Species of Necrophagous Flies are Influenced by Adult Diets and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, David B; McGregor, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The morphological characteristics of artifacts from five species of necrophagous flies were examined following feeding on several types of diets. Four types of insect stains were produced by each species: regurgitate, defecatory, translocation, and tarsal tracks. Regurgitate was the most frequent type deposited (70.9 ± 2.4%), followed by defecatory (19.8 ± 4.0%), tarsal tracks (8.6 ± 1.2%), and translocation (0.7 ± 0.1%). Artifact shapes, sizes, and color were highly variable and species and diet specific. Calliphora vicina and Sarcophaga bullata consistently deposited the largest artifacts after feeding, whereas Chrysomya rufifacies and Ch. megacephala produced more tarsal tracks than the other species examined. Artifacts with tails were infrequently observed (4.1 ± 0.6% of all stains) but occurred as either defecatory or regurgitate stains. The widely variable morphologies of all types of fly artifacts underscores the view that insect stains cannot be distinguished from human bloodstains based on morphology alone. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Cadaver wrapping and arrival performance of adult flies in an oil palm plantation in northern Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Azwani; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Aziz, Al Thbyani; Boots, Michael

    2011-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that criminals wrap dead bodies in an attempt to conceal evidence. To anticipate the forensic implications of this phenomenon, we examined whether flies that are naturally associated with cadavers exhibit a delay in attendance or differ in species composition and abundance patterns because of the presence of wrapping material. Wrapped and exposed carcasses of dead monkeys placed in an oil plantation in Kedah, Malaysia, were visited over 50 d. On daily visits to each of the six carcasses, visiting adult flies were sampled using hand nets. Flies of 12 families were encountered. Calliphoridae (Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and C. megacephala (F.) was the most prevalent family, followed by Sphaeroceridae. Some families tended to be more abundant in WRCs (i.e., Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Phoridae), whereas others (i.e., Piophilidae, Sepsidae, and Psychodidae) were more prevalent in exposed carcasses. Wrapping delayed the arrival of all fly species encountered, with delays varying from 1 to 13 d depending on species. Wrapping did not affect species composition of flies, but prolong the occurrence of some species. The results of the current study emphasize the need to take into consideration the presence of a wrap when estimating postmortem interval.

  11. Quantifying pteridines in the heads of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Application for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammack, J A; Reiskind, M H; Guisewite, L M; Denning, S S; Watson, D W

    2017-11-01

    In forensic cases involving entomological evidence, establishing the postcolonization interval (post-CI) is a critical component of the investigation. Traditional methods of estimating the post-CI rely on estimating the age of immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from remains. However, in cases of delayed discovery (e.g., when remains are located indoors), these insects may have completed their development and be present in the environment as adults. Adult fly collections are often ignored in cases of advanced decomposition because of a presumed little relevance to the investigation; herein we present information on how these insects can be of value. In this study we applied an age-grading technique to estimate the age of adults of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Phormia regina (Meigen), based on the temperature-dependent accumulation of pteridines in the compound eyes, when reared at temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C. Age could be estimated for all species*sex*rearing temperature combinations (mean r 2 ±SE: 0.90±0.01) for all but P. regina reared at 5.4°C. These models can be used to increase the precision of post-CI estimates for remains found indoors, and the high r 2 values of 22 of the 24 regression equations indicates that this is a valid method for estimating the age of adult blow flies at temperatures ≥15°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Durations of immature stage development period of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) under laboratory conditions: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2009-01-01

    Some microhymenopterans are parasitoids of flies of forensic importance. Their parasitic habit can alter the duration of post-embryonic development of these flies, altering the postmortem interval. In order to analyze possible alterations occurring during the immature development period of Nasonia vitripennis, this study tested different quantitative associations between female parasitoids and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala, which were defined by: (a) one pupa was exposed to different numbers of female parasitoids (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9, 1:11) and (b) different numbers of pupae were exposed to one female parasitoid (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1). Analysis of variance (5% significance level) and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a tendency of prolongation of the duration of parasitoid development, both by increasing the number of female parasitoids and by increasing the number of hosts in the associations. By increasing the number of female parasitoids per host, there is a possibility of increasing the occurrence of superparasitism, leading to competition for food source, then prolonging the duration of the immature development period. Increasing the number of hosts in the associations, females may distribute their postures among the available pupae and can cause reduction of the number of eggs per host. Since these insects are gregarious, the reduction of the number of eggs may delay the offspring development.

  13. COII ”long fragment” reliability in characterisation and classification of forensically important flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Aly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Molecular identification of collected flies is important in forensic entomological analysis guided with accurate evaluation of the chosen genetic marker. The selected mitochondrial DNA segments can be used to properly identify species. The aim of the present study was to determine the reliability of the 635-bp-long cytochrome oxidase II gene (COII in identification of forensically important flies. Material and methods: Forty-two specimens belonging to 11 species ( Calliphoridae: Chrysomya albiceps , C. rufifacies , C. megacephala , Lucilia sericata , L. cuprina ; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga carnaria , S. dux , S. albiceps , Wohlfahrtia nuba ; Muscidae: Musca domestica , M. autumnalis were analysed. The selected marker was amplified using PCR followed by sequencing. Nucleotide sequence divergences were calculated using the K2P (Kimura two-parameter distance model, and a NJ (neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed. Results : All examined specimens were assigned to the correct species, formed distinct monophyletic clades and ordered in accordance with their taxonomic classification. Intraspecific variation ranged from 0 to 1% and interspecific variation occurred between 2 and 20%. Conclusions : The 635-bp-long COII marker is suitable for clear differentiation and identification of forensically relevant flies.

  14. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (pforensic cases in Malaysia.

  15. Life history data on the fly parasitoids Aleochara nigra Kraatz and A. asiatica Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), and their potential application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shou-Wang; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2013-10-10

    Knowledge of the developmental time of the immature stages of necrophagous flies has been the main tool for estimating minimum post-mortem intervals (min PMIs) in forensic entomology. Many parasitic insects can alter the development of immature stages of flies and thus affect min PMI estimates. The larvae of most species of Aleochara rove beetles are ectoparasitoids of the pupae of cyclorrhapha flies. Among them, some species that parasitise necrophagous flies may have forensic importance. Two Taiwanese Aleochara species, A. nigra and A. asiatica, which visit carrion sites were studied herein. All five necrophagous (Hemipyrellia ligurriens, Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, C. rufifacies and sarcophagid sp.) and one non-necrophagous fly species (Bactrocera dorsalis) we examined have the potential to be parasitised by these two Aleochara species, but differences among the acceptability and suitability of these hosts to rove beetle species suggested that rove beetles may prefer specific hosts. Each stage of the beetle life history was recorded to estimate developmental durations at six different temperatures. The larval stage together with the pupal stage of both beetle species was longer than the pupal stages of their hosts, implying the possibility of elongating the min PMI estimation. In addition, the host weight and larval duration of these two Aleochara beetles were positively correlated; thus, potential applications can be expected when using parasitised fly pupae in min PMI estimations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphology and identification of first instars of the European and Mediterranean blowflies of forensic importance. Part II. Luciliinae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szpila, K.; Hall, M. J. R.; Pape, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    First instars of Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, Lucilia caesar Linnaeus, Lucilia cuprina Weidemann, Lucilia richardsi Collin, Lucilia sericata Meigen and Lucilia silvarum Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are thoroughly documented with scanning electron microscopy images, light microscopy photograp...... larva of L. richardsi is described for the first time and an identification key to the first instars of European species of Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy of forensic importance is presented....

  17. Tuning of the Preferred Optic Flow Axes of Locust and Blowfly Visual Interneurons to Their Preferred Modes of Flight Behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krapp, Holger G; Bomphrey, R. J; Laughlin, S. B; Taylor, G. K; Wuestenberg, D. G

    2008-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Imperial College London as follows: The grantee will investigate the sensory mechanisms of gaze stabilization and flight control on insects (flies and locusts...

  18. Influence of periodic heartbeat reversal and abdominal movements on hemocoelic and tracheal pressure in resting blowflies Calliphora vicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserthal, Lutz Thilo

    2012-01-15

    In Calliphoridae and Drosophilidae, the dorsal vessel (heart and aorta with associated venous channels) is the only connection between the thorax and the abdomen. Hemolymph oscillates between the compartments by periodic heartbeat reversal, but both the mechanism and its influence on hemocoelic and tracheal pressure have remained unclear. The pumping direction of the heart regularly reverses, with a higher pulse rate during backward compared with forward pumping. A sequence of forward and backward pulse periods lasts approximately 34 s. Pulse rate, direction, velocity and the duration of heartbeat periods were determined by thermistor and electrophysiological measurements. For the first time, heartbeat-induced pressure changes were measured in the hemocoel and in the tracheal system of the thorax and the abdomen. The tracheal pressure changed from sub-atmospheric during backward heartbeat to supra-atmospheric during forward heartbeat in the thorax and inversely in the abdomen. The heartbeat reversals were coordinated with slow abdominal movements with a pumping stroke at the beginning of the forward pulse period. The pressure effect of the pumping stroke was visible only in the abdomen. Periodic hemolymph shift and abdominal movements resulted in pressure changes in the hemocoel and tracheal system alternating in the thorax and abdomen, suggesting an effect on respiratory gas exchange.

  19. Succession of carrion fauna in the arid region of San Juan Province, Argentina and its forensic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aballay, F H; Murua, A F; Acosta, J C; Centeno, N D

    2012-02-01

    The succession of carrion fauna and the decomposition stages were studied in the arid environment of San Juan Province, Argentina (31°32'34.7″ S; 68°34'39.4″ W). Two pig carcasses (Sus scrofa) were placed in wire mesh cages, 100 m apart from each other. Each carcass was surrounded by pitfall traps, and a modified Malaise trap was placed above. Daily samplings were carried out to collect the insects present in the carcasses and the traps, and body and environmental temperature were measured. The main colonizer species was Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and its larvae were dominant over other Diptera. The first adult blowflies emerged at 8.9 days. The time to reach the remains stage was 8 days shorter than for other South American sites. We recorded the early arrival of adult Dermestes maculates De Geer and Dermestes ater De Geer 2 days after the beginning of the assay, and larvae of these species were recorded 4 days after. We determined a 1.5-day error in the postmortem interval estimation using the temperatures measured in the assay and those recorded by the nearest meteorological station.

  20. Temporal Distribution of Blowflies of Forensic Importance (Diptera: Calliphoridae, in Man-Size Domestic Pigs Carcasses, in the Forest Reserve Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ururahy-Rodrigues

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the must forensic importance insect families is Calliphoridae (Diptera and different species of this family were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the experimental model used in this study. The experiments were performed with domestic pig models (approximately 60 kg in Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus, Amazonas. To minimize the effect of repeated samplings in the same model (a result of pseudoreplication, two models were used to answer two questions: 1 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae adults? 2 What is the species composition and temporal distribution of Calliphoridae that effectively colonized the carcass? Six pseudoreplicates were studied in three periods: from 06/30/2005 to 07/30/2005 (less rainy season, from 10/18/2005 to 11/17/2005 (transition period between the two seasons and from 03/15/2006 to 04/14/2006 (rainy season. The immatures and adults collected were identified as forensic indicators. The decomposition process presented five stages (fresh, bloated, decay, adipocere-like and skeletonization. The first four days included the first three stages of decomposition and were the most attractive to the Calliphoridae. The three taxa that were most abundant, regular and with highest peaks in the first four samples of each experiment were, in ascending order: Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius e Paralucilia spp.. Linear regressions showed low values of F and high values of P, indicating that rain did not influence the sampling results.

  1. Establishing Lower Developmental Thresholds for a Common BlowFly: For Use in Estimating Elapsed Time since Death Using Entomologyical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Abstract …….. Forensic entomology is a science used to estimate a post-mortem interval (PMI). Larvae develop at predictable rates and the time interval...Warren,Jodie; DRDC CSS CR 2011-23; Defence R&D Canada – CSS; October 2011. Introduction or background: Forensic entomology is the study of insects...in Europe since the 1850’s. Forensic entomology is now an integral part of a death investigation when estimating a time since death beyond 72 hours

  2. Interkingdom cues by bacteria associated with conspecific and heterospecific eggs of Cochliomyia macellaria and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) potentially govern succession on carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate animal behavior related to succession on ephemeral resources is critical for elucidating food web dynamics and nutrient recycling. Blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) colonization and utilization of vertebrate carrion serve as a model for such studies, as the...

  3. Effects of an invasive ant on land snails in the Ogasawara Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shota; Mori, Hideaki; Kojima, Tsubasa; Hayama, Kayo; Sakairi, Yuko; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    We investigated how Pheidole megacephala has affected endemic achatinellid snails because these snails are excellent indicators of the impact of ants and they have high conservation value in Ogasawara. In 2015 we surveyed the Minamizaki area of Hahajima Island of Ogasawara, designated a core zone of the World Heritage Site, for P. megacephala. In Minamizaki, we determined the distribution and density of achatinellid snails in 2015 and compared these data with their distribution and density in 2005. Land cover in the survey area was entirely forest. We also tested whether P. megacephala preyed on achatinellid snails in the laboratory. P. megacephala was present in the forested areas of Minamizaki. Achatinellid snails were absent in 19 of 39 sites where P. megacephala was present, whereas in other areas densities of the snails ranged from 2 to 228 individuals/site. In the laboratory, P. megacephala carried 6 of 7 achatinellid snails and a broken shell was found. Snail distribution and density comparisons and results of the feeding experiments suggest that the presence of P. megacephala has contributed to the decline of achatinellid snails in forests in the survey area. Yet, P. megacephala is not on the official list of invasive non-native species. Stakeholders using the list of invasive species to develop conservation programs should recognize that invasiveness of non-native species differs depending on the ecosystem and that official lists may not be complete. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Tyrosine Metabolism in the Blowfly, Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolisme de la tyrosine dans la Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolizm tirozina u myasnoj mukhi, Calliphora Erythrocephala; Metabolismo de la tirosina en la mosca Calliphora Erythrocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekeris, C. E. [Physiological Chemistry Institute, University of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    1963-09-15

    Sclerotization, i.e. the transfoimation of the soft, white larval cuticle into the hardened, dark puparium, is due to interaction of o-quinones with the cuticle proteins. Using radioactively labelled amino-acids, it has been shown that N-acetyldopamine is the immediate precursor of the sclerotizing quinones in Calliphora erythrocephala. The intermediate steps in the biosynthesis of N-acetyldopamine are hydroxylation of tyrosine to dopa, decarboxylation of dopa to dopamine and N-acetylation of dopamine to N-acetyldopamine. This metabolic pathway of tyrosine is followed only in the final-instar larvae; early third-instar larvae catabolize tyrosine by transamination to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and reduction to p-hydroxyphenyllactic and -propionic acid. The metabolic shift from transamination to hydroxylation and decarboxylation is brought about by the hormone of the prothoracic gland, ecdysone, and can be inhibited by ligation or destruction of the ring gland. Injection of ecdysone into the ligated animals leads within 10-14 h toactivationofthedopadecaiboxylase, presumably as the result of biosynthesis of enzyme protein. The action of the hormone is not a direct one on the biosynthetic mechanism, but indirect, the first action of the hormone being on the chromosomes (puffing phenomenon). The working hypothesis is that the hormone interacting with the genetic material leads to stimulation of the synthesis of specific (messenger-) RNA which is transferred to the cytoplasm and produces enzyme proteins. (author) [French] L'induration, c'est-a-dire la transformation de la cuticule larvaire, douce et blanche, en un puparium dur et sombre, est due a l'interaction d'ortho-quinones avec les proteines de la cuticule. Grace a l'emploi d'acides amines marques au moyen de substances radioactives, on a montre que la N-acetyl-dopamine est le precurseur immediat des quinones produisant l'induration dans la Calliphora erythrocephala. Les stades intermediaires de la biosynthese de la N-acetyl-dopamine sont l'hydroxylation de la tyrosine, qui se transforme en dioxyphenylalamine (dopa), la decarboxylation de la dopa en dopamine et la N-acetylation de la dopamine en N-acetyl-dopamine. Ce processus metabolique de la tyrosine ne se produit qu'au dernier stade de l'etat larvaire; les trois premiers stades produisent le catabolisme de la tyrosine par transamination en acide p-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvique et reduction en acide p-hydroxyphenyl- lactique et propionique. Le processus metabolique de la transamination a l'hydroxylation est provoque par l'hormone de la glande prothoracique, l'ecdyson, et peut etre rendu impossible par la ligature ou l'ablation de la glande annulaire. L'injection d'ecdyson aux animaux ligatures entraine, au bout de 10-14 h, l'activation de la decarboxylase de la dopa, due vraisembleblement a la bioxynthese de la proteine de l'enzyme. L'action de l'hormone sur le mecanisme de biosynthese est indirecte, le premier effet de l'hormone etant d'agir sur les chromosomes (phenomene de gonflage). L'hypothese de travail est que l'hormone qui entre en interaction avec la matiere genetique a pour effet de stimuler la synthese de l'ARN specifique (vecteur) qui est transmis au cytoplasme et produit les proteines d'enzjmnes. (author) [Spanish] La esclerotizacion (transformacion de la cuticula blanda y blanca de la larva en la cubierta dura y oscura de la ninfa) se debe a la accion reciproca de o-quinonas con las proteinas de la cuticula. Empleando aminoacidos marcados se ha comprobado que la N-acetildopamina es el precursor inmediato de las qui nonas esclera tizantes en la Calliphora erythrocephala. Las etapas intermedias en la biosintesis de la N-acetildopamina son la hidroxilacion de la tirosina que da dioxifenil-alanina, la descarboxilacion de esta que da dopamina, y la N-acetilacion de la dopamina que da la N-acetildopamina. Este proceso metabolico de la tirosina se produce solamente en las larvas del ultimo estadio; al principio del tercer estadio las larvas catabolizan tirosina por transaminacion, dando acido p-hidroxifenilpinivico, y por reduccion, dando los acidos p-hidroxifenillactico y p-hidroxifenil propionico. Esta transicion metabolica desde la transaminacion a la hidroxilacion y descarboxilacion se debe a la hormona de la glandula protoracica (ecdyson) y se puede inhibir ligando o destruyendo la glandula anular. Si se inyecta ecdyson en los animales ligados se produce al cabo de 10 a 14 h una activacion de la dopadecarboxilasa, debida probablemente a la biosintesis de proteinas enzimaticas. La accion de la hormona sobre el mecanismo de biosintesis no es directa sino indirecta, dejandose sentir sus primeros efectos sobre los cromosomas (fenomeno de turgencia). La hipotesis de que se partio es que la hormona que actua sobre las sustancias geneticas y que sufre la accion de estas estimula la sintesis de un ARN especifico (vehiculo) que se traslada al citoplasma y produce proteinas enzimaticas. (author) [Russian] Sklerotizatsiya, t.e. prevrashchenie myagkoj beloj kutikuly lichinki v zatverdevshij temnyj puparij, proiskhodit blagodarya vzaimodejstviyu ortokhinonov s belkami kutikuly. S pomoshch'yu mechennykh izotopami aminokislot bylo pokazano, chto N-atsetildopamin yavlyaetsya blizhajshim predshestvennikom sklerotiziruitsikh khinonov u Calliphora erythrocephala. Promezhutochnymi stadiyami v biosinteze N-atsetildopamina yavlyayutsya gidroksilirova- nie tirozina v dopa, dekarboksilirovanie dopa do dopamina i N-atsetilirovanie dopamina do N-atsetildopamina. Ehtot metabolicheskij protsess prevrashcheniya tirozina proiskhodit tol'ko u lichinok na poslednej stadii razvitiya. U lichinok v rannej faze tret'ej stadii proiskhodit katabolizatsiya ti rozina putem pereaminirovaniya v para-oksifenilpirovikogradnuzeh kislotu i vosstanovlenie v paraoksifenilmolochnuyu para-oksifenilpropionovuyu kislotu. Metabolicheskoe smeshchenie ot pereaminirovaniya do gidroksilizatsii i dekarboksilizatsii vyzyvaetsya gormonom perednegrudnoj zhelezy,ehkdisonom, i mozhet zaderzhivat'sya nalozheniem ligatury i razrusheniem kol'tsevoj zhelezy. Vvedenie ehkdisona zhivotnym s nalozhennoj ligaturoj privodit v techenie 10 - 14 chasov k aktivatsii dopadekarboksilazy, veroyatno v rezul'tate biosinteza fermentativnogo belka. Gormon okazyvaet ne pryamoe, a kosvennoe dejstvie na mekhanizm biosinteza i, prezhde vsego, na khromosomy (yavlenie otechnosti). Rabochaya gipoteza zaklyuchaetsya v tom, chto gormon, vzaimodejstvuya s geneticheskim materialom, privodit k stimulirovaniyu sinteza osoboj (perenosnoj) RNK, kotoraya perenositsya v kletochnuyu protoplazmu i proizvodit fermentativnye belki. (author)

