WorldWideScience

Sample records for blowflies flight performance

  1. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  2. Blowfly flight and optic flow I. Thorax kinematics and flight dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, C; Van Hateren, JH

    1999-01-01

    The motion of the thorax of the blowfly Calliphora vicina was measured during cruising flight inside a cage measuring 40 cmx40 cmx40 cm, Sensor coils mounted on the thorax picked up externally generated magnetic fields and yielded measurements of the position and orientation of the thorax with a res

  3. Blowfly Flight and Optic Flow. I. Thorax Kinematics and Flight Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilstra, C.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1999-01-01

    The motion of the thorax of the blowfly Calliphora vicina was measured during cruising flight inside a cage measuring 40cm×40cm×40 cm. Sensor coils mounted on the thorax picked up externally generated magnetic fields and yielded measurements of the position and orientation of the thorax with a resol

  4. Flight behaviour of unilaterally blinded blowflies – control of flight speed and saccadic turns

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Egelhaaf

    2013-01-01

    Several characteristics of blowfly flight have been shown to depend on environmental features and to be controlled by optic flow (OF), the image flow across the eyes induced during self-motion of the animal. For example, both flight speed and the changes in flight direction depend on the clear space available. Most mechanisms proposed to underlie speed and direction control rely on OF information from both eyes of the animal. Then, however, blinding one eye with paint should have consequences...

  5. Texture dependence of motion sensing and free flight behavior in blowflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Peter Lindemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many flying insects exhibit an active flight and gaze strategy: Purely translational flight segments alternate with quick turns called saccades. To generate such a saccadic flight pattern, the animals decide the timing, direction, and amplitude of the next saccade during the previous translatory intersaccadic interval. The information underlying these decisions is assumed to be extracted from the retinal image displacements (optic flow, which scale with the distance to objects during the intersaccadic flight phases. In an earlier study we proposed a saccade-generation mechanism based on the responses of large-field motion sensitive neurons. In closed-loop simulations we achieved collision avoidance behavior in a limited set of environments but observed collisions in others. Here we show by open-loop simulations that the cause of this observation is the known texture-dependence of elementary motion detection in flies, reflected also in the responses of large-field neurons as used in our model. We verified by electrophysiological experiments that this result is not an artifact of the sensory model. Already subtle changes in the texture may lead to qualitative differences in the responses of both our model cells and their biological counterparts in the fly’s brain. Nonetheless, free flight behavior of blowflies is only moderately affected by such texture changes. This divergent texture dependence of motion sensitive neurons and behavioral performance suggests either mechanisms that compensate for the texture dependence of the visual motion pathway at the level of the circuits generating the saccadic turn decisions or the involvement of a hypothetical parallel pathway in saccadic control that provides the information for collision avoidance independent of the textural properties of the environment.

  6. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

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    Simon M Walker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for <3% of total flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the

  7. CIRCADIAN INPUTS INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF A SPIKING, MOVEMENT-SENSITIVE NEURON IN THE VISUAL-SYSTEM OF THE BLOWFLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BULT, R; SCHULING, FH; MASTEBROEK, HAK

    1991-01-01

    Long-term extracellular recordings from a spiking, movement-sensitive giant neuron (H1) in the third optic ganglion of the blowfly Calliphora vicina (L.) revealed periodic endogenous sensitivity fluctuations. The sensitivity changes showed properties typical of an endogenous circadian rhythm. This w

  8. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  9. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  10. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances

  11. Texture-defined objects influence responses of blowfly motion-sensitive neurons under natural dynamical conditions

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    Thomas W. Ullrich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The responses of visual interneurons of flies involved in the processing of motion information do not only depend on the velocity, but also on other stimulus parameters, such as the contrast and the spatial frequency content of the stimulus pattern. These dependencies have been known for long, but it is still an open question how they affect the neurons’ performance in extracting information about the structure of the environment under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight. Free-flight of blowflies is characterized by sequences of phases of translational movements lasting for just 30-100 milliseconds interspersed with even shorter and extremely rapid saccade-like rotational shifts in flight and gaze direction. Previous studies already analyzed how nearby objects, leading to relative motion on the retina with respect to a more distant background, influenced the response of a class of fly motion sensitive visual interneurons, the HS cells. In the present study, we focused on objects that differed from their background by discontinuities either in their brightness contrast or in their spatial frequency content. We found strong object-induced effects on the membrane potential even during the short intersaccadic intervals, if the background contrast was small and the object contrast sufficiently high. The object evoked similar response increments provided that it contained higher spatial frequencies than the background, but not under reversed conditions. This asymmetry in the response behavior is partly a consequence of the depolarization level induced by the background. Thus, our results suggest that, under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight, i.e. on a very short timescale, the responses of HS cells represent object information depending on the polarity of the difference between object and background contrast and spatial frequency content.

  12. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets

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    Daniel eKress

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell’s response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride

  13. Effects of Music Tempos on Flight Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kieta, Alexandra R.; Young, John P.; Stewart, Derek

    2013-01-01

    To date, research on how listening to music affects performance in high-cognitive demand environments has ranged from those working in information technology to everyday drivers. Some research asserts listening to music does have an effect on human task performance (whether positive or negative) and other research asserts there are no statistically significant effects. This research study focused on how varying music tempos affect pilot performance during certain flight maneuvers. With signif...

  14. Analysis of the Transcriptome of Blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) Larvae in Responses to Different Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhang; Hao Yu; Yanyan Yang; Chao Song; Xinjun Hu; Guren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Solexa/Ill...

  15. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  16. Variability of blowfly head optomotor responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R; Egelhaaf, M; Grewe, J; Warzecha, A K

    2009-04-01

    Behavioural responses of an animal are variable even when the animal experiences the same sensory input several times. This variability can arise from stochastic processes inherent to the nervous system. Also, the internal state of an animal may influence a particular behavioural response. In the present study, we analyse the variability of visually induced head pitch responses of tethered blowflies by high-speed cinematography. We found these optomotor responses to be highly variable in amplitude. Most of the variability can be attributed to two different internal states of the flies with high and low optomotor gain, respectively. Even within a given activity state, there is some variability of head optomotor responses. The amount of this variability differs for the two optomotor gain states. Moreover, these two activity states can be distinguished on a fine timescale and without visual stimulation, on the basis of the occurrence of peculiar head jitter movements. Head jitter goes along with high gain optomotor responses and haltere oscillations. Halteres are evolutionary transformed hindwings that oscillate when blowflies walk or fly. Their main function is to serve as equilibrium organs by detecting Coriolis forces and to mediate gaze stabilisation. However, their basic oscillating activity was also suggested to provide a gain-modulating signal. Our experiments demonstrate that halteres are not necessary for high gain head pitch to occur. Nevertheless, we find the halteres to be responsible for one component of head jitter movements. This component may be the inevitable consequence of their function as equilibrium and gaze-stabilising organs. PMID:19329750

  17. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

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    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer. METHODOLOGY: We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein. CONCLUSION: A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  18. Apollo 14 flight support and system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 13 incident and subsequent oxygen tank redesign for Apollo 14 placed unique requirements on the flight support activity. A major part of this activity was the integration of the various analytical efforts into a single team function. Additionally, the first flight of the redesigned system without an orbital test required an extensive analytical base. The support team philosophy, objectives, and organization are presented. Various analytical tools that were used during the flight are discussed. Investigations made during the postflight period are considered and their impact upon subsequent flights shown.

  19. An artificial larval diet for blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera Calliphoridae

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    Kamrunnahar Shefa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple artificial diet was devised for larvae of blowfly, L. cuprica. The artificial diet primarily composed of whole milk powder, bovine blood, chicken eggs and wheat bran. Growth and developmental parameters of blowfly reared on different composition of artificial diets were compared with those reared on Tilapia fish as control. No significant differences were observed in duration and mortality during the larval and pupal stages between larvae reared on artificial diets and those reared on Tilapia fish. Larval and pupal weights were found significantly greater on artificial Diet-A than those reared on other artificial diets and on natural diet. Adults reared on Diet-A were healthy, lived longer and laid significantly more eggs per female than those reared on Tilapia fish and all other artificial diets. Based on the results of the present experiment artificial larval diet composition Diet-A was considered to be the most suitable alternative to natural diet for blowfly rearing.

  20. WFC3: In-Flight Performance Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy A.

    2010-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a powerful new imager for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was successfully installed in the telescope in May 2009 during the first dramatic spacewalk of space shuttle flight STS-125, also known as HST Servicing Mission 4. This new camera offers unique observing capabilities in two channels spanning a broad wavelength range from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared (200-1000nm in the UV/Visible [UVIS] channel; 850-1700nm in the IR channel). After an initial outgassing period, WFC3 was cooled to its observing configuration in June. In the following months, a highly successful Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV4) program was executed, which has confirmed the exciting scientific potential of the instrument. Detailed performance results from the SMOV 4 program are presented in a number of papers in this session. In this paper, we highlight some top-level performance assessments (throughput, limiting magnitudes, survey speeds) for WFC3, which is now actively engaged in the execution of forefront astronomical observing programs.

  1. Post-Flight Analysis of GPSR Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John

    2016-01-01

    On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.

  2. Olfactory responses of blowflies to aliphatic aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DETHIER, V G

    1954-07-20

    The response of the blowfly Phormia regina to stimulation by aldehydes in the vapor phase has been studied by means of a specially designed olfactometer. The median rejection threshold and the maximum acceptance threshold were selected as criteria of response. For both acceptance and rejection the distribution of thresholds in the population is normal with respect to the logarithm of concentration. When thresholds are expressed as molar concentrations, the values decrease progressively as chain length is increased. There is no attraction beyond decanal and no rejection beyond dodecanal. When thresholds are expressed as activities, most members of the aldehyde series are approximately equally stimulating at rejection and equally stimulating at acceptance. The relationship is most exact over the middle range of chain lengths. There is a tendency for the terminal members to stimulate at higher activities. These relationships are in close agreement with those which were found earlier to apply to the normal aliphatic alcohols. The similarity between the relative actions of the members of the two series suggests that the relation of equal olfactory stimulation at equal thermodynamic activities by homologous aliphatic compounds at least for homologues of intermediate chain length may be of rather general application in olfaction. PMID:13174780

  3. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  4. Analysis of Swine (Sus scrofa DNA from Blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala Larval Guts after Post-Feeding Periods by PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthira MONTHATONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the DNA of food sources taken from blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala larval guts, for application in forensic entomology. The muscle samples of domestic swine (Sus scrofa, decomposed in 2 conditions, in air and drowning, were used as case studies. Adult blowflies were allowed to lay eggs on the meat samples. Then, the third instar larvae were identified as C. megacephala, then transferred to non-meat food and collected every 6 h up to 36 h. Total DNA extraction was performed by the Phenol-Chloroform method, and used as DNA templates in a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR test. The PCR amplified swine partial cytochrome b (cyt b genes with 203 bp expected size. The results showed that the swine DNA from blowfly larvae grown on decayed tissue under air and drowning conditions could be detected by PCR after larvae post-feeding up to 18 and 36 h, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed that the forward and reverse strands undergo 94 and 98 % identities of the swine cyt b gene sequence retrieved from nucleotide databases. This study suggests that mitochondrial DNA of the food source from insect guts can be detected at limited times after feeding, combined with the condition of the decayed tissues.

  5. Flight performance of the largest volant bird

    OpenAIRE

    Ksepka, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    A fossil species of pelagornithid bird exhibits the largest known avian wingspan. Pelagornithids are an extinct group of birds known for bony tooth-like beak projections, large size, and highly modified wing bones that raise many questions about their ecology. At 6.4 m, the wingspan of this species was approximately two times that of the living Royal Albatross. Modeling of flight parameters in this species indicates that it was capable of highly efficient gliding and suggests that pelagornith...

  6. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  7. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  8. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Changpeng; Yin Tangwen; Zhao Weina; Huang Dan; Fu Shan

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recog-nition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantify-ing the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled:information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  9. Cognitive aging and flight performances in general aviation pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Causse, Mickael; Dehais, Frédéric; Arexis, Mahé; Pastor, Josette

    2011-01-01

    International audience Unlike professional pilots who are limited by the FAA's age rule, no age limit is defined in general aviation. Our overall goal was to examine how age-related cognitive decline impacts piloting performance and weather-related decision-making. This study relied on three components: cognitive assessment (in particular executive functioning), pilot characteristics (age and flight experience), and flight performance. The results suggest that in comparison to chronologica...

  10. Aerodynamic flight performance in flap-gliding birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Henningsson, Per; Stuiver, Melanie; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-08-01

    Many birds use a flight mode called undulating or flap-gliding flight, where they alternate between flapping and gliding phases, while only a few bats make use of such a flight mode. Among birds, flap-gliding is commonly used by medium to large species, where it is regarded to have a lower energetic cost than continuously flapping flight. Here, we introduce a novel model for estimating the energetic flight economy of flap-gliding animals, by determining the lift-to-drag ratio for flap-gliding based on empirical lift-to-drag ratio estimates for continuous flapping flight and for continuous gliding flight, respectively. We apply the model to flight performance data of the common swift (Apus apus) and of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). The common swift is a typical flap-glider while-to the best of our knowledge-the lesser long-nosed bat does not use flap-gliding. The results show that, according to the model, the flap-gliding common swift saves up to 15% energy compared to a continuous flapping swift, and that this is primarily due to the exceptionally high lift-to-drag ratio in gliding flight relative to that in flapping flight for common swifts. The lesser long-nosed bat, on the other hand, seems not to be able to reduce energetic costs by flap-gliding. The difference in relative costs of flap-gliding flight between the common swift and the lesser long-nosed bat can be explained by differences in morphology, flight style and wake dynamics. The model presented here proves to be a valuable tool for estimating energetic flight economy in flap-gliding animals. The results show that flap-gliding flight that is naturally used by common swifts is indeed the most economic one of the two flight modes, while this is not the case for the non-flap-gliding lesser long-nosed bat. PMID:22726811

  11. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  12. Evolution of avian flight: muscles and constraints on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-09-26

    Competing hypotheses about evolutionary origins of flight are the 'fundamental wing-stroke' and 'directed aerial descent' hypotheses. Support for the fundamental wing-stroke hypothesis is that extant birds use flapping of their wings to climb even before they are able to fly; there are no reported examples of incrementally increasing use of wing movements in gliding transitioning to flapping. An open question is whether locomotor styles must evolve initially for efficiency or if they might instead arrive due to efficacy. The proximal muscles of the avian wing output work and power for flight, and new research is exploring functions of the distal muscles in relation to dynamic changes in wing shape. It will be useful to test the relative contributions of the muscles of the forearm compared with inertial and aerodynamic loading of the wing upon dynamic morphing. Body size has dramatic effects upon flight performance. New research has revealed that mass-specific muscle power declines with increasing body mass among species. This explains the constraints associated with being large. Hummingbirds are the only species that can sustain hovering. Their ability to generate force, work and power appears to be limited by time for activation and deactivation within their wingbeats of high frequency. Most small birds use flap-bounding flight, and this flight style may offer an energetic advantage over continuous flapping during fast flight or during flight into a headwind. The use of flap-bounding during slow flight remains enigmatic. Flap-bounding birds do not appear to be constrained to use their primary flight muscles in a fixed manner. To improve understanding of the functional significance of flap-bounding, the energetic costs and the relative use of alternative styles by a given species in nature merit study.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528773

  13. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  14. Deterioration of Damselfly Flight Performance due to Wing Damage

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Yan; Gai, Kuo; Li, Chengyu; Zeyghami, Samane; Dong, Haibo

    2011-01-01

    In this video, effect of chordwise damage on a damselfly (American Rubyspot)'s wings is investigated. High speed photogrammetry was used to collect the data of damselflies' flight with intact and damaged wings along the wing chord. Different level of deterioration of flight performance can be observed. Further investigation will be on the dynamic and aerodynamic roles of each wing with and without damage.

  15. Function and coding in the blowfly H1 neuron during naturalistic optic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Kern, R.; Schwerdtfeger, G.; Egelhaaf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli, reconstructed from measured eye movements of flying blowflies, were replayed on a panoramic stimulus device. The directional movement-sensitive H1 neuron was recorded from blowflies watching these stimuli. The response of the H1 neuron is dominated by the response to fast sacca

  16. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  17. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the

  18. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528777

  19. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lévèque, T., E-mail: thomas.leveque@cnes.fr; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Grosjean, O.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Bomer, T.; Pichon, A.; Béraud, P.; Lelay, J. P.; Thomin, S. [Sodern, 20 Avenue Descartes, 94451 Limeil-Brévannes (France); Laurent, Ph. [LNE-SYRTE, CNRS, UPMC, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.

  20. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions

  1. PHARAO Laser Source Flight Model: Design and Performances

    CERN Document Server

    Lévèque, Thomas; Esnault, François-Xavier; Delaroche, Christophe; Massonnet, Didier; Grosjean, Olivier; Buffe, Fabrice; Torresi, Patrizia; Bomer, Thierry; Pichon, Alexandre; Béraud, Pascal; Lelay, Jean-Pierre; Thomin, Stéphane; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.

  2. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  3. Simulations on time-of-flight ERDA spectrometer performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julin, Jaakko; Arstila, Kai; Sajavaara, Timo

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a time-of-flight spectrometer consisting of two timing detectors and an ionization chamber energy detector has been studied using Monte Carlo simulations for the recoil creation and ion transport in the sample and detectors. The ionization chamber pulses have been calculated using Shockley-Ramo theorem and the pulse processing of a digitizing data acquisition setup has been modeled. Complete time-of-flight-energy histograms were simulated under realistic experimental conditions. The simulations were used to study instrumentation related effects in coincidence timing and position sensitivity, such as background in time-of-flight-energy histograms. Corresponding measurements were made and simulated results are compared with data collected using the digitizing setup. PMID:27587115

  4. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s−1, respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack. (papers)

  5. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-06-01

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack. PMID:24855051

  6. In-Flight Performance of Wide Field Camera 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a powerful new UVNisible/IR imager, was installed into HST during Servicing Mission 4. After a successful commissioning in the Servicing Mission Orbital Verification program, WFC3 has been engaged in an exciting program of scientific observations. I review here the in-flight scientific performance of the instrument, addressing such topics as image quality, sensitivity, detector performance, and stability.

  7. Cassini Main Engine Assembly Cover Flight Management and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan P.; Millard, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has performed its four year Prime Mission at Saturn and is currently in orbit at Saturn performing a two year extended mission. 12Its main engine nozzles are susceptible to impact damage from micrometeoroids and on-orbit dust. The spacecraft has an articulating device known as the Main Engine Assembly (MEA) cover which can close and shield the main engines from these threats. The cover opens to allow for main engine burns that are necessary to maintain the trajectory. Periodically updated analyses of potential on-orbit dust hazard threats have resulted in the need to continue to use the MEA cover beyond its intended use and beyond its design life. This paper provides a detailed Systems-level overview of the flight management of the MEA cover device and its flight performance to date.

  8. Diel flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: influence of age, gender, mating status, and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvary, Mark A; Bloem, Kenneth A; Bloem, Stephanie; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Dorn, Silvia

    2008-04-01

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring and control. We used computer-linked flight mills to investigate diel flight activity and flight performance in relation to gender, age, mating status, and body size. Maximal flight activity for both mated and unmated moths occurred during twilight, whereas flight activity was low during photophase. The total distance flown and the number of initiated flights within a diel cycle were higher in both unmated and mated females than in males, but the longest single flight was similar in both genders. These findings suggest that pheromone trap captures of males likely indicate the simultaneous presence of females and that mated females might even be in areas where males are not detected yet. Flight performance heterogeneity was large, with a small portion of the population (both males and females) performing long unbroken flights, whereas the majority made short flights. Females had higher pupal and adult body size and shorter longevity than males. A few individuals, particularly young mated females, flying long distances may be important for active spread of a population and the colonization of new habitats. Implications of this study in the control of the cactus moth by using the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:18459394

  9. Timing and Counting Precision in the Blowfly Visual System

    CERN Document Server

    De van Steveninck, R R; Steveninck, Rob de Ruyter van; Bialek, William

    2001-01-01

    We measure the reliability of signals at three levels within the blowfly visual system, and present a theoretical framework for analyzing the experimental results, starting from the Poisson process. We find that blowfly photoreceptors, up to frequencies of 50-100 Hz and photon capture rates of up to about 3*10^5/s, operate well within an order of magnitude from ideal photon counters. Photoreceptors signals are transmitted to LMCs through an array of chemical synapses. We quantify a lower bound on LMC reliability, which in turn provides a lower bound on synaptic vesicle release rate, assuming Poisson statistics. This bound is much higher than what is found in published direct measurements of vesicle release rates in goldfish bipolar cells, suggesting that release statistics may be significantly sub-Poisson. Finally we study H1, a motion sensitive tangential cell in the fly's lobula plate, which transmits information about a continuous signal by sequences of action potentials. In an experiment with naturalistic...

  10. APMS 3.0 Flight Analyst Guide: Aviation Performance Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Griff; Prothero, Gary; Romanowski, Timothy; Lynch, Robert; Lawrence, Robert; Rosenthal, Loren

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) is a method-embodied in software-that uses mathematical algorithms and related procedures to analyze digital flight data extracted from aircraft flight data recorders. APMS consists of an integrated set of tools used to perform two primary functions: a) Flight Data Importation b) Flight Data Analysis.

  11. Comparing Aerodynamic Efficiency in Birds and Bats Suggests Better Flight Performance in Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Muijres, Florian T.; L. Christoffer Johansson; Melissa S Bowlin; York Winter; Anders Hedenström

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed ...

  12. On the Permanence of a Nonautonomous Nicholson's Blowflies Model with Feedback Control and Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Wei-ying

    2011-01-01

    A nonautonomous Nicholson's Blowflies model with feedback control and delay is investigated in this paper.We show that for this system,feedback control variable has no influence on the persistent property of the system.

  13. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  14. Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

  15. Flight Test Performance of a High Precision Navigation Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockard, George

    2009-01-01

    A navigation Doppler Lidar (DL) was developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for high precision velocity measurements from a lunar or planetary landing vehicle in support of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. A unique feature of this DL is that it has the capability to provide a precision velocity vector which can be easily separated into horizontal and vertical velocity components and high accuracy line of sight (LOS) range measurements. This dual mode of operation can provide useful information, such as vehicle orientation relative to the direction of travel, and vehicle attitude relative to the sensor footprint on the ground. System performance was evaluated in a series of helicopter flight tests over the California desert. This paper provides a description of the DL system and presents results obtained from these flight tests.

  16. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  17. Performance parameters in the design of flight motion simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert W.

    2012-06-01

    The desired test performance parameters influence the design of a Flight Motion Simulator (FMS) and affect its size, weight, power, electro-magnetic interference, noise, and vibration. A common desire is to specify requirements beyond the immediate need for future test programs. This may directly affect cost and schedule. Critical parameters that affect the FMS design are larger payload sizes, higher accuracies, and higher dynamic requirements. This paper provides a checklist of parameters and specification tradeoffs to be considered for the overall system performance requirements.

  18. Perceptual and performance consequences of flight in virtual worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C. Thomas; Schwirzke, Martin; Tittle, James S.

    1991-01-01

    There are two primary purposes for head-mounted systems in aeronautical settings. One is for helmet-mounted sights and teleoperated (head-slaved) weapons systems. Bennett, Johnson, Perrone, and Phatak (1988) evaluated head tracking performance during passive and controlled flight. In that study, comparisons were also made of head tracking performance in sterile and relatively complex virtual worlds. That study confirmed the robustness of head tracking performance across a wide variety of visual scenes. A second use of virtual world displays is for aircraft control. Aircraft controllability using head-mounted, panel-mounted, or simulated out-the-window scenes has been systematically examined. Those studies reported the range of rotorcraft flight tasks in which head-mounted virtual worlds provided some advantages. Two studies will be reported that examine the perceptual/performance effects of virtual worlds. The first examines head tracking performance with roll-stabilized versus non-roll stabilized virtual worlds. The purpose of the study was to (1) examine display strategies used in current display systems and (2) study the adaptability of observers to estimated glide slope angles using head-slaved versus head-stabilized imagery. The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of wide field-of-regards during final approaches to a runway.

  19. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Maldonado

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  20. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of

  1. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  2. Defining Exercise Performance Metrics for Flight Hardware Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Nahon M.

    2004-01-01

    The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space

  3. Wing Flexion and Aerodynamics Performance of Insect Free Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Ren, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Wing flexion in flapping flight is a hallmark of insect flight. It is widely thought that wing flexibility and wing deformation would potentially provide new aerodynamic mechanisms of aerodynamic force productions over completely rigid wings. However, there are lack of literatures on studying fluid dynamics of freely flying insects due to the presence of complex shaped moving boundaries in the flow domain. In this work, a computational study of freely flying insects is being conducted. High resolution, high speed videos of freely flying dragonflies and damselflies is obtained and used as a basis for developing high fidelity geometrical models of the dragonfly body and wings. 3D surface reconstruction technologies are used to obtain wing topologies and kinematics. The wing motions are highly complex and a number of different strategies including singular vector decomposition of the wing kinematics are used to examine the various kinematical features and their impact on the wing performance. Simulations are carried out to examine the aerodynamic performance of all four wings and understand the wake structures of such wings.

  4. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  5. ATM solar array in-flight performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J. P.; Crabtree, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    The physical and electrical characteristics of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) solar array are described and in-flight performance data are analyzed and compared with predicted results. Two solar cell module configurations were used. Type I module consists of 228 2 x 6 cm solar cells with two cells in parallel and 114 cells in series. Type II modules contain 684 2 x 2 cm cells with six cells in parallel and 114 cells in series. A different interconnection scheme was used for each type. Panels using type II modules with mesh interconnect system performed marginally better than those using type I module with loop interconnect system. The average degradation rate for the ATM array was 8.2% for a 271-day mission.

  6. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  7. Stability and Performance Metrics for Adaptive Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan; VanEykeren, Luarens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of verifying adaptive control techniques for enabling safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions. Since the adaptive systems are non-linear by design, the existing control verification metrics are not applicable to adaptive controllers. Moreover, these systems are in general highly uncertain. Hence, the system's characteristics cannot be evaluated by relying on the available dynamical models. This necessitates the development of control verification metrics based on the system's input-output information. For this point of view, a set of metrics is introduced that compares the uncertain aircraft's input-output behavior under the action of an adaptive controller to that of a closed-loop linear reference model to be followed by the aircraft. This reference model is constructed for each specific maneuver using the exact aerodynamic and mass properties of the aircraft to meet the stability and performance requirements commonly accepted in flight control. The proposed metrics are unified in the sense that they are model independent and not restricted to any specific adaptive control methods. As an example, we present simulation results for a wing damaged generic transport aircraft with several existing adaptive controllers.

  8. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) International Air Transport Association document, “Flight Simulator Design and Performance Data Requirements,” as amended. (24) AC 29-2, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of Transport Category...) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) International Air Transport Association document, “Flight Simulator Design and Performance Data Requirements,” as amended. (21) AC 29-2, as amended, Flight Test Guide for Certification of Transport Category...) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight...

  10. Interaction between gamma radiation and toxicity of three insecticides applied to the blowfly Lucilia Cuprina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma-radiation on the toxicity of D.D.T., Lindane and Dieldrin was studied using females of the blowfly Lucilia cuprina Wied. Variable doses of insecticides were applied on the 3-day old adult blowflies which emerged from irradiated pupae. The radiation doses were given 48 hours before emergence. The results indicated that pupal irradiation slightly increased the susceptibility of insects to the insecticides and in case of Dieldrin LD50 was reached quicker than other two compounds. It is suggested that the alteration in response may be due to an internal stimulus due to radiation which cannot be solely attributed to the loss of detoxification mechanism. (author)

  11. Advances in sheep blowfly genetic control in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic analysis indicates that the benefit:cost ratio of eradicating the sheep blowfly (SBF), Lucilia cuprina, from Australia would be highly favourable. One strategy would be to combine trapping with either the genetically impaired female technique (GIFT) or the sterile male technique (SMT), both of which use genetic sexing systems. GIFT strains are complex genetic sexing systems that contain chromosome rearrangements and other genetic mutations. Mass reared females are killed or delibitated because they are homozygous for recessive mutations. Released males transmit the mutations and rearrangements by mating with field females. The genetic death caused by partial sterility of the rearrangements and homozygosis for the mutations in the field is sufficient to cause population collapse, leading to eradication. GIFT strains currently held contain sex linked translocation, eye colour mutations, homozygous-viable pericentric inversions and temperature sensitive lethal mutations. Field trials of GIFT have demonstrated the successful suppression of target populations. However, the mass rearing methods used during the trials are not suitable for large scale used. There is a need for collaboration by entomologists and engineers on R and D to develop cost effective rearing systems. An idea under consideration is a modular facility capable of simultaneously rearing more than one pest species. This could initially be used for SBF eradication, then for the sterile insect technique (SIT) against other major pests such as fruit flies, codling moth and heliothis, and be available for SIT campaigns against any incursions by exotic pests. (author). 35 refs, 3 figs

  12. Energy extraction from atmospheric turbulence to improve flight vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chinmay Karsandas

    Small 'bird-sized' Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have now become practical due to technological advances in embedded electronics, miniature sensors and actuators, and propulsion systems. Birds are known to take advantage of wind currents to conserve energy and fly long distances without flapping their wings. This dissertation explores the possibility of improving the performance of small UAVs by extracting the energy available in atmospheric turbulence. An aircraft can gain energy from vertical gusts by increasing its lift in regions of updraft and reducing its lift in downdrafts - a concept that has been known for decades. Starting with a simple model of a glider flying through a sinusoidal gust, a parametric optimization approach is used to compute the minimum gust amplitude and optimal control input required for the glider to sustain flight without losing energy. For small UAVs using optimal control inputs, sinusoidal gusts with amplitude of 10--15% of the cruise speed are sufficient to keep the aircraft aloft. The method is then modified and extended to include random gusts that are representative of natural turbulence. A procedure to design optimal control laws for energy extraction from realistic gust profiles is developed using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). A feedback control law is designed to perform well over a variety of random gusts, and not be tailored for one particular gust. A small UAV flying in vertical turbulence is shown to obtain average energy savings of 35--40% with the use of a simple control law. The design procedure is also extended to determine optimal control laws for sinusoidal as well as turbulent lateral gusts. The theoretical work is complemented by experimental validation using a small autonomous UAV. The development of a lightweight autopilot and UAV platform is presented. Flight test results show that active control of the lift of an autonomous glider resulted in approximately 46% average energy savings compared to glides with fixed

  13. Orion Launch Abort System Jettison Motor Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel J.; Davidson, John B.; Winski, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System performing Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. Although the Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Selected Launch Abort System flight test data is presented and discussed in the paper. Through flight test data, Launch Abort System performance trends have been derived that will prove valuable to future flights as well as the manned space program.

  14. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  15. Laboratory Verification of Occulter Contrast Performance and Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Direct imaging of an exo-Earth is a difficult technical challenge. First, the intensity ratio between the parent star and its dim, rocky planetary companion is expected to be ten billion times. Additionally, for a planetary companion in the habitable zone the angular separation to the star is very small, such that only nearby stars are feasible targets. An external occulter is a spacecraft that is flown in formation with the observing space telescope and blocks starlight prior to the entrance pupil. Its shape must be specially designed to control for diffraction and be tolerant of errors such as misalignment, manufacturing, and deformations. In this dissertation, we present laboratory results pertaining to the optical verification of the contrast performance of a scaled occulter and implementation of an algorithm for the alignment of the telescope in the shadow of the occulter. The experimental testbed is scaled from space dimensions to the laboratory by maintaining constant Fresnel numbers while preserving an identical diffraction integral. We present monochromatic results in the image plane showing contrast better than 10 orders of magnitude, consistent with the level required for imaging an Exo-earth, and obtained using an optimized occulter shape. We compare these results to a baseline case using a circular occulter and to the theoretical predictions. Additionally, we address the principal technical challenge in the formation flight problem through demonstration of an alignment algorithm that is based on out-of-band leaked light. Such leaked light can be used a map to estimate the location of the telescope in the shadow and perform fine alignment during science observations.

  16. Control of the sheep blowfly in Australia and New Zealand--are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeman, R M; Levot, G W; Heath, A C G; James, P J; Greeff, J C; Scott, M J; Batterham, P; Bowles, V M

    2014-10-15

    The last 50 years of research into infections in Australia and New Zealand caused by larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, have significantly advanced our understanding of this blowfly and its primary host, the sheep. However, apart from some highly effective drugs it could be argued that no new control methodologies have resulted. This review addresses the major areas of sheep blowfly research over this period describing the significant outcomes and analyses, and what is still required to produce new commercial control technologies. The use of drugs against this fly species has been very successful but resistance has developed to almost all current compounds. Integrated pest management is becoming basic to control, especially in the absence of mulesing, and has clearly benefited from computer-aided technologies. Biological control has more challenges but natural and perhaps transformed biopesticides offer possibilities for the future. Experimental vaccines have been developed but require further analysis of antigens and formulations to boost protection. Genetic technologies may provide potential for long-term control through more rapid indirect selection of sheep less prone to flystrike. Finally in the future, genetic analysis of the fly may allow suppression and perhaps eradication of blowfly populations or identification of new and more viable targets for drug and vaccine intervention. Clearly all these areas of research offer potential new controls but commercial development is perhaps inhibited by the success of current chemical insecticides and certainly requires a significant additional injection of resources. PMID:25240442

  17. Bumblebee flight performance in environments of different proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Flying animals are capable of navigating through environments of different complexity with high precision. To control their flight when negotiating narrow tunnels, bees and birds use the magnitude of apparent image motion (known as optic flow) generated by the walls. In their natural habitat, however, these animals would encounter both cluttered and open environments. Here, we investigate how large changes in the proximity of nearby surfaces affect optic flow-based flight control strategies. We trained bumblebees to fly along a flight and recorded how the distance between the walls--from 60 cm to 240 cm--affected their flight control. Our results reveal that, as tunnel width increases, both lateral position and ground speed become increasingly variable. We also find that optic flow information from the ground has an increasing influence on flight control, suggesting that bumblebees measure optic flow flexibly over a large lateral and ventral field of view, depending on where the highest magnitude of optic flow occurs. A consequence of this strategy is that, when flying in narrow spaces, bumblebees use optic flow information from the nearby obstacles to control flight, while in more open spaces they rely primarily on optic flow cues from the ground. PMID:26614094

  18. Oxygen and energy availability interact to determine flight performance in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Toby; Melvin, Richard G; Ikonen, Suvi; Ruokolainen, Annukka; Woestmann, Luisa; Hietakangas, Ville; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-05-15

    Flying insects have the highest known mass-specific demand for oxygen, which makes it likely that reduced availability of oxygen might limit sustained flight, either instead of or in addition to the limitation due to metabolite resources. The Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) occurs as a large metapopulation in which adult butterflies frequently disperse between small local populations. Here, we examine how the interaction between oxygen availability and fuel use affects flight performance in the Glanville fritillary. Individuals were flown under either normoxic (21 kPa O2) or hypoxic (10 kPa O2) conditions and their flight metabolism was measured. To determine resource use, levels of circulating glucose, trehalose and whole-body triglyceride were recorded after flight. Flight performance was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. When flown under normoxic conditions, we observed a positive correlation among individuals between post-flight circulating trehalose levels and flight metabolic rate, suggesting that low levels of circulating trehalose constrains flight metabolism. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we measured the flight metabolic rate of individuals injected with a trehalase inhibitor. In support of the hypothesis, experimental butterflies showed significantly reduced flight metabolic rate, but not resting metabolic rate, in comparison to control individuals. By contrast, under hypoxia there was no relationship between trehalose and flight metabolic rate. Additionally, in this case, flight metabolic rate was reduced in spite of circulating trehalose levels that were high enough to support high flight metabolic rate under normoxic conditions. These results demonstrate a significant interaction between oxygen and energy availability for the control of flight performance. PMID:26944488

  19. Factors affecting accessibility to blowflies of bodies disposed in suitcases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, P; Hart, A J; Hall, M J R

    2014-06-01

    Criminals have been known to dispose of bodies in zipped suitcases in an attempt to conceal murder. In order to investigate the forensic implications of this mode of disposal on calculating time of death, it is necessary to study the accessibility of bodies in suitcases to blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the possibility of oviposition and infestation under these circumstances. An experimental apparatus was designed that incorporated different zips (toothed and coil) of various gauges (4-6 mm) above a chicken liver bait. Gravid Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina females were attracted to and oviposited on and through these zips, both under laboratory and field conditions. Egg laying was significantly more frequent and with greater numbers of eggs when zips were in contact with the bait than when they were placed approximately 6cm above the bait. In the absence of bait, adult females could be stimulated to lay eggs on moistened zips, although the presence of blood accelerated egg laying compared to water alone. No eggs were laid on dry zips in the absence of bait. Of the first instar larvae tested, 89% were able to colonise the bait below the zips by passing through gaps between the teeth. Preliminary field studies using suitcases baited with a pig's head indicated that there was a delay of 1-3 days in oviposition when compared to laboratory conditions. This information has practical value in explaining the presence of larvae on enclosed bodies in suitcases and will help forensic entomologists estimate a more accurate minimum time since death. PMID:24747669

  20. Analysis of the transcriptome of blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius larvae in responses to different edible oils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE profiling using Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 39,098,662 clean reads were assembled into 27,588 unigenes with a mean length of 768 nt. All unigenes were searched against the Nt database, Nr database, Swiss-Prot, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG with the BLASTn or BLASTx algorithm (E-value<0.00001 for annotations. In total, 7,081 unigenes and 14,099 unigenes were functionally classified into 25 COG categories and 240 KEGG pathways, respectively. Furthermore, 20,216 unigenes were grouped into 48 sub-categories belonging to 3 main Gene Ontology (GO categories (ontologies. Using the transcriptome data as references, we analyzed the differential gene expressions between a soybean oil-fed group (SOF and a lard oil-fed group (LOF, compared to the negative control group (NC, using the DGE approach. We finally obtained 1,566 differentially expressed genes in SOF/NC, and 1,099 genes in LOF/NC. For further analysis, GO and KEGG functional enrichment were performed on all differentially expressed genes, and a group of differentially expressed candidate genes related to lipometabolism were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a global survey of C. megacephala and provides the basis for further research on the functional genomics of this insect.

  1. An Improved PSO Algorithm with Object-Oriented Performance Database for Flight Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibin Zhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve accuracy and convergence speed for flight trajectory optimization program in flight management computer and enhance its maintainability, an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm with object-oriented performance database is proposed. Firstly, an object-oriented performance database is built by Microsoft Visual C++ and MATLAB/SIMULINK mixed software development environment. Through synthetically use class hierarchy and specialized function library, the flight performance data is retrieved and its data file can be replaced with adapt for different aircraft types. Secondly, the mass point motion mathematical model is built according to mass point dynamics and energy states. Objective functions for trajectory optimization in vertical flight profile are acquired by the Minimum Principle of Pontryagin. Thirdly, adaptive inertia weight is introduced, the equality constraints is processed using the penalty function method. Finally, trajectory in vertical flight profile is optimized through using the improved PSO based on the object-oriented performance database. Meanwhile, the PSO algorithm flow for vertical flight profile trajectory optimization is given. Through using of the improved PSO, trajectory optimization of Boeing 737-800 aircraft in vertical flight profile is carried out. Comparison results between optimization results and flight test data show that the calculated results of proposed algorithm rapidly converges to optimal solution with higher precision.

  2. Verification and Validation Plan for Flight Performance Requirements on the CEV Parachute Assembly System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Olson, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is engaged in a multi-year design and test campaign aimed at qualifying a parachute recovery system for human use on the Orion Spacecraft. Orion has parachute flight performance requirements that will ultimately be verified through the use of Monte Carlo multi-degree of freedom flight simulations. These simulations will be anchored by real world flight test data and iteratively improved to provide a closer approximation to the real physics observed in the inherently chaotic inflation and steady state flight of the CPAS parachutes. This paper will examine the processes necessary to verify the flight performance requirements of the human rated spacecraft. The focus will be on the requirements verification and model validation planned on CPAS.

  3. REXUS-4: Vehicle And Subsystems Design, Flight Performance and Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Stamminger, Andreas; Czech, Manuel; Griebel, Hannes; Hörschgen, Marcus; Persson, Olle; Pinzer, Markus; Rießelmann, Jens; Shavsavar, Amin

    2009-01-01

    On the 22nd of October 2008 EuroLaunch launched the REXUS-4 rocket at Esrange in Northern Sweden. EuroLaunch is a joint venture of the DLR Mobile Rocket Base and the SSC Esrange Space Center. The REXUS-4 payload was comprised of five technological experiments from German and Swedish Universities. The REXUS-4 mission was also the maiden flight of a newly developed service system. After this successful demonstration, it has been implemented into the REXUS/BEXUS programme. This paper gives a ...

  4. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  5. Planck early results: First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    CERN Document Server

    Mennella, A; Butler, R C; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Davis, R J; Dick, J; Frailis, M; Galeotta, S; Gregorio, A; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lawrence, C R; Leach, S; Leahy, J P; Lowe, S; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Mart\\'\\inez-González, E; Meinhold, P R; Morgante, G; Pearson, D; Perrotta, F; Polenta, G; Poutanen, T; Sandri, M; Seiffert, M D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Valiviita, J; Villa, F; Watson, R; Wilkinson, A; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A; Aja, B; Artal, E; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartlett, J G; Bartolo, N; Battaglia, P; Bennett, K; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Burigana, C; Cabella, P; Cappellini, B; Chen, X; Colombo, L; Cruz, M; Danese, L; D'Arcangelo, O; Davies, R D; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Donzelli, S; Efstathiou, G; En\\sslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falvella, M C; Finelli, F; Foley, S; Franceschet, C; Franceschi, E; Gaier, T C; Génova-Santos, R T; George, D; Gómez, F; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Herranz, D; Herreros, J M; Hoyland, R J; Hughes, N; Jewell, J; Jukkala, P; Juvela, M; Kangaslahti, P; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kilpia, V -H; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Laaninen, M; Lähteenmäki, A; Lamarre, J -M; Leonardi, R; León-Tavares, J; Leutenegger, P; Lilje, P B; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Malaspina, M; Marinucci, D; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Miccolis, M; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Moss, A; Natoli, P; Nesti, R; N\\orgaard-Nielsen, H U; Pagano, L; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Pettorino, V; Pietrobon, D; Pospieszalski, M; Prézeau, G; Prina, M; Procopio, P; Puget, J -L; Quercellini, C; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Ricciardi, S; Robbers, G; Rocha, G; Roddis, N; Rubi\; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Silvestri, R; Simonetto, A; Sjoman, P; Smoot, G F; Sozzi, C; Stringhetti, L; Tauber, J A; Tofani, G; Tuovinen, J; Türler, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Varis, J; Vielva, P; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Watson, C; White, S; Winder, F

    2011-01-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main systematic effects is presented. For each of the performance parameters, we outline the methods used to obtain them from the flight data and provide a comparison with pre-launch ground assessments, which are essentially confirmed in flight.

