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Sample records for blowflies flight performance

  1. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  2. Calcium inhibition of the NAD+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, B A; Thomas, B J; Sacktor, B

    1984-08-25

    Free Ca2+ was shown to inhibit the NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria. Inhibition by free Ca2+ concentrations of 40 microM or greater was found in the absence or presence of ADP and citrate, two known activators of the enzyme. Calcium decreased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate, the magnesium DL-isocitrate chelate; no change in the apparent V of the reaction was observed. Calcium was inhibitory when activity was measured in the presence of fixed concentrations of magnesium DL-isocitrate chelate in the presence of several fixed concentrations of either free isocitrate3-, an activator, or free Mg2+, an inhibitor of the enzyme. That NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase from blowfly flight muscle mitochondria was not activated by micromolar free Ca2+ is consistent with the view that calcium does not play a role in regulating the flux through the tricarboxylate cycle in this species.

  3. Texture dependence of motion sensing and free flight behavior in blowflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Peter Lindemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many flying insects exhibit an active flight and gaze strategy: Purely translational flight segments alternate with quick turns called saccades. To generate such a saccadic flight pattern, the animals decide the timing, direction, and amplitude of the next saccade during the previous translatory intersaccadic interval. The information underlying these decisions is assumed to be extracted from the retinal image displacements (optic flow, which scale with the distance to objects during the intersaccadic flight phases. In an earlier study we proposed a saccade-generation mechanism based on the responses of large-field motion sensitive neurons. In closed-loop simulations we achieved collision avoidance behavior in a limited set of environments but observed collisions in others. Here we show by open-loop simulations that the cause of this observation is the known texture-dependence of elementary motion detection in flies, reflected also in the responses of large-field neurons as used in our model. We verified by electrophysiological experiments that this result is not an artifact of the sensory model. Already subtle changes in the texture may lead to qualitative differences in the responses of both our model cells and their biological counterparts in the fly’s brain. Nonetheless, free flight behavior of blowflies is only moderately affected by such texture changes. This divergent texture dependence of motion sensitive neurons and behavioral performance suggests either mechanisms that compensate for the texture dependence of the visual motion pathway at the level of the circuits generating the saccadic turn decisions or the involvement of a hypothetical parallel pathway in saccadic control that provides the information for collision avoidance independent of the textural properties of the environment.

  4. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Walker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for <3% of total flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the

  5. In vivo time-resolved microtomography reveals the mechanics of the blowfly flight motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon M; Schwyn, Daniel A; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G; Taylor, Graham K

    2014-03-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the insect flight motor.

  6. Regulation of pyruvate oxidation in blowfly flight muscle mitochondria: requirement for ADP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulos, B A; Thomas, B J; Shukla, S P; Sacktor, B

    1984-11-01

    Blowfly (Phormia regina) flight muscle mitochondria oxidized pyruvate ( + proline) in the presence of either ADP (coupled respiration) or carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP-uncoupled respiration). There was an absolute requirement for ADP (Km = 8.0 microM) when pyruvate oxidation was stimulated by FCCP in the presence of oligomycin. This requirement for ADP was limited to the oxidation of pyruvate; uncoupled alpha-glycerolphosphate oxidation proceeded maximally even in the absence of added ADP. Atractylate inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation whether added before (greater than 99%) or after (95%) initiation of respiration with FCCP. In the presence of FCCP, oligomycin, and limiting concentrations of ADP (less than 110 microM), there was a shutoff in the uptake of oxygen. This inhibition of respiration was completely reversed by the addition of more ADP. Plots of net oxygen uptake as a function of the limiting ADP concentration were linear; the observed ADP/O ratio was 0.22 +/- 0.025. An ADP/O ratio of 0.2 was predicted if phosphorylation occurred only at the succinyl-CoA synthetase step of the tricarboxylate cycle. Experiments performed in the presence of limiting concentrations of ADP, and designed to monitor changes in the mitochondrial content of ADP and ATP, demonstrated that the shutoff in oxygen uptake was not due to the presence of a high intramitochondrial concentration of ATP. Indeed, ATP, added to the medium prior to the addition of FCCP, inhibited uncoupled pyruvate oxidation; the apparent KI was 0.8 mM. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that it is the intramitochondrial ATP/ADP ratio that is one of the controlling factors in determining the rate of flux through the tricarboxylate cycle. Changes in the mitochondrial content of citrate, isocitrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and malate during uncoupled pyruvate oxidation in the presence of a limiting concentration of ADP were consistent with the hypothesis that the

  7. Effects of the essential oil constituent thymol and other neuroactive chemicals on flight motor activity and wing beat frequency in the blowfly Phaenicia sericata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliwitiya, Ranil; Belton, Peter; Nicholson, Russell A; Lowenberger, Carl A

    2010-03-01

    The effects were evaluated of the plant terpenoid thymol and eight other neuroactive compounds on flight muscle impulses (FMIs) and wing beat frequency (WBF) of tethered blowflies (Phaenicia sericata Meig.). The electrical activity of the dorsolongitudinal flight muscles was closely linked to the WBF of control insects. Topically applied thymol inhibited WBF within 15-30 min and reduced FMI frequency. Octopamine and chlordimeform caused a similar, early-onset bursting pattern that decreased in amplitude with time. Desmethylchlordimeform blocked wing beating within 60 min and generated a profile of continuous but lower-frequency FMIs. Fipronil suppressed wing beating and induced a pattern of continuous, variable-frequency spiking that diminished gradually over 6 h. Cypermethrin- and rotenone-treated flies had initial strong FMIs that declined with time. In flies injected with GABA, the FMIs were generally unidirectional and frequency was reduced, as was seen with thymol. Thymol readily penetrates the cuticle and interferes with flight muscle and central nervous function in the blowfly. The similarity of the action of thymol and GABA suggests that this terpenoid acts centrally in blowflies by mimicking or facilitating GABA action.

  8. The effect of the coupled oxidation of substrate on the permeability of blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria to potassium and other cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, R G; Lehninger, A L

    1972-02-01

    1. Blowfly flight-muscle mitochondria respiring in the absence of phosphate acceptor (i.e. in state 4) take up greater amounts of K(+), Na(+), choline, phosphate and Cl(-) (but less NH(4) (+)) than non-respiring control mitochondria. 2. Uptake of cations is accompanied by an increase in the volume of the mitochondrial matrix, determined with the use of [(14)C]-sucrose and (3)H(2)O. The osmolarity of the salt solution taken up was approximately that of the suspending medium. 3. The [(14)C]sucrose-inaccessible space decreased with increasing osmolarity of potassium chloride in the suspending medium, confirming that the blowfly mitochondrion behaves as an osmometer. 4. Light-scattering studies showed that both respiratory substrate and a permeant anion such as phosphate or acetate are required for rapid and massive entry of K(+), which occurs in an electrophoretic process rather than in exchange for H(+). The increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations is probably the result of a large increase in the exposed area of inner membrane surface in these mitochondria, with no intrinsic increase in the permeability per unit area. 5. No increase in permeability to K(+) and other cations occurs during phosphorylation of ADP in state 3 respiration.

  9. Tuning of the Preferred Optic Flow Axes of Locust and Blowfly Visual Interneurons to Their Preferred Modes of Flight Behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krapp, Holger G; Bomphrey, R. J; Laughlin, S. B; Taylor, G. K; Wuestenberg, D. G

    2008-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Imperial College London as follows: The grantee will investigate the sensory mechanisms of gaze stabilization and flight control on insects (flies and locusts...

  10. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  11. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  12. Field calibration of blowfly-derived DNA against traditional methods for assessing mammal diversity in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Gan, Han Ming; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Wilson, John-James

    2016-11-01

    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.

  13. Fluorescence Spectra of Blowfly Metaxanthopsins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, B.; Stavenga, D.G.

    The main visual pigment of blowflies (xanthopsin) photoconverts into two thermostable metaxanthopsin states M and M’. The fluorescence spectra of the two photoproducts were studied by microspectrofluorometry in vivo. The emission spectra of M and M’ are very similar and peak at 660 nm. The

  14. A Three-Compartment Model Describing Temperature Changes in Tethered Flying Blowflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Tinbergen, J.

    1993-01-01

    A three-compartment model is presented that describes temperature measurements of tethered flying blowflies, obtained by thermal imaging. During rest, the body temperature is approximately equal to the ambient temperature. At the start of flight, the thorax temperature increases exponentially with a

  15. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  16. RECEPTOR POTENTIAL AND LIGHT-INDUCED MITOCHONDRIAL ACTIVATION IN BLOWFLY PHOTORECEPTOR MUTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOJET, MH; TINBERGEN, J; STAVENGA, DG

    1991-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurements of the receptor potential and the light-induced mitochondrial activation were performed in white-eyed blowflies Calliphora vicina, mutant chalky, and Lucilia cuprina, mutants w(F) and w'nss. The intensity dependence and the temporal dynamics were investigated. 2. The

  17. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  18. Impact of stride-coupled gaze shifts of walking blowflies on the neuronal representation of visual targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eKress

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During locomotion animals rely heavily on visual cues gained from the environment to guide their behavior. Examples are basic behaviors like collision avoidance or the approach to a goal. The saccadic gaze strategy of flying flies, which separates translational from rotational phases of locomotion, has been suggested to facilitate the extraction of environmental information, because only image flow evoked by translational self-motion contains relevant distance information about the surrounding world. In contrast to the translational phases of flight during which gaze direction is kept largely constant, walking flies experience continuous rotational image flow that is coupled to their stride-cycle. The consequences of these self-produced image shifts for the extraction of environmental information are still unclear. To assess the impact of stride-coupled image shifts on visual information processing, we performed electrophysiological recordings from the HSE cell, a motion sensitive wide-field neuron in the blowfly visual system. This cell has been concluded to play a key role in mediating optomotor behavior, self-motion estimation and spatial information processing. We used visual stimuli that were based on the visual input experienced by walking blowflies while approaching a black vertical bar. The response of HSE to these stimuli was dominated by periodic membrane potential fluctuations evoked by stride-coupled image shifts. Nevertheless, during the approach the cell’s response contained information about the bar and its background. The response components evoked by the bar were larger than the responses to its background, especially during the last phase of the approach. However, as revealed by targeted modifications of the visual input during walking, the extraction of distance information on the basis of HSE responses is much impaired by stride-coupled retinal image shifts. Possible mechanisms that may cope with these stride

  19. Morphing flight control surface for advanced flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Matt; Kwak, Seung-Keon; Yoon, Hwan-Sik

    2006-03-01

    A novel Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) system has been developed. The distinction of this research effort is that the SenAnTech team has incorporated our innovative Highly Deformable Mechanism (HDM) into our MFCS. The feasibility of this novel technology for deformable wing structures, such as airfoil shaping, warping or twisting with a flexure-based high displacement PZT actuator has been demonstrated via computational simulations such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD was implemented to verify the accuracy of the complex potential flow theory for this application. Then, complex potential flow theory, kinematics, geometry, and static force analysis were incorporated into a multidisciplinary GUI simulation tool. This tool has been used to aid the design of the MFCS. The results show that we can achieve up to five degrees of wing twisting with our proposed system, while using minimal volume within the wing and adding little weight.

  20. Blowfly Larval Tissues as a Secondary Detector for Determining Paraquat-Related Death in Rabbit Carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawai, Vannessa; Abdul Rahim, Nor Aliza; Ngaini, Zainab

    2015-11-01

    Paraquat poisoning is commonly associated with suicide or homicide in Malaysia. In a case involving advanced body decomposition, pathological analysis regarding the cause of death may become difficult or almost impossible. Insects serve as common alternative matrix for poison detection in forensic analysis. Paraquat detection via secondary bioaccumulation in fly larvae tissue has never been reported. In this study, tissues from blowfly larvae collected from a rabbit carcass with paraquat poisoning were analyzed for secondary bioaccumulation. Larvae samples were collected and analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The detection was performed via reduction of quaternary ammonium presence in paraquat and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring mode (SIM mode). GC-MS showed the elution of reduced paraquat was at retention time 12.8 min. Blowfly larvae tissue has proven useful as a secondary detector in paraquat-related deaths. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  2. Calculating Launch Vehicle Flight Performance Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Pinson, Robin M.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses different methods for determining the amount of extra propellant (flight performance reserve or FPR) that is necessary to reach orbit with a high probability of success. One approach involves assuming that the various influential parameters are independent and that the result behaves as a Gaussian. Alternatively, probabilistic models may be used to determine the vehicle and environmental models that will be available (estimated) for a launch day go/no go decision. High-fidelity closed-loop Monte Carlo simulation determines the amount of propellant used with each random combination of parameters that are still unknown at the time of launch. Using the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, several methods were used to calculate the FPR. The final chosen solution involves determining distributions for the pertinent outputs and running a separate Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a best estimate of the required FPR. This result differs from the result obtained using the other methods sufficiently that the higher fidelity is warranted.

  3. A predictive model of flight crew performance in automated air traffic control and flight management operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1995. This paper describes Air-MIDAS, a model of pilot performance in interaction with varied levels of automation in flight management operations. The model was used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew responding to c...

  4. Control Design and Performance Analysis for Autonomous Formation Flight Experimentss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Caleb Michael

    Autonomous Formation Flight is a key approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and managing traffic in future high density airspace. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) have made it possible for the physical demonstration and validation of autonomous formation flight concepts inexpensively and eliminates the flight risk to human pilots. This thesis discusses the design, implementation, and flight testing of three different formation flight control methods, Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID); Fuzzy Logic (FL); and NonLinear Dynamic Inversion (NLDI), and their respective performance behavior. Experimental results show achievable autonomous formation flight and performance quality with a pair of low-cost unmanned research fixed wing aircraft and also with a solo vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) quadrotor.

  5. Larviposition in the ovoviviparous blowfly Calliphora dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D F; Dadour, I R

    2011-03-01

    This study examined larviposition in Calliphora dubia Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an ovoviviparous blowfly of considerable forensic importance in Australia. Females in the field carried 22-83 live larvae, exhibiting a strong linear relationship between female size and the number of live larvae carried. Females took just over 1 min (mean 67.7 ± 7.7 s, n = 54) to larviposit live larvae on or near fresh liver in the laboratory. Females laid larvae at a mean rate of 1.2 ± 0.1 larvae/s, with the fastest rate being 3.4 larvae/s. Most females (70%) laid live larvae only, but 14% laid larvae and eggs at the same time and 16% laid eggs only (none of the eggs laid were viable). Females laying only live larvae laid a mean of 53.7 ± 2.3 larvae, whereas those laying only eggs laid a mean of 48.6 ± 2.8 eggs on each occasion. None of the eggs laid were viable. Most females (86%) laid all their larvae in a single spot, even if they engaged in several bouts of laying live larvae. Nearly one-third of females did not lay all the live larvae in their ovisacs, but retained half of their complement of developed larvae. Females may be opting to spread their larvae across several carcasses in order to increase their survival and not to overcrowd small, ephemeral carcasses. The fact that a blowfly can lay either eggs or live larvae has enormous implications for the accurate determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) as the presence of larvae derived from eggs laid on the body add 6-18 h to the PMI. This paper represents the first report of the ability of female calliphorids to resorb some of their own live larvae. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Fatty acid solubilizer from the oral disk of the blowfly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ishida

    Full Text Available Blowflies are economic pests of the wool industry and potential vectors for epidemics. The establishment of a pesticide-free, environmentally friendly blowfly control strategy is necessary. Blowflies must feed on meat in order to initiate the cascade of events that are involved in reproduction including juvenile hormone synthesis, vitellogenesis, and mating. During feeding blowflies regurgitate salivary lipase, which may play a role in releasing fatty acids from triglycerides that are found in food. However, long-chain fatty acids show low solubility in aqueous solutions. In order to solubilize and ingest the released hydrophobic fatty acids, the blowflies must use a solubilizer.We applied native PAGE, Edman degradation, cDNA cloning, and RT-PCR to characterize a protein that accumulated in the oral disk of the black blowfly, Phormia regina. In situ hybridization was carried out to localize the expression at the cellular level. A fluorescence competitive binding assay was used to identify potential ligands of this protein.A protein newly identified from P. regina (PregOBP56a belonged to the classic odorant-binding protein (OBP family. This gene was expressed in a cluster of cells that was localized between pseudotracheae on the oral disk, which are not accessory cells of the taste peg chemosensory sensilla that normally synthesize OBPs. At pH 7 and pH 6, PregOBP56a bound palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids, that are mainly found in chicken meat. The binding affinity of PregOBP56a decreased at pH 5. We propose that PregOBP56a is a protein that solubilizes fatty acids during feeding and subsequently helps to deliver the fatty acids to the midgut where it may help in the process of reproduction. As such, PregOBP56a is a potential molecular target for controlling the blowfly.

  7. Stress training improves performance during a stressful flight

    OpenAIRE

    McClernon, Christopher K.; McCauley, Michael E.; O'Connor, Paul E.; Warm, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00187€0811405317. This study investigated whether stress training introduced during the acquisition of simulator-based flight skills enhances pilot performance during subsequent stressful flight operations in an actual aircraft.

  8. Pilot performance evaluation of simulated flight approach and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research work examines the application of different statistical and empirical analysis methods to quantify pilot performance. A realistic approach and landing flight scenario is executed using the reconfigurable flight simulator at National Aerospace Laboratories and both subjective and quantitative measures are applied ...

  9. Evaluating Flight Crew Performance by a Bayesian Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flight crew performance is of great significance in keeping flights safe and sound. When evaluating the crew performance, quantitative detailed behavior information may not be available. The present paper introduces the Bayesian Network to perform flight crew performance evaluation, which permits the utilization of multidisciplinary sources of objective and subjective information, despite sparse behavioral data. In this paper, the causal factors are selected based on the analysis of 484 aviation accidents caused by human factors. Then, a network termed Flight Crew Performance Model is constructed. The Delphi technique helps to gather subjective data as a supplement to objective data from accident reports. The conditional probabilities are elicited by the leaky noisy MAX model. Two ways of inference for the BN—probability prediction and probabilistic diagnosis are used and some interesting conclusions are drawn, which could provide data support to make interventions for human error management in aviation safety.

  10. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  11. High temperature and performance in a flight task simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-05-01

    The effects of high cockpit temperature on physiological responses and performance were determined on pilots in a general aviation simulator. The pilots (all instrument rated) 'flew' an instrument flight while exposed to each of three cockpit tempera...

  12. Flight performance: Frigatebirds ride high on thermals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Chastel, Olivier; Barbraud, Christophe; Tostain, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Aspects of the morphology and life history of frigatebirds verge on the extreme, and how they spend their time at sea has been a mystery until now. Here we use data collected by altimeters and satellite transmitters attached to individual frigatebirds to show that these birds are continuously on the wing, day and night - they fly in a succession of climbs and descents, soaring in circles on thermals to heights of up to 2,500 m and gliding down in the direction of travel. The birds' curious morphology and flight patterns result in extremely low costs of foraging, but they also cause them to travel slowly over large distances, putting frigatebirds at an evolutionary extreme that enables them to exploit tropical waters in which prey is scarce.

  13. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  14. [Effect of different baits as attractant for blowflies (Diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, José M; Fraga, Mariana B

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in an area of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).

  15. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosilevskii, G

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance-at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small.

  16. [Species determination of puparia of forensically important blowflies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, C; Wollenek, G

    1983-01-01

    The cephalopharyngealsclerite and the morphology of the 12th puparian segment provide useful recognition features to distinguish the puparia of forensically important blow-fly species. In addition it was found that the size of the puparia can only make restricted reference to the identification of the species. The most useful characters of the puparia are finally collected in a classification key.

  17. Simple clearing technique as species determination tool in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Wartenberg, Nelly; Spiess, Roland; Mall, Gita

    2011-03-20

    A simple clearing technique is presented by which species specific structures and organs of blowfly larvae can easily be visualized and displayed without any danger of mechanical damages or dislocations of delicate formations and without fixation of the object. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Olfactory response of the blowfly, chrysomya chloropyga (wied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (diptera: calliphoridae) to odour sources. ... Attractants to the blowfly, Chrysomya chloropyga, in the enviroment were used to studybait preference of the fly in the laboratory. The attractants included sheep dung, decayed liver, poultry dung, fresh liver and mixture of ground rice and fish paste. C. chloropyga were reared on a ...

  19. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-03-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations.

  20. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-01-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations

  1. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer [Department of Theoretical Ecology, Ecology Building, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Spedding, Geoffrey R [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90098-1191 (United States)], E-mail: anders.hedenstrom@teorekol.lu.se

    2009-03-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations.

  2. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Vigoreaux, Jim O. (IIT); (Vermont)

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increases in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.

  3. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lévèque, T., E-mail: thomas.leveque@cnes.fr; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Grosjean, O.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Bomer, T.; Pichon, A.; Béraud, P.; Lelay, J. P.; Thomin, S. [Sodern, 20 Avenue Descartes, 94451 Limeil-Brévannes (France); Laurent, Ph. [LNE-SYRTE, CNRS, UPMC, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.

  4. Flight performance and competitive displacement of hummingbirds across elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L

    2006-02-01

    Hummingbirds, with their impressive flight ability and competitive aerial contests, make ideal candidates for applying a mechanistic approach to studying community structure. Because flight costs are influenced by abiotic factors that change systematically with altitude, elevational gradients provide natural experiments for hummingbird flight ecology. Prior attempts relied on wing disc loading (WDL) as a morphological surrogate for flight performance, but recent analyses indicate this variable does not influence either territorial behavior or competitive ability. Aerodynamic power, by contrast, can be derived from direct measurements of performance and, like WDL, declines across elevations. Here, I demonstrate for a diverse community of Andean hummingbirds that burst aerodynamic power is associated with territorial behavior. Along a second elevational gradient in Colorado, I tested for correlated changes in aerodynamic power and competitive ability in two territorial hummingbirds. This behavioral analysis revealed that short-winged Selasphorus rufus males are dominant over long-winged Selasphorus platycercus males at low elevations but that the roles are reversed at higher elevations. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that the burst rather than sustained aerodynamic performance mediates competitive ability at high elevation. A minimum value for burst power may be required for successful competition, but other maneuverability features gain importance when all competitors have sufficient muscle power, as occurs at low elevations.

  5. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to

  6. Spectral Sensitivity of Blowfly Photoreceptors : Dependence on Waveguide Effects and Pigment Concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smakman, J.G.J.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral and polarization sensitivities of blowfly R1-6 photoreceptor cells were measured by intracellular recordings in cells which differed in visual pigment content. The spectral sensitivity in the visible wavelength range can be quantitatively explained from the absorption spectrum of blowfly

  7. Function and coding in the blowfly H1 neuron during naturalistic optic flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Kern, R.; Schwerdtfeger, G.; Egelhaaf, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturalistic stimuli, reconstructed from measured eye movements of flying blowflies, were replayed on a panoramic stimulus device. The directional movement-sensitive H1 neuron was recorded from blowflies watching these stimuli. The response of the H1 neuron is dominated by the response to fast

  8. Species-specific flight styles of flies are reflected in the response dynamics of a homologue motion sensitive neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eGeurten

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoverflies and blowflies have distinctly different flight styles. Yet, both species have been shown to structure their flight behaviour in a way that facilitates extraction of 3D information from the image flow on the retina (optic flow. Neuronal candidates to analyse the optic flow are the tangential cells in the third optical ganglion – the lobula complex. These neurons are directionally selective and integrate the optic flow over large parts of the visual field. Homologue tangential cells in hoverflies and blowflies have a similar morphology. Because blowflies and hoverflies have similar neuronal layout but distinctly different flight behaviours, they are an ideal substrate to pinpoint potential neuronal adaptations to the different flight styles.In this article we describe the relationship between locomotion behaviour and motion vision on three different levels:1.We compare the different flight styles based on the categorisation of flight behaviour into prototypical movements.2.We measure the species specific dynamics of the optic flow under naturalistic flight conditions. We found the translational optic flow of both species to be very different.3.We describe possible adaptations of a homologue motion sensitive neuron. We stimulate this cell in blowflies (Calliphora and hoverflies (Eristalis with naturalistic optic flow generated by both species during free flight. The characterized hoverfly tangential cell responds faster to transient changes in the optic flow than its blowfly homologue. It is discussed whether and how the different dynamical response properties aid optic flow analysis.

  9. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  10. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  11. PHARAO flight model: optical on ground performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévèque, T.; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Grosjean, O.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Escande, C.; Gasc, Ph.; Ratsimandresy, A.; Béraud, S.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P.; Larivière, Ph.; Bernard, V.; Bomer, T.; Thomin, S.; Salomon, C.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Moric, I.; Laurent, Ph.

    2017-11-01

    PHARAO (Projet d'Horloge Atomique par Refroidissement d'Atomes en Orbite), which has been developed by CNES, is the first primary frequency standard specially designed for operation in space. PHARAO is the main instrument of the ESA mission ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space). ACES payload will be installed on-board the International Space Station (ISS) to perform fundamental physics experiments. All the sub-systems of the Flight Model (FM) have now passed the qualification process and the whole FM of the cold cesium clock, PHARAO, is being assembled and will undergo extensive tests. The expected performances in space are frequency accuracy less than 3.10-16 (with a final goal at 10-16) and frequency stability of 10-13 τ-1/2. In this paper, we focus on the laser source performances and the main results on the cold atom manipulation.

  12. Prospect of a method of infected wound healing with a help of Calliphoridae blowfly screwworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Faly

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex assessment of possibilities of infected wound healing with a help of screwworms of blowfly of the family Calliphoridae in the hospitals of Ukraineis offered. On the basis of available data the mechanism of therapeutic action is shown, and the medicinal properties of substances containing in the secretions and excretions of the blowfly screwworms are described. The gist of the treatment method and traits of the blowfly cultivation in a laboratory are highlighted. The quality standards for specialized biological laboratories are presented. The proposed wound healing method is proved as promising.

  13. Capabilities of Small Stature Women to Perform Operational Flight Tasks During G-Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shender, Barry

    1999-01-01

    .... In particular this study addresses whether these females possess the upper body muscular endurance to perform high performance flight maneuvers such as those experienced in training, air combat...

  14. Army flight medic performance of paramedic level procedures: indicated vs. performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Scott A; Hermstad, Erik; Trollman, Christopher; Holt, Melinda

    2013-05-01

    There is great disparity in the education, experience, and staffing requirements for civilian and Army aeromedical transports (AMT). This study sought to determine if medical skills beyond the standard training for Army flight medics were indicated and being performed on Army AMT missions. As a secondary measure, the percentage of indicated interventions performed by basic Emergency Medical Technician (EMT-B) and paramedic (EMT-P) flight medics were compared. This was a retrospective review of Army AMT charts including patients transported by an EMT-B-staffed unit in Iraq and an EMT-P-staffed unit in Afghanistan from July 2008 to June 2009. Charts were reviewed independently by two Emergency Medicine board-certified Army flight surgeons. Of 984 interventions found to be indicated on the 406 charts that met inclusion criteria, 36% were rated as EMT-P level. Seventeen percent were indicated but not performed. EMT-Bs failed to perform indicated procedures 35% of the time vs. 3% in the EMT-P group (p Army flight medic training being required for Army AMT missions. It seems that when advance interventions are indicated, those trained to the EMT-P level perform them significantly more often than those trained to Army standard. Based on the findings of this study, the authors suggest the Army consider adopting the standards required for civilian AMT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Wolbachia and genetic variability in the birdnest blowfly Protocalliphora sialia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, E; Bartos, J; Emerson, K; Whitworth, T; Werren, J H

    2003-07-01

    Wolbachia are widespread cytoplasmically inherited bacteria that induce various reproductive alterations in host arthropods, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), an incompatibility between sperm and egg that typically results in embryonic death. CI has been invoked as a possible mechanism for reproductive isolation and speciation in arthropods, by restricting gene flow and promoting maintenance (and evolution) of genetic divergence between populations. Here we investigate patterns of Wolbachia infection and nuclear and mitochondrial differentiation in geographical populations of the birdnest blowfly Protocalliphora sialia. Blowflies in western North America are infected with two A-group Wolbachia, with some individuals singly and others doubly infected. Individuals in eastern North America mostly show single infections with a B-group Wolbachia. Populations in the Midwest are polymorphic for infections and show A- or B-group infection. There is a low level of mitochondrial divergence and perfect concordance of mitochondrial haplotype with infection type, suggesting that two Wolbachia-associated selective sweeps of the mitochondrion have occurred in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of nuclear genetic variation shows genetic differentiation between the eastern-Midwestern and western populations. Both Midwestern and eastern flies infected with A-Wolbachia show eastern nuclear genetic profiles. Current results therefore suggest that Wolbachia has not acted as a major barrier to gene flow between western and eastern-Midwestern populations, although some genetic differentiation between A-Wolbachia infected and B-Wolbachia infected individuals in eastern-Midwestern populations cannot be ruled out.

  16. Phototransduction in primate cones and blowfly photoreceptors : different mechanisms, different algorithms, similar response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Snippe, H.P.

    Phototransduction in primate cones is compared with phototransduction in blowfly photoreceptor cells. Phototransduction in the two cell types utilizes not only different molecular mechanisms, but also different signal processing steps, producing range compression, contrast constancy, and an

  17. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations.

  18. Energy extraction from atmospheric turbulence to improve flight vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chinmay Karsandas

    Small 'bird-sized' Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have now become practical due to technological advances in embedded electronics, miniature sensors and actuators, and propulsion systems. Birds are known to take advantage of wind currents to conserve energy and fly long distances without flapping their wings. This dissertation explores the possibility of improving the performance of small UAVs by extracting the energy available in atmospheric turbulence. An aircraft can gain energy from vertical gusts by increasing its lift in regions of updraft and reducing its lift in downdrafts - a concept that has been known for decades. Starting with a simple model of a glider flying through a sinusoidal gust, a parametric optimization approach is used to compute the minimum gust amplitude and optimal control input required for the glider to sustain flight without losing energy. For small UAVs using optimal control inputs, sinusoidal gusts with amplitude of 10--15% of the cruise speed are sufficient to keep the aircraft aloft. The method is then modified and extended to include random gusts that are representative of natural turbulence. A procedure to design optimal control laws for energy extraction from realistic gust profiles is developed using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). A feedback control law is designed to perform well over a variety of random gusts, and not be tailored for one particular gust. A small UAV flying in vertical turbulence is shown to obtain average energy savings of 35--40% with the use of a simple control law. The design procedure is also extended to determine optimal control laws for sinusoidal as well as turbulent lateral gusts. The theoretical work is complemented by experimental validation using a small autonomous UAV. The development of a lightweight autopilot and UAV platform is presented. Flight test results show that active control of the lift of an autonomous glider resulted in approximately 46% average energy savings compared to glides with fixed

  19. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  20. Design and flight performance of hybrid underwater glider with controllable wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid underwater glider combines motion modes of traditional autonomous underwater glider and those of autonomous underwater vehicles. Different motion modes need different flight performance, including flight efficiency, static stability, and maneuverability. Conventional hybrid underwater glider with fixed wings can’t achieve optimal flight performance in one flight mission demanding various motion modes. In this article, controllable wings for hybrid underwater glider Petrel II are designed. Angle of attack, sweep angle, and aspect ratio of controllable wings can be changed to adapt to different motion modes. Kinematics and dynamics models of Petrel II are established based on multibody theory. Motion simulations of Petrel II with different wing configurations are conducted in three motion modes, including glide motion, spiral motion, and horizontal turning motion. The simulation results show the impact of wing parameters on flight performance. Field trials demonstrate that the controllable wings can improve the flight performance.

  1. Bumblebee flight performance in environments of different proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Flying animals are capable of navigating through environments of different complexity with high precision. To control their flight when negotiating narrow tunnels, bees and birds use the magnitude of apparent image motion (known as optic flow) generated by the walls. In their natural habitat, however, these animals would encounter both cluttered and open environments. Here, we investigate how large changes in the proximity of nearby surfaces affect optic flow-based flight control strategies. We trained bumblebees to fly along a flight and recorded how the distance between the walls--from 60 cm to 240 cm--affected their flight control. Our results reveal that, as tunnel width increases, both lateral position and ground speed become increasingly variable. We also find that optic flow information from the ground has an increasing influence on flight control, suggesting that bumblebees measure optic flow flexibly over a large lateral and ventral field of view, depending on where the highest magnitude of optic flow occurs. A consequence of this strategy is that, when flying in narrow spaces, bumblebees use optic flow information from the nearby obstacles to control flight, while in more open spaces they rely primarily on optic flow cues from the ground.

  2. The sheep blowfly genetic control program in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Geoffrey G.

    1989-01-01

    The blowfly Lucilia cuprina is the most important myiasis pet of sheep in Australia. Other species are associated with sheep myiasis, but L. cuprina is probably responsible for initiating more than 90% of infestations. Annual costs of production losses, prevention and treatment have been estimated at $149 millions in 1985. Prevention and treatment encompass both insecticidal applications to sheep and non-chemical management practices. In the absence of effective preventive measures, the sheep industry would be non-viable over much of Australia. Insecticide usage against L. cuprina has been marked by the appearance of widespread resistance to cyclodienes in 1956, the organophosphates in 1965, and carbamates in 1966. Resistance has not yet been reported against the triazine compounds introduced for blowfly control in 1981. The most effective non-chemical control measures are surgical (removal of skin from the breech in certain breeds of sheep, and tail-docking). They protect sheep by reducing favourable oviposition sites (dung and urine-stained wool). The spectre of insecticide resistance and the early success of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against screwworm fly in the U.S.A., led this Division to consider SIT and other autocidal methods in the 1960s. The L. cuprina genetics research program was established in 1966 and subsequently expanded in 1971. More recently, lobbying by animal welfare groups against surgical blowfly control practices, as well as increasing consumer awareness of insecticide residues in animal products, have accelerated the search for alternatives to chemical control. When SIT was first considered for L. cuprina control in 1960, little was known about the population dynamics of L. cuprina. There were insufficient ecological data to evaluate the prospects of alternative strategies such as suppression or containment. The number of flies which would have to be released in a SIT program was unknown, as were the costs. Assuming that the cost of

  3. An aerodynamic performance evaluation of the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The results of an aerodynamic performance evaluation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), conducted in association with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics, are presented. The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight system and aircrew performance. The propu...

  4. Timing of arrival from spring migration is associated with flight performance in the migratory barn swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Timing of arrival at the breeding grounds by migratory birds affects their mating success and access to superior resources, thus being a major factor associated with fitness. Much empirical work has been devoted to investigate the condition dependence of arrival sequence of migrants and characteristics of individuals that influence arrival time from migration. Surprisingly, there are no studies examining the relationship between flight performance of individual birds and their arrival time. I investigated the relative importance of direct effects of short-term flight performance, age, body condition and the degree of sexual ornamentation (tail length) on timing of spring arrival in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), a long-distance trans-equatorial passerine migrant. I evaluated short-term flight performance (a composite variable comprising flight manoeuvrability, velocity and acceleration) in a standardised manner using flight tunnels. Short-term flight performance was a significant and important predictor of spring arrival date. Furthermore, locomotion predicted arrival date of individual birds independently of morphological variables-the degree of sexual ornamentation (the length of the tail) and wing aspect ratio and body condition. I discuss the possible role short-term flight performance may have in determining migratory performance. This is the first time flight performance has been shown to be associated with timing of arrival from migration in a migratory bird.

  5. CONSEQUENCES OF WEIGHT DECREASE ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE DURING MIGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VIDELER, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Migrating birds, flying nonstop over long distances, are substantially heavier at the start than at the end of their journey. Aerodynamic models predict that these birds would optimally have to fly faster in the beginning of their flight, and end at a slower speed. Energy expenditure would be

  6. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  7. Optimum Wing Shape of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  8. Cuticular muscle attachment sites as a tool for species determination in blowfly larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederegger, Senta; Spiess, Roland

    2012-05-01

    First results of a new method for species determination in third instar larvae of saprophagous blowflies are introduced. Cuticular attachment sites of a limited number of transversal muscles are visualized for light microscopic analysis. After removing the muscles and staining the cuticle, the attachment sites become visible as laterally symmetrical segmental clusters of dark dots. The combined patterns of five such clusters, located in the second, third and fourth segments, show sufficient differences to allow reliable separation of externally very similar larval Lucilia sericata and Lucilia illustris as well as Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina, the most common saprophagous blowfly species in Europe. Species determination even in poorly conserved, discoloured and fragmented blowfly larvae becomes possible with this new method. The method can primarily be applied for postmortem interval (PMI) calculations in forensic entomology. Interspecific morphological similarity of the larvae and differences in growth rate make species determination an essential requisite for an exact PMI calculation.