  5. Two hypotheses were tested, namely:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Referee

    anthelmintic thereby indirectly controlling blowfly strike. A.J. Scholtz ... monetary terms and because of the stress associated with flystrike (Waghorn et al., 1999). Gastro- ... Barger, 1988; Waller, 1994) in combination with managerial practices.

  6. Description of the Puparium of Protocalliphora nourtevai (Insecta: Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamriška, J.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 5 (2013), s. 896-898 ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : breeding success * Avian blowflies * blood Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2013

  7. Doublesex: a conserved downstream gene controlled by diverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... ... for Genetics and Genomics of Silkmoths, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Centre for DNA ..... ilar type of splicing is also found in the Australian sheep blowfly ..... pose a model for the probable action of two female-specific.

  8. Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... these chemical insecticides is that they are non-selective and could be harmful ... extracts against the targeted mosquitoes were analyzed using the standard World .... Efficacy of neem extract against the blowfly and housefly.

  9. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  10. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Phormia regina towards expanding molecular applications in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farncombe, K M; Beresford, D; Kyle, C J

    2014-07-01

    Forensic entomology involves the use of insects and arthropods to assist a spectrum of medico-criminal investigations that range from identifying cases of abuse, corpse movements, and most commonly, post mortem interval estimates. Many of these applications focus on the use of blowflies given their predicable life history characteristics in their larval stages. Molecular tools have become increasingly important in the unambiguous identification of larval blowfly species, however, these same tools have the potential to broaden the array of molecular applications in forensic entomology to include individual identifications and population assignments. Herein, we establish a microsatellite profiling system for the blowfly, Phormiaregina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The goal being to create a system to identify the population genetic structure of this species and subsequently establish if these data are amenable to identifying corpse movements based on the geographic distribution of specific genetic clusters of blowflies. Using next generation sequencing technology, we screened a partial genomic DNA sequence library of P.regina, searching for di-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide microsatellite loci. We identified and developed primers for 84 highly repetitive segments of DNA, of which 14 revealed consistent genotypes and reasonable levels of genetic variation (4-26 alleles/locus; heterozygosity ranged from 0.385 to 0.909). This study provides the first step in assessing the utility of microsatellite markers to track the movements and sources of corpses via blowflies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Muse and Obembe (20)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timade VENTURE

    trap response bias in populations of the blowfly, Lucilia sericata. Ecological Entomology. 24, 300-307. Huntington, T. E. and L. G. Higley, L. G. 2010. Decomposed Flesh as a Vitellogenic. Protein Source for the Forensically. Important Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Journal of Medical. Entomology47(3): 482-486.

  12. Temperature Dependence of Receptor Potential and Noise in Fly (Calliphora erythrocephala) Photoreceptor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebroek, J.G.H.; Tjonger, M. van; Stavenga, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the effect of temperature on the response to light of photoreceptors of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala. The latency and the time-to-peak of the responses become shorter as the temperature increases; Q10 = 2.8 ± 0.6. The response amplitude is independent of the temperature in

  13. A novel serine protease secreted by medicinal maggots enhances plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; Andersen, Anders S; Nazir, Sheresma

    2014-01-01

    Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As haemostatic processes play an important role in wound healing, this study focused on the effects of maggot secretions on coagulation and fibrinolysis. The results showed that maggot secretions enhance plasmin...

  14. Insecticidal Potential of an Orally Administered Metabolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insecticidal activity of Aspergillus niger IHCS-4 metabolic extract against Chrysomya chloropyga larvae was examined in vitro. The toxicity test revealed that 0.04 mg/g and 0.08 mg/g extract concentration significantly (P>0.05) affected the insect larvae, inducing 20% and 65% mortality respectively, within 24 hours.

  15. Determinação de idade cronológica de Calliphoridae (Diptera através da deposição pós-emergencial de quitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emygdio L. A. Monteiro Filho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for chronological age determination based on mesothoracic post-phragma post-emergence deposition of chitin is used for Chrysomya putoria and Phaenicia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae. The age of these species were obtained by the maximum period of deposition which were of 11-12 days.

  16. Symbiotic mutualism with a community of opportunistic ants: protection, competition, and ant occupancy of the myrmecophyte Barteria nigritana (Passifloraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dejean, Alain; Gibernau, Marc; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; McKey, Doyle

    2004-10-01

    Barteria nigritana is a myrmecophyte tree of Lower Guinea coastal vegetation. Unlike the more specialised B. fistulosa, which harbours a single host-specific mutualistic ant, B. nigritana is associated with several opportunistic ants. Such symbiotic, yet opportunistic, ant-plant associations have been little studied. On 113 clumps of B. nigritana, we censused ant associates and herbivores and compared herbivory on plants occupied by different ants. In addition to these correlative data, protection conferred by different ant species was compared by herbivore-placement experiments. Identity of ant associate changed predictably over plant ontogeny. Pheidole megacephala was restricted to very small plants; saplings were occupied by either Oecophylla longinoda or Crematogaster sp., and the latter species was the sole occupant of larger trees. Damage by caterpillars of the nymphalid butterfly Acraea zetes accounted for much of the herbivory to leaves. Ant species differed in the protection provided to hosts. While P. megacephala provided no significant protection, plants occupied by O. longinoda and Crematogaster sp. suffered less damage than did unoccupied plants or those occupied by P. megacephala. Furthermore, O. longinoda provided more effective protection than did Crematogaster sp. Herbivore-placement experiments confirmed these results. Workers of O. longinoda killed or removed all larval instars of A. zetes. Crematogaster preyed on only the two first larval instars, and P. megacephala preyed mainly on eggs, only rarely attacking the two first larval instars. Opportunistic ants provided significant protection to this relatively unspecialised myrmecophyte. The usual associate of mature trees was not the species that provided most protection.

  17. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  18. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Skowronek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR sequences and short tandem repeat (STR profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  19. Light emission from compound eye with conformal fluorescent coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Miller, Amy E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    Compound eyes of insects are attractive biological systems for engineered biomimicry as artificial sources of light, given their characteristic wide angular field of view. A blowfly eye was coated with a thin conformal fluorescent film, with the aim of achieving wide field-of-view emission. Experimental results showed that the coated eye emitted visible light and that the intensity showed a weaker angular dependence than a fluorescent thin film deposited on a flat surface.

  20. The potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons and multivariate analysis to age empty puparial cases of Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, HE; Pechal, JL; Benbow, ME; Drijfhout, FP

    2017-01-01

    Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been successfully used in the field of forensic entomology for identifying and ageing forensically important blowfly species, primarily in the larval stages. However in older scenes where all other entomological evidence is no longer present, Calliphoridae puparial cases can often be all that remains and therefore being able to establish the age could give an indication of the PMI. This paper examined ...

  1. Age estimation of Calliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae using cuticular hydrocarbon analysis and Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, H E; Butcher, J B; Adam, C D; Day, C R; Falko, P D

    2016-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons were extracted daily from the larvae of two closely related blowflies Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The hydrocarbons were then analysed using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), with the aim of observing changes within their chemical profiles in order to determine the larval age. The hydrocarbons were examined daily for each species from 1 day old larvae until pupariation. The results show significant chemical changes occ...

  2. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu Bala; Anika Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precisio...

  3. Conservation and Sex-Specific Splicing of the transformer Gene in the Calliphorids Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Lucilia sericata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Vensko, Steven P.; Belikoff, Esther J.; Scott, Maxwell J.

    2013-01-01

    Transformer (TRA) promotes female development in several dipteran species including the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina, the Mediterranean fruit fly, housefly and Drosophila melanogaster. tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced such that only the female form encodes full length functional protein. The presence of six predicted TRA/TRA2 binding sites in the sex-specific female intron of the L. cuprina gene suggested that tra splicing is auto-regulated as in medfly and housefly. With the aim of identifying conserved motifs that may play a role in tra sex-specific splicing, here we have isolated and characterized the tra gene from three additional blowfly species, L. sericata, Cochliomyia hominivorax and C. macellaria. The blowfly adult male and female transcripts differ in the choice of splice donor site in the first intron, with males using a site downstream of the site used in females. The tra genes all contain a single TRA/TRA2 site in the male exon and a cluster of four to five sites in the male intron. However, overall the sex-specific intron sequences are poorly conserved in closely related blowflies. The most conserved regions are around the exon/intron junctions, the 3′ end of the intron and near the cluster of TRA/TRA2 sites. We propose a model for sex specific regulation of tra splicing that incorporates the conserved features identified in this study. In L. sericata embryos, the male tra transcript was first detected at around the time of cellular blastoderm formation. RNAi experiments showed that tra is required for female development in L. sericata and C. macellaria. The isolation of the tra gene from the New World screwworm fly C. hominivorax, a major livestock pest, will facilitate the development of a “male-only” strain for genetic control programs. PMID:23409170

  4. Periodic solutions of differential equations with a general piecewise constant argument and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shou Chiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of the periodic solutions of a quasilinear differential equation with piecewise constant argument of generalized type. By using some fixed point theorems and some new analysis technique, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions of these systems. A new Gronwall type lemma is proved. Some examples concerning biological models as Lasota-Wazewska, Nicholson's blowflies and logistic models are treated.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA and STR analyses for human DNA from maggots crop contents: a forensic entomology case from central-southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Cai, J F; Guo, Y D; Xiong, F; Zhang, L; Feng, H; Meng, F M; Fu, Y; Li, J B; Chen, Y Q

    2011-08-01

    Insect larvae and adult insects found on human corpses can provide important forensic evidence however it is useful to be able to prove evidence of association. Without this, it could be claimed that the insect evidence was a contaminant or had been planted on the body. This paper describes how mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and STR analysis of the crop contents of larvae of the blowfly Aldrichina grahami collected from separated body parts was used to provide evidence of association.

  6. Four-dimensional in vivo X-ray microscopy with projection-guided gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokso, Rajmund; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Walker, Simon M.; Doube, Michael; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Stampanoni, Marco; Taylor, Graham K.; Krapp, Holger G.

    2015-03-01

    Visualizing fast micrometer scale internal movements of small animals is a key challenge for functional anatomy, physiology and biomechanics. We combine phase contrast tomographic microscopy (down to 3.3 μm voxel size) with retrospective, projection-based gating (in the order of hundreds of microseconds) to improve the spatiotemporal resolution by an order of magnitude over previous studies. We demonstrate our method by visualizing 20 three-dimensional snapshots through the 150 Hz oscillations of the blowfly flight motor.

  7. Fledging success is a poor indicator of the effects of bird blow flies on ovenbird survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sean M.; Streby, Henry M.; Kapfer, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Infestations of bird blow flies (Protocalliphora spp. and Trypocalliphora braueri) have various negative effects on the condition of nestling birds. In the absence of other stressors such as inclement weather, however, infestation alone rarely reduces fledging success. Previous studies have documented effects of blow flies on nestling condition and fledging success. Without information regarding fledgling survival, the full effect of blow-fly infestation remains unclear. To fully investigate the effect of blow-fly infestation on reproductive success of the Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla), we monitored infested and non-infested nests and monitored fledglings from each by using radio telemetry. Blow flies did not affect birds during the nestling period, as brood size, mean nestling mass, fledging success, and time to fledging in infested and non-infested nests were no different. Fledgling survival and minimum distance traveled the first day after fledging, however, were significantly lower for infected fledglings than for those that were not infected. We conclude that the stress of the early fledgling period combined with recent or concurrent blow-fly infection increases mortality in young Oven-birds. Our results demonstrate the importance of including the post-fledging period in investigations of the effects of ectoparasitic infestations on birds.

  8. Forensic entomology and the estimation of the minimum time since death in indoor cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugelli, Valentina; Forni, David; Bassi, Luciani Alessandro; Di Paolo, Marco; Marra, Damiano; Lenzi, Scilla; Toni, Chiara; Giusiani, Mario; Domenici, Ranieri; Gherardi, Mirella; Vanin, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Eight cases that occurred indoors in which the insects played an important role in the mPMI estimation are presented. The bodies of socially isolated people and old people living alone were discovered in central Italy between June and November. mPMI ranged from a few days to several weeks. Insects were collected during the body recovery and the postmortem. Climatic data were obtained from the closest meteorological stations and from measurements performed on the site. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae species were present in 75% of the cases with Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya albiceps collected in 50% of the cases. Chrysomya albiceps was always found in association with Lucilia species. Scuttle flies (Phoridae) were found in 37.5% of the cases, confirming the ability of these species in indoor body colonization. We show that if sealed environment may delay, the insect arrival dirty houses may create the environment where sarcosaprophagous insects are already present. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Diseminación de enteroparasitos por Calliphoridae (Insecta, Diptera Disemination of enteroparasites by Calliphoridae (Insecta, Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Mariluis

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available It is establish the dissemination enteroparasite by Calliphoridae in a district situated around by Federal Capital of Argentina. The species implicated in this dispersal are: Phaenicia sericata (meigen, 1826; Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830; Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann, 1818 and Phaenicia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819. Fifty two flies was studies, thirty four (65% to belong at the family Calliphoridae. Of this thirteen (38% have eggs of taeniid and cysts of Entamoeba coli (Grassi, 1879 and Giardia lamblia Styles, 1915.

  10. Roadside Survey of Ants on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Reina L.; Grace, J. Kenneth; Krushelnycky, Paul D.

    2018-01-01

    Hawaii is home to over 60 ant species, including five of the six most damaging invasive ants. Although there have been many surveys of ants in Hawaii, the last island-wide hand-collection survey of ants on Oahu was conducted in 1988–1994. In 2012, a timed hand-collection of ants was made at 44 sites in a systematic, roadside survey throughout Oahu. Ants were identified and species distribution in relation to elevation, precipitation and soil type was analyzed. To assess possible convenience sampling bias, 15 additional sites were sampled further from roads to compare with the samples near roads. Twenty-four species of ants were found and mapped; Pheidole megacephala (F.), Ochetellus glaber (Mayr), and Technomyrmex difficilis Forel were the most frequently encountered ants. For six ant species, a logistic regression was performed with elevation, average annual precipitation, and soil order as explanatory variables. O. glaber was found in areas with lower precipitation around Oahu. Paratrechina longicornis (Latrielle) and Tetramorium simillimum (Smith, F.) were found more often in lower elevations and in areas with the Mollisol soil order. Elevation, precipitation, and soil type were not significant sources of variation for P. megacephala, Plagiolepis alluaudi Emery, and T. difficilis. P. megacephala was associated with fewer mean numbers of ants where it occurred. Ant assemblages near and far from roads did not significantly differ. Many species of ants remain established on Oahu, and recent invaders are spreading throughout the island. Mapping ant distributions contributes to continued documentation and understanding of these pests. PMID:29439503

  11. A survey of the interaction of calcium ions with mitochondria from different tissues and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafoli, Ernesto; Lehninger, Albert L.