  6. Feathers by day, membranes by night - Aerodynamic performance in bird and bat flight

    OpenAIRE

    Muijres, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency and performance of a flying animal is directly related to the aerodynamics around its body and flapping wings. Here, I have developed methods for quantifying the wake dynamics around a flying animal. The results are used to estimate the aerodynamic performance of flapping flight. Using these methods, I have studied flight of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), the Pallas’ Long-tongued bat (Glossophaga soricina) and the Lesser Long-nosed Bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). ...

  7. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  8. The relationship between academic performanceand pilot performance in a collegiate flight training environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn A.

    While flight time has commonly been used as a measure of a pilot's skill level, little research has been performed to determine what factors are linked to predicting a pilot's performance, particularly in a training environment. If a dependable link was found, prediction of how well an individual would do in flight training would be possible. Time, money and resources could be focused on individuals who are more likely to succeed in pilot training. Therefore, this study was designed to determine if a relationship between GPA and pilot performance exists, in order to determine if academic performance can serve as a predictor of pilot performance in a training environment. The use of historical records from Middle Tennessee State University's Aerospace Department, which included GPA information and flight training records information, was used evaluate this relationship. Results of the study indicate a statistically significant modest correlation between academic performance and pilot performance between some of the variable pairings.

  9. Lockheed L-1011 Test Station installation in support of the Adaptive Performance Optimization flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technicians John Huffman, Phil Gonia and Mike Kerner of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, carefully insert a monitor into the Research Engineering Test Station during installation of equipment for the Adaptive Performance Optimization experiment aboard Orbital Sciences Corporation's Lockheed L-1011 in Bakersfield, California, May, 6, 1997. The Adaptive Performance Optimization project is designed to reduce the aerodynamic drag of large subsonic transport aircraft by varying the camber of the wing through real-time adjustment of flaps or ailerons in response to changing flight conditions. Reducing the drag will improve aircraft efficiency and performance, resulting in signifigant fuel savings for the nation's airlines worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Flights for the NASA experiment will occur periodically over the next couple of years on the modified wide-bodied jetliner, with all flights flown out of Bakersfield's Meadows Field. The experiment is part of Dryden's Advanced Subsonic Transport Aircraft Research program.

  10. The hard X-ray telescope Mifraso - In flight performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-area high-sensitivity hard X-ray experiment, operating in the energy range 15-300 keV, has been successfully flown twice (1986 and 1987) from the balloon launching facility of Trapani-Milo (Sicily). The telescope consists of two different arrays: scintillation detectors (NaI, 5.5-mm thick and actively shielded) with a total area of 2,700 sq cm and multiwire proportional counters with a total sensitive area of 900 sq cm. Preliminary results are presented on the Crab, used as an in-flight calibration source, and on the extragalactic objects 3C273, NGC 4151, and MCG 8-11-11. 18 refs

  11. Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a pcorrelations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  12. Performance assessment in a flight simulator test—Validation of a space psychology methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, B.; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Maschke, Peter; Stelling, Dirk; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk

    2007-02-01

    The objective assessment of operator performance in hand controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station has 30 years of tradition and is well established. In the last years the performance assessment was successfully combined with a psycho-physiological approach for the objective assessment of the levels of physiological arousal and psychological load. These methods are based on statistical reference data. For the enhancement of the statistical power of the evaluation methods, both were actually implemented into a comparable terrestrial task: the flight simulator test of DLR in the selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for civil airlines. In the first evaluation study 134 male subjects were analysed. Subjects underwent a flight simulator test including three tasks, which were evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardised rating scales. The principles of the performance algorithms of the docking training were adapted for the automated flight performance assessment. They are presented here. The increased human errors under instrument flight conditions without visual feedback required a manoeuvre recognition algorithm before calculating the deviation of the flown track from the given task elements. Each manoeuvre had to be evaluated independently of former failures. The expert rated performance showed a highly significant correlation with the automatically calculated performance for each of the three tasks: r=.883, r=.874, r=.872, respectively. An automated algorithm successfully assessed the flight performance. This new method will possibly provide a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  13. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Spacecraft Computer System, a High Performance Flight Data System for NASA's Small Explorer Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Nguyen, Quang

    1995-01-01

    The high performance, light weight, small volume and low power flight data systems required by small class satellites push the limits of today's technology. Requirements for high-speed telemetry downlink, fully autonomous operation, and a large data storage have caused NASA' s Small Explorer (SMEX) Project to create a new generation data system. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Code 743 designed, built and tested such a data system, called Spacecraft Computer System (SCS), for SMEX mis...

  15. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  16. A Preliminary Flight Test on a Basic Performance of the Flight Research Airplane Do 228:Velocity v.s. Glide Path Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikazu, Miyazawa; Takatsugu, Ono; Yasuhito, Kawagoe

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary flight test was conducted of the research airplane Dornier Do228-200 that is being modified for use as an in-flight simulator by the National Aerospace Laboratory. The basic performance of the airplane was evaluated by the flight test. Glide path angles were examined with various parameters, such as velocity, altitude, and power. The flight test results were compared with those of a mathematical model based on the Dornier GmbH wind-tunnel test data. Since an onboard data acquisi...

  17. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  18. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  19. Lockheed L-1011 TriStar first flight to support Adaptive Performance Optimization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Bearing the logos of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Orbital Sciences Corporation, Orbital's L-1011 Tristar lifts off the Meadows Field Runway at Bakersfield, California, on its first flight May 21, 1997, in NASA's Adaptive Performance Optimization project. Developed by engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the experiment seeks to reduce fuel consumption of large jetliners by improving the aerodynamic efficency of their wings at cruise conditions. A research computer employing a sophisticated software program adapts to changing flight conditions by commanding small movements of the L-1011's outboard ailerons to give the wings the most efficient - or optimal - airfoil. Up to a dozen research flights will be flown in the current and follow-on phases of the project over the next couple years.

  20. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

  1. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Davis

    Full Text Available The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width, melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  2. In-flight performance of the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The silicon microstrip Tracker is a key subdetector of the AMS-02 instrument, designed to measure the momentum and charge of cosmic rays. The subdetector is composed of 9 layers of silicons sensors inside a permanent 0.15 T magnetic field. The detector has been installed on board of the International Space Station, at an altitude of 400 km, and is taking data since May 19th 2011. AMS-02 aims to provide a precise measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum and perform antimatter searches in the GeV-TeV energy range. This review presents the Tracker performances during the first year of operation in space, covering all the most relevant aspects of detector stability, efficiency and capabilities in charge and track reconstruction.

  3. Planck early results. III. First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Butler, R. C.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Davis, R. J.; Dick, J.; Frailis, M.; Galeotta, S.; Gregorio, A.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leach, S.; Leahy, J. P.; Lowe, S.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Meinhold, P. R.; Morgante, G.; Pearson, D.; Perrotta, F.; Polenta, G.; Poutanen, T.; Sandri, M.; Seiffert, M. D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Valiviita, J.; Villa, F.; Watson, R.; Wilkinson, A.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.; Aja, B.; Artal, E.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaglia, P.; Bennett, K.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Burigana, C.; Cabella, P.; Cappellini, B.; Chen, X.; Colombo, L.; Cruz, M.; Danese, L.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Davies, R. D.; de Gasperis, G.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Donzelli, S.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falvella, M. C.; Finelli, F.; Foley, S.; Franceschet, C.; Franceschi, E.; Gaier, T. C.; Génova-Santos, R. T.; George, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Herranz, D.; Herreros, J. M.; Hoyland, R. J.; Hughes, N.; Jewell, J.; Jukkala, P.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kilpia, V.-H.; Kisner, T. S.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Laaninen, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Leutenegger, P.; Lilje, P. B.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Malaspina, M.; Marinucci, D.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Miccolis, M.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Moss, A.; Natoli, P.; Nesti, R.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Pagano, L.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Pettorino, V.; Pietrobon, D.; Pospieszalski, M.; Prézeau, G.; Prina, M.; Procopio, P.; Puget, J.-L.; Quercellini, C.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Ricciardi, S.; Robbers, G.; Rocha, G.; Roddis, N.; Rubino-Martín, J. A.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Silvestri, R.; Simonetto, A.; Sjoman, P.; Smoot, G. F.; Sozzi, C.; Stringhetti, L.; Tauber, J. A.; Tofani, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Varis, J.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Watson, C.; White, S. D. M.; Winder, F.

    2011-12-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main systematic effects is presented. For each of the performance parameters, we outline the methods used to obtain them from the flight data and provide a comparison with pre-launch ground assessments, which are essentially confirmed in flight. Corresponding author: A. Mennella, e-mail: aniello.mennella@fisica.unimi.it

  4. Evaluating Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts with Validated Human Performance Models: Flight Deck Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Gore, Brian Francis; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current research were to develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and land operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and draw conclusions regarding flight deck display design and pilot-ATC roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSPO concepts. This document presents guidelines and implications for flight deck display designs and candidate roles and responsibilities. A companion document (Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, & Foyle, 2013) provides complete scenario descriptions and results including predictions of pilot workload, visual attention and time to detect off-nominal events.

  5. Planck early results. III. First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León-Tavares, J.; Falvella, M.C.; Hughes, N.;

    2011-01-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main...... systematic effects is presented. For each of the performance parameters, we outline the methods used to obtain them from the flight data and provide a comparison with pre-launch ground assessments, which are essentially confirmed in flight. © ESO, 2011....

  6. Combustor Operability and Performance Verification for HIFiRE Flight 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Andrea M.; Bynum, Michael; Liu, Jiwen; Gruber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Direct-Connect Rig (HDCR) test and analysis activity, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using two Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes solvers. Measurements obtained from ground testing in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) were used to specify inflow conditions for the simulations and combustor data from four representative tests were used as benchmarks. Test cases at simulated flight enthalpies of Mach 5.84, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0 were analyzed. Modeling parameters (e.g., turbulent Schmidt number and compressibility treatment) were tuned such that the CFD results closely matched the experimental results. The tuned modeling parameters were used to establish a standard practice in HIFiRE combustor analysis. Combustor performance and operating mode were examined and were found to meet or exceed the objectives of the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In addition, the calibrated CFD tools were then applied to make predictions of combustor operation and performance for the flight configuration and to aid in understanding the impacts of ground and flight uncertainties on combustor operation.

  7. Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Pier Luigi; Meixner, Hilda; Sancho, Francisco; Damiano, Antimo; Lazaro, David

    2007-01-01

    The 19th of October 2006 at 16:28 UTC the first MetOp satellite (MetOp A) was successfully launched from the Baykonur cosmodrome by a Soyuz/Fregat launcher. After only three days of LEOP operations, performed by ESOC, the satellite was handed over to EUMETSAT, who is since then taking care of all satellite operations. MetOp A is the first European operational satellite for meteorology flying in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), all previous satellites operated by EUMETSAT, belonging to the METEOSAT family, being located in the Geo-stationary orbit. To ensure safe operations for a LEO satellite accurate and continuous commanding from ground of the on-board AOCS is required. That makes the operational transition at the end of the LEOP quite challenging, as the continuity of the Flight Dynamics operations is to be maintained. That means that the main functions of the Flight Dynamics have to be fully validated on-flight during the LEOP, before taking over the operational responsibility on the spacecraft, and continuously monitored during the entire mission. Due to the nature of a meteorological operational mission, very stringent requirements in terms of overall service availability (99 % of the collected data), timeliness of processing of the observation data (3 hours after sensing) and accuracy of the geo-location of the meteorological products (1 km) are to be fulfilled. That translates in tight requirements imposed to the Flight Dynamics facility (FDF) in terms of accuracy, timeliness and availability of the generated orbit and clock solutions; a detailed monitoring of the quality of these products is thus mandatory. Besides, being the accuracy of the image geo-location strongly related with the pointing performance of the platform and with the on-board timing stability, monitoring from ground of the behaviour of the on-board sensors and clock is needed. This paper presents an overview of the Flight Dynamics operations performed during the different phases of the MetOp A

  8. Ground-to-Flight Handling Qualities Comparisons for a High Performance Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in conjunction with a ground-based piloted simulation study to enable a comparison of handling qualities ratings for a variety of maneuvers between flight and simulation of a modern high performance airplane. Specific objectives included an evaluation of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) tendencies and a determination of maneuver types which result in either good or poor ground-to-flight pilot handling qualities ratings. A General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was used for the flight evaluations, and the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator was employed for the ground based evaluations. Two NASA research pilots evaluated both the airplane and simulator characteristics using tasks developed in the simulator. Simulator and flight tests were all conducted within approximately a one month time frame. Maneuvers included numerous fine tracking evaluations at various angles of attack, load factors and speed ranges, gross acquisitions involving longitudinal and lateral maneuvering, roll angle captures, and an ILS task with a sidestep to landing. Overall results showed generally good correlation between ground and flight for PIO tendencies and general handling qualities comments. Differences in pilot technique used in simulator evaluations and effects of airplane accelerations and motions are illustrated.

  9. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    OpenAIRE

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were transported out of the retina; Procion Yellow and Rhodamine-123 stayed in it. The time constants of this transport process were in the range 45-80 min at 23°C, depending on the dye. When Lucifer Yellow ...

  10. Design and Flight Performance of NOAA-K Spacecraft Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Chetty, P. R. K.; Spitzer, Tom; Chilelli, P.

    1999-01-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the POES series of spacecraft, named as NOAA-KLMNN, is in orbit and four more are in various phases of development. The NOAA-K spacecraft was launched on May 13, 1998. Each of these spacecraft carry three Nickel-Cadmium batteries designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. The battery, which consists of seventeen 40 Ah cells manufactured by SAFT, provides the spacecraft power during the ascent phase, orbital eclipse and when the power demand is in excess of the solar array capability. The NOAA-K satellite is in a 98 degree inclination, 7:30AM ascending node orbit. In this orbit the satellite experiences earth occultation only 25% of the year. This paper provides a brief overview of the power subsystem, followed by the battery design and qualification, the cell life cycle test data, and the performance during launch and in orbit.

  11. Wing wear reduces bumblebee flight performance in a dynamic obstacle course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountcastle, Andrew M; Alexander, Teressa M; Switzer, Callin M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-06-01

    Previous work has shown that wing wear increases mortality in bumblebees. Although a proximate mechanism for this phenomenon has remained elusive, a leading hypothesis is that wing wear increases predation risk by reducing flight manoeuvrability. We tested the effects of simulated wing wear on flight manoeuvrability in Bombus impatiens bumblebees using a dynamic obstacle course designed to push bees towards their performance limits. We found that removing 22% wing area from the tips of both forewings (symmetric wear) caused a 9% reduction in peak acceleration during manoeuvring flight, while performing the same manipulation on only one wing (asymmetric wear) did not significantly reduce maximum acceleration. The rate at which bees collided with obstacles was correlated with body length across all treatments, but wing wear did not increase collision rate, possibly because shorter wingspans allow more room for bees to manoeuvre. This study presents a novel method for exploring extreme flight manoeuvres in flying insects, eliciting peak accelerations that exceed those measured during flight through a stationary obstacle course. If escape from aerial predation is constrained by acceleration capacity, then our results offer a potential explanation for the observed increase in bumblebee mortality with wing wear. PMID:27303054

  12. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  13. Performance of SiPMT array readout for fast time-of-flight detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillator based time-of-flight detectors may use conventional photomultipliers for the readout. Problems arise in presence of stray magnetic fields. SiPMT arrays are insensitive to magnetic fields and are a suitable option to replace photomultipliers. Timing performances for several SiPMT arrays have been studied and results are presented

  14. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  15. In-Flight Thermal Performance of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Eric; Baker, Charles; McCarthy, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument is NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's first application of Loop Heat Pipe technology that provides selectable/stable temperature levels for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission environment. GLAS was successfully launched as the sole science instrument aboard the Ice, Clouds, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from Vandenberg AFB at 4:45pm PST on January 12, 2003. After SC commissioning, the LHPs started easily and have provided selectable and stable temperatures for the lasers and other electronics. This paper discusses the thermal development background and testing, along with details of early flight thermal performance data.

  16. Markov Jump-Linear Performance Models for Recoverable Flight Control Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Gray, W. Steven; Gonzalez, Oscar R.

    2004-01-01

    Single event upsets in digital flight control hardware induced by atmospheric neutrons can reduce system performance and possibly introduce a safety hazard. One method currently under investigation to help mitigate the effects of these upsets is NASA Langley s Recoverable Computer System. In this paper, a Markov jump-linear model is developed for a recoverable flight control system, which will be validated using data from future experiments with simulated and real neutron environments. The method of tracking error analysis and the plan for the experiments are also described.

  17. Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about translat

  18. Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael E; Dudley, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Animal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, and can sustain hovering flight under hypobaria at effective elevations in excess of 9000 m, i.e. higher than Mt. Everest. Modulation of stroke amplitude and not wingbeat frequency is the primary means of compensation for overcoming the aerodynamic challenge. The presence of such excess capacity in a high-altitude bumble-bee is surprising and suggests intermittent behavioural demands for extreme flight performance supplemental to routine foraging. PMID:24501268

  19. Enhanced flight performance by genetic manipulation of wing shape in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robert P; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Insect wing shapes are remarkably diverse and the combination of shape and kinematics determines both aerial capabilities and power requirements. However, the contribution of any specific morphological feature to performance is not known. Using targeted RNA interference to modify wing shape far beyond the natural variation found within the population of a single species, we show a direct effect on flight performance that can be explained by physical modelling of the novel wing geometry. Our data show that altering the expression of a single gene can significantly enhance aerial agility and that the Drosophila wing shape is not, therefore, optimized for certain flight performance characteristics that are known to be important. Our technique points in a new direction for experiments on the evolution of performance specialities in animals. PMID:26926954

  20. Assessing Impact of Dual Sensor Enhanced Flight Vision Systems on Departure Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Severance, Kurt; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Vision (SV) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) may serve as game-changing technologies to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System and the envisioned Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept - that is, the ability to achieve the safety and operational tempos of current-day Visual Flight Rules operations irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. One significant obstacle lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. A motion-base simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility and pilot workload of conducting departures and approaches on runways without centerline lighting in visibility as low as 300 feet runway visual range (RVR) by use of onboard vision system technologies on a Head-Up Display (HUD) without need or reliance on natural vision. Twelve crews evaluated two methods of combining dual sensor (millimeter wave radar and forward looking infrared) EFVS imagery on pilot-flying and pilot-monitoring HUDs. In addition, the impact of adding SV to the dual sensor EFVS imagery on crew flight performance and workload was assessed. Using EFVS concepts during 300 RVR terminal operations on runways without centerline lighting appears feasible as all EFVS concepts had equivalent (or better) departure performance and landing rollout performance, without any workload penalty, than those flown with a conventional HUD to runways having centerline lighting. Adding SV imagery to EFVS concepts provided situation awareness improvements but no discernible improvements in flight path maintenance.

  1. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrocchi, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.morrocchi@pi.infn.it [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G. [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Perugia, I 06100 Perugia (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-12-11

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm{sup 2} of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  2. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm2 of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  3. A review of postfeeding larval dispersal in blowflies: implications for forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde; von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-05-01

    Immature and adult stages of blowflies are one of the primary invertebrate consumers of decomposing animal organic matter. When the food supply is consumed or when the larvae complete their development and migrate prior to the total removal of the larval substrate, they disperse to find adequate places for pupation, a process known as postfeeding larval dispersal. Several important ecological and physiological aspects of this process were studied since the work by Green (Ann Appl Biol 38:475, 1951) 50 years ago. An understanding of postfeeding larval dispersal can be useful for determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human cadavers in legal medicine, particularly because this interval may be underestimated if older dispersing larvae or those that disperse longer, faster, and deeper are not taken into account. In this article, we review the process of postfeeding larval dispersal and its implications for legal medicine, in particular showing that aspects such as burial behavior and competition among species of blowflies can influence this process and consequently, the estimation of PMI.

  4. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  5. Design and flight performance of the cosmic ray detector BUGS-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design features and operational performance from the test flight of the fourth generation of spherical geometry cosmic ray detectors developed at Bristol university (Bristol university gas scintillator 4 - BUGS-4) are presented. The flight from Ft. Sumner (NM) in September 1993 was the premier flight of a large (1 m radius) spherical drift chamber which also gave gas scintillation and Cherenkov signals. The combinations of this chamber with one gas and two solid Cherenkov radiators lead to a large aperture factor (4.5 m2 sr), but low (∝3.5 g/cm2) instrument mass over the energy sensitive range 1 to several hundred GeV/a. Moreover, one simple timing measurement determined the impact parameter which provided a trajectory (path length) correction for all detector elements. This innovative and efficient design will be of interest to experimental groups engaged in studies of energetic charged particles. Although there were technical problems on the flight, which were compounded by the total destruction of BUGS-4 by fire whilst landing in Oklahoma, there was a period of stable operation during which the instrument was exposed at float altitude (∝125 000 ft) to high-energy cosmic rays. We present the performance of the instrument as determined from the analysis of these data and an appraisal of its novel design features. Suggestions for design improvements in a future instrument are made. (orig.)

  6. Design and flight performance of the cosmic ray detector BUGS-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. E.; Petruzzo, J. J., III; Gregory, J. C.; Thoburn, C.; Austin, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Masheder, M. R. W.; Fowler, P. H.

    1998-02-01

    The design features and operational performance from the test flight of the fourth generation of spherical geometry cosmic ray detectors developed at Bristol University (Bristol University Gas Scintillator 4 - BUGS-4) are presented. The flight from Ft. Summer (NM) in September 1993 was the premier flight of a large (1 m radius) spherical drift chamber which also gave gas scintillation and Cherenkov signals. The combinations of this chamber with one gas and two solid Cherenkov radiators lead to a large aperture factor (4.5 m2 sr), but low (~3.5 g/cm2) instrument mass over the energy sensitive range 1 to several hundred GeV/a. Moreover, one simple timing measurement determined the impact parameter which provided a trajectory (path length) correction for all detector elements. This innovative and efficient design will be of interest to experimental groups engaged in studies of energetic charged particles. Although there were technical problems on the flight, which were compounded by the total destruction of BUGS-4 by fire whilst landing in Oklahoma, there was a period of stable operation during which the instrument was exposed at float altitude (~ 125 000 ft) to high-energy cosmic rays. We present the performance of the instrument as determined from the analysis of these data and an appraisal of its novel design features. Suggestions for design improvements in a future instrument are made.

  7. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  8. Entry Atmospheric Flight Control Authority Impacts on GN and C and Trajectory Performance for Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Luke W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key design objectives of NASA's Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) is to execute a guided entry trajectory demonstrating GN&C capability. The focus of this paper is the ight control authority of the vehicle throughout the atmospheric entry ight to the target landing site and its impacts on GN&C, parachute deployment, and integrated performance. The vehicle's attitude control authority is obtained from thrusting 12 Re- action Control System (RCS) engines, with four engines to control yaw, four engines to control pitch, and four engines to control roll. The static and dynamic stability derivatives of the vehicle are determined to assess the inherent aerodynamic stability. The aerodynamic moments at various locations in the entry trajectory are calculated and compared to the available torque provided by the RCS system. Interaction between the vehicle's RCS engine plumes and the aerodynamic conditions are considered to assess thruster effectiveness. This document presents an assessment of Orion's ight control authority and its effectiveness in controlling the vehicle during critical events in the atmospheric entry trajectory.

  9. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  10. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pperformance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

  11. Failure rate analysis of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft performance during orbital life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, H. P.; Timmins, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Space life performance data on 57 Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft are analyzed from the standpoint of determining an appropriate reliability model and the associated reliability parameters. Data from published NASA reports, which cover the space performance of GSFC spacecraft launched in the 1960-1970 decade, form the basis of the analyses. The results of the analyses show that the time distribution of 449 malfunctions, of which 248 were classified as failures (not necessarily catastrophic), follow a reliability growth pattern that can be described with either the Duane model or a Weibull distribution. The advantages of both mathematical models are used in order to: identify space failure rates, observe chronological trends, and compare failure rates with those experienced during the prelaunch environmental tests of the flight model spacecraft.

  12. Pose Measurement Performance of the Argon Relative Navigation Sensor Suite in Simulated Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Eepoel, John Van; Strube, Matt; Gill, Nat; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Hyslop, Andrew; Patrick, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Argon is a flight-ready sensor suite with two visual cameras, a flash LIDAR, an on- board flight computer, and associated electronics. Argon was designed to provide sensing capabilities for relative navigation during proximity, rendezvous, and docking operations between spacecraft. A rigorous ground test campaign assessed the performance capability of the Argon navigation suite to measure the relative pose of high-fidelity satellite mock-ups during a variety of simulated rendezvous and proximity maneuvers facilitated by robot manipulators in a variety of lighting conditions representative of the orbital environment. A brief description of the Argon suite and test setup are given as well as an analysis of the performance of the system in simulated proximity and rendezvous operations.

  13. In-Flight Performance of the Water Vapor Monitor Onboard the Sofia Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; Yuen, Lunming; Sisson, David; Hang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne observatory flies in a modified B747-SP aircraft in the lower stratosphere above more than 99.9% of the Earth's water vapor. As low as this residual water vapor is, it will still affect SOFIA's infrared and sub-millimeter astronomical observations. As a result, a heterodyne instrument has been developed to observe the strength and shape of the 1830Hz rotational line of water, allowing measurements of the integrated water vapor overburden in flight. In order to be useful in correcting the astronomical signals, the required measured precipitable water vapor accuracy must be 2 microns or better, 3 sigma, and measured at least once a minute. The Water Vapor Monitor has flown 22 times during the SOFIA Early Science shared-risk period. The instrument water vapor overburden data obtained were then compared with concurrent data from GOES-V satellites to perform a preliminary calibration of the measurements. This presentation will cover the.results of these flights. The final flight calibration necessary to reach the required accuracy will await subsequent flights following the SOFIA observatory upgrade that is taking place during the spring and summer of 2012.

  14. Timing of arrival from spring migration is associated with flight performance in the migratory barn swallow

    OpenAIRE

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Timing of arrival at the breeding grounds by migratory birds affects their mating success and access to superior resources, thus being a major factor associated with fitness. Much empirical work has been devoted to investigate the condition dependence of arrival sequence of migrants and characteristics of individuals that influence arrival time from migration. Surprisingly, there are no studies examining the relationship between flight performance of individual birds and their arrival time. I...

  15. Performance Characteristics of a New Hybrid Triple Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Genna L.; Simons, Brigitte L.; Young, J. Bryce; Hawkridge, Adam M.; David C Muddiman

    2011-01-01

    The TripleTOF 5600 System, a hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was evaluated to explore the key figures of merit in generating peptide and protein identifications which included spectral acquisition rates, data quality, proteome coverage, and biological depth. Employing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tryptic digest, careful consideration of several performance features demonstrated that the speed of the TripleTOF contributed most to the resultant data. The TripleTOF syste...

  16. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  17. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; Platts, Steven H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Reschke, Millard F.; Ryder, Jeff W.; Stenger, Michael B.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  18. Simulation, flight performance and control of Dynamics Explorers-A and -B spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappan, R. G.; Sen, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from a study conducted to evaluate the dynamic behavior of Dynamics Explorers-A and -B spacecraft. The effects of environmental torques on the spacecraft motion, momentum buildup due to these torques, and the long appendages on the main body motion are studied using numerical simulations. The numerical results are compared with flight data and are found to be in good agreement. A control philosophy for DE-B to minimize the pitch axis drift is developed. The performance of DE-B in inverted mode and during the inversion maneuver as well as in the normal mode are studied. The spin ripple effect on DE-A due to the long appendages is analyzed and the results are correlated with flight data.

  19. Flight performance of EXAM - a balloon-borne detector to search for extragalactic antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the performance of the EXAM detector during its five hour balloon flight in 1988. EXAM is an experiment designed to search for cosmic rays of extragalactic origin which are made of antimatter. The EXAM technique to identify antinuclei is unique, being based on higher order corrections to electronic stopping power of charged particles, and on the response characteristics of CR-39 track-etch detectors, plastic scintillators, and Cherenkov radiators. Included in the present paper are the completed analysis of the electronic detectors, and preliminary results of the analysis of the track-etch detectors, including a demonstration of our ability to match particles identified with the drift tube tracking elements during the flight with their tracks found in the passive CR-39 detectors. When the CR-39 analysis is complete, we will have approximately 10 000 events for which antimatter analysis can be made. ((orig.))

  20. Airflow elicits a spider's jump towards airborne prey. I. Airflow around a flying blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopsch, Christian; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C; Barth, Friedrich G

    2012-10-01

    The hunting spider Cupiennius salei uses airflow generated by flying insects for the guidance of its prey-capture jump. We investigated the velocity field of the airflow generated by a freely flying blowfly close to the flow sensors on the spider's legs. It shows three characteristic phases (I-III). (I) When approaching, the blowfly induces an airflow signal near the spider with only little fluctuation (0.013 ± 0.006 m s(-1)) and a strength that increases nearly exponentially with time (maximum: 0.164 ± 0.051 m s(-1) s.d.). The spider detects this flow while the fly is still 38.4 ± 5.6 mm away. The fluctuation of the airflow above the sensors increases linearly up to 0.037 m s(-1) with the fly's altitude. Differences in the time of arrival and intensity of the fly signal at different legs probably inform the spider about the direction to the prey. (II) Phase II abruptly follows phase I with a much higher degree of fluctuation (fluctuation amplitudes: 0.114 ± 0.050 m s(-1)). It starts when the fly is directly above the sensor and corresponds to the time-dependent flow in the wake below and behind the fly. Its onset indicates to the spider that its prey is now within reach and triggers its jump. The spider derives information on the fly's position from the airflow characteristics, enabling it to properly time its jump. The horizontal velocity of the approaching fly is reflected by the time of arrival differences (ranging from 0.038 to 0.108 s) of the flow at different legs and the exponential velocity growth rate (16-79 s(-1)) during phase I. (III) The air flow velocity decays again after the fly has passed the spider. PMID:22572032

  1. Suppression of the blowfly Lucilia sericata using odour-baited triflumuron-impregnated targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K E; Wall, R

    1998-10-01

    Field trials were carried out in 1995 and 1996 on farms in the south-west of England to assess the extent to which odour-baited targets could be used to suppress populations of the ectoparasitic blowfly, Lucilia sericata, in sheep pastures. Targets were constructed from 41 x 41 cm squares of aluminium sheet, covered by white cloth which had been dipped in a mixture of sucrose solution (50% w/v) and the chitin synthesis inhibitor triflumuron (10% suspension concentrate). Each target was baited with approximately 300 g of liver and sodium sulphide solution (10%). Three matched sheep farms were used in the trials. In 1995, triflumuron-impregnated targets were placed around the periphery of sheep pastures at one of the farms in late June, at approximately one target per hectare. In 1996, triflumuron-impregnated targets were placed around the periphery of sheep pastures of a second of the farms in early May, at approximately five targets per hectare. Each year, five sticky targets, used to monitor the L. sericata populations, were also placed in fields at the experimental and the other two farms, which acted as controls. In 1995, the results provided some, although inconclusive, evidence that the triflumuron-impregnated targets had reduced the numbers of L. sericata relative to the populations on the two control farms. In 1996, however, the density of L. sericata on the experimental farm was reduced to almost zero and remained significantly lower than on two control farms throughout the period during which the triflumuron-impregnated targets remained in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the use of triflumuron-treated targets as a practical means of controlling L. sericata and sheep blowfly strike. PMID:9824828

  2. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during an instrument flight rules proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Simola, Petteri

    2016-09-01

    Increased task demand will increase the pilot mental workload (PMWL). When PMWL is increased, mental overload may occur resulting in degraded performance. During pilots' instrument flight rules (IFR) proficiency test, PMWL is typically not measured. Therefore, little is known about workload during the proficiency test and pilots' potential to cope with higher task demands than those experienced during the test. In this study, fighter pilots' performance and PMWL was measured during a real IFR proficiency test in an F/A-18 simulator. PMWL was measured using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV). Performance was rated using Finnish Air Force's official rating scales. Results indicated that HR and HRV differentiate varying task demands in situations where variations in performance are insignificant. It was concluded that during a proficiency test, PMWL should be measured together with the task performance measurement. PMID:27109324

  3. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: The influence of age, gender, mating status and body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to the rich diversity of Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring an...

  4. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: Flight service and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizer, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force.

  5. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. PMID:25809339

  6. Challenges and perspectives of transport cargo vehicles utilization for performing research in free flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, T. V.; Belyaev, M. Yu.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Russian Progress transport cargo vehicles have successfully been used in different space station programs since 1978. At present time, they play an important role in the International Space Station (ISS) project. Main tasks performed by the transport cargo vehicle (TCV) in the station program are the following: refueling of the station, delivery of consumables and equipment, waste removal, station attitude control and orbit correction maneuver execution. At the same time, the cargo vehicle basic systems still retain unused resources after the vehicle finishes its work with the station. It makes sense to use these resources to perform research in free flight of TCV after departure from the ISS when possible. The fields of research can be determined not only on the basis of the vehicle capabilities as a research platform but also taking into account needs of the research community. Possible fields could be the following: Earth or other objects remote sensing using additional equipment, Microgravity research aboard TCV, Launch of small satellites and probes after TCV undocking from the station and transfer to the specified orbit, etc. Solution of research tasks using the Progress TCV resources helps to increase efficiency of the ISS research program performance. The paper considers the TCV flight control features and the methods of the solution of the problems arising when various experiments are performed aboard the vehicle.

  7. Heat Capacity Mapping Radiometer (HCMR) data processing algorithm, calibration, and flight performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohse, J. R.; Bewtra, M.; Barnes, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The rationale and procedures used in the radiometric calibration and correction of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) data are presented. Instrument-level testing and calibration of the Heat Capacity Mapping Radiometer (HCMR) were performed by the sensor contractor ITT Aerospace/Optical Division. The principal results are included. From the instrumental characteristics and calibration data obtained during ITT acceptance tests, an algorithm for post-launch processing was developed. Integrated spacecraft-level sensor calibration was performed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) approximately two months before launch. This calibration provided an opportunity to validate the data calibration algorithm. Instrumental parameters and results of the validation are presented and the performances of the instrument and the data system after launch are examined with respect to the radiometric results. Anomalies and their consequences are discussed. Flight data indicates a loss in sensor sensitivity with time. The loss was shown to be recoverable by an outgassing procedure performed approximately 65 days after the infrared channel was turned on. It is planned to repeat this procedure periodically.

  8. New one-axis one-sensor magnetic attitude control theoretical and in-flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Roldugin, D. S.; Tkachev, S. S.; Karpenko, S. O.

    2014-12-01

    New one-axis magnetic attitude control is proposed. Only one attitude sensor providing any inertial direction measurements is necessary, magnetometer is not used. The control may be used as a backup capability in case main actuators or some attitude sensors fail. Sun pointing is achievable using only three-axis Sun sensor, so the control may be used to lower the power consumption during battery charging. Asymptotic stability of different equilibria depending on the satellite inertia tensor is summarized. In-flight results from "Chibis-M" microsatellite are provided proving general control performance.

  9. Performance of Swashplateless Ultralight Helicopter Rotor with Trailing-edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin-Wei; Chopra, Inderjit

    2003-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the rotor performance, trailing-edge deflections and actuation requirement of a helicopter rotor with trailing-edge flap system for primary flight control. The swashplateless design is implemented by modifying a two-bladed teetering rotor of an production ultralight helicopter through the use of plain flaps on the blades, and by replacing the pitch link to fixed system control system assembly with a root spring. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis based on UMARC is carried out to obtain the results for both the swashplateless and a conventional baseline rotor configuration. The predictions show swashplateless configuration achieve superior performance than the conventional rotor attributed from reduction of parasite drag by eliminating swashplate mechanic system. It is indicated that optimal selection of blade pitch index angle, flap location, length, and chord ratio reduces flap deflections and actuation requirements, however, has virtually no effect on rotor performance.

  10. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  11. Linking biomechanics and ecology through predator-prey interactions: flight performance of dragonflies and their prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, S A; Rundle, D E; Iwasaki, J M; Crall, J D

    2012-03-15

    Aerial predation is a highly complex, three-dimensional flight behavior that affects the individual fitness and population dynamics of both predator and prey. Most studies of predation adopt either an ecological approach in which capture or survival rates are quantified, or a biomechanical approach in which the physical interaction is studied in detail. In the present study, we show that combining these two approaches provides insight into the interaction between hunting dragonflies (Libellula cyanea) and their prey (Drosophila melanogaster) that neither type of study can provide on its own. We performed >2500 predation trials on nine dragonflies housed in an outdoor artificial habitat to identify sources of variability in capture success, and analyzed simultaneous predator-prey flight kinematics from 50 high-speed videos. The ecological approach revealed that capture success is affected by light intensity in some individuals but that prey density explains most of the variability in success rate. The biomechanical approach revealed that fruit flies rarely respond to approaching dragonflies with evasive maneuvers, and are rarely successful when they do. However, flies perform random turns during flight, whose characteristics differ between individuals, and these routine, erratic turns are responsible for more failed predation attempts than evasive maneuvers. By combining the two approaches, we were able to determine that the flies pursued by dragonflies when prey density is low fly more erratically, and that dragonflies are less successful at capturing them. This highlights the importance of considering the behavior of both participants, as well as their biomechanics and ecology, in developing a more integrative understanding of organismal interactions. PMID:22357584

  12. In-Flight Performance of PARASOL Inside the Aqua-Train Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougnie, B.; Bracco, G.; Lafrance, B.; Ruffel, C.; Hagolle, O.

    2005-12-01

    PARASOL, Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar, launched the 18th December 2004, is a microsatellite developed by the Franch Space Agency (CNES) carrying a wide-field of view imaging radiometer called POLDER and designed in partnership with the Atmospheric Optics Laboratory (LOA). The PARASOL instrument analyses a threefold signature : polarization, for different viewing angles and for 9 spectral bands from visible to near-infrared. In addition, PARASOL scientific goals are to improve the characterization of microphysical properties of clouds and aerosols using the complementary data provided by sensors composing the Afternoon-train observatory (MODIS, CALIPSO, CLOUDSAT). During the image quality commissioning phase, ended in June 2005, activities were conducted to complete in-flight geometric and radiometric calibration and evaluate the system performance regarding to mission specifications and scientific goals. Massive correlations between various images were used to assessed the in-flight geometric calibration and registration performances between polarized, spectral, and multi-directional observations which were found to be compatible with specifications, i.e. better than 0.05, 0.10, and 0.10 pixel respectively. The absolute location accuracy was estimated at 2-3km (note that pixel of the level-1 data grid are 6.18km). The in-flight radiometric calibration activity includes various aspects : absolute, multi-temporal, multi-angular and in-polarization calibrations, dark current and non-linearity characterization, optimization of the dynamic range. Because of the absence of on-board calibration device, these characterizations were assessed through methods based on acquisitions over well-defined natural targets : i/ Rayleigh scattering over predefined oceanic sites, ii/ spectrally flat sunglint over ocean, iii/ bright, high and spectrally flat convective clouds, iv/ pre-defined and well

  13. Performance of a time-of-flight silicon strip telescope in the temperature range 20 C to -55 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codino, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Brunetti, M.T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Federico, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Grimani, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Macchiaiolo, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Menichelli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Minelli, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Miozza, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Perugia (Italy); Plouin, F. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Gif-Sur-Yvette, Saclay (France)

    1995-10-15

    A cold silicon strip telescope for time-of-flight determination operating at -55 C has been tested using a hadron beam at Saturne II, Saclay. We present performance tests of the telescope, the time-of-flight distributions between pairs of silicon hodoscopes and their dependence on temperature. A detailed description of the apparatus, the refrigerator system and the calibration procedures is also reported. A linear relationship between the time resolution and the temperature of the apparatus is measured. An improvement of a factor 2 in the time-of-flight resolution is observed when the temperature decreases from +20 C to -55 C. (orig.).

  14. Performance of a time-of-flight silicon strip telescope in the temperature range 20 C to -55 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cold silicon strip telescope for time-of-flight determination operating at -55 C has been tested using a hadron beam at Saturne II, Saclay. We present performance tests of the telescope, the time-of-flight distributions between pairs of silicon hodoscopes and their dependence on temperature. A detailed description of the apparatus, the refrigerator system and the calibration procedures is also reported. A linear relationship between the time resolution and the temperature of the apparatus is measured. An improvement of a factor 2 in the time-of-flight resolution is observed when the temperature decreases from +20 C to -55 C. (orig.)