  9. Time Spent by Calliphora Spp. Blowflies on Standard Traps Baited with Liver and Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of blowflies from the Calliphoridae family cause fly strikes in sheep and other species of economic importance. Impaired wool, decrease of ewe fertility, and even death can occur in heavy infestations. This paper describes the Calliphora spp. blowflies’ behavior on and around a trap baited with liver and ammonia before they entered in. More than half of Calliphora spp. blowflies (50.88% stayed a medium time (eight to fourteen seconds on the standard trap, while only 1.79% of them spent a longer time (26 to 30 seconds before entering the trap.

  10. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  11. Homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil change flight performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest in U.S. history, contaminating thousands of miles of coastal habitat and affecting the lives of many avian species. The Gulf of Mexico is a critical bird migration route area and migrants that were oiled but did not suffer mortality as a direct result of the spill faced unpredictable fates. This study utilized homing pigeons as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects a single low level external oiling event has on the flight performance and behavior of birds flying repeated 161 km flights. Data from GPS data loggers showed that lightly oiled pigeons changed their flight paths, increased their flight durations by 2.6 fold, increased their flight distances by 28 km and subsequently decreased their route efficiencies. Oiled birds also exhibited reduced rate of weight gain between flights. Our data suggest that contaminated birds surviving the oil spill may have experienced flight impairment and reduced refueling abilities, likely reducing overall migration speed. Our findings contribute new information on how oil spills affect avian species, as the effects of oil on the flight behavior of long distance free-flying birds have not been previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On spiking units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly. III. The sustaining unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1993-01-01

    We recorded from the spiking sustaining unit in the optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated both temporal and spatial properties of the light-adapted cell. The sustaining unit fails to follow the highest temporal frequencies followed by

  13. ON SPIKING UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY .3. THE SUSTAINING UNIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    We recorded from the spiking sustaining unit in the optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated both temporal and spatial properties of the light-adapted cell. The sustaining unit fails to follow the highest temporal frequencies followed by

  14. Exponential Extinction of Nicholson's Blowflies System with Nonlinear Density-Dependent Mortality Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new generalized Nicholson’s blowflies system with patch structure and nonlinear density-dependent mortality terms. Under appropriate conditions, we establish some criteria to guarantee the exponential extinction of this system. Moreover, we give two examples and numerical simulations to demonstrate our main results.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA-based identification of some forensically important blowflies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preativatanyou, Kanok; Sirisup, Nantana; Payungporn, Sunchai; Poovorawan, Yong; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2010-10-10

    Accurate identification of insects collected from death scenes provides not only specific developmental data assisting forensic entomologists to determine the postmortem interval more precisely but also other kinds of forensic evidence. However, morphological identification can be complicated due to the similarity among species, especially in the early larval stages. To simplify and make the species identification more practical and reliable, DNA-based identification is preferentially considered. In this study, we demonstrate the application of partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase II (COII) sequences for differentiation of forensically important blowflies in Thailand; Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The PCR yields a single 1324bp-sized amplicon in all blowfly specimens, followed by direct DNA sequencing. Taq(α)I and VspI predicted from the sequencing data provide different RFLP profiles among these three species. Sequence analysis reveals no significant intraspecific divergence in blowfly specimens captured from different geographical regions in Thailand. Accordingly, neighbor-joining tree using Kimura's 2-parameter model illustrates reciprocal monophyly between species. Thus, these approaches serve as promising tools for molecular identification of these three common forensically important blowfly species in Thailand. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Light dependence of calcium and membrane potential measured in blowfly photoreceptors in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberwinkler, J; Stavenga, DG

    Light adaptation in insect photoreceptors is caused by an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. To better understand this process, we measured the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in vivo as a function of adapting light intensity in the white-eyed blowfly mutant chalky. We developed a technique

  17. Phototransduction and light-iinducted mitochondrial activation in blowfly compound eyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, Martinus Hendrik

    1992-01-01

    The present thesis considered two aspects of phototransduction in the blowfly Calliphora vicina mutant chalky. First, we studied the mechanism of the basis process, conversion of light to an electrical signal. And second, we examined the light-induced actvation of mitochrondial respiration,

  18. Light Reduces the Excitation Efficiency in the nss Mutant of the Sheep Blowfly Lucilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barash, S.; Suss, E.; Stavenga, D.G.; Rubinstein, C.T.; Selinger, Z.; Minke, B.

    1988-01-01

    The nss (no steady state) phototransduction mutant of the sheep blowfly Lucilia was studied electrophysiologically using intracellular recordings. The effects of the nss mutation on the receptor potential are manifested in the following features of the light response. (a) The responses to a flash or

  19. On-off units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly. II. Spatial properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1993-01-01

    We recorded from the spiking on-off unit in the first optic chiasm (between lamina and medulla) in the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated its spatial properties. The receptive field extends over (11.4±0.9)° horizontally and (8.7±0.6)° vertically, i.e. about 7 by 5 interommatidial angles.

  20. ON-OFF UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY .2. SPATIAL PROPERTIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    We recorded from the spiking on-off unit in the first optic chiasm (between lamina and medulla) in the blowfly Calliphora vicina, and investigated its spatial properties. The receptive field extends over (11.4+/-0.9)-degrees horizontally and (8.7+/-0.6)-degrees vertically, i.e. about 7 by 5

  1. Fast temporal adaptation of on-off units in the first optic chiasm of the blowfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, N.M.; Hateren, J.H. van

    1991-01-01

    We recorded from spiking units in the first optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina). Both previously characterized neuron types, on-off units and sustaining units, were encountered. On-off units had a temporal frequency response with a lower cut-off

  2. Dye Transport across the Retinal Basement Membrane of the Blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyrauther, E.; Roebroek, J.G.H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    In the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala, transport of dye into or out of the retina, following injection into the eye or thorax, was investigated, mainly by microspectrophotometry and fluorimetry. After injection into the eye, Phenol Red, Trypan Blue, Lucifer Yellow and 9-amino-acridine were

  3. Bumblebee flight performance in cluttered environments: effects of obstacle orientation, body size and acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, James D; Ravi, Sridhar; Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2015-09-01

    Locomotion through structurally complex environments is fundamental to the life history of most flying animals, and the costs associated with movement through clutter have important consequences for the ecology and evolution of volant taxa. However, few studies have directly investigated how flying animals navigate through cluttered environments, or examined which aspects of flight performance are most critical for this challenging task. Here, we examined how body size, acceleration and obstacle orientation affect the flight of bumblebees in an artificial, cluttered environment. Non-steady flight performance is often predicted to decrease with body size, as a result of a presumed reduction in acceleration capacity, but few empirical tests of this hypothesis have been performed in flying animals. We found that increased body size is associated with impaired flight performance (specifically transit time) in cluttered environments, but not with decreased peak accelerations. In addition, previous studies have shown that flying insects can produce higher accelerations along the lateral body axis, suggesting that if maneuvering is constrained by acceleration capacity, insects should perform better when maneuvering around objects laterally rather than vertically. Our data show that bumblebees do generate higher accelerations in the lateral direction, but we found no difference in their ability to pass through obstacle courses requiring lateral versus vertical maneuvering. In sum, our results suggest that acceleration capacity is not a primary determinant of flight performance in clutter, as is often assumed. Rather than being driven by the scaling of acceleration, we show that the reduced flight performance of larger bees in cluttered environments is driven by the allometry of both path sinuosity and mean flight speed. Specifically, differences in collision-avoidance behavior underlie much of the variation in flight performance across body size, with larger bees

  4. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Performance assessment in a flight simulator test—Validation of a space psychology methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, B.; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Maschke, Peter; Stelling, Dirk; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk

    2007-02-01

    The objective assessment of operator performance in hand controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station has 30 years of tradition and is well established. In the last years the performance assessment was successfully combined with a psycho-physiological approach for the objective assessment of the levels of physiological arousal and psychological load. These methods are based on statistical reference data. For the enhancement of the statistical power of the evaluation methods, both were actually implemented into a comparable terrestrial task: the flight simulator test of DLR in the selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for civil airlines. In the first evaluation study 134 male subjects were analysed. Subjects underwent a flight simulator test including three tasks, which were evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardised rating scales. The principles of the performance algorithms of the docking training were adapted for the automated flight performance assessment. They are presented here. The increased human errors under instrument flight conditions without visual feedback required a manoeuvre recognition algorithm before calculating the deviation of the flown track from the given task elements. Each manoeuvre had to be evaluated independently of former failures. The expert rated performance showed a highly significant correlation with the automatically calculated performance for each of the three tasks: r=.883, r=.874, r=.872, respectively. An automated algorithm successfully assessed the flight performance. This new method will possibly provide a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  6. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  7. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  8. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  9. Comparing Aerodynamic Efficiency in Birds and Bats Suggests Better Flight Performance in Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S.; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  10. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-07-15

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  11. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Davis

    Full Text Available The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width, melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  12. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  13. The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K.; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

  14. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  15. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  16. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  17. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  18. Forensic Implications of Blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae: Diptera) Development Rates Affected by Ketum Extract

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Rashid; A. S. Siti; F. R. Siti; A. R. Reena; H. S. S. Sharifah; F. Z. Nurul; W. A. Nazni

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of ketum extract on development of Chrysomya rufifacies and to analyze the presence of mitragynine in the larvae samples. 110 newly emerged first instar larvae of C. rufifacies were introduced on ketum extract-mixed cow liver at doses of 0, 20, 40 and 60g. Blowfly development rate was determined with 12 hour intervals and mitragynine in larvae was extracted and quantitated. C. rufifacies in control group took about 192 hours to complete their...

  19. Tracking performance and global stability guaranteed neural control of uncertain hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Teng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.

  20. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  1. Adaptive Neural Network Dynamic Inversion with Prescribed Performance for Aircraft Flight Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gai, Wendong; Wang, Honglun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Yuxia

    2013-01-01

    An adaptive neural network dynamic inversion with prescribed performance method is proposed for aircraft flight control. The aircraft nonlinear attitude angle model is analyzed. And we propose a new attitude angle controller design method based on prescribed performance which describes the convergence rate and overshoot of the tracking error. Then the model error is compensated by the adaptive neural network. Subsequently, the system stability is analyzed in detail. Finally, the proposed meth...

  2. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrocchi, Matteo; Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G.; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm 2 of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  3. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrocchi, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.morrocchi@pi.infn.it [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G. [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Perugia, I 06100 Perugia (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-12-11

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm{sup 2} of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  4. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. II. Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wang, Yi; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T-C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  6. Mechanical Constraints on Flight at High Elevation Decrease Maneuvering Performance of Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Read, Tyson J G; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-12-19

    High-elevation habitats offer ecological advantages including reduced competition, predation, and parasitism [1]. However, flying organisms at high elevation also face physiological challenges due to lower air density and oxygen availability [2]. These constraints are expected to affect the flight maneuvers that are required to compete with rivals, capture prey, and evade threats [3-5]. To test how individual maneuvering performance is affected by elevation, we measured the free-flight maneuvers of male Anna's hummingbirds in a large chamber translocated to a high-elevation site and then measured their performance at low elevation. We used a multi-camera tracking system to identify thousands of maneuvers based on body position and orientation [6]. At high elevation, the birds' translational velocities, accelerations, and rotational velocities were reduced, and they used less demanding turns. To determine how mechanical and metabolic constraints independently affect performance, we performed a second experiment to evaluate flight maneuvers in an airtight chamber infused with either normoxic heliox, to lower air density, or nitrogen, to lower oxygen availability. The hypodense treatment caused the birds to reduce their accelerations and rotational velocities, whereas the hypoxic treatment had no significant effect on maneuvering performance. Collectively, these experiments reveal how aerial maneuvering performance changes with elevation, demonstrating that as birds move up in elevation, air density constrains their maneuverability prior to any influence of oxygen availability. Our results support the hypothesis that changes in competitive ability at high elevations are the result of mechanical limits to flight performance [7]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  8. Flight speed and performance of the wandering albatross with respect to wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Philip L; Wakefield, Ewan D; Phillips, Richard A

    2018-01-01

    Albatrosses and other large seabirds use dynamic soaring to gain sufficient energy from the wind to travel large distances rapidly and with little apparent effort. The recent development of miniature bird-borne tracking devices now makes it possible to explore the physical and biological implications of this means of locomotion in detail. Here we use GPS tracking and concurrent reanalyzed wind speed data to model the flight performance of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans soaring over the Southern Ocean. We investigate the extent to which flight speed and performance of albatrosses is facilitated or constrained by wind conditions encountered during foraging trips. We derived simple equations to model observed albatross ground speed as a function of wind speed and relative wind direction. Ground speeds of the tracked birds in the along-wind direction varied primarily by wind-induced leeway, which averaged 0.51 (± 0.02) times the wind speed at a reference height of 5 m. By subtracting leeway velocity from ground velocity, we were able to estimate airspeed (the magnitude of the bird's velocity through the air). As wind speeds increased from 3 to 18 m/s, the airspeed of wandering albatrosses flying in an across-wind direction increased by 0.42 (± 0.04) times the wind speed (i.e. ~ 6 m/s). At low wind speeds, tracked birds increased their airspeed in upwind flight relative to that in downwind flight. At higher wind speeds they apparently limited their airspeeds to a maximum of around 20 m/s, probably to keep the forces on their wings in dynamic soaring well within tolerable limits. Upwind airspeeds were nearly constant and downwind leeway increased with wind speed. Birds therefore achieved their fastest upwind ground speeds (~ 9 m/s) at low wind speeds (~ 3 m/s). This study provides insights into which flight strategies are optimal for dynamic soaring. Our results are consistent with the prediction that the optimal range speed of albatrosses is higher

  9. In-Flight Performance of the Water Vapor Monitor Onboard the Sofia Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; Yuen, Lunming; Sisson, David; Hang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne observatory flies in a modified B747-SP aircraft in the lower stratosphere above more than 99.9% of the Earth's water vapor. As low as this residual water vapor is, it will still affect SOFIA's infrared and sub-millimeter astronomical observations. As a result, a heterodyne instrument has been developed to observe the strength and shape of the 1830Hz rotational line of water, allowing measurements of the integrated water vapor overburden in flight. In order to be useful in correcting the astronomical signals, the required measured precipitable water vapor accuracy must be 2 microns or better, 3 sigma, and measured at least once a minute. The Water Vapor Monitor has flown 22 times during the SOFIA Early Science shared-risk period. The instrument water vapor overburden data obtained were then compared with concurrent data from GOES-V satellites to perform a preliminary calibration of the measurements. This presentation will cover the.results of these flights. The final flight calibration necessary to reach the required accuracy will await subsequent flights following the SOFIA observatory upgrade that is taking place during the spring and summer of 2012.

  10. Adaptive Neural Network Dynamic Inversion with Prescribed Performance for Aircraft Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendong Gai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neural network dynamic inversion with prescribed performance method is proposed for aircraft flight control. The aircraft nonlinear attitude angle model is analyzed. And we propose a new attitude angle controller design method based on prescribed performance which describes the convergence rate and overshoot of the tracking error. Then the model error is compensated by the adaptive neural network. Subsequently, the system stability is analyzed in detail. Finally, the proposed method is applied to the aircraft attitude tracking control system. The nonlinear simulation demonstrates that this method can guarantee the stability and tracking performance in the transient and steady behavior.

  11. Timing of arrival from spring migration is associated with flight performance in the migratory barn swallow

    OpenAIRE

    Matyjasiak, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Timing of arrival at the breeding grounds by migratory birds affects their mating success and access to superior resources, thus being a major factor associated with fitness. Much empirical work has been devoted to investigate the condition dependence of arrival sequence of migrants and characteristics of individuals that influence arrival time from migration. Surprisingly, there are no studies examining the relationship between flight performance of individual birds and their arrival time. I...

  12. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  13. The influence of flight speed on the ranging performance of bats using frequency modulated echolocation pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonman, Arjan M.; Parsons, Stuart; Jones, Gareth

    2003-01-01

    Many species of bat use ultrasonic frequency modulated (FM) pulses to measure the distance to objects by timing the emission and reception of each pulse. Echolocation is mainly used in flight. Since the flight speed of bats often exceeds 1% of the speed of sound, Doppler effects will lead to compression of the time between emission and reception as well as an elevation of the echo frequencies, resulting in a distortion of the perceived range. This paper describes the consequences of these Doppler effects on the ranging performance of bats using different pulse designs. The consequences of Doppler effects on ranging performance described in this paper assume bats to have a very accurate ranging resolution, which is feasible with a filterbank receiver. By modeling two receiver types, it was first established that the effects of Doppler compression are virtually independent of the receiver type. Then, used a cross-correlation model was used to investigate the effect of flight speed on Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling separately. This paper further shows how pulse duration, bandwidth, function type, and harmonics influence Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling. The influence of each signal parameter is illustrated using calls of several bat species. It is argued that range-Doppler coupling is a significant source of error in bat echolocation, and various strategies bats could employ to deal with this problem, including the use of range rate information are discussed.

  14. The time-of-flight TOFW detector of the HARP experiment: construction and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Barichello, G.; Bobisut, F.; Bonesini, M.; De Min, A.; Ferri, A.F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Laveder, M.; Menegolli, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Pepato, A.; Tonazzo, A.; Vascon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The construction and performance of a large area scintillator-based time-of-flight detector for the HARP experiment at CERN are reported. An intrinsic counter time resolution of ∼160 ps was achieved. The precision on the time calibration and monitoring of the detector was maintained at better than 100 ps by using dedicated cosmic rays runs, a fast laser-based system and calibrations with beam particles. The detector was operated on the T9 PS beamline during 2001 and 2002. A time-of-flight resolution of ∼200 ps was obtained, providing π/p discrimination at more than 3σ up to 4.0 GeV/c momentum

  15. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin... NSPM a proposed Quality Management System (QMS) program as described in this appendix. The NSPM will...

  16. Nutritional ecology of blowflies (Diptera, Calliphoridae: estimates of critical larval weight for pupation on two different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio da Silva Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Under natural environmental conditions, blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral feeding resources such as decaying carcasses. Competition for food on such feeding substrates is usually very severe, and only the individuals that are capable of attaining the critical larval weight for pupation will be able to survive. This critical weight is hitherto unknown for several blowfly species; therefore, the current work is aimed at obtaining such a critical value for four blowfly species of the genera Chrysomya and Lucilia, deploying two types of feeding substrate, namely, artificial diet and macerated bovine meat. On the whole, the critical weights ranged from 30 to 35 mg. The lowest larval weight which permitted pupation was 30.0 mg for Chrysomya megacephala reared on macerated bovine meat. This species was also the best adapted to pupation at low larval weights in relation to the maximum larval weight for males. Regarding the pupation of females, the best-adapted individual was a C. albiceps specimen exhibiting a critical weight that was equal to 39.20 % of the maximum value obtained. Concerning all the species and diet types, the female individuals exhibited the lowest critical weights that produced viable pupae, probably representing an evolutionary strategy that favoured the survival of females, responsible for the egg formation, contributing to the establishment of future generations. Regarding the loss (in percentage of adult biomass in relation to the third instar larvae, the females of C. megacephala lost less weight than males in both feeding substrates. On the other hand, such a loss of weight occurred in males of C. albiceps and L. cuprina.

  17. Efficient adaptive constrained control with time-varying predefined performance for a hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisheng Wei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel low-complexity adaptive control method, capable of guaranteeing the transient and steady-state tracking performance in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and actuator saturation, is investigated for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle. In order to attenuate the negative effects of classical predefined performance function for unknown initial tracking errors, a modified predefined performance function with time-varying design parameters is presented. Under the newly developed predefined performance function, two novel adaptive controllers with low-complexity computation are proposed for velocity and altitude subsystems of the hypersonic flight vehicle, respectively. Wherein, different from neural network-based approximation, a least square support vector machine with only two design parameters is utilized to approximate the unknown hypersonic dynamics. And the relevant ideal weights are obtained by solving a linear system without resorting to specialized optimization algorithms. Based on the approximation by least square support vector machine, only two adaptive scalars are required to be updated online in the parameter projection method. Besides, a new finite-time-convergent differentiator, with a quite simple structure, is proposed to estimate the unknown generated state variables in the newly established normal output-feedback formulation of altitude subsystem. Moreover, it is also employed to obtain accurate estimations for the derivatives of virtual controllers in a recursive design. This avoids the inherent drawback of backstepping — “explosion of terms” and makes the proposed control method achievable for the hypersonic flight vehicle. Further, the compensation design is employed when the saturations of the actuator occur. Finally, the numerical simulations validate the efficiency of the proposed finite-time-convergent differentiator and control method.

  18. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. TOF plotter - a program to perform routine analysis time-of-flight mass spectral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knippel, Brad C.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    The main article discusses the operation and application of the program to mass spectral data files. This laboratory has recently reported the construction and characterization of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToF-MS) utilizing a radio frequency glow discharge ionization source. Data acquisition and analysis was performed using a digital oscilloscope and Microsoft Excel, respectively. Presently, no software package is available that is specifically designed for time-of-flight mass spectral analysis that is not instrument dependent. While spreadsheet applications such as Excel offer tremendous utility, they can be cumbersome when repeatedly performing tasks which are too complex or too user intensive for macros to be viable. To address this situation and make data analysis a faster, simpler task, our laboratory has developed a Microsoft Windows-based software program coded in Microsoft Visual Basic. This program enables the user to rapidly perform routine data analysis tasks such as mass calibration, plotting and smoothing on x-y data sets. In addition to a suite of tools for data analysis, a number of calculators are built into the software to simplify routine calculations pertaining to linear ToF-MS. These include mass resolution, ion kinetic energy and single peak identification calculators. A detailed description of the software and its associated functions is presented followed by a characterization of its performance in the analysis of several representative ToF-MS spectra obtained from different GD-ToF-MS systems

  20. Heat Capacity Mapping Radiometer (HCMR) data processing algorithm, calibration, and flight performance evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohse, J. R.; Bewtra, M.; Barnes, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The rationale and procedures used in the radiometric calibration and correction of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) data are presented. Instrument-level testing and calibration of the Heat Capacity Mapping Radiometer (HCMR) were performed by the sensor contractor ITT Aerospace/Optical Division. The principal results are included. From the instrumental characteristics and calibration data obtained during ITT acceptance tests, an algorithm for post-launch processing was developed. Integrated spacecraft-level sensor calibration was performed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) approximately two months before launch. This calibration provided an opportunity to validate the data calibration algorithm. Instrumental parameters and results of the validation are presented and the performances of the instrument and the data system after launch are examined with respect to the radiometric results. Anomalies and their consequences are discussed. Flight data indicates a loss in sensor sensitivity with time. The loss was shown to be recoverable by an outgassing procedure performed approximately 65 days after the infrared channel was turned on. It is planned to repeat this procedure periodically.

  1. Intelligent adaptive nonlinear flight control for a high performance aircraft with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Aydogan; Tasaltin, Ramazan; Becerikli, Yasar

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a neural network (NN) based adaptive flight control system for a high performance aircraft. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed control system is able to compensate the system uncertainties, adapt to the changes in flight conditions, and accommodate the system failures. The underlying study can be considered in two phases. The objective of the first phase is to model the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear F-16 model using NNs. Therefore a NN-based adaptive identification model is developed for three angular rates of the aircraft. An on-line training procedure is developed to adapt the changes in the system dynamics and improve the identification accuracy. In this procedure, a first-in first-out stack is used to store a certain history of the input-output data. The training is performed over the whole data in the stack at every stage. To speed up the convergence rate and enhance the accuracy for achieving the on-line learning, the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method with a trust region approach is adapted to train the NNs. The objective of the second phase is to develop intelligent flight controllers. A NN-based adaptive PID control scheme that is composed of an emulator NN, an estimator NN, and a discrete time PID controller is developed. The emulator NN is used to calculate the system Jacobian required to train the estimator NN. The estimator NN, which is trained on-line by propagating the output error through the emulator, is used to adjust the PID gains. The NN-based adaptive PID control system is applied to control three angular rates of the nonlinear F-16 model. The body-axis pitch, roll, and yaw rates are fed back via the PID controllers to the elevator, aileron, and rudder actuators, respectively. The resulting control system has learning, adaptation, and fault-tolerant abilities. It avoids the storage and interpolation requirements for the too many controller parameters of a typical flight control

  2. Tracking error constrained robust adaptive neural prescribed performance control for flexible hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive neural control scheme based on a back-stepping technique is developed for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle, which is able to ensure the state tracking error being confined in the prescribed bounds, in spite of the existing model uncertainties and actuator constraints. Minimal learning parameter technique–based neural networks are used to estimate the model uncertainties; thus, the amount of online updated parameters is largely lessened, and the prior information of the aerodynamic parameters is dispensable. With the utilization of an assistant compensation system, the problem of actuator constraint is overcome. By combining the prescribed performance function and sliding mode differentiator into the neural back-stepping control design procedure, a composite state tracking error constrained adaptive neural control approach is presented, and a new type of adaptive law is constructed. As compared with other adaptive neural control designs for hypersonic flight vehicle, the proposed composite control scheme exhibits not only low-computation property but also strong robustness. Finally, two comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of this neural prescribed performance controller.

  3. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.; Neri, D. F.; Wyatt, J. K.; Ronda, J. M.; Riel, E.; Ritz-De Cecco, A.; Hughes, R. J.; Elliott, A. R.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.

  4. Final Phase Flight Performance and Touchdown Time Assessment of TDV in RLV-TD HEX-01 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sandeep; Jayakumar, M.; Nizin, Aziya; Kesavabrahmaji, K.; Shyam Mohan, N.

    2017-12-01

    RLV-TD HEX-01 mission was configured as a precursor flight to actual two stages to orbit vehicle. In this mission RLV-TD was designed as a two stage vehicle for demonstrating the hypersonic flight of a winged body vehicle at Mach No. 5. One of the main objectives of this mission was to generate data for better understanding of new technologies required to design the future vehicle. In this mission, the RLV-TD vehicle was heavily instrumented to get data related to performance of different subsystems. As per the mission design, RLV-TD will land in sea after flight duration of 700 s and travelling a distance of nearly 500 km in Bay of Bengal from the launch site for a nominal trajectory. The visibility studies for telemetry data of vehicle for the nominal and off nominal trajectories were carried out. Based on that, three ground stations were proposed for the telemetry data reception (including one in sea). Even with this scheme it was seen that during the final phase of the flight there will not be any ground station visible to the flight due to low elevation. To have the mission critical data during final phase of the flight, telemetry through INSAT scheme was introduced. During the end of the mission RLV-TD will be landing in the sea on a hypothetical runway. To know the exact time of touchdown for the flight in sea, there was no direct measurement available. Simultaneously there were all chances of losing ground station visibility just before touchdown, making it difficult to assess flight performance during that phase. In this work, telemetry and instrumentation scheme of RLV-TD HEX-01 mission is discussed with an objective to determine the flight performance during the final phase. Further, using various flight sensor data the touchdown time of TDV is assessed for this mission.

  5. Representation of behaviourally relevant information by blowfly motion-sensitive visual interneurons requires precise compensatory head movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Egelhaaf, M.

    2006-01-01

    Flying blowflies shift their gaze by saccadic turns of body and head, keeping their gaze basically fixed between saccades. For the head, this results in almost pure translational optic flow between saccades, enabling visual interneurons in the fly motion pathway to extract information about

  6. Na+/K(+)pump activity in photoreceptors of the blowfly Calliphora : A model analysis based on membrane potential measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerster, U; Stavenga, DG; Backhaus, W

    Na+/K+-pump activity and intracellular Na+ and K+ concentration changes in blowfly photoreceptors are derived from intracellular potential measurements in vivo with a model based on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz theory for membrane currents. The relation between the intracellular Na+ concentration and

  7. FAST TEMPORAL ADAPTATION OF ON-OFF UNITS IN THE 1ST OPTIC CHIASM OF THE BLOWFLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSONIUS, NM; VANHATEREN, JH

    1991-01-01

    1. We recorded from spiking units in the first optic chiasm between lamina and medulla in the brain of the blowfly (Calliphora vicina). Both previously characterized neuron types, on-off units and sustaining units, were encountered. On-off units had a temporal frequency response with a lower cut-off

  8. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  9. Utility of Multi-Gene Loci for Forensic Species Diagnosis of Blowflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Wei, Shu-jun; Shi, Min; Chen, Xue-xin

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary studies in forensic entomology exhaustively evaluate gene sequences because these constitute the fastest and most accurate method of species identification. For this purpose single gene segments, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in particular, are commonly used. However, the limitation of such sequences in identification, especially of closely related species and populations, demand a multi-gene approach. But this raises the question of which group of genes can best fulfill the identification task? In this context the utility of five gene segments was explored among blowfly species from two distinct geographic regions, China and Pakistan. COI, cytochrome b (CYTB), NADH dehydrogenase 5 (ND5), nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), were sequenced for eight blowfly species including Chrysomya megacephala F. (Diptera: Calliphoidae), Ch. pinguis Walker, Lucilia sericata Meigen L. porphyrina Walker, L. illustris Meigen Hemipyrellia ligurriens Wiedemann, Aldrichina grahami Aldrich, and the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Muscidae), from Hangzhou, China; while COI, CYTB, and ITS2 were sequenced for four species, i.e. Ch. megacephala, Ch. rufifacies, L. cuprina, and the flesh fly, Sarcophaga albiceps Meigen (Sarcophagidae), from Dera Ismail Khan Pakistan. The results demonstrate a universal utility of these gene segments in the molecular identification of flies of forensic importance. PMID:21864153

  10. Blowfly puparia in a hermetic container: survival under decreasing oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    Despite widely accepted standards for sampling and preservation of insect evidence, unrepresentative samples or improperly preserved evidence are encountered frequently in forensic investigations. Here, we report the results of laboratory studies on the survival of Lucilia sericata and Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) intra-puparial forms in hermetic containers, which were stimulated by a recent case. It is demonstrated that the survival of blowfly intra-puparial forms inside airtight containers is dependent on container volume, number of puparia inside, and their age. The survival in both species was found to increase with an increase in the volume of air per 1 mg of puparium per day of development in a hermetic container. Below 0.05 ml of air, no insect survived, and above 0.2 ml of air per 1 mg of puparium per day, survival reached its maximum. These results suggest that blowflies reveal a single, general pattern of survival under decreasing oxygen conditions and that this pattern is a product of number of developing insects, their age and the initial amount of available air. Implications for forensic entomology are discussed.

  11. The utility of mitochondrial DNA sequences for the identification of forensically important blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallman, J F; Donnellan, S C

    2001-08-15

    The applicability of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing was investigated for the identification of the following forensically important species of blowflies from southeastern Australia: Calliphora albifrontalis, C. augur, C. dubia, C. hilli hilli, C. maritima, C. stygia, C. vicina, Chrysomya rufifacies, Ch. varipes and Onesia tibialis. All breed in carrion except O. tibialis, which is an earthworm parasitoid. Emphasis was placed on Calliphora species because they predominate among the carrion-breeding blowfly fauna of southern Australia and their immatures are difficult to identify morphologically. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial COII gene was determined for all species and for COI for C. albifrontalis, C. augur, C. dubia and C. stygia only. Five other species of blowflies, Chrysomya albiceps, Ch. rufifacies, Protophormia terraenovae, Lucilia illustris and L. sericata, for which sequence data were already available, were also included. Analysis of the COI and COII sequences revealed abundant phylogenetically informative nucleotide substitutions that could identify blowfly species to species group. In contrast, because of the low level of sequence divergence of sister species, the data could not distinguish among taxa from the same species group, i.e. the species within the C. augur and C. stygia groups. The molecular data support the existing species group separation of the taxa within Calliphora. Because of the speed and accuracy of current nucleotide sequencing technology and the abundant apomorphic substitutions available from mtDNA sequences, this approach, with the analysis of additional taxa and genes, is likely to enable the reliable identification of carrion-breeding blowflies in Australia.

  12. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  13. Activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Cerri, C.; Vataga, E.; Prokoshin, F.; Tokar, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activity on improving the time resolution of the Time-of-Flight detector at CDF. The main goal of the detector is the identification of kaons and pions for b-quark (B-meson) flavour tagging. Construction of the detector has been described as well as proposals on detector design changes to improve its time resolution. Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response to MIP was performed. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed modifications (at least with currently available materials) bring modest or no improvement of the detector time resolution. An automated set-up was assembled to test and check out the changes in the electronic readout system of the detector. Sophisticated software has been developed for this set-up to provide control of the system as well as processing and presentation of data from the detector. This software can perform various tests using different implementations of the hardware set-up

  14. Drinking and flying: does alcohol consumption affect the flight and echolocation performance of phyllostomid bats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbach, Dara N; Veselka, Nina; Dzal, Yvonne; Lazure, Louis; Fenton, M Brock

    2010-02-01

    In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water) or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.

  15. Climate Shapes the Geographic Distribution of the Blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Diptera: Calliphoridae): An Environmental Niche Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecheta, Melise Cristine; Corrêa, Rodrigo César; Moura, Mauricio Osvaldo

    2017-10-01

    For all species, abiotic factors directly affect performance, survival and reproduction, and consequently, their geographic distribution. Species distribution models (SDMs) are important tools to predict the influence of abiotic factors in species distributions and has been more applied over the years. However, these models can be built under different algorithms and using different methods to select environmental predictors, which can lead to different results. Five different algorithms and two sets of environmental predictors were compared to predict the geographic distribution of the blowfly Sarconesia chlorogaster (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). This species has several occurrence points and a considerable amount of biological data available, which makes S. chlorogaster a good model system to compare environmental predictors. Two sets of environmental predictors (mainly derived from temperature and humidity) were built, and the set based on the influence of abiotic variables on the ecophysiology of S. chlorogaster showed better results than the principal component analysis (PCA) approach using 19 climatic variables. We also employed five modeling algorithms-Envelope Score, Mahalanobis Distance, GARP, Support Vector Machines, and Maxent-and the latter two showed the best performances. The results indicate that temperature is the main factor shaping geographic distribution of S. chlorogaster through its effect on fitness. Furthermore, we showed that this species is mainly distributed in south, southeastern, and some northwestern and southwestern sites of South America. In addition, our results also predicted suitable areas in Ecuador and Colombia, countries without previous records. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  17. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  18. Some Aspects of Psychophysiological Support of Crew Member's Performance Reliability in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, A. P.; Myasnikov, V. I.; Stepanova, S. I.; Isaev, G. F.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    The history of cosmonautics demonstrates many instances in which only crewmembers' intervention allowed critical situations to be resolved, or catastrophes to be prevented. However, during "crew-spacecraft" system operation human is exposed by influence of numerous flight factors, and beforehand it is very difficult to predict their effects on his functional state and work capacity. So, the incidents are known when unfavorable alterations of crewmember's psychophysiological state (PPS) provoked errors in task performance. The objective of the present investigation was to substantiate the methodological approach directed to increase reliability of a crewmember performance (human error prevention) by means of management of his/her PPS. The specific aims of the investigation were: 1) to evaluate the statistical significance of the interrelation between crew errors (CE) and crewmember's PPS, and 2) to develop the way of PPS management. At present, there is no conventional method to assess combined effect of flight conditions (microgravity, confinement, psychosocial factors, etc.) on crewmembers' PPS. For this purpose experts of the Medical Support Group (psychoneurologists and psychologists) at the Moscow Mission Control Center analyze information received during radio and TV contacts with crew. Peculiarities of behavior, motor activity, sleep, speech, mood, emotional reactions, well-being and sensory sphere, trend of dominant interests and volitional acts, signs of deprivation phenomena are considered as separate indicators of crewmember's PPS. The set of qualitative symptoms reflecting PPS alterations and corresponding to them ratings (in arbitrary units) was empirically stated for each indicator. It is important to emphasize that symptoms characterizing more powerful PPS alterations have higher ratings. Quantitative value of PPS integral parameter is calculating by adding up the ratings of all separate indicators over a day, a week, or other temporal interval (in

  19. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Integration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Dick; Byrd, Don; Christensen, Wynn; Henson, Tammy; Krumel, Les; Rappoport, William; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1999-01-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82 along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38 across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 m. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than 20 m over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA

  20. Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep-deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Caldwell, John A; Caldwell, J Lynn

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance impairment due to sleep loss in a highly select population of militaryjet pilots. Ten active-duty F-117 pilots were deprived of sleep for 38 h and studied repeatedly in a high-fidelity flight simulator. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA to quantify individual variability. Statistically significant, systematic individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation were observed, even when baseline differences were accounted for. The findings suggest that highly select populations may exhibit individual differences in vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss just as the general population does. Thus, the scientific and operational communities' reliance on group data as opposed to individual data may entail substantial misestimation of the impact of job-related stressors on safety and performance.