    1971-01-01

    A survey was made of the capacity of mitochondria isolated from a number of different tissues and species to accumulate Ca2+ from the suspending medium during electron transport. The species examined included the rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster, guinea pig, cow, chicken, turtle, blowfly, yeast and Neurospora crassa. The tissues examined included vertebrate liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, thyroid and adrenal cortex, and the flight muscle of the blowfly. The mitochondria from all vertebrate tissues examined showed: (a) stimulation of State 4 respiration by added Ca2+ (Ca2+/~ activation ratio about 2.0), accompanied by accumulation of Ca2+ and ejection of H+, with a H+/Ca2+ ratio about 1.0; (b) a requirement of phosphate for accumulation of large amounts of Ca2+; (c) respiration-independent high-affinity binding sites for Ca2+; (d) endogenous Ca2+, which is largely released by uncoupling agents. However, mitochondria from yeast and blowfly flight muscle are unable to accumulate Ca2+ in a respiration-dependent process and possess no high-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. These findings support the view that the high-affinity sites represent the ligand-binding sites of a specific Ca2+ `permease' or transport system in the membrane. The relatively high affinity for Ca2+, which equals or exceeds the affinity for ADP, and the generally uniform characteristics of Ca2+ transport in all the vertebrate mitochondria tested strongly suggest that respiration-linked Ca2+ accumulation plays a general and fundamental role in vertebrate cell physiology. PMID:5129264

  12. Effect of an invasive ant and its chemical control on a threatened endemic Seychelles millipede.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, James M; Samways, Michael J; Henwood, Jock; Kelly, Janine

    2011-06-01

    The impact of invasive species on island faunas can be of major local consequence, while their control is an important part of island ecosystem restoration. Among these invasive species are ants, of which some have a disruptive impact on indigenous arthropod populations. Here, we study the impact of the invasive African big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala, on a small Seychelles island, Cousine, and assess the impact of this ant, and its chemical control, using the commercially available hydramethylnon-based bait, Siege, on the endemic keystone Seychelles giant millipede species, Sechelleptus seychellarum. We found no significant correlations in landscape-scale spatial overlap and abundance between the ant and the millipede. Furthermore, the ant did not attack healthy millipedes, but fed only on dying and dead individuals. The chemical defences of the millipede protected it from ant predation. Ingestion of the bait at standard concentration had no obvious impact on the millipede. The most significant threat to the Seychelles giant millipede in terms of P. megacephala invasion is from possible catastrophic shifts in ecosystem function through ant hemipteran mutualisms which can lead to tree mortality, resulting in alteration of the millipede's habitat.

  13. Tapeworms (Cestoda: Proteocephalidea) of firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae) from the Amazon River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Scholz, Tomás

    2008-03-01

    A survey of proteocephalidean cestodes found in the firewood catfish Sorubimichthys planiceps (Spix et Agassiz) from the Amazon River is provided. The following taxa parasitic in S. planiceps are redescribed on the basis of their type specimens and material collected recently in the Amazon River, near the type localities in Brazil, and in Iquitos, Peru: Monticellia lenha Woodland, 1933; Nomimoscolex lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Proteocephalus lenha Woodland, 1933); and Monticellia megacephala Woodland, 1934, for which a new genus, Lenhataenia, is proposed, with L. megacephala (Woodland, 1934) comb. n. as its type and only species. The new genus is a member of the Monticelliinae, i.e. has all genital organs in the cortex, and is most similar to Chambriella in possessing biloculate suckers and lacking a metascolex. It differs in the morphology of the cirrus-sac that contains a strongly coiled, thick-walled internal sperm duct (vas deferens) and a muscular cirrus of the appearance typical of most proteocephalideans, whereas that of Chambriella is sigmoid, with voluminous, tightly sinuous thick-walled internal sperm duct. In addition, Lenhataenia possesses a well developed internal musculature, whereas the internal musculature of Chambriella is weakly developed, formed by a low number of muscle fibres. The scolex morphology and distribution of microtriches of Peltidocotyle lenha (Woodland, 1933) (syn. Othinoscolex lenha Woodland, 1933 and Othinoscolex myzofer Woodland, 1933), Chambriella sp. and Choanoscolex sp. are described using scanning electron microscopy. The two latter taxa may be new for science and are reported from S. planiceps for the first time.

  14. Engineered biomimicry: polymeric replication of surface features found on insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2011-04-01

    By combining the modified conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (M-CEFR) technique with nickel electroforming, we have produced master negatives of nonplanar biotemplates. An approximately 250-nm-thick conformal coating of nanocrystaline nickel is deposited on a surface structure of interest found in class Insecta, and the coating is then reinforced with a roughly 60-μm-thick structural layer of nickel by electroforming. This structural layer endows the M-CEFR coating with the mechanical robustness necessary for casting or stamping multiple polymer replicas of the biotemplate. We have made master negatives of blowfly corneas, beetle elytrons, and butterfly wings.

  15. Miíase por Lucilia eximia (Diptera: Calliphoridae em Didelphis albiventris (Mammalia: Didelphidae no Brasil Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Cansi

    2011-12-01

    Abstract. In May 2009 were collected 18 larvae of Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, a fly responsible for primary and secondary myiasis in livestock and humans. The larvae were taken from the myiasis on anal and auricular regions of an opossum Didelphis albiventris (Lund, in Brasília Zoo, and later identified in the laboratory. After 15 days, 15 adults emerged from L. eximia. This is the first record of this blowfly causing a primary myiasis in a marsupial species in the Brasília Cerrado.

  16. Wound Myiasis in a Patient with Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Namazi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old, otherwise healthy, male farmer presented to our Dermatology Department with a large ulcer on his lower right leg. The lesion had started as a small papule 6 months before, which became eroded and transformed into a rather rapidly progressive ulcer. On careful inspection, numerous larvae were found moving within the wound. The larvae were analyzed and found to be Lucilia sericata (the green bottle blowfly. The lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as squamous cell carcinoma. The myiasis was treated by submerging the wound in a dilute permanganate potassium solution.

  17. Derivation and computation of discrete-delay and continuous-delay SDEs in mathematical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Edward J

    2014-06-01

    Stochastic versions of several discrete-delay and continuous-delay differential equations, useful in mathematical biology, are derived from basic principles carefully taking into account the demographic, environmental, or physiological randomness in the dynamic processes. In particular, stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) models are derived and studied for Nicholson's blowflies equation, Hutchinson's equation, an SIS epidemic model with delay, bacteria/phage dynamics, and glucose/insulin levels. Computational methods for approximating the SDDE models are described. Comparisons between computational solutions of the SDDEs and independently formulated Monte Carlo calculations support the accuracy of the derivations and of the computational methods.

  18. Geometric methods of global attraction in systems of delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morshedy, Hassan A.; Ruiz-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we deduce criteria of global attraction in systems of delay differential equations. Our methodology is new and consists in "dominating" the nonlinear terms of the system by a scalar function and then studying some dynamical properties of that function. One of the crucial benefits of our approach is that we obtain delay-dependent results of global attraction that cover the best delay-independent conditions. We apply our results in a gene regulatory model and the classical Nicholson's blowfly equation with patch structure.

  19. First description of the immature stages of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA J THYSSEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The immature stages oí Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae are described. Egg morphology and structures such as the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, anterior and posterior spiracles, and the dorsal spines between the prothorax and mesothorax from first, second and third instar larvae are characterized, using light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is abundant in Neotropical forests and, because of its necrophagous behavior, is of substantial medico-legal importance for estimating the postmortem interval in criminal investigations. Information presented herein may be useful to differentiate among eggs and larvae of closely related species and to supplement the database for blowfly identification

  20. Background colour matching by a crab spider in the field: a community sensory ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrize, Jérémy; Théry, Marc; Casas, Jérôme

    2010-05-01

    The question of whether a species matches the colour of its natural background in the perspective of the correct receiver is complex to address for several reasons; however, the answer to this question may provide invaluable support for functional interpretations of colour. In most cases, little is known about the identity and visual sensory abilities of the correct receiver and the precise location at which interactions take place in the field, in particular for mimetic systems. In this study, we focused on Misumena vatia, a crab spider meeting the criteria for assessing crypsis better than many other models, and claimed to use colour changes for both aggressive and protective crypsis. We carried out a systematic field survey to quantitatively assess the exactness of background colour matching in M. vatia with respect to the visual system of many of its receivers within the community. We applied physiological models of bird, bee and blowfly colour vision, using flower and spider spectral reflectances measured with a spectroradiometer. We observed that crypsis at long distance is systematically achieved, exclusively through achromatic contrast, in both bee and bird visions. At short distance, M. vatia is mostly chromatically detectable, whatever the substrate, for bees and birds. However, spiders can be either poorly discriminable or quite visible depending on the substrate for bees. Spiders are always chromatically undetectable for blowflies. We discuss the biological relevance of these results in both defensive and aggressive contexts of crypsis within a community sensory perspective.

  1. The chemosensitivity of labellar sugar receptor in female Phormia regina is paralleled with ovary maturation: Effects of serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Paolo; Stoffolano, John G; De Rose, Francescaelena; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini; Liscia, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Oogenesis in most adult insects is a nutrient-dependent process involving ingestion of both proteins and carbohydrates that ultimately depends on peripheral input from chemoreceptors. The main goal of this study was to characterize, in the female blowfly Phormia regina, the responsive changes of the labellar chemoreceptors to carbohydrates and proteins in relation to four different stages along the ovarian cycle: (1) immature ovaries, (2) mid-mature ovaries, (3) mature ovaries and ready for egg-laying and (4) post egg-laying ovaries. Then, the possible effects exerted by exogenous serotonin on the chemoreceptor sensitivity profiles were investigated. Our results show that ovary length, width and contraction rate progressively increase from stage 1 to 3, when all these parameters reach their maximum values, before declining in the next stage 4. The sensitivity of the labellar "sugar" chemoreceptors to both sucrose and proteins varies during the ovarian maturation stages, reaching a minimum for sucrose in stage 3, while that to proteins begins. Exogenous 5-HT supply specifically increases the chemoreceptor sensitivity to sugar at the stages 3 and 4, while it does not affect that to proteins. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that in female blowflies the cyclic variations in the sensitivity of the labellar chemosensilla to sugars and proteins are time-related to ovarian development and that during the stages 3 and 4 the responsiveness of the sugar cell to sucrose is under serotonergic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nesting ecology of Townsend's warblers in relation to habitat characteristics in a mature boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, Colleen M.; Roby, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the nesting ecology of Townsend's Warblers (Dendroica townsendi) from 1993-1995 in an unfragmented boreal forest along the lower slopes of the Chugach Mountains in southcentral Alaska. We examined habitat characteristics of nest sites in relation to factors influencing reproductive success. Almost all territory-holding males (98%, n = 40) were successful in acquiring mates. Nest success was 54% (n = 24 nests), with nest survivorship greater during incubation (87%) than during the nestling period (62%). Most nesting failure (80%) was attributable to predation, which occurred primarily during the nestling period. Fifty-five percent of nests containing nestling were infested with the larvae of bird blow-flies (Protocalliphora braueri and P. spenceri), obligatory blood-feeding parasites. The combined effects of Protocalliphora infestation and inclement weather apparently resulted in nestling mortality in 4 of the 24 nests. Nests that escaped predation were placed in white spruce with larger diameter than those lost to predation: nests that escaped blow-fly parasitism were located higher in nest trees and in areas with lower densities of woody shrubs than those that were infested. The availability of potential nest sites with these key features may be important in determining reproductive success in Townsend's Warblers.

  3. A checklist of arthropods associated with pig carrion and human corpses in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LML Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, are attracted to specific stages of carcass decomposition, in a process of faunistic succession. They are very important in estimating the postmortem interval, the time interval between the death and the discovery of the body. In studies done with pig carcasses exposed to natural conditions in an urban forest (Santa Genebra Reservation, located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 4 out of 36 families of insects collected - Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae (Diptera and Dermestidae (Coleoptera - were considered of forensic importance, because several species were collected in large numbers both visiting and breeding in pig carcasses. Several species were also observed and collected on human corpses at the Institute of Legal Medicine. The species belonged to 17 different families, 6 being of forensic importance because they were reared from human corpses or pig carcasses: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Piophilidae (Diptera, Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera. The most important species were: Diptera - Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya putoria, Hemilucilia segmentaria, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Calliphoridae, Pattonella intermutans (Sarcophagidae, Ophyra chalcogaster (Muscidae, Piophila casei (Piophilidae; Coleoptera - Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae, Oxyletrum disciolle (Silphidae and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae.

  4. Public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Teshome; Worku, Netsanet

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at Woreta, northwestern Ethiopia. In total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. Fly species identified were Musca domestica (32.9%), Chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), Musca sorbens (23%), Lucina cuprina (4.7%), Calliphora vicina (2.8%), Chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (1.7%). Intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), Trichuris trichiura (38.8%), hookworm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Taenia spp. (8.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), Entamoeba coli (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (16.7%) and Giardia lamblia (10.4%) were isolated from both external and gut contents of the flies. Trichuris trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites identified. It was observed that more parasites were isolated from gut contents than the external surfaces of the flies examined (PChrysomya rufifacies were found to carry more helminths than M. sorbens and M. domestica. Musca sorbens were the highest carriers of protozoan parasites followed by M. domestica and C. rufifacies. The significance of filth flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites has been highlighted.

  5. Survey of Forensically Important Calliphoridae in Samsun

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    Meltem Kökdener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted from June 2009 to 2010 in north of Turkey, province Samsun. The objective was to determine forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera species and their seasonal distribution on dog carrcass during one year, this studies were carried out in a three different area of Samsun. Material and Methods: Three dogs carcass (Canis lupus familiaris L., weighing approximately 15-20 kg each, were used as models for studying decomposition and insect succession in each experiments. Ambient daily temperature (maximum and minimum, relative humidity (RH were recorded and existing keys were used for identification of different species. Results: Lucillia sericata (Meigen, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy species were encountered. It was shown that the seasonal distribution of the collected species was different from each other. Chrysomya albiceps was observed in summer, auntumn and spring. In the spring and winter, the dominant fly species were Calliphora vicina. The rate of carcass's decomposition was faster in summer and autumn as compared to spring and winter. Results indicated that ambient temperature is the chief factor determining the seasonal variations in decay rate. Conclusion: This report also identified some of the Calliphoridae that occur in north of Turkey. The importance of regional faunistic studies of the calliphoridous community, the results of which may be applied to forensic practice in the future. Keywords: Forensic entomology, insect succession, corpse, postmortem interval, decomposition.

  6. Integrated programme to eradicate the old world screwworm fly from the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Izzy, M. A. J.; Al-Taweel, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Old World Screwworm fly is one of the most destructive insect pests of livestock, humans and wildlife. It was recognized by World Organization for Animal Health as a notifiable disease. The outbreak of Old World Screwworm in Iraq in the late 1996 led to a joint regional/international meeting under the umbrella of the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development to demonstrate the feasibility of eradicating Old World Screwworm from the gulf region by using the sterile insect technique as an agent of the Area- Wide Integrated Pest Management campaign. The programme approved by Arab Organization for Agricultural Development , Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency included identification of different stages of Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana, increasing the awareness of the animal breeder against the danger of this pest, the possibility of rearing this pest in the laboratory for carrying different studies such as the effect of gamma rays on different insect stages, induced sterility, competitiveness,.. etc. Furthermore, the programme included genetic diversity studies on the Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana strain which was found in different Arab Gulf countries to demonstrate if this diversity has any effect on using sterile insect technique to eradicate this pest from the gulf region. Finally the programme demonstrated the economic feasibility of using sterile insect technique for eradicating this pest from the gulf countries. (author)

  7. Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ješovnik

    Full Text Available Fungus-farming ("attine" ants are model systems for studies of symbiosis, coevolution, and advanced eusociality. A New World clade of nearly 300 species in 15 genera, all attine ants cultivate fungal symbionts for food. In order to better understand the evolution of ant agriculture, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed transcriptomes of four different attine ant species in two genera: three species in the higher-attine genus Sericomyrmex and a single lower-attine ant species, Apterostigma megacephala, representing the first genomic data for either genus. These data were combined with published genomes of nine other ant species and the honey bee Apis mellifera for phylogenomic and divergence-dating analyses. The resulting phylogeny confirms relationships inferred in previous studies of fungus-farming ants. Divergence-dating analyses recovered slightly older dates than most prior analyses, estimating that attine ants originated 53.6-66.7 million of years ago, and recovered a very long branch subtending a very recent, rapid radiation of the genus Sericomyrmex. This result is further confirmed by a separate analysis of the three Sericomyrmex species, which reveals that 92.71% of orthologs have 99% - 100% pairwise-identical nucleotide sequences. We searched the transcriptomes for genes of interest, most importantly argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, which are functional in other ants but which are known to have been lost in seven previously studied attine ant species. Loss of the ability to produce the amino acid arginine has been hypothesized to contribute to the obligate dependence of attine ants upon their cultivated fungi, but the point in fungus-farming ant evolution at which these losses occurred has remained unknown. We did not find these genes in any of the sequenced transcriptomes. Although expected for Sericomyrmex species, the absence of arginine anabolic genes in the lower-attine ant Apterostigma megacephala strongly

  8. Periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations in population dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Padhi, Seshadev; Srinivasu, P D N

    2014-01-01

    This book provides cutting-edge results on the existence of multiple positive periodic solutions of first-order functional differential equations. It demonstrates how the Leggett-Williams fixed-point theorem can be applied to study the existence of two or three positive periodic solutions of functional differential equations with real-world applications, particularly with regard to the Lasota-Wazewska model, the Hematopoiesis model, the Nicholsons Blowflies model, and some models with Allee effects. Many interesting sufficient conditions are given for the dynamics that include nonlinear characteristics exhibited by population models. The last chapter provides results related to the global appeal of solutions to the models considered in the earlier chapters. The techniques used in this book can be easily understood by anyone with a basic knowledge of analysis. This book offers a valuable reference guide for students and researchers in the field of differential equations with applications to biology, ecology, a...

  9. Curva de sobrevivência e estimativa de entropia em Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae Survivorship curve and estimate of entropy in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francely M. Fernandes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830 is a cosmopolite blowfly species of medical and veterinary importance because it produces myiasis, mainly in ovine. In order to evaluate the demographic characteristics of this species, survivorship curves for 327 adult males and 323 adult females, from generation F1 maintained under experimental conditions, were obtained. Entropy was utilized as the estimator of the survival pattern to quantify the mortality distribution of individuals as a function of age. The entropy values 0.216 (males and 0.303 (females were obtained. These results denote that, considering the survivorship interval until the death of the last individual for each sex, the males present a tendency of mortality in more advanced age intervals, in comparison with the females.