  15. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  16. Activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Menzione, A; Prokoshin, F; Tokar, S; Vataga, E

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activity on improving the time resolution of the Time-of-Flight detector at CDF. The main goal of the detector is the identification of kaons and pions for b-quark (B-meson) flavour tagging. Construction of the detector has been described as well as proposals on detector design changes to improve its time resolution. Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response to MIP was performed. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed modifications (at least with currently available materials) bring modest or no improvement of the detector time resolution. An automated set-up was assembled to test and check out the changes in the electronic readout system of the detector. Sophisticated software has been developed for this set-up to provide control of the system as well as processing and presentation of data from the detector. This software can perform various tests using different implementations of the hardware set-up

  17. Activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes activity on improving the time resolution of the Time-of-Flight detector at CDF. The main goal of the detector is the identification of kaons and pions for b-quark (B-meson) flavour tagging. Construction of the detector has been described as well as proposals on detector design changes to improve its time resolution. Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response to MIP was performed. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed modifications (at least with currently available materials) bring modest or no improvement of the detector time resolution. An automated set-up was assembled to test and check out the changes in the electronic readout system of the detector. Sophisticated software has been developed for this set-up to provide control of the system as well as processing and presentation of data from the detector. This software can perform various tests using different implementations of the hardware set-up

  18. Flight operations and performance of Skylab life support and environmental control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, G. D.; Littles, J. W.; Patterson, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    The design and performance of the Skylab thermal and environmental control systems is considered. The Orbital Workshop had a combined active and passive thermal control system. The refrigeration system was designed to store food and biomedical samples and to cool drinking water. The atmosphere control system included active humidity control, molecular sieves and charcoal canisters to control carbon dioxide, odor, and contaminants, and the gas supply system. Mission support preparation, including instrumentation, ground data system, system troubleshooting, and training, is surveyed. Major in-flight anomalies occurred with the thermal control system when the meteoroid shield was lost during SL-1 ascent and when the Airlock Module coolant loop malfunctioned during SL-2 manned operations. The atmosphere control system performed without major anomaly throughout the manned missions.

  19. The MRPC-based ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector: Commissioning and first performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akindinov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alici, A., E-mail: Andrea.Alici@cern.ch [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche & #x27; Enrico Fermi& #x27; , Roma (Italy); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Antonioli, P. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Arcelli, S.; Basile, M. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita, Bologna (Italy); Bellini, F. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Caffarri, D. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita, Bologna (Italy); INFN and University of Padova (Italy); Cara Romeo, G. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Cifarelli, L. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita, Bologna (Italy); Cindolo, F. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); De Caro, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Pasquale, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita and INFN, Salerno (Italy); Doroud, K. [World Laboratory, Geneva (Switzerland); Fusco Girard, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita and INFN, Salerno (Italy); Guerzoni, B. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell& #x27; Universita, Bologna (Italy); Hatzifotiadou, D. [Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Jung, W.W.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, J.S. [Department of Physics, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE Time-Of-Flight (TOF) detector is a cylindrical array with a total area of about 150 m{sup 2} and more than 153,000 readout channels; it will allow charged hadron separation for momentum up to a few GeV/c. The very good performance required for such a system has been achieved by means of the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) whose time resolution is better than 50 ps with an overall efficiency close to 100%. The TOF detector is fully installed since April 2008; it has successfully been operated during cosmic ray data taking. The very good stability, noise level and time performance are reported here. The status of the calibration and the first physics results with the TOF detector are given.

  20. Crew Alertness Management on the Flight Deck: Cognitive and Vigilance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1998-01-01

    This project had three broad goals: (1) to identify environmental and organismic risks to performance of long-haul cockpit crews; (2) to assess how cognitive and psychomotor vigilance performance, and subjective measures of alertness, were affected by work-rest schedules typical of long-haul cockpit crews; and (3) to determine the alertness-promoting effectiveness of behavioral and technological countermeasures to fatigue on the flight deck. During the course of the research, a number of studies were completed in cooperation with the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The publications emerging from this project are listed in a bibliography in the appendix. Progress toward these goals will be summarized below according to the period in which it was accomplished.

  1. Flight performance of bumble bee as a possible pollinator in space agriculture under partial gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Mitsuhata, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masami; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support concept for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies based on biological and ecological function. Flowering plant species are core member of space agriculture to produce food and revitalize air and water. Selection of crop plant species is made on the basis of nutritional requirements to maintain healthy life of space crew. Species selected for space agriculture have several mode of reproduction. For some of plant species, insect pollination is effective to increase yield and quality of food. In terrestrial agriculture, bee is widely introduced to pollinate flower. For pollinator insect on Mars, working environment is different from Earth. Magnitude of gravity is 0.38G on Mars surface. In order to confirm feasibility of insect pollination for space agriculture, capability of flying pollinator insect under such exotic condition should be examined. Even bee does not possess evident gravity sensory system, gravity dominates flying performance and behavior. During flight or hovering, lifting force produced by wing beat sustains body weight, which is the product of body mass and gravitational acceleration. Flying behavior of bumble bee, Bombus ignitus, was documented under partial or micro-gravity produced by parabolic flight of jet plane. Flying behavior at absence of gravity differed from that under normal gravity. Ability of bee to fly under partial gravity was examined at the level of Mars, Moon and the less, to determine the threshold level of gravity for bee flying maneuver. Adaptation process of bee flying under different gravity level was evaluated as well by successive documentation of parabolic flight experiment.

  2. Performance Results from In-Flight Commissioning of the Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Winters, G. S.; Persyn, S. C.; Eterno, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    We present a description of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS), results from the successful in-flight commissioning performed between December 5th and 13th 2011, and some predictions of future Jupiter observations. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, unlike the other Alice spectrographs, Juno-UVS sits aboard a rotationally stabilized spacecraft. The planned 2 rpm rotation rate for the primary mission results in integration times per spatial resolution element per spin of only 17 ms. Thus, data was retrieved from many spins and then remapped and co-added to build up integration times on bright stars to measure the effective area, spatial resolution, map out scan mirror pointing positions, etc. The Juno-UVS scan mirror allows for pointing of the slit approximately ±30° from the spacecraft spin plane. This ability gives Juno-UVS access to half the sky at any given spacecraft orientation. We will describe our process for solving for the pointing of the scan mirror relative to the Juno spacecraft and present our initial half sky survey of UV bright stars complete with constellation overlays. The primary job of Juno-UVS will be to characterize Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions and relate them to in situ particle measurements. The ability to point the slit will facilitate these measurements, allowing Juno-UVS to observe the surface positions of magnetic field lines Juno is flying through giving a direct connection between the particle measurements on the spacecraft to the observed reaction of Jupiter’s atmosphere to those particles. Finally, we will describe planned observations to be made during Earth flyby in October 2013 that will complete the in-flight characterization.

  3. Drinking and flying: does alcohol consumption affect the flight and echolocation performance of phyllostomid bats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara N Orbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.

  4. Personalized medicine in human space flight: using Omics based analyses to develop individualized countermeasures that enhance astronaut safety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Michael A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Space flight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans. Advances in Omics methodologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) have revealed that unique differences exist between individuals. These differences can be amplified in extreme conditions, such as space flight. A better understanding of individual differences may allow us to develop personalized countermeasure packages that optimize the safety and performance of each astronaut. In this review, we...

  5. Object and background coding by different neurons of blowflies and the benefit of motion adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Pei

    2010-01-01

    In a rich and complex world, it is a crucial task for animals, especially for fast moving ones, to detect objects in front of their background. Fast moving animals strongly rely on optic flow, i.e., the visual motion induced on their eyes during locomotion, to guide their behavior, such as to avoid obstacles, to estimate depth or distance to environmental objects, or to prepare for landing during flight. This thesis investigates with electrophysiological recording techniques the performance o...

  6. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload Development and Performance in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Shirley, Mark; Colaprete, Anthony; Osetinsky, Leonid

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region (PSR) at a lunar pole. LCROSS was classified as a NASA Class D mission. Its payload, the subject of this article, was designed, built, tested and operated to support a condensed schedule, risk tolerant mission approach, a new paradigm for NASA science missions. All nine science instruments, most of them ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), successfully collected data during all in-flight calibration campaigns, and most importantly, during the final descent to the lunar surface on October 9, 2009, after 112 days in space. LCROSS demonstrated that COTS instruments and designs with simple interfaces, can provide high-quality science at low-cost and in short development time frames. Building upfront into the payload design, flexibility, redundancy where possible even with the science measurement approach, and large margins, played important roles for this new type of payload. The environmental and calibration approach adopted by the LCROSS team, compared to existing standard programs, is discussed. The description, capabilities, calibration and in-flight performance of each instrument are summarized. Finally, this paper goes into depth about specific areas where the instruments worked differently than expected and how the flexibility of the payload team, the knowledge of instrument priority and science trades, and proactive margin maintenance, led to a successful science measurement by the LCROSS payload's instrument complement.

  7. Mars Express and Venus Express Data Retention In-Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrédonchel, J.; Rombeck, F.-J.

    2007-08-01

    Venus, Mars and Earth, three out of the four inner or 'rocky' planets of the Solar System, have a lot in common: a solid surface you could walk on, a comparable surface composition, an atmosphere and a weather system. European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express (MEx) and Venus Express (VEx) pioneer scientific missions aim at exploring these two neighbours of the Earth, in order to enrich our knowledge of our planet and of the Solar System. Both projects are based on the same spacecraft bus, and in particular on 'sister' Solid State Mass Memory (SSMM) units, in charge of the acquisition, storage and retrieval of all on board data, relevant both to the platform and to the instruments. This paper recalls the common SSMM design and the inner fault tolerant memory array module architecture based on Computer Off The Shelf (COTS) Samsung 64 Mbit Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) chips, and presents the comparative in-flight data retention performance for both MEx and Vex units, since their respective June 2003 and November 2005 launches. Both units have shown to successfully withstand the radiative deep space environment, including during the outstanding October 2003 solar flare, and no uncorrectable data corruption was ever reported. Beyond this stable retention performance over time, the memory scrubbing correctable error accounting feedback allows evaluating the deep space Single Event Upset (SEU) rates, to be compared with the theoretical SSMM radiation assessment as well as with other previous missions in-flight qualitative reference performance records, and finally enables to derive a couple of recommendations from the lessons' learnt.

  8. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  9. Monte Carlo study of the performance of a time-of-flight multichopper spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo method is a powerful technique for neutron transport studies. While it has been applied for many years to the study of nuclear systems, there are few codes available for neutron transport in the optical regime. The recent surge of interest in so-called next generation spallation neutron sources and the desire to design new and optimized instruments for these facilities has led us to develop a Monte Carlo code geared toward the simulation of neutron scattering instruments. The time-of-flight multichopper spectrometer, of which IN5 at the ILL is the prototypical example, is the first spectrometer studied with the code. Some of the results of a comparison between the IN5 performance at a reactor and at a Long Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS) are summarized here. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  10. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Scholtz; S.W.P. Cloete; DU Toit, E.; J. B. van Wyk; T. C. de K van der Linde

    2011-01-01

    Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951) with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech), presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical tre...

  11. Some Aspects of Psychophysiological Support of Crew Member's Performance Reliability in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, A. P.; Myasnikov, V. I.; Stepanova, S. I.; Isaev, G. F.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    The history of cosmonautics demonstrates many instances in which only crewmembers' intervention allowed critical situations to be resolved, or catastrophes to be prevented. However, during "crew-spacecraft" system operation human is exposed by influence of numerous flight factors, and beforehand it is very difficult to predict their effects on his functional state and work capacity. So, the incidents are known when unfavorable alterations of crewmember's psychophysiological state (PPS) provoked errors in task performance. The objective of the present investigation was to substantiate the methodological approach directed to increase reliability of a crewmember performance (human error prevention) by means of management of his/her PPS. The specific aims of the investigation were: 1) to evaluate the statistical significance of the interrelation between crew errors (CE) and crewmember's PPS, and 2) to develop the way of PPS management. At present, there is no conventional method to assess combined effect of flight conditions (microgravity, confinement, psychosocial factors, etc.) on crewmembers' PPS. For this purpose experts of the Medical Support Group (psychoneurologists and psychologists) at the Moscow Mission Control Center analyze information received during radio and TV contacts with crew. Peculiarities of behavior, motor activity, sleep, speech, mood, emotional reactions, well-being and sensory sphere, trend of dominant interests and volitional acts, signs of deprivation phenomena are considered as separate indicators of crewmember's PPS. The set of qualitative symptoms reflecting PPS alterations and corresponding to them ratings (in arbitrary units) was empirically stated for each indicator. It is important to emphasize that symptoms characterizing more powerful PPS alterations have higher ratings. Quantitative value of PPS integral parameter is calculating by adding up the ratings of all separate indicators over a day, a week, or other temporal interval (in

  12. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Integration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82 along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38 across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 m. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than 20 m over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA

  13. Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep-deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Caldwell, John A; Caldwell, J Lynn

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance impairment due to sleep loss in a highly select population of militaryjet pilots. Ten active-duty F-117 pilots were deprived of sleep for 38 h and studied repeatedly in a high-fidelity flight simulator. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA to quantify individual variability. Statistically significant, systematic individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation were observed, even when baseline differences were accounted for. The findings suggest that highly select populations may exhibit individual differences in vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss just as the general population does. Thus, the scientific and operational communities' reliance on group data as opposed to individual data may entail substantial misestimation of the impact of job-related stressors on safety and performance. PMID:16956110

  14. Stability of the Positive Point of Equilibrium of Nicholson's Blowflies Equation with Stochastic Perturbations: Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Bradul

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Known Nicholson's blowflies equation (which is one of the most important models in ecology with stochastic perturbations is considered. Stability of the positive (nontrivial point of equilibrium of this equation and also a capability of its discrete analogue to preserve stability properties of the original differential equation are studied. For this purpose, the considered equation is centered around the positive equilibrium and linearized. Asymptotic mean square stability of the linear part of the considered equation is used to verify stability in probability of nonlinear origin equation. From known previous results connected with B. Kolmanovskii and L. Shaikhet, general method of Lyapunov functionals construction, necessary and sufficient condition of stability in the mean square sense in the continuous case and necessary and sufficient conditions for the discrete case are deduced. Stability conditions for the discrete analogue allow to determinate an admissible step of discretization for numerical simulation of solution trajectories. The trajectories of stable and unstable solutions of considered equations are simulated numerically in the deterministic and the stochastic cases for different values of the parameters and of the initial data. Numerous graphical illustrations of stability regions and solution trajectories are plotted.

  15. Broadband photon time of flight spectroscopy: advanced spectroscopic analysis for ensuring safety and performance of pharmaceutical tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamran, Faisal; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Andersson-Engels, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    We report on extended spectroscopic analysis of pharmaceutical tablets performed with broadband photon time-of-flight absorption/scaring spectroscopy. Precise monitoring of absorption and scattering spectra enables cost-efficient monitoring of key safety and performance parameters of the drugs....

  16. Flight performance and feather quality: paying the price of overlapping moult and breeding in a tropical highland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Echeverry-Galvis

    Full Text Available A temporal separation of energetically costly life history events like reproduction and maintenance of the integumentary system is thought to be promoted by selection to avoid trade-offs and maximize fitness. It has therefore remained somewhat of a paradox that certain vertebrate species can undergo both events simultaneously. Identifying potential costs of overlapping two demanding life history stages will further our understanding of the selection pressures that shape the temporal regulation of life history events in vertebrates. We studied free-living tropical Slaty brush-finches (Atlapetes schistaceus, in which individuals spontaneously overlap reproduction and moult or undergo both events in separation. To assess possible costs of such an overlap we quantified feather quality and flight performance of individuals in different states. We determined individual's life history state by measuring gonad size and scoring moult stage, and collected a newly grown 7(th primary wing feather for later analysis of feather quality. Finally, we quantified flight performance for each individual in the wild. Overlapping individuals produced lighter and shorter wing feathers than individuals just moulting, with females decreasing feather quality more strongly during the overlap than males. Moreover, overlapping individuals had a reduced flight speed during escape flights, while their foraging flight speed was unaffected. Despite overlappers being larger and having a smaller wing area, their lower body mass resulted in a similar wing load as in breeders or moulters. Individuals measured repeatedly in different states also showed significant decreases in feather quality and escape flight speed during the overlap. Reduced escape flight speed may represent a major consequence of the overlap by increasing predation risk. Our data document costs to undergoing two life history stages simultaneously, which likely arise from energetic trade-offs. Impairments in

  17. Flight Performance and Comparative Energetics of the Giant Andean Hummingbird (Patagona gigas)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    Among vertebrates, hummingbirds (family Trochilidae) represent an extreme outcome in vertebrate physiological design, and are unique in their capacity for sustained hovering flight. Because hovering flight is one of the most energetically demanding forms of locomotion requiring high levels of metabolic power input and mechanical power output, hummingbirds offer a useful system to study their energetics and flight mechanics. There are about 330 species of hummingbirds, of which 70% of the sp...

  18. Performance results from in-flight commissioning of the Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Walther, B. C.; Winters, G. S.; Persyn, S. C.; Eterno, J. S.

    2013-09-01

    We present a description of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS) and results from its in-flight commissioning performed between December 5th and 13th 2011 and its first periodic maintenance between October 10th and 12th 2012. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, unlike the other Alice spectrographs, Juno-UVS sits aboard a spin stabilized spacecraft. The Juno-UVS scan mirror allows for pointing of the slit approximately +/-30° from the spacecraft spin plane. This ability gives Juno-UVS access to half the sky at any given spacecraft orientation. The planned 2 rpm spin rate for the primary mission results in integration times per 0.2° spatial resolution element per spin of only ~17 ms. Thus, for calibration purposes, data were retrieved from many spins and then remapped and co-added to build up exposure times on bright stars to measure the effective area, spatial resolution, scan mirror pointing positions, etc. The primary job of Juno-UVS will be to characterize Jupiter's UV auroral emissions and relate them to in-situ particle measurements. The ability to point the slit will make operations more flexible, allowing Juno-UVS to observe the atmospheric footprints of magnetic field lines through which Juno flies, giving a direct connection between energetic particle measurements on the spacecraft and the far-ultraviolet emissions produced by Jupiter's atmosphere in response to those particles.

  19. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr3 crystals respectively. PMID:24575149

  20. Circadian Entrainment, Sleep-Wake Regulation and Neurobehavioral Performance During Extended Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned space flight requires crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. However, the reduction in the strength of environmental synchronizers in the space environment leads to misalignment of circadian phase among crew members, coupled with restricted time available to sleep, results in sleep deprivation and consequent deterioration of neurobehavioral function. Crew members are provided, and presently use, long-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics on board the current, relatively brief space shuttle missions to counteract such sleep disruption, a situation that is only likely to worsen during extended duration missions. Given the known carry-over effects of such compounds on daytime performance, together with the reduction in emergency readiness associated with their use at night, NASA has recognized the need to develop effective but safe countermeasures to allow crew members to obtain an adequate amount of sleep. Over the past eight years, we have successfully implemented a new technology for shuttle crew members involving bright light exposure during the pre-launch period to facilitate adaptation of the circadian timing system to the inversions of the sleep-wake schedule often required during dual shift missions. However for long duration space station missions it will be necessary to develop effective and attainable countermeasures that can be used chronically to optimize circadian entrainment. Our current research effort is to study the effects of light-dark cycles with reduced zeitgeber strength, such as are anticipated during long-duration space flight, on the entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system and to study the effects of a countermeasure that consists of scheduled brief exposures to bright light on the human circadian timing system. The proposed studies are designed to address the following Specific Aims: (1) test the hypothesis that

  1. In-flight performance of the SBS-1A solar array featuring ultrathin, high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrathin (0.0025 inch) solar cells were selected for use on the Satellite Business System (SBS) 1A solar array, launched in September, 1988, to achieve minimum solar array weight and maximum end-of-life solar array power. The design of the ultrathin cell was predicted to produce an improved resistance to radiation degradation and superior current collection efficiency, thus increasing the power per unit area at end of life compared to conventional thickness silicon solar cells. The ultrathin solar cells were qualified for flight and characterized prior to fabrication of the SBS-1A array. Performance predictions in the mission environment were based on these characteristics and by the measured photovoltaic output of the flight solar cells. The predicted solar array performance has been validated to date within two percent by in-flight test data

  2. Performance study of a time-of-flight detector for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isochronous Mass Spectrometry as performed at the FRS-ESR facility at GSI can be used to measure masses of exotic nuclei with lifetimes as short as tens of microseconds. For the measurement of the revolution frequencies for a few ions, a time-of-flight detector is used. Secondary electrons released from a thin CsI coated carbon foil at every passage of the ion through the detector are transported to micro-channel-plates (MCP) by electric and magnetic fields. In order to increase the detection efficiency and the timing characteristics, offline and online experiments have been performed. The experimental results have been compared to simulations. Clear evidence for improved detection efficiency at different magnet field have been found. All stages in the detection process from the creation of secondary electrons, their transport to the MCP to the detection in MCPs have been investigated, The comparison shows that the only weak point of the measurement method is the high count rate required. This knowledge can now be used for the developement of a TOF detector for IMS at the CR at FAIR

  3. The Huygens surface science package (SSP): Flight performance review and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, M. R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Hathi, B.; Zarnecki, J. C.

    2012-09-01

    The Surface Science Package (SSP) was one of six instruments flown onboard the Huygens probe to Titan, the largest moon of Saturn, in the framework of the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission (Matson et al., 2002). The SSP operated throughout the probe's descent and after landing on Titan on 14th January 2005. This paper reviews scientific results from the Surface Science Package, and also reports previously unpublished flight data which illustrate the performance of the measurement systems in the Titan environment. This review provides some lessons learned that may be useful for further detailed analysis of the Huygens mission data, and for payloads for future missions to Titan, in which there has been recent interest (e.g., the Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) (Joint TSSM Science Definition Team, 2009), TANDEM (Coustenis et al., 2009) or the Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Discovery-class proposal (Stofan et al., 2010)), as well as for planetary probe missions more generally.

  4. Design and Performance of the NASA SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Patterson, Michael D.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Moore, Mark D.; Clarke, Sean; Redifer, Matthew E.; Christie, Robert J.; Stoll, Alex M.; Dubois, Arthur; Bevirt, JoeBen; Gibson, Andrew R.; Foster, Trevor J.; Osterkamp, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) technology uses multiple propulsors driven by electric motors distributed about the airframe to yield beneficial aerodynamic-propulsion interaction. The NASA SCEPTOR flight demonstration project will retrofit an existing internal combustion engine-powered light aircraft with two types of DEP: small "high-lift" propellers distributed along the leading edge of the wing which accelerate the flow over the wing at low speeds, and larger cruise propellers co-located with each wingtip for primary propulsive power. The updated high-lift system enables a 2.5x reduction in wing area as compared to the original aircraft, reducing drag at cruise and shifting the velocity for maximum lift-to-drag ratio to a higher speed, while maintaining low-speed performance. The wingtip-mounted cruise propellers interact with the wingtip vortex, enabling a further efficiency increase that can reduce propulsive power by 10%. A tradespace exploration approach is developed that enables rapid identification of salient trades, and subsequent creation of SCEPTOR demonstrator geometries. These candidates were scrutinized by subject matter experts to identify design preferences that were not modeled during configuration exploration. This exploration and design approach is used to create an aircraft that consumes an estimated 4.8x less energy at the selected cruise point when compared to the original aircraft.

  5. The SWAP EUV Imaging Telescope. Part II: In-flight Performance and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halain, J.-P.; Berghmans, D.; Seaton, D. B.; Nicula, B.; De Groof, A.; Mierla, M.; Mazzoli, A.; Defise, J.-M.; Rochus, P.

    2013-08-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope was launched on 2 November 2009 onboard the ESA PROBA2 technological mission and has acquired images of the solar corona every one to two minutes for more than two years. The most important technological developments included in SWAP are a radiation-resistant CMOS-APS detector and a novel onboard data-prioritization scheme. Although such detectors have been used previously in space, they have never been used for long-term scientific observations on orbit. Thus SWAP requires a careful calibration to guarantee the science return of the instrument. Since launch we have regularly monitored the evolution of SWAP's detector response in-flight to characterize both its performance and degradation over the course of the mission. These measurements are also used to reduce detector noise in calibrated images (by subtracting dark-current). Because accurate measurements of detector dark-current require large telescope off-points, we also monitored straylight levels in the instrument to ensure that these calibration measurements are not contaminated by residual signal from the Sun. Here we present the results of these tests and examine the variation of instrumental response and noise as a function of both time and temperature throughout the mission.

  6. The SWAP EUV Imaging Telescope. Part II: In-flight Performance and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Halain, Jean-Philippe; Seaton, Dan; Nicula, Bogdan; De Groof, Anik; Mierla, Marilena; Mazzoli, Alexandra; Defise, Jean-Marc; Rochus, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope was launched on 2 November 2009 onboard the ESA PROBA2 technological mission and has acquired images of the solar corona every one - two minutes for more than two years. The most important technological developments included in SWAP are a radiation-resistant CMOS-APS detector and a novel onboard data-prioritization scheme. Although such detectors have been used previously in space, they have never been used for long-term scientific observations on orbit. Thus SWAP requires a careful calibration to guarantee the science return of the instrument. Since launch we have regularly monitored the evolution of SWAP detector response in-flight to characterize both its performance and degradation over the course of the mission. These measurements are also used to reduce detector noise in calibrated images (by subtracting dark-current). Since accurate measurements of detector dark-current require large telescope off-points, we have al...

  7. Pre-Flight Testing and Performance of a Ka-Band Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a space-qualified, reprogrammable, Ka-band Software Defined Radio (SDR) to be utilized as part of an on-orbit, reconfigurable testbed. The testbed will operate on the truss of the International Space Station beginning in late 2012. Three unique SDRs comprise the testbed, and each radio is compliant to the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. The testbed provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop communications, navigation, and networking applications in the laboratory and space environment, while at the same time advancing SDR technology, reducing risk, and enabling future mission capability. Designed and built by Harris Corporation, the Ka-band SDR is NASA's first space-qualified Ka-band SDR transceiver. The Harris SDR will also mark the first NASA user of the Ka-band capabilities of the Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for on-orbit operations. This paper describes the testbed's Ka-band System, including the SDR, travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), and antenna system. The reconfigurable aspects of the system enabled by SDR technology are discussed and the Ka-band system performance is presented as measured during extensive pre-flight testing.

  8. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle

  9. Flight Performance Handbook for Orbital Operations: Orbital Mechanics and Astrodynamics Formulae, Theorems, Techniques, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Alphonso; Blitzer, Leon; Conte, S.D.; Cooper, Donald H.; Dergarabedian, P.; Dethlefsen, D.G.; Lunn, Richard L.; Ireland, Richard O.; Jensen, Arnold A.; Kang, Garfield; Levy, Ezra C.; Liu, Anthony; Marcus, Silvia R.; Mickelwait, A.B.; Moe, Kenneth; Moe, Mildred M.; Pitton, A.R.; Scheuer, Ernest M.; Tompkins, E.H.; Weiser, Peter B.; Whitford, R.K.; Wolverton, R.W.

    1961-01-01

    This handbook provides parametric data useful both to the space vehicle designer and mission analyst. It provides numerical and analytical relationships between missions and gross vehicle characteristics as a function of performance parameters. The effects of missile constraints and gross guidance limitations plus operational constraints such as launch site location, tracking net location, orbit visibility and mission on trajectory and orbit design parameters are exhibited. The influence of state-of- the-art applications of solar power as compared to future applications of nuclear power on orbit design parameters, such as eclipse time, are among the parameters included in the study. The principal aim, however, is in providing the analyst with useful parametric design information to cover the general area of earth satellite missions in the region of near-earth to cislunar space and beyond and from injection to atmospheric entry and controlled descent. The chapters are organized around the central idea of orbital operations in the 1961-1969 era with emphasis on parametric flight mechanics studies for ascent phase and parking orbits, transfer maneuvers, rendezvous maneuver, operational orbit considerations, and operational orbit control. The results are based almost entirely on the principles of flight and celestial mechanics. Numerous practical examples have been worked out in detail. This is especially important where it has been difficult or impossible to represent all possible variations of the parameters. The handbook contains analytical formulae and sufficient textual material to permit their proper use. The analytic methods consist of both exact and rapid, approximate methods. Scores of tables, working graphs and illustrations amplify the mathematical models which, together with important facts and data, cover the engineering and scientific applications of orbital mechanics. Each of the five major chapters are arranged to provide a rapid review of an entire

  10. Overview of crew member energy expenditure during Shuttle Flight 61-8 EASE/ACCESS task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Waligora, J. W.; Stanford, J.; Edwards, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    The energy expenditure of the Shuttle Flight 61-B crewmembers during the extravehicular performance of Experimental Assembly of Structures in EVA (EASE) and Assembly Concept of Construction of Space Structures (ACCESS) construction system tasks are reported. These data consist of metabolic rate time profiles correlated with specific EASE and ACCESS tasks and crew comments. Average extravehicular activity metabolic rates are computed and compared with those reported from previous Apollo, Shylab, and Shuttle flights. These data reflect total energy expenditure and not that of individual muscle groups such as hand and forearm. When correlated with specific EVA tasks and subtasks, the metabolic profile data is expected to be useful in planning future EVA protocols. For example, after experiencing high work rates and apparent overheating during some Gemini EVAs, it was found useful to carefully monitor work rates in subsequent flights to assess the adequacy of cooling garments and as an aid to preplanning EVA procedures. This presentation is represented by graphs and charts.

  11. Biplane wing planform and flight performance of the feathered dinosaur Microraptor gui

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Templin, R. Jack

    2007-01-01

    Microraptor gui, a four-winged dromaeosaur from the Early Cretaceous of China, provides strong evidence for an arboreal-gliding origin of avian flight. It possessed asymmetric flight feathers not only on the manus but also on the pes. A previously published reconstruction shows that the hindwing of Microraptor supported by a laterally extended leg would have formed a second pair of wings in tetrapteryx fashion. However, this wing design conflicts with known theropod limb joints that entail a ...

  12. Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Michael E.; Dudley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Animal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, and can sustain hovering flight under hypobaria at effective elevations in excess of 9000 m, i.e. higher than Mt. Everest. Modulat...

  13. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  14. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  15. The Cluster Magnetic Field Investigation: overview of in-flight performance and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Balogh

    Full Text Available The accurate measurement of the magnetic field along the orbits of the four Cluster spacecraft is a primary objective of the mission. The magnetic field is a key constituent of the plasma in and around the magnetosphere, and it plays an active role in all physical processes that define the structure and dynamics of magnetospheric phenomena on all scales. With the four-point measurements on Cluster, it has become possible to study the three-dimensional aspects of space plasma phenomena on scales commeasurable with the size of the spacecraft constellation, and to distinguish temporal and spatial dependences of small-scale processes. We present an overview of the instrumentation used to measure the magnetic field on the four Cluster spacecraft and an overview the performance of the operational modes used in flight. We also report on the results of the preliminary in-orbit calibration of the magnetometers; these results show that all components of the magnetic field are measured with an accuracy approaching 0.1 nT. Further data analysis is expected to bring an even more accurate determination of the calibration parameters. Several examples of the capabilities of the investigation are presented from the commissioning phase of the mission, and from the different regions visited by the spacecraft to date: the tail current sheet, the dusk side magnetopause and magnetosheath, the bow shock and the cusp. We also describe the data processing flow and the implementation of data distribution to other Cluster investigations and to the scientific community in general.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (instruments and techniques – magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics – space plasma physics (shock waves

  16. A Full Mission Simulator Study of Aircrew Performances: the Measurement of Crew Coordination and Decisionmaking Factors and Their Relationships to Flight Task Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Tanner, T. A.; Frankel, R. M.; Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen three man crews flew a full mission scenario in an airline flight simulator. A high level of verbal interaction during instances of critical decision making was located. Each crew flew the scenario only once, without prior knowledge of the scenario problem. Following a simulator run and in accord with formal instructions, each of the three crew members independently viewed and commented on a videotape of their performance. Two check pilot observers rated pilot performance across all crews and, following each run, also commented on the video tape of the crew's performance. A linguistic analysis of voice transcript is made to provide assessment of crew coordination and decision making qualities. Measures of crew coordination and decision making factors are correlated with flight task performance measures.

  17. Design and performance tests of the CDF time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CDF II detector contains a time-of-flight detector consisting of 216 scintillator bars of 279 cm length and 4x4 cm2 cross-section located at a radius of 138 cm from the beam axis. The bars are installed on the inner surface of the CDF solenoid, which produces an axial field of 1.4 T. Nineteen-stage fine-mesh photomultiplier tubes are attached at both ends of the scintillator bars. Photostatistics limit the time-of-flight resolution, which is expected to be 100 ps. The primary physics motivation is K± identification for improved neutral B meson flavor determination

  18. Lockheed L-1011 Test Station on-board in support of the Adaptive Performance Optimization flight res

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This console and its compliment of computers, monitors and commmunications equipment make up the Research Engineering Test Station, the nerve center for a new aerodynamics experiment being conducted by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The equipment is installed on a modified Lockheed L-1011 Tristar jetliner operated by Orbital Sciences Corp., of Dulles, Va., for Dryden's Adaptive Performance Optimization project. The experiment seeks to improve the efficiency of long-range jetliners by using small movements of the ailerons to improve the aerodynamics of the wing at cruise conditions. About a dozen research flights in the Adaptive Performance Optimization project are planned over the next two to three years. Improving the aerodynamic efficiency should result in equivalent reductions in fuel usage and costs for airlines operating large, wide-bodied jetliners.

  19. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... References. (1) 14 CFR part 60. (2) 14 CFR part 61. (3) 14 CFR part 63. (4) 14 CFR part 119. (5) 14 CFR part 121. (6) 14 CFR part 125. (7) 14 CFR part 135. (8) 14 CFR part 141. (9) 14 CFR part 142. (10) AC 120... Airplane Full Flight Simulators A Appendix A to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  20. The Herschel-SPIRE instrument and its in-flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M. J.; Abergel, A.; Abreu, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; André, P.; Augueres, J.-L.; Babbedge, T.; Bae, Y.; Baillie, T.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Barlow, M. J.; Bendo, G.; Benielli, D.; Bock, J. J.; Bonhomme, P.; Brisbin, D.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Caldwell, M.; Cara, C.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cerulli, R.; Chanial, P.; Chen, S.; Clark, E.; Clements, D. L.; Clerc, L.; Coker, J.; Communal, D.; Conversi, L.; Cox, P.; Crumb, D.; Cunningham, C.; Daly, F.; Davis, G. R.; de Antoni, P.; Delderfield, J.; Devin, N.; di Giorgio, A.; Didschuns, I.; Dohlen, K.; Donati, M.; Dowell, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Dumaye, L.; Emery, R. J.; Ferlet, M.; Ferrand, D.; Fontignie, J.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Frerking, M.; Fulton, T.; Garcia, J.; Gastaud, R.; Gear, W. K.; Glenn, J.; Goizel, A.; Griffin, D. K.; Grundy, T.; Guest, S.; Guillemet, L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Harwit, M.; Hastings, P.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Herman, M.; Hinde, B.; Hristov, V.; Huang, M.; Imhof, P.; Isaak, K. J.; Israelsson, U.; Ivison, R. J.; Jennings, D.; Kiernan, B.; King, K. J.; Lange, A. E.; Latter, W.; Laurent, G.; Laurent, P.; Leeks, S. J.; Lellouch, E.; Levenson, L.; Li, B.; Li, J.; Lilienthal, J.; Lim, T.; Liu, S. J.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Mainetti, G.; Marliani, P.; McKay, D.; Mercier, K.; Molinari, S.; Morris, H.; Moseley, H.; Mulder, J.; Mur, M.; Naylor, D. A.; Nguyen, H.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S.; Olofsson, G.; Olofsson, H.-G.; Orfei, R.; Page, M. J.; Pain, I.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parks, G.; Parr-Burman, P.; Pearce, A.; Pearson, C.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pinsard, F.; Pisano, G.; Podosek, J.; Pohlen, M.; Polehampton, E. T.; Pouliquen, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rizzo, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Roussel, H.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rownd, B.; Saraceno, P.; Sauvage, M.; Savage, R.; Savini, G.; Sawyer, E.; Scharmberg, C.; Schmitt, D.; Schneider, N.; Schulz, B.; Schwartz, A.; Shafer, R.; Shupe, D. L.; Sibthorpe, B.; Sidher, S.; Smith, A.; Smith, A. J.; Smith, D.; Spencer, L.; Stobie, B.; Sudiwala, R.; Sukhatme, K.; Surace, C.; Stevens, J. A.; Swinyard, B. M.; Trichas, M.; Tourette, T.; Triou, H.; Tseng, S.; Tucker, C.; Turner, A.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Vigroux, L.; Virique, E.; Voellmer, G.; Walker, H.; Ward, R.; Waskett, T.; Weilert, M.; Wesson, R.; White, G. J.; Whitehouse, N.; Wilson, C. D.; Winter, B.; Woodcraft, A. L.; Wright, G. S.; Xu, C. K.; Zavagno, A.; Zemcov, M.; Zhang, L.; Zonca, E.

    2010-07-01

    The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE), is the Herschel Space Observatory`s submillimetre camera and spectrometer. It contains a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 350 and 500 μm, and an imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) which covers simultaneously its whole operating range of 194-671 μm (447-1550 GHz). The SPIRE detectors are arrays of feedhorn-coupled bolometers cooled to 0.3 K. The photometer has a field of view of 4´× 8´, observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands. Its main operating mode is scan-mapping, whereby the field of view is scanned across the sky to achieve full spatial sampling and to cover large areas if desired. The spectrometer has an approximately circular field of view with a diameter of 2.6´. The spectral resolution can be adjusted between 1.2 and 25 GHz by changing the stroke length of the FTS scan mirror. Its main operating mode involves a fixed telescope pointing with multiple scans of the FTS mirror to acquire spectral data. For extended source measurements, multiple position offsets are implemented by means of an internal beam steering mirror to achieve the desired spatial sampling and by rastering of the telescope pointing to map areas larger than the field of view. The SPIRE instrument consists of a cold focal plane unit located inside the Herschel cryostat and warm electronics units, located on the spacecraft Service Module, for instrument control and data handling. Science data are transmitted to Earth with no on-board data compression, and processed by automatic pipelines to produce calibrated science products. The in-flight performance of the instrument matches or exceeds predictions based on pre-launch testing and modelling: the photometer sensitivity is comparable to or slightly better than estimated pre-launch, and the spectrometer sensitivity is also better by a factor of 1.5-2. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal

  1. Transient oscillatory patterns in the diffusive non-local blowfly equation with delay under the zero-flux boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the spatial-temporal patterns of the solutions to the diffusive non-local Nicholson's blowflies equations with time delay (maturation time) subject to the no flux boundary condition. We establish the existence of both spatially homogeneous periodic solutions and various spatially inhomogeneous periodic solutions by investigating the Hopf bifurcations at the spatially homogeneous steady state. We also compute the normal form on the centre manifold, by which the bifurcation direction and stability of the bifurcated periodic solutions can be determined. The results show that the bifurcated homogeneous periodic solutions are stable, while the bifurcated inhomogeneous periodic solutions can only be stable on the corresponding centre manifold, implying that generically the model can only allow transient oscillatory patterns. Finally, we present some numerical simulations to demonstrate the theoretic results. For these transient patterns, we derive approximation formulas which are confirmed by numerical simulations. (paper)

  2. Do right-biased boxers do it better? Population-level asymmetry of aggressive displays enhances fighting success in blowflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Donato; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. left-right asymmetries in brain and behaviour) of aggressive traits has been deeply studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. We investigated lateralisation of boxing behaviour in the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), where males fight for non-resource based spaces. We found a population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays: three repeated testing phases confirmed the preferential use of right legs over left ones. Duration of contests and number of boxing acts per fighting event were not different between males using left and right legs. The use of right legs for boxing acts lead to higher fighting success over males using left legs. Lateralised aggressive displays at population-level may be connected to the prolonged social interactions occurring among males searching for food and mates. PMID:25659526

  3. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of neurons in the blowfly optic lobe reacting with antisera to RFamide and FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nässel, D R; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Johansson, K U;

    1988-01-01

    immunoreactive processes. The RF-like immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobes are of two main classes: (1) two types of large field projection neurons and (2) five types of local neurons. One type of projection neurons (five in each lobe) connects the entire projected retinal mosaic of the medulla and lobula...... in the optic lobe with protocerebral centres associated with the mushroom body calyx. The other type (2-3 invading each lobe) has cell bodies in the protocerebrum and contralateral processes invading optic lobes. Of the class of local neurons there are two amacrine RF-like immunoreactive neurons in......Different antisera to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRFamide, and its fragment, RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2), label a distinct population of neurons in the optic lobe of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala. Seven morphological types of RFamide/FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons could be...

  4. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; Christiansen, Eric; Schneider, Todd; Edwards, Dave

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  5. The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry-BLASTPol: Performance and results from the 2012 Antarctic flight

    CERN Document Server

    Galitzki, N; Angilé, F E; Benton, S J; Devlin, M J; Dober, B; Fissel, L M; Fukui, Y; Gandilo, N N; Klein, J; Korotkov, A L; Matthews, T G; Moncelsi, L; Netterfield, C B; Novak, G; Nutter, D; Pascale, E; Poidevin, F; Savini, G; Scott, D; Shariff, J A; Soler, J D; Tucker, C E; Tucker, G S; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) is a suborbital mapping experiment, designed to study the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process. BLASTPol observes polarized light using a total power instrument, photolithographic polarizing grids, and an achromatic half-wave plate to modulate the polarization signal. During its second flight from Antarctica in December 2012, BLASTPol made degree scale maps of linearly polarized dust emission from molecular clouds in three wavebands, centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns. The instrumental performance was an improvement over the 2010 BLASTPol flight, with decreased systematics resulting in a higher number of confirmed polarization vectors. The resultant dataset allows BLASTPol to trace magnetic fields in star-forming regions at scales ranging from cores to entire molecular cloud complexes.

  6. The flight experiment ANITA—a high performance air analyser for manned space cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuffler, T.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Honne, A.; Tan, G.