  1. Broadband photon time of flight spectroscopy: advanced spectroscopic analysis for ensuring safety and performance of pharmaceutical tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamran, Faisal; Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We report on extended spectroscopic analysis of pharmaceutical tablets performed with broadband photon time-of-flight absorption/scaring spectroscopy. Precise monitoring of absorption and scattering spectra enables cost-efficient monitoring of key safety and performance parameters of the drugs....

  2. Prediction of Projectile Performance, Stability, and Free-Flight Motion Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinacht, Paul

    2003-01-01

    ... that are derived solely from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). As a demonstration of the capability, this report presents results for a family of axisymmetric projectiles in supersonic flight...

  3. Head orientation of walking blowflies is controlled by visual and mechanical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, José; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2017-12-15

    During locomotion, animals employ visual and mechanical cues in order to establish the orientation of their head, which reflects the orientation of the visual coordinate system. However, in certain situations, contradictory cues may suggest different orientations relative to the environment. We recorded blowflies walking on a horizontal or tilted surface surrounded by visual cues suggesting a variety of orientations. We found that the different orientations relative to gravity of visual cues and walking surface were integrated, with the orientation of the surface being the major contributor to head orientation, while visual cues and gravity also play an important role. In contrast, visual cues did not affect body orientation much. Cue integration was modeled as the weighted sum of orientations suggested by the different cues. Our model suggests that in the case of lacking visual cues, more weight is given to gravity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Flight performance and feather quality: paying the price of overlapping moult and breeding in a tropical highland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Echeverry-Galvis

    Full Text Available A temporal separation of energetically costly life history events like reproduction and maintenance of the integumentary system is thought to be promoted by selection to avoid trade-offs and maximize fitness. It has therefore remained somewhat of a paradox that certain vertebrate species can undergo both events simultaneously. Identifying potential costs of overlapping two demanding life history stages will further our understanding of the selection pressures that shape the temporal regulation of life history events in vertebrates. We studied free-living tropical Slaty brush-finches (Atlapetes schistaceus, in which individuals spontaneously overlap reproduction and moult or undergo both events in separation. To assess possible costs of such an overlap we quantified feather quality and flight performance of individuals in different states. We determined individual's life history state by measuring gonad size and scoring moult stage, and collected a newly grown 7(th primary wing feather for later analysis of feather quality. Finally, we quantified flight performance for each individual in the wild. Overlapping individuals produced lighter and shorter wing feathers than individuals just moulting, with females decreasing feather quality more strongly during the overlap than males. Moreover, overlapping individuals had a reduced flight speed during escape flights, while their foraging flight speed was unaffected. Despite overlappers being larger and having a smaller wing area, their lower body mass resulted in a similar wing load as in breeders or moulters. Individuals measured repeatedly in different states also showed significant decreases in feather quality and escape flight speed during the overlap. Reduced escape flight speed may represent a major consequence of the overlap by increasing predation risk. Our data document costs to undergoing two life history stages simultaneously, which likely arise from energetic trade-offs. Impairments in

  5. Reflectance-based determination of age and species of blowfly puparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sasha C; Magni, Paola; Dadour, Ian; Nansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842. Puparia were dissected to determine the presence/absence of eight internal morphological development characteristics (legs, wings, labella, abdominal segments, antennae, thoracic bristles, orbital/facial bristles and eye colour and arista). Based on linear discriminant analysis and independent validation of HSI data, reflectance features from puparia could be used to successfully (1) distinguish the two species (classification accuracy = 92.5 %), (2) differentiate dorsal and ventral sides of puparia (classification accuracy C. dubia = 81.5 %; Ch. rufifacies = 89.2 %) and (3) predict the presence of these morphological characteristics and therefore the developmental stage of puparia (average classification accuracy using dorsal imaging: C. dubia = 90.3 %; Ch. rufifacies = 94.0 %). The analytical approach presented here provides proof of concept for a direct puparial age relationship (i.e. days since the onset of pupation) between external puparial reflectance features and internal morphological development. Furthermore, this approach establishes the potential for further refinement by using a non-invasive technique to determine the age and developmental stage of blowflies of forensic importance.

  6. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr 3 crystals respectively.

  7. Circadian Entrainment, Sleep-Wake Regulation and Neurobehavioral Performance During Extended Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Long-duration manned space flight requires crew members to maintain a high level of cognitive performance and vigilance while operating and monitoring sophisticated instrumentation. However, the reduction in the strength of environmental synchronizers in the space environment leads to misalignment of circadian phase among crew members, coupled with restricted time available to sleep, results in sleep deprivation and consequent deterioration of neurobehavioral function. Crew members are provided, and presently use, long-acting benzodiazepine hypnotics on board the current, relatively brief space shuttle missions to counteract such sleep disruption, a situation that is only likely to worsen during extended duration missions. Given the known carry-over effects of such compounds on daytime performance, together with the reduction in emergency readiness associated with their use at night, NASA has recognized the need to develop effective but safe countermeasures to allow crew members to obtain an adequate amount of sleep. Over the past eight years, we have successfully implemented a new technology for shuttle crew members involving bright light exposure during the pre-launch period to facilitate adaptation of the circadian timing system to the inversions of the sleep-wake schedule often required during dual shift missions. However for long duration space station missions it will be necessary to develop effective and attainable countermeasures that can be used chronically to optimize circadian entrainment. Our current research effort is to study the effects of light-dark cycles with reduced zeitgeber strength, such as are anticipated during long-duration space flight, on the entrainment of the endogenous circadian timing system and to study the effects of a countermeasure that consists of scheduled brief exposures to bright light on the human circadian timing system. The proposed studies are designed to address the following Specific Aims: (1) test the hypothesis that

  8. In-flight performance of the solar UV radiometer LYRA/PROBA-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Y.; BenMoussa, A.; Dammasch, I.; Defise, J.-M.; Dominique, M.; Halain, J.-P.; Hochedez, J.-F.; Koller, S.; Schmutz, W.; Schühle, U.

    2017-11-01

    LYRA is a solar radiometer, part of the PROBA-2 micro-satellite payload (Fig. 1). The PROBA-2 [1] mission has been launched on 02 November 2009 with a Rockot launcher to a Sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 725 km. Its nominal operation duration is two years with possible extension of 2 years. PROBA-2 is a small satellite developed under an ESA General Support Technology Program (GSTP) contract to perform an in-flight demonstration of new space technologies and support a scientific mission for a set of selected instruments [2]. PROBA-2 host 17 technological demonstrators and 4 scientific instruments. The mission is tracked by the ESA Redu Mission Operation Center. One of the four scientific instruments is LYRA that monitors the solar irradiance at a high cadence (> 20 Hz) in four soft X-Ray to VUV large passbands: the "Lyman-Alpha" channel, the "Herzberg" continuum range, the "Aluminium" and "Zirconium" filter channels. The radiometric calibration is traceable to synchrotron source standards [3]. LYRA benefits from wide bandgap detectors based on diamond. It is the first space assessment of these revolutionary UV detectors for astrophysics. Diamond sensors make the instruments radiation-hard and solar-blind (insensitive to the strong solar visible light) and, therefore, visible light blocking filters become superfluous. To correlate the data of this new detector technology, silicon detectors with well known characteristics are also embarked. Due to the strict allocated mass and power budget (5 kg, 5W), and poor priority to the payload needs on such platform, an optimization and a robustness of the instrument was necessary. The first switch-on occured on 16 November 2009. Since then the instrument performances have been monitored and analyzed during the commissioning period. This paper presents the first-light and preliminary performance analysis.

  9. Pre-Flight Testing and Performance of a Ka-Band Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Joseph A.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a space-qualified, reprogrammable, Ka-band Software Defined Radio (SDR) to be utilized as part of an on-orbit, reconfigurable testbed. The testbed will operate on the truss of the International Space Station beginning in late 2012. Three unique SDRs comprise the testbed, and each radio is compliant to the Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. The testbed provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop communications, navigation, and networking applications in the laboratory and space environment, while at the same time advancing SDR technology, reducing risk, and enabling future mission capability. Designed and built by Harris Corporation, the Ka-band SDR is NASA's first space-qualified Ka-band SDR transceiver. The Harris SDR will also mark the first NASA user of the Ka-band capabilities of the Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) for on-orbit operations. This paper describes the testbed's Ka-band System, including the SDR, travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA), and antenna system. The reconfigurable aspects of the system enabled by SDR technology are discussed and the Ka-band system performance is presented as measured during extensive pre-flight testing.

  10. The Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer: instrumentation and in-flight performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M; Miyachi, T; Hasebe, N; Fujii, M; Shibamura, E; Okudaira, O; Karouji, Y; Hareyama, M; Takashima, T; Kobayashi, S; D'Uston, C; Maurice, S; Yamashita, N; Reedy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    A Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) had been developed as a part of the science payload for the first Japanese lunar explorer, Kaguya. The Kaguya was successfully launched from Tanegashima Space Center on September 14, 2007 and was injected into an orbit around the Moon and the mission ended on June 11, 2009. The Kaguya GRS (hereafter KGRS) has a large-volume Ge semiconductor detector of 252 cc as the main detector and bismuth-germanate and plastic scintillators as an active shielding. The Ge detector achieved an energy resolution of 3.0 keV (FWHM) for 1332 keV gamma ray in ground test despite the use of a mechanical cryocooler and observed gamma rays in energies ranging 0.2 to 12 MeV in lunar orbit. It was the first use of a Ge detector for lunar exploration. During the mission, KGRS participated in geochemical survey and investigated the elemental compositions of subsurface materials of the Moon. In this paper, we summarize the overview of the KGRS describing the design and in-flight performance of the instrument. This paper provides basic information required for reading science articles regarding the KGRS's observation data.

  11. Flying Qualities Flight Testing of Digital Flight Control Systems. Flight Test Techniques Series - Volume 21 (les Essais en vol des performances des systemes de ommande de vol numeriques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    éventail de sujets se rapportant aux évaluations en vol des performances des systèmes de commande de vol numériques (DFCS). C’est la conséquence logique ...du fait que la complexité technique et les disciplines associés aux essais de tels systèmes impliquent un grand éventail de spécialités. La ...comme particulièrement importants, et en particulier ceux de la préparation des essais et de l’analyse des données. La réussite d’un programme

  12. Flight Performance Handbook for Orbital Operations: Orbital Mechanics and Astrodynamics Formulae, Theorems, Techniques, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Alphonso; Blitzer, Leon; Conte, S.D.; Cooper, Donald H.; Dergarabedian, P.; Dethlefsen, D.G.; Lunn, Richard L.; Ireland, Richard O.; Jensen, Arnold A.; Kang, Garfield; hide

    1961-01-01

    This handbook provides parametric data useful both to the space vehicle designer and mission analyst. It provides numerical and analytical relationships between missions and gross vehicle characteristics as a function of performance parameters. The effects of missile constraints and gross guidance limitations plus operational constraints such as launch site location, tracking net location, orbit visibility and mission on trajectory and orbit design parameters are exhibited. The influence of state-of- the-art applications of solar power as compared to future applications of nuclear power on orbit design parameters, such as eclipse time, are among the parameters included in the study. The principal aim, however, is in providing the analyst with useful parametric design information to cover the general area of earth satellite missions in the region of near-earth to cislunar space and beyond and from injection to atmospheric entry and controlled descent. The chapters are organized around the central idea of orbital operations in the 1961-1969 era with emphasis on parametric flight mechanics studies for ascent phase and parking orbits, transfer maneuvers, rendezvous maneuver, operational orbit considerations, and operational orbit control. The results are based almost entirely on the principles of flight and celestial mechanics. Numerous practical examples have been worked out in detail. This is especially important where it has been difficult or impossible to represent all possible variations of the parameters. The handbook contains analytical formulae and sufficient textual material to permit their proper use. The analytic methods consist of both exact and rapid, approximate methods. Scores of tables, working graphs and illustrations amplify the mathematical models which, together with important facts and data, cover the engineering and scientific applications of orbital mechanics. Each of the five major chapters are arranged to provide a rapid review of an entire

  13. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  14. Numerical simulation of divergent rocket-based-combined-cycle performances under the flight condition of Mach 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.

  15. Improvement of the aerodynamic performance by wing flexibility and elytra–hind wing interaction of a beetle during forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuyen Quang; Truong, Tien Van; Park, Soo Hyung; Quang Truong, Tri; Ko, Jin Hwan; Park, Hoon Cheol; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the aerodynamic performance of beetle wing in free-forward flight was explored by a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) simulation with measured wing kinematics. It is shown from the CFD results that twist and camber variation, which represent the wing flexibility, are most important when determining the aerodynamic performance. Twisting wing significantly increased the mean lift and camber variation enhanced the mean thrust while the required power was lower than the case when neither was considered. Thus, in a comparison of the power economy among rigid, twisting and flexible models, the flexible model showed the best performance. When the positive effect of wing interaction was added to that of wing flexibility, we found that the elytron created enough lift to support its weight, and the total lift (48.4 mN) generated from the simulation exceeded the gravity force of the beetle (47.5 mN) during forward flight. PMID:23740486

  16. Beyond barcoding: a mitochondrial genomics approach to molecular phylogenetics and diagnostics of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leigh A; Lambkin, Christine L; Batterham, Philip; Wallman, James F; Dowton, Mark; Whiting, Michael F; Yeates, David K; Cameron, Stephen L

    2012-12-15

    Members of the Calliphoridae (blowflies) are significant for medical and veterinary management, due to the ability of some species to consume living flesh as larvae, and for forensic investigations due to the ability of others to develop in corpses. Due to the difficulty of accurately identifying larval blowflies to species there is a need for DNA-based diagnostics for this family, however the widely used DNA-barcoding marker, cox1, has been shown to fail for several groups within this family. Additionally, many phylogenetic relationships within the Calliphoridae are still unresolved, particularly deeper level relationships. Sequencing whole mt genomes has been demonstrated both as an effective method for identifying the most informative diagnostic markers and for resolving phylogenetic relationships. Twenty-seven complete, or nearly so, mt genomes were sequenced representing 13 species, seven genera and four calliphorid subfamilies and a member of the related family Tachinidae. PCR and sequencing primers developed for sequencing one calliphorid species could be reused to sequence related species within the same superfamily with success rates ranging from 61% to 100%, demonstrating the speed and efficiency with which an mt genome dataset can be assembled. Comparison of molecular divergences for each of the 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, at a range of taxonomic scales identified novel targets for developing as diagnostic markers which were 117-200% more variable than the markers which have been used previously in calliphorids. Phylogenetic analysis of whole mt genome sequences resulted in much stronger support for family and subfamily-level relationships. The Calliphoridae are polyphyletic, with the Polleninae more closely related to the Tachinidae, and the Sarcophagidae are the sister group of the remaining calliphorids. Within the Calliphoridae, there was strong support for the monophyly of the Chrysomyinae and Luciliinae and for the sister

  17. Improving Real World Performance of Vision Aided Navigation in a Flight Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    image that result in a the generation of a position estimate from PnP, during Flight 5. 107 xii Figure Page 37. Distribution of the 3D RSS error for 3DoF ...38. Y-Axis limited distribution of the 3D RSS error for 3DoF PnP for Flight 5, compared against BRISK, SIFT, and SURF keypoint detectors and...descriptor vectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 39. Violin plot comparing the north, east, down error between 6DoF and 3DoF PnP. Distribution uses

  18. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The Information sections contain material that is advisory in nature, and designed to give the user... who is a user of the device (e.g., a qualified pilot or instructor pilot with flight time experience... general e-mail address for the NSP office is: [email protected] The NSP Internet Web site...

  19. Experience feedback on ccd detectors in orbit: focus on in-flight degradation of several cases of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penquer, A.; Lebègue, L.; Herve, D.; Fougnie, B.

    2017-11-01

    The performance stability of CCD detectors and video electronics during life time is an important issue for most of space missions. Several items are concerned, such as CCD dark signal increase, induced by space radiation environment (dose effects, proton hits, etc... ). Ground tests are performed to predict on-board behaviour and end-of-life performance. But generaly this approach cannot achieve a rigorous representation of mission conditions. Experience feedback from in-flight measurements is therefore very useful in order to infer what really occurs and to allow comparison between actual findings and ground tests.

  20. Voltage-dependent K+channels improve the energy efficiency of signalling in blowfly photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Francisco J H; Anderson, John; Laughlin, Simon B; Niven, Jeremy E

    2017-04-01

    Voltage-dependent conductances in many spiking neurons are tuned to reduce action potential energy consumption, so improving the energy efficiency of spike coding. However, the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding, by graded potentials in dendrites and non-spiking neurons, remains unclear. We investigate the contribution of voltage-dependent conductances to the energy efficiency of analogue coding by modelling blowfly R1-6 photoreceptor membrane. Two voltage-dependent delayed rectifier K + conductances (DRs) shape the membrane's voltage response and contribute to light adaptation. They make two types of energy saving. By reducing membrane resistance upon depolarization they convert the cheap, low bandwidth membrane needed in dim light to the expensive high bandwidth membrane needed in bright light. This investment of energy in bandwidth according to functional requirements can halve daily energy consumption. Second, DRs produce negative feedback that reduces membrane impedance and increases bandwidth. This negative feedback allows an active membrane with DRs to consume at least 30% less energy than a passive membrane with the same capacitance and bandwidth. Voltage-dependent conductances in other non-spiking neurons, and in dendrites, might be organized to make similar savings. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Effect of differents baits as attractant for blowflies (diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Efeito de diferentes iscas na atração de califorídeos (diptera) no campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José M. D'almeida; Mariana B Fraga

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in a área of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).Foi realizado um estu...

  2. Neural Network-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles with Prescribed Tracking Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu Guoqiang; Liu Jinkun

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for a class of generic hypersonic flight vehicles. The main advantages of the proposed scheme include the following: (1) a new constraint variable is defined to generate the virtual control that forces the tracking error to fall within prescribed boundaries; (2) RBF NNs are employed to compensate for complex and uncertain terms to solve the problem of controller complexity; (3) only one parameter needs to be updated online at each design step, whi...

  3. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-02-22

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  4. Space Environment Factors Affecting the Performance of International Space Station Materials: The First Two Years of Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Peldey, Michael; Mayeaux, Brian; Milkatarian, Ronald R.; Golden, John; Boeder, paul; Kern, John; Barsamian, Hagop; Alred, John; Soares, Carlos; hide

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the natural and induced space environment factors affecting materials performance on ISS are described in some detail. The emphasis will be on ISS flight experience and the more significant design and development issues of the last two years. The intent is to identify and document the set of space environment factors, affecting materials, that are producing the largest impacts on the ISS flight hardware verification and acceptance process and on ISS flight operations. Orbital inclination (S1.6 ) and altitude (nominal3S0 km to 400 km altitude) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and subsystems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, and solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation, as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays (1,2). The high latitude orbital environment also exposes external surfaces to significantly less well-defined or predictable fluxes of higher energy trapped electrons and auroral electrons (3 ,4). The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. Environment factors induced by ISS flight operations include ram-wake effects, magnetic induction voltages arising from flight through Earth's magnetic field, hypergolic thruster plume impingement from proximity operations of visiting vehicles, materials outgassing, venting and dumping of fluids, ISS thruster operations, as well as specific electrical power system interactions with the ionospheric plasma (S-7). ISS must fly in a very limited number of approved flight attitudes leading to location specific environmental exposures and extreme local thermal environments (8). ISS is a large vehicle and produces a deep wake structure from which both ionospheric plasma and neutrals (atomic oxygen) are largely excluded (9-11). At high

  5. Simulating SOFIA's image jitter performance and how the results compare to in-flight measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Friederike; Reinacher, Andreas; Spohr, Daniel; Jakob, Holger; Fasoulas, Stefanos

    2017-09-01

    SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy is an airborne telescope and in full operation since 2014. It has already successfully conducted over 400 flights and can be equipped with eight different science instruments which range from the visible to the far infrared wavelength regime. In order to reach SOFIA's scientific goals, the telescope has to provide a stable platform with the ambitous image jitter requirements of less than 0.4 "rms. Such a steady operating environment is especially important for slit spectrometers like EXES (Echelon - Cross - Echelle Spectrograph), that aim to keep the star in the area of a very thin slit for integration. Currently, image motion is mainly caused by deformation and excitation of the telescope structure in a wide range of frequencies. These disturbances are counteracted by the so-called Flexible Body Compensation system which uses a set of accelerometers to estimate the resulting image motion. To better study optimization possibilities of SOFIA's control system, a simulation tool has been developed which not only implements system identification data and analytically derived models, but also allows the implementation and verification with sensor data from in flight measurements. Results of the simulation as well as in flight measurements will be presented and improvement strategies will be discussed.

  6. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  7. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  8. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  9. The blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a new forensic indicator in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, Martin; Friedrich, Elisabeth; Reiter, Christian

    2003-04-01

    During the summer months of the year 2001, six forensic cases (one is reported in the present paper), a pig carrion study in the city of Vienna (latitude 48 degrees 12'N, longitude 16 degrees 22'E) and several liver-baited traps north of Vienna, yielded large numbers of maggots of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Apart from some records from France, reports of C. albiceps from the palearctic region north of the Alps (i.e. north of a latitude of 48 degrees N) have been scarce. Our findings provided an opportunity to derive developmental schedules for C. albiceps at five different constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 degrees C). The minimal duration of development from oviposition to adult was inversely related to temperature, ranging from 8.3 +/- 0.5 days at 35 degrees C to 19.2 +/- 0.92 days at 20 degrees C. Although eggs hatched after 1.9 +/- 0.16 days at 15 degrees C, larvae did not complete development and frequently died during the first instar stage. We also found a high mortality rate (up to 99%) of native L. sericata larvae caused by predation of C. albiceps larvae under laboratory conditions, indicating a high susceptibility of L. sericata to attack by C. albiceps. Apart from this, the current and possible future distribution of C. albicepsin Europe is discussed. The northward expansion of its range beyond southern Europe obviously decreases the value of C. albiceps in estimating the site of death, in that it is no longer exclusive to southern European regions. Moreover, the aggressive feeding behaviour of second and third instar larve of C. albiceps could reset the post-mortem insect clock by clearing a corpse of all earlier arrivers.

  10. Enhancing MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometer performance through spectrum averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan; Mali, Sujina; King, Charles C; Bark, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometers are simple and robust mass spectrometers used for analysis of biologically relevant molecules in diverse fields including pathogen identification, imaging mass spectrometry, and natural products chemistry. Despite high nominal resolution and accuracy, we have observed significant variability where 30-50% of individual replicate measurements have errors in excess of 5 parts-per-million, even when using 5-point internal calibration. Increasing the number of laser shots for each spectrum did not resolve this observed variability. What is responsible for our observed variation? Using a modern MALDI-TOF/TOF instrument, we evaluated contributions to variability. Our data suggest a major component of variability is binning of the raw flight time data by the electronics and clock speed of the analog-to-digital (AD) detection system, which requires interpolation by automated peak fitting algorithms and impacts both calibration and the observed mass spectrum. Importantly, the variation observed is predominantly normal in distribution, which implies multiple components contribute to the observed variation and suggests a method to mitigate this variability through spectrum averaging. Restarting the acquisition impacts each spectrum within the electronic error of the AD detector system and defines a new calibration function. Therefore, averaging multiple independent spectra and not a larger number of laser shots leverages this inherent binning error to mitigate variability in accurate MALDI-TOF mass measurements.

  11. Enhancing MALDI time-of-flight mass spectrometer performance through spectrum averaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Mitchell

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometers are simple and robust mass spectrometers used for analysis of biologically relevant molecules in diverse fields including pathogen identification, imaging mass spectrometry, and natural products chemistry. Despite high nominal resolution and accuracy, we have observed significant variability where 30-50% of individual replicate measurements have errors in excess of 5 parts-per-million, even when using 5-point internal calibration. Increasing the number of laser shots for each spectrum did not resolve this observed variability. What is responsible for our observed variation? Using a modern MALDI-TOF/TOF instrument, we evaluated contributions to variability. Our data suggest a major component of variability is binning of the raw flight time data by the electronics and clock speed of the analog-to-digital (AD detection system, which requires interpolation by automated peak fitting algorithms and impacts both calibration and the observed mass spectrum. Importantly, the variation observed is predominantly normal in distribution, which implies multiple components contribute to the observed variation and suggests a method to mitigate this variability through spectrum averaging. Restarting the acquisition impacts each spectrum within the electronic error of the AD detector system and defines a new calibration function. Therefore, averaging multiple independent spectra and not a larger number of laser shots leverages this inherent binning error to mitigate variability in accurate MALDI-TOF mass measurements.

  12. Bioinspired wingtip devices: a pathway to improve aerodynamic performance during low Reynolds number flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Mandadzhiev, Boris; Wissa, Aimy

    2018-03-20

    Birds are highly capable and maneuverable fliers, traits not currently shared with current small unmanned aerial vehicles. They are able to achieve these flight capabilities by adapting the shape of their wings during flight in a variety of complex manners. One feature of bird wings, the primary feathers, separate to form wingtip gaps at the distal end of the wing. This paper presents bio-inspired wingtip devices with varying wingtip gap sizes, defined as the chordwise distance between wingtip devices, for operation in low Reynolds number conditions of Re  =  100 000, where many bird species operate. Lift and drag data was measured for planar and nonplanar wingtip devices with the total wingtip gap size ranging from 0% to 40% of the wing's mean chord. For a planar wing with a gap size of 20%, the mean coefficient of lift in the pre-stall region is increased by 7.25%, and the maximum coefficient of lift is increased by 5.6% compared to a configuration with no gaps. The nonplanar wingtip device was shown to reduce the induced drag. The effect of wingtip gap sizes is shown to be independent of the planarity/nonplanarity of the wingtip device, thereby allowing designers to decouple the wingtip parameters to tune the desired lift and drag produced.

  13. Tuning of the Preferred Optic Flow Axes of Locust and Blowfly Visual Interneurons to Their Preferred Modes of Flight Behaviour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krapp, Holger G; Bomphrey, R. J; Laughlin, S. B; Taylor, G. K; Wuestenberg, D. G

    2008-01-01

    ...). The study aims at understanding the underlying biological design principles. The research includes techniques ranging from neurophysiology and neuroanatomy to quantitative behavioral observations complemented by analytical and numerical modeling...

  14. Hormesis and stage specific toxicity induced by cadmium in an insect model, the queen blowfly, Phormia regina Meig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascarella, Marc A.; Stoffolano, John G.; Stanek, Edward J.; Kostecki, Paul T.; Calabrese, Edward J.

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for early developmental success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental stage. - Hormesis is an adaptive response, commonly characterized by a biphasic dose-response that can be either directly induced, or the result of compensatory biological processes following an initial disruption in homeostasis [Calabrese and Baldwin, Hum. Exp. Toxicol., 21 (2002), 91]. Low and environmentally relevant levels of dietary cadmium significantly enhanced the pupation rate of blowfly larvae, while higher doses inhibited pupation success. However, dietary cadmium at all exposure levels adversely affected the emergence of the adult fly from the pupal case. Such findings represent the first report of a heavy metal displaying a hormetic-like biphasic response for pupation success, while at the same time displaying stage-specific toxicity at a later developmental period. These conclusions are based on substantial experimentation of over 1750 blowflies, in seven replicate experiments, involving 10 concentrations per experiment. These findings indicate the need to assess the impact of environmental stressors over a broad range of potential exposures as well as throughout the entire life cycle

  15. Effects of methamphetamine and its primary human metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the development of the Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Christina; Keller, Paul A; Nugraha, Ari S; Wallman, James F

    2014-08-01

    The larvae of necrophagous fly species are used as forensic tools for the determination of the minimum postmortem interval (PMI). However, any ingested drugs in corpses may affect larval development, thus leading to incorrect estimates of the period of infestation. This study investigated the effects of methamphetamine and its metabolite, p-hydroxymethamphetamine, on the forensically important Australian blowfly Calliphora stygia. It was found that the presence of the drugs significantly accelerated larval growth and increased the size of all life stages. Furthermore, drug-exposed samples remained as pupae for up to 78 h longer than controls. These findings suggest that estimates of the minimum PMI of methamphetamine-dosed corpses could be incorrect if the altered growth of C. stygia is not considered. Different temperatures, drug concentrations and substrate types are also likely to affect the development of this blowfly. Pending further research, the application of C. stygia to the entomological analysis of methamphetamine-related fatalities should be appropriately qualified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional Sensory-Motor Performance Following Long Term Space Flight: The First Results of "Field Test" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kofman, I. S.; Kitov, V. V.; Grishin, A. P.; Yu, N.; Lysova.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Reschke, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    The effect that extended-duration space flights may have on human space travelers, including exploration missions, is widely discussed at the present time. Specifically, there is an increasing amount of evidence showing that the physical capacity of cosmonauts is significantly reduced after long-duration space flights. It is evident that the most impaired functions are those that rely on gravity, particularly up right posture and gait. Because of the sensorimotor disturbances manifested in the neurology of the posture and gait space flight and postflight changes may also be observed in debilitating motion sickness. While the severity of particular symptoms varies, disturbances in spatial orientation and alterations in the accuracy of voluntary movements are persistently observed after long-duration space flights. At this time most of the currently available data are primarily descriptive and not yet suitable for predicting operational impacts of most sensorimotor decrements observed upon landing on planetary surfaces or asteroids. In particular there are no existing data on the recovery dynamics or functionality of neurological, cardiovascular or muscle performance making it difficult to model or simulate the cosmonauts' activity after landing and develop the appropriate countermeasure that will ensure the rapid and safe recovery of crewmembers immediately after landing in what could be hostile environments. However and as a starting position, the videos we have acquired during recent data collection following the long duration flights of cosmonauts and astronauts walking and performing other tasks shortly after return from space flight speak volumes about their level of deconditioning. A joint Russian-American team has developed a new study specifically to address the changes in crewmembers performance and the recovery of performance with the intent of filling the missing data gaps. The first (pilot) phase of this study includes recording body kinematics and

  17. Neural Network-Based Adaptive Backstepping Control for Hypersonic Flight Vehicles with Prescribed Tracking Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive neural control scheme is proposed for a class of generic hypersonic flight vehicles. The main advantages of the proposed scheme include the following: (1 a new constraint variable is defined to generate the virtual control that forces the tracking error to fall within prescribed boundaries; (2 RBF NNs are employed to compensate for complex and uncertain terms to solve the problem of controller complexity; (3 only one parameter needs to be updated online at each design step, which significantly reduces the computational burden. It is proved that all signals of the closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  18. In-Flight Performance of the Polarization Modulator in the CLASP Rocket Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Ishikawa, R.; Giono, G.; Beabout, D.; Beabout, B.; Nakayama, S.; Tajima, T.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP), a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1% for the first time and investigate the vector magnetic field. Rotation non-uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. In the ground tests, we confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity during the flight and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  19. Ethanol ingestion affects flight performance and echolocation in Egyptian fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Melcón, Mariana; Korine, Carmi; Pinshow, Berry

    2010-06-01

    Ethanol, a potential toxin for vertebrates, is present in all fleshy fruits and its content increases as the fruit ripens. Previously, we found that the marginal value of food for Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus, decreases when its ethanol content exceeds 1%. Therefore, we hypothesized that, if ingested, food containing >1% ethanol is toxic to these bats, probably causing inebriation that will affect flight and echolocation skills. We tested this hypothesis by flying Egyptian fruit bats in an indoor corridor and found that after ingesting ethanol-rich food bats flew significantly slower than when fed ethanol-free food. Also, the ingestion of ethanol significantly affected several variables of the bats' echolocation calls and behavior. We concluded that ethanol can be toxic to fruit bats; not only does it reduce the marginal value of food, but it also has negative physiological effects on their ability to fly competently and on their calling ability. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-05-06

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces.

  1. Utilizing Commercial Hardware and Open Source Computer Vision Software to Perform Motion Capture for Reduced Gravity Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Brad; Bellisario, Brian; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts. To perform validation of these models and to support the Advanced Exercise Concepts Project, several candidate devices have been flown onboard NASAs Reduced Gravity Aircraft. In terrestrial laboratories, researchers typically have available to them motion capture systems for the measurement of subject kinematics. Onboard the parabolic flight aircraft it is not practical to utilize the traditional motion capture systems due to the large working volume they require and their relatively high replacement cost if damaged. To support measuring kinematics on board parabolic aircraft, a motion capture system is being developed utilizing open source computer vision code with commercial off the shelf (COTS) video camera hardware. While the systems accuracy is lower than lab setups, it provides a means to produce quantitative comparison motion capture kinematic data. Additionally, data such as required exercise volume for small spaces such as the Orion capsule can be determined. METHODS: OpenCV is an open source computer vision library that provides the

  2. Lesion detection and quantification performance of the Tachyon-I time-of-flight PET scanner: phantom and human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Peng, Qiyu; Zhou, Jian; Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Qi, Jinyi

    2018-03-01

    The first generation Tachyon PET (Tachyon-I) is a demonstration single-ring PET scanner that reaches a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps using LSO scintillator crystals coupled to conventional photomultiplier tubes. The objective of this study was to quantify the improvement in both lesion detection and quantification performance resulting from the improved time-of-flight (TOF) capability of the Tachyon-I scanner. We developed a quantitative TOF image reconstruction method for the Tachyon-I and evaluated its TOF gain for lesion detection and quantification. Scans of either a standard NEMA torso phantom or healthy volunteers were used as the normal background data. Separately scanned point source and sphere data were superimposed onto the phantom or human data after accounting for the object attenuation. We used the bootstrap method to generate multiple independent noisy datasets with and without a lesion present. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a channelized hotelling observer (CHO) was calculated for each lesion size and location combination to evaluate the lesion detection performance. The bias versus standard deviation trade-off of each lesion uptake was also calculated to evaluate the quantification performance. The resulting CHO-SNR measurements showed improved performance in lesion detection with better timing resolution. The detection performance was also dependent on the lesion size and location, in addition to the background object size and shape. The results of bias versus noise trade-off showed that the noise (standard deviation) reduction ratio was about 1.1–1.3 over the TOF 500 ps and 1.5–1.9 over the non-TOF modes, similar to the SNR gains for lesion detection. In conclusion, this Tachyon-I PET study demonstrated the benefit of improved time-of-flight capability on lesion detection and ROI quantification for both phantom and human subjects.

  3. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  4. Thermal impact of migrating birds' wing color on their flight performance: Possibility of new generation of biologically inspired drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Abdelmoula, H; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A

    2017-05-01

    The thermal impact of the birds' color on their flight performance are investigated. In most of the large migrating birds, the top of their wings is black. Considering this natural phenomenon in the migrating birds, such as albatross, a thermal analysis of the boundary layer of their wings is performed during the year depending on the solar insulation. It is shown that the temperature difference between the bright and dark colored top wing surface is around 10°C. The dark color on the top of the wing increases the temperature of the boundary layer over the wing which consequently reduces the skin drag force over the wing. This reduction in the drag force can be considered as one of the effective factors for long endurance of these migrating birds. This research should lead to improved designs of the drones by applying the inspired colors which can help drones increase their endurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Crew factors in flight operations 9: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Dinges, David F.; Connell, Linda J.; Rountree, Michael S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Gillen, Kelly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period to improve alertness and performance in long-haul flight operations. The Rest Group (12 crew members) was allowed a planned 40 minute rest period during the low workload, cruise portion of the flight, while the No-Rest Group (9 crew members) had a 40 minute planned control period when they maintained usual flight activities. Measures used in the study included continuous ambulatory recordings of brain wave and eye movement activity, a reaction time/vigilance task, a wrist activity monitor, in-flight fatigue and alertness ratings, a daily log for noting sleep periods, meals, exercise, flight and duty periods, and the NASA Background Questionnaire. The Rest Group pilots slept on 93 percent of the opportunities, falling asleep in 5.6 minutes and sleeping for 25.8 minutes. This nap was associated with improved physiological alertness and performance compared to the No-Rest Group. The benefits of the nap were observed through the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The nap did not affect layover sleep or the cumulative sleep debt. The nap procedures were implemented with minimal disruption to usual flight operations and there were no reported or identified concerns regarding safety.