  10. Maggot secretions skew monocyte-macrophage differentiation away from a pro-inflammatory to a pro-angiogenic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; van Dissel, Jaap T; Nibbering, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. Earlier we reported maggot secretions to inhibit pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maggot secretions on the differentiation...... for 18 h. The expression of cell surface molecules and the levels of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in supernatants were measured. Our results showed secretions to affect monocyte-macrophage differentiation leading to MØ-1 with a partial MØ-2-like morphology but lacking CD163, which...... is characteristic for MØ-2. In response to LPS or LTA, secretions-differentiated MØ-1 produced less pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-12p40 and MIF) than control cells. Similar results were observed for MØ-2 when stimulated with low concentrations of LPS. Furthermore, secretions dose-dependently led to MØ-1...

  11. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  12. Periodic solutions for a non-monotone family of delayed differential equations with applications to Nicholson systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    For a family of n-dimensional periodic delay differential equations which encompasses a broad set of models used in structured population dynamics, the existence of a positive periodic solution is obtained under very mild conditions. The proof uses the Schauder fixed point theorem and relies on the permanence of the system. A general criterion for the existence of a positive periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies periodic systems (with both distributed and discrete time-varying delays) is derived as a simple application of our main result, generalizing the few existing results concerning multi-dimensional Nicholson models. In the case of a Nicholson system with discrete delays all multiples of the period, the global attractivity of the positive periodic solution is further analyzed, improving results in recent literature.

  13. Global dynamics of a nonlocal delayed reaction-diffusion equation on a half plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjie; Duan, Yueliang

    2018-04-01

    We consider a delayed reaction-diffusion equation with spatial nonlocality on a half plane that describes population dynamics of a two-stage species living in a semi-infinite environment. A Neumann boundary condition is imposed accounting for an isolated domain. To describe the global dynamics, we first establish some a priori estimate for nontrivial solutions after investigating asymptotic properties of the nonlocal delayed effect and the diffusion operator, which enables us to show the permanence of the equation with respect to the compact open topology. We then employ standard dynamical system arguments to establish the global attractivity of the nontrivial equilibrium. The main results are illustrated by the diffusive Nicholson's blowfly equation and the diffusive Mackey-Glass equation.

  14. Infectious offspring: how birds acquire and transmit an avian polyomavirus in the wild.

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    Jaime Potti

    Full Text Available Detailed patterns of primary virus acquisition and subsequent dispersal in wild vertebrate populations are virtually absent. We show that nestlings of a songbird acquire polyomavirus infections from larval blowflies, common nest ectoparasites of cavity-nesting birds, while breeding adults acquire and renew the same viral infections via cloacal shedding from their offspring. Infections by these DNA viruses, known potential pathogens producing disease in some bird species, therefore follow an 'upwards vertical' route of an environmental nature mimicking horizontal transmission within families, as evidenced by patterns of viral infection in adults and young of experimental, cross-fostered offspring. This previously undescribed route of viral transmission from ectoparasites to offspring to parent hosts may be a common mechanism of virus dispersal in many taxa that display parental care.

  15. The history of forensic entomology in German-speaking countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach, H; Krettek, R; Bratzke, H; Püschel, K; Zehner, R; Amendt, J

    2004-09-10

    Megnin's book "La fauna des cadaveres" published in 1894 in France is generally accepted as a mile-stone in forensic entomology. It is hardly known that at the same time this topic was likewise explored in the German-speaking countries. Even PMI estimation based on developmental data of blowflies was performed. After a more descriptive period in the first half of the 20th century the complexity and variability of insects' biological behavior were detected and formally investigated. Improved technical facilities, enhanced comprehension of scientific studies and multidisciplinary cooperation, enabled rapid progress in forensic entomology during the last decades. With the European Association for Forensic Entomology founded in 2002 the frame work for a high standard of competency at an international level was constituted.

  16. Review of some recent techniques of age determination of blow flies having forensic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Bala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forensic entomology can aid death investigation by using predictable developmental changes to estimate the age of flies associated with a body. Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stages to estimate blowfly age, and from those, a Postmortem Interval. Calliphorids are very interesting in forensic sciences from an applied point of view, because they provide relevant evidence for estimating the Postmortem Interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precision, particularly in the older developmental stages, so there is a need of some alternative aging methods. The range of techniques available for age grading of adult insects is reviewed, with particular emphasis on species of medical importance. The techniques described include pteridine fluorescence analysis, internal morphological analysis, cuticular hydrocarbon analysis, gene expression analysis, cuticular banding pattern analysis, volatile organic compounds analysis released by larvae and pupae.

  17. Combinations of maggot excretions/secretions and antibiotics are effective against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms and the bacteria derived therefrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Plas, Mariena J A; Dambrot, Cheryl; Dogterom-Ballering, Heleen C M

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. Previously we reported that maggot excretions/secretions (ES) break down Staphylococcus aureus biofilms but do not kill the bacteria. As many antibiotics are not effective against biofilms we assessed...... the effect of combinations of ES and antibiotics on S. aureus biofilms and on the survival of the bacteria released from the biofilms. METHODS: Effects of ES, antibiotics (vancomycin, daptomycin or clindamycin) and combinations thereof on S. aureus ATCC 29 213 biofilms and bacterial viability were determined...... using microtitre plates and in vitro killing assays. RESULTS: Vancomycin and daptomycin dose-dependently enhanced biofilm formation, whereas clindamycin reduced S. aureus biofilm size. Adding ES to antibiotic incubations caused a complete biofilm breakdown. After a lag time the bacteria derived from...

  18. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

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    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  19. The efficacy of showers for control of ectoparasites of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, A C; Quick, M P

    1978-01-21

    Ectoparasites of sheep in Britain include the tick Ixodes ricinus, the blowfly, Lucilia sericata, the ked, Melophagus ovinus and the lice, Damalinia ovis and Linognathus ovillus. The most important ectoparasite, however, is the mite Psoroptes communis ovis which causes sheep scab. This notifiable disease was eradicated from Britain in 1952 but was reported again in 1973. The control of ectoparasites depends largely on the efficient application of insecticide to the fleece and skin. Plunge dipping in a bath is generally regarded as the most efficient method and is compulsory for the control of sheep scab but it is not always the most convenient. After the eradication of sheep scab in 1952 plunge dipping was no longer compulsory and jetting, spraying and showering techniques were then employed for the other ectoparasites.

  20. Post-feeding activity of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on common domestic indoor surfaces and its effect on development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L A; Bryson, D; Bulling, M T; Sparks, N; Wellard, K S

    2018-05-01

    Developmental data of forensically important blowflies used by entomologists to estimate minimum post mortem interval (mPMI) are established under controlled laboratory conditions for various temperature ranges throughout the stages of egg, 1st-3rd instar, puparia, and adult fly emergence. However, environmental conditions may influence the patterns of development and behaviour of blowflies, potentially impacting on these established development rates. Previous studies investigating indoor colonisation have focused on the delay to oviposition, with behaviour during the post-feeding phase in this setting often overlooked. The environment in which third instar larvae disperse when searching for a pupariation site may vary drastically at both outdoor and indoor scenarios, influencing the activity and distance travelled during this phase and possibly affecting developmental rates. This study investigated the effect of eight common domestic indoor surfaces on dispersal time, distance travelled, and behaviour of post-feeding Lucilia sericata as well as any resulting variation in development. It was found that pupariation and puparia length within a pupariation medium of sawdust (often used in laboratory settings) produced comparable results with that of carpeted environments (those deemed to be 'enclosed'). Non-carpeted environments (those which were 'exposed') produced a delay to pupariation likely due to increased activity and energy expenditure in searching for pupariation sites which enabled burial. In addition, the observed speed of travel during dispersal was seen via time lapse photography to be greater within 'exposed' conditions. Larvae which dispersed upon burnt laminate flooring were observed to travel faster than in all other conditions and showed the only significant variation (P=0.04) in the day of emergence in comparison to the control condition of sawdust. This study has demonstrated that wandering phase activity is affected by the environmental surface

  1. Thematic Plan for the Sterile Insect Technique for Old and New World Screwworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To support livestock development programmes aiming at controlling or eradicating key insect pests. This involves the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into area wide integrated pest management and eradication systems. The sustainability of eradication activities has been demonstrated for a number of insect pests under various national settings where the application of SIT has produced significant impact on socio-economic development, in terms of both cost-savings and environmental quality. In line with the TC strategy, this thematic plan reviews best practices and experience gained in field operations, identifies stakeholders and common objectives in New World Screwworm, Cochliomya hominivorax (NWS) and Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana (OWS), control and outlines a strategy for implementing integrated pest control programmes at the regional, sub-regional and national level. Synergies are sought with partner organisations to expand the knowledge base and capabilities for SIT based pest control activities and to strengthen TCDC.

  2. Incidence of myiasis in Panama during the eradication of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel 1858, Diptera: Calliphoridae (2002-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study on myiasis in Panama during the first years of a Cochliomyia hominivorax eradication program (1998-2005, with the aim of investigating the behavior of the flies that produce myiasis in animals and human beings. The hosts that registered positive for myiasis were cattle (46.4%, dogs (15.3%, humans (14.7%, birds (12%, pigs (6%, horses (4%, and sheep (1%. Six fly species caused myiasis: Dermatobia hominis (58%, Phaenicia spp. (20%, Cochliomyia macellaria (19%, Chrysomya rufifacies (0.4%, and maggots of unidentified species belonging to the Sarcophagidae (3% and Muscidae (0.3%. With the Dubois index, was no evidence that the absence of C. hominivorax allowed an increase in the cases of facultative myiasis.

  3. JENIS JAMUR DAN LALAT YANG DITEMUKAN PADA MAKANAN JAJANAN DARI PASAR DAN WARUNG DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunik St. Aminah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hasil penelitian terhadap makanan jajanan yang dijual di pasar dan warung, banyak yang tidak memenuhai syarat kesehatan, dan tercemar oleh bakteri serta jamur tertentu. Penelitian tentang bakteri yang mencemari makanan  jajanan seperti Entamoeba coli, Staphylococcus dan Salmonella telah banyak diketahui, tetapi mengenai data jenis jamur yang mencemari makanan jajanan belum banyak diketahui. Kontaminasi tersebut disebabkan cara penanganan, sanitasi yang kurang bersih, pembungkus makanan jajanan, tempat menjajakan makanan jajanan dan lokasi menjual makanan jajanan tersebut sebaiknya jauh dari tempat pembuangan sampah. Tempat pembuangan sampah sering ditemukan lalat seperti lalat rumah (Musca domestica, Chysomia megacephala, C. safferanea dan Sarcophaga sp. Hampir semua kue basah maupun kue kering yang dijual di pasar tradisional maupun di warung umumnya tercemar oleh khamir. Kue-kue tersebut yang dijual di pasar lebih banyak tercemar khamir dibandingkan yang dijual di warung. Hal ini kemungkinan kue yang dijual di warung penanganannya lebih baik dari pada yang dijual di pasar. Begitu juga mutu kue yang dijual di pasar biasanya lebih cepat rusak. Kerusakan kue tersebut disebabkan antara lain karena tercemar spora jamur yang terbawa oleh debu maupun oleh lalat yang terkontaminasi jamur/bakteri pada kaki-kaki lalat tersebut,  yang hinggap pada makanan jajanan. Sehingga jenis-jenis jamur yang terdapat di tempat sampah, udara dan tanah dapat mencemari makanan jajanan yang dijual di pasar maupun di warung.

  4. Soil carabids and ants in two farming areas of yellow passion fruit (passiflora edulis) at Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenas, Anderson; Armbrecht, Inge; Chacon, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The fauna of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and ants that survive in the soil of a passion fruit crop under conventional management in Roldanillo-Valle del Cauca was examined, in March and May (rainy season) and in June and July (dry season), 2012. We carried out four samplings of monthly intensity in two plots with plants of different ages, and registered the species found. We found 149 individuals of Carabidae, distributed into ten species and 2447 ants, distributed in 19 morphospecies. The most abundant species of ants was Solenopsis geminata, while Megacephala (Tetracha) sobrina was the most abundant species of Carabidae. It was also found that the abundance and richness of carabid beetles tend to be higher in the rainy season, while some ant species showed a preference for specific seasonal periods. We conclude that a rich fauna of ground carabids and ants survives in the study area, which could contribute in the control of phytophagous insects populations associated with the crops of passion fruit.

  5. Keragaman Jenis dan Prevalensi Lalat Pasar Tradisional di Kota Bogor (DIVERSITY AND PREVALENCE OF FLIES AT TRADITIONAL MARKETS IN BOGOR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puguh Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogor city is one of the greater Jabodetabek area which has a fairly high growth of the modern market.This should not shift the role of traditional market, if accompanied with an increase in the number andquality of traditional markets, among others by controlling infestations of flies on the market that can bea vector of various diseases.This research was conducted to identify the diversity and infestation of fliesspesies in five old Bogor traditional markets. The flies were collected using insect nets and then killed withchloroform to count and identification purposes. Measuring the prevalence of flies infestation in eachmarket were using sticky fly paper on block sale of meat, fish and outside market environment. Therewere ten fly spesies belong to four main families that Calliphoridae (C. megacephala, C. saffranea, C.rufifacies, and Lucilia sericata, Muscidae (M. domestica, M. conducens, and M. fasciata, Sarcophagidae (S.haemorroidalis, and S. fuscicauda, and Drosophilidae (Drosophila repleta. The others three families werePhoridae, Anthomyiidae, and Syrphidae. Fly diversity index on each markets were 1.203 (Bogor Market,1.038 (Sukasari Market, 2.678 (Anyar Market, 1.017 (Jambu Dua Market, and 1.618 (Gunung BatuMarket. Measurement of Calliphorid flies infestations as an indicator of the presence of litterdecomposition of organic material showed a high concentration in the market environment.These resultsillustrate the general environmental sanitation of traditional markets are bad.

  6. Ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in an urban ecosystem near the Atlantic Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Kamura

    Full Text Available The relationships between an urban ecosystem located near the Atlantic Rainforest in southeastern Brazil and ant communities were studied with the objective of quantifying the ant richness and abundance in the household environment and its surroundings. Eighty residences were sampled, where 58 species and 28 genera pertaining to 7 sub-families were found to be present. Inside the residences, the species richness was found to be lower (26, although the abundance was greater (10,670, with the wash area and kitchen being the locales that contributed with the greatest number of hits. The opposite was true in the areas outside the residences, where 54 species and 3,747 ants were observed. Inside houses, the species known as Tramp ants were found, in the following order of importance: Solenopsis -saevissima, Tapinoma melanocephalum, Linepithema humile, Paratrechina fulva, Wasmannia -auropunctata, P. -longicornis, Pheidole megacephala, Monomorium pharaonis and M. floricola. Externally, mainly in the yards and gardens, species such as Octostruma rugifera, Heteroponera dolo, Hypoponera sp.1 and sp.6, Gnamptogenys sp. 4, G. striatula, Odontomachus meinerti, Pachycondyla constricta and P. striata were found. In general, a greater number of species and lower abundance of individuals were observed in the neighborhoods nearer the mountains than in those closer to the urban center.

  7. A genomics-informed, SNP association study reveals FBLN1 and FABP4 as contributing to resistance to fleece rot in Australian Merino sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris Belinda J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fleece rot (FR and body-strike of Merino sheep by the sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina are major problems for the Australian wool industry, causing significant losses as a result of increased management costs coupled with reduced wool productivity and quality. In addition to direct effects on fleece quality, fleece rot is a major predisposing factor to blowfly strike on the body of sheep. In order to investigate the genetic drivers of resistance to fleece rot, we constructed a combined ovine-bovine cDNA microarray of almost 12,000 probes including 6,125 skin expressed sequence tags and 5,760 anonymous clones obtained from skin subtracted libraries derived from fleece rot resistant and susceptible animals. This microarray platform was used to profile the gene expression changes between skin samples of six resistant and six susceptible animals taken immediately before, during and after FR induction. Mixed-model equations were employed to normalize the data and 155 genes were found to be differentially expressed (DE. Ten DE genes were selected for validation using real-time PCR on independent skin samples. The genomic regions of a further 5 DE genes were surveyed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP that were genotyped across three populations for their associations with fleece rot resistance. Results The majority of the DE genes originated from the fleece rot subtracted libraries and over-representing gene ontology terms included defense response to bacterium and epidermis development, indicating a role of these processes in modulating the sheep's response to fleece rot. We focused on genes that contribute to the physical barrier function of skin, including keratins, collagens, fibulin and lipid proteins, to identify SNPs that were associated to fleece rot scores. Conclusions We identified FBLN1 (fibulin and FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4 as key factors in sheep's resistance to fleece rot. Validation of these

  8. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

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    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  9. [Maggot therapy for gangrene and osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Lipo, M; Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Miller, J; Galun, R

    1997-03-02

    5 patients with diabetic-foot were treated by maggot therapy. The most serious case was in a 75-year-old man who had gangrene and osteomyelitis of the right foot. Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus sp., Providencia stuartii and Staphylococcus spec. (coagulase positive) were isolated from lesions which did not respond to antibiotic therapy. The patient had twice refused amputation but agreed to maggot therapy. Larvae of the sheep blowfly Phoenicia (Lucilia) sericata were used for twice-weekly treatment over a period of 7 months. Sterile larvae were applied to the wound and replaced every 3-4 days. After 4 months of treatment, the necrotic tissue around the toes and on the sole of the foot detached from the healthy tissue. During the last 3 months of treatment the larvae removed the remaining infected tissue. As therapy progressed, new layers of healthy tissue covered the wound. The offensive odor associated with the necrotic tissue and the intense pain in the foot decreased significantly. At the end of therapy, during which there were no complaints of discomfort, he was able to walk. In the 4 other patients who had relatively superficial gangrene, the maggots debrided the wounds within 2-4 weeks. Thereafter treatment was continued with antibiotics. Maggot therapy can be recommended in cases of intractable gangrene and osteomyelitis, when treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement have failed.