    2004-08-01

    Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air (ANITA) is a flight experiment as precursor for a permanent continuous trace gas monitoring system on the International Space Station (ISS). For over 10 years, under various ESA contracts the flight experiment was defined, designed, breadboarded and set up. For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi on-line and simultaneously 32 trace gases with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The self-standing measurement system is based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) technology. The system represents a versatile air monitor allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics of a spacecraft atmosphere. It is envisaged to accommodate ANITA in a Destiny (US LAB) Express Rack on the ISS. The transportation to the ISS is planned with the first ATV 'Jules Verne'. The options are either the Space Shuttle or the Automated Transfer Vehicle.

  7. From Research to Flight: Thinking About Implementation While Performing Fundamental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation calls for a strategy to implement new technologies. Such a strategy would allow advanced space transportation technologies to mature for exploration beyond Earth orbit. It discusses the difference between technology push versus technology pull. It also reviews the three basic technology readiness levels (TRL). The presentation traces examples of technology development to flight application: the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System, the Friction Stir Welding technology the (auto-adjustable pin tool). A couple of technologies currently not in flight, but are being reviewed for potential use are: cryogenic fluid management (CFM), and solar sail propulsion. There is also an attempt to explain why new technologies are so difficult to field.

  8. Satellite system performance assessment for in-flight entertainment and air traffic control

    OpenAIRE

    Radzik, José; Pirovano, Alain; Tao, Na; Bousquet, Michel

    2007-01-01

    International audience Concurrent satellite systems have been proposed for IFE (In-Flight Entertainment) communications, thus demonstrating the capability of satellites to provide multimedia access to users in aircraft cabin. At the same time, an increasing interest in the use of satellite communications for ATC (Air Traffic Control) has been motivated by the increasing load of traditional radio links mainly in the VHF band, and uses the extended capacities the satellite may provide. Howev...

  9. Dynamics of experimental populations of native and introduced blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae: mathematical modelling and the transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAC Godoy

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium dynamics of native and introduced blowflies is modelled using a density-dependent model of population growth that takes into account important features of the life-history in these flies. A theoretical analysis indicates that the product of maximum fecundity and survival is the primary determinant of the dynamics. Cochliomyia macellaria, a blowfly native to the Americas and the introduced Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria, differ in their dynamics in that the first species shows a damping oscillatory behavior leading to a one-point equilibrium, whereas in the last two species population numbers show a two-point limit cycle. Simulations showed that variation in fecundity has a marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations and aperiodic behavior. Variation in survival has much less influence on the dynamics.

  10. Evaluating Sarconesiopsis magellanica blowfly-derived larval therapy and comparing it to Lucilia sericata-derived therapy in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Gaona, María A; Segura, Nidya A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio

    2016-02-01

    Larval therapy is used as alternative treatment for hard-to-heal chronic and infected wounds. Lucilia sericata is the most used blowfly species. However, it has been shown recently that Sarconesiopsis magellanica larval excretions and secretions have potent antibacterial activity; this blowfly belongs to the Calliphoridae family. The present work has dealt with evaluating larval therapy using S. magellanica on wounds induced in diabetic rabbits and its action was compared to the effect induced by L. sericata. Twelve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used; they were divided into 4 groups, the first two being treated with larval therapy derived from both aforementioned necrophagous blowflies, an antibiotic was used in the third and the fourth was used as control. All the animals were wounded on the back and infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Samples of the secretion from each animal's infected wound were taken and sown on blood agar. The colony forming units were then counted. The PUSH scale was used for the macroscopic evaluation of the wounds. Bacterial control was encountered 48 h post-treatment in the treatments involving larval therapy and to a lesser extent with the antibiotic. Likewise, wound debridement was quicker and more efficient with larval therapy compared to the antibiotic group; however, wound closing time was 23 days in all treatments. The group treated with S. magellanica larvae had relatively quicker evolution until the proliferation phase and the start of maturation, even though there were no significant differences between both blowfly species evaluated here regarding treatments by the end of the treatment period. The present study has validated the diabetic rabbit model for inducing chronic wounds regarding larval therapy and has likewise confirmed the effectiveness of S. magellanica-derived larval therapy as an alternative for curing and healing wounds. PMID:26546725

  11. Seasonal blowfly distribution and abundance in fragmented landscapes. Is it useful in forensic inference about where a corpse has been decaying?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabi Zabala

    Full Text Available Blowflies are insects of forensic interest as they may indicate characteristics of the environment where a body has been laying prior to the discovery. In order to estimate changes in community related to landscape and to assess if blowfly species can be used as indicators of the landscape where a corpse has been decaying, we studied the blowfly community and how it is affected by landscape in a 7,000 km2 region during a whole year. Using baited traps deployed monthly we collected 28,507 individuals of 10 calliphorid species, 7 of them well represented and distributed in the study area. Multiple Analysis of Variance found changes in abundance between seasons in the 7 analyzed species, and changes related to land use in 4 of them (Calliphora vomitoria, Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris. Generalised Linear Model analyses of abundance of these species compared with landscape descriptors at different scales found only a clear significant relationship between summer abundance of C. vomitoria and distance to urban areas and degree of urbanisation. This relationship explained more deviance when considering the landscape composition at larger geographical scales (up to 2,500 m around sampling site. For the other species, no clear relationship between land uses and abundance was found, and therefore observed changes in their abundance patterns could be the result of other variables, probably small changes in temperature. Our results suggest that blowfly community composition cannot be used to infer in what kind of landscape a corpse has decayed, at least in highly fragmented habitats, the only exception being the summer abundance of C. vomitoria.

  12. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  13. Seasonal Blowfly Distribution and Abundance in Fragmented Landscapes. Is It Useful in Forensic Inference about Where a Corpse Has Been Decaying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Jabi; Díaz, Beatriz; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Blowflies are insects of forensic interest as they may indicate characteristics of the environment where a body has been laying prior to the discovery. In order to estimate changes in community related to landscape and to assess if blowfly species can be used as indicators of the landscape where a corpse has been decaying, we studied the blowfly community and how it is affected by landscape in a 7,000 km2 region during a whole year. Using baited traps deployed monthly we collected 28,507 individuals of 10 calliphorid species, 7 of them well represented and distributed in the study area. Multiple Analysis of Variance found changes in abundance between seasons in the 7 analyzed species, and changes related to land use in 4 of them (Calliphora vomitoria, Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). Generalised Linear Model analyses of abundance of these species compared with landscape descriptors at different scales found only a clear significant relationship between summer abundance of C. vomitoria and distance to urban areas and degree of urbanisation. This relationship explained more deviance when considering the landscape composition at larger geographical scales (up to 2,500 m around sampling site). For the other species, no clear relationship between land uses and abundance was found, and therefore observed changes in their abundance patterns could be the result of other variables, probably small changes in temperature. Our results suggest that blowfly community composition cannot be used to infer in what kind of landscape a corpse has decayed, at least in highly fragmented habitats, the only exception being the summer abundance of C. vomitoria. PMID:24918607

  14. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Kole, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Moretti, E.; Olofsson, G.; Rydström, S.; Takahashi, H.; Lind, J.; Strömberg, J.-E.; Welin, O.; Iyudin, A.; Shifrin, D.; Pearce, M.

    2016-02-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25-240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the three Crab observations conducted. The signal-to-background ratio for the observations is shown to be 0.25 ±0.03 and the Minimum Detectable Polarisation (99 % C.L.) is (28.4 ±2.2) %. A strategy for the continuation of the PoGOLite programme is outlined based on experience gained during the 2013 maiden flight.

  15. The in-flight spectroscopic performance of the Swift XRT CCD camera

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, J. P.; Beardmore, A. P.; Godet, O.; Abbey, A. F.; Goad, M. R.; Page, K. L.; Wells, A. A.; Angelini, L; Burrows, D. N.; S. Campana; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; Giommi, P.; Hill, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 144 eV FWHM at 6.5 keV. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Loss of temperature control motivated a laboratory program to re-optimize the CCD substrate volt...

  16. The in-flight spectroscopic performance of the Swift XRT CCD camera during 2006-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Godet, O.; Beardmore, A. P.; Abbey, A. F.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Tyler, L.; Burrows, D. N.; Evans, P.; Starling, R.; Wells, A. A.; Angelini, L; S. Campana; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Comparison of observed spectra with models folded through the instrument res...

  17. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  18. TOFPET 2: A high-performance circuit for PET time-of-flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Agostino; Bugalho, Ricardo; Oliveira, Luis; Rivetti, Angelo; Rolo, Manuel; Silva, Jose C.; Varela, Joao

    2016-07-01

    We present a readout and digitization ASIC featuring low-noise and low-power for time-of flight (TOF) applications using SiPMs. The circuit is designed in standard CMOS 110 nm technology, has 64 independent channels and is optimized for time-of-flight measurement in Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET). The input amplifier is a low impedance current conveyor based on a regulated common-gate topology. Each channel has quad-buffered analogue interpolation TDCs (time binning 20 ps) and charge integration ADCs with linear response at full scale (1500 pC). The signal amplitude can also be derived from the measurement of time-over-threshold (ToT). Simulation results show that for a single photo-electron signal with charge 200 (550) fC generated by a SiPM with (320 pF) capacitance the circuit has 24 (30) dB SNR, 75 (39) ps r.m.s. resolution, and 4 (8) mW power consumption. The event rate is 600 kHz per channel, with up to 2 MHz dark counts rejection.

  19. Enhancing MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometer performance through spectrum averaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Mitchell

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometers are simple and robust mass spectrometers used for analysis of biologically relevant molecules in diverse fields including pathogen identification, imaging mass spectrometry, and natural products chemistry. Despite high nominal resolution and accuracy, we have observed significant variability where 30-50% of individual replicate measurements have errors in excess of 5 parts-per-million, even when using 5-point internal calibration. Increasing the number of laser shots for each spectrum did not resolve this observed variability. What is responsible for our observed variation? Using a modern MALDI-TOF/TOF instrument, we evaluated contributions to variability. Our data suggest a major component of variability is binning of the raw flight time data by the electronics and clock speed of the analog-to-digital (AD detection system, which requires interpolation by automated peak fitting algorithms and impacts both calibration and the observed mass spectrum. Importantly, the variation observed is predominantly normal in distribution, which implies multiple components contribute to the observed variation and suggests a method to mitigate this variability through spectrum averaging. Restarting the acquisition impacts each spectrum within the electronic error of the AD detector system and defines a new calibration function. Therefore, averaging multiple independent spectra and not a larger number of laser shots leverages this inherent binning error to mitigate variability in accurate MALDI-TOF mass measurements.

  20. Functional Sensory-Motor Performance Following Long Term Space Flight: The First Results of "Field Test" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kofman, I. S.; Kitov, V. V.; Grishin, A. P.; Yu, N.; Lysova.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Reschke, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect that extended-duration space flights may have on human space travelers, including exploration missions, is widely discussed at the present time. Specifically, there is an increasing amount of evidence showing that the physical capacity of cosmonauts is significantly reduced after long-duration space flights. It is evident that the most impaired functions are those that rely on gravity, particularly up right posture and gait. Because of the sensorimotor disturbances manifested in the neurology of the posture and gait space flight and postflight changes may also be observed in debilitating motion sickness. While the severity of particular symptoms varies, disturbances in spatial orientation and alterations in the accuracy of voluntary movements are persistently observed after long-duration space flights. At this time most of the currently available data are primarily descriptive and not yet suitable for predicting operational impacts of most sensorimotor decrements observed upon landing on planetary surfaces or asteroids. In particular there are no existing data on the recovery dynamics or functionality of neurological, cardiovascular or muscle performance making it difficult to model or simulate the cosmonauts' activity after landing and develop the appropriate countermeasure that will ensure the rapid and safe recovery of crewmembers immediately after landing in what could be hostile environments. However and as a starting position, the videos we have acquired during recent data collection following the long duration flights of cosmonauts and astronauts walking and performing other tasks shortly after return from space flight speak volumes about their level of deconditioning. A joint Russian-American team has developed a new study specifically to address the changes in crewmembers performance and the recovery of performance with the intent of filling the missing data gaps. The first (pilot) phase of this study includes recording body kinematics and

  1. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-06-01

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces. PMID:25946079

  2. High performance jet-engine flight test data base for HSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    The primary acoustic priority of the flight test data base for HSR is the validation of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) and other source noise codes. Also, the noise measurements are an important support function for the High Lift Program devoted to HSR. Another concern that will be addressed is a possible noise problem 7-20 miles from take-off during climbout. The attention arises from the higher speeds envisioned for the HSCT compared to conventional aircraft causing levels to increase because of Doppler amplification in conjunction with high source levels due to jet noise. An attempt may be made to measure airframe noise for the F-16XL test which would provide an assessment of this noise component for delta wing aircraft.

  3. Time of flight study of high performance CVD diamond detector devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison with polycrystalline diamond, single crystal diamond (SC CVD) offers important advantages for applications to electronics and detection. This is because SC CVD diamond exhibits improved charge transport characteristics, specifically a high drift mobility and an increased charge carrier lifetime. So far, only limited studies have dealt with the measurements of electrical transport parameters in SC diamond and majority of these studies were based on industrial material only. In our study we have investigated the electrical transport properties of PE CVD SC diamond grown using relatively high pressure growth conditions and high deposition growth rates (typically 20 μm/hour) by two independent methods: the laser Time-of-Flight (TOF) and the alpha particle TOF techniques. Raman spectroscopy, defect spectroscopy were used to characterize the quality of the samples prepared. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Organisation and expression of a cluster of female-specific genes in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is a major agricultural pest in Australia and New Zealand. In Australia, a number of field trails were conducted with a 'field female killing' strain of L. cuprina developed by Foster and colleagues. In the last field trial on Flinders Island, a significant repression of the field population was achieved. Thus there is a long history of attempts to use genetic strategies to control L. cuprina. We have been working towards developing a transgenic strain of L. cuprina that would be ideal for a maleonly SIT (Sterile Insect Technique) programme. We previously developed a tetracycline-repressible system for controlling female viability. This system had two components, yp1-tTA and tetO-hid. The tTA gene was only transcribed in female fat cells due to action of the female-specific transcription enhancer from the yolk protein1 gene. Once synthesis was induced, the tTA transcription factor bound to the tetO sequence and induced expression of the hidcell death gene. Since binding of tTA to DNA is inhibited by tetracycline, females are fully viable on media containing the antibiotic. As tTA and HID are functional in both Drosophila and mammalian cells, we expect they will be active in most if not all insects. However, for the system to function effectively it is essential that the yolk protein transcription enhancer is both very active in females and has very low activity in males. Since the Drosophila yp1 enhancer may not be fully functional in L. cuprina we have isolated and sequenced a genomic clone containing L. cuprina yolk protein genes. An analysis of the complete DNA sequence of the clone indicates that in L. cuprina the yolk protein genes are organised into a gene cluster. We have begun experiments to identify the female-specific transcription enhancer of one of the yolk protein genes. We have used a reporter gene approach in both transgenic Drosophila and L. cuprina. We have previously shown that transgenic L

  5. Design and performance in the first flight of the transition radiation detector and charge detector of the CREAM balloon instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) instrument flew on a high altitude balloon in Antarctica in 2004-2005 for a record breaking 42 days. An array of detectors was deployed to identify cosmic rays and measure their energies up to several hundred TeV. A major science goal is the measurement of secondary nuclei at high energy (produced by spallation reactions of heavier cosmic rays in the interstellar medium). This is done with a transition radiation detector using xenon-filled proportional tubes, and charge identification devices comprising plastic scintillator and Cherenkov counters. Accurate and stable performance of these detectors is necessary for the reliable identification of the secondary nuclei. The design of these detectors and their performance in flight are discussed, and preliminary data presented

  6. In-flight performances of SilEye-2 Experiment and cosmic ray abundances inside space station Mir

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, S; Bonvicini, W; Boezio, M; Carlson, P J; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Grandis, E; De Pascale, M P; Fuglesang, C; Furano, G; Galper, A; Khodarovich, A; Korotkov, M; Mazzenga, G; Morselli, A; Narici, L; Papini, P; Picozza, P; Popov, A; Reali, E; Ricci, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Vacchi, A; Vavilov, N; Zampa, N

    2001-01-01

    Cosmic ray measurements performed with the instrument SilEye-2 on Mir space station are presented. SilEye-2 is a silicon detector telescope for the study of the causes of Light Flashes perception by astronauts. As a stand-alone device, it monitors in the short and long term the radiation composition inside Mir. The cosmic ray detector consists of an array of 6 active silicon strip detectors which allow nuclear identification of cosmic rays up to Iron. The device was operational for more than 1000 hours in the years 1998-2000, measuring also several Solar Particle Events. In this work we present the in-flight performance of the instrument and nuclear abundance data from Boron to Silicon above ~150 MeV/n inside Mir.

  7. The CoRoT satellite in flight : description and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Auvergne, M; Boisnard, L; Buey, J -T; Chaintreuil, S

    2009-01-01

    CoRoT is a space telescope dedicated to stellar seismology and the search for extrasolar planets. The mission is led by CNES in association with French laboratories and has a large international participation: the European Space Agency (ESA), Austria, Belgium and Germany contribute to the payload, and Spain and Brazil contribute to the ground segment. Development of the spacecraft, which is based on a PROTEUS low earth orbit recurrent platform, commenced in October 2000 and the satellite was launched on December 27th 2006. The instrument and platform characteristics prior to launch have been described in ESA publication (SP-1306) . In the present paper we detail the behaviour in flight, based on raw and corrected data. Five runs have been completed since January 2007. The data used here are essentially those acquired during the commissioning phase and from a long run which lasted 146 days, these enable us to give a complete overview of the instrument and platform behaviour for all environmental conditions. Th...

  8. Precise Pointing and Stabilization Performance for the Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT): 2015 Test Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Romualdez, L J; Damaren, C J; Galloway, M N; Hartley, J W; Li, L; Massey, R J; Netterfield, C B

    2016-01-01

    Balloon-borne astronomy offers an attractive option for experiments that require precise pointing and attitude stabilization, due to a large reduction in the atmospheric interference observed by ground-based systems as well as the low-cost and short development time-scale compared to space-borne systems. The Balloon-borne Imaging Testbed (BIT) is an instrument designed to meet the technological requirements of high precision astronomical missions and is a precursor to the development of a facility class instrument with capabilities similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. The attitude determination and control systems (ADCS) for BIT, the design, implementation, and analysis of which are the focus of this paper, compensate for compound pendulation effects and other sub-orbital disturbances in the stratosphere to within 1-2$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (rms), while back-end optics provide further image stabilization down to 0.05$^{\\prime\\prime}$ (not discussed here). During the inaugural test flight from Timmins, Canada in S...

  9. Recently commissioned time-of-flight small angle neutron scattering machine at ANSTO: Capabilities and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian Nuclear Science and technology Organization (ANSTO) successfully operates one SANS instrument Quokka and recently commenced commissioning of the second SANS instrument, Bilby. The Bilby is Time-of-Flight instrument built on reactor neutron source. The instrument is scheduled to be in user operation in the second half of the year 2015. The design (in particular, set-up of four choppers which similar to that design for D33 instrument at ILL) opens possibility to vary wavelength resolution in the wide range (from 4% to 30%) satisfying various scientists’ requirements. Two arrays of position sensitive detectors in combination with utilizing of wide wavelength range (from ~3Å to ~20Å) provide capability to collect scattering data of wide angular range without changing experimental set-up. Offered instrument design opens possibility to collect scattering from a wide range of samples, with a unique capability to record fast kinetics data. Additional hardware add-on will allow to use instrument in slit mode and therefore get data at very low Q (~2·10-4Å-1). The presentation will be focused on general concept and unique features of the new SANS instrument, as well as first results of instrument commissioning.

  10. High-precision cryogenic wheel mechanisms of the JWST/MIRI instrument: performance of the flight models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, O.; Müller, F.; Birkmann, S.; Böhm, A.; Ebert, M.; Grözinger, U.; Henning, Th.; Hofferbert, R.; Huber, A.; Lemke, D.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Scheithauer, S.; Gross, T.; Fischer, T.; Luichtel, G.; Merkle, H.; Übele, M.; Wieland, H.-U.; Amiaux, J.; Jager, R.; Glauser, A.; Parr-Burman, P.; Sykes, J.

    2010-07-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) aboard JWST is equipped with one filter wheel and two dichroic-grating wheel mechanisms to reconfigure the instrument between observing modes such as broad/narrow-band imaging, coronagraphy and low/medium resolution spectroscopy. Key requirements for the three mechanisms with up to 18 optical elements on the wheel include: (1) reliable operation at T = 7 K, (2) high positional accuracy of 4 arcsec, (3) low power dissipation, (4) high vibration capability, (5) functionality at 7 K central MoS2-lubricated integrated ball bearing, a central torque motor for actuation, a ratchet system with monolithic CuBe flexural pivots for precise and powerless positioning and a magnetoresistive position sensor has been implemented. We report here the final performance and lessons-learnt from the successful acceptance test program of the MIRI wheel mechanism flight models. The mechanisms have been meanwhile integrated into the flight model of the MIRI instrument, ready for launch in 2014 by an Ariane 5 rocket.

  11. The HADES RPC time of flight wall performance in Au+Au collisions at 1.23 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornakov, Georgy [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The HADES Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector measures the time-of-flight of charged particles in the innermost part of the High Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer located at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. Its main goal is to provide lepton identification at low momenta (p<400MeV/c) as well as identification of pi, K, p, He3, d/He4, t, studied by the experiment. For the Au+Au beam time, a major improvement of the spectrometer in terms of granularity and particle identification capability was achieved by replacing the old TOFino detector by the new shielded timing RPC time-of-flight detectors. The gold beam provided by the SIS 18 accelerator with energy of 1.23 AGeV was colliding with a segmented gold target, creating in the RPC region mean multiplicities of 72 charged particles per event and in the most central ones of 150 charged particles. Results show a RPC efficiency above 95 % and a mean time accuracy below 70 ps. In here we describe the design and performance characteristics required to achieve the goal as well as the methods and algorithms used for calibration and correction of the data.

  12. The design and flight performance of the PoGOLite Pathfinder balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, M; Jackson, M; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kiss, M; Kole, M; Mikhalev, V; Moretti, E; Olofsson, G; Rydström, S; Takahashi, H; Lind, J; Strömberg, J -E; Welin, O; Iyudin, A; Shifrin, D; Pearce, M

    2015-01-01

    In the 50 years since the advent of X-ray astronomy there have been many scientific advances due to the development of new experimental techniques for detecting and characterising X-rays. Observations of X-ray polarisation have, however, not undergone a similar development. This is a shortcoming since a plethora of open questions related to the nature of X-ray sources could be resolved through measurements of the linear polarisation of emitted X-rays. The PoGOLite Pathfinder is a balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter operating in the 25 - 240 keV energy band from a stabilised observation platform. Polarisation is determined using coincident energy deposits in a segmented array of plastic scintillators surrounded by a BGO anticoincidence system and a polyethylene neutron shield. The PoGOLite Pathfinder was launched from the SSC Esrange Space Centre in July 2013. A near-circumpolar flight was achieved with a duration of approximately two weeks. The flight performance of the Pathfinder design is discussed for the...

  13. Do necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) lay their eggs in wounds?: Experimental data and implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, Damien; Depeme, Aurore; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the common belief that necrophagous blowflies lay their eggs in wounds. The egg-laying behaviour of Lucilia sericata was observed under controlled conditions on wet, artificially wounded or short-haired areas of rat cadavers. Flies laid significantly more eggs on the wet area and the area with short hair than on the dry area or area with long hair. No eggs were observed inside the wounds in any of the replicates. The effect of egg immersion (body fluids often exudes in wounds) on the survival rate of larvae was also investigated. In low water condition, an average of 72.7±7.9% of the larvae survived and they reached a mean length of 7.5±0.6mm. In contrast, submerging eggs under a high volume of water strongly affected their survival rate (25±3.7%) and development. Similar results were observed using unfrozen pig blood instead of water. These data question the information found in the literature regarding the preferential egg-laying behaviour of Calliphorids flies in wounds. PMID:26093126

  14. In-flight performance of the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P.; Paresce, F.; Baxter, D.; Hodge, P.; Hook, R.; Jakobsen, P.; Jedrzejewski, R.; Nota, A.; Sparks, W. B.; Towers, N.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the Faint Object Camera and its performance to date is presented. In particular, the detector's efficiency, the spatial uniformity of response, distortion characteristics, detector and sky background, detector linearity, spectrography, and operation are discussed. The effect of the severe spherical aberration of the telescope's primary mirror on the camera's point spread function is reviewed, as well as the impact it has on the camera's general performance. The scientific implications of the performance and the spherical aberration are outlined, with emphasis on possible remedies for spherical aberration, hardware remedies, and stellar population studies.

  15. Time and motion, experiment M151. [human performance and space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Mcbride, G. H.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut work performance during the preparation and execution of experiments in simulated Skylab tests was analyzed according to time and motion in order to evaluate the efficiency and consistency of performance (adaptation function) for several different types of activity over the course of the mission; to evaluate the procedures to be used by the same experiment in Skylab; to generate characteristic adaptation functions for later comparison with Skylab data; and to examine astronaut performance for any behavioral stress due to the environment. The overall results indicate that the anticipated adaptation function was obtained both for individual and for averaged data.

  16. Flight tests for the assessment of task performance and control activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausder, H. J.; Hummes, D.

    1982-01-01

    The tests were performed with the helicopters BO 105 and UH-1D. Closely connected with tactical demands the six test pilots' task was to minimize the time and the altitude over the obstacles. The data reduction yields statistical evaluation parameters describing the control activity of the pilots and the achieved task performance. The results are shown in form of evaluation diagrams. Additionally dolphin tests with varied control strategy were performed to get more insight into the influence of control techniques. From these test results recommendations can be derived to emphasize the direct force control and to reduce the collective to pitch crosscoupling for the dolphin.

  17. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  18. Investigation of possible causes for human-performance degradation during microgravity flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, James E.; Tuttle, Megan L.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the first year of a three year study of the effects of microgravity on human performance are given. Test results show support for the hypothesis that the effects of microgravity can be studied indirectly on Earth by measuring performance in an altered gravitational field. The hypothesis was that an altered gravitational field could disrupt performance on previously automated behaviors if gravity was a critical part of the stimulus complex controlling those behaviors. In addition, it was proposed that performance on secondary cognitive tasks would also degrade, especially if the subject was provided feedback about degradation on the previously automated task. In the initial experimental test of these hypotheses, there was little statistical support. However, when subjects were categorized as high or low in automated behavior, results for the former group supported the hypotheses. The predicted interaction between body orientation and level of workload in their joint effect on performance in the secondary cognitive task was significant for the group high in automatized behavior and receiving feedback, but no such interventions were found for the group high in automatized behavior but not receiving feedback, or the group low in automatized behavior.

  19. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rester, A.C.; Coldwell, R.L. (Institute for Astrophysics and Planetary Exploration, Univ. of Florida, Alachua, FL (US)); Trombka, J.I. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center); Starr, R. (Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (USA). Dept. of Physics); Eichhorn, G. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA)); Lasche, G.P. (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (USA))(Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The GRAD gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a high-altitude balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988 where it was used to make observations of Supernova 1987a. The performance of the bismuth germinate active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined.

  20. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GRAD gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a high-altitude balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988 where it was used to make observations of Supernova 1987a. The performance of the bismuth germinate active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined

  1. Method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system such as a flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert H. (Inventor); Ribbens, William B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system having sensors for measuring state variables and providing corresponding output signals in response to one or more system input signals are provided. The method includes calculating estimated gains of a filter and selecting an appropriate linear model for processing the output signals based on the input signals. The step of calculating utilizes one or more models of the dynamic system to obtain estimated signals. The method further includes calculating output error residuals based on the output signals and the estimated signals. The method also includes detecting one or more hypothesized failures or performance degradations of a component or subsystem of the dynamic system based on the error residuals. The step of calculating the estimated values is performed optimally with respect to one or more of: noise, uncertainty of parameters of the models and un-modeled dynamics of the dynamic system which may be a flight vehicle or financial market or modeled financial system.

  2. Flight model performance test results of a helium dewar for the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Seiji; Miyaoka, Mikio; Kanao, Ken'ichi; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Hoshika, Shunji; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko; Takei, Yoh; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Sato, Yoichi; DiPirro, Mike; Shirron, Peter

    2016-03-01

    ASTRO-H is a Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite, scheduled to be launched in fiscal year 2015. The mission includes a soft X-ray spectrometer instrument (SXS), which contains an X-ray micro calorimeter operating at 50 mK by using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The heat sink of the ADR is superfluid liquid helium below 1.3 K. The required lifetime of the superfluid helium is 3 years or more. In order to realize this lifetime, we have improved the thermal performance from the engineering model (EM) while maintaining the mechanical performance. Then, we have performed a thermal test of the flight model (FM). The results were that the heat load to the helium tank was reduced to below 0.8 mW in the FM from 1.2 mW in the EM. Therefore, the lifetime of the superfluid helium is more than 3 years with 30 L of liquid helium. In this paper, the thermal design and thermal test results are described.

  3. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  4. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is

  5. In-Flight Performance of the Mercury Laser Altimeter Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Sun, Xiaoli; Li, Steven X.; Cavanaugh, John F.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) is one of the payload instruments on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which was launched on August 3, 2004. MLA maps Mercury's shape and topographic landforms and other surface characteristics using a diode-pumped solid-state laser transmitter and a silicon avalanche photodiode receiver that measures the round-trip time of individual laser pulses. The laser transmitter has been operating nominally during planetary flyby measurements and in orbit about Mercury since March 2011. In this paper, we review the MLA laser transmitter telemetry data and evaluate the performance of solid-state lasers under extended operation in a space environment.

  6. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Cressiot, C.;

    2011-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10′ (100 GHz), 7′ (143 GHz), and...... 5′ (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the...... ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of...

  7. Pre- and post-flight radiation performance evaluation of the space GPS receiver (SGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SSTL (Survey Satellite Technology Ltd), in collaboration with ESA/ESTEC, recently developed a state-of-the-art low cost GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver payload for use on small satellites. The space GPS Receiver (SGR), will be flown on the TiungSAT-1 micro-satellite, UoSAT-12 mini-satellite and ESA's PROBA satellite. The SGR payload is currently flying on the TMSAT micro-satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) and has carried out autonomous on-board positioning whilst also providing an experimental test-bed for evaluating spacecraft attitude determination algorithms. In order to reduce development time and costs, the SGR consists solely of industry standard COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) devices. This paper describes the ground-based radiation testing of several payload-critical COTS devices used in the SGR payload and describes its on-orbit performance. (authors)

  8. In-Flight Performance of the Polarization Modulator in the CLASP Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non-uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  9. Optical performance of the JWST MIRI flight model: characterization of the point spread function at high-resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Guillard, P; Ronayette, S; Amiaux, J; Abergel, A; Moreau, V; Augueres, J L; Bensalem, A; Orduna, T; Nehmé, C; Belu, A R; Pantin, E; Lagage, P O; Longval, Y; Glasse, A C H; Bouchet, P; Cavarroc, C; Dubreuil, D; Kendrew, S

    2010-01-01

    The Mid Infra Red Instrument (MIRI) is one of the four instruments onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), providing imaging, coronagraphy and spectroscopy over the 5-28 microns band. To verify the optical performance of the instrument, extensive tests were performed at CEA on the flight model (FM) of the Mid-InfraRed IMager (MIRIM) at cryogenic temperatures and in the infrared. This paper reports on the point spread function (PSF) measurements at 5.6 microns, the shortest operating wavelength for imaging. At 5.6 microns the PSF is not Nyquist-sampled, so we use am original technique that combines a microscanning measurement strategy with a deconvolution algorithm to obtain an over-resolved MIRIM PSF. The microscanning consists in a sub-pixel scan of a point source on the focal plane. A data inversion method is used to reconstruct PSF images that are over-resolved by a factor of 7 compared to the native resolution of MIRI. We show that the FWHM of the high-resolution PSFs were 5-10% wider than that obt...

  10. Pre-flight performance and radiation hardness of the Tokyo Tech pico-satellite Cute-1.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cute-1.7 was launched successfully in February 2006 as a piggyback satellite of the Astro-F mission. The Cute-1.7 dimensions are 10x10x20cm3 box with a total mass of 3.6kg. It is the second pico-satellite to have been developed completely by students of the Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech.) after the successful launch of the CUTE-I in June 2003. The goals of the Cute-1.7 mission are two-fold: (1) to validate high-performance, commercially available products for the first time in space. We particularly use personal digital assistants (PDAs) as a main computer in orbit (2) to demonstrate new potential uses for small satellites in various space studies, as proposed by the 'satellite-core' concept. For the Cute-1.7 mission, we will carry avalanche photo diodes (APDs) as a high-count particle monitor in low-Earth orbit. Here we present details of various ground tests and pre-flight performance of the Cute-1.7 immediately before the launch. Results of the Cute-1.7 mission will provide quick feedback for space applications of APDs in Japan's future X-ray astronomy mission NeXT

  11. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  12. Performance of bismuth germanate active shielding on a balloon flight over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rester, A. C.; Coldwell, R. L.; Trombka, J. I.; Starr, R.; Eichhorn, G.

    1990-01-01

    The GRAD (Gamma-Ray Advanced Detector) gamma-ray spectrometer was flown on a balloon at an altitude of 36.6 km over Antarctica on January 8-10, 1988, where it was used to make observations of SN 1987A. The performance of the bismuth germanate (BGO) active shielding in the near-space environment over Antarctica is examined. The promised effectiveness of this shielding in the suppression of unwanted background has been demonstrated. The BGO-shielded GRAD spectrometer detected gamma-ray lines with fluxes of 0.002/sq cm sec from SN 1987A in a radiation background approximately a factor of 4 more intense than that over Alice Springs, Australia. This level of sensitivity indicates that BGO is at least as effective as CsI when used as active shielding. Isomerism is common, both in the bismuth and germanium regions of the nuclear chart, but is found to be less of a problem for background suppression in the latter region than in the former.

  13. Planck early results: first assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ansari, R; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Banday, A J; Bartelmann, M; Bartlett, J G; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benot, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bradshaw, T; Brelle, E; Bucher, M; Camus, P; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Charra, J; Charra, M; Chary, R -R; Chiang, C; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Cressiot, C; Crill, B P; Crook, M; de Bernardis, P; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Efstathiou, G; Eng, P; Filliard, C; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Fourmond, J -J; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Girard, D; Giraud-Héraud, Y; Gispert, R; Gorski, K M; Gratton, S; Griffin, M; Guyot, G; Haissinski, J; Harrison, D; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Hildebrandt, S R; Hills, R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Huenberger, K M; Jae, A H; Jones, W C; Kaplan, J; Kneissl, R; Knox, L; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lami, P; Lange, A E; Lasenby, A; Lavabre, A; Lawrence, C R; Leriche, B; Leroy, C; Macas-Perez, Y Longval25) J F; Maciaszek, T; MacTavish, C J; Maei, B; Mandolesi, N; Mann, R; Mansoux, B; Masi, S; Matsumura, T; McGehee, P; Melin, J -B; Mercier, C; Miville-Deschnes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Mortlock, D; Murphy, A; Nati, F; Nettereld, C B; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Osborne, S; Paine, C; Pajot, F; Patanchon, G; Peacocke, T; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Pons, R; Ponthieu, N; Prezeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Reach, W T; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Schaefer, B M; Shellard, P; Spencer, L; Starck, J -L; Stassi, P; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Thum, C; Torre, J -P; Touze, F; Tristram, M; Van Leeuwen, F; Vibert, L; Vibert, D; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; White, S D M; Wiesemeyer, H; Woodcraft, A; Yurchenko, V; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A

    2011-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background and galactic foregrounds in six wide bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545 and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009. The bolometers cooled to 100 mK as planned. The settings of the readout electronics, such as the bolometer bias current, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn verified both the optical system and the time response of the detection chains. The optical beams are close to predictions from physical optics modeling. The time response of the detection chains is close to pre-launch measurements. The detectors suffer from an unexpected high flux of cosmic rays related to low solar activity. Due to the redundancy of Planck's ob...

  14. Periodic heartbeat reversals cause cardiogenic inspiration and expiration with coupled spiracle leakage in resting blowflies, Calliphora vicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2014-05-01

    Respiration in insects is thought to be independent of the circulatory system because insects typically lack respiratory pigments and because oxygen transport occurs in the gaseous phase through a ramified tracheal system by diffusion and convection directly to the tissues. In the blowfly, as in other insects with periodic heartbeat reversal, the haemolymph is periodically shifted between the anterior body and abdomen, exerting alternating pressure changes on the compliant tracheae in the thorax and in the abdomen. Simultaneous pressure and O2 optode measurements show that, during negative pressure periods, the tracheal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) increases by 0.5 kPa. In the quiescent fly, tracheal PO2 is rather high (17.5-18.9 kPa), although the thoracic spiracles remain constricted. Microscopic video recordings and reflectance measurements revealed that the dorsal soft edges of the valve lips of the second spiracle leave a very small leak, which is passively widened during backward pulses of the heart. Thus, negative pressure, combined with increased leakage of the spiracle Sp2 valve enable inspiration in the thorax. The positive pressure periods are correlated with a new type of convective CO2 micro-bursts as shown in flow-through measurements. The bulk of the CO2 is, however, released after longer interbursts in macro-bursts with actively opening valves reminiscent of the open phase in a cyclic gas exchange. When the valves open, the PO2 in the thoracic air sacs unexpectedly drops by a mean of 2.75±1.09 kPa, suggesting a displacement of O2 by the transient accumulation of CO2 in the tracheal system before its release. PMID:24436373

  15. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eMaeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER. Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying

  16. Performance verification of the Suzaku X-ray Spectrometer in the flight configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) is a high resolution, non-dispersive cryogenic detector on board the X-ray satellite, Suzaku (Astro-E2), which was successfully launched on July 10, 2005. The XRS achieves an energy resolution of 6eV at 6keV (FWHM) and covers a broad energy range of ∼0.07-10keV. The XRS will enable powerful plasma diagnostics of a variety of astrophysical objects such as the dynamics of gas in clusters of galaxies. The XRS was integrated to the spacecraft in September 2004, and underwent a series of spacecraft tests until April 2005. We describe results of the XRS performance verification in the spacecraft configuration. First, the noise level was extremely low on the spacecraft, and most of the pixels achieved an energy resolution of 5-6eV at 5.9keV. Microphonic noise from the mechanical cooler was one of the concerns, but this was not a problem, when the dewar was integrated to the spacecraft and filled with solid neon. To attain the best energy resolution, however, correction of gain drift is mandatory. The XRS has a dedicated calibration pixel for that purpose, and drift correction using the calibration pixel is very effective when the gain variation is due to changes in the ∼60mK heat sink temperature. On the other hand, the calibration pixel and the other pixels do not respond in the same way to variations of the helium and neon bath temperatures, and this effect requires further study

  17. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna Ultra-high Energy Neutrino Detector Design, Performance, and Sensitivity for 2006-2007 Balloon Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Gorham, P; Beatty, J; Besson, D; Binns, W; Chen, C; Chen, P; Clem, J; Connolly, A; Dowkontt, P; DuVernois, M; Field, R; Goldstein, D; Goodhue, A; Hast, C; Hebert, C; Hoover, S; Israel, M; Kowalski, J; Learned, J; Liewer, K; Link, J; Lusczek, E; Matsuno, S; Mercurio, B; Miki, C; Miocinovic, P; Nam, J; Naudet, C; Nichol, R; Palladino, K; Reil, K; Romero-Wolf, A; Rosen, M; Ruckman, L; Saltzberg, D; Seckel, D; Varner, G; Walz, D; Wang, Y; Wu, F

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity. Neutrino physics results will be reported separately.

  18. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P. W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Allison, P. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beatty, J. J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Besson, D. Z. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binns, W. R. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Chen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Clem, J. M. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Connolly, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Dowkontt, P. F. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); DuVernois, M. A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Field, R. C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Goodhue, A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hast, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hebert, C. L. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Hoover, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Israel, M. H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States). et al.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  19. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  20. Performance measurements of a dual-rotor arm mechanism for efficient flight transition of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Karen Ashley Jean

    Reconfigurable systems are a class of systems that can be transformed into different configurations, generally to perform unique functions or to maintain operational efficiency under distinct conditions. A UAV can be considered a reconfigurable system when coupled with various useful features such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), hover capability, long-range, and relatively large payload. Currently, a UAV having these capabilities is being designed by the UTSA Mechanical Engineering department. UAVs such as this one have the following potential uses: emergency response/disaster relief, hazard-critical missions, offshore oil rig/wind farm delivery, surveillance, etc. The goal of this thesis is to perform experimental thrust and power measurements for the propulsion system of this fixed-wing UAV. Focus was placed on a rotating truss arm supporting two brushless motors and rotors that will later be integrated to the ends of the UAV wing. These truss arms will rotate via a supporting shaft from 0° to 90° to transition the UAV between a vertical take-off, hover, and forward flight. To make this hover/transition possible, a relationship between thrust, arm angle, and power drawn was established by testing the performance of the arm/motor assembly at arm angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°. Universal equations for this system of thrust as a function of the arm angle were created by correlating data collected by a load cell. A Solidworks model was created and used to conduct fluid dynamics simulations of the streamlines over the arm/motor assembly.

  1. Profiling the Metabolism of Astragaloside IV by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological actions and pharmacology. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS-based approach was developed to profile the metabolites of astragaloside IV in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces samples. Twenty-two major metabolites were detected. The major components found in plasma, bile, urine and feces included the parent chemical and phases I and II metabolites. The major metabolic reactions of astragaloside IV were hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation and dehydrogenation. These results will help to improve understanding the metabolism and reveal the biotransformation profiling of astragaloside IV in vivo. The metabolic information obtained from our study will guide studies into the pharmacological activity and clinical safety of astragaloside IV.