  6. [Identification of the genetic sex chromosomes in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Calliphoridae, Diptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1975-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown the sex determination in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies to be controlled by a cytologically not discernible homogametry-heterogamety mechanism in the female. Female-producing (thelygenic) females are assumed to be heterozygous for a dominant female sex realizer (F') with sex-predetermining properties, while male-producing (arrhenogenic) females as well as males are supposed to be homozygous for the recessive allele (f). In order to identify the genetic sex chromosomes of C. rufifacies among its five pairs of long euchromatic chromosomes (nos. 1-5) plus one pair of small heterochromatic ones (no. 6), all chromosomes were marked by reciprocal translocations induced by X-ray treatment of adult males. The inheritance of thirteen different heteroxygous translocations has been analyzed. All of the translocations (eleven) between two of the four longer chromosomes did not show sex-linked inheritance, thus demonstrating the autosomal character of the chromosomes nos 1, 2, 3 and 4. The same is true for the translocation T6 (2/6). Therefore the small heterochromatic chromosome no. 6, corresponding to the morphlogically differentiated six chromosomes within the amphogenic calliphorid species, remains without sex determining function in the monogenic fly. This could be confirmed by the analysis of monosomic (monosomy-6) and trisomic (trisomy-6) individuals, which resulted from meiotic non-disfunction in T6/+ translocation heterozygotes. Contrary to these translocations, the heteroxygous 5/2 translocation (T14) exhibited sex-linked inheritance: There was but a very low frequency (0,76 per cent) of recombinants resulting from crossing-over between F'/f and the translocation breakage point in theylgenic F1 T14/+females. The sex-linked inheritance of T14 was confirmed by the progeny of a thelygenic F1 T14/+ female crossed to a homozygous T14/T14 translocation male.Among the offspring of that F1 T14/+ female, which had received the

  7. Performance of Swashplateless Ultralight Helicopter Rotor with Trailing-Edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Jinwei; Chopra, Inderjit; Johnson, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    .... The predictions show the swashplateless configuration achieves better performance than the conventional rotor, because of the reduction of parasite drag resulting from eliminating the swashplate mechanical system. The optimal selection of blade pitch index angle, flap location, length, and chord ratio reduces flap deflections and actuation requirements, with virtually no effect on rotor performance.

  8. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: flight service and inspection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizer, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force

  9. In-Flight Performance of the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Detector System on ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Carolina A.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SXS instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS spectrometer is based on a high sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and sub-orbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In pre-flight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous band-pass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 microsecond. In addition, a solid-state anti-coincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain-stability, and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7 eV FWHM at 6 keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in pre-flight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  10. Time and motion, experiment M151. [human performance and space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Mcbride, G. H.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut work performance during the preparation and execution of experiments in simulated Skylab tests was analyzed according to time and motion in order to evaluate the efficiency and consistency of performance (adaptation function) for several different types of activity over the course of the mission; to evaluate the procedures to be used by the same experiment in Skylab; to generate characteristic adaptation functions for later comparison with Skylab data; and to examine astronaut performance for any behavioral stress due to the environment. The overall results indicate that the anticipated adaptation function was obtained both for individual and for averaged data.

  11. Influence of rain and malathion on the oviposition and development of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) infesting rabbit carcasses in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zafarina, Z; Jayaprakash, P T

    2009-11-20

    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.

  12. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of neurons in the blowfly optic lobe reacting with antisera to RFamide and FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nässel, D R; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Johansson, K U

    1988-01-01

    Different antisera to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRFamide, and its fragment, RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2), label a distinct population of neurons in the optic lobe of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala. Seven morphological types of RFamide/FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons could...... be distinguished in the optic lobes based on the locations of their cell bodies, their axonal projections and the distribution of their processes. Of these, two types could be resolved in their entire extent, the others were labeled only in their cell bodies and terminal processes or were partly obscured by other...... immunoreactive processes. The RF-like immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobes are of two main classes: (1) two types of large field projection neurons and (2) five types of local neurons. One type of projection neurons (five in each lobe) connects the entire projected retinal mosaic of the medulla and lobula...

  13. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  14. Nocturnal oviposition behavior of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the southern hemisphere (South Africa and Australia) and its forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kirstin A; Wallman, James F; Lessard, Bryan D; Kavazos, Christopher R J; Mazungula, D Nkosinathi; Villet, Martin H

    2017-06-01

    Published research has offered contradictory evidence of the occurrence of nocturnal oviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies, a behavior that can affect the interpretation of forensic estimates of a minimum post mortem interval ( min PMI) by up to 12 hours, depending on latitude and season. The majority of published studies are from the northern hemisphere. Field experiments were conducted in South Africa and Australia that extend observations to species of the southern hemisphere. Various vertebrate carrion was exposed at night in summer under different lunar phases and/or artificial lighting, and in woodland and pasture areas. Three laboratory experiments were also conducted. No nocturnal oviposition occurred outdoors in Berry, Australia, but Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya megacephala laid eggs outdoors at night in Grahamstown and Durban, South Africa. In laboratory experiments L. sericata, L. cuprina, Chrysomya chloropyga and Chrysomya putoria laid eggs and Calliphora augur deposited larvae under nocturnal conditions. Chrysomya albiceps and C. chloropyga laid eggs in darkness with increasing likelihood as ambient temperature increased. This study shows that nocturnal ovi/larviposition by carrion-breeding blowflies is possible in both South Africa and Australia. The forensic issue is therefore not whether nocturnal oviposition occurs, but rather whether the conditions of a particular case are more or less conducive to it. Circadian rhythms and physiological thresholds (particularly temperature and humidity) appear to act individually and in conjunction to stimulate or inhibit nocturnal laying. The significance of carcass size, freezing and handling of carcasses and comprehensive quantification for experimental design is discussed, and recommendations are made for future laboratory and case scene experiments.

  15. Planck early results. III. First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main...

  16. Experimental quadrotor flight performance using computationally efficient and recursively feasible linear model predictive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffery, Mujtaba H.; Shead, Leo; Forshaw, Jason L.; Lappas, Vaios J.

    2013-12-01

    A new linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm in a state-space framework is presented based on the fusion of two past MPC control laws: steady-state optimal MPC (SSOMPC) and Laguerre optimal MPC (LOMPC). The new controller, SSLOMPC, is demonstrated to have improved feasibility, tracking performance and computation time than its predecessors. This is verified in both simulation and practical experimentation on a quadrotor unmanned air vehicle in an indoor motion-capture testbed. The performance of the control law is experimentally compared with proportional-integral-derivative (PID) and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) controllers in an unconstrained square manoeuvre. The use of soft control output and hard control input constraints is also examined in single and dual constrained manoeuvres.

  17. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  18. SUMMARY OF THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF THE NRL MARK I AND MARK II OMEGA AIRCRAFT RECEIVERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    one mile and one fix slightly less than two miles. In strong signal areas, i.e., the Carribean (Hawaii--3 kilowatts (kw) radiated, 4300 nm range...Omega is a very-low-frequency radio navigation system which is characterized by very-long-range capability and relatively high accuracy. The ...performance study results indicate that the use of the Omega navigation system for aircraft is entirely practical. The use of automatic velocity-aiding and

  19. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Flight Get Involved Events Shop Miles Contact Miracle Flights Blog Giving Tuesday 800-359-1711 Thousands of children have been saved, but we still have miles to go. Request a Flight Click Here to Donate - Your ...

  20. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  1. In-Flight Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Rejection System: Seven Years in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose I.; Na-Nakornpanom, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument heat rejection system has been operating in space for nearly 8 years since launched on NASA's EOS Aura Spacecraft. The instrument is an infrared imaging fourier transform spectrometer with spectral coverage of 3.2 to 15.4 microns. The loop heat pipe (LHP) based heat rejection system manages all of the instrument components waste heat including the two mechanical cryocoolers and their drive electronics. Five propylene LHPs collect and transport the instrument waste heat to the near room temperature nadir viewing radiators. During the early months of the mission, ice contamination of the cryogenic surfaces including the focal planes led to increased cryocooler loads and the need for periodic decontamination cycles. Focal plane decontamination cycles require power cycling both cryocoolers which also requires the two cryocooler LHPs to turn off and on during each cycle. To date, the cryocooler LHPs have undergone 24 start-ups in orbit successfully. This paper reports on the TES cryocooler loop heat pipe based heat rejection system performance. After a brief overview of the instrument thermal design, the paper presents detailed data on the highly successful space operation of the loop heat pipes since instrument turn-on in 2004. The data shows that the steady-state and transient operation of the LHPs has not changed since 2004 and shows consistent and predictable performance. The LHP based heat rejection system has provided a nearly constant heat rejection heat sink for all of its equipment which has led to exceptional overall instrument performance with world class science.

  2. Method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system such as a flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert H. (Inventor); Ribbens, William B. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for detecting a failure or performance degradation in a dynamic system having sensors for measuring state variables and providing corresponding output signals in response to one or more system input signals are provided. The method includes calculating estimated gains of a filter and selecting an appropriate linear model for processing the output signals based on the input signals. The step of calculating utilizes one or more models of the dynamic system to obtain estimated signals. The method further includes calculating output error residuals based on the output signals and the estimated signals. The method also includes detecting one or more hypothesized failures or performance degradations of a component or subsystem of the dynamic system based on the error residuals. The step of calculating the estimated values is performed optimally with respect to one or more of: noise, uncertainty of parameters of the models and un-modeled dynamics of the dynamic system which may be a flight vehicle or financial market or modeled financial system.

  3. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.

    2011-01-01

    ), and 5′ (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same...... as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux...

  4. Optimized performance of flight Plan during chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Importance of the proportion of segmented tumor area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Seung Moon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Yum, Tae Jun; Eun, Na Lae; Lee, Da Hye; Lee, Kwang Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate retrospectively the clinical effectiveness of Flight Plan for Liver (FPFL), an automated tumor-feeding artery detection software in cone-beam CT angiography (CBCTA), in identifying tumor-feeding arteries for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using three different segmentation sensitivities. The study included 50 patients with 80 HCC nodules who received transarterial chemoembolization. Standard digital subtracted angiography (DSA) and CBCTA were systematically performed and analyzed. Three settings of the FPFL software for vascular tree segmentation were tested for each tumor: the default, Group D; adjusting the proportion of segmented tumor area between 30 to 50%, Group L; and between 50 to 80%, Group H. In total, 109 feeder vessels supplying 80 HCC nodules were identified. The negative predictive value of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 56.8%, 87.7%, 94.2%, 98.5%, respectively. The accuracy of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 62.6%, 86.8%, 93.4%, 95.6%, respectively. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of FPFL were higher in Group H than in Group D (p = 0.041, 0.034, 0.005). All three segmentation sensitivity groups showed higher specificity, positive predictive value, NPV, and accuracy of FPFL, as compared to DSA. FlightPlan for Liver is a valuable tool for increasing detection of HCC tumor feeding vessels, as compared to standard DSA analysis, particularly in small HCC. Manual adjustment of segmentation sensitivity improves the accuracy of FPFL.

  5. Optimized Performance of FlightPlan during Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Importance of the Proportion of Segmented Tumor Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Seung-Moon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Yum, Tae Jun; Eun, Na Lae; Lee, Dahye; Lee, Kwang-Hun [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06273 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the clinical effectiveness of FlightPlan for Liver (FPFL), an automated tumor-feeding artery detection software in cone-beam CT angiography (CBCTA), in identifying tumor-feeding arteries for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using three different segmentation sensitivities. The study included 50 patients with 80 HCC nodules who received transarterial chemoembolization. Standard digital subtracted angiography (DSA) and CBCTA were systematically performed and analyzed. Three settings of the FPFL software for vascular tree segmentation were tested for each tumor: the default, Group D; adjusting the proportion of segmented tumor area between 30 to 50%, Group L; and between 50 to 80%, Group H. In total, 109 feeder vessels supplying 80 HCC nodules were identified. The negative predictive value of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 56.8%, 87.7%, 94.2%, 98.5%, respectively. The accuracy of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 62.6%, 86.8%, 93.4%, 95.6%, respectively. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of FPFL were higher in Group H than in Group D (p = 0.041, 0.034, 0.005). All three segmentation sensitivity groups showed higher specificity, positive predictive value, NPV, and accuracy of FPFL, as compared to DSA. FlightPlan for Liver is a valuable tool for increasing detection of HCC tumor feeding vessels, as compared to standard DSA analysis, particularly in small HCC. Manual adjustment of segmentation sensitivity improves the accuracy of FPFL.

  6. Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to In-flight Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen,Erik

    2017-01-01

    The drive to undertake long-duration space exploration missions at greater distances from Earth gives rise to many challenges concerning human performance under extreme conditions. At NASA, the Human Research Program (HRP) has been established to investigate the specific risks to astronaut health and performance presented by space exploration, in addition to developing necessary countermeasures and technology to reduce risk and facilitate safer, more productive missions in space (NASA Human Research Program 2009). The HRP is divided into five subsections, covering behavioral health, space radiation, habitability, and other areas of interest. Within this structure is the ExMC Element, whose research contributes to the overall development of new technologies to overcome the challenges of expanding human exploration and habitation of space. The risk statement provided by the HRP to the ExMC Element states: "Given that medical conditions/events will occur during human spaceflight missions, there is a possibility of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance in mission and for long term health" (NASA Human Research Program 2016). Within this risk context, the Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element is specifically concerned with establishing evidenced-based methods of monitoring and maintaining astronaut health. Essential to completing this task is the advancement in techniques that identify, prevent, and treat any health threats that may occur during space missions. The ultimate goal of the ExMC Element is to develop and demonstrate a pathway for medical system integration into vehicle and mission design to mitigate the risk of medical issues. Integral to this effort is inclusion of an evidence-based medical and data handling system appropriate for long-duration, exploration-class missions. This requires a clear Concept of Operations, quantitative risk metrics or other tools to address changing risk throughout a mission, and system scoping and system

  7. Pre- and post-flight radiation performance evaluation of the space GPS receiver (SGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.; Unwin, M.J.; Asenek, V.; Harboe-Sorensen, R.

    1999-01-01

    SSTL (Survey Satellite Technology Ltd), in collaboration with ESA/ESTEC, recently developed a state-of-the-art low cost GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver payload for use on small satellites. The space GPS Receiver (SGR), will be flown on the TiungSAT-1 micro-satellite, UoSAT-12 mini-satellite and ESA's PROBA satellite. The SGR payload is currently flying on the TMSAT micro-satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) and has carried out autonomous on-board positioning whilst also providing an experimental test-bed for evaluating spacecraft attitude determination algorithms. In order to reduce development time and costs, the SGR consists solely of industry standard COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) devices. This paper describes the ground-based radiation testing of several payload-critical COTS devices used in the SGR payload and describes its on-orbit performance. (authors)

  8. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is

  9. In-Flight Thermal Performance of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roettker, William

    1995-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) was developed at NASA s Langley Research Center to explore the applications of lidar operated from an orbital platform. As a technology demonstration experiment, LITE was developed to gain experience designing and building future operational orbiting lidar systems. Since LITE was the first lidar system to be flown in space, an important objective was to validate instrument design principles in such areas as thermal control, laser performance, instrument alignment and control, and autonomous operations. Thermal and structural analysis models of the instrument were developed during the design process to predict the behavior of the instrument during its mission. In order to validate those mathematical models, extensive engineering data was recorded during all phases of LITE's mission. This inflight engineering data was compared with preflight predictions and, when required, adjustments to the thermal and structural models were made to more accurately match the instrument s actual behavior. The results of this process for the thermal analysis and design of LITE are presented in this paper.

  10. Planck early results. IV. First assessment of the High Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck HFI Core Team; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ansari, R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Banday, A. J.; Bartelmann, M.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bhatia, R.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bradshaw, T.; Bréelle, E.; Bucher, M.; Camus, P.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Charra, J.; Charra, M.; Chary, R.-R.; Chiang, C.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Cressiot, C.; Crill, B. P.; Crook, M.; de Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Efstathiou, G.; Eng, P.; Filliard, C.; Forni, O.; Fosalba, P.; Fourmond, J.-J.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gispert, R.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Griffin, M.; Guyot, G.; Haissinski, J.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hills, R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jones, W. C.; Kaplan, J.; Kneissl, R.; Knox, L.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lami, P.; Lange, A. E.; Lasenby, A.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leriche, B.; Leroy, C.; Longval, Y.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maciaszek, T.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Mann, R.; Mansoux, B.; Masi, S.; Matsumura, T.; McGehee, P.; Melin, J.-B.; Mercier, C.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Mortlock, D.; Murphy, A.; Nati, F.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Osborne, S.; Paine, C.; Pajot, F.; Patanchon, G.; Peacocke, T.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Pons, R.; Ponthieu, N.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Reach, W. T.; Renault, C.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Schaefer, B. M.; Shellard, P.; Spencer, L.; Starck, J.-L.; Stassi, P.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Thum, C.; Torre, J.-P.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.; van Leeuwen, F.; Vibert, L.; Vibert, D.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Wiesemeyer, H.; Woodcraft, A.; Yurchenko, V.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is designed to measure the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic foregrounds in six ~30% bands centered at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857 GHz at an angular resolution of 10' (100 GHz), 7' (143 GHz), and 5' (217 GHz and higher). HFI has been operating flawlessly since launch on 14 May 2009, with the bolometers reaching 100 mK the first week of July. The settings of the readout electronics, including bolometer bias currents, that optimize HFI's noise performance on orbit are nearly the same as the ones chosen during ground testing. Observations of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn have confirmed that the optical beams and the time responses of the detection chains are in good agreement with the predictions of physical optics modeling and pre-launch measurements. The Detectors suffer from a high flux of cosmic rays due to historically low levels of solar activity. As a result of the redundancy of Planck's observation strategy, theremoval of a few percent of data contaminated by glitches does not significantly affect the instrumental sensitivity. The cosmic ray flux represents a significant and variable heat load on the sub-Kelvin stage. Temporal variation and the inhomogeneous distribution of the flux results in thermal fluctuations that are a probable source of low frequency noise. The removal of systematic effects in the time ordered data provides a signal with an average noise equivalent power that is 70% of the goal in the 0.6-2.5 Hz range. This is slightly higher than was achieved during the pre-launch characterization but better than predicted in the early phases of the project. The improvement over the goal is a result of the low level of instrumental background loading achieved by the optical and thermal design of the HFI. Corresponding author: J.-M. Lamarre, jean-michel.lamarre@obspm.fr

  11. Exploring flight crew behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A programme of research into the determinants of flight crew performance in commercial and military aviation is described, along with limitations and advantages associated with the conduct of research in such settings. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships among personality factors, attitudes regarding flight operations, and crew performance. The potential theoretical and applied utility of the research and directions for further research are discussed.

  12. Performance measurements of a dual-rotor arm mechanism for efficient flight transition of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Karen Ashley Jean

    Reconfigurable systems are a class of systems that can be transformed into different configurations, generally to perform unique functions or to maintain operational efficiency under distinct conditions. A UAV can be considered a reconfigurable system when coupled with various useful features such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), hover capability, long-range, and relatively large payload. Currently, a UAV having these capabilities is being designed by the UTSA Mechanical Engineering department. UAVs such as this one have the following potential uses: emergency response/disaster relief, hazard-critical missions, offshore oil rig/wind farm delivery, surveillance, etc. The goal of this thesis is to perform experimental thrust and power measurements for the propulsion system of this fixed-wing UAV. Focus was placed on a rotating truss arm supporting two brushless motors and rotors that will later be integrated to the ends of the UAV wing. These truss arms will rotate via a supporting shaft from 0° to 90° to transition the UAV between a vertical take-off, hover, and forward flight. To make this hover/transition possible, a relationship between thrust, arm angle, and power drawn was established by testing the performance of the arm/motor assembly at arm angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°. Universal equations for this system of thrust as a function of the arm angle were created by correlating data collected by a load cell. A Solidworks model was created and used to conduct fluid dynamics simulations of the streamlines over the arm/motor assembly.

  13. Effects of Adult Feeding and Overwintering Conditions on Energy Reserves and Flight Performance of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Dylan A; Aukema, Brian H; Charvoz, Anthony M; Venette, Robert C

    2018-04-02

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states. Two studies sought to measure the effects of adult feeding on lipid content and flight capacity. Adult A. planipennis were fed shamel ash, Fraxinus uhdei Wenzig, leaves for 0-20 d after emergence, and half were flown on a custom flight mill for 24 h, before being frozen for comparative lipid analysis with a control group. The second study compared the effects of adult feeding on energy reserves and flight capacity of A. planipennis that were originally from St. Paul, Minnesota but overwintered in infested logs placed in Grand Rapids, Minnesota (low winter temperature, -34°C) or St. Paul, Minnesota (-26.3°C). Live adults consumed foliage at a constant rate, but lipid content (percentage of fresh mass) did not change with increases in feeding or flight. Adult glycogen content declined with flight and increased only slightly with feeding. Overwintering location affected survival rates but not energy reserves or flight capacity. These results suggest that the flight capacity of A. planipennis is largely determined before emergence, with no differences in energy reserves after cryoprotectant investment.

  14. An ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometric method for fast analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, C.; Kong, H.; Zhu, C.; Wei, H.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der; Wang, M.; Xu, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for fast analysis of ginsenosides in Panax ginseng roots was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS). The column used was HSS T3 (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm). The mobile phase consisted of 15 mmol/L ammonium formate and

  15. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  16. Metabolic profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and evaluation of commercial preparations using Ultra-High Performance Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-High Performance-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometr(UHPLC-QToF-MS)profiling has become an impattant tool for identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. Chemometric approaches can be used to ana...

  17. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P. W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Allison, P. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beatty, J. J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Besson, D. Z. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binns, W. R. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Chen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Clem, J. M. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Connolly, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Dowkontt, P. F. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); DuVernois, M. A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Field, R. C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Goodhue, A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hast, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hebert, C. L. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Hoover, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Israel, M. H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States). et al.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  18. Identification of hyperoside metabolites in rat using ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianming; Xue, Caifu; Shang, Er-xin; Duan, Jin-ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF) with automated data analysis software (Metabolynx™) were applied for fast analysis of hyperoside metabolites in rat after intravenous administration. MS(E) was used for simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion information and fragment ion data at high and low collision energy in one analytical run, which facilitated the fast structural characterization of 12 metabolites in rat plasma, urine and bile. The results indicated that methylation, sulfation and glucuronidation were the major metabolic pathways of hyperoside in vivo, and among them, 3'-O-methyl-hyperoside was confirmed by matching its fragmentation patterns with standard compound. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of hyperoside which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of this compound's action. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using Metabolynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites of natural product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Profiling the Metabolism of Astragaloside IV by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological actions and pharmacology. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS-based approach was developed to profile the metabolites of astragaloside IV in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces samples. Twenty-two major metabolites were detected. The major components found in plasma, bile, urine and feces included the parent chemical and phases I and II metabolites. The major metabolic reactions of astragaloside IV were hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation and dehydrogenation. These results will help to improve understanding the metabolism and reveal the biotransformation profiling of astragaloside IV in vivo. The metabolic information obtained from our study will guide studies into the pharmacological activity and clinical safety of astragaloside IV.

  20. Simulator validation results and proposed reporting format from flight testing a software model of a complex, high-performance airplane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations are often used in aviation studies. These simulation tools may require complex, high-fidelity aircraft models. Since many of the flight models used are third-party developed products, independent validation is desired prior to im...

  1. Biomechanics of bird flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2007-09-01

    Power output is a unifying theme for bird flight and considerable progress has been accomplished recently in measuring muscular, metabolic and aerodynamic power in birds. The primary flight muscles of birds, the pectoralis and supracoracoideus, are designed for work and power output, with large stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) and strain (relative length change) per contraction. U-shaped curves describe how mechanical power output varies with flight speed, but the specific shapes and characteristic speeds of these curves differ according to morphology and flight style. New measures of induced, profile and parasite power should help to update existing mathematical models of flight. In turn, these improved models may serve to test behavioral and ecological processes. Unlike terrestrial locomotion that is generally characterized by discrete gaits, changes in wing kinematics and aerodynamics across flight speeds are gradual. Take-off flight performance scales with body size, but fully revealing the mechanisms responsible for this pattern awaits new study. Intermittent flight appears to reduce the power cost for flight, as some species flap-glide at slow speeds and flap-bound at fast speeds. It is vital to test the metabolic costs of intermittent flight to understand why some birds use intermittent bounds during slow flight. Maneuvering and stability are critical for flying birds, and design for maneuvering may impinge upon other aspects of flight performance. The tail contributes to lift and drag; it is also integral to maneuvering and stability. Recent studies have revealed that maneuvers are typically initiated during downstroke and involve bilateral asymmetry of force production in the pectoralis. Future study of maneuvering and stability should measure inertial and aerodynamic forces. It is critical for continued progress into the biomechanics of bird flight that experimental designs are developed in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  2. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. B.; Sims, Herb; Martin, James; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond; Fant, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    The significant energy density of matter-antimatter annihilation is attractive to the designers of future space propulsion systems, with the potential to offer a highly compact source of power. Many propulsion concepts exist that could take advantage of matter-antimatter reactions, and current antiproton production rates are sufficient to support basic proof-of-principle evaluation of technology associated with antimatter- derived propulsion. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, allowing antiprotons to be trapped, stored, and transported for use at an experimental facility. To address this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center is developing a storage system referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. The HiPAT makes use of an electromagnetic system (Penning- Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Telsa superconductor, high voltage electrode structure, radio frequency (RF) network, and ultra high vacuum system. To evaluate the system normal matter sources (both electron guns and ion sources) are used to generate charged particles. The electron beams ionize gas within the trapping region producing ions in situ, whereas the ion sources produce the particles external to the trapping region and required dynamic capture. A wide range of experiments has been performed examining factors such as ion storage lifetimes, effect of RF energy on storage lifetime, and ability to routinely perform dynamic ion capture. Current efforts have been focused on improving the FW rotating wall system to permit longer storage times and non-destructive diagnostics of stored ions. Typical particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and destructively colliding them with a micro-channel plate detector (providing number and energy information). This improved RF system has been used to detect various

  3. Electrophysiological studies of salty taste modification by organic acids in the labellar taste cell of the blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiro; Kataoka-Shirasugi, Naoko; Amakawa, Taisaku

    2002-01-01

    Using the labellar salt receptor cells of the blowfly, Phormia regina, we electrophysiologically showed that the response to NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions was enhanced and depressed by acetic, succinic and citric acids. The organic acid concentrations at which the most enhanced salt response (MESR) was obtained were found to be different: 0.05-1 mM citric acid, 0.5-2 mM succinic acid and 5-50 mM acetic acid. Moreover, the degree of the salt response was not always dependent on the pH values of the stimulating solutions. The salt response was also enhanced by HCl (pH 3.5-3.0) only when the NaCl concentration was greater than the threshold, indicating that the salty taste would be enhanced by the comparatively lower concentrations of hydrogen ions. Another explanation for the enhancement is that the salty taste may also be enhanced by undissociated molecules of the organic acids, because the MESRs were obtained at the pH values lower than the pKa(1) or pKa(2) values of these organic acids. On the other hand, the salty taste could be depressed by both the lower pH range (pH 2.5-2.0) and the dissociated organic anions from organic acid molecules with at least two carboxyl groups.

  4. Do male secondary sexual characters correlate with testis size and sperm length in the small hairy maggot blowfly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie D; Wallman, James F; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that secondary sexual characters (SSCs) advertise a male's fertility to prospective mates. However, findings from empirical studies attempting to test this hypothesis are often ambivalent or even contradictory, and few studies have simultaneously evaluated how both morphological and behavioural SSCs relate to ejaculate characteristics. Males of the small hairy maggot blowfly, Chrysomya varipes, possess conspicuous foreleg ornaments and display highly stereotyped courtship behaviour. These traits are favoured by females during pre-copulatory mate choice, but it remains unknown whether they correlate with post-copulatory traits expected to influence male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether male courtship and ornamentation correlate with testis size and sperm length in C. varipes. We found that males investing more in courtship had bigger testes, and males with more extensive foreleg ornamentation released sperm with longer tails. Based on the assumption that larger testes enable males to produce more sperm, and that sperm with longer tails have greater propulsive force, our findings suggest that more vigorous and more ornamented males may be more fertile. These findings lend support to the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. However, a complete test of this hypothesis will require evaluating whether testis size and sperm length influence male fertilisation ability, as well as female fecundity and/or fertility. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  6. The Effects of 37 Hours of Continuous Wakefulness on the Physiological Arousal, Cognitive Performance, Self-Reported Mood, and Simulator Flight Performance of F-117A Pilots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, John

    2003-01-01

    .... This study assessed F-117A pilots during a 37-hour period of continuous wakefulness. Although none of the pilots crashed, substantial decrements were found in flight-skills, reaction times, mood, and brain activation as early as after the...

  7. Chemical material basis study of Xuefu Zhuyu decoction by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xuefu Zhuyu decoction, a classic prescription in traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In order to profile the chemical material basis of this formula, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q/TOF MS method has been established for rapid separation and structural characterization of compounds in the decoction. As a result, 103 compounds including phenolic acids, spermidines, C-glycosyl quinochalcones, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, and others were detected; 35 of them were unambiguously identified, and 68 were tentatively characterized by comparing the retention time, MS data, characteristic MS fragmentation pattern and retrieving the literature. In conclusion, the UPLC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method developed in this work is an efficient approach to perform chemical material basis studies of traditional Chinese medicine formulae.

  8. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Coevolving Symbiont-Harboring Insect Trypanosomatids, and Their Neotropical Dispersal by Invader African Blowflies (Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcilla C. Borghesan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas, and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46% over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas. Among Angomonas spp., A. deanei was much more common than the two-other species, A. desouzai and A. ambiguus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS rDNA sequences revealed a marked genetic diversity within A. deanei, which comprised four infraspecific genotypes (Dea1–Dea4, and four corresponding symbiont genotypes (Kcr1–Kcr4. Host and symbiont phylogenies were highly congruent corroborating their co-divergence, consistent with host-symbiont interdependent metabolism and symbiont reduced genomes shaped by a long coevolutionary history. We compared the diversity of Angomonas/symbionts from three genera of blowflies, Lucilia, Chrysomya and Cochliomyia. A. deanei, A. desouzai, and A. ambiguus were found in the three genera of blowflies in South America. In Africa, A. deanei and A. ambiguus were identified in Chrysomya. The absence of A. desouzai in Africa and its presence in Neotropical Cochliomyia and Lucilia suggests parasite spillback of A. desouzai into Chrysomya, which was most likely introduced four decades ago from Africa into the Neotropic. The absence of correlation between parasite diversity and geographic and genetic distances, with identical genotypes of A. deanei found in the Neotropic and Afrotropic, is consistent with disjunct distribution due to the recent human-mediated transoceanic dispersal of Angomonas by Chrysomya. This

  9. Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Coevolving Symbiont-Harboring Insect Trypanosomatids, and Their Neotropical Dispersal by Invader African Blowflies (Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesan, Tarcilla C.; Campaner, Marta; Matsumoto, Tania E.; Espinosa, Omar A.; Razafindranaivo, Victor; Paiva, Fernando; Carranza, Julio C.; Añez, Nestor; Neves, Luis; Teixeira, Marta M. G.; Camargo, Erney P.

    2018-01-01

    This study is about the inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity of trypanosomatids of the genus Angomonas, and their association with Calliphoridae (blowflies) in Neotropical and Afrotropical regions. Microscopic examination of 3,900 flies of various families, mostly Calliphoridae, revealed that 31% of them harbored trypanosomatids. Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) barcoding showed that Angomonas predominated (46%) over the other common trypanosomatids of blowflies of genera Herpetomonas and Wallacemonas. Among Angomonas spp., A. deanei was much more common than the two-other species, A. desouzai and A. ambiguus. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU rRNA, glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS rDNA) sequences revealed a marked genetic diversity within A. deanei, which comprised four infraspecific genotypes (Dea1–Dea4), and four corresponding symbiont genotypes (Kcr1–Kcr4). Host and symbiont phylogenies were highly congruent corroborating their co-divergence, consistent with host-symbiont interdependent metabolism and symbiont reduced genomes shaped by a long coevolutionary history. We compared the diversity of Angomonas/symbionts from three genera of blowflies, Lucilia, Chrysomya and Cochliomyia. A. deanei, A. desouzai, and A. ambiguus were found in the three genera of blowflies in South America. In Africa, A. deanei and A. ambiguus were identified in Chrysomya. The absence of A. desouzai in Africa and its presence in Neotropical Cochliomyia and Lucilia suggests parasite spillback of A. desouzai into Chrysomya, which was most likely introduced four decades ago from Africa into the Neotropic. The absence of correlation between parasite diversity and geographic and genetic distances, with identical genotypes of A. deanei found in the Neotropic and Afrotropic, is consistent with disjunct distribution due to the recent human-mediated transoceanic dispersal of Angomonas by Chrysomya. This study provides

  10. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Improves Cooling System Performance: Best Management Practice Case Study #10: Cooling Towers (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has a longstanding sustainability program that revolves around energy and water efficiency as well as environmental protection. MSFC identified a problematic cooling loop with six separate compressor heat exchangers and a history of poor efficiency. The facility engineering team at MSFC partnered with Flozone Services, Incorporated to implement a comprehensive water treatment platform to improve the overall efficiency of the system.

  11. The Effects of Asynchronous Visual Delays on Simulator Flight Performance and the Development of Simulator Sickness Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-26

    training aircraft (Caro, 1977). With emerging technological advances, the kinesthetic , vestibular, visual, and aircraft dynamic cues provided to the...34staggers" (Fregly, 1974; Fregly & Kennedy, 1965). Other signs of motion sickness include changes in cardiovascular, respiratory , gastrointestinal...Scott, P. G., & Pfeiffer, M. G. SH-3 helicopter flight train- ing: An evaluation of visual and motion simulation in device 2F64C ( Technical Report No. 161

  12. Performance of a flight qualified, thermoelectrically temperature controlled QCM sensor with power supply, thermal controller and signal processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoelectrically temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) system was developed for the measurement of ion thrustor generated mercury contamination on spacecraft. Meaningful flux rate measurements dictated an accurately held sensing crystal temperature despite spacecraft surface temperature variations from -35 C to +60 C over the flight temperature range. An electronic control unit was developed with magentic amplifier transformer secondary power supply, thermal control electronics, crystal temperature analog conditioning and a multiplexed 16 bit frequency encoder.

  13. Comparison between mechanical power requirements of flight estimated using an aerodynamic model and in vitro muscle performance in the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Charlotte R; Askew, Graham N

    2010-08-15

    There have been few comparisons between the relationship between the mechanical power requirements of flight and flight speed obtained using different approaches. It is unclear whether differences in the power-speed relationships reported in the literature are due to the use of different techniques for determining flight power or due to inter-specific differences. Here we compare the power-speed relationships in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) determined using both an aerodynamic model and measurements of in vitro performance of bundles of pectoralis muscle fibres under simulated in vivo strain and activity patterns. Aerodynamic power was calculated using different ranges of values for the coefficients in the equations: induced power factor (k 1.0-1.4), the profile (C(D, pro) 0.01-0.03) and parasite drag (C(D, par) 0.05-0.195) coefficients. We found that the aerodynamic power-speed relationship was highly sensitive to the values assumed for these coefficients and best fit the power calculated from in vitro muscle performance when k=1.2, C(D, pro)=0.02 and C(D, par)=0.13.

  14. Periodic heartbeat reversals cause cardiogenic inspiration and expiration with coupled spiracle leakage in resting blowflies, Calliphora vicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2014-05-01

    Respiration in insects is thought to be independent of the circulatory system because insects typically lack respiratory pigments and because oxygen transport occurs in the gaseous phase through a ramified tracheal system by diffusion and convection directly to the tissues. In the blowfly, as in other insects with periodic heartbeat reversal, the haemolymph is periodically shifted between the anterior body and abdomen, exerting alternating pressure changes on the compliant tracheae in the thorax and in the abdomen. Simultaneous pressure and O2 optode measurements show that, during negative pressure periods, the tracheal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) increases by 0.5 kPa. In the quiescent fly, tracheal PO2 is rather high (17.5-18.9 kPa), although the thoracic spiracles remain constricted. Microscopic video recordings and reflectance measurements revealed that the dorsal soft edges of the valve lips of the second spiracle leave a very small leak, which is passively widened during backward pulses of the heart. Thus, negative pressure, combined with increased leakage of the spiracle Sp2 valve enable inspiration in the thorax. The positive pressure periods are correlated with a new type of convective CO2 micro-bursts as shown in flow-through measurements. The bulk of the CO2 is, however, released after longer interbursts in macro-bursts with actively opening valves reminiscent of the open phase in a cyclic gas exchange. When the valves open, the PO2 in the thoracic air sacs unexpectedly drops by a mean of 2.75±1.09 kPa, suggesting a displacement of O2 by the transient accumulation of CO2 in the tracheal system before its release.

  15. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eMaeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER. Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying

  16. Effects of Floral Scents and Their Dietary Experiences on the Feeding Preference in the Blowfly, Phormia regina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toru; Tamotsu, Miwako; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying mechanisms associated with

  17. Matrix effect in analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoralov A.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For modern food safety control are using techniques that allow to determinate a large number of components. So for determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables commonly used methods of gas and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass-spectrometric detection. This system allows to carry out quantitative determination several hundreds of pesticides and their identification by the characteristic fragments of the mass spectrum. The main problem when using mass spectrometric detection is a matrix effect, which is caused by the influence of matrix components extracted with pesticides from the sample. In this work, attempts have been made to reduce the influence of the matrix in the analysis of pesticide residues by high performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC / TOFMS.