  10. The potential use of cuticular hydrocarbons and multivariate analysis to age empty puparial cases of Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Hannah E; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2017-05-16

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) have been successfully used in the field of forensic entomology for identifying and ageing forensically important blowfly species, primarily in the larval stages. However in older scenes where all other entomological evidence is no longer present, Calliphoridae puparial cases can often be all that remains and therefore being able to establish the age could give an indication of the PMI. This paper examined the CHCs present in the lipid wax layer of insects, to determine the age of the cases over a period of nine months. The two forensically important species examined were Calliphora vicina and Lucilia sericata. The hydrocarbons were chemically extracted and analysed using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was then applied in the form of non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS), permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and random forest models. This study was successful in determining age differences within the empty cases, which to date, has not been establish by any other technique.

  11. A putative octopamine/tyramine receptor mediating appetite in a hungry fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2011-07-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, experience of simultaneous feeding with d-limonene exposure inhibits proboscis extension reflex (PER) due to decreased tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of TA signaling pathway related to the associated feeding behavior, we cloned cDNA encoding the octopamine/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR). The deduced protein is composed of 607 amino acid residues and has 7 predicted transmembrane domains. Based on homology and phylogenetic analyses, this protein belongs to the OAR/TAR family. The PregOAR/TAR was mainly expressed in head, with low levels of expression in other tissues at adult stages. Gene expression profile is in agreement with a plethora of functions ascribed to TA in various insect tissues. The immunolabeled cell bodies and processes were localized in the medial protocerebrum, outer layer of lobula, antennal lobe, and subesophageal ganglion. These results suggest that decrease of TA level in the brain likely affects neurons expressing PregOAR/TAR, causing mediation of the sensitivity in the sensillum and/or output of motor neurons for PER.

  12. Glial processes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction match synaptic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre L Brink

    Full Text Available Glia are integral participants in synaptic physiology, remodeling and maturation from blowflies to humans, yet how glial structure is coordinated with synaptic growth is unknown. To investigate the dynamics of glial development at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ, we developed a live imaging system to establish the relationship between glia, neuronal boutons, and the muscle subsynaptic reticulum. Using this system we observed processes from two classes of peripheral glia present at the NMJ. Processes from the subperineurial glia formed a blood-nerve barrier around the axon proximal to the first bouton. Processes from the perineurial glial extended beyond the end of the blood-nerve barrier into the NMJ where they contacted synapses and extended across non-synaptic muscle. Growth of the glial processes was coordinated with NMJ growth and synaptic activity. Increasing synaptic size through elevated temperature or the highwire mutation increased the extent of glial processes at the NMJ and conversely blocking synaptic activity and size decreased the presence and size of glial processes. We found that elevated temperature was required during embryogenesis in order to increase glial expansion at the nmj. Therefore, in our live imaging system, glial processes at the NMJ are likely indirectly regulated by synaptic changes to ensure the coordinated growth of all components of the tripartite larval NMJ.

  13. TIME management by medicinal larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David I; Čeřovský, Václav; Nigam, Yamni; Pickles, Samantha F; Cazander, Gwendolyn; Nibbering, Peter H; Bültemann, Anke; Jung, Wilhelm

    2016-08-01

    Wound bed preparation (WBP) is an integral part of the care programme for chronic wounds. The acronym TIME is used in the context of WBP and describes four barriers to healing in chronic wounds; namely, dead Tissue, Infection and inflammation, Moisture imbalance and a non-migrating Edge. Larval debridement therapy (LDT) stems from observations that larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata clean wounds of debris. Subsequent clinical studies have proven debriding efficacy, which is likely to occur as a result of enzymatically active alimentary products released by the insect. The antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of LDT have also been investigated, predominantly in a pre-clinical context. This review summarises the findings of investigations into the molecular mechanisms of LDT and places these in context with the clinical concept of WBP and TIME. It is clear from these findings that biotherapy with L. sericata conforms with TIME, through the enzymatic removal of dead tissue and its associated biofilm, coupled with the secretion of defined antimicrobial peptides. This biotherapeutic impact on the wound serves to reduce inflammation, with an associated capacity for an indirect effect on moisture imbalance. Furthermore, larval serine proteinases have the capacity to alter fibroblast behaviour in a manner conducive to the formation of granulation tissue. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. AdE-1, a new inotropic Na(+) channel toxin from Aiptasia diaphana, is similar to, yet distinct from, known anemone Na(+) channel toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Nir; Shapira, Eli; Sher, Daniel; Moran, Yehu; Tsveyer, Liora; Turchetti-Maia, Ana Luiza; Horowitz, Michal; Hochner, Binyamin; Zlotkin, Eliahu

    2013-04-01

    Heart failure is one of the most prevalent causes of death in the western world. Sea anemone contains a myriad of short peptide neurotoxins affecting many pharmacological targets, several of which possess cardiotonic activity. In the present study we describe the isolation and characterization of AdE-1 (ion channel modifier), a novel cardiotonic peptide from the sea anemone Aiptasia diaphana, which differs from other cnidarian toxins. Although AdE-1 has the same cysteine residue arrangement as sea anemone type 1 and 2 Na(+) channel toxins, its sequence contains many substitutions in conserved and essential sites and its overall homology to other toxins identified to date is low (Anemonia viridis toxin II), AdE-1 markedly inhibits Na(+) current inactivation with no significant effect on current activation, suggesting a similar mechanism of action. However, its effects on twitch relaxation velocity, action potential amplitude and on the time to peak suggest that this novel toxin affects cardiomyocyte function via a more complex mechanism. Additionally, Av2's characteristic delayed and early after-depolarizations were not observed. Despite its structural differences, AdE-1 physiologic effectiveness is comparable with Av2 with a similar ED(50) value to blowfly larvae. This finding raises questions regarding the extent of the universality of structure-function in sea anemone Na(+) channel toxins.

  15. Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Imraan

    Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

  16. iDNA screening: Disease vectors as vertebrate samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Arthur; de Thoisy, Benoit; Catzeflis, François; Valière, Sophie; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Murienne, Jérôme

    2017-11-01

    In the current context of global change and human-induced biodiversity decline, there is an urgent need for developing sampling approaches able to accurately describe the state of biodiversity. Traditional surveys of vertebrate fauna involve time-consuming and skill-demanding field methods. Recently, the use of DNA derived from invertebrate parasites (leeches and blowflies) was suggested as a new tool for vertebrate diversity assessment. Bloodmeal analyses of arthropod disease vectors have long been performed to describe their feeding behaviour, for epidemiological purposes. On the other hand, this existing expertise has not yet been applied to investigate vertebrate fauna per se. Here, we evaluate the usefulness of hematophagous dipterans as vertebrate samplers. Blood-fed sand flies and mosquitoes were collected in Amazonian forest sites and analysed using high-throughput sequencing of short mitochondrial markers. Bloodmeal identifications highlighted contrasting ecological features and feeding behaviour among dipteran species, which allowed unveiling arboreal and terrestrial mammals of various body size, as well as birds, lizards and amphibians. Additionally, lower vertebrate diversity was found in sites undergoing higher levels of human-induced perturbation. These results suggest that, in addition to providing precious information on disease vector host use, dipteran bloodmeal analyses may represent a useful tool in the study of vertebrate communities. Although further effort is required to validate the approach and consider its application to large-scale studies, this first work opens up promising perspectives for biodiversity monitoring and eco-epidemiology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against larvae of Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Erika M; Márialigeti, K; Fodor, A; Lucskai, A; Farkas, R

    2005-01-01

    The blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is the primary agent of cutaneous myiasis of sheep in northern Europe, southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. As the application of chemicals has several disadvantages, alternative control measures of traumatic myiasis of livestock must be developed. In this study, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as potential biocontrol agents against second instar larvae of Lucilia sericata was considered. The following nematode species were tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (IS 5, HHU 1, Hmol, HNC 1, HAZ 36, Hbrecon, HHU 2, HAZ 29, HHP 88, HHU 3, HHU 4 and HGua), Steinernema intermedia, NC513 strain of S. glaserii, S. anomali, S. riobrave, Steinernema sp. and 5 strains of S. feltiae (22, Vija Norway, HU 1, scp, and IS 6). None of the examined EPN species or strains showed larvicidal efficacy at 37 degrees C (no killing effect was observed in the case of the two heat-tolerant strains--H. bacteriophora and S.feltiae) against L. sericata larvae. At lower temperatures (20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) only strains of S. feltiae were found to be active. The overall odds ratios calculated for L. sericata maggots to contract S. feltiae nematode infection show significant (p nematode occurred in the cadavers.

  18. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  19. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  20. Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae: a timeline of external morphological development and a new age and PMI estimation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine; Thorne, Alan; Harvey, Michelle

    2015-07-01

    The minimum postmortem interval (PMI(min)) is commonly estimated using calliphorid larvae, for which there are established age estimation methods based on morphological and development data. Despite the increased duration and sedentary nature of the pupal stage of the blowfly, morphological age estimation methods are poorly documented and infrequently used for PMI determination. The aim of this study was to develop a timeline of metamorphosis, focusing on the development of external morphology (within the puparium), to provide a means of age and PMI estimation for Calliphora vicina (Rob-Desvoidy) pupae. Under controlled conditions, 1,494 pupae were reared and sampled at regular time intervals. After puparium removal, observations of 23 external metamorphic developments were correlated to age in accumulated degree hours (ADH). Two age estimation methods were developed based on (1) the combination of possible age ranges observed for each characteristic and (2) regression analyses to generate age estimation equations employing all 23 characteristics observed and a subset of ten characteristics most significantly correlated with age. Blind sample analysis indicated that, using the combination of both methods, pupal age could be estimated to within ±500 ADH with 95% reliability.

  1. Examination of forensic entomology evidence using computed tomography scanning: case studies and refinement of techniques for estimating maggot mass volumes in bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James

    2012-09-01

    A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.

  2. Lucilia silvarum Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Calliphoridae)--a new species of interest for forensic entomology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremdt, Heike; Szpila, Krzysztof; Huijbregts, Johannes; Lindström, Anders; Zehner, Richard; Amendt, Jens

    2012-10-10

    In Europe, the blowfly genus Lucilia is represented in Forensic Entomology mainly by the species L. ampullacea, L. caesar, L. illustris and L. sericata. In the US, Lucilia silvarum is rarely recorded as a carrion breeding species but usually as a more or less exclusive parasite of frogs and toads. We present three forensic cases from different European countries reporting, for the first time, L. silvarum on human bodies that were found close to lakes, wetlands, or riversides. To use this species for post-mortem interval estimations, thermal development data is needed. The first step is accurate identification by morphological and molecular means. Therefore, we analysed a 611 bp part of the mitochondrial COI region for 23 specimens of L. silvarum from 9 different geographical regions, all of which give the same haplotype. Differences within the haplotype varied by up to 0.2%. Comparison between the haplotype found and those published on GenBank showed up to 1.2% variance. Moreover, we present an updated key for the morphological identification of the third larval instars of European Lucilia spp. of forensic importance, adding not only L. silvarum, but also L. cuprina which was recorded in Europe for the first time about 20 years ago. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Introducing forensic entomology in cases of suspected animal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, John; Ratsep, Emily; Ressel, Lorenzo; Leeming, Gail; Ricci, Emanuele; Verin, Ranieri; Blundell, Richard; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo; Yeates, James

    2018-02-03

    Cases of arthropod-infested, abandoned or abused animals are sometimes brought to the attention of veterinarians by animal welfare authorities, with the requirement for a full postmortem examination towards criminal or civil proceedings. In these situations, entomology is an important support tool for the pathologists' investigation since the presence of arthropod life cycle stages serve as reliable forensic markers, especially for blowflies which form the first waves of activity following death. In the present study, 70 cadavers from a total of 544 referred to the Institute of Veterinary Science, University of Liverpool, between 2009 and 2014 displayed evidence of infestation. Here, the authors introduce principles of applied entomology and simplified approaches for estimating the minimum time since death, relevant in the context of routine submissions and the broad remit of individual cases. Despite often limited availability of scene of the crime and local thermal data, the interpretation of the minimum postmortem interval has nonetheless proved valuable as an adjunct to the expert pathology report. However, future developments and enhanced accuracy in this area of animal welfare require resource and training in expertise, and agreed standardisation of both laboratory and field procedures. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  5. Virtual forensic entomology: improving estimates of minimum post-mortem interval with 3D micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Cameron S; Simonsen, Thomas J; Abel, Richard L; Hall, Martin J R; Schwyn, Daniel A; Wicklein, Martina

    2012-07-10

    We demonstrate how micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be a powerful tool for describing internal and external morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) during metamorphosis. Pupae were sampled during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quarter of development after the onset of pupariation at 23 °C, and placed directly into 80% ethanol for preservation. In order to find the optimal contrast, four batches of pupae were treated differently: batch one was stained in 0.5M aqueous iodine for 1 day; two for 7 days; three was tagged with a radiopaque dye; four was left unstained (control). Pupae stained for 7d in iodine resulted in the best contrast micro-CT scans. The scans were of sufficiently high spatial resolution (17.2 μm) to visualise the internal morphology of developing pharate adults at all four ages. A combination of external and internal morphological characters was shown to have the potential to estimate the age of blowfly pupae with a higher degree of accuracy and precision than using external morphological characters alone. Age specific developmental characters are described. The technique could be used as a measure to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval in cases of suspicious death where pupae are the oldest stages of insect evidence collected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Function of a fly motion-sensitive neuron matches eye movements during free flight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Kern

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensing is often implicitly assumed to be the passive acquisition of information. However, part of the sensory information is generated actively when animals move. For instance, humans shift their gaze actively in a sequence of saccades towards interesting locations in a scene. Likewise, many insects shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze fixed between saccades. Here we employ a novel panoramic virtual reality stimulator and show that motion computation in a blowfly visual interneuron is tuned to make efficient use of the characteristic dynamics of retinal image flow. The neuron is able to extract information about the spatial layout of the environment by utilizing intervals of stable vision resulting from the saccadic viewing strategy. The extraction is possible because the retinal image flow evoked by translation, containing information about object distances, is confined to low frequencies. This flow component can be derived from the total optic flow between saccades because the residual intersaccadic head rotations are small and encoded at higher frequencies. Information about the spatial layout of the environment can thus be extracted by the neuron in a computationally parsimonious way. These results on neuronal function based on naturalistic, behaviourally generated optic flow are in stark contrast to conclusions based on conventional visual stimuli that the neuron primarily represents a detector for yaw rotations of the animal.

  7. Dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar em Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae: profundidade, peso e distância de enterramento para pupação Postfeeding radial larval dispersion in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera, Calliphoridae: depth, weight and distance of burying for pupation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or for additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some aspects of this process were investigated in Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830, utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the food source in the center. To determine the localization of each pupa, the arena was split into 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farthest are those with lowest weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  8. DNA barcoding implicates 23 species and four orders as potential pollinators of Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M-M; Lim, C-L; Wilson, J-J

    2015-08-01

    Chinese knotweed (Persicaria chinensis) is of ecological and economic importance as a high-risk invasive species and a traditional medicinal herb. However, the insects associated with P. chinensis pollination have received scant attention. As a widespread invasive plant we would expect P. chinensis to be associated with a diverse group of insect pollinators, but lack of taxonomic identification capacity is an impediment to confirm this expectation. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the insect pollinators of P. chinensis in peninsular Malaysia using DNA barcoding. Forty flower visitors, representing the range of morphological diversity observed, were captured at flowers at Ulu Kali, Pahang, Malaysia. Using Automated Barcode Gap Discovery, 17 morphospecies were assigned to 23 species representing at least ten families and four orders. Using the DNA barcode library (BOLD) 30% of the species could be assigned a species name, and 70% could be assigned a genus name. The insects visiting P. chinensis were broadly similar to those previously reported as visiting Persicaria japonica, including honey bees (Apis), droneflies (Eristalis), blowflies (Lucilia) and potter wasps (Eumedes), but also included thrips and ants.

  9. Quantifying human decomposition in an indoor setting and implications for postmortem interval estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceciliason, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, M Gunnar; Lindström, Anders; Sandler, Håkan

    2018-02-01

    This study's objective is to obtain accuracy and precision in estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) for decomposing human remains discovered in indoor settings. Data were collected prospectively from 140 forensic cases with a known date of death, scored according to the Total Body Score (TBS) scale at the post-mortem examination. In our model setting, it is estimated that, in cases with or without the presence of blowfly larvae, approximately 45% or 66% respectively, of the variance in TBS can be derived from Accumulated Degree-Days (ADD). The precision in estimating ADD/PMI from TBS is, in our setting, moderate to low. However, dividing the cases into defined subgroups suggests the possibility to increase the precision of the model. Our findings also suggest a significant seasonal difference with concomitant influence on TBS in the complete data set, possibly initiated by the presence of insect activity mainly during summer. PMI may be underestimated in cases with presence of desiccation. Likewise, there is a need for evaluating the effect of insect activity, to avoid overestimating the PMI. Our data sample indicates that the scoring method might need to be slightly modified to better reflect indoor decomposition, especially in cases with insect infestations or/and extensive desiccation. When applying TBS in an indoor setting, the model requires distinct inclusion criteria and a defined population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted.