  2. Metabolite Analysis of Toosendanin by an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Toosendanin is the major bioactive component of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., which is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal pain and as an insecticide. Previous studies reported that toosendanin possesses hepatotoxicity, but the mechanism remains unknown. Its bioavailability in rats is low, which indicates the hepatotoxicity might be induced by its metabolites. In this connection, in the current study, we examined the metabolites obtained by incubating toosendanin with human live microsomes, and then six of these metabolites (M1–M6 were identified for the first time by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Further analysis on the MS spectra showed M1, M2, and M3 are oxidative products and M6 is a dehydrogenation product, while M4 and M5 are oxidative and dehydrogenation products of toosendanin. Moreover, their possible structures were deduced from the MS/MS spectral features. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that M1-M5 levels rapidly increased and reached a plateau at 30 min, while M6 rapidly reached a maximal level at 20 min and then decreased slowly afterwards. These findings have provided valuable data not only for understanding the metabolic fate of toosendanin in liver microsomes, but also for elucidating the possible molecular mechanism of its hepatotoxicity.

  3. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify acidic drugs in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Herrera, Mercedes; Honda, Luis; Richter, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    A novel analytical approach involving an improved rotating-disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) procedure and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an ultraspray electrospray ionization source (UESI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS), in trap mode, was developed to identify and quantify four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and two anti-cholesterol drugs (ACDs) (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil) that are widely used and typically found in water samples. The method reduced the amount of both sample and reagents used and also the time required for the whole analysis, resulting in a reliable and green analytical strategy. The analytical eco-scale was calculated, showing that this methodology is an excellent green analysis, increasing its ecological worth. The detection limits (LOD) and precision (%RSD) were lower than 90ng/L and 10%, respectively. Matrix effects and recoveries were studied using samples from the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). All the compounds exhibited suppression of their signals due to matrix effects, and the recoveries were approximately 100%. The applicability and reliability of this methodology were confirmed through the analysis of influent and effluent samples from a WWTP in Santiago, Chile, obtaining concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 20.5μg/L and from 0.5 to 8.6μg/L, respectively. PMID:26559617

  4. Metabolic profiles of dioscin in rats revealed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Kong, Ming; Chen, Jian-Ping; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Dioscin (DIS), one of the most abundant bioactive steroidal saponins in Dioscorea sp., is used as a complementary medicine to treat coronary disease and angina pectoris in China. Although the pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetics of DIS have been well demonstrated, information regarding the final metabolic fates is very limited. This study investigated the in vivo metabolic profiles of DIS after oral administration by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. The structures of the metabolites were identified and tentatively characterized by means of comparing the molecular mass, retention time and fragmentation pattern of the analytes with those of the parent compound. A total of eight metabolites, including seven phase I and one phase II metabolites, were detected and tentatively identified for the first time. Oxidation, deglycosylation and glucuronidation were found to be the major metabolic processes of the compound in rats. In addition, a possible metabolic pathway on the biotransformation of DIS in vivo was proposed. This study provides valuable and new information on the metabolism of DIS, which will be helpful for further understanding its mechanism of action. PMID:25678372

  5. Global metabolic profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yunpeng; Song, Yunlong; Gu, Haiwei; Fan, Guorong; Chai, Yifeng

    2014-01-01

    Currently, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is one of the most important analytical technologies for detecting hundreds of metabolites in the field of metabolomics. A recent advance in LC that has impacted metabolomics is the development of UPLC (ultra-performance liquid chromatography). In this chapter, we describe the analytical methodologies for the global metabolic profiling of serum, urine, and tissue samples using UPLC-Q-TOF (quadrupole-time-of-flight)-MS. Aqueous metabolites are extracted after adding methanol/acetonitrile/acetone and then analyzed by UPLC-MS under positive and/or negative ionization mode. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis, separation between various groups can be observed in the score plots, and biomarkers are screened in the loading/weight/VIP (variable importance in the projection) scatterplots. Furthermore, putative markers can be identified through comparison with the authentic standards based on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation pattern and LC retention. We expect that our protocol, with modifications if necessary, can be useful in many metabolomics studies and a wide range of research areas related to small molecules and LC-MS. PMID:25270920

  6. Flight model performance of the integral field unit for the James Webb Space Telescope's near-infrared spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purll, David J.; Lobb, Daniel R.; Barnes, Andrew R.; Talbot, R. Gordon; Rolt, Stephen; Robertson, David J.; Closs, Martin F.; te Plate, Maurice

    2010-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) developed by EADS Astrium GmbH for the European Space Agency (ESA) is a spectrograph covering the 0.6-5.0 μm waveband to fly on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). NIRSpec will be primarily operated as a multi-object spectrograph but also includes an integral field unit (IFU) allowing a 3×3 arcsec field of view to be sampled continuously with 0.1 arcsec spatial resolution. The IFU, based on an advanced image slicer concept, is a very compact athermal unit made of aluminium. It contains three 30-element monolithic mirror arrays forming slicer, pupil and slit mirrors, and single-surface image relay and plane fold mirrors, produced using 5-axis diamond-machining techniques. Many of the mirrors have complex surfaces like toric sections with 3rd-order corrections in order to achieve the required performance within a small allowed volume, and could only have been fabricated with the most advanced free-form machining. The mechanical design accommodates the differential expansion between the aluminium IFU and its titanium parent assembly across a 250K drop to operating temperature using an isostatic mounting system. This paper presents the development of the IFU from the design and diamond-machining techniques to the optical and cryogenic testing of the assembled flight model unit.

  7. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context. PMID:17766290

  8. Performance Evaluation of Alternative Relative Orientation Procedures for UAV-based Imagery with Prior Flight Trajectory Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, F.; Habib, A.

    2016-06-01

    Thanks to recent advances at the hardware (e.g., emergence of reliable platforms at low cost) and software (e.g., automated identification of conjugate points in overlapping images) levels, UAV-based 3D reconstruction has been widely used in various applications. However, mitigating the impact of outliers in automatically matched points in UAV imagery, especially when dealing with scenes that has poor and/or repetitive texture, remains to be a challenging task. In spite of the fact that existing literature has already demonstrated that incorporating prior motion information can play an important role in increasing the reliability of the matching process, there is a lack of methodologies that are mainly suited for UAV imagery. Assuming the availability of prior information regarding the trajectory of a UAV-platform, this paper presents a two-point approach for reliable estimation of Relative Orientation Parameters (ROPs) of UAV-based images. This approach is based on the assumption that the UAV platform is moving at a constant flying height while maintaining the camera in a nadir-looking orientation. For this flight scenario, a closed-form solution that can be derived using a minimum of two pairs of conjugate points is established. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, experimental tests using real stereo-pairs acquired from different UAV platforms have been conducted. The derived results from the comparative performance analysis against the Nistér five-point approach demonstrate that the proposed two-point approach is capable of providing reliable estimate of the ROPs from UAV-based imagery in the presence of poor and/or repetitive texture with high percentage of matching outliers.

  9. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. B.; Sims, Herb; Martin, James; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond; Fant, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    The significant energy density of matter-antimatter annihilation is attractive to the designers of future space propulsion systems, with the potential to offer a highly compact source of power. Many propulsion concepts exist that could take advantage of matter-antimatter reactions, and current antiproton production rates are sufficient to support basic proof-of-principle evaluation of technology associated with antimatter- derived propulsion. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, allowing antiprotons to be trapped, stored, and transported for use at an experimental facility. To address this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center is developing a storage system referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. The HiPAT makes use of an electromagnetic system (Penning- Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Telsa superconductor, high voltage electrode structure, radio frequency (RF) network, and ultra high vacuum system. To evaluate the system normal matter sources (both electron guns and ion sources) are used to generate charged particles. The electron beams ionize gas within the trapping region producing ions in situ, whereas the ion sources produce the particles external to the trapping region and required dynamic capture. A wide range of experiments has been performed examining factors such as ion storage lifetimes, effect of RF energy on storage lifetime, and ability to routinely perform dynamic ion capture. Current efforts have been focused on improving the FW rotating wall system to permit longer storage times and non-destructive diagnostics of stored ions. Typical particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and destructively colliding them with a micro-channel plate detector (providing number and energy information). This improved RF system has been used to detect various

  10. 10 day flight performance of the plant generic bioprocessing apparatus (PGBA) plant growth facility aboard STS-77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, A.; Chamberlain, D.J.; Forsyth, S.W.; Hanna, D.S.; Scovazzo, P.; Horner, M.B.; Stodieck, L.S.; Todd, P. [BioServe Space Technologies CU Campus Box 429 Boulder, Colorado80309-0429 (United States); Heyenga, A.G.; Kliss, M.H. [NASA Ames Research Center Space Technology Division M/S 239 Moffett Field, California94035-1000 (United States); Bula, R.; Yetka, R. [Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), 1415 Engineering Drive Madison, Wisconsin53706-1691 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for space flight biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 30 plants in a closed, multi-crop chamber for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-77). {ital Artemisia annua, Catharanthus roseus, Pinus taeda, Spinacia oleracea and Trifolium repens} were the five species studied during this mission. The primary mission objectives were to study the effects of microgravity for commercial and pharmaceutical production purposes. PGBA is a payload that represents a consortium of interests including BioServe Space Technologies (payload sponsor), NASA Ames Research Center (Controlled Ecological Life Support System, CELSS, Flight Program), Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), and industrial affiliates (spaceflight effects on plants and formation of plant products such as pharmaceuticals). Although BioServe is responsible for the flight hardware development and integration of PGBA, NASA Ames, WSCAR and industrial affiliates provide significant hardware subsystems and technical biological expertise support. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. 10 day flight performance of the plant generic bioprocessing apparatus (PGBA) plant growth facility aboard STS-77

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Alex; Chamberlain, Dale J.; Forsyth, Sasha W.; Hanna, David S.; Scovazzo, Paul; Horner, Michael B.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Todd, Paul; Heyenga, A. Gerard; Kliss, Mark H.; Bula, Raymond; Yetka, Robert

    1997-01-01

    PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for space flight biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 30 plants in a closed, multi-crop chamber for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-77). Artemisia annua, Catharanthus roseus, Pinus taeda, Spinacia oleracea and Trifolium repens were the five species studied during this mission. The primary mission objectives were to study the effects of microgravity for commercial and pharmaceutical production purposes. PGBA is a payload that represents a consortium of interests including BioServe Space Technologies (payload sponsor), NASA Ames Research Center (Controlled Ecological Life Support System, CELSS, Flight Program), Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), and industrial affiliates (spaceflight effects on plants and formation of plant products such as pharmaceuticals). Although BioServe is responsible for the flight hardware development and integration of PGBA, NASA Ames, WSCAR and industrial affiliates provide significant hardware subsystems and technical biological expertise support.

  12. Evaluation of cloud detection instruments and performance of laminar-flow leading-edge test articles during NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard E.; Maddalon, Dal V.; Wagner, Richard D.; Fisher, David F.; Young, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    Summary evaluations of the performance of laminar-flow control (LFC) leading edge test articles on a NASA JetStar aircraft are presented. Statistics, presented for the test articles' performance in haze and cloud situations, as well as in clear air, show a significant effect of cloud particle concentrations on the extent of laminar flow. The cloud particle environment was monitored by two instruments, a cloud particle spectrometer (Knollenberg probe) and a charging patch. Both instruments are evaluated as diagnostic aids for avoiding laminar-flow detrimental particle concentrations in future LFC aircraft operations. The data base covers 19 flights in the simulated airline service phase of the NASA Leading-Edge Flight-Test (LEFT) Program.

  13. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  14. Nontargeted Identification of the Phenolic and Other Compounds of Saraca asoca by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Positive Electrospray Ionization and Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwani Mittal; Preeti Kadyan; Anjum Gahlaut; Rajesh Dabur

    2013-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used for separation and identification of phenolic and other compounds in the water extracts of Saraca asoca (Roxb.), De. Wilde. The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the distribution of phenolic compounds in the different parts of the plant. The identity of compounds was established through the comparison with standards and characteristic base peaks as well as other daughter ions. ...

  15. Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of clinical yeast isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Dzajic, Esad; Knudsen, Elisa;

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast yeast identification is important when treating patients with invasive fungal disease as susceptibility to antifungal agents is highly species related. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) provides a powerful tool with a clear potential...

  16. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a performing tool for bioactive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand-Guillaume Perrenoud, Alexandre; Guillarme, Davy; Boccard, Julien; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Barron, Denis; Moco, Sofia

    2016-06-10

    Secondary metabolites are an almost unlimited reservoir of potential bioactive compounds. In view of the wide chemical space covered by natural compounds, their comprehensive analysis requires multiple cutting-edge approaches. This study evaluates the applicability of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-QqToF-MS) as an analytical strategy for plant metabolites profiling. Versatility of this analytical platform was first assessed using 120 highly diverse natural compounds (according to lipophilicity, hydrogen bond capability, acid-base properties, molecular mass and chemical structure) that were screened on a set of 15 rationally chosen stationary phase chemistries. UHPSFC-QqToF-MS provides a suitable analytical solution for 88% of the tested compounds. Three stationary phases (Diol, not endcapped C18 and 2-EP) were highlighted as particularly polyvalent, since they allow suitable elution of 101 out of 120 natural compounds. The systematic evaluation of retention and selectivity of natural compounds further underlined the suitability of these three columns for the separation of natural compounds. This reduced set of key stationary phases constitutes a basis for untargeted scouting analysis and method development. Even if they were less versatile, stationary phases such as endcapped T3C18, polar P-PFP, were nevertheless found to provide extended selectivity for specific natural molecules sub-classes. Finally, the identified polyvalent conditions were successfully applied for the analysis of complex polar and non-polar plant extracts. These first experimental hits demonstrate the full applicability and potential of UHPSFC-QqToF-MS for plant metabolite profiling. PMID:27156735

  17. On the Utilization of In-flight Radiation-induced Performance Data and Anomaly Resolution of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBel, Kenneth A.; Poivey, Christian; Barth, Janet L.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents an overview of the use of in-flight science data to review the radiation effects on commercial off the shelf (COTS) electronics used in recent spacecraft missions. The authors review the hazards that the space radiation environment pose for spacecraft electronics. They specifically discuss long term effects such as total ionizing dose (TID) and short term effects like single particle events (SEE). The advantages of using COTS electronics despite not being radiation hardened are mentioned. The reasons cite for tracking in-flight performance of COTS electronics include: anomaly resolution, validate ground tests and environmental predictions and provide lessons for future designers. Sample radiation impacts of science data from the following missions are analyzed: SOHO/LASCO 3 Coronograph, Microwave Anisotrophy Probe, Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

  18. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, S. A.; Crall, J. D.; Mukherjee, S

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight pe...

  19. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered...

  20. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 1: Advanced development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvill, W. E.; Kays, A. O.; Young, E. C.; Mcgee, W. M.

    1972-01-01

    Areas where selective reinforcement of conventional metallic structure can improve static strength/fatigue endurance at lower weight than would be possible if metal reinforcement were used are discussed. These advantages are now being demonstrated by design, fabrication, and tests of three boron-epoxy reinforced C-130E center wing boxes. This structural component was previously redesigned using an aluminum build-up to meet increased severity of fatigue loadings. Direct comparisons of relative structural weights, manufacturing costs, and producibility can therefore be obtained, and the long-time flight service performance of the composite reinforced structure can be evaluated against the wide background of metal reinforced structure.

  1. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  2. Separation and identification of phenolic compounds in Bidens pilosa L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xianrui; Xu, Qiao

    2016-05-01

    A validated method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was established to separate and identify phenolic compounds in Bidens pilosa L. Mass spectrometry experiments were performed both in positive and negative ion modes. A total of 35 compounds were detected, and 26 phenolic compounds were unequivocally identified or tentatively assigned based on retention time, maximum UV absorption, molecular formula, and fragments. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography method was validated and showed good linearity (R(2) ≧ 0.9996) over the test range. The limits of detection and quantification were above 0.072 and 0.162 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday precision were below 0.3 and 1.6%, respectively. PMID:27004754

  3. Magnetic Test Performance Capabilities at the Goddard Space Flight Center as Applied to the Global Geospace Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Darryl R.

    1997-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility (SMTF) is a historic test facility that has set the standard for all subsequent magnetic test facilities. The SMTF was constructed in the early 1960's for the purpose of simulating geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic fields. Additionally, the facility provides the capability for measuring spacecraft generated magnetic fields as well as calibrating magnetic attitude control systems and science magnetometers. The SMTF was designed for large, spacecraft level tests and is currently the second largest spherical coil system in the world. The SMTF is a three-axis Braunbek system composed of four coils on each of three orthogonal axes. The largest coils are 12.7 meters (41.6 feet) in diameter. The three-axis Braunbek configuration provides a highly uniform cancellation of the geomagnetic field over the central 1.8 meter (6 foot) diameter primary test volume. Cancellation of the local geomagnetic field is to within +/-0.2 nanotesla with a uniformity of up to 0.001% within the 1.8 meter (6 foot) diameter primary test volume. Artificial magnetic field vectors from 0-60,000 nanotesla can be generated along any axis with a 0.1 nanotesla resolution. Oscillating or rotating field vectors can also be produced about any axis with a frequency of up to 100 radians/second. Since becoming fully operational in July of 1967, the SMTF has been the site of numerous spacecraft magnetics tests. Spacecraft tested at the SMTF include: the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), Magsat, LANDSAT-D, the Fast Aurora] Snapshot (FAST) Explorer and the Sub-millimeter-Wave-Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) among others. This paper describes the methodology and sequencing used for the Global Geospace Science (GGS) initiative magnetic testing program in the Goddard Space Flight Center's SMTF. The GGS initiative provides an exemplary model of a strict and comprehensive magnetic control program.

  4. Understanding Flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David

    2001-01-31

    Through the years the explanation of flight has become mired in misconceptions that have become dogma. Wolfgang Langewiesche, the author of 'Stick and Rudder' (1944) got it right when he wrote: 'Forget Bernoulli's Theorem'. A wing develops lift by diverting (from above) a lot of air. This is the same way that a propeller produces thrust and a helicopter produces lift. Newton's three laws and a phenomenon called the Coanda effect explain most of it. With an understanding of the real physics of flight, many things become clear. Inverted flight, symmetric wings, and the flight of insects are obvious. It is easy to understand the power curve, high-speed stalls, and the effect of load and altitude on the power requirements for lift. The contribution of wing aspect ratio on the efficiency of a wing, and the true explanation of ground effect will also be discussed.

  5. Performance of a hydrogen burner to simulate air entering scramjet combustors. [simulation of total temperature, total pressure, and volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russin, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the performance of a hydrogen burner used to produce a test gas that simulates air entering a scramjet combustor at various flight conditions. The test gas simulates air in that it duplicates the total temperature, total pressure, and the volume fraction of oxygen of air at flight conditions. The main objective of the tests was to determine the performance of the burner as a function of the effective exhaust port area. The conclusions were: (1) pressure oscillations of the chugging type were reduced in amplitude to plus or minus 2 percent of the mean pressure level by proper sizing of hydrogen, oxygen, and air injector flow areas; (2) combustion efficiency remained essentially constant as the exhaust port area was increased by a factor of 3.4; (3) the mean total temperature determined from integrating the exit radial gas property profiles was within plus or minus 5 percent of the theoretical bulk total temperature; (4) the measured exit total temperature profile had a local peak temperature more than 30 percent greater than the theoretical bulk total temperature; and (5) measured heat transfer to the burner liner was 75 percent of that predicted by theory based on a flat radial temperature profile.

  6. Effect of differents baits as attractant for blowflies (diptera at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Efeito de diferentes iscas na atração de califorídeos (diptera no campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. D'almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out a survey of blowflies in a área of the Campus (Valonguinho of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine, bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively. The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%.Foi realizado um estudo sobre califorideos no Campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense. A pesquisa foi efetuada de dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004, com coletas feitas com armadilhas utilizando iscas à base de peixe (sardinha, fígado bovino, camarão e banana. Foram coletados 6015 califorideos, Chrysomya megacephala e Lucilia eximia foram as mais freqüentes (50,55% e 21, 52%, respectivamente. A isca mais atrativa foi peixe (38,32% com picos populacionais em fevereiro e março.

  7. The Impact of Airline Flight Schedules on Flight Delays

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak Deshpande; Mazhar Arıkan

    2012-01-01

    Airline flight delays have come under increased scrutiny lately in the popular press, with the Federal Aviation Administration data revealing that airline on-time performance was at its worst level in 13 years in 2007. Flight delays have been attributed to several causes such as weather conditions, airport congestion, airspace congestion, use of smaller aircraft by airlines, etc. In this paper, we examine the impact of the scheduled block time allocated for a flight, a factor controlled by ai...

  8. Miracle Flights for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... today Saving Lives One Flight At A Time Miracle Flights provides free flights to distant specialized care and valuable second opinions. Miracle Flights Through June 2016 Flights Coordinated: 101,862 ...

  9. Characterization of chemical constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heyun; Yin, Ran; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Bi, Kaishun

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was established to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. The detection was performed on a Waters Xevo G2 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source in both positive and negative modes. With the optimized conditions, a total of 82 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Of the 82 compounds, 21 compounds were identified by comparing the retention time and MS data with reference standards, the rest were characterized by analyzing MS data and retrieving the reference literature. In addition, 31 compounds were identified from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, ten compounds were identified from Rheum palmatum L., 33 compounds were identified from Citrus aurantium L., and eight compounds were identified from Sojae Semen Praeparatum. Results indicated that iridoids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, coumarins, glycosides of crocetin, monoterpenoids, and organic acids were major constituents in Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. It is concluded that the developed ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the chemical constituents of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction, and the analysis provides a helpful chemical basis for further research on Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction. PMID:25195935

  10. Helicopter flight investigation to determine the effects of a closed-circuit TV on performance of a precision sling-load handling task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicarlo, D. J.; Kelley, H. L.; Spivey, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Helicopter sling-load operations have been limited during hover and low-speed flight by the degree of precision achieved by the pilot/helicopter/sling-load combination. Previous attempts to improve precision have included stabilization of the load and helicopter and the addition of a pilot station directly facing the load. In these tests, use of a closed-circuit TV as a display that would permit sling-load delivery and placement by the forward-facing pilot was evaluated using a CH-54B helicopter. In all, three test cases were documented, which included the following: (1) forward-facing pilot using the TV display, (2) forward-facing pilot using verbal commands from a load-facing observer, and (3) aft-facing pilot using direct visual cues. The results indicate that a comparable level of performance was achieved for each test case; however, an increase in pilot workload was noted when the TV system was used.

  11. Identification of metabolites of Radix Paeoniae Alba extract in rat bile, plasma and urine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Wei Chen; Ling Tong; Shu-Ming Li; Dong-Xiang Li; Ying Zhang; Shui-Ping Zhou; Yong-Hong Zhu; He Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was developed to identify the absorbed parent components and metabolites in rat bile, plasma and urine after oral administration of Radix Paeoniae Alba extract (RPAE). A total of 65 compounds were detected in rat bile, plasma and urine samples, including 11 parent compounds and 54 metabolites. The results indicated that glucuronidation, hydroxylation and methylation were the major metabolic pathways of the components of RPAE. Furthermore, the results of this work demonstrated that UPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with MetaboLynx™ software and mass defect filtering (MDF) could provide unique high throughput capabilities for drug metabolism study, with excellent MS mass accuracy and enhanced MSE data acquisition. With the MSE technique, both precursor and fragment mass spectra can be simultaneously acquired by alternating between high and low collision energy during a single chromatographic run.

  12. Development of a broad toxicological screening technique for urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hon Kit; Ho, Chung Shun; Iu, Yan Ping Heidi;

    2009-01-01

    Withdrawal of the support for the REMEDi HS drug profiling system has necessitated its replacement within our laboratories with an alternative broad toxicological screening technique. To this end, a novel method, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass...... enhanced detection, leading to the identification of twice as many drugs. Furthermore it did not miss any compounds that were identified by REMEDi HS. The UPLC-TOF findings were further verified by a combination of data from three other conventional screening techniques, i.e., GC-MS, HPLC-DAD and UPLC-MS/MS....... spectrometry, was developed for the routine analysis of urine samples. Identification was achieved by comparison of acquired data to libraries containing more than 300 common drugs and metabolites, and was based on a combination of retention time, exact mass and fragmentation patterns. Validation data...

  13. A rapid method for chemical fingerprint analysis of Pan Panax notoginseng powders by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yu, He-Shuil; Zhang, Li-Juan; Song, Xin-Bo; Kang, Li-Ping; Liu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Jie; Cao, Man; Yu, Kate; Kang, Ting-Guo; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2015-06-01

    A method coupling ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Qtof MS) using the electrospray ionization (ESI) source was developed for the identification of the major saponins from Panax notoginseng powder (PNP). Ten different PNP samples were analyzed and evaluated for their quality by similarity evaluation and principle component analysis (PCA). Based on the accurate mass, summarized characteristic fragmentation behaviors, retention times of different types of saponins, related botanical biogenesis, and reported chromatographic behavior of saponins, fifty-one common peaks were effectively separated and identified, including 28 protopanaxadiol saponins and 18 protopanaxatriol saponins. Simultaneously, 15 significant discrepancy compounds were identified from the disqualified PNP samples. The established UPLC/Qtof MS fingerprint method was successfully applied for profiling and identifying the major saponins of PNP, providing a fast quality evaluation tool for distinguishing the authentic PNP and the adulterated products. PMID:26073345

  14. Comprehensive metabolite profiling of Plantaginis Semen using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiming; Tong, Renchao; Wang, Rui; Bligh, S W Annie; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-05-01

    Plantaginis Semen is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat edema, hypertension, and diabetes. The commercially available Plantaginis Semen in China mainly comes from three species. To clarify the chemical composition and distinct different species of Plantaginis Semen, we established a metabolite profiling method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry coupled with elevated energy technique. A total of 108 compounds, including phenylethanoid glycosides, flavonoids, guanidine derivatives, terpenoids, organic acids, and fatty acids, were identified from Plantago asiatica L., P. depressa Willd., and P. major L. Results showed significant differences in chemical components among the three species, particularly flavonoids. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive chemical profile of Plantaginis Semen, which could be involved into the quality control, medication guide, and developing new drug of Plantago seeds. PMID:27030316

  15. Performability evaluation of the SIFT computer. [Software-Implemented Fault Tolerance computer onboard commercial aircraft during transoceanic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. F.; Furchtgott, D. G.; Wu, L. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the models, techniques, and evaluation methods that were successfully used to test the performance of the SIFT degradable computing system. The performance of the computer plus its air transport mission environment is modeled as a random variable, taking values in a set of 'accomplishment level'. The levels are defined in terms of four attributes of total system (computer plus environment) behavior, namely safety, no change in mission profile, no operational penalties, and no economic penalties. The base model of the total system is a stochastic process, whose states describe the internal structure of SIFT and the relevant conditions of its computational environment. Base model state trajectories are related to accomplishment levels via a special function, and solution methods are then used to determine the performability of the total system for various parameters of the computer and environment.

  16. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  17. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  18. Liquid Oxygen Propellant Densification Production and Performance Test Results With a Large-Scale Flight-Weight Propellant Tank for the X33 RLV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes in-detail a test program that was initiated at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) involving the cryogenic densification of liquid oxygen (LO2). A large scale LO2 propellant densification system rated for 200 gpm and sized for the X-33 LO2 propellant tank, was designed, fabricated and tested at the GRC. Multiple objectives of the test program included validation of LO2 production unit hardware and characterization of densifier performance at design and transient conditions. First, performance data is presented for an initial series of LO2 densifier screening and check-out tests using densified liquid nitrogen. The second series of tests show performance data collected during LO2 densifier test operations with liquid oxygen as the densified product fluid. An overview of LO2 X-33 tanking operations and load tests with the 20,000 gallon Structural Test Article (STA) are described. Tank loading testing and the thermal stratification that occurs inside of a flight-weight launch vehicle propellant tank were investigated. These operations involved a closed-loop recirculation process of LO2 flow through the densifier and then back into the STA. Finally, in excess of 200,000 gallons of densified LO2 at 120 oR was produced with the propellant densification unit during the demonstration program, an achievement that s never been done before in the realm of large-scale cryogenic tests.

  19. Performance improvement of a time-of-flight detector and longer observation of circulating ions for IMS at FRS-ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass measurements of short-lived exotic nuclei can be performed using Isochronous Mass Spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility at GSI. The mass values are obtained from the revolution time measurements using a time-of-flight detector. Ions passing the detector release secondary electrons from a thin carbon foil which are guided to micro channel plate (MCP) detectors by electric and magnetic fields. The time accuracy as well as the rate capability of the TOF detector are crucial parameters for the performance of IMS. Simulations showed that by increasing the kinetic transport energy of the secondary electrons from the foil to the MCPs the time accuracy of the detector can be improved. In measurements with a modified detector with higher kinetic transport energies the timing performance of the detector was improved by 50%. Additionally MCPs with a smaller pore size to improve the rate capability and a thinner carbon foil to reduce the energy loss in the foil were installed in the TOF detector. In an online experiment with uranium fission fragments a 10 times higher turn number of the ions could be observed than in former experiments.

  20. The performance and the characterization of laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LAAP-ToF-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemayel, Rachel; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Hayeck, Nathalie; Van Elteren, Johannes T.; Wortham, Henri; Gligorovski, Sasho

    2016-05-01

    Hyphenated laser ablation-mass spectrometry instruments have been recognized as useful analytical tools for the detection and chemical characterization of aerosol particles. Here we describe the performances of a laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAP-ToF-MS) which was designed for aerodynamic particle sizing using two 405 nm scattering lasers and characterization of the chemical composition of single aerosol particle via ablation/ionization by a 193 nm excimer laser and detection in a bipolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a mass resolving power of m/Δm > 600.We describe a laboratory based optimization strategy for the development of an analytical methodology for characterization of atmospheric particles using the LAAP-ToF-MS instrument in combination with a particle generator, a differential mobility analyzer and an optical particle counter. We investigated the influence of particle number concentration, particle size and particle composition on the detection efficiency. The detection efficiency is a product of the scattering efficiency of the laser diodes and the ionization efficiency or hit rate of the excimer laser. The scattering efficiency was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.9 % with an average of 1.1 %; the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 17.0 %. The hit rate exhibited good repeatability with an average value of 63 % and an RSD of 18 %. In addition to laboratory tests, the LAAP-ToF-MS was used to sample ambient air during a period of 6 days at the campus of Aix-Marseille University, situated in the city center of Marseille, France. The optimized LAAP-ToF-MS methodology enables high temporal resolution measurements of the chemical composition of ambient particles, provides new insights into environmental science, and a new investigative tool for atmospheric chemistry and physics, aerosol science and health impact studies.

  1. FLIGHT INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Check in With Singapore Airlines, Check out With Paypal Singapore Airlines customers in the United States, Singapore and five other Asia Pacific countries and territories can now pay for their flights with PayPal on singaporeair.com. This facility will progressively be made available to the airline’s customers in up to 17 countries, making this the largest collaboration between PayPal and an Asian carrier to date.

  2. Computational space flight mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Computational Space Flight Mechanics presents numerical solutions for topics and problems within space flight mechanics. Topics include orbit determination, Lagrange's perturbation equations for disturbed Earth's orbits, the flight of a mass point in flight path coordinates, and more.

  3. Medical Operation KC-135 Familiarization Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Chris; Stoner, Paul; Arenare, Brian; Strickland, Angie; Rudge, Fredrick; Lowdermilk, Greg

    1999-01-01

    As new personnel join the Medical Operations Branch, it is critical that they understand the effects of microgravity on medical procedures, hardware, and supplies. The familiarization flight provided new personnel with a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on (1) medical procedures, (2) patient and rescuer restraint, (3) medical fluids, and (4) medical training for space flight. The flight process also provided experience in flight proposal preparation, flight test plan preparation and execution, and final report preparation. In addition, first time flyers gained insight on their performance level in microgravity for future flights.

  4. Software tools for the validation of the in-flight calibration performance of the MICROSCOPE space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, E.; Levy, A.; Rodrigues, M.; Touboul, P.; Métris, G.

    2013-11-01

    The MICROSCOPE space mission aims at testing the Equivalence Principle (EP) with an accuracy of 10^{-15}. The instrument will be embarked on board a drag-free microsatellite orbiting the Earth, and consists in a differential electrostatic accelerometer composed of two cylindrical test masses submitted to the same gravitational field but made of different materials. The electrostatic accelerations applied to the masses to maintain them relatively motionless are measured; inequality would demonstrate a violation of the universality of free fall. The accuracy of the measurement exploited for the EP test is limited by our a priori knowledge of the instrument physical parameters. An in-orbit calibration is needed to finely characterize them in order to correct the measurement. The calibration procedures have been determined and their analytical performances evaluated. The two stages of the measurement processing are numerically simulated: first the calibration sessions, then the measurement correction using the estimated parameters in order to validate the mission performance on the EP parameter determination.

  5. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; May-Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. U.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from the International Space Station (ISS) are met by a team of recovery personnel who typically provide physical assistance and medical support immediately after landing. This assistance and support are provided because long-duration spaceflight greatly affects astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond low Earth orbit, however, will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration-class missions. A joint US/Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) study conducted with participation of crewmembers of ISS Expeditions 35-42 comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. Sit-to-Stand (S2S) was the first task in the PFT battery.

  6. Analysis of the Constituents in “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” lyophilized powder (ZSYXST, consists of a series of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of strokes. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in ZSYXST. Some high content components were removed through PHPLC in order to increase the sensitivity of the trace saponins. Then, specific characteristic fragment ions in both positive and negative mode were utilized to determine the types of aglycone, saccharide, as well as the saccharide chain linkages. As a result, 94 saponins, including 20 pairs of isomers and ten new compounds, which could represent higher than 98% components in ZSYXST, were identified or tentatively identified in commercial ZSYXST samples.

  7. Lidar Sensor Performance in Closed-Loop Flight Testing of the Morpheus Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, Vincent E.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Barnes, Bruce W.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Brewster, Paul F.; Kempton, Kevin S.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    fed into the ALHAT navigation filter to provide lander guidance to the safe site. The flight tests served as the culmination of the TRL 6 journey for the lidar suite and included launch from a pad situated at the NASA-Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway, a lunar-like descent trajectory from an altitude of 250m, and landing on a lunar-like hazard field of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe sites 400m down-range just off the North end of the runway. The tests both confirmed the expected performance and also revealed several challenges present in the flight-like environment which will feed into future TRL advancement of the sensors. The flash lidar identified hazards as small as 30 cm from the maximum slant range of 450 m which Morpheus could provide, however, it was occasionally susceptible to an increase in range noise due to heated air from the Morpheus rocket plume which entered its Field-of-View (FOV). The flash lidar was also susceptible to pre-triggering on dust during the HRN phase which was created during launch and transported by the wind. The Doppler Lidar provided velocity and range measurements to the expected accuracy levels yet it was also susceptible to signal degradation due to air heated by the rocket engine. The Laser Altimeter, operating with a degraded transmitter laser, also showed signal attenuation over a few seconds at a specific phase of the flight due to the heat plume generated by the rocket engine.

  8. Flight selection at United Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  9. Simultaneous identification and analysis of cassane diterpenoids in Caesalpinia minax Hance by high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shilong; Wu, Zhaohua; Fu, Chaofan; Wu, Caiyue; Yuan, Jiuzhi; Xian, Xiaoyan; Gao, Huiyuan

    2015-12-01

    Cassane diterpenoids were successfully and simultaneously identified in Caesalpinia minax Hance by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 59 peaks were detected, and among them 51 compounds, including 41 furanocassane diterpenoids, 10 furanolactone cassane diterpenoids were simultaneously identified and characterized on the basis of the protonated molecule, retention behavior, and fragments in MS(2) . Ten compounds, including seven novel compounds, were identified or tentatively identified for the first time in C. minax. In a positive ion mode, the fragmentation pathways of cassane diterpenoids were also analyzed for the first time. The relative amounts of the five main diterpenoids (caesalpinin L, caesalpinin F2 , bondcellpin C, caesalpinin E, and ξ-caesalmin) were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the newly discovered and known components of C. minax can be used to determine the material basis of bioactivity; this method can also be applied to analyze cassane diterpenoids in herbal medicines from the genus Caesalpinia belonging to the family Fabaceae. PMID:26394613

  10. Parallel microscope-based fluorescence, absorbance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection for high performance liquid chromatography and determination of glucosamine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bo; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Qiong; Nie, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Ren-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    A parallel microscope-based laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UV) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detection for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was achieved and used to determine glucosamine in urines. First, a reliable and convenient LIF detection was developed based on an inverted microscope and corresponding modulations. Parallel HPLC-LIF/UV/TOF-MS detection was developed by the combination of preceding Microscope-based LIF detection and HPLC coupled with UV and TOF-MS. The proposed setup, due to its parallel scheme, was free of the influence from photo bleaching in LIF detection. Rhodamine B, glutamic acid and glucosamine have been determined to evaluate its performance. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine the glucosamine in urines, and subsequent results suggested that glucosamine, which was widely used in the prevention of the bone arthritis, was metabolized to urines within 4h. Furthermore, its concentration in urines decreased to 5.4mM at 12h. Efficient glucosamine detection was achieved based on a sensitive quantification (LIF), a universal detection (UV) and structural characterizations (TOF-MS). This application indicated that the proposed strategy was sensitive, universal and versatile, and it was capable of improved analysis, especially for analytes with low concentrations in complex samples, compared with conventional HPLC-UV/TOF-MS. PMID:26452822

  11. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts returning from the International Space Station are met by a team of recovery personnel typically providing physical assistance and medical support immediately upon landing. That is because long-duration spaceflight impacts astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond the low Earth orbit, however, may require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration class missions. Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. METHODS: The first test in the PFT battery sequence, and also the least demanding one from the sensorimotor perspective, was a Sit-to-Stand test. Test subjects were seated in the chair and had to stand up on command and remain standing for ten seconds. The subjects were instructed to stand up unassisted as quickly as they were able to, while maintaining postural control. Synchronized wireless inertial sensors mounted on the head, chest, lower back, wrists, and ankles were used to continuously log body kinematics. Crewmembers' blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and recorded with the Portapres and Polar systems. Each session was recorded with a digital video camera. During data collections occurring within the 24-hour postflight period, crewmembers were also asked to (1) evaluate their perceived motion sickness symptoms on a 20-point scale before and after completion of the test and (2) estimate how heavy they felt compared to their normal (preflight) body weight. Consent to participate in PFT was obtained from 18 crewmembers (11 US Orbital Segment [USOS] astronauts and 7

  12. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  13. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-01

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge. PMID:27131804

  14. Do birds sleep in flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2006-09-01

    The following review examines the evidence for sleep in flying birds. The daily need to sleep in most animals has led to the common belief that birds, such as the common swift ( Apus apus), which spend the night on the wing, sleep in flight. The electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings required to detect sleep in flight have not been performed, however, rendering the evidence for sleep in flight circumstantial. The neurophysiology of sleep and flight suggests that some types of sleep might be compatible with flight. As in mammals, birds exhibit two types of sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep. Whereas, SWS can occur in one or both brain hemispheres at a time, REM sleep only occurs bihemispherically. During unihemispheric SWS, the eye connected to the awake hemisphere remains open, a state that may allow birds to visually navigate during sleep in flight. Bihemispheric SWS may also be possible during flight when constant visual monitoring of the environment is unnecessary. Nevertheless, the reduction in muscle tone that usually accompanies REM sleep makes it unlikely that birds enter this state in flight. Upon landing, birds may need to recover the components of sleep that are incompatible with flight. Periods of undisturbed postflight recovery sleep may be essential for maintaining adaptive brain function during wakefulness. The recent miniaturization of EEG recording devices now makes it possible to measure brain activity in flight. Determining if and how birds sleep in flight will contribute to our understanding of a largely unexplored aspect of avian behavior and may also provide insight into the function of sleep.

  15. [Rapid screening of 28 acidic artificial dyes in fishery products by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pingya; Zhou, Yong; Dai, Yifei; Huang, Li; Zhao, Qiaoling

    2015-08-01

    An analytical method was established for the simultaneous determination of 28 acidic artificial dyes in fishery products by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS). The analytes in fishery products were extracted with ethyl alcohol containing 20% (v/v) ammonia water and 10% (v/v) water. Then the extract solution was purified according to amination adsorbent matrix dispersion method. The compounds were separated by an Eclipse Plus-C18 column with acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution as the mobile phases, and measured by UPLC-Q-TOF MS with electrospray ionization in negative mode. As a result, the limits of quantification ( LOQs, S/N = 10) of the target compounds were 20-100 µg/kg in fishery products. The 28 analytes behaved linearly in wide-range with the correlation coefficients more than 0. 991 as well as the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas less than 5.61% (n = 6). The average recoveries of the 28 analytes spiked at three levels were ranged from 70. 24% to 106. 47% with RSDs of 5.62%-9.65% (n = 6). This method can be applied to the analysis of the 28 acidic artificial dyes in fishery products due to its fastness, simplicity and relatively high sensitivity. PMID:26749858

  16. Analysis of caged xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yan [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Liu Xin [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Yang Jing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Han Quanbin; Song Jingzheng; Li Songlin; Qiao Chunfeng [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Ding Lisheng [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China)], E-mail: lsding@cib.ac.cn; Xu Hongxi [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: xuhongxi@hkjcicm.org

    2008-11-23

    On-line ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS) has been developed for the analysis of a series of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The fragmentation of protonated molecular ions for 12 known cadged xanthones was carried out using low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that Retro-Diels-Alder rearrangement occurred in the CID processes and produced the characteristic fragment ions, which are especially valuable for the identification of this class of xanthones. The fragmentation differential between some cis-, trans-isomers was uncovered. Computation methods were utilized to rationalize the observed MS behaviors. On-line UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS method has proved to be rapid and efficient in that within 6 min, 15 caged scaffold xanthones, including three pairs of epimers and four pairs of isomers in gamboges, were effectively separated and identified. Among them, two known, namely isogambogenin (13) and isomorellinol (14) and one likely new caged Garcinia xanthones from the Garcinia hanburyi were tentatively characterized based on the tandem mass spectra of known ones.