  18. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The effects of wing flexibility on the flight performance and stability of flapping wing micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluman, James Edward

    Insect wings are flexible. However, the influence of wing flexibility on the flight dynamics of insects and flapping wing micro air vehicles is unknown. Most studies in the literature consider rigid wings and conclude that the hover equilibrium is unstable. This dissertation shows that a flapping wing flyer with flexible wings exhibits stable natural modes of the open loop system in hover, never reported before. The free-flight insect flight dynamics is modeled for both flexible and rigid wings. Wing mass and inertia are included in the nonlinear equations of motion. The flapping wing aerodynamics are modeled using a quasi-steady model, a well-validated two dimensional Navier Stokes model, and a coupled, two dimensional Navier Stokes - Euler Bernoulli beam model that accurately models the fluid-structure interaction of flexible wings. Hover equilibrium is systematically and efficiently determined with a coupled quasi-steady and Navier-Stokes equation trimmer. The power and stability are reported at hover while parametrically varying the pitch axis location for rigid wings and the structural stiffness for flexible wings. The results indicate that the rigid wings possess an unstable oscillatory mode mainly due to their pitch sensitivity to horizontal velocity perturbations. The flexible wings stabilize this mode primarily by adjusting their wing shape in the presence of perturbations. The wing's response to perturbations generates significantly more horizontal velocity damping and pitch rate damping than in rigid wings. Furthermore, the flexible wings experience substantially less wing wake interaction, which, for rigid wings, is destabilizing. The power required to hover a fruit fly with actively rotating rigid wings varies between 16.9 and 34.2 W/kg. The optimal power occurs when the pitch axis is located at 30% chord, similar to some biological observations. Flexible wings require 23.1 to 38.5 W/kg. However, flexible wings exhibit more stable system dynamics and

  20. FMS flight plans in synthetic vision primary flight displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gang; Feyereisen, Thea; Wyatt, Sandy

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes display concepts and flight tests evaluations of flight management system (FMS) flight plan integration into Honeywell's synthetic vision (SV) integrated primary flight display systems (IPFD). The prototype IPFD displays consist of primary flight symbology overlay with flight path information and flight director guidance cues on the SV external 3D background scenes. The IPFD conformal perspective-view background displays include terrain and obstacle scenes generated with Honeywell's enhanced ground proximity warning system (EGPWS) databases, runway displays generated with commercial FMS databases, and 3D flight plan information coming directly from on-board FMS systems. The flight plan display concepts include 3D waypoint representations with altitude constraints, terrain tracing curves and vectors based on airframe performances, and required navigation performance (RNP) data. The considerations for providing flight crews with intuitive views of complex approach procedures with minimal display clutter are discussed. The flight test data on-board Honeywell Citation Sovereign aircraft and pilot feedback are summarized with the emphasis on the test results involving approaches into terrainchallenged air fields with complex FMS approach procedures.

  1. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identifying Clinical Malassezia Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Julie; Machouart, Marie; Morio, Florent; Sabou, Marcela; Kauffmann-LaCroix, Catherine; Contet-Audonneau, Nelly; Candolfi, Ermanno; Letscher-Bru, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    The genus Malassezia comprises commensal yeasts on human skin. These yeasts are involved in superficial infections but are also isolated in deeper infections, such as fungemia, particularly in certain at-risk patients, such as neonates or patients with parenteral nutrition catheters. Very little is known about Malassezia epidemiology and virulence. This is due mainly to the difficulty of distinguishing species. Currently, species identification is based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Only molecular biology techniques identify species with certainty, but they are time-consuming and expensive. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) database for identifying Malassezia species by mass spectrometry. Eighty-five Malassezia isolates from patients in three French university hospitals were investigated. Each strain was identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Forty-five strains of the six species Malassezia furfur, M. sympodialis, M. slooffiae, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. pachydermatis allowed the creation of a MALDI-TOF database. Forty other strains were used to test this database. All strains were identified by our Malassezia database with log scores of >2.0, according to the manufacturer's criteria. Repeatability and reproducibility tests showed a coefficient of variation of the log score values of Malassezia database allows easy, fast, and reliable identification of Malassezia species. Implementation of this database will contribute to a better, more rapid identification of Malassezia species and will be helpful in gaining a better understanding of their epidemiology. Copyright © 2016 Denis et al.

  2. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identifying Clinical Malassezia Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machouart, Marie; Morio, Florent; Sabou, Marcela; Kauffmann-LaCroix, Catherine; Contet-Audonneau, Nelly; Candolfi, Ermanno; Letscher-Bru, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genus Malassezia comprises commensal yeasts on human skin. These yeasts are involved in superficial infections but are also isolated in deeper infections, such as fungemia, particularly in certain at-risk patients, such as neonates or patients with parenteral nutrition catheters. Very little is known about Malassezia epidemiology and virulence. This is due mainly to the difficulty of distinguishing species. Currently, species identification is based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Only molecular biology techniques identify species with certainty, but they are time-consuming and expensive. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) database for identifying Malassezia species by mass spectrometry. Eighty-five Malassezia isolates from patients in three French university hospitals were investigated. Each strain was identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing. Forty-five strains of the six species Malassezia furfur, M. sympodialis, M. slooffiae, M. globosa, M. restricta, and M. pachydermatis allowed the creation of a MALDI-TOF database. Forty other strains were used to test this database. All strains were identified by our Malassezia database with log scores of >2.0, according to the manufacturer's criteria. Repeatability and reproducibility tests showed a coefficient of variation of the log score values of Malassezia database allows easy, fast, and reliable identification of Malassezia species. Implementation of this database will contribute to a better, more rapid identification of Malassezia species and will be helpful in gaining a better understanding of their epidemiology. PMID:27795342

  3. Laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF: performance, reference spectra and classification of atmospheric samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH is able to identify the chemical composition and mixing state of individual aerosol particles, and thus is a tool for elucidating their impacts on human health, visibility, ecosystem, and climate. The overall detection efficiency (ODE of the instrument we use was determined to range from  ∼  (0.01 ± 0.01 to  ∼  (4.23 ± 2.36 % for polystyrene latex (PSL in the size range of 200 to 2000 nm,  ∼  (0.44 ± 0.19 to  ∼  (6.57 ± 2.38 % for ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, and  ∼  (0.14 ± 0.02 to  ∼  (1.46 ± 0.08 % for sodium chloride (NaCl particles in the size range of 300 to 1000 nm. Reference mass spectra of 32 different particle types relevant for atmospheric aerosol (e.g. pure compounds NH4NO3, K2SO4, NaCl, oxalic acid, pinic acid, and pinonic acid; internal mixtures of e.g. salts, secondary organic aerosol, and metallic core–organic shell particles; more complex particles such as soot and dust particles were determined. Our results show that internally mixed aerosol particles can result in spectra with new clusters of ions, rather than simply a combination of the spectra from the single components. An exemplary 1-day ambient data set was analysed by both classical fuzzy clustering and a reference-spectra-based classification method. Resulting identified particle types were generally well correlated. We show how a combination of both methods can greatly improve the interpretation of single-particle data in field measurements.

  4. Rapid Screening of Multiclass Syrup Adulterants in Honey by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lanzhen; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2015-07-29

    Honey adulteration with sugar syrups is a widespread problem. Several types of syrups have been used in honey adulteration, and there is no available method that can simultaneously detect all of these adulterants. In this study, we generated a small-scale database containing the specific chromatographic and mass spectrometry information on sugar syrup markers and developed a simple, rapid, and effective ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method for the detection of adulterated honey. Corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, inverted syrup, and rice syrup were used as honey adulterants; polysaccharides, difructose anhydrides, and 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside were used as detection markers. The presence of 10% sugar syrup in honey could be easily detected in <30 min using the developed method. The results revealed that UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was simple and rapid.

  5. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  6. Performance standards for pass-fail determinations in the national air traffic flight service station training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    This report describes and documents Pass-Fail procedures for the new FSS Training Program. New types of measures and sets of norms are used to create standards of performance that students must meet to become eligible for acceptance into the operatio...

  7. Optimal deployment schedule of an active twist rotor for performance enhancement and vibration reduction in high-speed flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young H. YOU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The best active twist schedules exploiting various waveform types are sought taking advantage of the global search algorithm for the reduction of hub vibration and/or power required of a rotor in high-speed conditions. The active twist schedules include two non-harmonic inputs formed based on segmented step functions as well as the simple harmonic waveform input. An advanced Particle Swarm assisted Genetic Algorithm (PSGA is employed for the optimizer. A rotorcraft Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD code CAMRAD II is used to perform the rotor aeromechanics analysis. A Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD code is coupled with CSD for verification and some physical insights. The PSGA optimization results are verified against the parameter sweep study performed using the harmonic actuation. The optimum twist schedules according to the performance and/or vibration reduction strategy are obtained and their optimization gains are compared between the actuation cases. A two-phase non-harmonic actuation schedule demonstrates the best outcome in decreasing the power required while a four-phase non-harmonic schedule results in the best vibration reduction as well as the simultaneous reductions in the power required and vibration. The mechanism of reduction to the performance gains is identified illustrating the section airloads, angle-of-attack distribution, and elastic twist deformation predicted by the present approaches.

  8. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  9. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  10. Development and Evaluation of Novel and Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research (DENCHAR): In-Flight Performance During AIRTOSS-I/II Research Aircaft Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Herman G. J.; Rolf, Christian; Kraemer, Martina; Petzold, Andreas; Spelten, Nicole; Rohs, Susanne; Neis, Patrick; Maser, Rolf; Bucholz, Bernhard; Ebert, Volker; Tatrai, David; Bozoki, Zoltan; Finger, Fanny; Klingebiel, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    Water vapour is one of the most important parameters in weather prediction and climate research. Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. Presently, no airborne water vapour sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content of more than four order of magnitudes between the surface and the UT/LS region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution, not to speak of the technical requirements for quasi-routine operation. In a joint research activity of the European Facility for Airborne Research (EUFAR) programme, funded by the EC in FP7, we have addressed this deficit by the Development and Evaluation of Novel and Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research (DENCHAR), including the sampling characteristics of different gas/ice inlets. The new instruments using innovative detecting technics based on tuneable diode laser technology combined with absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) or photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS): (i) SEALDH based on novel self-calibrating absorption spectroscopy; (ii) WASUL, based on photoacoustic spectroscopy; (iii) commercial WVSS-II, also a TDLAS hygrometer, but using 2f-detection technics. DENCHAR has followed an unique strategy by facilitating new instrumental developments together with conducting extensive testing, both in the laboratory and during in-flight operation. Here, we will present the evaluation of the in-flight performance of the three new hygrometer instruments, which is based on the results obtained during two dedicated research aircraft campaigns (May and September 2013) as part of the AIRTOSS (AIRcraft Towed Sensor Shuttle) experiments. Aboard the Learjet 35A research aircraft the DENCHAR instruments were operated side by side with the well established Fast In-Situ Hygrometer (FISH), which is based on Lyman (alpha) resonance fluorescence detection technics and calibrated to the reference frost point

  11. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  12. In-flight performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer detector system on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kilbourne, Caroline Anne; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Daniel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Sato, Kosuke; Seta, Hiromi; Sawada, Makoto; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya

    2018-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS is based on a high-sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and suborbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In preflight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous bandpass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 μs. In addition, a solid-state anticoincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain stability and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7-eV FWHM at 6-keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here, we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in preflight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  13. Performance improvement of a time-of-flight detector and longer observation of circulating ions for IMS at FRS-ESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diwisch, Marcel; Kuzminchuk, Natalia [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Ayet, Samuel; Weick, Helmut [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Knoebel, Ronja; Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Sun, Baohua [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: FRS-ESR-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    Mass measurements of short-lived exotic nuclei can be performed using Isochronous Mass Spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility at GSI. The mass values are obtained from the revolution time measurements using a time-of-flight detector. Ions passing the detector release secondary electrons from a thin carbon foil which are guided to micro channel plate (MCP) detectors by electric and magnetic fields. The time accuracy as well as the rate capability of the TOF detector are crucial parameters for the performance of IMS. Simulations showed that by increasing the kinetic transport energy of the secondary electrons from the foil to the MCPs the time accuracy of the detector can be improved. In measurements with a modified detector with higher kinetic transport energies the timing performance of the detector was improved by 50%. Additionally MCPs with a smaller pore size to improve the rate capability and a thinner carbon foil to reduce the energy loss in the foil were installed in the TOF detector. In an online experiment with uranium fission fragments a 10 times higher turn number of the ions could be observed than in former experiments.

  14. Aerodynamic Performance and Particle Image Velocimetery of Piezo Actuated Biomimetic Manduca Sexta Engineered Wings Towards the Design and Application of a Flapping Wing Flight Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    proximity to the target necessitates a natural camouflage and concealment to enable the NAV to hide in plain sight, leading inexorably to bio- mimicry ...biologist or zoologist. The primary motivation for studying animal flight is to explain the physics for a creature that is known to fly. That is, the fact...from animal -flight studies. For a designer with an aerospace engineering background, publi- cations from the animal -flight community can be fairly

  15. Acoustic Performance of Novel Fan Noise Reduction Technologies for a High Bypass Model Turbofan at Simulated Flights Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David M.; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    Two novel fan noise reduction technologies, over the rotor acoustic treatment and soft stator vane technologies, were tested in an ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan model in the NASA Glenn Research Center s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The performance of these technologies was compared to that of the baseline fan configuration, which did not have these technologies. Sideline acoustic data and hot film flow data were acquired and are used to determine the effectiveness of the various treatments. The material used for the over the rotor treatment was foam metal and two different types were used. The soft stator vanes had several internal cavities tuned to target certain frequencies. In order to accommodate the cavities it was necessary to use a cut-on stator to demonstrate the soft vane concept.

  16. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts returning from the International Space Station are met by a team of recovery personnel typically providing physical assistance and medical support immediately upon landing. That is because long-duration spaceflight impacts astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond the low Earth orbit, however, may require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration class missions. Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. METHODS: The first test in the PFT battery sequence, and also the least demanding one from the sensorimotor perspective, was a Sit-to-Stand test. Test subjects were seated in the chair and had to stand up on command and remain standing for ten seconds. The subjects were instructed to stand up unassisted as quickly as they were able to, while maintaining postural control. Synchronized wireless inertial sensors mounted on the head, chest, lower back, wrists, and ankles were used to continuously log body kinematics. Crewmembers' blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and recorded with the Portapres and Polar systems. Each session was recorded with a digital video camera. During data collections occurring within the 24-hour postflight period, crewmembers were also asked to (1) evaluate their perceived motion sickness symptoms on a 20-point scale before and after completion of the test and (2) estimate how heavy they felt compared to their normal (preflight) body weight. Consent to participate in PFT was obtained from 18 crewmembers (11 US Orbital Segment [USOS] astronauts and 7

  17. Design and performance analyses of the new time-of-flight smaller-angle neutron scattering instrument at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Takenao; Takata, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Oku, Takayuki; Suzuya, Kentaro; Aizawa, Kazuya; Arai, Masatoshi; Otomo, Toshiya; Sugiyama, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    The new time-of-flight smaller-angle neutron scattering (TOF-SANS) instrument HI-SANS is projected to be built in the Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The target of the HI-SANS is to study microstructures and hierarchical structures of nano-meter sized materials and their complexes. For the simultaneous collection of scattering data in the wide q range (∼3x10 -3 -1 ) with good q-resolution and high efficiency, this instrument is designed to use large area detectors and broad wavelength bandwidth within the first frame. For the high-quality beam transport and the efficacious utilization of pulsed neutrons, the state of the art neutron optics is installed. Moreover, a focusing device based on sextupole magnets is adopted in the TOF-SANS for the first time to make accessible minimum q value (q min ) lower with high q resolution. The design optimization and performance analyses of the HI-SANS have been performed by Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Investigation of the position-resolved timing performance of a time-of-flight detector for IMS at the FRS-ESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, Wayne; Diwisch, Marcel [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Geissel, Hans; Knoebel, Ronja; Kuzminchuk, Natalia; Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    High-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei can be performed using Isochronous Mass Spectrometry at the FRS-ESR facility at GSI. The mass values are obtained from the revolution time measurement by a time-of-flight detector placed in the storage ring. In the detector the ions pass a thin carbon foil and release secondary electrons, which are then transported to micro channel plates by magnetic and electric fields. The timing performance of the detector is of high importance because it directly influences the mass measurement accuracy. The timing accuracy of the detector has been investigated. An aperture assembly enabling measurement of the spatially resolved accuracy was constructed and mounted inside the detector. The setup consists of a Si detector and a movable aperture. Only those ions that pass through the aperture and impinge on the Si detector are considered for the time determination. First measurements are in good agreement with previous studies and allow one to understand the spatial contribution to the timing resolution. The design of the assembly as well as the first measurement results are presented.

  19. Global chemical profiling based quality evaluation approach of rhubarb using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Haiyu; Qin, Lingling; Zhang, Zhixin; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Qingqing; Lu, Zhiwei; Wei, Shengli; Gao, Xiaoyan; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-02-01

    A global chemical profiling based quality evaluation approach using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the quality evaluation of three rhubarb species, including Rheum palmatum L., Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf., and Rheum officinale Baill. Considering that comprehensive detection of chemical components is crucial for the global profile, a systemic column performance evaluation method was developed. Based on this, a Cortecs column was used to acquire the chemical profile, and Chempattern software was employed to conduct similarity evaluation and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results showed R. tanguticum could be differentiated from R. palmatum and R. officinale at the similarity value 0.65, but R. palmatum and R. officinale could not be distinguished effectively. Therefore, a common pattern based on three rhubarb species was developed to conduct the quality evaluation, and the similarity value 0.50 was set as an appropriate threshold to control the quality of rhubarb. A total of 88 common peaks were identified by their accurate mass and fragmentation, and partially verified by reference standards. Through the verification, the newly developed method could be successfully used for evaluating the holistic quality of rhubarb. It would provide a reference for the quality control of other herbal medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Parallel microscope-based fluorescence, absorbance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection for high performance liquid chromatography and determination of glucosamine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bo; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Qiong; Nie, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Ren-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    A parallel microscope-based laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UV) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detection for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was achieved and used to determine glucosamine in urines. First, a reliable and convenient LIF detection was developed based on an inverted microscope and corresponding modulations. Parallel HPLC-LIF/UV/TOF-MS detection was developed by the combination of preceding Microscope-based LIF detection and HPLC coupled with UV and TOF-MS. The proposed setup, due to its parallel scheme, was free of the influence from photo bleaching in LIF detection. Rhodamine B, glutamic acid and glucosamine have been determined to evaluate its performance. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine the glucosamine in urines, and subsequent results suggested that glucosamine, which was widely used in the prevention of the bone arthritis, was metabolized to urines within 4h. Furthermore, its concentration in urines decreased to 5.4mM at 12h. Efficient glucosamine detection was achieved based on a sensitive quantification (LIF), a universal detection (UV) and structural characterizations (TOF-MS). This application indicated that the proposed strategy was sensitive, universal and versatile, and it was capable of improved analysis, especially for analytes with low concentrations in complex samples, compared with conventional HPLC-UV/TOF-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the Constituents in “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” lyophilized powder (ZSYXST, consists of a series of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of strokes. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in ZSYXST. Some high content components were removed through PHPLC in order to increase the sensitivity of the trace saponins. Then, specific characteristic fragment ions in both positive and negative mode were utilized to determine the types of aglycone, saccharide, as well as the saccharide chain linkages. As a result, 94 saponins, including 20 pairs of isomers and ten new compounds, which could represent higher than 98% components in ZSYXST, were identified or tentatively identified in commercial ZSYXST samples.

  2. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  3. Performance evaluation of a miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for in situ investigations in planetary space research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, A; Bieler, A; Neuland, M; Tulej, M; Wurz, P

    2013-01-01

    Key performance features of a miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for in situ investigations of the chemical composition of planetary surfaces are presented. This mass spectrometer is well suited for elemental and isotopic analysis of raw solid materials with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. In this study, ultraviolet laser radiation with irradiances suitable for ablation (laser ablation studies at infrared wavelengths, several improvements to the experimental setup have been made, which allow accurate control over the experimental conditions and good reproducibility of measurements. Current performance evaluations indicate significant improvements to several instrumental figures of merit. Calibration of the mass scale is performed within a mass accuracy (Δm/m) in the range of 100 ppm, and a typical mass resolution (m/Δm) ~600 is achieved at the lead mass peaks. At lower laser irradiances, the mass resolution is better, about (m/Δm) ~900 for lead, and limited by the laser pulse duration of 3 ns. The effective dynamic range of the instrument was enhanced from about 6 decades determined in previous study up to more than 8 decades at present. Current studies show high sensitivity in detection of both metallic and non-metallic elements. Their abundance down to tens of ppb can be measured together with their isotopic patterns. Due to strict control of the experimental parameters, e.g. laser characteristics, ion-optical parameters and sample position, by computer control, measurements can be performed with high reproducibility. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Increasing throughput and information content for in vitro drug metabolism experiments using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Perez, Jose; Plumb, Robert; Granger, Jennifer H; Beattie, Iain; Joncour, Karine; Wright, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The field of drug metabolism has been revolutionized by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) applications with new technologies such as triple quadrupoles, ion traps and time-of-flight (ToF) instrumentation. Over the years, these developments have often relied on the improvements to the mass spectrometer hardware and software, which has allowed users to benefit from lower levels of detection and ease-of-use. One area in which the development pace has been slower is in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the case of metabolite identification, where there are many challenges due to the complex nature of the biological matrices and the diversity of the metabolites produced, there is a need to obtain the most accurate data possible. Reactive or toxic metabolites need to be detected and identified as early as possible in the drug discovery process, in order to reduce the very costly attrition of compounds in late-phase development. High-resolution, exact mass measurement plays a very important role in metabolite identification because it allows the elimination of false positives and the determination of non-trivial metabolites in a much faster throughput environment than any other standard current methodology available to this field. By improving the chromatographic resolution, increased peak capacity can be achieved with a reduction in the number of co-eluting species leading to superior separations. The overall enhancement in the chromatographic resolution and peak capacity is transferred into a net reduction in ion suppression leading to an improvement in the MS sensitivity. To investigate this, a number of in vitro samples were analyzed using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system, with columns packed with porous 1.7 mum particles, coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer. This technique showed very clear examples for fundamental gains in sensitivity, chromatographic resolution and speed of

  5. Effect of differents baits as attractant for blowflies (diptera at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Efeito de diferentes iscas na atração de califorídeos (diptera no campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. D'almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out a survey of blowflies in a área of the Campus (Valonguinho of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine, bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively. The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%.Foi realizado um estudo sobre califorideos no Campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense. A pesquisa foi efetuada de dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004, com coletas feitas com armadilhas utilizando iscas à base de peixe (sardinha, fígado bovino, camarão e banana. Foram coletados 6015 califorideos, Chrysomya megacephala e Lucilia eximia foram as mais freqüentes (50,55% e 21, 52%, respectivamente. A isca mais atrativa foi peixe (38,32% com picos populacionais em fevereiro e março.

  6. Preferential alkali metal adduct formation by cis geometrical isomers of dicaffeoylquinic acids allows for efficient discrimination from their trans isomers during ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makola, MM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available discrimination of the geometrical isomers of these molecules has proven to be an elusive task. UV-irradiated methanolic solutions of diCQA were analyzed using an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC...

  7. Profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of Panax ginseng based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Sun, Le; Zhang, Zhe; Guo, Yingying; Liu, Shuying

    2015-03-25

    An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for the detection and structural analysis of ginsenosides in white ginseng and related processed products (red ginseng). Original neutral, malonyl, and chemically transformed ginsenosides were identified in white and red ginseng samples. The aglycone types of ginsenosides were determined by MS/MS as PPD (m/z 459), PPT (m/z 475), C-24, -25 hydrated-PPD or PPT (m/z 477 or m/z 493), and Δ20(21)-or Δ20(22)-dehydrated-PPD or PPT (m/z 441 or m/z 457). Following the structural determination, the UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS-based chemical profiling coupled with multivariate statistical analysis method was applied for global analysis of white and processed ginseng samples. The chemical markers present between the processed products red ginseng and white ginseng could be assigned. Process-mediated chemical changes were recognized as the hydrolysis of ginsenosides with large molecular weight, chemical transformations of ginsenosides, changes in malonyl-ginsenosides, and generation of 20-(R)-ginsenoside enantiomers. The relative contents of compounds classified as PPD, PPT, malonyl, and transformed ginsenosides were calculated based on peak areas in ginseng before and after processing. This study provides possibility to monitor multiple components for the quality control and global evaluation of ginseng products during processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous determination of thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and metazachlor residues in soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Silvia; Ares, Ana M; Bernal, José Luis; Nozal, María Jesús; Bernal, José

    2017-03-01

    A rapid pioneering method has been developed to simultaneously determine residues of three pesticides (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and metazachlor) in soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry detector (quadrupole time-of-flight). An efficient extraction procedure (90-105% average analyte recoveries) has also been proposed, involving solid-liquid extraction by a mixture of water and methanol (60:40, v/v), centrifugation, and concentration. A chromatographic analysis of the compounds was achieved in 5.5 min by means of a core-shell technology based column (Kinetex ® EVO C 18 , 50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm, 100 Å). The mobile phase (0.3 mL/min, gradient elution mode) consisted of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, detection and quantification limits, matrix effect, linearity, trueness, and precision. Low limits of detection and quantification were obtained, ranging from 0.2 to 3.0 μg/kg, which are similar to those published in previous studies, while the absence of a significant matrix effect allowed quantification of the pesticides with standard calibration curves. The proposed method was applied for an analysis of pesticides in several soil samples from experimental fields dedicated to oilseed rape cultivars. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and Evaluation of Commercial Preparations Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Isaac, Giorgis; Yuk, Jimmy; Wrona, Mark; Yu, Kate; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-11-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals ( Hoodia, Terminalia , and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to extract relevant chemical information from the data to easily differentiate between Terminalia species, chamomile varieties, and quality control of Hoodia products. Using nontargeted analysis, identification of 37 compounds contributed to the differences between Terminalia species, 26 flavonoids were identified to show the differences between German and Roman chamomile, and 43 pregnane glycosides were identified from Hoodia gordonii samples. The UHPLC-QToF-MS-based chemical fingerprinting with principal component analysis was able to correctly distinguish botanicals and their commercial products. This work can be used as a basis to assure the quality of botanicals and commercial products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. An Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Metabolomic Approach to Studying the Impact of Moderate Red-Wine Consumption on Urinary Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Ibañez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2018-04-06

    Moderate red-wine consumption has been widely described to exert several benefits in human health. This is mainly due to its unique content of bioactive polyphenols, which suffer several modifications along their pass through the digestive system, including microbial transformation in the colon and phase-II metabolism, until they are finally excreted in urine and feces. To determine the impact of moderate wine consumption in the overall urinary metabolome of healthy volunteers ( n = 41), samples from a red-wine interventional study (250 mL/day, 28 days) were investigated. Urine (24 h) was collected before and after intervention and analyzed by an untargeted ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. 94 compounds linked to wine consumption, including specific wine components (tartaric acid), microbial-derived phenolic metabolites (5-(dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactones and 4-hydroxyl-5-(phenyl)-valeric acids), and endogenous compounds were identified. Also, some relationships between parallel fecal and urinary metabolomes are discussed.

  11. Identification of metabolites of Helicid in vivo using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xinpeng; Liao, Man; Cheng, Xiaoye; Liang, Caijuan; Sun, Yupeng; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Lantong

    2018-04-18

    Helicid is an active natural aromatic phenolic glycoside ingredient originating from well-known traditional Chinese herb medicine and has the significant effects of sedative hypnosis, anti-inflammatory analgesia and antidepressant. In this study, we analyzed the potential metabolites of Helicid in rats by multiple mass defect filter (MMDF)and dynamic background subtraction (DBS)in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Moreover, we used a novel data processing method 'key product ions (KPIs)' to rapidly detect and identifymetabolites as an assistant tool. MetabolitePilot TM 2.0 software and PeakView TM 2.2 software were used for analyzing metabolites. Twenty metabolites of Helicid (including 15 phase I metabolites and 5 phase II metabolites) were detected by comparing with the blank samples, respectively. Thebiotransformationroute of Helicid was identified as demethylation, oxidation, dehydroxylation, hydrogenation, decarbonylation,glucuronide conjugation and methylation.This is the first study of simultaneously detecting and identifying Helicid metabolism in rats by employing UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. This experiment not only proposed a method for rapidly detecting and identifying metabolites, but also provided useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of Helicid in vivo. Furthermore, it provided an effective method for the analysis of other aromatic phenolic glycosides metabolic components in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of berberrubine metabolites in rats by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Qiao, Miao; Chai, Liwei; Cao, Shijie; Feng, Xinchi; Ding, Liqin; Qiu, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Berberrubine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from many medicinal plants, possesses diverse pharmacological activities, including glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic profile of berberrubine in vivo. Therefore, a rapid and reliable method using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and metabolynx™ software with mass defect filter (MDF) technique was developed. Plasma, bile, urine and feces samples were collected from rats after oral administration of berberrubine with a dose of 30.0mg/kg and analyzed to characterize the metabolites of berberrubine in vivo for the first time. A total of 57 metabolites were identified, including 54 metabolites in urine, 39 metabolites in plasma, 28 metabolites in bile and 18 metabolites in feces. The results indicated that demethylenation, reduction, hydroxylation, demethylation, glucuronidation, and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of berberrubine in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of caged xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jing; Han, Quan-Bin; Song, Jing-Zheng; Li, Song-Lin; Qiao, Chun-Feng; Ding, Li-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2008-11-23

    On-line ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS) has been developed for the analysis of a series of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The fragmentation of protonated molecular ions for 12 known cadged xanthones was carried out using low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that Retro-Diels-Alder rearrangement occurred in the CID processes and produced the characteristic fragment ions, which are especially valuable for the identification of this class of xanthones. The fragmentation differential between some cis-, trans-isomers was uncovered. Computation methods were utilized to rationalize the observed MS behaviors. On-line UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS method has proved to be rapid and efficient in that within 6min, 15 caged scaffold xanthones, including three pairs of epimers and four pairs of isomers in gamboges, were effectively separated and identified. Among them, two known, namely isogambogenin (13) and isomorellinol (14) and one likely new caged Garcinia xanthones from the Garcinia hanburyi were tentatively characterized based on the tandem mass spectra of known ones.

  14. Identification of biotransformation products of macrolide and fluoroquinolone antimicrobials in membrane bioreactor treatment by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Senka; Senta, Ivan; Matosic, Marin; Ahel, Marijan

    2011-07-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied for the identification of transformation products (TPs) of fluoroquinolone (norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin) and macrolide (azithromycin, erythromycin, and roxitromycin) antimicrobials in wastewater effluents from a Zenon hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (MBR). The detected TPs were thoroughly characterized using the accurate mass feature for the determination of the tentative molecular formulae and MS-MS experiments for the structural elucidation of unknowns. Several novel TPs, which have not been previously reported in the literature, were identified. The TPs of azithromycin and roxithromycin, identified in MBR effluent, were conjugate compounds, which were formed by phosphorylation of desosamine moiety. Transformation of fluoroquinolones yielded two types of products: conjugates, formed by succinylation of the piperazine ring, and smaller metabolites, formed by an oxidative break-up of piperazine moiety to form the 7-[(2-carboxymethyl)amino] group. A semi-quantitative assessment of these TPs suggested that they might have contributed significantly to the overall balance of antimicrobial residues in MBR effluents and thus to the overall removal efficiency. Determination of TPs during a period of 2 months indicated a conspicuous dynamics, which warrants further research to identify microorganisms involved and treatment conditions leading to their formation.

  15. Determination of sildenafil mixed into herbal honey mixture by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Mustabasic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a number of reports of natural products contaminated with illegal adulterants that threaten consumer health because of their adverse pharmacological effects worldwide. In this study, a multi-residual ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS was applied for the identification of sildenafil added into a herbal honey mixture used as an immune system booster. Electrospray ionization (ESI source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (70:30, v/v using the isocratic gradient elution system at a detection wavelength of 290 nm. The compound of sildenafil added into traditional herbal mixed honey was identified according to the spectrum, chromatographic behavior, and mass spectral data were identified by comparison with the reference substance. The method is selective, sensitive and can be used to detect the sildenafil illegally added into traditional herbal medicinal preparations.

  16. Analysis of caged xanthones from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yan [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Liu Xin [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China); Yang Jing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Han Quanbin; Song Jingzheng; Li Songlin; Qiao Chunfeng [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Ding Lisheng [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province (China)], E-mail: lsding@cib.ac.cn; Xu Hongxi [Hong Kong Jockey Club Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: xuhongxi@hkjcicm.org

    2008-11-23

    On-line ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS/MS) has been developed for the analysis of a series of caged xanthones in the resin of Garcinia hanburyi. The fragmentation of protonated molecular ions for 12 known cadged xanthones was carried out using low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that Retro-Diels-Alder rearrangement occurred in the CID processes and produced the characteristic fragment ions, which are especially valuable for the identification of this class of xanthones. The fragmentation differential between some cis-, trans-isomers was uncovered. Computation methods were utilized to rationalize the observed MS behaviors. On-line UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS/MS method has proved to be rapid and efficient in that within 6 min, 15 caged scaffold xanthones, including three pairs of epimers and four pairs of isomers in gamboges, were effectively separated and identified. Among them, two known, namely isogambogenin (13) and isomorellinol (14) and one likely new caged Garcinia xanthones from the Garcinia hanburyi were tentatively characterized based on the tandem mass spectra of known ones.

  17. Identification of acteoside and its major metabolites in rat urine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Pengfei; Yang, Qiming; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-12-01

    In this study, metabolites in the urine samples of rats orally administered with acteoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside compound, were detected and identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS) combined with an automated MS(E) technique. Up to 35 metabolites (19 metabolites of the parent drug and 16 metabolites of the degradation products) were observed, including processes of oxidization, glucuronidation, sulfation, and methyl conjugation. According to the metabolic pathways, acteoside mainly functioned as a prodrug and underwent hydrolysis before being absorbed into the blood. The degradation products, especially caffeic acid and hydroxytyrosol, were involved in further metabolism which was responsible for the low oral bioavailability but obvious pharmacological activities of acteoside. In summary, this work provided valuable information on acteoside metabolism through the rapid and reliable UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS technique, which could be widely used for the investigation of natural product metabolites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical fingerprint analysis of phenolics of Albizia chinensis based on ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Abha; Kaur, Pushpinder; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Awasthi, Shiv; Lal, Brij

    2011-11-01

    Albizia species have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. However, efficient analytical methods for identification of their active constituents are still lacking. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study the phenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of different parts (flowers, leaves, pods and bark) of A. chinensis. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts was evaluated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging methods. Four compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the flowers and characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy as quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-arabinofuranoside, and myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside. Separation and quantification of the phenolics was accomplished using a reversed-phase BEH C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-water (0.05% formic acid), and detection wavelengths of 360 and 254 nm.

  19. Metabolites Software-Assisted Flavonoid Hunting in Plants Using Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yi Gu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolism drives the generation of metabolites used for host plant resistance, as biopesticides and botanicals, even for the discovery of new therapeutics for human diseases. Flavonoids are one of the largest and most studied classes of specialized plant metabolites. To quickly identify the potential bioactive flavonoids in herbs, a metabolites software-assisted flavonoid hunting approach was developed, which mainly included three steps: firstly, utilizing commercial metabolite software, a flavonoids database was established based on the biosynthetic pathways; secondly, mass spectral data of components in herbs were acquired by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS; and finally, the acquired LC-MS data were imported into the database and the compounds in the herbs were automatically identified by comparison of their mass spectra with the theoretical values. As a case study, the flavonoids in Smilax glabra were profiled using this approach. As a result, 104 flavonoids including 27 potential new compounds were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first report on profiling the components in the plants utilizing the plant metabolic principles with the assistance of metabolites software. This approach can be extended to the analysis of flavonoids in other plants.