  11. First survey of forensically important insects from human corpses in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad D; Keshavarzi, Davood; Fereidooni, Mehran; Soltani, Aboozar

    2018-02-01

    The presence of insects on human cadavers has potential judicial value in medicolegal cases. This research emphasized the important role of insects in postmortem decomposition. It was conducted to investigate the composition and abundance of insects from human corpses during autopsies in legal medicine. It was implemented in the city of Shiraz, south Iran. Insects associated with human corpses were carefully collected and put into labelled vials. They were then identified using valid taxonomic keys. Fifteen outdoor (67%) and indoor discovered cadavers were examined. All but one was covered at the time of discovery. From these several species of entomofauna played important roles in the minimum postmortem interval (minPMI) estimate. Insects included the orders of Diptera and Coleoptera. Overall, 14 different species of arthropods were identified. Within Diptera, 2 families of Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae were present in 73% of the cases with Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann accounting for about half of the cases. The latter family members, Calliphoridae, were more frequently (52%) collected in autumn and winter. Only 4/15 outdoor cadavers had beetles. Four species of Coleopterans; namely Dermestes frischii Kugelann, Nitidula flavomaculata Rossi, Creophilus maxillosus Linnaeus and Saprinus chalcites Illiger; were recorded for the first time from 3 corpses in Iran. The presence and diversity of different insects on human corpses could contribute to the advancement of forensic entomology knowledge and the refined estimates of minPMI in medicolegal cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Traumatic myiasis agents in Iran with introducing of new dominant species, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafinejad, Javad; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rassi, Yavar; Nozari, Jamasp; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ranjbar, Abdolmajid; Zeinali, Danial

    2014-06-01

    To study agents of animal wound myiasis in various geographical districts of Fars province. This study has been done in Fars province, located in the southern part of Iran. Sums of 10 358 domestic animals have been visited from April 2011 to March 2012. The infected wounds in any parts of animal body were sampled by means of forceps. About 61% of all animal wound myiasis were caused by larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. The most wound myiasis cases due to this species occurred in central part of Fars province. There wasn't any significant difference between sheep and goat in infestation with myiasis (P>0.05). The infestation rate of myiasis in cattle community was 0.86%. The infestation rate of livestock was lower than other works in Iran and some other countries like Saudi Arabia. Chrysomya bezziana has been mentioned as main myiasis agent in Iran. But in this study it cleared that similarly to some European countries, the common animal myiasis agent in Iran is Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Introducing new species as principal agent for myiasis can help public health and animal husbandry policy makers to prepare sufficient and effective control and/or preventive measures for this disease.

  13. Sex determination mechanisms in the Calliphoridae (blow flies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M J; Pimsler, M L; Tarone, A M

    2014-01-01

    The Calliphoridae or blow flies are a family of insects that occupy diverse habitats and perform important ecological roles, particularly the decomposition of animal remains. Some Calliphoridae species are also important in the forensic sciences, in agriculture (e.g. as livestock pests) and in medicine (e.g. maggot therapy). Calliphoridae provide striking examples in support of the hypothesis that sex determination regulatory gene hierarchies evolve in the reverse order, with the gene at the top being the most recently added. Unlike the model fly Drosophila melanogaster, where sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes, in the Australian sheep blow fly (Lucilia cuprina) sex is determined by a Y-linked male-determining gene (M). A different regulatory system appears to operate in the hairy maggot blow fly (Chrysomya rufifacies) where the maternal genotype determines sex. It is hypothesized that females heterozygous for a dominant female-determining factor (F/f) produce only female offspring and homozygous f/f females produce only sons. The bottom of the regulatory hierarchy appears to be the same in D. melanogaster and L. cuprina, with sex-specific splicing of doublesex transcripts being controlled by the female-specific Transformer (TRA) protein. We discuss a model that has been proposed for how tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced in calliphorids, which is very different from D. melanogaster. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Tracking movement and temperature selection of larvae of two forensically important blow fly species within a "maggot mass".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aidan P; Wighton, Samuel J; Wallman, James F

    2014-11-01

    The current study responds to the lack of understanding about the temperatures experienced by individual blow fly larvae within "maggot masses." The temperature selection of both aggregating (in a mass) and nonaggregating larvae was compared and their pattern of movement assessed. Infrared imaging determined the temperatures within a mass and in the vicinity of the constituent individual larvae, whose movements were tracked by dyeing their tissues red. Individual Chrysomya rufifacies larvae selected temperatures above 27°C, significantly higher than the temperature selected by Calliphora vicina larvae (24.5°C). However, this same difference was not seen within a mass, with both species selecting temperatures around 28°C. Larval movement in a mass was nonrandom, indicating that larvae actively select their position in a mass. Furthermore, larvae have a strong tendency to select the hottest part of a mass; therefore, maximum mass temperatures might provide a reliable proxy for the actual temperatures experienced by larvae. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Development and validation of a new technique for estimating a minimum postmortem interval using adult blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) carcass attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Rachel M; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the onset and duration of adult blow fly activity is critical to accurately estimating the period of insect activity or minimum postmortem interval (minPMI). Few, if any, reliable techniques have been developed and consequently validated for using adult fly activity to determine a minPMI. In this study, adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) of Cochliomyia macellaria and Chrysomya rufifacies were collected from swine carcasses in rural central Texas, USA, during summer 2008 and Phormia regina and Calliphora vicina in the winter during 2009 and 2010. Carcass attendance patterns of blow flies were related to species, sex, and oocyte development. Summer-active flies were found to arrive 4-12 h after initial carcass exposure, with both C. macellaria and C. rufifacies arriving within 2 h of one another. Winter-active flies arrived within 48 h of one another. There was significant difference in degree of oocyte development on each of the first 3 days postmortem. These frequency differences allowed a minPMI to be calculated using a binomial analysis. When validated with seven tests using domestic and feral swine and human remains, the technique correctly estimated time of placement in six trials.

  16. Use of DNA sequences to identify forensically important fly species and their distribution in the coastal region of Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Angie; Honda, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Forensic entomology has gained prominence in recent years, as improvements in DNA technology and molecular methods have allowed insect and other arthropod evidence to become increasingly useful in criminal and civil investigations. However, comprehensive faunal inventories are still needed, including cataloging local DNA sequences for forensically significant Diptera. This multi-year fly-trapping study was built upon and expanded a previous survey of these flies in Santa Clara County, including the addition of genetic barcoding data from collected species of flies. Flies from the families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Muscidae were trapped in meat-baited traps set in a variety of locations throughout the county. Flies were identified using morphological features and confirmed by molecular analysis. A total of 16 calliphorid species, 11 sarcophagid species, and four muscid species were collected and differentiated. This study found more species of flies than previous area surveys and established new county records for two calliphorid species: Cynomya cadaverina and Chrysomya rufifacies. Differences were found in fly fauna in different areas of the county, indicating the importance of microclimates in the distribution of these flies. Molecular analysis supported the use of DNA barcoding as an effective method of identifying cryptic fly species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago, E-mail: mastrang@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CBMEG/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genetica; Neto, Paulo C.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: pcassier@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10{sup th} day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  18. Levantamento e caracterização da dipterofauna necrófaga em uma localidade de Brasília - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.456

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alonzo Carreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros representam um grupo de extrema relevância para a criminalística graças a sua capacidade de encontrar corpos em decomposição, permitindo a estimativa do intervalo post mortem. A dificuldade de identificação dos dípteros é um problema que muitos dos profissionais têm que lidar para obter informações acuradas que possam ser utilizadas como provas de crime. Para resolver este problema as identificações por marcadores moleculares se mostram um método eficiente. O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever a população de dípteros de interesse forense em Brasília por meio de marcadores moleculares baseados em DNA. Os resultados indicaram que marcadores RAPD e de DNAmt podem ser usados para a identificação de Chrysomya albiceps. Sendo assim, estabeleceu-se um método molecular de identificação de uma espécie de interesse forense que poderá servir de auxílio na elucidação de crimes na região ou na identificação de vestígios incompletos ou imaturos de dípteros.

  19. Insects associated with exposed decomposing bodies in the Colombian Andean Coffee Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Grisales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, mainly classic forensic medicine methods were used to clarify crimes until 2004. However, other disciplines, including forensic entomology, started to be considered only after the New Accusatory System introduction in Bogotá and the Coffee Region in 2005. In order to provide tools for obtaining evidentiary material elements in judicial trials, it is presented here the succession of insects throughout the decomposition process of an exposed carcass of Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (Suidae and the Occurrence Matrix of colonizing species. This process was evaluated under ambient conditions in the Andean rural area of the city of Pereira, in the Mundo Nuevo district, located in a pre-montane Wet Forest area, from October to November 2006. A sampling period of 27 days and 3198 individuals were collected. We found these colonizing species in the following stages of decomposition: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 fresh; Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840, and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius 1775 bloated; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, 1849, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 active; Fannia sp. advanced and Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826 remains. This study provides support tools to define the Post Mortem Interval that may be used by experts from government institutions and laboratories officially accredited.

  20. Estimativa do intervalo pós-morte em um canino (Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus 1758 pela entomologia forense em Cabedelo-PB, Brasil: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martins

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O intervalo pós-morte (IPM é um instrumento importante de diagnóstico relacionado à prática forense. O uso de insetos tem sido relatado como um modo eficiente para estimá-lo, quando o cadáver encontra-se em estágio avançado de decomposição. Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar o IPM com base em evidências entomológicas em um canino. Foram coletadas larvas de moscas no cadáver e encaminhadas ao laboratório de entomologia, onde foram criadas e eclodiram adultos da espécie Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. Somando-se os dados abióticos de temperatura e umidade relativa do local de coleta e do local de criação, estimou-se um IPM mínimo de 3,34 dias do momento da postura dos ovos pelas moscas até a coleta das larvas. Com base nos resultados obtidos, conclui-se que a entomologia forense, como ferramenta para estimativa do IPM, mostrou-se eficaz e determinante na elucidação do caso em questão.

  1. Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardany Ramos-Pastrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia. This is the first report studying insects associated to indoor body decay process of a white pig (Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla, Suidae in a controlled indoor environment in an urban area of Florencia city, Amazonia Piedmont, Colombia. For a period of 54 days, 9,220 individuals (immature and adults, distributed in 3 orders, 5 families, 10 genera, and 10 species were collected using entomological nets and tweezers. Five decaying stages are described (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. During the fresh stage we recorded Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; during the bloating stage C. macellaria, C. albiceps, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819, Hemilucillia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758, O. aenescens, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp., Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 and Lasiphanes sp.; during the active decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, L. eximia, M. domestica, O. aenescens, Lepidodexia sp. D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp.; during the advanced decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, M. domestica, Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; and during the remains stage C. albiceps, D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp. The insects were sorted out in 3 ecological categories; necrophagous, predators and parasites and sarco-saprophagous. According to Chao and Jack estimators, total richness was observed on day 20, with 100% of the expected species.

  2. Forensic entomology in Kuwait: the first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mesbah, Hanadi; Al-Osaimi, Zarraq; El-Azazy, Osama M E

    2011-03-20

    To date, entomology has not been used in legal investigations in Kuwait. Indeed, this is true of most Arab countries in the Middle East. There are no known studies on necrophagous species in the region, nor any knowledge of cadaver succession with which to compare case material. Here we report the first case of application of forensic entomology in Kuwait. In Al-Rowdah district, a man was found dead in his bedroom which was air-conditioned and the windows were closed. The temperature of the room was 20°C. The cause of death was morphine overdose. At autopsy, fly larvae were collected from the blanket with which the body was wrapped and were identified as postfeeding 3rd instars of Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis using molecular analysis. In addition, the face and neck were extensively and exclusively colonized by different stages of Chrysomya albiceps (secondary fly). Based on the age of P. ruficornis full mature 3rd instars and the location of the body, approximately 7.5-8.5 days postmortem was estimated for the corpse at the time of its discovery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  4. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago

    2015-01-01

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10 th day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  5. Diptera of Medico-Legal Importance Associated With Pig Carrion in a Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, S D; Salgado, R L; Barbosa, T M; Souza, J R B

    2016-06-20

    The diversity of necrophagous Diptera is largely unknown in seasonally dry tropical forests, despite their medical, veterinary, and forensic relevance. We performed a study in the dry Caatinga forest exclusive to Brazil in order to assess the diversity and temporal pattern of Diptera species using pig carcasses as substrates. Adults were collected daily until complete skeletonization. We collected 17,142 adults from 18 families, 10 of which comprise species with known necrophagous habits. The most abundant families were Calliphoridae (47.3% of specimens), Sarcophagidae (20.8%), and Muscidae (15.5%), whereas Sarcophagidae stood out in terms of richness with 21 species. The native Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the invasive Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedmann) (Calliphoridae) were the dominant species. A total of 18 species reached the carcass during the first 48 h postdeath. The bloated and active decay stages had the highest richness and abundance of dipterans. From a forensic standpoint, C. macellaria and C. albiceps are likely to aid in establishing postmortem interval due to their early arrival and high abundance on the carcass. Despite harsh environmental conditions, the Caatinga harbors a rich assemblage of dipterans that play a key role in carrion decomposition. Their medico-veterinary importance is strengthened by the poor local sanitary conditions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Impact of screwworm eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-Teran, M.; Hofmann, H.C.; Tweddle, N.E.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) eradication programmes has been successfully demonstrated. As a result of a 45-year area-wide campaign, suppression and eradication have been achieved in the USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama north of the Canal, some Caribbean Islands, and the outbreak in Libya, North Africa. The humans, livestock, and wildlife in these countries are now free of this dangerous pest. It has been estimated that the annual producer benefits are: USA - USD 796 million, Mexico - USD 292 million, and Central America - USD 77.9 million. In Libya, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 5:1 in the infested zone, and 10:1 in the whole country. If the New World screwworm were eradicated in South America, it has been estimated that each year USD 3592 million could be saved. Small field trials have confirmed that the SIT would be effective for the area-wide control of the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve). (author)

  7. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  8. Distribuição de Carabidae e Staphylinidae em agroecossistemas Distribution of Carabidae and Staphylinidae in agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a distribuição da riqueza de espécies e a preferência pelo habitat de Carabidae e Staphylinidae (Coleoptera, em áreas com rotação de soja e milho, em plantio direto e convencional, e em áreas adjacentes a estas com fragmento florestal e povoamento de pínus, respectivamente. Os besouros foram amostrados por meio de armadilhas de solo distribuídas em dois transectos de 100 m de comprimento. A distribuição da riqueza de espécies nas culturas, no fragmento florestal e no pínus foi avaliada por meio de análise de regressão linear. A análise de agrupamento foi empregada para identificar as espécies quanto à preferência pelos habitats: fragmento florestal, pínus, cultura e interface. A distribuição da riqueza de espécies de Carabidae e Staphylinidae não variou em relação à posição no transecto, enquanto a riqueza de espécies observada nas interfaces foi elevada em comparação com a encontrada nos demais habitats. A ocorrência de espécies de Carabidae diferiu conforme o tipo de cobertura vegetal: Megacephala sp. e Scarites sp. preferiram áreas cultivadas em sistema de rotação soja-milho; Odontochila nodicornis (Dejean preferiu o fragmento florestal e o povoamento de pínus. A espécie Abaris basistriatus Chaudoir caracterizou-se como generalista quanto à preferência pelo habitat.The objective of this work was to determine the distribution of species richness and habitat preference of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in two areas cultivated with soybean/corn under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems and in adjacents areas with forest fragment and a Pinus stand, respectively. Beetles were sampled by pitfall traps which were distributed in two transects of 100 m. The distribution of species richness in the crops and forest fragment/Pinus was evaluated by regression analysis. Cluster analysis was used to identify species in relation to preference for the forest

  9. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  10. Intracellular pH regulation in unstimulated Calliphora salivary glands is Na+ dependent and requires V-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Bettina; Blenau, Wolfgang; Walz, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Salivary gland cells of the blowfly Calliphora vicina have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) that lies in their apical membrane and energizes the secretion of a KCl-rich primary saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Whether and to what extent V-ATPase contributes to intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation in unstimulated gland cells is unknown. We used the fluorescent dye BCECF to study intracellular pH(i) regulation microfluorometrically and show that: (1) under resting conditions, the application of Na(+)-free physiological saline induces an intracellular alkalinization attributable to the inhibition of the activity of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter; (2) the maintenance of resting pH(i) is Na(+), Cl(-), concanamycin A and DIDS sensitive; (3) recovery from an intracellular acid load is Na(+) sensitive and requires V-ATPase activity; (4) the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter is not involved in pH(i) recovery after a NH(4)Cl prepulse; and (5) at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter and the V-ATPase maintain recovery from an intracellular acid load. Thus, under resting conditions, the V-ATPase and at least one Na(+)-dependent transporter maintain normal pH(i) values of pH 7.5. We have also detected the presence of a Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporter, which seems to act as an acid loader. Despite this not being a common pH(i)-regulating transporter, its activity affects steady-state pH(i) in C. vicina salivary gland cells.

  11. Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches.

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    Seth Irish

    Full Text Available The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania. The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003 with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001, and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01 were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03. The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

  12. Statistical inference for noisy nonlinear ecological dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Simon N

    2010-08-26

    Chaotic ecological dynamic systems defy conventional statistical analysis. Systems with near-chaotic dynamics are little better. Such systems are almost invariably driven by endogenous dynamic processes plus demographic and environmental process noise, and are only observable with error. Their sensitivity to history means that minute changes in the driving noise realization, or the system parameters, will cause drastic changes in the system trajectory. This sensitivity is inherited and amplified by the joint probability density of the observable data and the process noise, rendering it useless as the basis for obtaining measures of statistical fit. Because the joint density is the basis for the fit measures used by all conventional statistical methods, this is a major theoretical shortcoming. The inability to make well-founded statistical inferences about biological dynamic models in the chaotic and near-chaotic regimes, other than on an ad hoc basis, leaves dynamic theory without the methods of quantitative validation that are essential tools in the rest of biological science. Here I show that this impasse can be resolved in a simple and general manner, using a method that requires only the ability to simulate the observed data on a system from the dynamic model about which inferences are required. The raw data series are reduced to phase-insensitive summary statistics, quantifying local dynamic structure and the distribution of observations. Simulation is used to obtain the mean and the covariance matrix of the statistics, given model parameters, allowing the construction of a 'synthetic likelihood' that assesses model fit. This likelihood can be explored using a straightforward Markov chain Monte Carlo sampler, but one further post-processing step returns pure likelihood-based inference. I apply the method to establish the dynamic nature of the fluctuations in Nicholson's classic blowfly experiments.