  17. Analysis of caged xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-line ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS) has been developed for the analysis of a series of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The fragmentation of protonated molecular ions for 12 known cadged xanthones was carried out using low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that Retro-Diels-Alder rearrangement occurred in the CID processes and produced the characteristic fragment ions, which are especially valuable for the identification of this class of xanthones. The fragmentation differential between some cis-, trans-isomers was uncovered. Computation methods were utilized to rationalize the observed MS behaviors. On-line UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS method has proved to be rapid and efficient in that within 6 min, 15 caged scaffold xanthones, including three pairs of epimers and four pairs of isomers in gamboges, were effectively separated and identified. Among them, two known, namely isogambogenin (13) and isomorellinol (14) and one likely new caged Garcinia xanthones from the Garcinia hanburyi were tentatively characterized based on the tandem mass spectra of known ones

  18. Elucidating the structure of carbon nanoparticles by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qin; Meng, Xiangpeng; Choi, Martin M F; Gong, Xiaojuan; Chan, Wan

    2016-03-10

    A fast and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was developed for the separation and structural elucidation of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNP). The CNP was synthesised from microwave-assisted pyrolysis of citric acid (CA) and 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA). By using UPLC separation, the CNP product was well separated into ten fractions within 4.0 min. Based on high-accuracy MS and MS/MS analyses, the CNP species were revealed to display six kinds of chemical formulas, including (C10H20N4O5)n, (C8H12N2O5)n, (C16H22N4O9)n, (C6H8O7)n, (C14H18N2O11)n, and (C14H16N2O10)n. In particular, our study revealed for the first time that the CNP species exist as supramolecular clusters with their individual monomers units linked together through non-covalent bonding forces. These findings clearly indicated the usefulness of UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS in identifying the chemical composition of CNP product. It is anticipated that our proposed methodology can be applied to study the structure-property relationships of CNP, facilitating in the production of CNP with desirable spectral features. PMID:26893091

  19. Characterizations of four specimens processed as a part of the M553 sphere forming experiment performed during the Skylab 1 and 2 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J. L.; Johnson, J. W.; Brown, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Four specimens identified as SL-1.3, SL-1.8, SL-1.9 and SL-2.5 were submitted for metallurgical characterization. These specimens had been processed in the M512 Facility as a part of the M553 Sphere Forming Experiment performed during the Skylab 1/2 flight. Three of these specimens, SL-1.3, SL-1.8, and SL-2.5 were designed to be melted completely by the electron beam and detach themselves from their support posts and resolidify while floating free in the near zero gravity and vacuum environment of space. Specimens SL-1.3 and SL-1.8 were completely melted, but it is believed they did not leave their posts before solidifying. Specimen SL-2.5 was only partially melted. Specimen SL-1.9 was to be completely melted and retained on a large sting which was accomplished as planned. The nominal composition of the four specimens was: (1) SL-1.3 - Ni 12% Sn; (2) SL-1.8 - Ni 30% Cu; (3) SL-1.9 - Pure Ni; and (4) SL-2.5 - Pure Ni. These four specimens have been examined according to the Phase B Characterization Plan. The results are discussed and compared with similar characterization analyses run on ground base specimens.

  20. A novel method to analyze hepatotoxic components in Polygonum multiflorum using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Longfei; Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Miao; Ni, Boran; Yin, Xingbin; Qu, Changhai; Ni, Jian

    2015-12-15

    Polygonum multiflorum, called Heshouwu in China, is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat various diseases. However, the administration of P. multiflorum (PM) and P. multiflorum Praeparata (PMP) causes numerous adverse effects. This study sought to analyze the toxic components of PM using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), and their hepatotoxicity in L02 human liver cells. Toxicity was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and liver enzyme secretion (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) assays. Furthermore, UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, Progenesis QI, and Makerlynx XS software analyses were used to differentiate extracts and analyze the toxic components. The order of toxicity was P. multiflorum ethanol extract (PME)>P. multiflorum water extract (PMW)>P. multiflorum Praeparata ethanol extract (PMPE)>P. multiflorum Praeparata water extract (PMPW), which was determined by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and liver enzyme secretion levels. The analysis methods suggest that PM toxicity may be associated with anthraquinone, emodin-O-(malonyl)-hex, emodin-O-glc, emodin, emodin-8-O-glc, emodin-O-(acetyl)-hex, and emodin-O-hex-sulphate. The toxic mechanisms of these components require further study. PMID:26135484

  1. Metabolomics Analysis of Health Functions of Physalis Pubescens L. using by Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadruple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang Chu; Hui Sun; Guang-Li Yan; Ai-Hua Zhang; Chang Liu; Hui Dong; Xiang-Cai Meng; Xi-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines may benefit from metabolomics studies, and applying metabolomics may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which metabolic processes are triggered, and the subsequent chemical pathways of activity. Physalis pubescens L (PPL) is an herbal fruit for one year living plant and has been developed into healthy function’s food. However, the mechanisms of health functions are still unclear. To comprehensively and holistically assess its anti-fatigue and antioxidant effects, a novel integrative metabolomics approach was applied. In this study, we present metabolomics analysis applying ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) to determine metabolite alterations after oral administration PPL to rats. Fifteen metabolites in urine were identified as potential biomarkers. Pattern analysis of the UPLC-Q/TOF-MS data disclosed that PPL could relieve fatigue rats by ameliorating the disturbance in amino acids metabolism and energy metabolism, alleviating the oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory damage, and recovering the destructed regulation. Based on these results, we demonstrated that PPL is a promising source of natural anti-fatigue and antioxidants material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  2. Metabolomics Analysis of Health Functions of Physalis Pubescens L. using by Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadruple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Chu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines may benefit from metabolomics studies, and applying metabolomics may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which metabolic processes are triggered, and the subsequent chemical pathways of activity. Physalis pubescens L (PPL is an herbal fruit for one year living plant and has been developed into healthy function's food. However, the mechanisms of health functions are still unclear. To comprehensively and holistically assess its anti-fatigue and antioxidant effects, a novel integrative metabolomics approach was applied. In this study, we present metabolomics analysis applying ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS to determine metabolite alterations after oral administration PPL to rats. Fifteen metabolites in urine were identified as potential biomarkers. Pattern analysis of the UPLC-Q/TOF-MS data disclosed that PPL could relieve fatigue rats by ameliorating the disturbance in amino acids metabolism and energy metabolism, alleviating the oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory damage, and recovering the destructed regulation. Based on these results, we demonstrated that PPL is a promising source of natural anti-fatigue and antioxidants material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  3. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present study, chemical fingerprint of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata (EtAcGE) and metabolic profile of rat plasma sample after intragastric administration of EtAcGE (2.5g/kg) were investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). A total of 38 chemical constituents of EtAcGE were identified by comparing their retention time, accurate molecular mass and characteristic fragment ions with those of references, or tentatively characterized by comparing molecular formula, fragment ions with that of known compound or information available in literature. And 40 compounds were detected in dosed rat plasma sample, including 16 prototypes and 24 metabolites underwent metabolic process of glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation or mixed modes. The metabolic "soft spots" was hydroxyl or carboxy group. This is the first research for chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of EtAcGE, which lay a foundation for the further investigation of EtAcGE. PMID:26621783

  4. Identification and Characterization of the Major Chemical Constituents in Fructus Akebiae by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yun; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Dan-dan; Chen, Fei; Kong, Xiu-hua; Liao, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Fructus Akebiae (FA), the dry fruit of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE., possesses potent antidepressant properties. Owing to the structural complexity, high polarity and thermal lability in plants, it is difficult and time-consuming to analyze the major chemical constituents by traditional strategies that involve extraction, isolation, purification and identification by chemical manipulations and spectroscopic methods. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS) method was established for quickly identifying the chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae. The main saponin components in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were detected with the HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS in negative-ion mode. These components were further analyzed by MS(2) spectra, and compared with the corresponding reference substances and literature data. Nineteen saponins in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were well separated in one run. The new method is accurate and rapid. It can be used to identify the main chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae and can be suitable for the quality control of Fructus Akebiae. PMID:26311648

  5. Characterization of metabolites in rats after intravenous administration of salvianolic acid for injection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jingzhuo; Sun, Wanyang; Huang, Jingyi; Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Shuming; Han, Xiaoping; Tong, Ling; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    It is an essential requirement to clarify the metabolites of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections, which contain numerous ingredients, to assess their safe and effective use in clinic. Salvianolic acid for injection (SAFI), made from hydrophilic phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, has been widely used for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, but information on its metabolites in vivo is still lacking. In the present study, we aimed to holistically characterize the metabolites of the main active ingredients in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces following intravenous administration of SAFI. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method was developed. Combining information on retention behaviors, multistage mass spectra and literature data, a total of eight prototypes and 52 metabolites were tentatively characterized. Metabolites originated from rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B comprised the majority of identified compounds. Meanwhile, four metabolites derived from salvianolic acid D and five from salvianolic acid B are reported for the first time. This study revealed that methylation, sulfation and glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways of phenolic acids in SAFI in vivo. Furthermore, the developed UPLC/Q-TOF-MS method could also benefit the metabolic investigation of extracts and preparations in TCM with hydrophilic ingredients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26910272

  6. Metabolites Software-Assisted Flavonoid Hunting in Plants Using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yi Gu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolism drives the generation of metabolites used for host plant resistance, as biopesticides and botanicals, even for the discovery of new therapeutics for human diseases. Flavonoids are one of the largest and most studied classes of specialized plant metabolites. To quickly identify the potential bioactive flavonoids in herbs, a metabolites software-assisted flavonoid hunting approach was developed, which mainly included three steps: firstly, utilizing commercial metabolite software, a flavonoids database was established based on the biosynthetic pathways; secondly, mass spectral data of components in herbs were acquired by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS; and finally, the acquired LC-MS data were imported into the database and the compounds in the herbs were automatically identified by comparison of their mass spectra with the theoretical values. As a case study, the flavonoids in Smilax glabra were profiled using this approach. As a result, 104 flavonoids including 27 potential new compounds were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first report on profiling the components in the plants utilizing the plant metabolic principles with the assistance of metabolites software. This approach can be extended to the analysis of flavonoids in other plants.

  7. Identification and evaluation of the chemical similarity of Yindan xinnaotong samples by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Leilei; Haiyu, Xu; Wang, Lan; Xiaojie, Yin; Huijun, Yuan; Songsong, Wang; Cheng, Long; Ma, Xiaojing; Gao, Shuangrong; Liang, Rixin; Yang, Hongjun

    2016-02-01

    Yindan xinnaotong, a compound preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, is composed of eight herbs: Ginkgo biloba leaf (yinxingye), Salvia miltiorrhizae (danshen), Herba gynostemmatis (jiaogulan), Erigerontis herba (dengzhanxixin), Allii sativi bulbus (dasuan), Notoginseng radixe rhizoma (sanqi), Crataegi fructus (shanzha), and Borneolum (tianranbingpian). Yindan xinnaotong is primarily used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, to date, no scientific methods have been established to assess the quality of Yindan xinnaotong. Therefore, a combinatorial method was developed based on chemical constituent identification and fingerprint analysis to assess the consistency of Yindan xinnaotong quality. In this study, ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to identify the chemical components of Yindan xinnaotong soft capsules. Approximately 74 components were detected, of which 70, including flavonoids, ginkgolide, phenolic acid, diterpenoid tanshinones, and ginsenoside, were tentatively identified. A fingerprint analysis was also conducted to evaluate the uniformity of the quality of Yindan xinnaotong soft capsules. Ten batches of Yindan xinnaotong soft capsules were analyzed. All of the resulting chromatograms were imported into the "Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprints of TCM" (Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission, version 2004A). The similarity scores of common peaks from these samples ranged from 0.903-1.000, indicating that samples from different batches were highly correlated. PMID:26634631

  8. Global characterization of the photosynthetic glycerolipids from a marine diatom Stephanodiscus sp. by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jilin; Chen, Deying; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhou, Chengxu

    2010-03-17

    The photosynthetic glycerolipids composition of algae is crucial for structural and physiological aspects. In this work, a comprehensive characterization of the photosynthetic glycerolipids of the diatom Stephanodiscus sp. was carried out by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS). By use of the MS(E) data collection mode, the Q-TOF instrument offered a very viable alternative to triple quadrupoles for precursor ion scanning of photosynthetic glycerolipids and had the advantage of high efficiency, selectivity, sensitivity and mass accuracy. Characteristic fragment ions were utilized to identify the structures and acyl compositions of photosynthetic glycerolipids. Comparing the abundance of fragment ions, it was possible to determine the position of the sn-glycerol-bound fatty acyl chains. As a result, four classes of photosynthetic glycerolipid in the extract of Stephanodiscus sp. were unambiguously identified, including 16 monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs), 9 digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs), 23 sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) and 8 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs). As far as our knowledge, this is the first report on global identification of photosynthetic glycerolipids, including lipid classes, fatty acyl composition within lipids and the location of fatty acids in lipids (sn-1 vs. sn-2), in the extract of marine microalgae by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS directly. PMID:20172098

  9. Metabolomic analysis of swine urine treated with β2-agonists by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuping; Bi, Yanfeng; Bingga, Gali; Li, Xiaowei; Zhang, Suxia; Li, Jiancheng; Li, Hui; Ding, Shuangyang; Xia, Xi

    2015-06-26

    The illegal use of β2-agonists in livestock production was previously detected by efficient methods based on mass spectrometry to control the residues of these drugs. Nevertheless, such methods still remain a challenging task for authorities who monitor these residues because the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention of illegal use of growth-promoting agents. Here, we outlined a metabolomics-based strategy for detecting the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of three β2-agonists via urine profiling. Urine profiles of controls and swine treated with mixture of low amounts of three substances (clenbuterol, salbutamol, and ractopamine) were analyzed with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolic differences between controls and β2-agonists-treated groups were compared using multivariate data analysis. Fourteen metabolites were identified related with the β2-agonists treatment, while two co-biomarkers, 2-indolecarboxylic acid and fluorometholone acetate, either in single or "cocktails" of low-dose mixture of clenbuterol, salbutamol, and ractopamine, could be considered as diagnostic markers for the detection of illegal use of β2-agonists. The results of depletion study demonstrated that it is practical to use the markers for monitoring of β2-agonists. PMID:25980694

  10. Analysis of diacylglycerols by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Double bond location and isomers separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pan; Zhong, Dafang; Wang, Xi; Dai, Yulu; Zhou, Lei; Leng, Ying; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-21

    Diacylglycerols (DAGs) are important lipid intermediates and have been implicated in human diseases. Isomerism complicates their mass spectrometric analysis; in particular, it is difficult to identify fatty acid substituents and locate the double bond positions in unsaturated DAGs. We have developed an analytical strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) in conjunction with dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) derivatization and collision cross-section (CCS) measurement to characterize DAGs in biological samples. The method employs non-aqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation and profile collision energy (CE) mode for MS(E) and MS/MS analyses. Three types of fragment ions were produced simultaneously. Hydrocarbon ions (m/z 50-200) obtained at high CE helped to distinguish unsaturated and saturated DAGs rapidly. Neutral loss ions and acylium ions (m/z 300-400) produced at low CE were used to identify fatty acid substituents. Informative methyl thioalkane fragment ions were used to locate the double bonds of unsaturated DAGs. Mono-methylthio derivatives were formed mainly by the reaction of DAGs with DMDS, where methyl thiol underwent addition to the first double bond farthest from the ester terminus of unsaturated fatty acid chains. The addition of CCS values maximized the separation of isomeric DAG species and improved the confidence of DAG identification. Fourteen DAGs were identified in mouse myotube cells based on accurate masses, characteristic fragment ions, DMDS derivatization, and CCS values. PMID:27188314

  11. Performance characterization of high quantum efficiency metal package photomultiplier tubes for time-of-flight and high-resolution PET applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung, E-mail: jaes@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Metal package photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a metal channel dynode structure have several advanced features for devising such time-of-flight (TOF) and high spatial resolution positron emission tomography (PET) detectors, thanks to their high packing density, large effective area ratio, fast time response, and position encoding capability. Here, we report on an investigation of new metal package PMTs with high quantum efficiency (QE) for high-resolution PET and TOF PET detector modules. Methods: The latest metal package PMT, the Hamamatsu R11265 series, is served with two kinds of photocathodes that have higher quantum efficiency than normal bialkali (typical QE ≈ 25%), super bialkali (SBA; QE ≈ 35%), and ultra bialkali (UBA; QE ≈ 43%). In this study, the authors evaluated the performance of the new PMTs with SBA and UBA photocathodes as a PET detector by coupling various crystal arrays. They also investigated the performance improvements of high QE, focusing in particular on a block detector coupled with a lutetium-based scintillator. A single 4 × 4 × 10 mm{sup 3} LYSO, a 7 × 7 array of 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} LGSO, a 9 × 9 array of 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} LYSO, and a 6 × 6 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7 mm{sup 3} LuYAP were used for evaluation. All coincidence data were acquired with a DRS4 based fast digitizer. Results: This new PMT shows promising crystal positioning accuracy, energy and time discrimination performance for TOF, and high-resolution PET applications. The authors also found that a metal channel PMT with SBA was enough for both TOF and high-resolution application, although UBA gave a minor improvement to time resolution. However, significant performance improvement was observed in relative low light output crystals (LuYAP) coupled with UBA. Conclusions: The results of this study will be of value as a useful reference to select PMTs for high-performance PET detectors.

  12. Performance characterization of high quantum efficiency metal package photomultiplier tubes for time-of-flight and high-resolution PET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Metal package photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a metal channel dynode structure have several advanced features for devising such time-of-flight (TOF) and high spatial resolution positron emission tomography (PET) detectors, thanks to their high packing density, large effective area ratio, fast time response, and position encoding capability. Here, we report on an investigation of new metal package PMTs with high quantum efficiency (QE) for high-resolution PET and TOF PET detector modules. Methods: The latest metal package PMT, the Hamamatsu R11265 series, is served with two kinds of photocathodes that have higher quantum efficiency than normal bialkali (typical QE ≈ 25%), super bialkali (SBA; QE ≈ 35%), and ultra bialkali (UBA; QE ≈ 43%). In this study, the authors evaluated the performance of the new PMTs with SBA and UBA photocathodes as a PET detector by coupling various crystal arrays. They also investigated the performance improvements of high QE, focusing in particular on a block detector coupled with a lutetium-based scintillator. A single 4 × 4 × 10 mm3 LYSO, a 7 × 7 array of 3 × 3 × 20 mm3 LGSO, a 9 × 9 array of 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm3 LYSO, and a 6 × 6 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7 mm3 LuYAP were used for evaluation. All coincidence data were acquired with a DRS4 based fast digitizer. Results: This new PMT shows promising crystal positioning accuracy, energy and time discrimination performance for TOF, and high-resolution PET applications. The authors also found that a metal channel PMT with SBA was enough for both TOF and high-resolution application, although UBA gave a minor improvement to time resolution. However, significant performance improvement was observed in relative low light output crystals (LuYAP) coupled with UBA. Conclusions: The results of this study will be of value as a useful reference to select PMTs for high-performance PET detectors

  13. Bumblebee flight in heavy turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, T; Schneider, K; Lehmann, F -O; Sesterhenn, J

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of a tethered model bumblebee in forward flight are performed superimposing homogeneous isotropic turbulent fluctuations to the uniform inflow. Despite tremendous variation in turbulence intensity, between 17% and 99% with respect to the mean flow, we do not find significant changes in cycle-averaged aerodynamic forces, moments or flight power when averaged over realizations, compared to laminar inflow conditions. The variance of aerodynamic measures, however, significantly increases with increasing turbulence intensity, which may explain flight instabilities observed in freely flying bees.

  14. Water droplet calibration of a cloud droplet probe and in-flight performance in liquid, ice and mixed-phase clouds during ARCPAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lance

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory calibrations of the Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP sample area and droplet sizing are performed using water droplets of known size, generated at a known rate. However, comparison with an independent measure of liquid water content (LWC during in-flight operation suggests much greater biases in the droplet size and/or droplet concentration measured by the CDP than would be expected based on the laboratory calibrations. Since the bias in CDP-LWC is strongly concentration dependent, we hypothesize that this discrepancy is a result of coincidence, when two or more droplets pass through the CDP laser beam within a very short time. The coincidence error, most frequently resulting from the passage of one droplet outside and one inside the instrument sample area at the same time, is evaluated in terms of an "extended sample area" (SAE, the area in which individual droplets can affect the sizing detector without necessarily registering on the qualifier. The SAE is calibrated with standardized water droplets, and used in a Monte-Carlo simulation to estimate the effect of coincidence on the measured droplet size distributions. The simulations show that extended coincidence errors are important for the CDP at droplet concentrations even as low as 200 cm−3, and these errors are necessary to explain the trend between calculated and measured LWC observed in liquid and mixed-phase clouds during the Aerosol, Radiation and Cloud Processes Affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC study. We estimate from the simulations that 60% oversizing error and 50% undercounting error can occur at droplet concentrations exceeding 500 cm−3. Modification of the optical design of the CDP is currently being explored in an effort to reduce this coincidence bias.

  15. Peptides from two sanguinovorous leeches analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hirudo nipponica Whitman and Poecilobdella manillensis Lesson fall into the family of Hirudinidae Whitman, both of them are sanguinovorous leeches and used a anticoagulant medicines in China. Their medicinal parts are the dried bodies. However, the peptides in the dried body of the two leeches have not been very clear up to now. Objective: To analyze the peptides from two sanguinovorous leeches, H. nipponica and P. manillensis. Materials and Methods: In this article it is reported that the peptides were obtained from anticoagulant active extracted parts of dried bodies of the two leeches and their molecular weights were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry mass spectrometric detector online. Results: Three peptide components were identified from H. nipponica with their molecular weight separately 14998, 15988, and 15956, six peptide components were identified from P. manillensis with molecular weight 9590, 13642, 14998, 17631, 15988, and 16567. Two of peptides from P. manillensis have the same molecular weight 14998 and 15988 as that in H. nipponica. Conclusion: And the two peptides are the main peaks in the base peak ion chromatogram because they occupied a large ratio of total base peak area. Hence the composition of the extracted active part of the two leeches are very close, difference is in that the extract of P. manillensis has more small peptide peaks, but the extract of H. nipponica has not. Furthermore, the tryptic digestion hydrolysates of the extracted active part of each sample were analyzed and the results showed that there were four peaks which only exist in P. manillensis, but not in Hirudo nipponia. They may be the identified peak between the two leeches. This work support the viewpoint that P. manillensis can be used as a medicinal leech as H. nipponia and these peptide components of dried bodies of the two species leeches are a

  16. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia species using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Lee, Stephanie; Choi, Franky Fung Kei; Xu, Gang; Liu, Xin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2010-09-23

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a group of natural products isolated from different Garcinia species with a wide range of important biological activities. In this study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to photodiode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) method was developed to characterize 16 PPAPs in 10 Garcinia species. In source dissociation techniques based on cone voltage fragmentation were used to fragment the deprotonated molecules and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using ramping collision energy were used to further break down the resulting product ions. The resulting characteristic fragment ions were generated by cleavage of C1-C5 bond and C7-C8 bond through concerted pericyclic reaction, which is especially valuable for differentiating three types of PPAPs isomers. As such, two new PPAPs isomers present in minor amount in the extracts of Garcinia oblongifolia were tentatively characterized by comparing their tandem mass spectra to the known ones. In addition, an UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method was validated for the quantitative determination of PPAPs. The method exhibited limits of detection from 2.7 to 21.4 ng mL(-1) and intra-day and inter-day variations were less than 3.7% and the recovery was in the range of 89-107% with RSD less than 9.0%. This UPLC-Q-TOF-MS method has successfully been applied to quantify 16 PPAPs in 32 samples of 10 Garcinia species, which were found to be a rich source of PPAPs. PMID:20869510

  17. Metabolite identification of crude extract from Ganoderma lucidum in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Ru; Yang, Min; Yu, Kate; Guan, Shu-Hong; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Wan-Ying; Sun, Yan; Li, Chuan; Ding, Jie; Guo, De-An

    2013-12-15

    The metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present paper, a new strategy was established to study the metabolism of crude extract from Ganoderma lucidum using the highly separative and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Based on the investigation of the metabolism of five representative single compounds (ganoderic acid), a total of 90 metabolites were identified from the bile sample after oral administration of the crude extract. Among them, 21 compounds were identified by comparison with the reference standards, the other unknown metabolites were tentatively characterized by interpretation of the high resolution low collision energy and high collision energy mass spectra using the fragmentation rules. The metabolic characteristics and "soft spots" of the ganoderic acids were revealed. After being absorbed, the ganoderic acids from the extract could undergo extensive phases I and II metabolism in rat before excreted into the bile. The main ganoderic acids could transform from one to another through reduction, oxidation, deacetylation and desaturation reactions. Other metabolic transformation included hydroxylation, sulfation and glucuronidation. The total tendency was that the low polar ganoderic acids were transformed into the high polar metabolites to eliminate from the organism. The metabolic "soft spots" of the ganoderic acids were 3,7,15,23-carbonyl groups (or hydroxyl groups), angular methyl groups, 20(22)-double bond, 12-acetoxyl group and 26-carboxylic acid moiety. These results are considered to be important for the further investigation of G. lucidum. PMID:24189202

  18. Antioxidant activity and identification of bioactive compounds from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu Chandel; Upendra Sharma; Neeraj Kumar; Bikram Singh; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of different extract/fractions of Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) (Roxb.) Miq. (Rubiaceae) and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract/fractions were screened for antioxidant activity using various in vitro assays viz. DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and plasmid DNA nicking assay. Total phenolic content of extract/fractions was determined by colorimetric method. An ultra-performance LC-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was used to analyse the active constituents of extract/fractions of A. cadamba. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most active fraction in all the assays as compared to other extract/fractions. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate fraction (ETAC fraction) was 21.24 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL, 9.68 μg/mL and 57.81 μg/mL in DPPH assay, ABTS assay, reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging assay respectively. All the extract/fractions also showed the potential to protect the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent. The bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, by comparing the mass and λmax with literature values. Conclusions: The potential of the extract/fractions to scavenge different free radicals in different systems indicated that they may be useful therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathologic damage.

  19. Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program (update to automatic flight trajectory design, performance prediction, and vehicle sizing for support of Shuttle and Shuttle derived vehicles) engineering manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program and its predecessors, the ROBOT and the RAGMOP programs, have had a long history of supporting MSFC in the simulation of space boosters for the purpose of performance evaluation. The ROBOT program was used in the simulation of the Saturn 1B and Saturn 5 vehicles in the 1960's and provided the first utilization of the minimum Hamiltonian (or min-H) methodology and the steepest ascent technique to solve the optimum trajectory problem. The advent of the Space Shuttle in the 1970's and its complex airplane design required a redesign of the trajectory simulation code since aerodynamic flight and controllability were required for proper simulation. The RAGMOP program was the first attempt to incorporate the complex equations of the Space Shuttle into an optimization tool by using an optimization method based on steepest ascent techniques (but without the min-H methodology). Development of the complex partial derivatives associated with the Space Shuttle configuration and using techniques from the RAGMOP program, the ROBOT program was redesigned to incorporate these additional complexities. This redesign created the MASTRE program, which was referred to as the Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Shuttle TRajectory Evaluation program at that time. Unique to this program were first-stage (or booster) nonlinear aerodynamics, upper-stage linear aerodynamics, engine control via moment balance, liquid and solid thrust forces, variable liquid throttling to maintain constant acceleration limits, and a total upgrade of the equations used in the forward and backward integration segments of the program. This modification of the MASTRE code has been used to simulate the new space vehicles associated with the National Launch Systems (NLS). Although not as complicated as the Space Shuttle, the simulation and analysis of the NLS vehicles required additional modifications to the MASTRE program in the areas of providing

  20. Quantitative analysis of amino acids and acylcarnitines combined with untargeted metabolomics using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Cynthia; Tremblay, Pierre-Yves; Bienvenu, Jean-François; Ayotte, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Metabolomics is an "omic" technique being increasingly used in epidemiological and clinical studies. We developed a method combining untargeted metabolomics with the quantitative determination of eight amino acids (AA) and eight acylcarnitines (AC) in plasma using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), electrospray ionization (ESI) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS). Separation of metabolites is performed by ion-pair reverse phase UHPLC using a HSS T3 column (2.1×100mm, 100Å, 1.8μm particle size) and formic acid-ammonium acetate-heptafluorobutyric acid in water and formic acid-ammonium acetate in methanol as mobile phases. Metabolite identification and quantification are achieved using a QTOFMS operating in ESI-positive and full-scan mode along with MS(E) acquisition of fragmentation patterns. Targeted metabolites are quantified using the appropriate labeled standards and include branched-chain AA (leucine, isoleucine, valine), aromatic AA (phenylalanine, tyrosine) as well as acetylcarnitine and propionylcarnitine, which have been identified as biomarkers of future cardiometabolic disease risk. The inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) for the targeted method was <15% for all but one metabolite and accuracy (bias) of amino acids ranged from 0.5% to 13.9% using SRM 1950 as the external standard. Untargeted metabolomics in 30 plasma samples from the general Canadian population revealed 5018 features, of which 48 metabolites were identified using the MZmine 2.19 software including 23 by our in-house library that comprises 671 annotated metabolites. SRM 1950 analysis revealed 11,684 features, among which 154 metabolites were identified. Our method is currently applied in several epidemiological studies to better characterize cardiometabolic diseases and identify new biomarkers for disease prevention. PMID:27240302

  1. Peptide profiling of Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin using high performance liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography - ion mobility - quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Bert; D'Hondt, Matthias; Bracke, Nathalie; Yao, Han; Wynendaele, Evelien; Vissers, Johannes Petrus Cornelis; De Cecco, Martin; Claereboudt, Jan; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2015-09-01

    Cerebrolysin, a parenteral peptide preparation produced by controlled digestion of porcine brain proteins, is an approved nootropic medicine in some countries. However, it is also easily and globally available on the Internet. Nevertheless, until now, its exact chemical composition was unknown. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ion trap and ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole-ion mobility-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-IM-TOF MS), combined with UniProt pig protein database search and PEAKS de novo sequencing, we identified 638 unique peptides in an Internet-obtained Cerebrolysin sample. The main components in this sample originate from tubulin alpha- and beta-chain, actin, and myelin basic protein. No fragments of known neurotrophic factors like glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were found, suggesting that the activities reported in the literature are likely the result of new, hitherto unknown cryptic peptides with nootropic properties. PMID:26017115

  2. Chemical profiling and quantification of Gua-Lou-Gui-Zhi decoction by high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Huang, Mingqing; Li, Huang; Chen, Xianwen; Zhang, Yuqin; Liu, Jie; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Chen, Lidian

    2015-04-01

    Gua-Lou-Gui-Zhi decoction (GLGZD) is a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine, which has been commonly used to treat dysfunction after stroke, epilepsy and spinal cord injury. In this study, a systematic method was established for chemical profiling and quantification analysis of the major constituents in GLGZD. For qualitative analysis, a method of high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) was developed. 106 compounds, including monoterpene glycosides, galloyl glucoses, phenolic acids, flavonoids, gingerols and triterpene saponins were identified or tentatively presumed by comparison with reference standards or literature data. According to the qualitative results, a new quantitative analysis method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS) was established. 24 representative compounds were simultaneously detected in 10 batches of GLGZD samples in 7.5 min. The calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (r>0.9959) within the test ranges. The LODs and the LOQs were less than 30.6 and 70.9 ng/mL, respectively. The RSDs of intra- and inter-day precision, repeatability and stability were below 3.64%, 4.85%, 4.84% and 3.87%, respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 94.94% to 103.66%, with the RSDs within 5.12%. This study established a high sensitive and efficient method for the integrating quality control, including identification and quantification of Chinese medicinal preparation. PMID:25710597

  3. Design and performance of a matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer utilizing a pulsed nitrogen laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design considerations and experimental performance of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are reported for performing matrix-assisted laser desorption studies. A simple pulsed gas-discharge nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) is successfully used in contrast to the more widely used frequency-quadrupled (266 nm) or frequency-tripled (355 nm) Nd:YAG solid-state laser. Optical considerations in utilizing the pulsed nitrogen laser are discussed and a simple optical arrangement is described which allows for suitable imaging of the poor spatial beam profile of the pulsed nitrogen laser. Laser spot sizes of 150x450 μm are obtainable. As with the frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, sinapic acid is found to be the most useful matrix for producing protonated molecular species from proteins. Appropriate laser power levels are determined, as matrix/sample levels. Adequate response for most small to medium molecular weight proteins is obtained for less than 1 pmol of sample. A simple einsel lens incorporated into the ion source does not appear to provide any significant focusing on the laser-desorbed ions; however, a constant d.c. voltage applied to beam stirring plates enhances the ion signal significantly. Selective, pulsed deflection of the low-mass ions produced from the matrix is also utilized to prevent excessive saturation of the microchannel plate ion detector. High source potentials are found to provide improved resolution and sensitivity in comparison with lower source potentials combined with post-acceleration at the detector. Representative mass spectra of several proteins and peptides are presented. Increased formation of photoinduced adduct ions are observed in comparison with that reported for matrix-assisted laser desorption experiments utilizing a Nd:YAG laser and significant amounts of dimer and trimer ions are produced. Significantly more peak broadening than would normally be expected is observed above 20000 u. This may be due to the post-acceleration design of

  4. The IBEX Flight Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, J.; Carrico, J.; Crock, J.; Cross, W.; Delossantos, A.; Dunn, A.; Dunn, G.; Epperly, M.; Fields, B.; Fowler, E.; Gaio, T.; Gerhardus, J.; Grossman, W.; Hanley, J.; Hautamaki, B.; Hawes, D.; Holemans, W.; Kinaman, S.; Kirn, S.; Loeffler, C.; McComas, D. J.; Osovets, A.; Perry, T.; Peterson, M.; Phillips, M.; Pope, S.; Rahal, G.; Tapley, M.; Tyler, R.; Ungar, B.; Walter, E.; Wesley, S.; Wiegand, T.

    2009-08-01

    IBEX provides the observations needed for detailed modeling and in-depth understanding of the interstellar interaction (McComas et al. in Physics of the Outer Heliosphere, Third Annual IGPP Conference, pp. 162-181, 2004; Space Sci. Rev., 2009a, this issue). From mission design to launch and acquisition, this goal drove all flight system development. This paper describes the management, design, testing and integration of IBEX’s flight system, which successfully launched from Kwajalein Atoll on October 19, 2008. The payload is supported by a simple, Sun-pointing, spin-stabilized spacecraft with no deployables. The spacecraft bus consists of the following subsystems: attitude control, command and data handling, electrical power, hydrazine propulsion, RF, thermal, and structures. A novel 3-step orbit approach was employed to put IBEX in its highly elliptical, 8-day final orbit using a Solid Rocket Motor, which provided large delta-V after IBEX separated from the Pegasus launch vehicle; an adapter cone, which interfaced between the SRM and Pegasus; Motorized Lightbands, which performed separation from the Pegasus, ejection of the adapter cone, and separation of the spent SRM from the spacecraft; a ShockRing isolation system to lower expected launch loads; and the onboard Hydrazine Propulsion System. After orbit raising, IBEX transitioned from commissioning to nominal operations and science acquisition. At every phase of development, the Systems Engineering and Mission Assurance teams supervised the design, testing and integration of all IBEX flight elements.

  5. Identification of urinary and feces metabolites of Rhizoma Paridis saponins in rats based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF/MS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Jinchao; Liu, Changxiao; Man, Shuli; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shanshan

    2011-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF/MS) method was established to analyze the saponins in Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) and the constituents in urinary and feces samples. As we know, the constituents of traditional Chinese medicines are very complex and pre-clinical research including metabolism, excretion and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicine components are of great importance in understanding their biological effects and safety. Therefor...

  6. Performance evaluation of a prototype multi-bounce time-of-flight mass spectrometer in linear mode and applications in space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässig, M.; Libardoni, M.; Mandt, K.; Miller, G.; Blase, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool to measure the composition of volatile and semi volatile gases. The necessity to accurately identify and quantify unknown species lead to the requirements of a mass spectrometer as the detector of choice in most separation science and direct sample analysis situations. Advantages of time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) are the high mass resolution, high mass range, and the measurement of the entire mass range in each extraction. The multi-bounce time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MBTOF) described in this work, takes advantage of a small footprint without sacrificing mass resolution. To achieve this, the MBTOF prototype uses a linear flight path with dual lens stacks. Ions are bounced in between the mirrors for a specified duration whereby increasing their flight time and resolution. The number of bounces can tune the resolution of the instrument. To show the minimum capabilities of the instrument and further applications of it, MBTOF was operated in linear mode. The instrument is designed for a multibounce passage of the ion optics and the focal point of the ion optics is optimized for this application, therefore the resolution in linear mode is limited. However, even in linear mode of operation, the mass resolution meets or exceeds that of a quadrupole mass spectrometer with limited power supplies required for operations. The measurements presented here are based on lab measurements of the early lab prototype MBTOF operated in a linear flight mode with low ion source extraction fields. A detailed evaluation including filament characterization, dynamic range and resolution are investigated. Further discussion involving applications on planetary missions for rocket science, coupling of MBTOF with laser thermal desorption or gas chromatography for potential organic determination in deep space are included.

  7. Performance studies and improvements of a time-of-flight detector for isochronous mass measurements at the FRS-ESR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At GSI Darmstadt the technique of Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) has been developed for direct mass measurements of exotic nuclides. In this method a cocktail beam of highly-charged ions is produced via projectile fragmentation or fission, separated in the FRagment Separator (FRS) and injected into the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) operated in an isochronous mode. The mass of the exotic nuclei can be deduced from precise revolution time measurements by a time-of-flight (TOF) detector placed in the ESR. In the detector ions passing a thin foil release secondary electrons, which are transported to two microchannel plate (MCP) detectors in forward and backward directions by electric and magnetic fields. In this work the performance characteristics of the detector were investigated by simulations and by offline and online experiments and significantly improved. In particular the timing performance and the rate capability were measured and enhanced. The detection efficiency improvements developed in previous work were verified and the use of thinner carbon foils to increase the number of turns of the ions in the ring were implemented. This work also forms a basis for the development of a dual detector system for IMS in the collector ring at FAIR. In this work the main contributions to the TOF detector timing such as the transport time of the secondary electrons, the electron transit time through the MCPs and the method of determination of the event time from the MCP signals (event time determination) were analyzed and improved. The timing accuracy of the TOF detector was investigated by coincidence time-of-flight measurements. The timing uncertainty of a single branch of the detector with standard settings was measured in the laboratory with an α-source and amounts to σbranch=48 ps. In an online experiment at the ESR using MCPs with 5 μm pore sizes the timing accuracy was measured as σbranch=48 ps with a stable 20Ne beam and σbranch=45 ps with 238U fission

  8. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Major Triterpenoids in Alismatis Rhizoma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode-Array Detector/Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alismatis Rhizoma (AMR is a well-known natural medicine with a long history in Chinese medicine and has been commonly used for treating a wide range of ailments related to dysuria, edema, nephropathy, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, inflammation as well as tumors in clinical applications. Most beneficial effects of AMR are attributed to the presence of protostane terpenoids, the major active ingredients of Alismatis Rhizoma (AMR. In this study, a systematic high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ MS method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major AMR triterpenoids. First, a total of 25 triterpenoid components, including 24 known compounds and one new compound were identified by comparison with UV spectra, molecular ions and fragmentation behaviors of reference standards or the literature. Second, an efficient method was established for the rapid simultaneous determination of 14 representative triterpenoids by UPLC-QqQ MS. Forty-three batches of AMR were analyzed with linearity (r, 0.9980–0.9999, intra-day precision (RSD, 1.18%–3.79%, inter-day precision (RSD, 1.53%–3.96%, stability (RSD, 1.32%–3.97%, repeatability (RSD, 2.21%–4.25%, and recovery (98.11%–103.8%. These results indicated that new approaches combining HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF MS and UPLC-QqQ MS are applicable in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of AMR.

  10. Design and performance of a new positron computed tomograph (P.C.T.) using the time-of-flight (T.O.F.) information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tomograph for positron imaging using the time of flight measurement is described. Fast CsF crystals are used in this first prototype. Compared to the classical reconstruction method, the results of adding this information is a substantial increase of sensitivity, a reduced random coincidence count rate, and slight decrease of a scatter contribution in the images. Further improvements in the T.O.F. accuracy can be expected in using faster crystals

  11. Performance studies and improvements of a Time-of-Flight detector for isochronous mass measurements at the FRS-ESR facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzminchuk, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    At GSI Darmstadt the technique of Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) has been developed for direct mass measurements of exotic nuclides. In this method a cocktail beam of highly-charged ions is produced via projectile fragmentation or fission, separated in the FRagment Separator (FRS) and injected into the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) operated in an isochronous mode. The mass of the exotic nuclei can be deduced from precise revolution time measurements by a time-of-flight (TOF) detector p...

  12. Flight Test Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  13. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests

  14. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests.

  15. [Recombination in Drosophila in space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, L P; Vaulina, E N; Lapteva, N Sh; Grozdova, T Ia

    1988-04-01

    An experiment with Drosophila melanogaster males was performed aboard the Artificial Satellite "Kosmos-1667". Mutagenic effects of a 7-day space flight on intergene recombination in chromosome 2 were studied. The space flight factors decreased the frequency of recombination. A model experiment on a laboratory centrifuge demonstrated insignificant increase in recombination frequency caused by acceleration. PMID:3135244

  16. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-09-26

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528779

  17. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  18. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight...

  19. 3-D Flash Lidar Performance in Flight Testing on the Morpheus Autonomous, Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, Vincent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a 3-D imaging Flash Lidar instrument has been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM), identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system, help to guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying lander to that safe site on the hazard field. The flight tests served as the TRL 6 demo of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) system and included launch from NASA-Kennedy, a lunar-like descent trajectory from an altitude of 250m, and landing on a lunar-like hazard field of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe sites 400m down-range. The ALHAT project developed a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled instrument. Based upon extensive on-ground characterization at flight ranges, the Flash Lidar was shown to be capable of imaging hazards from a slant range of 1 km with an 8 cm range precision and a range accuracy better than 35 cm, both at 1-delta. The Flash Lidar identified landing hazards as small as 30 cm from the maximum slant range which Morpheus could achieve (450 m); however, under certain wind conditions it was susceptible to scintillation arising from air heated by the rocket engine and to pre-triggering on a dust cloud created during launch and transported down-range by wind.