  20. Rapid separation and identification of major constituents in Pseudolarix kaempferi by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xia; Tang, Minghai; Chen, Lijuan; Peng, Aihua; Ma, Liang; Ye, Haoyu

    2009-12-01

    A rapid and reliable method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode-array detection (PDA) and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) has been developed for separation and identification of major constituents in extracts of root bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (PKG). Identification of the constituents was carried out by interpretation of their retention times, UV absorption spectra, MS and MS/MS spectra, as well as the data provided by authentic standards and literatures. A total of 20 components were separated in only 8.0 min on a small particle size C18 column (1.7 microm). These components included nine diterpene acids, seven glycosides and four triterpenoids, among which pseudolaric acid C-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and pseudolaric acid C2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were separated and identified for the first time in this study. Furthermore, the fragmentation patterns of the three types of compounds were elucidated for the first time. This established UPLC-PDA/Q-TOF-MS/MS method is reliable and effective for the separation and identification of the 20 compounds and will be useful for quality control of the crude materials of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon and their related preparations. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. A 2 × 2 mm2 superconducting strip-line detector for high-performance time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Esposito, E; Ejrnaes, M; Cristiano, R; Suzuki, K; Ohkubo, M; Pagano, S

    2012-01-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of the latest generation of superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLD) for application in time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF MS) of heavy molecules. The SSLD is realized in the parallel strip-line configuration to achieve a 2 × 2 mm 2 sensitive area. The parallel SSLD is mounted in a TOF MS and tested at 4.2 K under bombardment of lysozyme molecules. The detector exhibits output pulses with rise and fall times of 500 ps and 2.3 ns respectively. We also present measurements of the time evolution during the acquisition of the singly and doubly charged monomers and singly charged dimers peaks in the mass spectrum. We argue that the observed behavior proves that parallel SSLD can perform charge state discrimination. The achievement of a 2 × 2 mm 2 sensitive area with an output pulse rise time in the region of the sub-nanosecond and a fall time of a few nanoseconds is a milestone in the development of superconducting detectors for TOF MS applications because it addresses important issues such as high mass resolution and high-throughput analysis. (paper)

  2. A novel method to analyze hepatotoxic components in Polygonum multiflorum using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Longfei; Lin, Hongmei; Zhang, Miao; Ni, Boran; Yin, Xingbin; Qu, Changhai; Ni, Jian

    2015-12-15

    Polygonum multiflorum, called Heshouwu in China, is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat various diseases. However, the administration of P. multiflorum (PM) and P. multiflorum Praeparata (PMP) causes numerous adverse effects. This study sought to analyze the toxic components of PM using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), and their hepatotoxicity in L02 human liver cells. Toxicity was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, and liver enzyme secretion (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) assays. Furthermore, UPLC-Q-TOF/MS, Progenesis QI, and Makerlynx XS software analyses were used to differentiate extracts and analyze the toxic components. The order of toxicity was P. multiflorum ethanol extract (PME)>P. multiflorum water extract (PMW)>P. multiflorum Praeparata ethanol extract (PMPE)>P. multiflorum Praeparata water extract (PMPW), which was determined by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and liver enzyme secretion levels. The analysis methods suggest that PM toxicity may be associated with anthraquinone, emodin-O-(malonyl)-hex, emodin-O-glc, emodin, emodin-8-O-glc, emodin-O-(acetyl)-hex, and emodin-O-hex-sulphate. The toxic mechanisms of these components require further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution patterns of flavonoids from three Momordica species by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry: a metabolomic profiling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntakadzeni Edwin Madala

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plants from the Momordica genus, Curcubitaceae, are used for several purposes, especially for their nutritional and medicinal properties. Commonly known as bitter gourds, melon and cucumber, these plants are characterized by a bitter taste owing to the large content of cucurbitacin compounds. However, several reports have shown an undisputed correlation between the therapeutic activities and polyphenolic flavonoid content. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry in combination with multivariate data models such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, three Momordica species (M. foetida Schumach., M. charantia L. and M. balsamina L. were chemo-taxonomically grouped based on their flavonoid content. Using a conventional mass spectrometric-based approach, thirteen flavonoids were tentatively identified and the three species were found to contain different isomers of the quercetin-, kaempferol- and isorhamnetin-O-glycosides. Our results indicate that Momordica species are overall very rich sources of flavonoids but do contain different forms thereof. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is a first report on the flavonoid content of M. balsamina L.

  4. Phytochemical and morphological characterization of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) cones over five developmental stages using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection, and light microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalier, Adam R; Litt, Amy; Ma, Chunhui; Pitra, Nicholi J; Coles, Mark C; Kennelly, Edward J; Matthews, Paul D

    2011-05-11

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) inflorescences, commonly known as "hop cones", are prized for their terpenophenolic contents, used in beer production and, more recently, in biomedical applications. In this study we investigated morphological and phytochemical characteristics of hop cones over five developmental stages, using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography photodiode array detection (UHPLC-PDA) methods to quantitate 21 polyphenolics and seven terpenophenolics. Additionally, we used light microscopy to correlate phytochemical quantities with changes in the morphology of the cones. Significant increases in terpenophenolics, concomitant with glandular trichome development and associated gross morphological changes, were mapped over development to fluctuations in contents of polyphenolic constituents and their metabolic precursor compounds. The methods reported here can be used for targeted metabolic profiling of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and terpenophenolics in hops, and are applicable to quantitation in other crops.

  5. Glycerolipid Profiling of Yellow Sarson Seeds Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuning ZHENG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yellow sarson (Brassica rapa ssp. trillocularis is an important rapeseed-mustard species of Brassica rapa due to its high seed oil content. Glycerolipids and fatty acid composition affect seed germination and determine the quality of seed oil. To date, no information is available on the composition of individual glycerolipids in this species. Therefore, in this study the glycerolipid profiling of yellow sarson seeds was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS. A fast and efficient chromatographic separation of glycerolipids was accomplished based on an UPLCTM BEH C8 column within 22 min. In ESI positive ion mode, TOF-MS scan-information dependent acquisition-product ion scan was carried out to acquire both high resolution MS and MS/MS information from one injection. According to MS/MS spectra, predominant fragmentation patterns of glycerolipids were elucidated in detail. Based on retention time, accurate mass, isotopic distribution, and fragmentation patterns, the composition of 144 glycerolipids and fatty acids were finally identified in yellow sarson seeds, including 77 triacylglycerols, 32 diacylglycerols, 18 sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerols, 5 monogalactosyl-diaclyglycerols, and 12 digalactosyl-diacylglycerols. Of them, the most abundant glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds were triacylglycerols, the major storage form of seed oil in plants. In addition, diacylglycerols were found as a minor component of glycerolipids. The lowest amounts of glycerolipids detected in seeds were glycosyl-acylglycerols. The results revealed the composition and relative content of glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds, which will provide a more comprehensive assessment of the quality of seed oil and also help to select functional cultivars with higher beneficial glycerolipids. This profiling method has the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity and good accuracy

  6. [Determination of congo red in beef by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Xu, Chunxiang; Yan, Chunrong; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Suilou

    2013-09-01

    A method was developed for the determination of congo red in beef. The analyte was identified by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the congo red in the beef sample was separated on an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution HD UPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) HPLC , using 95% (volume percentage) methanol as the mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. The detection was performed on an AB 4000 + triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results showed that the linear range of congo red mass concentration was 0.03 - 1 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 8. The method had a good precision with the RSDs lower than 5% and the recoveries ranging from 88% to 91%. The limit of detection (LOD) of congo red was 0.01 mg/L. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the determination of the illegally added congo red in beef and other meat products.

  7. High pressure gas storage system consumable analyses for ALT flights free flight 1 and free flight 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Consumables analyses are presented for the high pressure gas storage oxygen (O2), and hydrogen (H2) reactant systems for orbiter vehicle 101 approach and landing tests, for two flights, free flight 1 and free flight 6 are given. The consumables analyses are based on average power data. The required system and mission data updates were made in order to perform the analyses, notably the thermal environment profiles of the reactant storage cylinders and the power profile for the Electrical power subsystem. No mission-dependent environment profiles were provided; therefore, nominal free flight mission profile was used to generate environment profiles for free flights 1 and 6.

  8. Fast determination of intact glucosinolates in broccoli leaf by pressurized liquid extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Ana M; Bernal, José; Nozal, María J; Turner, Charlotta; Plaza, Merichel

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate for the first time the efficiency of an environmentally sustainable extraction technique (pressurized liquid extraction, PLE) in conjunction with a fast separation technique (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, UHPLC) coupled to a selective mass spectrometry (MS) detector (quadrupole time-of-flight, qTOF) to extract, separate and quantify fifteen intact-glucosinolates (GLSs) in broccoli leaves. Firstly, we have developed and optimized by means of an experimental design an efficient extraction procedure based on PLE (using ethanol/water as a solvent), giving complete extraction within 15min; meanwhile, the average analyte recoveries were between 85% and 96% in all cases. Chromatography was performed on a UHPLC BEH Shield RP18 1.7μm 110Å (2.1×100mm) analytical column with a mobile phase composed by formic acid in water (0.5%, v/v) and formic acid in acetonitrile (0.5%, v/v) in gradient elution mode at 0.3mL/min, resulted in baseline-separated peaks and a run time of 13min. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linearity, precision, and trueness; meanwhile a study of the matrix effect was also performed. A good selectivity, low LODs and LOQs, ranging from 2 to 26μg/g, wide linear ranges from LOQ to 2500μg/g, and satisfactory precision and trueness with relative standard deviation and relative error values lower than or equal to 9%, were obtained for the studied GLSs. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of intact-GLSs in fifteen broccoli leaf samples from three different cultivars (Parthenon, Nubia, and Naxos). Nine intact-GLSs were detected in all the varieties, although in different concentrations, which ranged between 14 and 1136μg/g, depending on the broccoli cultivar. In addition, the highest total content of GLSs was found in broccoli leaf samples from Parthenon cultivar, being the Naxos cultivar the poorest in GLS

  9. Determination of gamithromycin in an injection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Xin; Zhang, Gang; Song, Min; Liu, Min; Liang, Jing-Le; Xu, Jin-Lei; Shang, Fei; Qi, Peng

    2016-07-07

    In this study, a sensitive and precise method was developed for the determination of gamithromycin in an injection using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) and the results were compared with a similar analysis for the ion fragments of gamithromycin in MS/ MS. The sample was dissolved in methanol then filtered and separated on a C18 column using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (containing 2 mmol/L ammonium acetate) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min and the column temperature was 40 °C. The mass spectrometry conditions were electrospray ionization (ESI) operated in positive ion full scan mode and quantified using external calibration. Subsequently, ion fragments of the MS/MS were compared and analyzed. The linear range was 10 ∼ 200 μg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.77 μg/L and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 2.55 μg/L. The average recoveries of the intra-assay were 98.8%-105.6% with a relative standard deviation ranging from 1.79% to 2.38% and the inter-assay were 89.3%-110.7% with a relative standard deviation ranging from 4.93% to 6.27%. After the comparative analysis of the fragments with a Molecular Structure Correlator, the score of the total matching degree reached 83.19 and the scores of each ion fragment matching degree were all greater than 90, which supplied the basis for the confirmation of gamithromycin. The results indicated that the method was simple, sensitive and precise and could be applied in the determination of gamithromycin in real samples.

  10. In-flight performance analysis of MEMS GPS receiver and its application to precise orbit determination of APOD-A satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Defeng; Liu, Ye; Yi, Bin; Cao, Jianfeng; Li, Xie

    2017-12-01

    An experimental satellite mission termed atmospheric density detection and precise orbit determination (APOD) was developed by China and launched on 20 September 2015. The micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) GPS receiver provides the basis for precise orbit determination (POD) within the range of a few decimetres. The in-flight performance of the MEMS GPS receiver was assessed. The average number of tracked GPS satellites is 10.7. However, only 5.1 GPS satellites are available for dual-frequency navigation because of the loss of many L2 observations at low elevations. The variations in the multipath error for C1 and P2 were estimated, and the maximum multipath error could reach up to 0.8 m. The average code noises are 0.28 m (C1) and 0.69 m (P2). Using the MEMS GPS receiver, the orbit of the APOD nanosatellite (APOD-A) was precisely determined. Two types of orbit solutions are proposed: a dual-frequency solution and a single-frequency solution. The antenna phase center variations (PCVs) and code residual variations (CRVs) were estimated, and the maximum value of the PCVs is 4.0 cm. After correcting the antenna PCVs and CRVs, the final orbit precision for the dual-frequency and single-frequency solutions were 7.71 cm and 12.91 cm, respectively, validated using the satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, which were significantly improved by 3.35 cm and 25.25 cm. The average RMS of the 6-h overlap differences in the dual-frequency solution between two consecutive days in three dimensions (3D) is 4.59 cm. The MEMS GPS receiver is the Chinese indigenous onboard receiver, which was successfully used in the POD of a nanosatellite. This study has important reference value for improving the MEMS GPS receiver and its application in other low Earth orbit (LEO) nanosatellites.

  11. Application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in identification of three isoflavone glycosides and their corresponding metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiafen; Li, Xinhui; Liang, Xianrui

    2018-02-15

    Metabolites of isoflavones have attracted much attention in recent years due to their potential bioactivities. However, the complex constituents of the metabolic system and the low level of metabolites make them difficult to analyze. A mass spectrometry (MS) method was applied in our identification of metabolites and study of their fragmentation pathways due to the advantages of rapidity, sensitivity, and low level of sample consumption. Three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS). These metabolites were obtained by anaerobically incubating three isoflavone glycosides with human intestinal flora. The characteristic fragments of isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were used for the identification work. Two metabolites from ononin, three metabolites from irilone-4'-O-β-D-glucoside, and five metabolites from sissotrin were identified respectively by the retention time (RT), accurate mass, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. The losses of the glucosyl group, CO from the [M+H] + ion were observed for all the three isoflavone glycosides. The characteristic retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragmentation patterns were used to differentiate the compounds. The metabolic pathways of the three isoflavone glycosides were proposed according to the identified chemical structures of the metabolites. A selective, sensitive and rapid method was established for detecting and identifying three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites using UPLC/QTOF-MS. The established method can be used for further rapid structural identification studies of metabolites and natural products. Furthermore, the proposed metabolic pathways will be helpful for understanding the in vivo metabolic process of isoflavone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Identification and characterization of vilazodone metabolites in rats and microsomes by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Balasaheb B; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Tiwari, Shristy; Nimbalkar, Rakesh D; Garg, Prabha; Srinivas, R; Talluri, M V N Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). An extensive literature search found few reports on the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of vilazodone. Therefore, we report a comprehensive in vivo and in vitro metabolic identification and structural characterization of vilazodone using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF/MS/MS) and in silico toxicity study of the metabolites. To identify in vivo metabolites of vilazodone, blood, urine and faeces samples were collected at different time intervals starting from 0 h to 48 h after oral administration of vilazodone to Sprague-Dawley rats. The in vitro metabolism study was conducted with human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). The samples were prepared using an optimized sample preparation approach involving protein precipitation followed by solid-phase extraction. The metabolites have been identified and characterized by using LC/ESI-MS/MS. A total of 12 metabolites (M1-M12) were identified in in vivo and in vitro matrices and characterized by LC/ESI-MS/MS. The majority of the metabolites were observed in urine, while a few metabolites were present in faeces and plasma. Two metabolites were observed in the in vitro study. A semi-quantitative study based on percentage counts shows that metabolites M11, M6 and M8 were observed in higher amounts in urine, faeces and plasma, respectively. The structures of all the 12 metabolites were elucidated by using LC/ESI-MS/MS. The study suggests that vilazodone was metabolized via hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, glucuronidation, oxidative deamination, dealkylation, dehydrogenation and dioxidation. All the metabolites were screened for toxicity using an in silico tool. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Mohammat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China. There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  14. Development and validation of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method for rapid quantification of free amino acids in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Richard; Kuziene, Viktorija; Zou, Xin; Wang, Xueting; Pullen, Frank; Loo, Ruey Leng

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-MS) method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of 18 free amino acids in urine with a total acquisition time including the column re-equilibration of less than 18 min per sample. This method involves simple sample preparation steps which consisted of 15 times dilution with acetonitrile to give a final composition of 25 % aqueous and 75 % acetonitrile without the need of any derivatization. The dynamic range for our calibration curve is approximately two orders of magnitude (120-fold from the lowest calibration curve point) with good linearity (r (2) ≥ 0.995 for all amino acids). Good separation of all amino acids as well as good intra- and inter-day accuracy (amino acids in the prepared urine samples was found to be stable for 72 h at 4 °C, after one freeze thaw cycle and for up to 4 weeks at -80 °C. We have applied this method to quantify the content of 18 free amino acids in 646 urine samples from a dietary intervention study. We were able to quantify all 18 free amino acids in these urine samples, if they were present at a level above the LOD. We found our method to be reproducible (accuracy and precision were typically <10 % for QCL, QCM and QCH) and the relatively high sample throughput nature of this method potentially makes it a suitable alternative for the analysis of urine samples in clinical setting.

  15. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammat, Aziz; Yili, Abulimiti; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2017-05-01

    The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China). There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  16. Design and performance of a matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer utilizing a pulsed nitrogen laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.S.; Gilfrich, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    The design considerations and experimental performance of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are reported for performing matrix-assisted laser desorption studies. A simple pulsed gas-discharge nitrogen laser (337.1 nm) is successfully used in contrast to the more widely used frequency-quadrupled (266 nm) or frequency-tripled (355 nm) Nd:YAG solid-state laser. Optical considerations in utilizing the pulsed nitrogen laser are discussed and a simple optical arrangement is described which allows for suitable imaging of the poor spatial beam profile of the pulsed nitrogen laser. Laser spot sizes of 150x450 μm are obtainable. As with the frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser, sinapic acid is found to be the most useful matrix for producing protonated molecular species from proteins. Appropriate laser power levels are determined, as matrix/sample levels. Adequate response for most small to medium molecular weight proteins is obtained for less than 1 pmol of sample. A simple einsel lens incorporated into the ion source does not appear to provide any significant focusing on the laser-desorbed ions; however, a constant d.c. voltage applied to beam stirring plates enhances the ion signal significantly. Selective, pulsed deflection of the low-mass ions produced from the matrix is also utilized to prevent excessive saturation of the microchannel plate ion detector. High source potentials are found to provide improved resolution and sensitivity in comparison with lower source potentials combined with post-acceleration at the detector. Representative mass spectra of several proteins and peptides are presented. Increased formation of photoinduced adduct ions are observed in comparison with that reported for matrix-assisted laser desorption experiments utilizing a Nd:YAG laser and significant amounts of dimer and trimer ions are produced. Significantly more peak broadening than would normally be expected is observed above 20000 u. This may be due to the post-acceleration design of

  17. Effects of boiling duration in processing of White Paeony Root on its overall quality evaluated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics analysis and high performance liquid chromatography quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Kong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Huan-Huan; Xu, Jin-Di; Li, Xiu-Yang; Lu, Min; Wang, Chun-Ru; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Boiling processing is commonly used in post-harvest handling of White Paeony Root (WPR), in order to whiten the herbal materials and preserve the bright color, since such WPR is empirically considered to possess a higher quality. The present study was designed to investigate whether and how the boiling processing affects overall quality of WPR. First, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was developed to compare the holistic quality of boiled and un-boiled WPR samples. Second, ten major components in WPR samples boiled for different durations were quantitatively determined using high performance liquid chromatography to further explore the effects of boiling time on the holistic quality of WPR, meanwhile the appearance of the processed herbal materials was observed. The results suggested that the boiling processing conspicuously affected the holistic quality of WPR by simultaneously and inconsistently altering the chemical compositions and that short-time boiling processing between 2 and 10 min could both make the WPR bright-colored and improve the contents of major bioactive components, which were not achieved either without boiling or with prolonged boiling. In conclusion, short-term boiling (2-10 min) is recommended for post-harvest handling of WPR. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Flight Test Series 3: Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Mike; Sternberg, Daniel; Valkov, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    This document is a flight test report from the Operational perspective for Flight Test Series 3, a subpart of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) project. Flight Test Series 3 testing began on June 15, 2015, and concluded on August 12, 2015. Participants included NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Langley Research center, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., and Honeywell. Key stakeholders analyzed their System Under Test (SUT) in two distinct configurations. Configuration 1, known as Pairwise Encounters, was subdivided into two parts: 1a, involving a low-speed UAS ownship and intruder(s), and 1b, involving a high-speed surrogate ownship and intruder. Configuration 2, known as Full Mission, involved a surrogate ownship, live intruder(s), and integrated virtual traffic. Table 1 is a summary of flights for each configuration, with data collection flights highlighted in green. Section 2 and 3 of this report give an in-depth description of the flight test period, aircraft involved, flight crew, and mission team. Overall, Flight Test 3 gathered excellent data for each SUT. We attribute this successful outcome in large part from the experience that was acquired from the ACAS Xu SS flight test flown in December 2014. Configuration 1 was a tremendous success, thanks to the training, member participation, integration/testing, and in-depth analysis of the flight points. Although Configuration 2 flights were cancelled after 3 data collection flights due to various problems, the lessons learned from this will help the UAS in the NAS project move forward successfully in future flight phases.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Nose Cap to Silica Tile Joint of RLV-TD under the Simulated Flight Environment using Plasma Wind Tunnel Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Aravindakshan; Krishnaraj, K.; Sreenivas, N.; Nair, Praveen

    2017-12-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation, India has successfully flight tested the reusable launch vehicle through launching of a demonstration flight known as RLV-TD HEX mission. This mission has given a platform for exposing the thermal protection system to the real hypersonic flight thermal conditions and thereby validated the design. In this vehicle, the nose cap region is thermally protected by carbon-carbon followed by silica tiles with a gap in between them for thermal expansion. The gap is filled with silica fibre. Base material on which the C-C is placed is made of molybdenum. Silica tile with strain isolation pad is bonded to aluminium structure. These interfaces with a variety of materials are characterised with different coefficients of thermal expansion joined together. In order to evaluate and qualify this joint, model tests were carried out in Plasma Wind Tunnel facility under the simultaneous simulation of heat flux and shear levels as expected in flight. The thermal and flow parameters around the model are determined and made available for the thermal analysis using in-house CFD code. Two tests were carried out. The measured temperatures at different locations were benign in both these tests and the SiC coating on C-C and the interface were also intact. These tests essentially qualified the joint interface between C-C and molybdenum bracket and C-C to silica tile interface of RLV-TD.

  20. The advancement of a new human factors report--'The Unique Report'--facilitating flight crew auditing of performance/operations as part of an airline's safety management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leva, M C; Cahill, J; Kay, A M; Losa, G; McDonald, N

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the specification of a new human factors report, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems project, sponsored by the European Commission. Specifically, it describes the proposed concept for a unique report, which will form the basis for all operational and safety reports completed by flight crew. This includes all mandatory and optional reports. Critically, this form is central to the advancement of improved processes and technology tools, supporting airline performance management, safety management, organisational learning and knowledge integration/information-sharing activities. Specifically, this paper describes the background to the development of this reporting form, the logic and contents of this form and how reporting data will be made use of by airline personnel. This includes a description of the proposed intelligent planning process and the associated intelligent flight plan concept, which makes use of airline operational and safety analyses information. Primarily, this new reporting form has been developed in collaboration with a major Spanish airline. In addition, it has involved research with five other airlines. Overall, this has involved extensive field research, collaborative prototyping and evaluation of new reports/flight plan concepts and a number of evaluation activities. Participants have included both operational and management personnel, across different airline flight operations processes. Statement of Relevance: This paper presents the development of a reporting concept outlined through field research and collaborative prototyping within an airline. The resulting reporting function, embedded in the journey log compiled at the end of each flight, aims at enabling employees to audit the operations of the company they work for.

  1. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James

    1993-01-01

    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  2. Free Flight Ground Testing of ADEPT in Advance of the Sounding Rocket One Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.

  3. Selected Flight Test Results for Online Learning Neural Network-Based Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate neural network-based adaptive controller benefits, with the objective to develop and flight-test control systems using neural network technology to optimize aircraft performance under nominal conditions and stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. This report presents flight-test results for an adaptive controller using stability and control derivative values from an online learning neural network. A dynamic cell structure neural network is used in conjunction with a real-time parameter identification algorithm to estimate aerodynamic stability and control derivative increments to baseline aerodynamic derivatives in flight. This open-loop flight test set was performed in preparation for a future phase in which the learning neural network and parameter identification algorithm output would provide the flight controller with aerodynamic stability and control derivative updates in near real time. Two flight maneuvers are analyzed - pitch frequency sweep and automated flight-test maneuver designed to optimally excite the parameter identification algorithm in all axes. Frequency responses generated from flight data are compared to those obtained from nonlinear simulation runs. Flight data examination shows that addition of flight-identified aerodynamic derivative increments into the simulation improved aircraft pitch handling qualities.

  4. Effects of sample injection amount and time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection dynamic range on metabolome analysis by high-performance chemical isotope labeling LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruokun; Li, Liang

    2015-04-06

    The effect of sample injection amount on metabolome analysis in a chemical isotope labeling (CIL) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platform was investigated. The performance of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometers with and without a high-dynamic-range (HD) detection system was compared in the analysis of (12)C2/(13)C2-dansyl labeled human urine samples. An average of 1635 ± 21 (n = 3) peak pairs or putative metabolites was detected using the HD-TOF-MS, compared to 1429 ± 37 peak pairs from a conventional or non-HD TOF-MS. In both instruments, signal saturation was observed. However, in the HD-TOF-MS, signal saturation was mainly caused by the ionization process, while in the non-HD TOF-MS, it was caused by the detection process. To extend the MS detection range in the non-HD TOF-MS, an automated switching from using (12)C to (13)C-natural abundance peaks for peak ratio calculation when the (12)C peaks are saturated has been implemented in IsoMS, a software tool for processing CIL LC-MS data. This work illustrates that injecting an optimal sample amount is important to maximize the metabolome coverage while avoiding the sample carryover problem often associated with over-injection. A TOF mass spectrometer with an enhanced detection dynamic range can also significantly increase the number of peak pairs detected. In chemical isotope labeling (CIL) LC-MS, relative metabolite quantification is done by measuring the peak ratio of a (13)C2-/(12)C2-labeled peak pair for a given metabolite present in two comparative samples. The dynamic range of peak ratio measurement does not need to be very large, as only subtle changes of metabolite concentrations are encountered in most metabolomic studies where relative metabolome quantification of different groups of samples is performed. However, the absolute concentrations of different metabolites can be very different, requiring a technique to provide a wide detection dynamic range to allow the detection of as

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Major Triterpenoids in Alismatis Rhizoma by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Diode-Array Detector/Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alismatis Rhizoma (AMR is a well-known natural medicine with a long history in Chinese medicine and has been commonly used for treating a wide range of ailments related to dysuria, edema, nephropathy, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, inflammation as well as tumors in clinical applications. Most beneficial effects of AMR are attributed to the presence of protostane terpenoids, the major active ingredients of Alismatis Rhizoma (AMR. In this study, a systematic high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF MS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ MS method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major AMR triterpenoids. First, a total of 25 triterpenoid components, including 24 known compounds and one new compound were identified by comparison with UV spectra, molecular ions and fragmentation behaviors of reference standards or the literature. Second, an efficient method was established for the rapid simultaneous determination of 14 representative triterpenoids by UPLC-QqQ MS. Forty-three batches of AMR were analyzed with linearity (r, 0.9980–0.9999, intra-day precision (RSD, 1.18%–3.79%, inter-day precision (RSD, 1.53%–3.96%, stability (RSD, 1.32%–3.97%, repeatability (RSD, 2.21%–4.25%, and recovery (98.11%–103.8%. These results indicated that new approaches combining HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF MS and UPLC-QqQ MS are applicable in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of AMR.

  6. Design and performance of a new positron computed tomograph (P.C.T.) using the time-of-flight (T.O.F.) information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, M.; Allemand, R.; Bouvier, A.

    1982-09-01

    A new tomograph for positron imaging using the time of flight measurement is described. Fast CsF crystals are used in this first prototype. Compared to the classical reconstruction method, the results of adding this information is a substantial increase of sensitivity, a reduced random coincidence count rate, and slight decrease of a scatter contribution in the images. Further improvements in the T.O.F. accuracy can be expected in using faster crystals

  7. Metabolite discovery of helicidum in rat urine with XCMS based on the data of ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfei; Shi, Yun; Guo, Tuo; Wang, Yong; Cong, Wenjuan; Zhu, Jingjie

    2012-10-15

    The present study demonstrates the use of XCMS (various forms (X) of chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry), an open-source software tool primarily used in bioinformatics, on the data of ultra-performance liquid chromatography connected online with a mass spectrometer (UPLC/MS) for the discovery of the metabolites of helicidum in urine after oral single dosage to rats. Helicidum (formaldehydephenyl-O-β-D-pyranosyl alloside) is the major active component of the fruits of Helicid hilagirica Beed. In China, it is often used in the clinic to treat neurasthenic syndromes, vascular headache, and trigeminal neuralgia with high efficacy and low side effect and toxicity. The urine samples of five rats were collected during 0-4, 4-8, 8-12, 12-16, 16-20, 20-24, 24-32, 32-40, and 40-48 h, respectively, after oral administration of helicidum at a dosage of 25.0 mg/kg. A UPLC coupled to time-of-flight MS (UPLC/TOF MS) was used to analyze the samples. Concerning XCMS, the ".raw" format files were preliminarily converted to the open mzXML format using massWolf-4.3.1 (http://sourceforge.net/projects/sashimi/files/massWolf%20(MassLynx%20converter)/). For converting lots of files a time, we wrote a tool rawTomzXML which also uses massWolf-4.3.1. The data were processed using XCMS version l.26.0 (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/2.8/bioc/html/xcms.html) running under R version 2.13 (http://http://www.r-project.org/) which provided the running platform for XCMS. The "centWave" method from XCMS was used for chromatographic peak detection. Based on the m/z data of the metabolites obtained by XCMS, MS was used to identify the molecular formula. Nine metabolites were finally found and identified. For six of them, the bio-transformation mechanisms of the parent compound was elucidated: glucuronide conjugation (C(19)H(24)O(14)), reduction (C(13)H(18)O(7)), oxidation (C(13)H(16)O(8)), methylation (C(14)H(18)O(7)), and the mixed transformation of reduction, methylation, and

  8. 3-D Flash Lidar Performance in Flight Testing on the Morpheus Autonomous, Rocket-Propelled Lander to a Lunar-Like Hazard Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roback, Vincent E.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Barnes, Bruce W.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a 3-D imaging Flash Lidar instrument has been used in flight to scan a lunar-like hazard field, build a 3-D Digital Elevation Map (DEM), identify a safe landing site, and, in concert with an experimental Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system, help to guide the Morpheus autonomous, rocket-propelled, free-flying lander to that safe site on the hazard field. The flight tests served as the TRL 6 demo of the Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) system and included launch from NASA-Kennedy, a lunar-like descent trajectory from an altitude of 250m, and landing on a lunar-like hazard field of rocks, craters, hazardous slopes, and safe sites 400m down-range. The ALHAT project developed a system capable of enabling safe, precise crewed or robotic landings in challenging terrain on planetary bodies under any ambient lighting conditions. The Flash Lidar is a second generation, compact, real-time, air-cooled instrument. Based upon extensive on-ground characterization at flight ranges, the Flash Lidar was shown to be capable of imaging hazards from a slant range of 1 km with an 8 cm range precision and a range accuracy better than 35 cm, both at 1-delta. The Flash Lidar identified landing hazards as small as 30 cm from the maximum slant range which Morpheus could achieve (450 m); however, under certain wind conditions it was susceptible to scintillation arising from air heated by the rocket engine and to pre-triggering on a dust cloud created during launch and transported down-range by wind.

  9. Ultrasonic inspection method for billet using time-of-flight deviation of bottom echo and its performance evaluation in numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryusuke; Mizutani, Koichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    In this study, defect detection and size estimation in a billet by a single transducer using time-of-flight deviation of an ultrasonic bottom echo were carried out, and the validity of the method was evaluated by numerical simulation. As a result, a defect can be detected regardless of the defect position, even when the defect is near the surface of a billet. Defect size can be estimated by our proposed method when the defect is not near the surface of a billet.

  10. Performance of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium spp. in the Australian Clinical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Sue; Halliday, Catriona L; Chapman, Belinda; Brown, Mitchell; Nitschke, Joanne; Lau, Anna F; Chen, Sharon C-A

    2016-08-01

    We developed an Australian database for the identification of Aspergillus, Scedosporium, and Fusarium species (n = 28) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In a challenge against 117 isolates, species identification significantly improved when the in-house-built database was combined with the Bruker Filamentous Fungi Library compared with that for the Bruker library alone (Aspergillus, 93% versus 69%; Fusarium, 84% versus 42%; and Scedosporium, 94% versus 18%, respectively). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The Cibola flight experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, Michael Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salazar, Anthony [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roussel - Dupre, Diane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katko, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, Joseph [ISE-3; Robinson, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wirthlin, Michael [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Howes, William [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV; Richins, Daniel [BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIV

    2009-01-01

    The Cibola Flight Experiment (CFE) is an experimental small satellite carrying a reconfigurable processing instrument developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that demonstrates the feasibility of using FPGA-based high-performance computing for sensor processing in the space environment. The CFE satellite was launched on March 8, 2007 in low-earth orbit and has operated extremely well since its deployment. The nine Xilinx Virtex FPGAs used in the payload have been used for several high-throughput sensor processing applications and for single-event upset (SEU) monitoring and mitigation. This paper will describe the CFE system and summarize its operational results. In addition, this paper will describe the results from several SEU detection circuits that were performed on the spacecraft.

  12. Onset of Oviposition Triggers Abrupt Reduction in Migratory Flight Behavior and Flight Muscle in the Female Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Cheng

    Full Text Available Flight and reproduction are usually considered as two life history traits that compete for resources in a migratory insect. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L., manages the costs of migratory flight and reproduction through a trade-off in timing of these two life history traits, where migratory behavior occurs during the preoviposition period. To gain insight into how migratory flight and reproduction are coordinated in the female beet webworm, we conducted experiments beginning at the end of the preoviposition period. We used flight mills to test whether flight performance and supportive flight musculature and fuel are affected by the number of eggs oviposited, or by the age of mated and unmated females after onset of oviposition by the former. The results showed that flight distance, flight velocity, flight duration, and flight muscle mass decreased abruptly at the onset of oviposition, compared to that of virgin females of the same age which did not change over the next 7 d. These results indicate that onset of oviposition triggers a decrease in flight performance and capacity in female beet webworms, as a way of actively managing reallocation of resources away from migratory flight and into egg production. In addition to the abrupt switch, there was a gradual, linear decline in flight performance, flight muscle mass, and flight fuel relative to the number of eggs oviposited. The histolysis of flight muscle and decrease of triglyceride content indicate a progressive degradation in the ability of adults to perform additional migratory flights after onset of oviposition. Although the results show that substantial, albeit reduced, long-duration flights remain possible after oviposition begins, additional long-distance migratory flights probably are not launched after the initiation of oviposition.

  13. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  14. F-15 IFCS: Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS). The goals of this project include: 1) Demonstrate revolutionary control approaches that can efficiently optimize aircraft performance in both normal and failure conditions; and 2) Demonstrate advance neural network-based flight control technology for new aerospace systems designs.

  15. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single Event Effect(SEE)Performance on Orbview-2 and Xray Timing Explorer(XTE)Solid State Recorders (SSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poivey, Christian; Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Ken A.; Gee, George; Safren, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Single Event Effect (SEE) in-flight data on Solid State Recorders (SSR) that have been collected over a long period of time for two NASA spacecraft: Orbview-2 and XTE. SEE flight data on solid-state memories give an opportunity to study the behavior in space of SEE sensitive commercial devices. The actual Single Event Upset (SEU) rates can be compared with the calculated rates based on environment models and ground test data. The SEE mitigation schemes can also be evaluated in actual implementation. A significant amount of data has already been published concerning observed SEE effects on memories in space. However, most of the data presented cover either a short period of time or a small number of devices. The data presented here has been collected on a large number of devices during several years. This allows statistically significant information about the effect of space weather fluctuations on SEU rates, and the effectiveness of SEE countermeasures used to be analyzed. Only Orbview-2 data is presented in this summary. XTE data will be included in the final paper.

  16. Kilowatt isotope power system phase II plan. Volume II: flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-01

    The Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Flight System Conceptual Design (FSCD) is described. Included are a background, a description of the flight system conceptual design, configuration of components, flight system performance, Ground Demonstration System test results, and advanced development tests.

  17. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: X-40A Flight Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The flight test objectives are: Evaluate calculated air data system (CADS) experiment. Evaluate Honeywell SIGI (GPS/INS) under flight conditions. Flight operation control center (FOCC) site integration and flight test operations. Flight test and tune GN&C algorithms. Conduct PID maneuvers to improve the X-37 aero database. Develop computer air date system (CADS) flight data to support X-37 system design.