  13. Molecular analysis of the sea anemone toxin Av3 reveals selectivity to insects and demonstrates the heterogeneity of receptor site-3 on voltage-gated Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Kahn, Roy; Cohen, Lior; Gur, Maya; Karbat, Izhar; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2007-08-15

    Av3 is a short peptide toxin from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis shown to be active on crustaceans and inactive on mammals. It inhibits inactivation of Na(v)s (voltage-gated Na+ channels) like the structurally dissimilar scorpion alpha-toxins and type I sea anemone toxins that bind to receptor site-3. To examine the potency and mode of interaction of Av3 with insect Na(v)s, we established a system for its expression, mutagenized it throughout, and analysed it in toxicity, binding and electrophysiological assays. The recombinant Av3 was found to be highly toxic to blowfly larvae (ED50=2.65+/-0.46 pmol/100 mg), to compete well with the site-3 toxin LqhalphaIT (from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus) on binding to cockroach neuronal membranes (K(i)=21.4+/-7.1 nM), and to inhibit the inactivation of Drosophila melanogaster channel, DmNa(v)1, but not that of mammalian Na(v)s expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Moreover, like other site-3 toxins, the activity of Av3 was synergically enhanced by ligands of receptor site-4 (e.g. scorpion beta-toxins). The bioactive surface of Av3 was found to consist mainly of aromatic residues and did not resemble any of the bioactive surfaces of other site-3 toxins. These analyses have portrayed a toxin that might interact with receptor site-3 in a different fashion compared with other ligands of this site. This assumption was corroborated by a D1701R mutation in DmNa(v)1, which has been shown to abolish the activity of all other site-3 ligands, except Av3. All in all, the present study provides further evidence for the heterogeneity of receptor site-3, and raises Av3 as a unique model for design of selective anti-insect compounds.

  14. Prevalence and relative risk of Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual filth flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Pearson, Rachel E Goeriz; Miller, Amy K; Ziobro, George C

    2012-11-01

    Although flies are important vectors of food-borne pathogens, there is little information to accurately assess the food-related health risk of the presence of individual flies, especially in urban areas. This study quantifies the prevalence and the relative risk of food-borne pathogens associated with the body surfaces and guts of individual wild flies. One hundred flies were collected from the dumpsters of 10 randomly selected urban restaurants. Flies were identified using taxonomic keys before being individually dissected. Cronobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were detected using the PCR-based BAX system Q7. Positive samples were confirmed by culture on specific media and through PCR amplification and sequencing or ribotyping. Among collected flies were the housefly, Musca domestica (47%), the blowflies, Lucilia cuprina (33%) and Lucilia sericata (14%), and others (6%). Cronobacter species were detected in 14% of flies, including C. sakazakii, C. turicensis, and C. universalis, leading to the proposal of flies as a natural reservoir of this food-borne pathogen. Six percent of flies carried Salmonella enterica, including the serovars Poona, Hadar, Schwarzengrund, Senftenberg, and Brackenridge. L. monocytogenes was detected in 3% of flies. Overall, the prevalence of food-borne pathogens was three times greater in the guts than on the body surfaces of the flies. The relative risk of flies carrying any of the three pathogens was associated with the type of pathogen, the body part of the fly, and the ambient temperature. These data enhance the ability to predict the microbiological risk associated with the presence of individual flies in food and food facilities.

  15. Natural antimicrobial peptide complexes in the fighting of antibiotic resistant biofilms: Calliphora vicina medicinal maggots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Gordya

    Full Text Available Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms' resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable.

  16. Natural antimicrobial peptide complexes in the fighting of antibiotic resistant biofilms: Calliphora vicina medicinal maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordya, Natalia; Yakovlev, Andrey; Kruglikova, Anastasia; Tulin, Dmitry; Potolitsina, Evdokia; Suborova, Tatyana; Bordo, Domenico; Rosano, Camillo; Chernysh, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Biofilms, sedimented microbial communities embedded in a biopolymer matrix cause vast majority of human bacterial infections and many severe complications such as chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Biofilms' resistance to the host immunity and antibiotics makes this kind of infection particularly intractable. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a ubiquitous facet of innate immunity in animals. However, AMPs activity was studied mainly on planktonic bacteria and little is known about their effects on biofilms. We studied structure and anti-biofilm activity of AMP complex produced by the maggots of blowfly Calliphora vicina living in environments extremely contaminated by biofilm-forming germs. The complex exhibits strong cell killing and matrix destroying activity against human pathogenic antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms as well as non-toxicity to human immune cells. The complex was found to contain AMPs from defensin, cecropin, diptericin and proline-rich peptide families simultaneously expressed in response to bacterial infection and encoded by hundreds mRNA isoforms. All the families combine cell killing and matrix destruction mechanisms, but the ratio of these effects and antibacterial activity spectrum are specific to each family. These molecules dramatically extend the list of known anti-biofilm AMPs. However, pharmacological development of the complex as a whole can provide significant advantages compared with a conventional one-component approach. In particular, a similar level of activity against biofilm and planktonic bacteria (MBEC/MIC ratio) provides the complex advantage over conventional antibiotics. Available methods of the complex in situ and in vitro biosynthesis make this idea practicable.

  17. Eigenanalysis of a neural network for optic flow processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F; Eichner, H; Borst, A; Cuntz, H

    2008-01-01

    Flies gain information about self-motion during free flight by processing images of the environment moving across their retina. The visual course control center in the brain of the blowfly contains, among others, a population of ten neurons, the so-called vertical system (VS) cells that are mainly sensitive to downward motion. VS cells are assumed to encode information about rotational optic flow induced by self-motion (Krapp and Hengstenberg 1996 Nature 384 463-6). Recent evidence supports a connectivity scheme between the VS cells where neurons with neighboring receptive fields are connected to each other by electrical synapses at the axonal terminals, whereas the boundary neurons in the network are reciprocally coupled via inhibitory synapses (Haag and Borst 2004 Nat. Neurosci. 7 628-34; Farrow et al 2005 J. Neurosci. 25 3985-93; Cuntz et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA). Here, we investigate the functional properties of the VS network and its connectivity scheme by reducing a biophysically realistic network to a simplified model, where each cell is represented by a dendritic and axonal compartment only. Eigenanalysis of this model reveals that the whole population of VS cells projects the synaptic input provided from local motion detectors on to its behaviorally relevant components. The two major eigenvectors consist of a horizontal and a slanted line representing the distribution of vertical motion components across the fly's azimuth. They are, thus, ideally suited for reliably encoding translational and rotational whole-field optic flow induced by respective flight maneuvers. The dimensionality reduction compensates for the contrast and texture dependence of the local motion detectors of the correlation-type, which becomes particularly pronounced when confronted with natural images and their highly inhomogeneous contrast distribution

  18. Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on empty puparia of Phormia regina (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and third larval stage of Necrodes littoralis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silphidae) - Advantages of using different PMI indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerlein, D; Taberski, D; Matuszewski, S

    2018-04-01

    On 16 July 2015, a body of a 64-year-old man in advanced decomposition was found in an open area of the suburb of Śrem (western Poland). Postmortem interval (PMI) was estimated by forensic pathologist for 3-6 weeks. Insects were sampled from the cadaver and the soil from below the cadaver. Empty puparia of Phormia regina were the most developmentally advanced specimens of blowflies. Moreover, third instar larva of Necrodes littoralis was collected directly from the cadaver. For the estimation of minimum PMI from puparia of P. regina, thermal summation method was used to estimate the total immature development interval of this species. In the case of larval N. littoralis, the pre-appearance interval (PAI) was estimated using temperature method and the development interval (DI) using thermal summation method. Average daily temperatures from the nearby weather station were used, as well as the weather station temperatures corrected by 1 °C and 2 °C. The estimates were as follows: 36-38 days using empty puparia of P. regina and 37-40 days using larva of N. littoralis (for the uncorrected temperatures), 31-34 days using both P. regina and N. littoralis (temperatures corrected by +1 °C), 24-27 days using P. regina and 28-29 days using N. littoralis (temperatures corrected by +2 °C). It was concluded that death occurred 24-40 days before the body was found and most probably 24-34 days before the body was found. This is the first report when PMI was approximated by the age estimates combined with the PAI estimates. Moreover, the case demonstrates the advantages of using different entomological indicators and an urgent need for the more robust developmental model for N. littoralis, as it proved to be highly useful for the estimation of PMI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of morphine on the growth rate of Calliphora stygia (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and possible implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Green, Lauren M; Conlan, Xavier A; Toop, Tes

    2009-12-15

    Insect specimens collected from decomposing bodies enable forensic entomologists to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval (PMI). Drugs and toxins within a corpse may affect the development rate of insects that feed on them and it is vital to quantify these effects to accurately calculate minimum PMI. This study investigated the effects of morphine on growth rates of the native Australian blowfly, Calliphora stygia (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Several morphine concentrations were incorporated into pet mince to simulate post-mortem concentrations in morphine, codeine and/or heroin-dosed corpses. There were four treatments for feeding larvae; T 1: control (no morphine); T 2: 2 microg/g morphine; T 3: 10 microg/g morphine; and T 4: 20 microg/g morphine. Ten replicates of 50 larvae were grown at 22 degrees C for each treatment and their development was compared at four comparison intervals; CI 1: 4-day-old larvae; CI 2: 7-day-old larvae; CI 3: pupae; and CI 4: adults. Length and width were measured for larvae and pupae, and costae and tibiae were measured for adults. Additionally, day of pupariation, day of adult eclosion, and survivorship were calculated for each replicate. The continued presence of morphine in meat was qualitatively verified using high-performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection. Growth rates of C. stygia fed on morphine-spiked mince did not differ significantly from those fed on control mince for any comparison interval or parameter measured. This suggests that C. stygia is a reliable model to use to accurately age a corpse containing morphine at any of the concentrations investigated.

  20. Differences between urban and rural hedges in England revealed by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Laura; Sparks, Tim H; Araya, Yoseph; Harvey, Martin; Ansine, Janice

    2016-07-22

    Hedges are both ecologically and culturally important and are a distinctive feature of the British landscape. However the overall length of hedges across Great Britain is decreasing. Current challenges in studying hedges relate to the dominance of research on rural, as opposed to urban, hedges, and their variability and geographical breadth. To help address these challenges and to educate the public on the importance of hedge habitats for wildlife, in 2010 the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme coordinated a hedge-focused citizen science survey. Results from 2891 surveys were analysed. Woody plant species differed significantly between urban and rural areas. Beech, Holly, Ivy, Laurel, Privet and Yew were more commonly recorded in urban hedges whereas Blackthorn, Bramble, Dog Rose, Elder and Hawthorn were recorded more often in rural hedges. Urban and rural differences were shown for some groups of invertebrates. Ants, earwigs and shieldbugs were recorded more frequently in urban hedges whereas blowflies, caterpillars, harvestmen, other beetles, spiders and weevils were recorded more frequently in rural hedges. Spiders were the most frequently recorded invertebrate across all surveys. The presence of hard surfaces adjacent to the hedge was influential on hedge structure, number and diversity of plant species, amount of food available for wildlife and invertebrate number and diversity. In urban hedges with one adjacent hard surface, the food available for wildlife was significantly reduced and in rural hedges, one adjacent hard surface affected the diversity of invertebrates. This research highlights that urban hedges may be important habitats for wildlife and that hard surfaces may have an impact on both the number and diversity of plant species and the number and diversity of invertebrates. This study demonstrates that citizen science programmes that focus on hedge surveillance can work and have the added benefit of educating the public on the importance of

  1. Closed-loop response properties of a visual interneuron involved in fly optomotor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed eEjaz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to methodological limitations neural function is mostly studied under open-loop conditions. Normally, however, nervous systems operate in closed-loop where sensory input is processed to generate behavioural outputs, which again change the sensory input. Here, we investigate the closed-loop responses of an identified visual interneuron, the blowfly H1-cell, that is part of a neural circuit involved in optomotor flight and gaze control. Those behaviours may be triggered by attitude changes during flight in turbulent air. The fly analyses the resulting retinal image shifts and performs compensatory body and head rotations to regain its default attitude. We developed a fly-robot interface to study H1-cell responses in a 1 degree-of-freedom image stabilization task. Image shifts, induced by externally forced rotations, modulate the cell’s spike rate that controls counter rotations of a mobile robot to minimize relative motion between the robot and its visual surroundings. A feedback controller closed the loop between neural activity and the rotation of the robot. Under these conditions we found the following H1-cell response properties: (i the peak spike rate decreases when the mean image velocity is increased, (ii the relationship between spike rate and image velocity depends on the standard deviation of the image velocities suggesting adaptive scaling of the cell’s signalling range, and (iii the cell’s gain decreases linearly with increasing image accelerations.Our results reveal a remarkable qualitative similarity between the response dynamics of the H1-cell under closed-loop conditions with those obtained in previous open-loop experiments. Finally, we show that the adaptive scaling of the H1-cell’s responses, while maximizing information on image velocity, decreases the cell’s sensitivity to image accelerations. Understanding such trade-offs in biological vision systems may advance the design of smart vision sensors for autonomous

  2. Insects of forensic importance from Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil Insetos de importância forense do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted throughout the year 2005, at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas campus. The objectives of the study were to analyze the decomposition of rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. with mean weight 2.67 Kg carcass and describe the interaction of insects acting on it, as well as the insect's potential use in legal medicine. We collected 5.239 insect specimens; 1.827 of them were obtained from larvae collected from carcasses and reared. The specimens were identified and 20 species were of forensic importance. The species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae were better indicators of post-mortem interval (PMI because they occurred in all seasons and were the first to reach the carcass. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 and Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, 1883 (Diptera, Muscidae can disclose death time because they occur only in certain months of the year. Oxyletrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840 (Coleoptera, Silphidae and Dermestes maculates De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Desmestidae were found in advanced stages of decomposition.Durante todas as estações do ano de 2005 foi conduzido um experimento em uma área do campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a decomposição de carcaças de coelho (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. pesando 2,67 Kg em média e descrever como os insetos atuam na decomposição e seu possível uso na medicina-legal. Foram coletados 5.239 espécimes; 1.827 foram obtidos a partir da criação de imaturos coletados na carcaça. Foram identificadas 20 espécies com importância forense. As espécies mais propícias para serem usadas com indicadoras de intervalo post-mortem (IPM são Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 e Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae por terem sido encontradas em todas as estações de coleta

  3. Chrpsomva bezziana, The Cause of Myiasis on animal And Human : Problem and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an infestation of larvae (Diptera into the live host tissue of warm-blooded animals including humans . This disease is often found in tropical countries, particularly in the community with low socio-economic level. From many flies causing myiasis, Chrysomya bezziana is medically the most important agent due to its obligate parasite property and causing economies losses . Some myiasis cases on humans and animals in Indonesia are caused by C. bezziana larvae infestation or mixed infestation with Sarcophaga sp . Sulawesi, East Sumba, Lombok, Sumbawa, Papua and Java islands were reported as myiasis endemic areas . Myiasis cases on animals occurred after parturition (vulval myiasis then is followed by umbilical myiasis on their calf or traumatic wounds, while myiasis on humans are caused by untreated fresh wounds or chronic wounds such as leprosy, diabetes, etc . Besides, nature holes like nose, eyes, ears or mouth are also reported as entry port for those larvae . Clinical signs of myiasis are various and non-specific depends on location of infested part of body, i.e . fever, inflammation, pruritus, headache, vertigo, swelling and hipereosinophilia . There would be serious conditions with secondary infection by bacteria . Myiasis treatment on animals is simpler than humans . Surgical operation is often carried out on infested human part of bodies . Insecticides were used to treat animal myiasis but had raised resistant . Myiasis treatment on humans may be done locally or systemically . Antibiotic broad spectrum or which is suitable with culture and resistance status of bacteria were given for systemic treatment . Chloroform and turpentine with ratio 1 : 4 were used for local treatment . Some of essential oils have also been tested in laboratory as an alternative medicine for both humans and animals myiasis .

  4. Estimating the Number of Eggs in Blow Fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Egg Masses Using Photographic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, J Y; Pacheco, V A; Vankosky, M A; Vanlaerhoven, S L

    2015-07-01

    Little work has been done to quantify the number of eggs oviposited by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in studies examining colonization behavior. Egg counting methods currently available are time-consuming and destructive. This study used ImageJ software and analysis of covariance to relate the volume of egg masses to the number of eggs laid by three different blow fly species: Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Phormia regina (Meigen), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Egg mass volume, species, and the interaction of species and egg mass volume all affected the number of blow fly eggs deposited in egg masses. Both species identity and egg mass volume are important when predicting egg number, as such a single regression equation cannot be used to estimate egg number for these three species. Therefore, simple linear regression equations were determined for each species. The volume of individual eggs was incorporated into the model, yet differences between species were observed, suggesting that the orientation of the eggs oviposited by multiple conspecific females within egg masses influences egg estimates. Based on our results, we expect that imaging software can be used for other blow fly species, as well as other insect species; however, equations specific to each species must be developed. This study describes an important tool for quantifying egg deposition in a nondestructive manner, which is important in studying the colonization behavior and life history of insects of ecological and forensic importance. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Methods for external disinfection of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs prior to use in wound debridement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Adrienne L; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-03-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided; yet the external surface of Calliphoridae eggs is often heavily contaminated with bacteria. Studies of external disinfection of dipteran eggs have been reported, but neither their efficacy nor effect on egg viability has been adequately assessed. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ten disinfection techniques involving immersion, rinse, or a combination of both in formalin, Lysol, formaldehyde, bleach, ethanol, Sporgon, or benzalkonium chloride. All techniques resulted in significant decreases in culturable, aerobic bacterial load on Lucilia cuprina eggs. For L. cuprina, a 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion was the most efficacious, disinfecting 96.67% of egg samples, while resulting in 31.84% egg mortality. The 5% formalin immersion was least efficacious, disinfecting only 3.33% of L. cuprina egg samples, while resulting in 33.51% egg mortality. A formaldehyde immersion, one of the most commonly used disinfection techniques, was moderately effective, disinfecting 66.7% of egg samples, while resulting in 40.16% egg mortality. For Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria egg samples, the 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion disinfected 100% of the samples, and for Lucilia sericata, 80% of egg samples, while resulting in 33.97%, 7.34%, and 36.96% egg mortality, respectively. H2 CO disinfected 16.67% of Ch. rufifacies, 26.67% of C. macellaria, and 56.67% of L. sericata egg samples, while resulting in 21.98%, 10.18%, and 32.19% egg mortality, respectively. Due to its high disinfection efficacy and relatively low egg mortality, a 10 minutes 3% Lysol immersion is recommended for sterilizing Calliphoridae eggs prior to rearing of larvae for use in MDT. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Distribuição de famílias de diptera em uma área urbana de Brasília, DF - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v9i1.1200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco Rochefort

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de insetos, quando esses são vestígios, é uma importante ferramenta para a solução de crimes. Contudo, em virtude da grande diversidade de espécies, o trabalho de identificação apenas por características morfológicas torna-se difícil. A análise de DNA por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA e DNA mitocondrial apresentam potencial para a identificação das espécies de insetos e poderão subsidiar a estimativa do intervalo post mortem (IPM. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar a distribuição de frequência acumulada de insetos da ordem Diptera de interesse forense em uma localidade do Distrito Federal, visando gerar subsídios para estimativas do IPM e identificar indivíduos da espécie Chrysomya albiceps por marcadores RAPD e mitocondriais. Os resultados mostraram que o modelo logístico é adequado para descrever a distribuição de frequência acumulada de moscas das famílias Calliphoridae, Muscidae e Sarcophagidae. Além disso, um fragmento de RAPD de 580 pb e de DNAmt de 350 pb pode ser aplicado na identificação de C. albiceps. Assim, se estabeleceu um método molecular de identificação de uma espécie de interesse forense que poderá servir de auxílio na identificação de vestígios incompletos ou imaturos de dípteros.