  20. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  1. Optimal speed of hypersonic cruise flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A coupling frame of speed gain and maintain was suggested to assess the flight performance of hypersonic cruise vehicles(HCV).The optimal cruise speed was obtained by analyzing the flight performance measured by the ratio of initial boost mass to generalized payload.The performance of HCVs based on rockets and air-breathing ramjets was studied and compared to that of a minimum-energy ballistic trajectory under a certain flight distance.It is concluded that rocket-based HCVs flying at the optimal speed ar...

  2. In Flight, Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Robert A.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Christmann, Edwin P.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of flight for human beings has always been closely tied to imagination. To fly like a bird requires a mind that also soars. Therefore, good teachers who want to teach the scientific principles of flight recognize that it is helpful to share stories of their search for the keys to flight. The authors share some of these with the reader,…

  3. White flight or flight from poverty?

    CERN Document Server

    Jego, C; Jego, Charles; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of White flight is often illustrated by the case of Detroit whose population dropped from 1.80 million to 0.95 million between 1950 and 2000 while at the same time its Black and Hispanic component grew from 30 percent to 85 percent. But is this case really representative? The present paper shows that the phenomenon of White flight is in fact essentially a flight from poverty. As a confirmation, we show that the changes in White or Black populations are highly correlated which means that White flight is always paralleled by Black flight (and Hispanic flight as well). This broader interpretation of White flight accounts not only for the case of northern cities such as Cincinnati, Cleveland or Detroit, but for all population changes at county level, provided the population density is higher than a threshold of about 50 per square-kilometer which corresponds to moderately urbanized areas (as can be found in states like Indiana or Virginia for instance).

  4. TOFPET2: a high-performance ASIC for time and amplitude measurements of SiPM signals in time-of-flight applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a readout and digitization ASIC featuring low-noise and low-power for time-of flight (TOF) applications using SiPMs. The circuit is designed in standard CMOS 110 nm technology, has 64 independent channels and is optimized for time-of-flight measurement in Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET). The input amplifier is a low impedance current conveyor based on a regulated common-gate topology. Each channel has quad-buffered analogue interpolation TDCs (time binning 20 ps) and charge integration ADCs with linear response at full scale (1500 pC). The signal amplitude can also be derived from the measurement of time-over-threshold (ToT). Simulation results show that for a single photo-electron signal with charge 200 (550) fC generated by a SiPM with 320 pF capacitance the circuit has 24 (30) dB SNR, 75(39) ps r.m.s. resolution, and 4(8) mW power consumption. The event rate is 600 kHz per channel, with up to 2 MHz dark counts rejection

  5. Rapid separation and identification of multiple constituents in Danhong Injection by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun-Qun; Dong, Xin; Liu, Xin-Guang; Gao, Wen; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-02-01

    To characterize and identify multiple constituents in Danhong injection (DHI), a fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS) method was established and validated in the present study. A total of 63 compounds, including 33 phenolic acids, 2 C-glycosyl quinochalcones, 6 flavonoid O-glycosides, 4 iridoid glycosides, 6 organic acids, 5 amino acids, and 3 nucleosides, were identified or tentatively characterized. In conclusion, the UHPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS method is useful and efficient for in-depth structural elucidation of chemical compounds in complex matrices of herbal medicines such as DHI. PMID:26968681

  6. UAV flight plan static validator

    OpenAIRE

    Ittel, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have been successfully used for military purposes for several years. With advancing technology and improving acceptance UAS are expected to become increasingly important in the field of civil aviation. UAS can provide great value by performing missions such as environmental applications, participating in emergency situations and operating as communication relays. If UAS are foreseen to perform such missions in the future, current flight planning specification a...

  7. The use of an automated flight test management system in the development of a rapid-prototyping flight research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Hewett, Marle D.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Tartt, David M.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Agarwal, Arvind K.

    1988-01-01

    An automated flight test management system (ATMS) and its use to develop a rapid-prototyping flight research facility for artificial intelligence (AI) based flight systems concepts are described. The ATMS provides a flight test engineer with a set of tools that assist in flight planning and simulation. This system will be capable of controlling an aircraft during the flight test by performing closed-loop guidance functions, range management, and maneuver-quality monitoring. The rapid-prototyping flight research facility is being developed at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) to provide early flight assessment of emerging AI technology. The facility is being developed as one element of the aircraft automation program which focuses on the qualification and validation of embedded real-time AI-based systems.

  8. The performance of the bolometer array and readout system during the 2012/2013 flight of the E and B experiment (EBEX)

    CERN Document Server

    MacDermid, Kevin; Ade, Peter; Aubin, Francois; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bandura, Kevin; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grain, Julien; Grainger, Will; Hanany, Shaul; Helson, Kyle; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Hannes; Irwin, Kent; Johnson, Bradley; Jaffe, Andrew; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Ted; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Lee, Adrian; Levinson, Lorne; Limon, Michele; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Pascale, Enzo; Raach, Kate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Reintsema, Carl; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Stompor, Radek; Tristram, Matthieu; Tucker, Greg; Westbrook, Ben; Zilic, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    EBEX is a balloon-borne telescope designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. During its eleven day science flight in the Austral Summer of 2012, it operated 955 spider-web transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers separated into bands at 150, 250 and 410 GHz. This is the first time that an array of TES bolometers has been used on a balloon platform to conduct science observations. Polarization sensitivity was provided by a wire grid and continuously rotating half-wave plate. The balloon implementation of the bolometer array and readout electronics presented unique development requirements. Here we present an outline of the readout system, the remote tuning of the bolometers and Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) amplifiers, and preliminary current noise of the bolometer array and readout system.

  9. Flight Deck I-Glasses Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...

  10. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Dudley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxy...

  11. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  12. Flight to Egypt - The Flight of All Flights

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    Prague: The UN Refugee Agency, 2002 - (Raimanová, I.; Concolato, J.), s. 10-14 ISBN 80-238-8859-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK9056118 Keywords : Flight to Egypt * iconography * literary sources Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. Isochronous mass spectrometry with longer observation of ions and improved timing performances of a time-of-flight detector at ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Isochronous Mass Spectrometry at the FRS-ESR the mass of the exotic nuclei can be deduced from precise revolution time measurements by a time-of-flight detector. In the detector, the ion impinge on a thin carbon foil and the emitted secondary electrons are deflected by 180 with an applied electric and magnetic fields to two MCP detectors. Due to the high revolution frequencies of the ions in the ESR (∝2 MHz), a high rate acceptance is required as well as good timing characteristics. The rate capability improvements developed in offline work using MCPs with smaller pore size and employing thinner carbon foils were studied online with 238U fragments for the first time at the FRS-ESR facility. As a result, up to 10 times more revolutions of the stored ions in the ring were observed. To improve the timing accuracy the TOF detector was modified for higher kinetic transport energies of the secondary electrons from the foil to the MCPs. Offline measurements with a radioactive alpha source showed that the time accuracy of the detector was improved by up to 50 %.

  14. Cuckoo Search via Levy Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to formulate a new metaheuristic algorithm, called Cuckoo Search (CS), for solving optimization problems. This algorithm is based on the obligate brood parasitic behaviour of some cuckoo species in combination with the Levy flight behaviour of some birds and fruit flies. We validate the proposed algorithm against test functions and then compare its performance with those of genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Finally, we discuss the implication of the results and suggestion for further research.

  15. Cuckoo Search via Levy Flights

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xin-She; Deb, Suash

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to formulate a new metaheuristic algorithm, called Cuckoo Search (CS), for solving optimization problems. This algorithm is based on the obligate brood parasitic behaviour of some cuckoo species in combination with the Levy flight behaviour of some birds and fruit flies. We validate the proposed algorithm against test functions and then compare its performance with those of genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ...

  16. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  17. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  18. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  19. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  20. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation for the Automated Flight Test Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.

  1. Java for flight software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, E.; Niessner, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work involves developing representative mission-critical spacecraft software using the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). This work currently leverages actual flight software used in the design of actual flight software in the NASA's Deep Space 1 (DSI), which flew in 1998.

  2. Metabolite Profile of Salidroside in Rats by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Wang, Ziming; Liu, Yong; Wu, Yan; Han, Xuejiao; Zheng, Jian; Yan, Xiufeng; Wang, Yang

    2015-10-21

    In the present work, the salidroside metabolite profile in rat urine was investigated, and subsequently the metabolic pathways of salidroside were proposed. After administrations of salidroside at an oral dose of 100 or 500 mg/kg, rat urine samples were collected and pretreated with methanol to precipitate the proteins. The pretreated samples were analyzed by an Acquity ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with an HSS T3 column and detected by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/Q-trap-MS). A total of eight metabolites were detected and identified on the basis of the characteristics of their protonated ions in the urine samples. The results elucidated that salidroside was metabolized via glucuronidation, sulfation, deglycosylation, hydroxylation, methylation, and dehydroxylation pathways in vivo. PMID:26461036

  3. ER-2 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  4. Metabolomics reveals positive acceleration(+Gz)-induced metabolic perturbations and the protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in a rat model based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhao, Andong; Li, Zhongdong; Ge, Hua; Li, Tonghua; Zhang, Fucheng; Zhan, Hao; Wang, Jianchang

    2016-06-01

    Positive acceleration (+Gz) in the head-to-foot direction generated by modern high-performance fighter jets during flight maneuvers is characterized by high G values and a rapid rate of acceleration, and is often long in duration and a repeated occurrence. The acceleration overload far exceeds the pilot's physiological tolerance limits and causes considerable strain on several organ systems. Despite the importance of monitoring pathophysiological alterations related to +Gz exposure, we lack a complete explanation of the pathophysiology of +Gz exposure. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that might exert a protective effect against +Gz exposure. However, its mechanism remains unclear. Here, a metabolomics approach based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOFMS) was used to characterize +Gz-induced metabolic fluctuations in a rat model and to evaluate the protective effect of GBE. Using partial least-squares discriminant analysis for the classification and selection of biomarkers, eighteen serum metabolites related to +Gz exposure were identified, and were found to primarily involve the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway, glycerophospholipid metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, bile acid metabolism, purine metabolism and lysine metabolism. Taking these potential biomarkers as screening indexes, we found that GBE could reverse the pathological process of +Gz exposure by partially regulating the perturbed fatty acid β-oxidation pathway, glycerophospholipid metabolism, purine metabolism and lysine metabolism. This indicates that UHPLC-Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics provides a powerful tool to reveal serum metabolic fluctuations in response to +Gz exposure and to study the mechanism underlying TCM. PMID:27010354

  5. Flight mechanisms; Hiko no mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, A. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    This paper outlines flight of bats. Unlike large land birds, bats have membrane wings. Judging from the wingspan, wing area and weight that affect flight performance, bats seem to fly at slower speed and with a smaller turning radius than birds. This performance differs by the species of bats and is explainable from the aspect ratio and the wing loading. Researches have been made including the clarification by photography of the reason for making hovering possible, studies on the driving force and the lift in the advancing flight, and studies on the change in frequency and stroke plane inclination at the time of acceleration. With examples lacking in the measurement of change in the feathering angle which is vital in a flapping of wings, no change in the angle of incidence of a blade element nor the aerodynamic force is determinable. The momentum theory proves that the sum of a required power, guiding power and a parasite power shows a U-shaped change against speed. The effective power, which is imparted by the muscles used for the flapping, is in proportion to the mass of the muscles. If the effective power is larger than the required power, hovering is made possible. An output per mass of muscle unit is large in the case of bats. (NEDO)

  6. Flight capacity of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky in relation to gender and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, is a major pest of stored products worldwide. In this research, we evaluated the flight performance of S. zeamais under various temperatures using a 26-channel computer-monitored flight-mill system to estimate total flight distance (TFD), total flight duration (...

  7. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  9. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  10. Engineering pollinator phenotypes: consequences of induced size variation on adult morphology and flight performance metrics in the solitary bee, Osmia lignaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body size is an important trait because it strongly correlates with morphology, performance, and fitness. In insects, the body size model argues that adult size is determined during the larval stage by the mechanisms regulating growth rate and the duration of growth. Though explicit links have been ...

  11. Insect flight muscle metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, D.J. van der; Beenakkers, A.M.Th.; Marrewijk, W.J.A. van

    1984-01-01

    The flight of an insect is of a very complicated and extremely energy-demanding nature. Wingbeat frequency may differ between various species but values up to 1000 Hz have been measured. Consequently metabolic activity may be very high during flight and the transition from rest to flight is accompanied by an increase of 50-100-fold in metabolic rate. Small mammals running at maximal speed and flying birds achieve metabolic rates exceeding resting levels by only 7-14-fold. The exaggerated meta...

  12. Closed loop performance of a brushless dc motor powered electromechanical actuator for flight control applications. [computerized simulation for Shuttle Orbiter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis and possible optimization of the closed loop dynamic (instantaneous) performance of a power conditioner fed, brushless dc motor powered, electromechanical actuator system (EMA) is presented. This model was developed for the simulation of the dynamic performance of an actual prototype EMA built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators for consideration in Space Shuttle Orbiter applications. Excellent correlation was achieved between numerical model simulation and experimental test results obtained from the actual hardware. These results include: various current and voltage waveforms in the machine-power conditioner (MPC) unit, flap position as well as other control loop variables in response to step commands of change of flap position. These results with consequent conclusions are detailed in the paper.

  13. Medicinal cannabis: Principal cannabinoids concentration and their stability evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, Cinzia; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    In the last few years, there has been a boost in the use of cannabis-based extracts for medicinal purposes, although their preparation procedure has not been standardized but rather decided by the individual pharmacists. The present work describes the development of a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection (HPLC-UV) for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the principal cannabinoids (CBD-A, CBD, CBN, THC and THC-A) that could be applied to all cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CMEs) and easily performed by a pharmacist. In order to evaluate the identity and purity of the analytes, a high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) analysis was also carried out. Full method validation has been performed in terms of specificity, selectivity, linearity, recovery, dilution integrity and thermal stability. Moreover, the influence of the solvent (ethyl alcohol and olive oil) was evaluated on cannabinoids degradation rate. An alternative extraction method has then been proposed in order to preserve cannabis monoterpene component in final CMEs. PMID:27268223

  14. Flight Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  15. INSECT FLIGHT - BIOACOUSTICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Gopala Krishna, G.; Krishna Shankar, B.; Ahmad, A.

    1990-01-01

    Insect aerodynamics is drawing the attention of a number of researchers belonging to different disciplines with a view to understand its aerodynamic capabilities so as to revolutionise the aircraft technology. It is possible to understand, to some extent, the insect aerodynamics by experimentally determining the frequency of wing beat in its fethered state of flight by using flight sound technique and computing rate of mass flow, velocity, acceleration and mass of air induced in downward dire...

  16. Electronic flight instrument system

    OpenAIRE

    Hauptman, Luka

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes basic concepts in research and development of a simple electronic flight instrument system, which displays piston engine data to the pilot. The main purpose is to build a functional prototype and acquire knowledge, which will enable us to further develop the system. The second chapter presents fundamentals of electronic flight instrument systems used in large commercial aircrafts. A detailed description of basic approaches to system implementation used by two of the b...

  17. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  18. Flight Crew Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Glenn W.; Richard D. McBride; Ira Gershkoff; Diane Anderson; Deepa Mahidhara

    1993-01-01

    A new crew scheduling optimization system has been developed for United Airlines. The system was developed to permit quick response to schedule changes and to reduce crew scheduling costs. It was designed to work efficiently for both the medium sized problems (300 flights daily) and the very large problems (1,700 flights daily) that United must solve. The system has two main components, a generator and an optimizer. The generator creates pairings (candidate crew trips) which are fed as variab...

  19. Evaluation of Small Unmanned Aircraft Flight Trajectory Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramūnas Kikutis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today small unmanned aircraft are being more widely adapted for practical tasks. These tasks require high reliability and flight path accuracy. For such aircraft we have to deal with the chalenge how to compensate external factors and how to ensure the accuracy of the flight trajectory according to new regulations and standards. In this paper, new regulations for the flights of small unmanned aircraft in Lithuanian air space are discussed. Main factors, which affect errors of the autonomous flight path tracking, are discussed too. The emphasis is on the wind factor and the flight path of Dubbin’s trajectories. Research was performed with mathematical-dynamic model of UAV and it was compared with theoretical calculations. All calculations and experiments were accomplished for the circular part of Dubbin’s paths when the airplane was trimmed for circular trajectory flight in calm conditions. Further, for such flight the wind influence was analysed.

  20. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  1. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  2. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  3. Social psychology on the flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Social psychological and personality factors that can influence resource management on the flight deck are discussed. It is argued that personality and situational factors intersect to determine crew responses and that assessment of performance under full crew and mission conditions can provide the most valuable information about relevant factors. The possibility of training procedures to improve performance on these dimensions is discussed.

  4. Merging Autopilot/Flight Control and Navigation-Flight Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleel Qutbodin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this abstract the following commercial aircraft 3 avionics systems will be merged together: (1 Autopilot Flight Director System (APFDS, (2 Flight Control System (FCS and (3 Flight Management Systems (FMS. Problem statement: These systems perform functions that are dependant and related to each other, also they consists of similar hardware components. Each of these systems consists of at least one computer, control panel and displays that place on view the selection and aircraft response. They receive several similar sensor inputs, or outputs of one system are fed as input to the other system. By combining the three systems, repeated and related functions are reduced. Since these systems perform related functions, designers and programmers verify that conflict between these systems is not present. Combining the three systems will eliminate such possibility. Also used space, weight, wires and connections are decreased, consequently electrical consumption is reduced. To keep redundancy, the new system can be made of multiple channels. Approach: The new system (called Autopilot Navigation Management System, APNMS is more efficient and resolves the above mention drawbacks. Results: The APFDS system functions (as attitude-hold or heading-hold are merged with the FCS system main function which is controlling flight control surfaces as well as other functions as flight protection, Turn coordination and flight stability augmentation. Also the Flight Management system functions (as flight planning, aircraft flight performance/engine thrust management are merged in the new system. All this is done through combining all 3 systems logic software’s. Conclusion/Recommendations: The new APNMS system can be installed and tested on prototype aircraft in order to verify its benefits and fruits to the aviation industry.

  5. X-2 in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    This inflight photograph of the X-2 (46-674) shows the twin set of shock-diamonds, characteristic of supersonic conditions in the exhaust plume from the two-chamber rocket engine. The Curtiss-Wright XLR-25 rocket engine caused one of several problems that delayed flight of the X-2. At one point, people in the project suggested its replacement. It was the first 'man-rated' (in the terminology of the day) rocket engine that was throttleable, and the technology was not yet mature. Other problems included the X-2's landing gear and the replacement of the planned electronic flight controls with a conventional hydromechanical system like that used in the F-86. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered aircraft designed to fly faster than Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound). It was built for the U.S. Air Force by the Bell Aircraft Company, Buffalo, New York. The X-2 was flown to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating as well as stability and control effectiveness at high altitudes and high speeds (in excess of Mach 3). Bell aircraft built two X-2 aircraft. These were constructed of K-monel (a copper and nickel alloy) for the fuselage and stainless steel for the swept wings and control surfaces. The aircraft had ejectable nose capsules instead of ejection seats because the development of ejection seats had not reached maturity at the time the X-2 was conceived. The X-2 ejection canopy was successfully tested using a German V-2 rocket. The X-2 used a skid-type landing gear to make room for more fuel. The airplane was air launched from a modified Boeing B-50 Superfortress Bomber. X-2 Number 1 made its first unpowered glide flight on Aug. 5, 1954, and made a total of 17 (4 glide and 13 powered) flights before it was lost Sept. 27, 1956. The pilot on Flight 17, Capt. Milburn Apt, had flown the aircraft to a record speed of Mach 3.2 (2,094 mph), thus becoming the first person to exceed Mach 3. During that last flight, inertial coupling occurred and the pilot was

  6. HIFIRE Flight 2 Overview and Status Update 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kevin R.; Gruber, Mark R.; Buccellato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative international effort, the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Program aims to study basic hypersonic phenomena through flight experimentation. HIFiRE Flight 2 teams the United States Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), NASA, and the Australian Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO). Flight 2 will develop an alternative test technique for acquiring high enthalpy scramjet flight test data, allowing exploration of accelerating hydrocarbon-fueled scramjet performance and dual-to-scram mode transition up to and beyond Mach 8 flight. The generic scramjet flowpath is research quality and the test fuel is a simple surrogate for an endothermically cracked liquid hydrocarbon fuel. HIFiRE Flight 2 will be a first of its kind in contribution to scramjets. The HIFiRE program builds upon the HyShot and HYCAUSE programs and aims to leverage the low-cost flight test technique developed in those programs. It will explore suppressed trajectories of a sounding rocket propelled test article and their utility in studying ramjet-scramjet mode transition and flame extinction limits research. This paper describes the overall scramjet flight test experiment mission goals and objectives, flight test approach and strategy, ground test and analysis summary, development status and project schedule. A successful launch and operation will present to the scramjet community valuable flight test data in addition to a new tool, and vehicle, with which to explore high enthalpy scramjet technologies.

  7. Diagnostic filtering to screen polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols from Garcinia oblongifolia by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Zheng, Dan; Li, Hao-Hao; Wang, Hui; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-03-17

    A novel multistage MS approach, insource collision-induced dissociation (CID) combined with Time Aligned Parallel (TAP) fragmentation, was established to study the fragmentation behavior of polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs), which could provide a more reliable fragmentation relationship between precursor and daughter ions. The diagnostic ions for different subtypes of PPAPs and their fragmentation behaviors have been summarized. Moreover, a new and reliable multidimensional analytical workflow that combines ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), data-independent mass spectrometry (MS(E)), and tandem MS with ion mobility (IM) has been optimized and established for the analysis of PPAPs in the plant Garcinia oblongifolia by diagnostic filtering. Diagnostic fragment ions were used to selectively screen PPAPs from extracts, whereas IM coupled to MS was used to maximize the peak capacity. Under the optimized UHPLC-IM-MS(E) and UHPLC-IM-MS/MS method, 140 PPAPs were detected from the crude extract of G. oblongifolia, and 10 of them were unambiguously identified by comparing them to the reference compounds. Among those PPAPs, 7 pairs of coeluting isobaric PPAPs that were indistinguishable by conventional UHPLC-HRMS alone, were further resolved using UHPLC-IM-MS. It is anticipated that the proposed method will be extended to the rapid screening and characterization of the other targeted or untargeted compounds, especially these coeluting isomers in complex samples. PMID:26920776

  8. MASTRE trajectory code update to automate flight trajectory design, performance predictions, and vehicle sizing for support of shuttle and shuttle derived vehicles: Programmers manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The information required by a programmer using the Minimum Hamiltonian AScent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) Program is provided. This document enables the programmer to either modify the program or convert the program to computers other than the VAX computer. Documentation for each subroutine or function based on providing the definitions of the variables and a source listing are included. Questions concerning the equations, techniques, or input requirements should be answered by either the Engineering or User's manuals. Three appendices are also included which provide a listing of the Root-Sum-Square (RSS) program, a listing of subroutine names and definitions used in the MASTRE User Friendly Interface Program, and listing of the subroutine names and definitions used in the Mass Properties Program. The RSS Program is used to aid in the performance of dispersion analyses. The RSS program reads a file generated by the MASTRE Program, calculates dispersion parameters, and generates output tables and output plot files. UFI Program provides a screen user interface to aid the user in providing input to the model. The Mass Properties Program defines the mass properties data for the MASTRE program through the use of user interface software.

  9. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  10. Evaluation of Night Route Network on Flight Efficiency in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mihetec

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many different concepts and definitions for the flight efficiency, where every stakeholder involved in air transport has its own perception on flight efficiency. Flight efficiency concept is based on trade-offs between safety, airspace capacity, fuel consumption, flying distance, time distance, time cost, fuel cost etc. Flight time and flying distance which has impact to fuel burn and operation costs to airspace users are mainly generated by deviations from the optimum trajectories. According to the Performance Review Commission (PRC Report in 2009 average en-route extension in Europe was 47.6 km, with the year on year improvement of 1.2 km. The PRC Report emphasized that there is constant increase of medium/long haul flights operated by aircraft operators in Europe while short haul flights are decreasing. One of the issues, concerning flight efficiency in Europe, is that aircraft operators are not using night routes sufficient during flight planning process. This paper is presenting flight efficiency for the traffic demand using night route network and not using it at all. Flight inefficiency is expresses by the agreed performance indicators: distance difference (NM, duration difference (min, fuel combustion difference (kg and CO2 emission (t environmental indicator.

  11. System-level flight test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Eardley, D. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Happer, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; LeLevier, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Nierenberg, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Press, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Ruderman, M. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Sullivan, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; York, H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  12. 14 CFR 121.493 - Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Flight engineers and flight navigators. 121.493 Section 121.493 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  13. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  14. Lessons from dragonfly flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2005-11-01

    I will describe two lessons we learned from analyzing dragonfly flight using computers and table-top experiments. Part I: The role of drag in insect flight. Airplanes and helicopters are airborne via aerodynamic lift, not drag. However, it is not a priori clear that insects use only lift to fly. We find that dragonfly uses mainly drag to hover, which explains an anomalous factor of four in previous estimates of dragonfly lift coefficients, where drag was assumed to be negligible. Moreover, we show that the use of drag for flight is efficient at insect size. This suggests a re-consideration of the hovering efficiency of flapping flight, which is no longer described by the lift to drag ratio. Part II. Fore-hind wing interaction in dragonfly flight. A distinctive feature of dragonflies is their use of two pairs of wings which are driven by separate direct muscles. Dragonflies can actively modulate the phase delay between fore-hind wings during different maneuver. We compute the Navier-Stokes equation around two wings following the motion measured from our tethered dragonfly experiments, and find an explanation of the advantage of counter-stroking during hovering.

  15. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  16. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvořák, Rudolf

    2016-03-01

    Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird). Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust - two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc.), and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  17. Computer-aided design of flight control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata

    1991-01-01

    A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.

  18. Dryden Flight Research Center: The World's Premiere Installation for Atmospheric Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Nalin Asela

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Dryden's capabilities, the work that Dryden has done for NASA, and its current research. Dryden's Mission is stated to advance technology and science through flight. The mission elements are: (1) Perform flight research and technology integration to revolutionize aviation and pioneer aerospace technology, (2) Validate space exploration concepts, (3) Conduct airborne remote sensing and science observations, (4) Support operations of the Space Shuttle and the ISS for NASA and the Nation.

  19. [Comparison of the performances of gas chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in rapid screening and confirmation of 208 pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinyue; Pang, Guofang; Jin, Linghe; Kang, Jian; Hu, Xueyan; Chang, Qiaoying; Wang, Minglin; Fan, Chunlin

    2015-04-01

    The performances of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF/MS) for the determination of 208 pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable samples, including apple, orange, tomato and cucumber, were compared comprehensively. Based on the differences of the two instruments, their respective characteristics and scopes of application in the detection of the pesticide residues were presented, which provided the reference for the analysis of pesticide residues. The performance parameters of the two instruments, such as overall recoveries, precisions, limits of detection, linear ranges, identification points and matrix effects, were evaluated according to a designed experiment. At three spiked levels (5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 µg/kg), the average recoveries for the majority of pesticides (93.0%) ranged from 70% to 120% in the four matrices with relative standard deviations below 20%. The limits of detection for most of the pesticides by GC-MS/MS and GC-Q-TOF/MS were less than 5.0 µg/kg. Compared with GC-QTOF/MS, GC-MS/MS showed relatively lower limits of detection and wider linear ranges, and its performance was more satisfactory in accurate quantitative analysis due to its superior sensitivity. On the other hand, GC-QTOF/MS provided accurate mass measurement, which was proved to be an efficient analytical tool on the rapid screening and confirmation of a large number of pesticides and non-target compounds. PMID:26292409

  20. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke;

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...... 30 minutes it drifted back to its original migration course. The results suggest that songbirds migrating alone at night can use the flight calls from conspecifics as additional cues for orientation and that they may compare this information with other cues to decide what course to keep....

  1. Kinematics of chiropteran shoulder girdle in flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyutina, A A; Kuznetsov, A N; Korzun, L P

    2013-03-01

    New data on the mechanisms of movements of the shoulder girdle and humerus of bats are described; potential mobility is compared to the movements actually used in flight. The study was performed on the basis of morphological and functional analysis of anatomical specimens of 15 species, high speed and high definition filming of two species and X-ray survey of Rousettus aegyptiacus flight. Our observations indicate that any excursions of the shoulder girdle in bats have relatively small input in the wing amplitude. Shoulder girdle movements resemble kinematics of a crank mechanism: clavicle plays the role of crank, and scapula-the role of connecting rod. Previously described osseous "locking mechanisms" in shoulder joint of advanced bats do not affect the movements, actually used in flight. The wing beats in bats are performed predominantly by movements of humerus relative to shoulder girdle, although these movements occupy the caudal-most sector of available shoulder mobility. PMID:23381941

  2. Study of the in vitro metabolism of TJ0711 using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight and ultra fast liquid chromatography with quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Lv, Zhenhua; Li, Gao; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Chenghao; Cao, Peng; Huang, Jiangeng; Si, Luqin

    2015-06-01

    TJ0711 (1-[4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenoxy]-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethylamino]-2-propanol) is a novel β-adrenoreceptor blocker with vasodilating activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro metabolic properties of TJ0711 from both qualitative and quantitative aspects using mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes as well as rat hepatocytes. Two modern liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry systems, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ultra fast liquid chromatography with quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry, were utilized for the analysis. To better characterize the metabolic pathways of TJ0711, two major metabolites were incubated under the same conditions as that for TJ0711. TJ0711 was extensively metabolized in vitro, and a total of 34 metabolites, including 19 phase I and 15 phase II metabolites, were identified. Similar metabolite profiles were observed among species, and demethylation, hydroxylation, carboxylic acid formation, and glucuronidation were proposed as the major metabolic routes. Significant interspecies differences were observed in the metabolic stability studies of TJ0711. Furthermore, gender differences were significant in mice, rats, and dogs, but were negligible in humans. The valuable information provided in this work will be useful in planning and interpreting further pharmacokinetic, in vivo metabolism and toxicological studies of this novel β-blocker. PMID:25800512

  3. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detector and Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Evaluate Ginseng Roots and Rhizomes from Different Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Ping; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Yang, Xin-Bao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Feng; Cai, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ying-Ping; Xu, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Lian-Xue

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, is an industrial crop in China and Korea. The functional components in ginseng roots and rhizomes are characteristic ginsenosides. This work developed a new high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) method to identify the triterpenoids. Sixty compounds (1-60) including 58 triterpenoids were identified from the ginseng cultivated in China. Substances 1, 2, 7, 15-20, 35, 39, 45-47, 49, 55-57, 59, and 60 were identified for the first time. To evaluate the quality of ginseng cultivated in Northeast China, this paper developed a practical liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method to simultaneously quantify 14 interesting ginsenosides in ginseng collected from 66 different producing areas for the first time. The results showed the quality of ginseng roots and rhizomes from different sources was different due to growing environment, cultivation technology, and so on. The developed LC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n) method can be used to identify many more ginsenosides and the LC-DAD method can be used not only to assess the quality of ginseng, but also to optimize the cultivation conditions for the production of ginsenosides. PMID:27171066

  4. Metabolites identification of harmane in vitro/in vivo in rats by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Liu, Wei; Teng, Liang; Cheng, Xuemei; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

    2014-04-01

    Harmane, a β-carboline alkaloid with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, is naturally present in the human diet, in numerous foodstuffs and in hallucinogenic plants such as Peganum harmala, Banisteriopsis caapi and Tribulus terrestris. However, the precise metabolic fate of harmane remains unknown. In order to know whether harmane is extensively metabolized, a rapid and sensitive method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to analyze the metabolic profile of harmane in vitro and in vivo in rats. A total of 21 metabolites were identified from the rat liver microsomes and rat liver S9 (9), rat urine (11), feces (16), bile (16), and plasma (10) after a single oral administration of harmane using MetaboLynx™ and MassFragment ™ software tools. It indicated that the biliary and faecal clearance were the major excretion routes for harmane as well as its metabolites. The specific CLogP values combined with different acidic and alkaline mobile phase were helpful and useful for distinguishing N-oxidation and monohydroxylation metabolites. The metabolic transformation pathways of harmane included monohydroxylation, dihydroxylation, N-oxidation, O-glucuronide conjugation, O-sulphate conjugation, and glutathione conjugation. In conclusion, this study showed an insight into the metabolism of harmane. PMID:24486683

  5. Ionic liquid-based one-step micellar extraction of multiclass polar compounds from hawthorn fruits by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Yi, Ling; Li, Xing-Ying; Cao, Jun; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Wan; Da, Jian-Hua; Dai, Han-Bin; Liu, Xiao-Juan

    2014-06-11

    An ionic liquid (IL)-based one-step micellar extraction procedure was developed for the extraction of multiclass polar analytes (protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin) from hawthorn fruits and their determination using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Compared to conventional organic solvent extractions, this newly proposed method was much easier, more sensitive, environmentally friendly, and effective as well. Several important parameters influencing the micellar extraction efficiency are discussed, such as selection of ILs, surfactant concentration, and extraction time. Under the optimal conditions, good linearity was achieved for each analyte with correlation coefficients (r(2)) ranging from 0.9934 to 0.9999, and the recovery values ranged from 89.3 to 106% with relative standard deviations lower than 5.5%. Results suggest that the IL-based one-step micellar extraction could be an alternative and promising means in future food analysis. PMID:24845828

  6. Tissue-specific metabolite profiling of Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes and (+)-nootkatone quantitation by laser microdissection, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Guo, Ping; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2014-07-23

    Cyperus rotundus L. is a plant species commonly found in both India and China. The caused destruction of this plant is of critical concern for agricultural produce. Nevertheless, it can serve as a potential source of the commercially important sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone. The present work describes comparative metabolite profiling and (+)-nootkatone content determination in rhizome samples collected from these two countries. Laser dissected tissues, namely, the cortex, hypodermal fiber bundles, endodermis, amphivasal vascular bundles, and whole rhizomes were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for profiling of essential oil constituents and quantitation of (+)-nootkatone. The content of (+)-nootkatone was found to be higher in samples from India (30.47 μg/10 g) compared to samples from China (21.72 μg/10 g). The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines (Q2 R1). The results from this study can be applied for quality control and efficient utilization of this terpenoid-rich plant for several applications in food-based industries. PMID:24938835

  7. Determination of natural phenols in olive fruits by chitosan assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion microextraction and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Li, Qin; Chang, Yan-Xu; An, Mingrui; Yang, Rui; Tan, Zhijing; Hao, Jie; Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Hu, Shuai-Shuai

    2016-07-22

    A simple, efficient and low-cost method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) microextraction and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS) was developed for the determination of seven main natural phenols (gallic acid, hydroxytyrosol, methyl gallate, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucoside, rutin, ellagic acid and oleuropein) and other eleven compounds in olive fruits. The experimental conditions for the MSPD extraction, including the type of adsorbent, the amount of dispersing sorbent, the grinding time, and the type of elution solvent were investigated and optimized. The optimized parameters were determined to be that middle-molecular-weight chitosan was used as adsorbent, the amount of middle-molecular-weight chitosan was selected to be 25mg, the grinding time was chosen to be 60s, and methanol: water (6:4, v:v) was used as elution solvent. Compared with reported methods, the proposed method was more simple, rapid, and efficient. Moreover, this method required less extraction time and less amount of sample and solvent. The method showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9909) for the seven analytes, with the limits of detection in the range of 69.6-358.4ng/g. And recoveries were above 80.06%. The methodology was successfully applied to the extraction and determination of seven phenolic compounds in olive fruits(Canarii fructus). PMID:27318506

  8. Bioactivity-based ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for NF-κB inhibitors identification in Chinese Medicinal Preparation Bufei Granule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingxin, Cui; Min, Fu; Mengge, Zhou; Nianwei, Chang; Ye, Pan; Min, Jiang; Zengtao, Sun; Gang, Bai

    2016-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations have become effective treatments for many diseases. However, their active ingredients are still uncertain and difficult to identify. In this study, we propose a strategy that integrates ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) and bioactive (NF-κB inhibitor) luciferase reporter assay systems for the rapid determination of various anti-inflammatory compounds of TCM preparations. In this way, Bufei Granule (BFG), a TCM preparation used for the clinical therapy of asthma, was analyzed by the two ways of component identification and activity detection. Potential anti-inflammatory constituents were screened by NF-κB activity assay systems and simultaneously identified according to the mass spectrometry data. Three structural types of NF-κB inhibitors (caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids and Pentacyclic triterpenes) were characterized. Further cytokine detection confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of the potential NF-κB inhibitors. Compared with conventional chromatographic separation and inhibitory activity detection, integrating UPLC/Q-TOF-MS identification and virtual validation was more convenient and more reliable. This strategy clearly demonstrates that MS data-based fingerprinting is a meaningful tool not only in identifying constituents in complex matrix but also in directly screening for powerful trace ingredients in TCM preparations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26632982

  9. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. PMID:24853104

  10. Screening and identification of multiple constituents and their metabolites of Fangji Huangqi Tang in rats by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry basing on coupling data processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Tingting; Shi, Fa; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2015-03-15

    Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT) is a classical formula widely used in Chinese clinical application. In this paper, a novel and advanced strategy has been developed for the multiple constituent identification of FHT in rats, which was basing on an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography equipped with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) method combined with dynamic background subtract (DBS) data acquisition and enhance peak list (EPL) data processing techniques. Firstly, a total of 58 potential bioactive compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, saccharides and terpenoids were detected from FHT. Their chemical structures were identified by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data, as well as retrieving the reference literatures. Based on the same instrumental conditions, 33 compounds were found in rat serum after oral administration of FHT. After a considerate comparison with the former chemical identification results of FHT, 33 compounds were found, which turned out to be 8 original compounds of FHT as well as 25 metabolites, including 20 phase I and 5 phase II metabolites. The results indicated that the metabolic reactions included hydroxylation, hydrogenation, demethylation, tarine conjugation and acetylation. This study firstly reported the metabolism description of fangchinoline and tetrandrine in vivo, which could be very useful for further pharmacological and clinical studies of FHT. Meanwhile, it provided a practical strategy for rapid screening and identifying of multiple constituents and their metabolites of complex traditional Chinese medicine in biological matrix. PMID:25656758

  11. Quantification and semiquantification of multiple representative components for the holistic quality control of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zifei; Lin, Pei; Dai, Yi; Yao, Zhihong; Wang, Li; Yao, Xinsheng; Liu, Liyin; Chen, Haifeng

    2016-05-01

    Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus (named Xiebai in China) is a folk medicine with medicinal values for the treatment of thoracic obstruction and cardialgia, and a food additive as well. However, there is even no quantitative standard for Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus recorded in the current edition of the Chinese Pharmacopeia. Hence, simultaneous assay of multiple components is urgent. In this study, chemometric methods were firstly applied to discover the components with significant fluctuation among multiple Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus samples based on optimized fingerprints. Meanwhile, the major components and main absorbed components in rats were all selected as its representative components. Subsequently, a sensitive method was established for the simultaneous determination of 54 components (15 components for quantification and 39 components for semiquantification) by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, the validated method was successfully applied to evaluate the quality of multiple samples on the market. It became known that multiple Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus samples varied significantly and showed poor consistency. This work illustrated that the proposed approach could improve the quality of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and it also provided a feasible method for quality evaluation of other traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:26991139

  12. Cyclodextrin-assisted liquid-solid extraction for determination of the composition of jujube fruit using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiong-Yao; Zhang, Qian-Yun; Cao, Jun; Cao, Wan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Peng, Li-Qing

    2016-12-15

    A novel, simple and environmental friendly sample preparation technique based on the use of cyclodextrin has been developed for the extraction of phenolic compounds from jujube samples, the analytes being finally determined by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was used to characterize the composition of jujube fruit. The present method exhibited higher efficiency for extracting phenolic compositions than Pharmacopoeia heat-reflux approach in term of peak areas. Moreover, compared with traditional ultrasound-assisted extraction, the developed methodology was found without the use of toxic organic solvent, meeting the principles of green chemistry. Validation experiments showed that the proposed method presented good linearity (r(2)>0.9970), satisfactory precision (RSD<7.55%), and high recovery (85.63-105.67%). The limits of detection were from 4.92ng/mL to 142.85ng/mL for eight phenolic compounds. Eventually, the optimized approach was successfully applied to the analysis of jujube fruit. PMID:27451208

  13. Flight Testing an Iced Business Jet for Flight Simulation Model Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam; Cooper, Jon

    2007-01-01

    A flight test of a business jet aircraft with various ice accretions was performed to obtain data to validate flight simulation models developed through wind tunnel tests. Three types of ice accretions were tested: pre-activation roughness, runback shapes that form downstream of the thermal wing ice protection system, and a wing ice protection system failure shape. The high fidelity flight simulation models of this business jet aircraft were validated using a software tool called "Overdrive." Through comparisons of flight-extracted aerodynamic forces and moments to simulation-predicted forces and moments, the simulation models were successfully validated. Only minor adjustments in the simulation database were required to obtain adequate match, signifying the process used to develop the simulation models was successful. The simulation models were implemented in the NASA Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) to enable company pilots to evaluate flight characteristics of the simulation models. By and large, the pilots confirmed good similarities in the flight characteristics when compared to the real airplane. However, pilots noted pitch up tendencies at stall with the flaps extended that were not representative of the airplane and identified some differences in pilot forces. The elevator hinge moment model and implementation of the control forces on the ICEFTD were identified as a driver in the pitch ups and control force issues, and will be an area for future work.