  18. Radiometric Performance of the Clouds and The Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Proto-Flight Model on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft for 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Kory J.; Lee, Robert B., III; Green, Richard N.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    On November 27, 1997 the CERES Proto-Flight Model (PFM) instrument package was launched on the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft National Space Development Agency) NASA /Japan launch vehicle placed the TRMM spacecraft into a low-inclination 35-deg, 350-km altitude orbit. Analysis of the first thirteen months of on-orbit internal calibration and calibration validation studies indicate that the ground-based radiometric calibrations, which were tied to ITS'90 have been successfully carried into orbit to within 0.12, 0.08, and 0.29 percent for the Total, Window and Shortwave channels respectively. Additionally, these analyses have indicated that on-orbit radiometric stability has remained at levels of better than 0.13. 0.2 and 0.2-percent for the Total Window and Shortwave channels. In TOA these levels correspond to magnitudes of less than 0.3, 0.2 and 0.15 v /sq m.

  19. HP-41CV Flight Performance Advisory System (FPAS) for the E-2C, E-2B, and C-2A Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Grumman engineers have assured E-2 flight crew that the microwave enerqy field that sweeps through the cockpit is not a health Razard. The transitory nature ...bandy, however, such parameters can easily be computed assuming the linear fuel consumption nature of the E-2 and C-2. 136 10. 2 iU.Uu ATo IS", 1. It is...F Pr1N~ Di~5~iCiiirv 1 ~e7-T-- 4- i_-jr !ATIQ F i ht Aanual NAVAIR 01-E2AAA-1: aSN, 1977. 5. Nr2 IA.TO P ligtht Maua 1AVAIR O1-85V5A-1: UJSN, 1973. 6

  20. X-37 Flight Demonstrator: Approach and Landing Test Vehicle Flight Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    Approach and Lending Test Vehicle (ALTV) reduces risk to the X-37 orbital vehicle (OV) flight program by: Testing a subset of OV technologies in a critical portion of the flight envelope. Validating the calculated air data system (CADS) performance/subsonic aerodynamic database. Demonstrating OV approach and landing trajectory. Expending the operational flight envelope of the OV-enabling more landing opportunities for orbital missions.

  1. Ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) for analysis of lignin-derived monomeric compounds in processed lignin samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothmann, Jens; Sun, Mingzhe; Spégel, Peter; Sandahl, Margareta; Turner, Charlotta

    2017-12-01

    The conversion of lignin to potentially high-value low molecular weight compounds often results in complex mixtures of monomeric and oligomeric compounds. In this study, a method for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of 40 lignin-derived compounds using ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS) has been developed. Seven different columns were explored for maximum selectivity. Makeup solvent composition and ion source settings were optimised using a D-optimal design of experiment (DoE). Differently processed lignin samples were analysed and used for the method validation. The new UHPSFC/QTOF-MS method showed good separation of the 40 compounds within only 6-min retention time, and out of these, 36 showed high ionisation efficiency in negative electrospray ionisation mode. Graphical abstract A rapid and selective method for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of 40 lignin-derived compounds using ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/QTOF-MS).

  2. Flight Deck I-Glasses, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight Deck i-Glasses is a color, stereoscopic 3-D display mounted on consumer style eye glass frames that will enhance operator performance and multi-modal...

  3. Optimization Study for Hovering Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Allen, James J.; Balakumar, B. J.

    2009-11-01

    A scaled robotic hummingbird model was used to perform a flow analysis of hovering flight at a range of Reynolds numbers (1,750hummingbird hovers (Re 3600), which suggests that hummingbirds hover in a highly efficient manner.

  4. Intelligent Flight Control System and Aeronautics Research at NASA Dryden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nelson A.

    2009-01-01

    This video presentation reviews the F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System and contains clips of flight tests and aircraft performance in the areas of target tracking, takeoff and differential stabilators. Video of the APG milestone flight 1g formation is included.

  5. Combination of quantitative analysis and chemometric analysis for the quality evaluation of three different frankincenses by ultra high performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Lei; Tian, Run-tao; Jin, Hong-yu; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Gu, Bing-ren

    2015-10-01

    Frankincense has gained increasing attention in the pharmaceutical industry because of its pharmacologically active components such as boswellic acids. However, the identity and overall quality evaluation of three different frankincense species in different Pharmacopeias and the literature have less been reported. In this paper, quantitative analysis and chemometric evaluation were established and applied for the quality control of frankincense. Meanwhile, quantitative and chemometric analysis could be conducted under the same analytical conditions. In total 55 samples from four habitats (three species) of frankincense were collected and six boswellic acids were chosen for quantitative analysis. Chemometric analyses such as similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were used to identify frankincense of three species to reveal the correlation between its components and species. In addition, 12 chromatographic peaks have been tentatively identified explored by reference substances and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results indicated that the total boswellic acid profiles of three species of frankincense are similar and their fingerprints can be used to differentiate between them. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.

  7. Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewoehner, Kevin R.; Carter, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The research accomplishments for the cooperative agreement 'Online Learning Flight Control for Intelligent Flight Control Systems (IFCS)' include the following: (1) previous IFC program data collection and analysis; (2) IFC program support site (configured IFC systems support network, configured Tornado/VxWorks OS development system, made Configuration and Documentation Management Systems Internet accessible); (3) Airborne Research Test Systems (ARTS) II Hardware (developed hardware requirements specification, developing environmental testing requirements, hardware design, and hardware design development); (4) ARTS II software development laboratory unit (procurement of lab style hardware, configured lab style hardware, and designed interface module equivalent to ARTS II faceplate); (5) program support documentation (developed software development plan, configuration management plan, and software verification and validation plan); (6) LWR algorithm analysis (performed timing and profiling on algorithm); (7) pre-trained neural network analysis; (8) Dynamic Cell Structures (DCS) Neural Network Analysis (performing timing and profiling on algorithm); and (9) conducted technical interchange and quarterly meetings to define IFC research goals.

  8. Adaptive nonlinear flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysdyk, Rolf Theoduor

    1998-08-01

    Research under supervision of Dr. Calise and Dr. Prasad at the Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Aerospace Engineering. has demonstrated the applicability of an adaptive controller architecture. The architecture successfully combines model inversion control with adaptive neural network (NN) compensation to cancel the inversion error. The tiltrotor aircraft provides a specifically interesting control design challenge. The tiltrotor aircraft is capable of converting from stable responsive fixed wing flight to unstable sluggish hover in helicopter configuration. It is desirable to provide the pilot with consistency in handling qualities through a conversion from fixed wing flight to hover. The linear model inversion architecture was adapted by providing frequency separation in the command filter and the error-dynamics, while not exiting the actuator modes. This design of the architecture provides for a model following setup with guaranteed performance. This in turn allowed for convenient implementation of guaranteed handling qualities. A rigorous proof of boundedness is presented making use of compact sets and the LaSalle-Yoshizawa theorem. The analysis allows for the addition of the e-modification which guarantees boundedness of the NN weights in the absence of persistent excitation. The controller is demonstrated on the Generic Tiltrotor Simulator of Bell-Textron and NASA Ames R.C. The model inversion implementation is robustified with respect to unmodeled input dynamics, by adding dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness of signals in the system is included. The effectiveness of the robustification is also demonstrated on the XV-15 tiltrotor. The SHL Perceptron NN provides a more powerful application, based on the universal approximation property of this type of NN. The SHL NN based architecture is also robustified with the dynamic nonlinear damping. A proof of boundedness extends the SHL NN augmentation with robustness to unmodeled actuator

  9. A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

  10. Impact of Vehicle Flexibility on IRVE-II Flight Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, David M.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dillman, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment II (IRVE-II) successfully launched from Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on August 17, 2009. The primary objectives of this flight test were to demonstrate inflation and re-entry survivability, assess the thermal and drag performance of the reentry vehicle, and to collect flight data for refining pre-flight design and analysis tools. Post-flight analysis including trajectory reconstruction outlined in O Keefe3 demonstrated that the IRVE-II Research Vehicle (RV) met mission objectives but also identified a few anomalies of interest to flight dynamics engineers. Most notable of these anomalies was high normal acceleration during the re-entry pressure pulse. Deflection of the inflatable aeroshell during the pressure pulse was evident in flight video and identified as the likely cause of the anomaly. This paper provides a summary of further post-flight analysis with particular attention to the impact of aeroshell flexibility on flight dynamics and the reconciliation of flight performance with pre-flight models. Independent methods for estimating the magnitude of the deflection of the aeroshell experienced on IRVE-II are discussed. The use of the results to refine models for pre-flight prediction of vehicle performance is then described.

  11. HAI: A novel airborne multi-channel hygrometer for fast multi-phase H2O quantification: Performance of the HAI instrument during the first flights on the German HALO aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Ebert, V.; Kraemer, M.; Afchine, A.

    2014-12-01

    Common gas phase H2O measurements on fast airborne platforms e.g. using backward facing or "Rosemount"-inlets can lead to a high risk of ice and droplets contamination. In addition, currently no single hygrometer exists that allows a simultaneous, high-speed measurement of all phases (gas, liquid, ice) with the same detection principle. In the rare occasions multi-phase measurements are realized, gas-and condensed-phase observations rely on different methods, instruments and calibration strategies so that precision and accuracy levels are quite difficult to quantify. This is effectively avoided by the novel TDLAS instrument, HAI, Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigation, which allows a simultaneous, high speed, multi-phase detection without any sensor calibration in a unique "2+2" channel concept. Hai combines two independent wavelength channels, at 1.4 µm and at 2.6 µm, for a wide dynamic range from 1 to 30 000 ppmv, with a simultaneous closed path (extractive) and open path detection. Thus, "Total", i.e. gas-phase plus condensed-phase water is measured by sampling via a forward facing inlet into "closed-path" extractive cells. A selective, sampling-free, high speed gas phase detection is realized via a dual-wavelength "open-path" cell placed outside of the aircraft fuselage. All channels can be sampled with 120 Hz (measurement cycle time Dt=1.6 ms) allowing an unprecedented spatial resolution of 30 cm at 900 km/h. The evaluation of the individual multi-channel raw-data is done post flight, without any channel interdependencies, in calibration-free mode, thus allowing fast, accurate and precise multi-phase water detection in flight. The performance could be shown in more than 200 net flights hours in three scientific flight campaigns (TACTS, ESMVal, ML-CIRRUS) on the new German HALO aircraft. In addition the level of the accuracy of the calibration free evaluation was evaluated at the German national primary water vapor standard.

  12. MinXSS-1 CubeSat On-Orbit Pointing and Power Performance: The First Flight of the Blue Canyon Technologies XACT 3-axis Attitude Determination and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, James Paul; Baumgart, Matt; Rogler, Bryan; Downs, Chloe; Williams, Margaret; Woods, Thomas N.; Palo, Scott; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Solomon, Stanley; Jones, Andrew; Li, Xinlin; Kohnert, Rick; Caspi, Amir

    2017-12-01

    The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) is a three-unit (3U) CubeSat designed for a three-month mission to study solar soft X-ray spectral irradiance. The first of the two flight models was deployed from the International Space Station in May 2016, and operated for one year before its natural deorbiting. This was the first flight of the Blue Canyon Technologies XACT 3-axis attitude determination and control system - a commercially available, high-precision pointing system. The performance of the pointing system on orbit was characterized, including performance at low altitudes where drag torque builds up. It was found that the pointing accuracy was 0.0042° - 0.0117° (15" - 42", 3σ, axis dependent) consistently from 190 km - 410 km, slightly better than the specification sheet states. Peak-to-peak jitter was estimated to be 0.0073° (10 s^-1) - 0.0183° (10 s^-1) (26" (10 s^-1) - 66" (10 s^-1), 3σ). The system was capable of dumping mome ntum until an altitude of 185 km. Small amounts of sensor degradation were found in the star tracker and coarse sun sensor. The mission profile did not require high-agility maneuvers, so it was not possible to characterize this metric. Without a GPS receiver, it was necessary to periodically upload ephemeris information to update the orbit propagation model and maintain pointing. At 400 km, these uploads were required once every other week; at ˜270 km, they were required every day. The power performance of the electric power system was also characterized, including use of a novel pseudo-peak power tracker - a resistor that limited the current draw from the battery on the solar panels. With 19 30% efficient solar cells and an 8 W system load, the power balance had 65% of margin on orbit. The current paper presents several recommendations to other CubeSat programs throughout.

  13. Application of Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Constituents and Metabolites from the Extracts of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingzhi; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Hui; Meng, Xiangcai; Yan, Guangli; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr and Maxim) Harms (AS), a member of Araliaceae family, is a typical folk medicinal herb, which is widely distributed in the Northeastern part of China. Due to lack of this resource caused by the extensive use of its root, this work studied the chemical constituents of leaves of this plant with the purpose of looking for an alternative resource. In this work, a fast and optimized ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) has been developed for the analysis of constituents in leaves extracts. A total of 131 compounds were identified or tentatively characterized including triterpenoid saponins, phenols, flavonoids, lignans, coumarins, polysaccharides, and other compounds based on their fragmentation behaviors. Besides, a total of 21 metabolites were identified in serum in rats after oral administration, among which 12 prototypes and 9 metabolites through the metabolic pathways of reduction, methylation, sulfate conjugation, sulfoxide to thioether and deglycosylation. The coupling of UPLC-QTOF-MS led to the in-depth characterization of the leaves extracts of AS both in vitro and in vivo on the basis of retention time, mass accuracy, and tandem MS/MS spectra. It concluded that this analytical tool was very valuable in the study of complex compounds in medicinal herb. A fast UPLC-QTOF-MS has been developed for analysis of constituents in leaves extractsA total of 131 compounds were identified in leaves extractsA total of 21 metabolites including 12 prototypes and 9 metabolites were identified in vivo. Constituent's analysis of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms leaf by ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Abbreviations used: AS: Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr and Maxim) Harms, TCHM: Traditional Chinese herbal medicine, UPLC-QTOF-MS: Ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, MS

  14. EO framing flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lareau, Andre G.

    1995-09-01

    Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) has pioneered the electro-optical (E-O) framing generation of sensors with the CA-260, a KS-87 form/fit camera with a wafer-scale focal plane array (FPA) containing a patented, on-chip, forward motion compensation (FMC) architecture. The technology has now matured to the state where production E-O framing cameras are form/fit replacing their former film counterparts. During this interim production phase, flight demonstrations and tests are continuing to prove that E-O framing produces high-quality imagery, is robust to various platforms and mission tactics, interoperable with existing and planned C3I architectures, affordable and available, and meets the war-fighters needs. This paper discusses flight test results of the CA-260 E-O framing sensor flown in the F-14A TARPS during September 1994. This demonstration provided some unique imagery permitting a comparison of low-light level, in-flight FMC-on versus FMC-off performance. A first-level comparison of the resulting imagery based upon predicted FMC performance and post- processing numerical analysis is presented. The results indicae that the patented FMC architecture performed as predicted, and that for low-light conditions resulting in limited SNR images, on-chip FMC can provide a significant image quality improvement over post- processing alternatives.

  15. Development of a Laser Test Range for the Italian Air Force: Airborne Laser Systems Performance Prediction, Safety Analysis, Flight Testing and Operational Training

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the research work performed for designing, developing and testing a new laser test and training range for the Italian Air Force. This includes the design of new range instrumentation and facilities, development of innovative methods for military systems performance prediction/evaluation and determination of eye-safety requirements for employment of ground and airborne laser systems at the laser range (during both experimental and training activities), and ...

  16. Long migration flights of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight. (paper)

  17. Long migration flights of birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The extremely long migration flights of some birds are carried out in one hop, necessitating a substantial prior build-up of fat fuel. We summarize the basic elements of bird flight physics with a simple model, and show how the fat reserves influence flight distance, flight speed and the power expended by the bird during flight.

  18. Hypersonic and planetary entry flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Busemann, A.; Culp, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The book treats hypersonic flight trajectories and atmospheric entry flight mechanics in light of their importance for space shuttle entry. Following a review of the structures of planetary atmospheres and aerodynamic forces, equations are derived for flight over a spherical planet, and the performance of long-range hypervelocity vehicles in extra-atmospheric flight is analyzed. Consideration is then given to vehicle trajectories in the powered and atmospheric reentry phases of flight, and several first-order solutions are derived for various planetary entry situations. The second-order theory of Loh for entry trajectories is presented along with the classical theories of Yaroshevskii and Chapman for entry into planetary atmospheres, and the thermal problems encountered in hypersonic flight are analyzed. A unified theory for entry into planetary atmospheres is then introduced which allows the performance of a general type of lifting vehicle to be studied, and applied to the analysis of orbit contraction due to atmospheric drag, flight with lift modulation and lateral maneuvers.

  19. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  20. IVGEN Post Flight Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquillen, John; Brown, Dan; Hussey, Sam; Zoldak, John

    2014-01-01

    The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment was a technology demonstration experiment that purified ISS potable water, mixed it with salt, and transferred it through a sterilizing filter. On-orbit performance was verified as appropriate and two 1.5 l bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA certified laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopiea (USP) standards. Salt concentration deviated from required values and an analysis identified probable causes. Current efforts are focused on Total Organic Content (TOC) testing, and shelf life.The Intravenous Fluid Generation (IVGEN) Experiment demonstrated the purification of ISS potable water, the mixing of the purified water with sodium chloride, and sterilization of the solution via membrane filtration. On-orbit performance was monitored where feasible and two 1.5-liter bags of normal saline solution were returned to earth for post-flight testing by a FDA-registered laboratory for compliance with United States Pharmacopeia (USP)standards [1]. Current efforts have been focused on challenge testing with identified [2] impurities (total organic-carbon), and shelf life testing. The challenge testing flowed known concentrations of contaminants through the IVGEN deionizing cartridge and membrane filters to test their effectiveness. One finding was that the filters and DI-resin themselves contribute to the contaminant load during initial startup, suggesting that the first 100 ml of fluid be discarded. Shelf life testing is ongoing and involves periodic testing of stored DI cartridges and membrane filters that are capped and sealed in hermetic packages. The testing is conducted at six month intervals measuring conductivity and endotoxins in the effluent. Currently, the packaging technique has been successfully demonstrated for one year of storage testing. The USP standards specifies that the TOC be conducted at point of generation as opposed to point of

  1. The Flight Control System of the Hovereye (Trademark) VTOL UAV

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binetti, Paolo; Trouchet, Daniel; Pollini, Lorenzo; Innocenti, Mario; Hamel, Tarek; Le Bras, Florent

    2007-01-01

    ..... This system stabilizes the vehicle, provides operators with easy manual flight commands, and automatically performs mission segments such as automatic landing, in the face of strong gusting wind...

  2. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  3. Chemical profiling of Qixue Shuangbu Tincture by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin-Wei; Wang, Qin; Qin, Kun-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Bin; Chen, Dan-Ni; Cai, Bao-Chang; Cai, Ting

    2016-02-01

    The present study was designed to develop and validate a sensitive and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method to separate and identify the chemical constituents of Qixue Shuangbu Tincture (QXSBT), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription. Under the optimized UPLC and QTOF/MS conditions, 56 components in QXSBT, including chalcones, triterpenoids, protopanaxatriol, flavones and flavanones were identified and tentatively characterized within a running time of 42 min. The components were identified by comparing the retention times, accurate mass, and mass spectrometric fragmentation characteristic ions, and matching empirical molecular formula with that of the published compounds. In conclusion, the established UPLC-QTOF/MS method was reliable for a rapid identification of complicated components in the TCM prescriptions. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation for the Automated Flight Test Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartt, David M.; Hewett, Marle D.; Duke, Eugene L.; Cooper, James A.; Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1989-01-01

    The Automated Flight Test Management System (ATMS) is being developed as part of the NASA Aircraft Automation Program. This program focuses on the application of interdisciplinary state-of-the-art technology in artificial intelligence, control theory, and systems methodology to problems of operating and flight testing high-performance aircraft. The development of a Flight Test Engineer's Workstation (FTEWS) is presented, with a detailed description of the system, technical details, and future planned developments. The goal of the FTEWS is to provide flight test engineers and project officers with an automated computer environment for planning, scheduling, and performing flight test programs. The FTEWS system is an outgrowth of the development of ATMS and is an implementation of a component of ATMS on SUN workstations.

  5. Nonclassical Flight Control for Unhealthy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.

  6. The hybrid bio-inspired aerial vehicle: Concept and SIMSCAPE flight simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao Zhang; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces a Silver Gull-inspired hybrid aerial vehicle, the Super Sydney Silver Gull (SSSG), which is able to vary its structure, under different manoeuvre requirements, to implement three flight modes: the flapping wing flight, the fixed wing flight, and the quadcopter flight (the rotary wing flight of Unmanned Air Vehicle). Specifically, through proper mechanism design and flight mode transition, the SSSG can imitate the Silver Gull's flight gesture during flapping flight, save power consuming by switching to the fixed wing flight mode during long-range cruising, and hover at targeted area when transferring to quadcopter flight mode. Based on the aerodynamic models, the Simscape, a product of MathWorks, is used to simulate and analyse the performance of the SSSG's flight modes. The entity simulation results indicate that the created SSSG's 3D model is feasible and ready to be manufactured for further flight tests.

  7. Simulations and measurements of the performance of a channeled neutron guide for a time-of-flight spectrometer at the NIST Center for Neutron Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Jeremy C.; Copley, John R.D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the identification and analysis of the principal sources of intensity loss within the five-channeled neutron guide tube that was originally installed in the chopper section of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research. (The purpose of the five channels was to optimize intensity and resolution in three different modes of operation known as ''resolution modes.'') By combining measurements, Monte Carlo simulations, and analytical calculations, we have developed a model that successfully explains performance losses in the original guide. We have used this model to quantify expected returns in performance using a replacement guide in which the principal contributions to the intensity loss are reduced to the minimum achievable with current technology. We have also estimated the intensity gains that would be achieved if one of the limited number of options were adopted for modifying the original guide in a manner likely to produce such gains. We describe factors that affect the performance of the original guide and compare the measured and predicted performance of the modified guide against predictions for the optimal replacement guide. The simulations indicate that the modified guide (which has three channels rather than the original five) produces greater intensity gains over a large incident wavelength band for the low and medium resolution modes, whereas a high quality replacement guide greatly improves performance in the high resolution mode of operation. Because the low and medium resolution modes are most heavily demanded, we opted to modify the guide rather than replace it. We describe the nature of this modification and present intensity measurements that meet or exceed predictions in all resolution modes with no detectable change in the energy resolution nor increase in the instrumental background

  8. Hypersonic Flight Mechanics. [for atmospheric entry trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemann, A.; Vinh, N. X.; Culp, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of aerodynamic forces on trajectories at orbital speeds are discussed in terms of atmospheric models. The assumptions for the model are spherical symmetry, nonrotating, and an exponential atmosphere. The equations of flight, and the performance in extra-atmospheric flight are discussed along with the return to the atmosphere, and the entry. Solutions of the exact equations using directly matched asymptotic expansions are presented.

  9. Aerodynamic maneuvering hypersonic flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desautel, Dick

    1988-01-01

    The emergence of current high-interest mission involving aeromaneuvering hypersonic flight has given rise to the corresponding need for preliminary design and performance analyses of such vehicles. This need in turn has motivated efforts to develop simplified analytical and computational methods for parametric analysis of maneuvering hypersonic flight under conditions appropriate to the mission involved. The effort included a review of different formulations of the general equations of motion, their associated coordinate frames, various simplifications of the equations, and previously achieved analytical solutions. This study sought to both extend previous solution methods and to develop new ones. In addition, evaluation of the literature and developing a systematic perspective on the knowledge it represents proved to be a major portion of the effort.

  10. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  11. Toward intelligent flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Flight control systems can benefit by being designed to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories: declarative, procedural, and reflexive. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are more-or-less spontaneous and are similar to inner-loop control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems will contain a hierarchy of expert systems, procedural algorithms, and computational neural networks, each expanding on prior functions to improve mission capability to increase the reliability and safety of flight and to ease pilot workload.

  12. Radiations and space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalouf, M.; Vogin, G.; Foray, N.; Maalouf; Vogin, G.

    2011-01-01

    A space flight is submitted to 3 main sources of radiation: -) cosmic radiation (4 protons/cm 2 /s and 10000 times less for the heaviest particles), -) solar radiation (10 8 protons/cm 2 /s in the solar wind), -) the Van Allen belt around the earth: the magnetosphere traps particles and at an altitude of 500 km the proton flux can reach 100 protons/cm 2 /s. If we take into account all the spatial missions performed since 1960, we get an average dose of 400 μGray per day with an average dose rate of 0.28 μGray/mn. A significant risk of radiation-induced cancer is expected for missions whose duration is over 250 days.The cataract appears to be the most likely non-cancerous health hazard due to the exposition to comic radiation. Its risk appears to have been under-estimated, particularly for doses over 8 mGray. Some studies on astronauts have shown for some a very strong predisposition for radio-induced cancers: during the reparation phase of DNA breaking due to irradiation, multiple new damages are added by the cells themselves that behave abnormally. (A.C.)

  13. Closed loop performance of a brushless dc motor powered electromechanical actuator for flight control applications. [computerized simulation for Shuttle Orbiter applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis and possible optimization of the closed loop dynamic (instantaneous) performance of a power conditioner fed, brushless dc motor powered, electromechanical actuator system (EMA) is presented. This model was developed for the simulation of the dynamic performance of an actual prototype EMA built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators for consideration in Space Shuttle Orbiter applications. Excellent correlation was achieved between numerical model simulation and experimental test results obtained from the actual hardware. These results include: various current and voltage waveforms in the machine-power conditioner (MPC) unit, flap position as well as other control loop variables in response to step commands of change of flap position. These results with consequent conclusions are detailed in the paper.

  14. Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid-Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Validation for Determination of 128 Pesticides in Bananas by Modified QuEChERS and UHPLC–MS/MS Analysis. Food Control 2013, 33, 413–423. 23. Sinha, S.N...213. 30. Kolakowski, B.M.; DʼAgostino, P.A.; Chenier, C.; Mester, Z. Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents in Food Products by Atmospheric Pressure...QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE

  15. Flight Test Implementation of a Second Generation Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Hayes, Peggy S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA F-15 Intelligent Flight Control System project team has developed a series of flight control concepts designed to demonstrate the benefits of a neural network-based adaptive controller. The objective of the team was to develop and flight-test control systems that use neural network technology, to optimize the performance of the aircraft under nominal conditions, and to stabilize the aircraft under failure conditions. Failure conditions include locked or failed control surfaces as well as unforeseen damage that might occur to the aircraft in flight. The Intelligent Flight Control System team is currently in the process of implementing a second generation control scheme, collectively known as Generation 2 or Gen 2, for flight testing on the NASA F-15 aircraft. This report describes the Gen 2 system as implemented by the team for flight test evaluation. Simulation results are shown which describe the experiment to be performed in flight and highlight the ways in which the Gen 2 system meets the defined objectives.

  16. Initial Flight Test of the Production Support Flight Control Computers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John; Stephenson, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed the initial flight test of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers that gives the aircraft a research control law capability. The production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provide an increased capability for flight research in the control law, handling qualities, and flight systems areas. The PSFCC feature a research flight control processor that is "piggybacked" onto the baseline F/A-18 flight control system. This research processor allows for pilot selection of research control law operation in flight. To validate flight operation, a replication of a standard F/A-18 control law was programmed into the research processor and flight-tested over a limited envelope. This paper provides a brief description of the system, summarizes the initial flight test of the PSFCC, and describes future experiments for the PSFCC.

  17. Fingerprint analysis and quality consistency evaluation of flavonoid compounds for fermented Guava leaf by combining high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Tian, Xiaofei; Wei, Wenhao; Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-10-01

    Guava leaves are used in traditional herbal teas as antidiabetic therapies. Flavonoids are the main active of Guava leaves and have many physiological functions. However, the flavonoid compositions and activities of Guava leaves could change due to microbial fermentation. A high-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was applied to identify the varieties of the flavonoids in Guava leaves before and after fermentation. High-performance liquid chromatography, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were used to quantitatively determine the changes in flavonoid compositions and evaluate the consistency and quality of Guava leaves. Monascus anka Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermented Guava leaves contained 2.32- and 4.06-fold more total flavonoids and quercetin, respectively, than natural Guava leaves. The flavonoid compounds of the natural Guava leaves had similarities ranging from 0.837 to 0.927. The flavonoid compounds from the Monascus anka S. cerevisiae fermented Guava leaves had similarities higher than 0.993. This indicated that the quality consistency of the fermented Guava leaves was better than that of the natural Guava leaves. High-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting and chemometric analysis are promising methods for evaluating the degree of fermentation of Guava leaves based on quality consistency, which could be used in assessing flavonoid compounds for the production of fermented Guava leaves. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Overview of Pre-Flight Physical Training, In-Flight Exercise Countermeasures and the Post-Flight Reconditioning Program for International Space Station Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) astronauts receive supervised physical training pre-flight, utilize exercise countermeasures in-flight, and participate in a structured reconditioning program post-flight. Despite recent advances in exercise hardware and prescribed exercise countermeasures, ISS crewmembers are still found to have variable levels of deconditioning post-flight. This presentation provides an overview of the astronaut medical certification requirements, pre-flight physical training, in-flight exercise countermeasures, and the post-flight reconditioning program. Astronauts must meet medical certification requirements on selection, annually, and prior to ISS missions. In addition, extensive physical fitness testing and standardized medical assessments are performed on long duration crewmembers pre-flight. Limited physical fitness assessments and medical examinations are performed in-flight to develop exercise countermeasure prescriptions, ensure that the crewmembers are physically capable of performing mission tasks, and monitor astronaut health. Upon mission completion, long duration astronauts must re-adapt to the 1 G environment, and be certified as fit to return to space flight training and active duty. A structured, supervised postflight reconditioning program has been developed to prevent injuries, facilitate re-adaptation to the 1 G environment, and subsequently return astronauts to training and space flight. The NASA reconditioning program is implemented by the Astronaut Strength, Conditioning, and Rehabilitation (ASCR) team and supervised by NASA flight surgeons. This program has evolved over the past 10 years of the International Space Station (ISS) program and has been successful in ensuring that long duration astronauts safely re-adapt to the 1 g environment and return to active duty. Lessons learned from this approach to managing deconditioning can be applied to terrestrial medicine and future exploration space flight missions.

  19. Free Flight Rotorcraft Flight Test Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, W. Todd; Walker, Gregory W.

    1994-01-01

    A rotary wing, unmanned air vehicle (UAV) is being developed as a research tool at the NASA Langley Research Center by the U.S. Army and NASA. This development program is intended to provide the rotorcraft research community an intermediate step between rotorcraft wind tunnel testing and full scale manned flight testing. The technologies under development for this vehicle are: adaptive electronic flight control systems incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, small-light weight sophisticated sensors, advanced telepresence-telerobotics systems and rotary wing UAV operational procedures. This paper briefly describes the system's requirements and the techniques used to integrate the various technologies to meet these requirements. The paper also discusses the status of the development effort. In addition to the original aeromechanics research mission, the technology development effort has generated a great deal of interest in the UAV community for related spin-off applications, as briefly described at the end of the paper. In some cases the technologies under development in the free flight program are critical to the ability to perform some applications.

  20. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  1. 1999 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on May 18-20, 1999. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  2. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  3. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  4. Pre- and post-flight radiation performance evaluation of the space GPS receiver (SGR); Evaluation de la tenue aux radiations, avant et apres lancement, du recepteur GPS spatial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.; Unwin, M.J.; Asenek, V. [Surrey Univ., Surrey Space Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom); Harboe-Sorensen, R. [European Space Agency, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    SSTL (Survey Satellite Technology Ltd), in collaboration with ESA/ESTEC, recently developed a state-of-the-art low cost GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver payload for use on small satellites. The space GPS Receiver (SGR), will be flown on the TiungSAT-1 micro-satellite, UoSAT-12 mini-satellite and ESA's PROBA satellite. The SGR payload is currently flying on the TMSAT micro-satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) and has carried out autonomous on-board positioning whilst also providing an experimental test-bed for evaluating spacecraft attitude determination algorithms. In order to reduce development time and costs, the SGR consists solely of industry standard COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) devices. This paper describes the ground-based radiation testing of several payload-critical COTS devices used in the SGR payload and describes its on-orbit performance. (authors)

  5. Rapid prototyping facility for flight research in artificial-intelligence-based flight systems concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Regenie, V. A.; Deets, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Facility of the NASA Ames Research Center is developing a rapid prototyping facility for flight research in flight systems concepts that are based on artificial intelligence (AI). The facility will include real-time high-fidelity aircraft simulators, conventional and symbolic processors, and a high-performance research aircraft specially modified to accept commands from the ground-based AI computers. This facility is being developed as part of the NASA-DARPA automated wingman program. This document discusses the need for flight research and for a national flight research facility for the rapid prototyping of AI-based avionics systems and the NASA response to those needs.

  6. Neutron time-of-flight spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copley, J.R.D.; Udovic, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    The time-of-flight technique is employed in two of the instruments at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). A pulsed monochromatic beam strikes the sample, and the energies of scattered neutrons are determined from their times-of-flight to an array of detectors. The time-of-flight method may be used in a variety of types of experiments such as studies of vibrational and magnetic excitations, tunneling spectroscopy, and quasielastic scattering studies of diffusional behavior; several examples of experiments are discussed. The authors also present brief descriptions of the CNRF time-of-flight instruments, including their modi operandi and some of their more pertinent parameters and performance characteristics

  7. Integrated Neural Flight and Propulsion Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshige, John; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated neural flight and propulsion control system. which uses a neural network based approach for applying alternate sources of control power in the presence of damage or failures. Under normal operating conditions, the system utilizes conventional flight control surfaces. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions and for different aircraft configurations. Under damage or failure conditions, the system may utilize unconventional flight control surface allocations, along with integrated propulsion control, when additional control power is necessary for achieving desired flight control performance. In this case, neural networks are used to adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and control allocation schemes. Of significant importance here is the fact that this system can operate without emergency or backup flight control mode operations. An additional advantage is that this system can utilize, but does not require, fault detection and isolation information or explicit parameter identification. Piloted simulation studies were performed on a commercial transport aircraft simulator. Subjects included both NASA test pilots and commercial airline crews. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  8. 2nd Generation QUATARA Flight Computer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, Jay; Keys, Andrew; Fraticelli, Jose Molina; Capo-Iugo, Pedro; Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Single core flight computer boards have been designed, developed, and tested (DD&T) to be flown in small satellites for the last few years. In this project, a prototype flight computer will be designed as a distributed multi-core system containing four microprocessors running code in parallel. This flight computer will be capable of performing multiple computationally intensive tasks such as processing digital and/or analog data, controlling actuator systems, managing cameras, operating robotic manipulators and transmitting/receiving from/to a ground station. In addition, this flight computer will be designed to be fault tolerant by creating both a robust physical hardware connection and by using a software voting scheme to determine the processor's performance. This voting scheme will leverage on the work done for the Space Launch System (SLS) flight software. The prototype flight computer will be constructed with Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components which are estimated to survive for two years in a low-Earth orbit.

  9. Combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) in systematic toxicological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broecker, Sebastian; Pragst, Fritz; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Herre, Sieglinde; Tsokos, Michael

    2011-10-10

    Time of flight mass spectrometry provides new possibilities of substance identification by determination of the molecular formula from accurate molecular mass and isotope pattern. However, the huge number of possible isomers requires additional evidence. As a suitable way for routine performance of systematic toxicological analysis, a method for combined use of liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed and applied to blood samples from 77 death cases. The blood samples were prepared by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2) and by protein precipitation with acetonitrile (1:4 (v/v)). The evaporated extracts were reconstituted in 35% acetonitril/0.1% formic acid/H(2)O and aliquots were injected for analysis by LC-QTOF-MS (Agilent 6530) and HPLC-DAD (Agilent 1200). A valve switching system enabled simultaneous operation of both separated chromatographic lines under their respective optimal conditions using the same autosampler. The ESI-QTOF-MS instrument was run in data dependent acquisition mode with switching between MS and MS/MS (cycle time 1.1s) and measuring the full mass spectra and the collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment spectra of all essential [M+H](+) ions. Libraries of accurate mass CID spectra (~2500 substances) and of DAD-UV spectra (~3300 substances) of the authors were used for substance identification. The application of this procedure is demonstrated in detail at four examples with multiple drug intake or administration. In the 77 cases altogether 198 substances were identified (87 by DAD and 195 by QTOF-MS) with a frequency between 1 and 20. In practical application, the sample preparation proved to be suitable for both techniques and for a wide variety of substances with different polarity. The automatic performance of the measurements was efficient and robust. Mutual confirmation, decrease of false positive and

  10. Social psychology on the flight deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Social psychological and personality factors that can influence resource management on the flight deck are discussed. It is argued that personality and situational factors intersect to determine crew responses and that assessment of performance under full crew and mission conditions can provide the most valuable information about relevant factors. The possibility of training procedures to improve performance on these dimensions is discussed.