  7. Dynamics of Necrophagous Insect and Tissue Bacteria for Postmortem Interval Estimation During the Warm Season in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Lavinia; Sahlean, Tiberiu; Purcarea, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is affected by several factors including the cause of death, the place where the body lay after death, and the weather conditions during decomposition. Given the climatic differences among biogeographic locations, the understanding of necrophagous insect species biology and ecology is required when estimating PMI. The current experimental model was developed in Romania during the warm season in an outdoor location. The aim of the study was to identify the necrophagous insect species diversity and dynamics, and to detect the bacterial species present during decomposition in order to determine if their presence or incidence timing could be useful to estimate PMI. The decomposition process of domestic swine carcasses was monitored throughout a 14-wk period (10 July-10 October 2013), along with a daily record of meteorological parameters. The chronological succession of necrophagous entomofauna comprised nine Diptera species, with the dominant presence of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819) (Calliphoridae), while only two Coleoptera species were identified, Dermestes undulatus (L. 1758) and Creophilus maxillosus Brahm 1970. The bacterial diversity and dynamics from the mouth and rectum tissues, and third-instar dipteran larvae were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments. Throughout the decomposition process, two main bacterial chronological groups were differentiated, represented by Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria. Twenty-six taxa from the rectal cavity and 22 from the mouth cavity were identified, with the dominant phylum in both these cavities corresponding to Firmicutes. The present data strengthen the postmortem entomological and microbial information for the warm season in this temperate-continental area, as well as the role of microbes in carcass decomposition. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  8. Hydrocarbon profiles throughout adult Calliphoridae aging: A promising tool for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Moore, Hannah; Drijfhout, Falko; Benbow, M Eric

    2014-12-01

    Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically the first insects to arrive at human remains and carrion. Predictable succession patterns and known larval development of necrophagous insects on vertebrate remains can assist a forensic entomologist with estimates of a minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin) range. However, adult blow flies are infrequently used to estimate the PMImin, but rather are used for a confirmation of larval species identification. Cuticular hydrocarbons have demonstrated potential for estimating adult blow fly age, as hydrocarbons are present throughout blow fly development, from egg to adult, and are stable structures. The goal of this study was to identify hydrocarbon profiles associated with the adults of a North American native blow fly species, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) and a North American invasive species, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). Flies were reared at a constant temperature (25°C), a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) (h), and were provided water, sugar and powdered milk ad libitum. Ten adult females from each species were collected at day 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 post-emergence. Hydrocarbon compounds were extracted and then identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 37 and 35 compounds were detected from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively. There were 24 and 23 n-alkene and methyl-branched alkane hydrocarbons from C. macellaria and Ch. rufifacies, respectively (10 compounds were shared between species), used for statistical analysis. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis and permutational multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the hydrocarbon profiles with significant differences (Pforensic practitioners and potentially increase the use of adult insects during death investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  10. The biology and ecology of Necrodes littoralis, a species of forensic interest in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Vincent, Benoît; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Silphidae), also known as the "shore sexton beetle," is a common silphid beetle that visits and breeds on large vertebrate cadavers. This study describes, for the first time, the involvement of N. littoralis on human corpses based on a large dataset of 154 French forensic cases. Various parameters regarding corpse location, decomposition stages, and entomofauna were extracted from each file. Compared to all of the forensic entomology cases analyzed between 1990 and 2013 (1028), N. littoralis was observed, on average, in one case out of eight; most of these cases occurred during spring and summer (73.5%). More than 90% of the cases were located outdoors, especially in woodlands, bushes, and fields. The decomposition stage of the corpse varied among cases, with more than 50% in the advanced decomposition stage, 36% in the early decomposition stage, and less than 10% in the fresh, mummified, or skeletonized stages. Regarding other necrophagous species sampled with N. littoralis, Calliphorid flies were found in 94% of the cases and Fanniidae/Muscidae in 65% of the cases. Chrysomya albiceps, a heliophilic species mostly located in the Mediterranean area, was present in 34% of the cases (only 20% in the whole dataset). The most common coleopteran species were Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); these beetles were observed in 27% of the cases. The over-representation of these species is likely due to similar requirements regarding the climate and decomposition stage. As N. littoralis is frequently observed and tends to become more common, we conclude that the developmental data for this species would be a precious tool for forensic entomologists in Europe.

  11. Insurance against an Old World screw-worm fly invasion of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddle, Neil; Mahon, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    Australia is fortunate that neither the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (NWSWF) nor the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (OWSWF), have become established within our country, although much of the northern areas are environmentally suitable (Suthurst et al. 1989). The OWSWF is a substantial threat as it is prevalent in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Perhaps more importantly, it is also present in many of our trading partners in Southeast Asia. The export of live cattle from northern Australian ports to Southeast Asian nations has become an important and rapidly expanding trade. The fly is also present near ports in the Middle East which receive considerable numbers of live sheep exported from various Australian ports. In both situations, there is the ever-present opportunity for the screw-worm fly (SWF) to return to Australia as larvae, pupae or adults on stock carrying vessels. While this means of transport probably represents the most likely route for the pest to gain access to Australia, accidental transport on aircraft and active myiases on humans or companion animals remain possibilities. The introduction of the NWSWF into Australia is considered unlikely, but not impossible. Indeed, in 1992, an Australian tourist returning from South America carried live NWSWF larvae into Australia in a neck wound. Fortunately, the diagnosis was made early and the wound was treated, preventing any larvae evacuating. This was in southern Australia in May, where climatic conditions are unlikely to favour survival at that time of the year, but it demonstrates the potential for inadvertent introduction. Models of the impact of the OWSWF indicate that the cost of an invasion would be high. It has been estimated by Anaman et al. (1993), that the annual cost in an average climate year to beef cattle, sheep and dairy producers of an endemic establishment would be A$281 million. These costs would be

  12. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  13. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  14. A study on climatic adaptation of dipteran mitochondrial protein coding genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Kabiraj

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diptera, the true flies are frequently found in nature and their habitat is found all over the world including Antarctica and Polar Regions. The number of documented species for order diptera is quite high and thought to be 14% of the total animal present in the earth [1]. Most of the study in diptera has focused on the taxa of economic and medical importance, such as the fruit flies Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera spp. (Tephritidae, which are serious agricultural pests; the blowflies (Calliphoridae and oestrid flies (Oestridae, which can cause myiasis; the anopheles mosquitoes (Culicidae, are the vectors of malaria; and leaf-miners (Agromyzidae, vegetable and horticultural pests [2]. Insect mitochondrion consists of 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs, are the remnant portion of alpha-proteobacteria is responsible for simultaneous function of energy production and thermoregulation of the cell through the bi-genomic system thus different adaptability in different climatic condition might have compensated by complementary changes is the both genomes [3,4]. In this study we have collected complete mitochondrial genome and occurrence data of one hundred thirteen such dipteran insects from different databases and literature survey. Our understanding of the genetic basis of climatic adaptation in diptera is limited to the basic information on the occurrence location of those species and mito genetic factors underlying changes in conspicuous phenotypes. To examine this hypothesis, we have taken an approach of Nucleotide substitution analysis for 13 protein coding genes of mitochondrial DNA individually and combined by different software for monophyletic group as well as paraphyletic group of dipteran species. Moreover, we have also calculated codon adaptation index for all dipteran mitochondrial protein coding genes. Following this work, we have classified our sample organisms according to their location data from GBIF (https

  15. Intracellular pH homeostasis and serotonin-induced pH changes in Calliphora salivary glands: the contribution of V-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Bettina; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Walz, Bernd

    2008-03-01

    Blowfly salivary gland cells have a vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) in their apical membrane that energizes secretion of a KCl-rich saliva upon stimulation with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). We have used BCECF to study microfluometrically whether V-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in intracellular pH (pH(i)) regulation, and we have localized CA activity by histochemistry. We show: (1) mean pH(i) in salivary gland cells is 7.5+/-0.3 pH units (N=96), higher than that expected from passive H(+) distribution; (2) low 5-HT concentrations (0.3-3 nmol l(-1)) induce a dose-dependent acidification of up to 0.2 pH units, with 5-HT concentrations >10 nmol l(-1), causing monophasic or multiphasic pH changes; (3) the acidifying effect of 5-HT is mimicked by bath application of cAMP, forskolin or IBMX; (4) salivary gland cells exhibit CA activity; (5) CA inhibition with acetazolamide and V-ATPase inhibition with concanamycin A lead to a slow acidification of steady-state pH(i); (6) 5-HT stimuli in the presence of acetazolamide induce an alkalinization that can be decreased by simultaneous application of the V-ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A; (7) concanamycin A removes alkali-going components from multiphasic 5-HT-induced pH changes; (8) NHE activity and a Cl(-)-dependent process are involved in generating 5-HT-induced pH changes; (9) the salivary glands probably contain a Na(+)-driven amino acid transporter. We conclude that V-ATPase and CA contribute to steady-state pH(i) regulation and 5-HT-induced outward H(+) pumping does not cause an alkalinization of pH(i) because of cytosolic H(+) accumulation attributable to stimulated cellular respiration and AE activity, masking the alkalizing effect of V-ATPase-mediated acid extrusion.

  16. Biofilm infections between Scylla and Charybdis: interplay of host antimicrobial peptides and antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernysh S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sergey Chernysh,* Natalia Gordya,* Dmitry Tulin, Andrey Yakovlev Laboratory of Insect Biopharmacology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study is to improve the anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics. We hypothesized that the antimicrobial peptide (AMP complex of the host’s immune system can be used for this purpose and examined the assumption on model biofilms. Methods: FLIP7, the AMP complex of the blowfly Calliphora vicina containing a combination of defensins, cecropins, diptericins and proline-rich peptides was isolated from the hemolymph of bacteria-challenged maggots. The complex interaction with antibiotics of various classes was studied in biofilm and planktonic cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii by the checkerboard method using trimethyl tetrazolium chloride cell viability and crystal violet biofilm eradication assays supplemented with microscopic analysis. Results: We found that FLIP7 demonstrated: high synergy (fractional inhibitory concentration index <0.25 with meropenem, amikacin, kanamycin, ampicillin, vancomycin and cefotaxime; synergy with clindamycin, erythromycin and chloramphenicol; additive interaction with oxacillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin; and no interaction with polymyxin B. The interaction in planktonic cell models was significantly weaker than in biofilms of the same strains. The analysis of the dose–effect curves pointed to persister cells as a likely target of FLIP7 synergistic effect. The biofilm eradication assay showed that the effect also caused total destruction of S. aureus and E. coli biofilm materials. The effect allowed reducing the effective anti-biofilm concentration of the antibiotic to a level well below the one clinically achievable (2–3 orders of magnitude in

  17. Development of myiasis vaccine: In vitro detection of immunoprotective responses of peritrophic membrane protein, first instar larva Ll supernatant and pellet antigen of fly Chrysomyia bezziana in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis control by means of individual treatment of animals which are mainly rised extensively is time consumed and expensive. The alternative way to control this disease by vaccination is considered effective and economically accepted. However the expected vaccine is now still being developed under a collaborative project between CSIRO, Inter-University Centre on Biotechnology-ITB and Research Institute for Veterinary Science and funded by ACIAR. There are several antigens have been identified as vaccine candidates and an in vitro bioassay technique has been developed for assessing the immunoresponses of vaccine in sheep. Three antigens were used for vaccines in this study, these included protein peritrophic membrane (PM, soluble extract (SE and pellet extract (PE of 1st instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana. Twenty four experimental sheep were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals, 3 groups of animals were injected with PM, SE and PE vaccines with the dose rate of 0.5 g PM/head, 0.8 g PE/head and 4.2 ml LE/head respectively, and the other one group was injected with 4 ml PBS/head as a control group. Vaccination with the same dose was repeated 4 weeks after the 1st vaccination as a booster, and 2 weeks after the booster the sheep were challenged with live larvae, 3 days after challenge animals were killed. Sera were collected at the day of vaccination, 4 weeks after vaccination, 2 weeks after booster, and 3 days after challenge. An in vitro bioassay technique was conducted by culturing 1st instar larvae on five media containing sera collected from each experimental animal. The effects of sera on cultivated larvae were assessed by means of larval weight and larval mortality rate. The results indicated that the growth rate and survival of cultivated larvae in media containing anti-PM sera were significantly lower (P<0.01 compared to the larvae cultivated on media with sera on the day of vaccination. The larval weight depression by anti- PM sera

  18. Insect Fauna Associated with Exposed Pig Carcasses in Southern Brazil

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    Ana Ries

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. O conhecimento dos padrões de insetos que visitam carcaças em decomposição e a análise dos parâmetros relacionados a sua presença auxilia na determinação do intervalo post-mortem (IPM. Estas informações dependem de estudos regionais, pois a diversidade de insetos e as condições ambientais interferem neste contexto. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a entomofauna que coloniza carcaças expostas em diferentes estágios de decomposição na área de estudo. O experimento foi conduzido no sul do Brasil utilizando três porcos domésticos (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, abatidos no local. Insetos adultos associados às carcaças foram amostrados diariamente com rede entomológica, coleta manual e armadilhas pitfall. Foram realizados testes estatísticos para avaliar a diversidade de insetos. Durante o processo de decomposição (14 dias, espécimes de Scarabaeidae (25% e Calliphoridae (23% foram os mais abundantes, considerando-se a totalidade das amostras. A diversidade de insetos é distinguível quando são analisados todos os parâmetros. A fase de Putrefação negra (IV exibiu a maior diversidade de acordo com os métodos aplicados. O padrão de sucessão foi estabelecido a partir do índice de dominância das espécies: fase Fresca - Lucilia eximia Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae, fase Cromática e de Inchamento – Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae, e fase de Putrefação Negra e de Esqueletização – Aphodiinae sp. 1 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae.

  19. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    (Zeller), the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), additional Glossina spp., other Anastrepha spp. and Bactrocera spp. fruit flies, and other pest insects. (author)

  20. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  1. Consultants Group Meeting on Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics of Screwworms. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A Thematic Plan on SIT for Screwworms developed in 1999 by IPC and TC identified certain R and D bottlenecks to the expansion of this technology into new agricultural areas. This consultant's meeting was held to review these conclusions and to advise the Agency on the need, or otherwise, of initiating a CRP to address the bottlenecks identified in the Thematic Plan. In 2001 it is expected that the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, will have been eradicated from all of Central America, including Panama where a sterile release barrier will be established to prevent re-invasion from South America. This barrier will need to be maintained indefinitely with its associated costs. The use of an all-male strain in the production facility would have very positive impact on the cost/benefit analysis of the programme. The Director of the Screwworm Programme in Central America made this point very strongly during the Thematic Plan discussions and at a subsequent technical meeting in Tuxtla Gutierrez. Interest to expand the programme into South America is now being shown by certain countries in the region where the economic feasibility of implementing an SIT programme might depend on producing sterile flies more economically and here again the use of a genetic sexing strain could play an important role. For the Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana the Australian authorities have just completed a successful small field trial of the SIT in Malaysia and it is proposed that more extensive field tests be carried out in the region. For both the New World Screwworm in South America and the Old World Screwworm, in Asia there is virtually no information regarding the population structure in relation to the implementation of an SIT programme. Is the Old World Screwworm a single species over its very wide distribution and are the populations of New World Screwworm in South America the same as in Central America and related to each other? Are the populations isolated? These

  2. Screw-worm eradication in the Americas - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel) are found only in the Americas, and are known, therefore, as the New World Screw-worm (NWS). The larval stages of the fly feed on the living flesh of their host. A screw-worm infestation can kill an adult animal in 7-10 days if not treated. All warm-blooded animals are affected including man. Although screw-worms had long been recognised as a severe pest of animals in the southwestern United States, they had never been detected east of the Mississippi River before 1933. In July 1933, screw-worms were transported on infested cattle to Georgia and became established east of the Mississippi River. Screw-worms spread quickly in the southeastern United States and were able to overwinter in southern Florida. Being new to the region, they were quickly recognised as a severe pest with a tremendous economic impact on livestock production. The livestock owners in the southeastern United States immediately noticed an increase in the number of animal deaths and increased costs of insecticides, veterinary medicines, veterinary services, inspection and handling. At the same time, they observed a decrease in animal weights and in milk production. Due to these observations, the livestock industry in the southeastern United States requested help in controlling screw-worms. Because of these requests, the research community became interested in control and eradication measures for this pest. Early work by Crushing and Patton in 1933 recognised that C. hominivorax was an obligatory animal parasite and different from the secondary blowfly, Cochliomyia macellaria. In 1934, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) opened a research station in Valdosa, Georgia, and E.W. Laake and E.F. Knipling were assigned to work there. In September 1935, R.C. Bushland was hired by ARS to do research related to screw-worms at an ARS Research Laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Melvin and Bushland in 1936 developed artificial