  14. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    the membrane subject to glide loads and pretension from the wing joint positions. The flapping gait is optimized in a two-stage procedure. First the design space is explored using a binary genetic algorithm. The best design points are then used as starting points in a sequential quadratic programming optimization algorithm. This algorithm is used to refine the solutions by precisely satisfying the constraints. The refined solutions are found in generally less than twenty major iterations and constraints are violated generally by less than 0.1%. We find that the optimal motions are in agreement with previous results for simple wing motions. By adding joint motions, the required flapping power is reduced by 7% to 17%. Because of the large uncertainties for some estimates, we investigate the sensitivity of the optimized flapping gait. We find that the optimal motions are sensitive mainly to flight speed, body accelerations, and to the material properties of the wing membrane. The optimal flight speed found correlates well with other studies of pterosaur flapping flight, and is 31% to 37% faster than previous estimates based on glide performance. Accounting for the body accelerations yields an increase of 10% to 16% in required flapping power. When including the aeroelastic effects, the optimal flapping gait is only slightly modified to accommodate for the deflections of stiff membranes. For a flexible membrane, the motion is significantly modified and the power increased by up to 57%. Finally, the flapping gait and required power compare well with published results for similar wing motions. Some published estimates of required power assumed a propulsive efficiency of 100%, whereas the propulsive efficiency computed for Coloborhynchus robustus ranges between 54% and 87%.

  15. Study of the combined radial post-feeding dispersion of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Estudo da dispersão radial combinada de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius e C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete and ephemeral substrates to feed their larvae. After they run out of food, the larvae begin to disperse in order to find adequate places for pupation or additional food sources, a process named post-feeding larval dispersion. Some important aspects of this process were studied in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersion from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the arena was divided in 72 identical sections starting from the center. The distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa were evaluated. Statistical tests were done to verify the relation between weight, depth and distance for pupation. From the total an average of 976 larvae released (488 for each species were collected considering both experiments 456 C. megacephala pupae and 488 of C. albiceps. This demonstrates that C. albiceps probably preyed on 32 C. megacephala larvae during post-feeding dispersion. The study of this dispersion process can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI of human cadavers in legal medicine.As moscas- varejeiras utilizam-se de substratos discretos e efêmeros para alimentar suas larvas. Após deixarem o substrato alimentar, as larvas começam a dispersar em busca de locais adequados para pupação e fontes adicionais de alimento, um processo denominado dispersão larval pós-alimentar. Alguns aspectos importantes desse processo foram estudados em uma arena permitindo a dispersão radial combinada de larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa, a arena foi dividida em 72 setores iguais começando do centro. A distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso de cada pupa foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram feitos para verificar a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância para pupação. De um total em média de 976 larvas soltas (488 de cada esp

  16. Flight Avionics Sequencing Telemetry (FAST) DIV Latching Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Engineering (NE) Directorate at Kennedy Space Center provides engineering services to major programs such as: Space Shuttle, Inter national Space Station, and the Launch Services Program (LSP). The Av ionics Division within NE, provides avionics and flight control syste ms engineering support to LSP. The Launch Services Program is respons ible for procuring safe and reliable services for transporting critical, one of a kind, NASA payloads into orbit. As a result, engineers mu st monitor critical flight events during countdown and launch to asse ss anomalous behavior or any unexpected occurrence. The goal of this project is to take a tailored Systems Engineering approach to design, develop, and test Iris telemetry displays. The Flight Avionics Sequen cing Telemetry Delta-IV (FAST-D4) displays will provide NASA with an improved flight event monitoring tool to evaluate launch vehicle heal th and performance during system-level ground testing and flight. Flight events monitored will include data from the Redundant Inertial Fli ght Control Assembly (RIFCA) flight computer and launch vehicle comma nd feedback data. When a flight event occurs, the flight event is ill uminated on the display. This will enable NASA Engineers to monitor c ritical flight events on the day of launch. Completion of this project requires rudimentary knowledge of launch vehicle Guidance, Navigatio n, and Control (GN&C) systems, telemetry, and console operation. Work locations for the project include the engineering office, NASA telem etry laboratory, and Delta launch sites.

  17. Identification of the absorbed components and metabolites of Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heyun; Bi, Kaishun; Han, Fei; Guan, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Mao, Xinjuan; Zhao, Longshan; Li, Qing; Hou, Xiaohong; Yin, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Zhi-Zi-Da-Huang decoction (ZZDHD), consisting of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Rheum palmatum L., Citrus aurantium L. and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine preparation for the treatment of acute or chronic hepatic diseases. In the present study, a sensitive and selective ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed to separate and identify the absorbed components and metabolites in rat plasma after oral administration of ZZDHD. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation and separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 mm × 3.0 mm, 2.2 μm) using a gradient elution program. Mass spectrometric detection was performed on an Agilent 6520 Q-TOF mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive and negative ion modes. By comparing the retention time, high resolution mass data of blank plasma and dosed plasma, a total of 43 constituents, including 21 prototype compounds and 22 metabolites were identified or tentatively characterized. Results indicated that glucuronidation and sulfation were the main metabolic pathways of iridoid glycosides and anthraquinones, glucuronidation was the main metabolic pathways of flavanone-related compounds. It is concluded the developed UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS method with high sensitivity and resolution is suitable for identifying and characterizing the absorbed components and metabolites of ZZDHD, and the results will provide essential data for further studying the relationship between the chemical components and pharmacological activity of ZZDHD. PMID:25912849

  18. SSI-ARC Flight Test 3 Data Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chester; Wu, Minghong G.

    2015-01-01

    The "Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration into the National Airspace System (NAS)" Project conducted flight test program, referred to as Flight Test 3, at Armstrong Flight Research Center from June - August 2015. Four flight test days were dedicated to the NASA Ames-developed Detect and Avoid (DAA) System referred to as Autoresolver. The encounter scenarios, which involved NASA's Ikhana UAS and a manned intruder aircraft, were designed to collect data on DAA system performance in real-world conditions and uncertainties with four different surveillance sensor systems. Resulting flight test data and analysis results will be used to evaluate the DAA system performance (e.g., trajectory prediction accuracy, threat detection) and to add fidelity to simulation models used to inform Minimum Operating Performance Standards (MOPS) for integrating UAS into routine NAS operations.

  19. Pegasus hypersonic flight research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.

    1992-01-01

    Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.

  20. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  1. Editorial: Nature-inspired flight - beyond the leap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Biewener, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas humans can outrun horses over large distances (BBC News 2004), because of their adaptation for endurance (Bramble and Lieberman 2004), their swimming performance is mediocre compared to that of tuna and sailfish, and flight is impossible. No wonder that the flight of animals and plants such

  2. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12-dB margin, each link analysis must account for the following nominal system performance and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309... analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight termination system and command control system, including each...

  3. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  4. Boeing flight deck design philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Harty

    1990-01-01

    Information relative to Boeing flight deck design philosophy is given in viewgraph form. Flight deck design rules, design considerations, functions allocated to the crew, redundancy and automation concerns, and examples of accident data that were reviewed are listed.

  5. Performative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sack-Nielsen, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the potential of building skins being climate-adaptive. The principle of folding, and the relation between form and performance of facades are discussed here.......The article describes the potential of building skins being climate-adaptive. The principle of folding, and the relation between form and performance of facades are discussed here....

  6. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  7. Flight Simulation for Tomorrow's Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Durak, Umut

    2016-01-01

    Flight simulators have been operated within the aeronautics community for human factor studies and flight systems development for the last half century. They are virtual test beds, to evaluate concepts, conduct pilot-in-the-loop experiments and collect valuable user experience data. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Flight Systems is involved in developing and employing research flight simulators for more than 40 years. The first generation ground based simulator of DLR was built...

  8. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  9. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Sibonga, Jean; Keyak, Joyce; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Kohri, Kenjiro; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Moralez, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+<2 week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  10. STS flight operations - Concept versus reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) has the responsibility for planning, training, and implementing of flight operations in support of the National Space Transportation System (STS) Program. In this role, MOD has responsibility for the operational interface with customers and the translation of customer requirements into operating plans to satisfy their objectives. The basic objectives of flight operations are to maximize mission success, to minimize risks to the Orbiter and the crew, to decrease operating costs, and to achieve an effective balance in the application of all operational resources. In the National STS Program, to date, 20 missions have been flown and the process for planning, training, and flight operations has been thoroughly exercised. In this paper, MOD's performance is assessed, and those areas in which our initial operating concepts have been successful as well as those in which significant additional work is required are identified.

  11. Dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xiong; Mao Sun

    2008-01-01

    The longitudinal dynamic flight stability of a bumblebee in forward flight is studied.The method of computational fluid dynamics is used to compute the aerodynamic derivatives and the techniques of eigenvalue and eigenvector analysis are employed for solving the equations of motion.The primary findings are as the following.The forward flight of the bumblebee is not dynamically stable due to the existence of one(or two)unstable or approximately neutrally stable natural modes of motion.At hovering to medium flight speed[flight speed ue=(0-3.5)m s-1;advance ratio J=0-0.44],the flight is weakly unstable or approximately neutrally stable;at high speed(ue=4.5 m s-1;J=0.57),the flight becomes strongly unstable(initial disturbance double its value in only 3.5 wingbeats).

  12. Effective 2D-RPLC/RPLC enrichment and separation of micro-components from Hedyotis diffusa Willd. and characterization by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunman; Zhao, Yanyan; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Xiuli; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

    2014-10-01

    An effective method aiming at enrichment and analysis of micro-components in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was developed. One fraction (fraction E) from the extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. was selected as test sample, which was isolated by using the XAD-4 macroporous resin. To study the micro-components, a two-dimensional reverse-phase liquid chromatography (2D-RPLC/RPLC) method was developed, comprising Click OEG and C18 stationary phases as the first and second dimensions, respectively. Of the eight sub-fractions isolated from the first dimension, three sub-fractions (fractions II-IV) containing micro-components were further separated with the second dimension. The 2D-RPLC/RPLC system was proved to possess high orthogonality. Furthermore, the micro-components were characterized by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD/Q-TOF MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) source. With the optimized separation and characterization method, a large number (>400) of micro-components were enriched and detected from the extracts of H. diffusa Willd., the majority of which has not been isolated from the herb before. Among these isolated micro-components, 38 compounds involving 24 phenylpropanoids, 7 flavonoids and 7 iridoid glucosides (IGs), were identified or tentatively identified from the H. diffusa extracts on the basis of spectral data of the authentic standards and the fragmentation characteristics information available in literatures. The proposed method made it possible to effectively screen and analyze the micro-components in TCMs or other complex natural medicines. PMID:25061712

  13. A method for the determination of fullerenes in soil and sediment matrices using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with heated electrospray quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Andrea; Helmus, R; Parsons, John R; Kalbitz, Karsten; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-02-12

    The increasing production of fullerenes likely means a release of these chemicals in the environment. Since soils and sediments are expected to act as a sink, analytical tools are needed to assess the presence of fullerenes in these matrices. In the present work, a method was developed for the determination of fullerenes at environmental relevant levels employing Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatograph coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Chromatographic separation was achieved with a core-shell biphenyl stationary phase that provided fast analysis with complete baseline separation. Ion Booster Electro Spray Ionization (IB-ESI) resulted in higher ionization efficiency and was much less susceptible to adduct formation in comparison with standard ESI, whereas Quadrupole Time of Flight (QTOF) MS granted high resolution mass spectra used for accurate identification. The Instrumental method limits of detection (ILoD) and quantification (ILoQ) were 6 and 20 fg, respectively, for C60 and 12 and 39 fg, respectively, for C70. Matrix effects related to co-extractants were systematically investigated in soil and sediments extracts through standard addition method (SAM) and monitoring the signal response during the chromatographic run of these samples. Consequently, minor chromatographic modifications were necessary for the analysis of matrices with high organic carbon content. The method limit of detection (MLoD)ranged from 84 pg/kg to 335 pg/kg, whereas limit of quantification (MLoQ) ranged from 279 pg/kg to 1.1 ng/kg. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied for the analysis of functionalized fullerenes (i.e. methanofullerenes). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analytical method for the analysis of fullerenes in soils and sediments that employ core-shell biphenyl stationary phase as well as IB-ESI-QTOF MS hyphenated with UHPLC. PMID:26810805

  14. Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Based Metabolomics Reveals Key Differences between Brachiaria decumbens and B. brizantha, Two Similar Pastures with Different Toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Hussain, Syeda M; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Herling, Valdo R; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Several species of Brachiaria (Poaceae) currently cover extensive grazing areas in Brazil, providing valuable source of feed for a large cattle population. However, numerous cases of toxicity outbreaks in livestock have raised concerns on safety of using these plants, especially B. decumbens. In this study, chemometric analysis of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-QTOF-MS) data has for the first time uncovered qualitative and quantitative differences between metabolomes of toxic B. decumbens and nontoxic B. brizantha. The steroidal saponin protoneodioscin was established as the main biomarker for B. decumbens when compared to B. brizantha, and therefore the key explanation for their phytochemical differentiation. Quantification of protodioscin in both plants showed no significant differences; consequently, the idea that this compound is solely responsible for toxicity outbreaks must be discarded. Instead, we propose that the added occurrence of its stereoisomer, protoneodioscin, in B. decumbens, can be considered as the probable cause of these events. Interestingly, the greatest concentrations of saponins for both species were reached during winter (B. decumbens = 53.6 ± 5.1 mg·g(-1) dry weight (D.W.); B. brizantha = 25.0 ± 1.9 mg·g(-1) D.W.) and spring (B. decumbens = 49.4 ± 5.0 mg·g(-1) D.W.; B. brizantha = 27.9 ± 1.4 mg·g(-1) D.W.), although in the case of B. decumbens these values do not vary significantly among seasons. PMID:27192362

  15. Identification of in vitro metabolites of the novel anti-tumor thiosemicarbazone, DpC, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stariat, Ján; Kovaříková, Petra; Kučera, Radim; Klimeš, Jiří; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Richardson, Des R; Ketola, Raimo A

    2013-02-01

    Di-2-pyridylketone-4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC) is a promising analogue of the dipyridyl thiosemicarbazone class currently under development as a potential anti-cancer drug. In fact, this class of agents shows markedly greater anti-tumor activity and selectivity than the clinically investigated thiosemicarbazone, Triapine®. However, further development of DpC requires detailed data concerning its metabolism. Therefore, we focused on the identification of principal phase I and II metabolites of DpC in vitro. DpC was incubated with human liver microsomes/S9 fractions and the samples were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC(TM)) with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. An Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column was implemented with 2 mM ammonium acetate and acetonitrile in gradient mode as the mobile phase. The chemical structures of metabolites were proposed based on the accurate mass measurement of the protonated molecules as well as their main product ions. Ten phase I and two phase II metabolites were detected and structurally described. The metabolism of DpC occurred via oxidation of the thiocarbonyl group, hydroxylation and N-demethylation, as well as the combination of these reactions. Conjugates of DpC and the metabolite, M10, with glucuronic acid were also observed as phase II metabolites. Neither sulfate nor glutathione conjugates were detected. This study provides the first information about the chemical structure of the principal metabolites of DpC, which supports the development of this promising anti-cancer drug and provides vital data for further pharmacokinetic and in vivo metabolism studies. PMID:23180090

  16. Identification of regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin by ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC–QTOF) tandem mass spectrometry combined with diagnostic fragmentation pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Found methane elimination is position-specific for methylated flavonols. •Found retro Diels–Alder fragments retained methoxy at original ring of flavonols. •Proposed a diagnostic pattern for discriminating regioisomers of flavonols. •Identified the specificity of three novel flavonol O-methyltransferases. •Identified six biologically active compounds and four new compounds. -- Abstract: The O-methylation of active flavonoids can enhance their antiallergic, anticancerous, and cardioprotective effects depending on the methylation position. Thus, it is biologically and pharmacologically important to differentiate methylated flavonoid regioisomers. In this study, we examined the regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The methyl groups on the flavonoids can generally be cleaved as methyl radicals in a position-independent manner. We found that methyl groups can be cleaved as methane. If there are protons adjacent the methoxy on the flavonol rings, intra-molecule proton transfer can occur via collision-induced dissociation, and one molecule of methane can then be eliminated. The remaining charged fragment ([M+H−CH4]+) reflects the adjacent structure and is specific to the methoxy position. Furthermore, the retro Diels–Alder (RDA) fragmentation of methylated flavonols can generate fragments with the methoxy at the original methylated ring. Combining the position-specific [M+H−CH4]+ fragment with the RDA fragments provides a diagnostic pattern for rapidly identifying methylated regioisomeric flavonols. Along with their retention behaviour, we have successfully identified ten regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin, which include six compounds previously reported in plants and shown to be biologically active. The developed approach is sensitive, rapid, reliable, and requires few standard compounds. It is highly

  17. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach for the holistic quality control of complex Kang-Jing formula preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Huan; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Qin, Bing; Cai, Zhuo-Ya; Cai, Xiong; Liu, Shao; Wang, Qi; Qin, Yong

    2016-05-30

    The Kang-Jing (KJ) formula is a compound preparation made from 12 kinds of herbs. So far, four different methods (M1-M4) have been documented for KJ preparation, but the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of KJ have remained unknown. In this study, a strategy was proposed to investigate the influence of different preparation methods on the holistic quality of KJ using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling. A total of 101 compounds mainly belonging to flavonoids, tanshinones, monoterpene glycosides, triterpenoid saponins, alkaloids, phenolic acids and volatile oils, were identified. Among these compounds, glaucine was detected only in M3/M4 samples, while two dehydrocorydaline isomers merely detected in M2/M3/M4 samples. Tetrahydrocolumbamine, ethylic lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid E and rosmarimic acid were only detected in M1/M3/M4 samples. In the subsequent quantitative analysis, 12 major compounds were determined by UHPLC-MS/MS. The proposed method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. It was found that the contents of marker compounds varied significantly in samples prepared by different methods. These results demonstrated that preparation method does significantly affect the holistic quality of KJ. UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for comprehensive quality evaluation of KJ. Collectively, this study provide the chemical evidence for revealing the material basis of KJ, and establish a simple and accurate chemical profiling method for its quality control. PMID:26977585

  18. Flight-Tested Prototype of BEAM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Wang, David

    2006-01-01

    Researchers at JPL have completed a software prototype of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multi-missions) and successfully tested its operation in flight onboard a NASA research aircraft. BEAM (see NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9; and Vol. 27, No. 3) is an ISHM (Integrated Systems Health Management) technology that automatically analyzes sensor data and classifies system behavior as either nominal or anomalous, and further characterizes anomalies according to strength, duration, and affected signals. BEAM (see figure) can be used to monitor a wide variety of physical systems and sensor types in real time. In this series of tests, BEAM monitored the engines of a Dryden Flight Research Center F-18 aircraft, and performed onboard, unattended analysis of 26 engine sensors from engine startup to shutdown. The BEAM algorithm can detect anomalies based solely on the sensor data, which includes but is not limited to sensor failure, performance degradation, incorrect operation such as unplanned engine shutdown or flameout in this example, and major system faults. BEAM was tested on an F-18 simulator, static engine tests, and 25 individual flights totaling approximately 60 hours of flight time. During these tests, BEAM successfully identified planned anomalies (in-flight shutdowns of one engine) as well as minor unplanned anomalies (e.g., transient oil- and fuel-pressure drops), with no false alarms or suspected false-negative results for the period tested. BEAM also detected previously unknown behavior in the F- 18 compressor section during several flights. This result, confirmed by direct analysis of the raw data, serves as a significant test of BEAM's capability.

  19. MARS Flight Engineering Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, James E.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Thompson, Robert C.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2010-04-06

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey Flight Engineering project (MARS FE) has designed a high purity germanium (HPGe) crystal array for conducting a wide range of field measurements. In addition to the HPGe detector system, a platform-specific shock and vibration isolation system and environmental housing have been designed to support demonstration activities in a maritime environment on an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV). This report describes the status of the equipment as of the end of FY09.

  20. Ordos Takes Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's vast hinterland has long conjured up images of rugged mountains and countrysides dotted by villages all but untouched by the hands of time. But after a recent one-hour flight west from Beijing,Anna Chennault,Chair of the Council for International Cooperation (CIC),a Washington,D.C.-based non-profit organization that helps promote development in China,found something altogether different-a city called Ordos.

  1. The Flight from Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Gary B. Gorton; Andrew Metrick; Lei Xie

    2014-01-01

    Why did the failure of Lehman Brothers make the financial crisis dramatically worse? The financial crisis was a process of a build-up of risk during the crisis prior to the Lehman failure. Market participants tried to preserve an option or exit by shortening maturities - the "flight from maturity". With increasingly short maturities, lenders created the possibility of fast exit. The failure of Lehman Brothers was the tipping point of this build-up of systemic fragility. We produce a chronolog...

  2. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  3. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  4. Space flight visual simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, based on the scenes of stars seen by astronauts in their orbital flights, we have studied the mathematical model which must be constructed for CGI system to realize the space flight visual simulation. Considering such factors as the revolution and rotation of the Earth, exact date, time and site of orbital injection of the spacecraft, as well as its orbital flight and attitude motion, etc., we first defined all the instantaneous lines of sight and visual fields of astronauts in space. Then, through a series of coordinate transforms, the pictures of the scenes of stars changing with time-space were photographed one by one mathematically. In the procedure, we have designed a method of three-times "mathematical cutting." Finally, we obtained each instantaneous picture of the scenes of stars observed by astronauts through the window of the cockpit. Also, the dynamic conditions shaded by the Earth in the varying pictures of scenes of stars could be displayed. PMID:11542842

  5. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiang Lin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS and the Flight Control System (FCS. The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A* algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM.

  6. SHARP Demonstration Flight: Video Broadcast System for Research in Intelligent Flight Characterization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center (Thermal Protection Materials and Systems Branch) is investigating new ceramic materials for the thermal protection of atmospheric entry vehicles. An incremental approach to proving the capabilities of these materials calls for a lifting entry flight test of a sharp leading edge component on the proposed SHARP (Slender Hypervelocity Aerothermodynamic Research Probe) vehicle. This flight test will establish the aerothermal performance constraint under real lifting entry conditions. NASA Ames has been developing the SHARP test flight with SSDL (responsible for the SHARP S I vehicle avionics), Montana State University (responsible for the SHARP S I vehicle airframe), the Wickman Spacecraft and Propulsion Company (responsible for the sounding rocket and launch operations), and with the SCU Intelligent Robotics Program, The SCU team was added well after the rest of the development team had formed. The SCU role was to assist with the development of a real-time video broadcast system which would relay onboard flight video to a communication groundstation. The SCU team would also assist with general vehicle preparation as well as flight operations. At the time of the submission of the original SCU proposal, a test flight in Wyoming was originally targeted for September 2000. This date was moved several times into the Fall of 2000. It was then postponed until the Spring of 2001, and later pushed into late Summer 2001. To date, the flight has still not taken place. These project delays resulted in SCU requesting several no-cost extensions to the project. Based on the most recent conversations with the project technical lead, Paul Kolodjiez, the current plan is for the overall SHARP team to assemble what exists of the vehicle, to document the system, and to 'mothball' the vehicle in anticipation of future flight and funding opportunities.

  7. DBSAR's First Multimode Flight Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Vega, Manuel; Buenfil, Manuel; Geist, Alessandro; Hilliard, Lawrence; Racette, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming SAR (DBSAR) is an airborne imaging radar system that combines phased array technology, reconfigurable on-board processing and waveform generation, and advances in signal processing to enable techniques not possible with conventional SARs. The system exploits the versatility inherently in phased-array technology with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to implement multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar system. Operational modes include scatterometry over multiple antenna beams, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) over several antenna beams, or Altimetry. The radar was flight tested in October 2008 on board of the NASA P3 aircraft over the Delmarva Peninsula, MD. The results from the DBSAR system performance is presented.

  8. Auditory Presentation of H/OZ Critical Flight Data Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automation of a flight control system to perform functions normally attributed to humans is often not robust and limited to specific operating conditions and types...

  9. The Flight of Birds and Other Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin J. Pennycuick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods of observing birds in flight now include training them to fly under known conditions in wind tunnels, and fitting free-flying birds with data loggers, that are either retrieved or read remotely via satellite links. The performance that comes to light depends on the known limitations of the materials from which they are made, and the conditions in which the birds live. Bird glide polars can be obtained by training birds to glide in a tilting wind tunnel. Translating these curves to power required from the flight muscles in level flight requires drag coefficients to be measured, which unfortunately does not work with bird bodies, because the flow is always fully detached. The drag of bodies in level flight can be determined by observing wingbeat frequency, and shows CD values around 0.08 in small birds, down to 0.06 in small waders specialised for efficient migration. Lift coefficients are up to 1.6 in gliding, or 1.8 for short, temporary glides. In-flight measurements can be used to calculate power curves for birds in level flight, and this has been applied to migrating geese in detail. These typically achieve lift:drag ratios around 15, including allowances for stops, as against 19 for continuous powered flight. The same calculations, applied to Pacific Black-tailed Godwits which start with fat fractions up to 0.55 at departure, show that such birds not only cross the Pacific to New Zealand, but have enough fuel in hand to reach the South Pole if that were necessary. This performance depends on the “dual fuel” arrangements of these migrants, whereby they use fat as their main fuel, and supplement this by extra fuel from burning the engine (flight muscles, as less power is needed later in the flight. The accuracy of these power curves has never been checked, although provision for stopping the bird, and making these checks at regular intervals during a simulated flight was built into the original design of the Lund wind tunnel. The

  10. Development of an active structure flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. A.; Wyse, R. E.; Schubert, S. R.

    1993-02-01

    The design and development of the Air Force and TRW's Advanced Control Technology Experiment (ACTEX) flight experiment is described in this paper. The overall objective of ACTEX is to provide an active structure trailblazer which will demonstrate the compatibility of active structures with operational spacecraft performance and lifetime measures. At the heart of the experiment is an active tripod driven by a digitally-programmable analog control electronics subsystem. Piezoceramic sensors and actuators embedded in a graphite epoxy host material provide the sensing and actuation mechanism for the active tripod. Low noise ground-programmable electronics provide a virtually unlimited number of control schemes that can be implemented in the space environment. The flight experiment program provides the opportunity to gather performance, reliability, adaptability, and lifetime performance data on vibration suppression hardware for the next generation of DoD and NASA spacecraft.

  11. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  12. Flight costs of long, sexually selected tails in hummingbirds

    OpenAIRE

    James Clark, Christopher; Dudley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The elongated tails adorning many male birds have traditionally been thought to degrade flight performance by increasing body drag. However, aerodynamic interactions between the body and tail can be substantial in some contexts, and a short tail may actually reduce rather than increase overall drag. To test how tail length affects flight performance, we manipulated the tails of Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) by increasing their length with the greatly elongated tail streamers of the red-b...

  13. Eclipse - tow flight closeup and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    flight brought the project to a successful completion. Preliminary flight results determined that the handling qualities of the QF-106 on tow were very stable; actual flight-measured values of tow rope tension were well within predictions made by the simulation, aerodynamic characteristics and elastic properties of the tow rope were a significant component of the towing system; and the Dryden high-fidelity simulation provided a representative model of the performance of the QF-106 and C-141A airplanes in tow configuration. Total time on tow for the entire project was 5 hours, 34 minutes, and 29 seconds. All six flights were highly productive, and all project objectives were achieved. All three of the project objectives were successfully accomplished. The objectives were: demonstration of towed takeoff, climb-out, and separation of the EXD-01 from the towing aircraft; validation of simulation models of the towed aircraft systems; and development of ground and flight procedures for towing and launching a delta-winged airplane configuration safely behind a transport-type aircraft. NASA Dryden served as the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden also supplied engineering, simulation, instrumentation, range support, research pilots, and chase aircraft for the test series. Dryden personnel also performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 into the piloted EXD-01 aircraft. During the early flight phase of the project, Tracor, Inc. provided maintenance and ground support for the two QF-106 airplanes.The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, provided the C-141A transport aircraft for the project, its flight and engineering support, and the aircrew. Kelly Space and Technology provided the modification design and fabrication of the hardware that was installed on the EXD-01 aircraft. Kelly Space and Technology hopes to use the data gleaned from the tow tests to develop a series of low-cost reusable

  14. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  15. Flight to America

    OpenAIRE

    Güneli Gün

    2011-01-01

    Güneli Gün’s memoir piece truly combines the excitement of the young traveler with the humor of the mature narrator. Born in Izmir, Turkey, she breaks her engagement to a young but conservative Turkish architect and overcomes her father’s concerns to eventually study at Hollins College, Virginia. Addressing topics such as breaking out of a traditional society, being torn between the home country and the imagined new home, and finding comfort in the arts, “Flight to America” compellingly refle...

  16. Rocket Flight Path

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Waters

    2014-01-01

    This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Fl...

  17. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  18. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  19. Identification of regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin by ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC–QTOF) tandem mass spectrometry combined with diagnostic fragmentation pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chengying; Lv, Haipeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Chen, Zongmao; Shi, Jiang [Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9 Meiling South Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310008 (China); Lu, Meiling, E-mail: meilinglu@hotmail.com [Chemical Analysis Group, Agilent Technologies, No. 3 Wangjing North Road, Chaoyang Distr., Beijing 100102 (China); Lin, Zhi, E-mail: linz@mail.tricaas.com [Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9 Meiling South Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310008 (China)

    2013-09-17

    Highlights: •Found methane elimination is position-specific for methylated flavonols. •Found retro Diels–Alder fragments retained methoxy at original ring of flavonols. •Proposed a diagnostic pattern for discriminating regioisomers of flavonols. •Identified the specificity of three novel flavonol O-methyltransferases. •Identified six biologically active compounds and four new compounds. -- Abstract: The O-methylation of active flavonoids can enhance their antiallergic, anticancerous, and cardioprotective effects depending on the methylation position. Thus, it is biologically and pharmacologically important to differentiate methylated flavonoid regioisomers. In this study, we examined the regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The methyl groups on the flavonoids can generally be cleaved as methyl radicals in a position-independent manner. We found that methyl groups can be cleaved as methane. If there are protons adjacent the methoxy on the flavonol rings, intra-molecule proton transfer can occur via collision-induced dissociation, and one molecule of methane can then be eliminated. The remaining charged fragment ([M+H−CH{sub 4}]{sup +}) reflects the adjacent structure and is specific to the methoxy position. Furthermore, the retro Diels–Alder (RDA) fragmentation of methylated flavonols can generate fragments with the methoxy at the original methylated ring. Combining the position-specific [M+H−CH{sub 4}]{sup +} fragment with the RDA fragments provides a diagnostic pattern for rapidly identifying methylated regioisomeric flavonols. Along with their retention behaviour, we have successfully identified ten regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin, which include six compounds previously reported in plants and shown to be biologically active. The developed approach is sensitive, rapid, reliable, and requires few standard

  20. Knowledge-based system for flight information management. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of knowledge-based system (KBS) architectures to manage information on the primary flight display (PFD) of commercial aircraft is described. The PFD information management strategy used tailored the information on the PFD to the tasks the pilot performed. The KBS design and implementation of the task-tailored PFD information management application is described. The knowledge acquisition and subsequent system design of a flight-phase-detection KBS is also described. The flight-phase output of this KBS was used as input to the task-tailored PFD information management KBS. The implementation and integration of this KBS with existing aircraft systems and the other KBS is described. The flight tests are examined of both KBS's, collectively called the Task-Tailored Flight Information Manager (TTFIM), which verified their implementation and integration, and validated the software engineering advantages of the KBS approach in an operational environment.

  1. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  2. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  3. Human Factors in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  4. NASA - Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation covers five main topical areas. The first is a description of how things work in the microgravity environment such as convection and sedimentation. The second part describes the effects of microgravity on human physiology. This is followed by a description of the hazards of space flight including the environment, the space craft, and the mission. An overview of biomedical research in space, both on shuttle and ISS is the fourth section of the presentation. The presentation concludes with a history of space flight from Ham to ISS. At CART students (11th and 12th graders from Fresno Unified and Clovis Unified) are actively involved in their education. They work in teams to research real world problems and discover original solutions. Students work on projects guided by academic instructors and business partners. They will have access to the latest technology and will be expected to expand their learning environment to include the community. They will focus their studies around a career area (Professional Sciences, Advanced Communications, Engineering and Product Development, or Global Issues).

  5. New Theory of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Johan; Jansson, Johan; Johnson, Claes

    2016-06-01

    We present a new mathematical theory explaining the fluid mechanics of subsonic flight, which is fundamentally different from the existing boundary layer-circulation theory by Prandtl-Kutta-Zhukovsky formed 100 year ago. The new theory is based on our new resolution of d'Alembert's paradox showing that slightly viscous bluff body flow can be viewed as zero-drag/lift potential flow modified by 3d rotational slip separation arising from a specific separation instability of potential flow, into turbulent flow with nonzero drag/lift. For a wing this separation mechanism maintains the large lift of potential flow generated at the leading edge at the price of small drag, resulting in a lift to drag quotient of size 15-20 for a small propeller plane at cruising speed with Reynolds number {Re≈ 107} and a jumbojet at take-off and landing with {Re≈ 108} , which allows flight at affordable power. The new mathematical theory is supported by computed turbulent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations with a slip boundary condition as a model of observed small skin friction of a turbulent boundary layer always arising for {Re > 106} , in close accordance with experimental observations over the entire range of angle of attacks including stall using a few millions of mesh points for a full wing-body configuration.

  6. Space flight requires nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To be able to solve its future tasks, space flight needs nuclear energy: manned space flight to the Mars is almost unthinkable without nuclear propulsion, and orbital nuclear power plants will be required for the power supply of high-capacity satellites or large space stations. Nuclear energy needs space flight: a nuclear power plant on the moon does not bother man because of the high natural radiation exposure existing there, and could contribute to terrestrial power supply. (orig./HSCH)

  7. Analysis of Dynamic Flight Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Natascha

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with the determination of loads on an aircraft struc- ture during flight. The focus is on flight conditions where the loads are significantly time-dependent. Analysis of flight loads is primarily motivated to ensure that structural failure is avoided. The ability to ac- curately determine the resulting structural loads which can occur during operation allows for a reduction of the safety margins in the structural design. Consequently it is then possible to decrease the aircr...

  8. PSYCHOLOGY OF FLIGHT ATTENDANT'S PROFESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana V. Filipieva

    2012-01-01

    The profession of a flight attendant appeared in aviation in the 1920s. Professional community of flight attendants is constantly growing with the growth of complexity of aviation technology, professional standards of passenger service and safety. The psychological scientific research was carried out by a psychologist who worked as a flight attendant. The study revealed the psychological content, demands, peculiarities in cabin crews' labor. A job description was accomplished. Temporal and sp...

  9. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  10. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... instruction. (4) Proper evaluation of student performance including the detection of— (i) Improper and... teaching-learning process; (ii) Teaching methods and procedures; and (iii) The instructor-student relationship. (d) The transition ground training for flight instructors must include the approved...

  11. Geophysical flight line flying and flight path recovery utilizing the Litton LTN-76 inertial navigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitkus, A.F.; Cater, D.; Farmer, P.F.; Gay, S.P. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    The Litton LTN-76 Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) with Inertial Track guidance System (ITGS) software is geared toward the airborne survey industry. This report is a summary of tests performed with the LTN-76 designed to fly an airborne geophysical survey as well as to recover the subsequent flight path utilizing INS derived coordinates.

  12. Biosafety in manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses

  13. Innovative use of global navigation satellite systems for flight inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Ho

    Inspection Systems (FIS) by using GPS and WAAS in novel manners. The algorithms include Adaptive Carrier Smoothing (ACS), optimizing WAAS accuracy and stability, and reference point-based precise relative positioning for real-time and near-real-time applications. The developed systems are WAAS-aided FIS, WAAS-based FIS, and stand-alone GPS-based FIS. These systems offer both high efficiency and low cost, and they have different advantages over one another in terms of accuracy, integrity, and worldwide availability. The performance of each system is tested with experimental flight test data and shown to have accuracy that is sufficient for flight inspection and superior to the current Inertial-based AFIS.

  14. The physiology and biomechanics of avian flight at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L; Dudley, Robert

    2006-02-01

    Many birds fly at high altitude, either during long-distance flights or by virtue of residence in high-elevation habitats. Among the many environmental features that vary systematically with altitude, five have significant consequences for avian flight performance: ambient wind speeds, air temperature, humidity, oxygen availability, and air density. During migratory flights, birds select flight altitudes that minimize energy expenditure via selection of advantageous tail- and cross-winds. Oxygen partial pressure decreases substantially to as little as 26% of sea-level values for the highest altitudes at which birds migrate, whereas many taxa reside above 3000 meters in hypoxic air. Birds exhibit numerous adaptations in pulmonary, cardiovascular, and muscular systems to alleviate such hypoxia. The systematic decrease in air density with altitude can lead to a benefit for forward flight through reduced drag but imposes an increased aerodynamic demand for hovering by degrading lift production and simultaneously elevating the induced power requirements of flight. This effect has been well-studied in the hovering flight of hummingbirds, which occur throughout high-elevation habitats in the western hemisphere. Phylogenetically controlled studies have shown that hummingbirds compensate morphologically for such hypodense air through relative increases in wing size, and kinematically via increased stroke amplitude during the wingbeat. Such compensatory mechanisms result in fairly constant power requirements for hovering at different elevations, but decrease the margin of excess power available for other flight behaviors. PMID:21672723

  15. Digital Fly-By-Wire Flight Control Validation Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, K. J.; Jarvis, C. R.; Krier, G. E.; Megna, V. A.; Brock, L. D.; Odonnell, R. N.

    1978-01-01

    The experience gained in digital fly-by-wire technology through a flight test program being conducted by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in an F-8C aircraft is described. The system requirements are outlined, along with the requirements for flight qualification. The system is described, including the hardware components, the aircraft installation, and the system operation. The flight qualification experience is emphasized. The qualification process included the theoretical validation of the basic design, laboratory testing of the hardware and software elements, systems level testing, and flight testing. The most productive testing was performed on an iron bird aircraft, which used the actual electronic and hydraulic hardware and a simulation of the F-8 characteristics to provide the flight environment. The iron bird was used for sensor and system redundancy management testing, failure modes and effects testing, and stress testing in many cases with the pilot in the loop. The flight test program confirmed the quality of the validation process by achieving 50 flights without a known undetected failure and with no false alarms.

  16. Aerodynamic effect of alula in avian flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Jaemyoung; Park, Hyungmin; Jablonski, Piotr; Choi, Haecheon

    2012-11-01

    Alula is a small structure located at the joint between handwing and armwing of birds and has been suggested to function as a leading-edge slot. In this study, we investigated the functional aspect of alula in bird flight with experimental conditions that reflect the flow characteristics used by birds in their actual flight using magpies as the model species. The presence of alula enabled the bird to perform steeper descending flights with greater lateral angle changes. Force measurements showed that alula presence increased the lift when the angle of attack was high (higher than 20-45 deg), which resulted in the stall delay by 5 deg. The wake width was significantly thinner when alula was present, suggesting that boundary layer separation is delayed when alula is used. This result was corroborated by PIV; accelerated streamwise velocity over the wing surface was recovered faster and separation point was pushed downstream when alula was present. To conclude, the lift enhancement and stall delay by alula are closely related to the downstream movement of separation point and faster recovery of accelerated flow over the wing surface, which endows greater flight maneuverability to the birds. This work was supported by the Korea Research Foundation Grants (2011-0030744, 2010-0009006, and 2012-K001368).

  17. Microgravity Science in Space Flight Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Charles; Bennett, Nancy; Cockrell, David; Jex, David; Musick, Barry; Poe, James; Roark, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Microgravity science studies the influences of gravity on phenomena in fluids, materials processes, combustion, and human cell growth in the low acceleration environment of space flight. During the last decade, the accomplishment of the flight research in the field has evolved into an effective cooperation between the flight crew in the Shuttle and the ground-based investigator using real-time communication via voice and video links. This team structure has led to interactive operations in which the crew performs the experimentation while guided, as necessary, by the science investigator who formulated the investigation and who will subsequently interpret and analyze the data. One of the primary challenges to implementing this interactive research has been the necessity of structuring a means of handling fluids, gases, and hazardous materials in a manned laboratory that exhibits the novelty of weightlessness. Developing clever means of designing experiments in closed vessels is part of the solution- but the space flight requirement for one and two failure-tolerant containment systems leads to serious complications in the physical handling of sample materials. In response to the conflict between the clear advantage of human operation and judgment, versus the necessity to isolate the experiment from the crewmember and the spacecraft environment, the Microgravity Research Program has initiated a series of Gloveboxes in the various manned experiment carriers. These units provide a sealed containment vessel whose interior is under a negative pressure with respect to the ambient environment but is accessible to a crewmember through the glove ports.

  18. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  19. Lift devices in the flight of Archaeopteryx

    OpenAIRE

    Meseguer Ruiz, José; Chiappe, L; Sanz García, José Luis; Ortega Coloma, Francisco; Sanz Andres, Angel Pedro; Pérez Grande, María Isabel; Franchini, Sebastián

    2012-01-01

    Archaeopteryx has played a central role in the debates on the origins of avian (and dinosaurian) flight, even though as a flier it probably represents a relatively late stage in the beginnings of fl ight. We report on aerodynamic tests using a life-sized model of Archaeopteryx performing in a low turbulence wind tunnel. Our results indicate that tail deflection significantly decreased take-off velocity and power consumption, and that the first manual digit could have functioned as the structu...

  20. Report of Falcon Flight 19 April 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Ulrich; Schlager, Hans; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Reitebuch, Oliver; Minikin, Andreas; Huntrieser, Heidi; Sailer, Thomas; Mannstein, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the technical results, including lessons learned and recommendations, of the ESA-EUMETSAT workshop on Volcanic Ash Monitoring, which took place on 26 – 27 May 2010 at ESA/ESRIN in Frascati (Italy). 53 invited scientists from Universities, Meteorological Offices, Research Laboratories, national and international Agencies (e.g. DLR, EC, ECMWF, NASA, USGS) from Europe and the United States participated. Appenidx: A successful Falcon measurement flight was performed...