  11. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  12. A sociotechnical model of the flight crew task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Joan; McDonald, Nick; Losa, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to advance an improved model of Flight Crew task performance. Existing task models present a "local" description of Flight Crew task performance. Process mapping workshops, interviews, and observations were conducted with both pilots and flight operations personnel from five airlines, as part of the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems (HILAS) project. The functional logic of the process dictates Flight Crew task requirements and specific task workflows. The Flight Crew task involves managing different levels of operational and environmental complexity, associated with the particular flight context. In so doing, the Flight Crew act as a coordinating interface between different human agents involved in the Active Flight Operations process and other processes that interface with this process. This article presents a new sociotechnical model of the Flight Crew task. The proposed model reflects a shift from a local explanation of Flight Crew task activity to a broader process-centric explanation. In so doing, it illuminates the complex role of procedures in commercial operations. The task model suggests specific requirements for pilot task support tools, procedures design, performance evaluation and crew resource management (CRM) training. Also, this model might be used to assess future operational concepts and associated technology requirements. Lastly, this model provides the basis for the operational validation of both existing and future cockpit technologies.

  13. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids and alkaloids from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. using high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yujie; Chen, Xi; Qi, Jin; Yu, Boyang

    2016-07-01

    A reliable method, combining qualitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quantitative assessment by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection, has been developed to simultaneously analyze flavonoids and alkaloids in lotus leaf extracts. In the qualitative analysis, a total of 30 compounds, including 12 flavonoids, 16 alkaloids, and two proanthocyanidins, were identified. The fragmentation behaviors of four types of flavone glycoside and three types of alkaloid are summarized. The mass spectra of four representative components, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, norcoclaurine, nuciferine, and neferine, are shown to illustrate their fragmentation pathways. Five pairs of isomers were detected and three of them were distinguished by comparing the elution order with reference substances and the mass spectrometry data with reported data. In the quantitative analysis, 30 lotus leaf samples from different regions were analyzed to investigate the proportion of eight representative compounds. Quercetin 3-O-glucuronide was found to be the predominant constituent of lotus leaf extracts. For further discrimination among the samples, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis, based on the areas of the eight quantitative peaks, were carried out. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  15. DAST in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The modified BQM-34 Firebee II drone with Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1), a supercritical airfoil, during a 1980 research flight. The remotely-piloted vehicle, which was air launched from NASA's NB-52B mothership, participated in the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program which ran from 1977 to 1983. The DAST 1 aircraft (Serial #72-1557), pictured, crashed on 12 June 1980 after its right wing ripped off during a test flight near Cuddeback Dry Lake, California. The crash occurred on the modified drone's third free flight. These are the image contact sheets for each image resolution of the NASA Dryden Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Photo Gallery. From 1977 to 1983, the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (under two different names) conducted the DAST Program as a high-risk flight experiment using a ground-controlled, pilotless aircraft. Described by NASA engineers as a 'wind tunnel in the sky,' the DAST was a specially modified Teledyne-Ryan BQM-34E/F Firebee II supersonic target drone that was flown to validate theoretical predictions under actual flight conditions in a joint project with the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The DAST Program merged advances in electronic remote control systems with advances in airplane design. Drones (remotely controlled, missile-like vehicles initially developed to serve as gunnery targets) had been deployed successfully during the Vietnamese conflict as reconnaissance aircraft. After the war, the energy crisis of the 1970s led NASA to seek new ways to cut fuel use and improve airplane efficiency. The DAST Program's drones provided an economical, fuel-conscious method for conducting in-flight experiments from a remote ground site. DAST explored the technology required to build wing structures with less than normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of

  16. Aerodynamics of bird flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvořák Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike airplanes birds must have either flapping or oscillating wings (the hummingbird. Only such wings can produce both lift and thrust – two sine qua non attributes of flying.The bird wings have several possibilities how to obtain the same functions as airplane wings. All are realized by the system of flight feathers. Birds have also the capabilities of adjusting the shape of the wing according to what the immediate flight situation demands, as well as of responding almost immediately to conditions the flow environment dictates, such as wind gusts, object avoidance, target tracking, etc. In bird aerodynamics also the tail plays an important role. To fly, wings impart downward momentum to the surrounding air and obtain lift by reaction. How this is achieved under various flight situations (cruise flight, hovering, landing, etc., and what the role is of the wing-generated vortices in producing lift and thrust is discussed.The issue of studying bird flight experimentally from in vivo or in vitro experiments is also briefly discussed.

  17. STS-72 Flight Day 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-72 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Brian Duffy, Pilot Brent W. Jett, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, Daniel T. Barry, Winston E. Scott, and Koichi Wakata (NASDA), awakened to music from the Walt Disney movie, 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.' Chiao and Scott performed the second spacewalk of the mission where they tested equipment and work platforms that will be used in building the planned International Space Station. This spacewalk was almost seven hours long. Wakata conducted an interview with and answered questions from six graders from a Japanese school in Houston, Texas.

  18. Flight Planning in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Sarah L.; Chapman, Bruce D.; Tung, Waye W.; Zheng, Yang

    2011-01-01

    This new interface will enable Principal Investigators (PIs), as well as UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) members to do their own flight planning and time estimation without having to request flight lines through the science coordinator. It uses an all-in-one Google Maps interface, a JPL hosted database, and PI flight requirements to design an airborne flight plan. The application will enable users to see their own flight plan being constructed interactively through a map interface, and then the flight planning software will generate all the files necessary for the flight. Afterward, the UAVSAR team can then complete the flight request, including calendaring and supplying requisite flight request files in the expected format for processing by NASA s airborne science program. Some of the main features of the interface include drawing flight lines on the map, nudging them, adding them to the current flight plan, and reordering them. The user can also search and select takeoff, landing, and intermediate airports. As the flight plan is constructed, all of its components are constantly being saved to the database, and the estimated flight times are updated. Another feature is the ability to import flight lines from previously saved flight plans. One of the main motivations was to make this Web application as simple and intuitive as possible, while also being dynamic and robust. This Web application can easily be extended to support other airborne instruments.

  19. X-37 Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The photograph depicts the X-37 neutral buoyancy simulator mockup at Dryden Flight Research Center. The X-37 experimental launch vehicle is roughly 27.5 feet (8.3 meters) long and 15 feet (4.5 meters) in wingspan. Its experiment bay is 7 feet (2.1 meters) long and 4 feet (1.2 meters) in diameter. Designed to operate in both the orbital and reentry phases of flight, the X-37 will increase both safety and reliabiltiy, while reducing launch costs from $10,000 per pound to $1000 per pound. Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the boeing Company, the X-37 is scheduled to fly two orbital missions in 2002/2003 to test the reusable launch vehicle technologies.

  20. Implementation and flight tests for the Digital Integrated Automatic Landing System (DIALS). Part 1: Flight software equations, flight test description and selected flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueschen, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Five flight tests of the Digital Automated Landing System (DIALS) were conducted on the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Research Vehicle (TSRV) -- a modified Boeing 737 aircraft for advanced controls and displays research. These flight tests were conducted at NASA's Wallops Flight Center using the microwave landing system (MLS) installation on runway 22. This report describes the flight software equations of the DIALS which was designed using modern control theory direct-digital design methods and employed a constant gain Kalman filter. Selected flight test performance data is presented for localizer (runway centerline) capture and track at various intercept angles, for glideslope capture and track of 3, 4.5, and 5 degree glideslopes, for the decrab maneuver, and for the flare maneuver. Data is also presented to illustrate the system performance in the presence of cross, gust, and shear winds. The mean and standard deviation of the peak position errors for localizer capture were, respectively, 24 feet and 26 feet. For mild wind conditions, glideslope and localizer tracking position errors did not exceed, respectively, 5 and 20 feet. For gusty wind conditions (8 to 10 knots), these errors were, respectively, 10 and 30 feet. Ten hands off automatic lands were performed. The standard deviation of the touchdown position and velocity errors from the mean values were, respectively, 244 feet and 0.7 feet/sec.

  1. On Choosing a Rational Flight Trajectory to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordienko, E. S.; Khudorozhkov, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The algorithm for choosing a trajectory of spacecraft flight to the Moon is discussed. The characteristic velocity values needed for correcting the flight trajectory and a braking maneuver are estimated using the Monte Carlo method. The profile of insertion and flight to a near-circular polar orbit with an altitude of 100 km of an artificial lunar satellite (ALS) is given. The case of two corrections applied during the flight and braking phases is considered. The flight to an ALS orbit is modeled in the geocentric geoequatorial nonrotating coordinate system with the influence of perturbations from the Earth, the Sun, and the Moon factored in. The characteristic correction costs corresponding to corrections performed at different time points are examined. Insertion phase errors, the errors of performing the needed corrections, and the errors of determining the flight trajectory parameters are taken into account.

  2. A Trajectory Generation Approach for Payload Directed Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey A.; Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    Presently, flight systems designed to perform payload-centric maneuvers require preconstructed procedures and special hand-tuned guidance modes. To enable intelligent maneuvering via strong coupling between the goals of payload-directed flight and the autopilot functions, there exists a need to rethink traditional autopilot design and function. Research into payload directed flight examines sensor and payload-centric autopilot modes, architectures, and algorithms that provide layers of intelligent guidance, navigation and control for flight vehicles to achieve mission goals related to the payload sensors, taking into account various constraints such as the performance limitations of the aircraft, target tracking and estimation, obstacle avoidance, and constraint satisfaction. Payload directed flight requires a methodology for accurate trajectory planning that lets the system anticipate expected return from a suite of onboard sensors. This paper presents an extension to the existing techniques used in the literature to quickly and accurately plan flight trajectories that predict and optimize the expected return of onboard payload sensors.

  3. Metabolomic profiling of Campylobacter jejuni with resistance gene ermB by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qin; Liu, Dejun; Wang, Yingyu; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Lina; Yu, Fugen; Shen, Jianzhong; Xia, Xi

    2018-03-15

    The metabolome changes of Campylobacter jejuni with resistant gene ermB remain unclear. Here, we described an untargeted metabolomic workflow based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the metabolites perturbations mediated by ermB in C. jejuni. After optimization of extractants and chromatographic conditions, the combination of 100% methanol extraction with a 12 min gradient by C18 column was adopted for untargeted metabolomic profiling in reversed phase separation. Meanwhile, 60% methanol extraction followed by a 14 min separation using hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was suitable to complementally expand the metabolite coverage of C. jejuni. Multivariate statistical analysis was performed by means of orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis to select metabolic features. The selected features were further confirmed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry. A total of thirty-six differential metabolites between the susceptible strain (C. jejuni NCTC 11168) and resistant stain (C. jejuni NCTC 11168 with ermB) were identified. These pivotal metabolites were primarily participated in biological processes as cell signaling, membrane integrity/stability, fuel and energy source/storage and nutrient. The biofilm formation capability of resistant strain was inferior to that of susceptible strain, confirming the influence of ermB on membrane integrity/stability of C. jejuni. Our findings revealed important metabolic regulatory pathways associated with resistant C. jejuni with ermB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flight calls and orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Andersen, Bent Bach; Kropp, Wibke

    2008-01-01

      In a pilot experiment a European Robin, Erithacus rubecula, expressing migratory restlessness with a stable orientation, was video filmed in the dark with an infrared camera and its directional migratory activity was recorded. The flight overhead of migrating conspecifics uttering nocturnal...... flight calls was simulated by sequential computer controlled activation of five loudspeakers placed in a linear array perpendicular to the bird's migration course. The bird responded to this stimulation by changing its migratory course in the direction of that of the ‘flying conspecifics' but after about...

  5. 2001 Flight Mechanics Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John P. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium held on June 19-21, 2001. Sponsored by the Guidance, Navigation and Control Center of Goddard Space Flight Center, this symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to attitude/orbit determination, prediction and control; attitude simulation; attitude sensor calibration; theoretical foundation of attitude computation; dynamics model improvements; autonomous navigation; constellation design and formation flying; estimation theory and computational techniques; Earth environment mission analysis and design; and, spacecraft re-entry mission design and operations.

  6. Quantitative analysis of flavanones from citrus fruits by using mesoporous molecular sieve-based miniaturized solid phase extraction coupled to ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wan; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Peng, Li-Qing; Zhu, Qiong-Yao; Zhang, Qian-Yun; Hu, Shuai-Shuai

    2015-08-07

    An analytical procedure based on miniaturized solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for determination of six flavanones in Citrus fruits. The mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 as a solid sorbent was characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, compared with reported extraction techniques, the mesoporous SBA-15 based SPE method possessed the advantages of shorter analysis time and higher sensitivity. Furthermore, considering the different nature of the tested compounds, all of the parameters, including the SBA-15 amount, solution pH, elution solvent, and the sorbent type, were investigated in detail. Under the optimum condition, the instrumental detection and quantitation limits calculated were less than 4.26 and 14.29ngmL(-1), respectively. The recoveries obtained for all the analytes were ranging from 89.22% to 103.46%. The experimental results suggested that SBA-15 was a promising material for the purification and enrichment of target flavanones from complex citrus fruit samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Chemical profiling of Re-Du-Ning injection by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry through the screening of diagnostic Ions in MS(E mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Li

    Full Text Available The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS with the MS(E ((E denotes collision energy data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MS(E, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. "Re-Du-Ning" injection (RDN, a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures.

  9. Comprehensive Characterization of Extractable and Nonextractable Phenolic Compounds by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight of a Grape/Pomegranate Pomace Dietary Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara

    2018-01-24

    Grape and pomegranate are rich sources of phenolic compounds, and their derived products could be used as ingredients for the development of functional foods and dietary supplements. However, the profile of nonextractable or macromolecular phenolic compounds in these samples has not been evaluated. Here, we show a comprehensive characterization of extractable and nonextractable phenolic compounds of a grape/pomegranate pomace dietary supplement using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF techniques. The main extractable phenolic compounds were several anthocyanins (principally malvidin 3-O-glucoside) as well as gallotannins and gallagyl derivatives; some phenolic compounds were reported in grape or pomegranate for the first time. Additionally, there was a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds, including vanillic acid, and dihydroxybenzoic acid. Unidentified polymeric structures were detected by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. This study shows that mixed grape and pomegranate pomaces are a source of different classes of phenolic compounds including a high proportion of nonextractable phenolic compounds.

  10. Identification and determination of 34 water-soluble synthetic dyes in foodstuff by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu Qin; Zhang, Qing He; Ma, Kang; Li, Hong Mei; Guo, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    An accurate method combining high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD) and ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (IT-TOF/MS) was developed for simultaneous identification and quantification of 34 water-soluble synthetic dyes in foodstuff. Fragmentation patterns of synthetic dyes were proposed based on IT-TOF/MS. The molecular ion [M+H](+) was not observed in the conventional single-stage mass spectra for most of synthetic dyes. The single-stage mass spectra of synthetic dyes all afforded the diagnostic ions [(M-nNa+nH)+H](+) or [(M-nNa+nH)-H](-) in the positive or negative mode. Doubly charged ions were the characteristic ions of azo dyes. An HPLC-DAD method was developed to analyze 34 synthetic dyes in foodstuffs. The limits of detection (LOD) for the dyes were 0.01-0.05 μg/mL. The recoveries were between 76.1% and 105.0% with a RSD ranging from 1.4% to 6.4%. This method was successfully applied to analyzing the 34 water-soluble synthetic dyes in 21 commercial foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of characteristic ion filtering with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry for rapid detection and identification of chemical profiling in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingzhen; Jia, Jia; Li, Junmao; Wu, Bei; Huang, Wenping; Liu, Mi; Li, Yan; Yang, Shilin; Ouyang, Hui; Feng, Yulin

    2018-04-17

    Efficient targeted identification of chemical constituents from traditional Chinese medicine is still a major challenge. In this study, we used a characteristic ion filtering strategy to characterize compounds of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS). By using the ion filtering approach, target constituents of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. were easily tentatively identified from the enormous LC/MS data set. The strategy consisted of the following three steps: 1) To establishing a characteristic ion database by diagnostic product ions or neutral loss fragments; 2) To evaluate the structural information of the compounds by high-resolution diagnostic characteristic ion filtering; 3) To confirm the different classes by chemical profiling according to their MS/MS spectra. In this study, characteristic ions are summarized as five major groups of compounds in Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. In total, 113 compounds were tentatively identified, including 23 potentially novel compounds. The results form a foundation for the quality control and chemical basis of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical Profiling of Re-Du-Ning Injection by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry through the Screening of Diagnostic Ions in MSE Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Geng, Jianliang; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs) require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) with the MSE (E denotes collision energy) data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MSE, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. “Re-Du-Ning” injection (RDN), a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures. PMID:25875968

  13. Detection of previously unknown fumonisin P analogue mycotoxins in a Fusarium verticillioides culture by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight and ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartók, Tibor; Tölgyesi, László; Szécsi, Árpád; Mesterházy, Ákos; Bartók, Mihály; Gyimes, Ernő; Véha, Antal

    2014-07-01

    Five previously unknown fumonisin mycotoxins (iso-FP1, iso-FP(2,3a), iso-FP(2,3b), FP4 and iso-FP4) and three previously described FP analogues (FP(1-3)) were detected in a solid rice culture inoculated with Fusarium verticillioides. The fumonisins were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOFMS) and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). The FP isomers were separated by using a flat gradient on a special, high-coverage C18, narrow-bore HPLC column (YMC-Pack J'sphere ODS H80), which was suggested for the separation of structural isomers. The verified structures of the FP(1-3) mycotoxins, the relative retention times (by HPLC-ESI-TOFMS and ITMS), the exact masses of the molecular ions (by TOFMS) and the masses of the product ions, including the hydrocarbon backbones (by ITMS) of the new compounds, strongly suggested their structures. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cyclodextrin-based miniaturized solid phase extraction for biopesticides analysis in water and vegetable juices samples analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yan-Xu; Li, Qin; An, Mingrui; Tan, Zhijing; Xu, Jing-Jing

    2017-07-01

    A cyclodextrin-based miniaturized solid-phase extraction was developed to extract biopesticides from water and vegetable juices. The analytes were detected by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. In the solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure, the liquid sample solution is passed through a packed column filled with 40mg of HP-β-CD, and then the target analytes are absorbed and finally eluted with methanol-acetic acid (90:10, v/v) into a collection tube. The limits of quantification ranged from 3.73 to 16.51ng/mL for a water matrix, from 2.62 to 13.23ng/mL for an orange juice matrix and from 1.76 to 10.35ng/mL for a tomato juice matrix, respectively. The average recovery values were in the range of 88.3-95.9% for the spiked samples. The established methodology was successfully applied to analyze sanguinarine, berberine, rotenone and osthole in water, orange juice and tomato juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A combination of representative compounds, metabolism platform and diagnostic extraction strategy for characterization of metabolites of Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid in vivo by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-Xiang; Xie, Zhi-Neng; Tang, Xi-Yang; Li, Chang; Li, Min; Yao, Zhi-Hong; Dai, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2018-04-04

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) usually contained a large number of chemical components, which could be transformed into more complex metabolites in vivo. In this work, a "Representative compounds-Metabolism platform-Diagnostic extraction" strategy (RMD strategy) was proposed for comprehensively identification or characterization of xenobiotics in rat after oral administration of TCMs. Shuang-Huang-Lian oral liquid (SHL), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine preparation, was used as an example. The metabolic pathways of six representative compounds, bearing five different core structures in SHL, were elucidated and their metabolic reactions were employed for exploring metabolites of homologous components in metabolism platform. Meanwhile, diagnostic ions extraction were also used for screening more structural analogues in biofluids. All this work was completed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Qtof MS) and UNIFI metabolism platform. As a result, a total of 254 xenobiotics were identified or tentatively characterized in rat plasma and urine after oral administration of SHL and six representative compounds. The metabolism reaction included phase I reaction (hydroxylation, hydrolysis reaction, deglycosylation, hydrogenation, demethylation, dehydroxylation and ring opening reaction) and phase II reaction (glucuronidation, sulfation and methylation). This research provided useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of SHL in vivo. It also demonstrated that RMD strategy was an efficient approach for facilitate screening-out and rapid identification of xenobiotics in biological samples after oral administration of TCMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid screening and identification of lycodine-type alkaloids in Lycopodiaceae and Huperziaceae plants by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Si-Ming; Luo, Jian-Guang; Pan, Ke; Zou, Hong-Yan; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Lycodine-type alkaloids have gained significant interest owing to their unique skeletal characteristics and acetylcholinesterase activity. This study established a rapid and reliable method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS/MS) for comprehensive characterization of lycodine-type alkaloids for the first time. The lycodine-type alkaloids were detected successfully from Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides, Huperzia serrata and Phlegmarirus carinatus in seven plants of the Lycopodiaceae and Huperziaceae families, based on the established characteristic MS fragmentation of five known alkaloids. Furthermore, a total of 13 lycodine-type alkaloids were identified, of which three pairs of isomers were structurally characterized and differentiated. This study further improves mass analysis of lycodine-type alkaloids and demonstrates the superiority of UPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometer for the rapid and sensitive structural elucidation of other trace active compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Tissue-specific metabolite profiling of Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes and (+)-nootkatone quantitation by laser microdissection, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Guo, Ping; Ho, Hing-Man; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2014-07-23

    Cyperus rotundus L. is a plant species commonly found in both India and China. The caused destruction of this plant is of critical concern for agricultural produce. Nevertheless, it can serve as a potential source of the commercially important sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone. The present work describes comparative metabolite profiling and (+)-nootkatone content determination in rhizome samples collected from these two countries. Laser dissected tissues, namely, the cortex, hypodermal fiber bundles, endodermis, amphivasal vascular bundles, and whole rhizomes were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used for profiling of essential oil constituents and quantitation of (+)-nootkatone. The content of (+)-nootkatone was found to be higher in samples from India (30.47 μg/10 g) compared to samples from China (21.72 μg/10 g). The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines (Q2 R1). The results from this study can be applied for quality control and efficient utilization of this terpenoid-rich plant for several applications in food-based industries.

  18. Identification and analysis of chemical constituents and rat serum metabolites in Suan-Zao-Ren granule using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multiple data processing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiyang; He, Bosai; Li, Qing; He, Jiao; Wang, Di; Bi, Kaishun

    2017-07-01

    Suan-Zao-Ren granule is widely used to treat insomnia in China. However, because of the complexity and diversity of the chemical compositions in traditional Chinese medicine formula, the comprehensive analysis of constituents in vitro and in vivo is rather difficult. In our study, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the PeakView® software, which uses multiple data processing approaches including product ion filter, neutral loss filter, and mass defect filter, method was developed to characterize the ingredients and rat serum metabolites in Suan-Zao-Ren granule. A total of 101 constituents were detected in vitro. Under the same analysis conditions, 68 constituents were characterized in rat serum, including 35 prototype components and 33 metabolites. The metabolic pathways of main components were also illustrated. Among them, the metabolic pathways of timosaponin AI were firstly revealed. The bioactive compounds mainly underwent the phase I metabolic pathways including hydroxylation, oxidation, hydrolysis, and phase II metabolic pathways including sulfate conjugation, glucuronide conjugation, cysteine conjugation, acetycysteine conjugation, and glutathione conjugation. In conclusion, our results showed that this analysis approach was extremely useful for the in-depth pharmacological research of Suan-Zao-Ren granule and provided a chemical basis for its rational. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Human Factors Topics in Flight Simulation: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    after marihuana intoxication. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, 1976, 47, 124-128. HUMAN PERFORMANCE. JEFFS, E. Flight simulators gain In...W.P. Simulation - the only safe way. 24th Flight Safety Foundation Annual International Air Safety Seminar, Mexico City, Mexico , October 197 1b...avion STOL en approach. Proceedings of AGARD FMP/GCP Symposium ’Flight Simulation/Guidance Systems Simulation’, The Hague, Netherlands, October 1975. (In

  20. Development of a Flight Information System Using the Structured Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    wing-code, wing-order-no, ac- type wwrite wing-code, wing-order-no Table 18. Incomplete Database Tables of Flight-order the entity set cac has only...10 4i. Oracle Facilities .. . .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .... 11 5. Trigger Types ...flight squadron has several types of aircraft and numerous pilots. The pilots of e, I, .,,,. J;on fly often to perform their squadron’s flight-plans. Other

  1. Optimal flights of unmanned aerial vehicles utilizing wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ying

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are attractive for a wide range of applications where human presence is dangerous or undesirable. Endurance is an important performance attribute in many UAV missions. While UAV flight endurance can be improved through advances in aerodynamics and engine design, it is equally important to examine operational strategies that can enhance UAV flight endurance and other performance. Wind energy may be used to greatly enhance the flight endurance and performances of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Glider pilots commonly use wind to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. Compared with a glider, UAVs have ad vantages in utilizing energy in atmosphere. By using proper strategies to extract wind energy in the long-duration flights, a UAV's fuel consumption can be reduced and the performance can be extended. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing wind energy and develop optimal wind energy efficient flight trajectories for UAVs. In this thesis, the potential benefits and features of the autonomous soaring flights are studied. UAVs are modelled with point-mass equations of motion. Practical constraints from UAV performance and operational constraints are considered. UAV flights through various wind patterns including wind gradients, thermals and downbursts are studied. Linear wind gradient models, two-dimensional thermal models and three-dimensional vortex ring downburst models are used for the calculation of optimal trajectories. UAV flights through wind fields are formulated as nonlinear optimal control problems that minimize the overall fuel consumption. These problems are converted into parameter optimizations and numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of wind conditions and UAV performance parameters. Basic features and special flight patterns needed for wind energy flights are discovered. Results indicate that significant improvements in UAV endurance can be achieved by

  2. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    the membrane subject to glide loads and pretension from the wing joint positions. The flapping gait is optimized in a two-stage procedure. First the design space is explored using a binary genetic algorithm. The best design points are then used as starting points in a sequential quadratic programming optimization algorithm. This algorithm is used to refine the solutions by precisely satisfying the constraints. The refined solutions are found in generally less than twenty major iterations and constraints are violated generally by less than 0.1%. We find that the optimal motions are in agreement with previous results for simple wing motions. By adding joint motions, the required flapping power is reduced by 7% to 17%. Because of the large uncertainties for some estimates, we investigate the sensitivity of the optimized flapping gait. We find that the optimal motions are sensitive mainly to flight speed, body accelerations, and to the material properties of the wing membrane. The optimal flight speed found correlates well with other studies of pterosaur flapping flight, and is 31% to 37% faster than previous estimates based on glide performance. Accounting for the body accelerations yields an increase of 10% to 16% in required flapping power. When including the aeroelastic effects, the optimal flapping gait is only slightly modified to accommodate for the deflections of stiff membranes. For a flexible membrane, the motion is significantly modified and the power increased by up to 57%. Finally, the flapping gait and required power compare well with published results for similar wing motions. Some published estimates of required power assumed a propulsive efficiency of 100%, whereas the propulsive efficiency computed for Coloborhynchus robustus ranges between 54% and 87%.

  3. Range Flight Safety Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Charles E.; Hudson, Sandra M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this NASA Technical Standard is to provide the technical requirements for the NPR 8715.5, Range Flight Safety Program, in regards to protection of the public, the NASA workforce, and property as it pertains to risk analysis, Flight Safety Systems (FSS), and range flight operations. This standard is approved for use by NASA Headquarters and NASA Centers, including Component Facilities and Technical and Service Support Centers, and may be cited in contract, program, and other Agency documents as a technical requirement. This standard may also apply to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory or to other contractors, grant recipients, or parties to agreements to the extent specified or referenced in their contracts, grants, or agreements, when these organizations conduct or participate in missions that involve range flight operations as defined by NPR 8715.5.1.2.2 In this standard, all mandatory actions (i.e., requirements) are denoted by statements containing the term “shall.”1.3 TailoringTailoring of this standard for application to a specific program or project shall be formally documented as part of program or project requirements and approved by the responsible Technical Authority in accordance with NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Program Requirements.

  4. Flight Mechanics Symposium 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Donna M. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This conference publication includes papers and abstracts presented at the Flight Mechanics Symposium. This symposium featured technical papers on a wide range of issues related to orbit-attitude prediction, determination, and control; attitude sensor calibration; attitude determination error analysis; attitude dynamics; and orbit decay and maneuver strategy. Government, industry, and the academic community participated in the preparation and presentation of these papers.

  5. Autonomous Formation Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  6. Robust flight control of rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechner, Adam Daniel

    With recent design improvement in fixed wing aircraft, there has been a considerable interest in the design of robust flight control systems to compensate for the inherent instability necessary to achieve desired performance. Such systems are designed for maximum available retention of stability and performance in the presence of significant vehicle damage or system failure. The rotorcraft industry has shown similar interest in adopting these reconfigurable flight control schemes specifically because of their ability to reject disturbance inputs and provide a significant amount of robustness for all but the most catastrophic of situations. The research summarized herein focuses on the extension of the pseudo-sliding mode control design procedure interpreted in the frequency domain. Application of the technique is employed and simulated on two well known helicopters, a simplified model of a hovering Sikorsky S-61 and the military's Black Hawk UH-60A also produced by Sikorsky. The Sikorsky helicopter model details are readily available and was chosen because it can be limited to pitch and roll motion reducing the number of degrees of freedom and yet contains two degrees of freedom, which is the minimum requirement in proving the validity of the pseudo-sliding control technique. The full order model of a hovering Black Hawk system was included both as a comparison to the S-61 helicopter design system and as a means to demonstrate the scaleability and effectiveness of the control technique on sophisticated systems where design robustness is of critical concern.

  7. Flight Test of an L(sub 1) Adaptive Controller on the NASA AirSTAR Flight Test Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Xargay, Enric; Cao, Chengyu; Hovakimyan, Naira

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of a flight test of the L-1 adaptive control architecture designed to directly compensate for significant uncertain cross-coupling in nonlinear systems. The flight test was conducted on the subscale turbine powered Generic Transport Model that is an integral part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at the NASA Langley Research Center. The results presented are for piloted tasks performed during the flight test.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Flight Simulators for Military Training. Volume 1. Use and Effectiveness of Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Crew Training School ACFT Cockpit Familia --ization Trainer CGI Computer Generated Imagery CIG Computer Image Generation CNATRA Chief of Naval Air...Simulator for Advanced Aircraft ( NASA ) FSR Flight Substitute Ratio GAO General Accounting Office IFS Instrument Flight Simulator IFT Instrument Flight Trainer...Mungalb, "Simulator Motion Effects on a Pilot’s Ability to Perform a Precise Longi- tudinal Flying Task," NASA TN D-367, May 1960 (AD 236 265). Brown

  9. Serial mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange solid-phase extraction for separation of basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavén, Martin; Alsberg, Tomas; Yu, Yong; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Sun, Hongwen

    2009-01-02

    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) method is presented whereby 15 basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater were simultaneously extracted and subsequently separated into different fractions. This was achieved using mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange SPE (Oasis MCX and MAX) in series. Analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/QTOF-MS). A fast separation was achieved, with all compounds eluting within 6min, narrow chromatographic peaks, with a peak base width of 6s on average, and a high mass accuracy of quantified wastewater sample ions, with average mass errors in absolute value of 0.7mDa or 2.7ppm. The recovery of the SPE method in the analysis of sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent wastewater was on average 80% and the ion suppression 30%. For less demanding samples Oasis MCX used alone may be an alternative method, although for STP influent waters containing high loads of organic compounds the clean-up achieved using only Oasis MCX was insufficient, leading to unreliable quantitation. Furthermore, serial SPE separation according to molecular charge added an additional degree of analyte confirmation. For quantitation, an approach combining external standard calibration curves, isotopically labelled surrogate standards and single-point standard addition was used. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in the analysis of influent and effluent wastewater from an STP, using small sample volumes (25-50mL). The effluent wastewater had been subjected to three different treatments; activated sludge, activated sludge followed by ozonation, and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Ozone treatment proved superior in removal of the analysed pharmaceuticals, while the MBR provided higher removal efficiencies than the activated sludge process.

  10. Metabolism of T-2 Toxin in Farm Animals and Human In Vitro and in Chickens In Vivo Using Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography- Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Hybrid Mass Spectrometry Along with Online Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shupeng; De Boevre, Marthe; Zhang, Huiyan; De Ruyck, Karl; Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Li, Yanshen; Wang, Zhanhui; Zhang, Suxia; Zhou, Jinhui; Li, Yi; De Saeger, Sarah

    2017-08-23

    After being incubated with animal and human liver microsomes, metabolites of phase I and II were investigated. A comparison was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight coupled to mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/TOF). Consequently, a total of four phase I metabolites and three glucuronide binding metabolites of T-2 toxin were discovered. Although a significant metabolic difference was observed among six species, HT-2 toxin was the major product in all species. In addition, the in vivo metabolism of T-2 toxin after oral administration was also investigated in chickens, In total, 18 metabolites were detected, of which 13 were novel, to our knowledge, and reported for the first time. To elucidate the structures of these metabolites, besides accurate mass data from their MS and MS 2 spectra, online hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange technique was also carried out. These new metabolites were regarded as 3'-hydroxy-T-2 3-sulfate, 3'-hydroxy-HT-2 3-sulfate, 4'-hydroxy-HT-2, 3',4'-dihydroxy-HT-2, 4'-carboxyl-T-2, 4'-carboxyl-HT-2, 4'-carboxyl-4'-hydroxy-T-2, and their isomers, implying that T-2 toxin was metabolized more extensively in animals than previously thought. Furthermore, 3'-hydroxy-HT-2, 4'-carboxyl-T-2, 3'-hydroxy-T-2, HT-2 toxin, and neosolaniol were identified to be the major metabolites of T-2 toxin in chickens. The present study expands existing knowledge about T-2 toxin metabolism, informing assessments of the impact T-2 toxin exposure and metabolism on health.

  11. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Activity and migratory flights of individual free-flying songbirds throughout the annual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Alerstam, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    , indicating that the bird was mostly sleeping between these long migratory flights. Annual activity and flight data for free-living songbirds will open up many new research possibilities. Main topics that can be addressed are e.g. migratory flight performance (total flight investment, numbers...... the sampling events. Activity levels were stored on an hourly basis throughout the annual cycle, allowing periods of resting/sleep, continuous flight and intermediate activity (foraging, breeding) to be distinguished. Measurements from a light sensor were stored from preprogrammed key stationary periods during...... > 66 (max. 73) nocturnal migratory flights (29 flights in autumn and > 37, max. 44, in spring) adding up to a total of > 434 (max. 495) flight hours. Migratory flights lasted on average 6.6 h with maximum 15.9 h. These flights were aggregated into eight travel episodes (periods of 4-11 nights when...

  13. Determination of Functional Capabilities, the Level of Physical Performance and the State of Main Physiological Body Systems in the First Hours after the Accomplishment of Long-term Space Flights ("Field Test")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Inesa; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Rukavishnikov, Ilya; Kitov, Vladimir; Reschke, Millard; Kofman, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Long-term stay in weightlessness is accompanied by alterations in the activity of main physiological body systems including sensory-motor, skeletal-muscular disturbances and cardiovascular deconditioning. However, up to now, there are no data on the state and level of functional performance of cosmonauts/astronauts directly after flight, nor are there data to help define the dynamic recovery of functional characteristics and work efficiency which are greatly needed to provide the safety and planning of their activity once they reach space objects. The Russian and American scientists are currently engaged in a joint experiment known as the "Field Test" with the goal of studying the functional performance and the state of main physiological body systems directly after landing and their temporal recovery dynamics. The functional performance is identified during the test by temporal characteristics of the movements of spatial translation, the stability of the vertical stance for 3.5 min, and the kinematic characteristics of walking - non-complicated and complicated. The following characteristics are identified as physiological characteristics of the test: a) orthostatic tolerance during stand test, b) back muscle tone; c) vertical stability - by characteristics of the correction responses to unexpected perturbations of the vertical stance, and d) support reactions during the performance of the full battery of tests. To date, a pilot version of the "Field Test" has been conducted with participation from four Russian cosmonauts. The results of studies have shown that in 1 - 5 hours after landing the functional abilities of the cosmonauts are considerably reduced. All the test movements at this time are considerably slower than preflight and the more complicated the task is, the greater significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance: during the first test that occurs 1 - 5 hours after landing. two of four cosmonauts declined to continue the task after the orthostatic test

  14. Retrieving Balloon Data in Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) program will soon make flights lasting up to 100 days. Some flights may generate high data rates and retrieving this data...

  15. Bisphosphonate ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas; Shackleford, Linda; Smith, Scott M.; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elizabeth; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; hide

    2014-01-01

    The bisphosphonate study is a collaborative effort between the NASA and JAXA space agencies to investigate the potential for antiresorptive drugs to mitigate bone changes associated with long-duration spaceflight. Elevated bone resorption is a hallmark of human spaceflight and bed rest (common zero-G analog). We tested whether an antiresorptive drug in combination with in-flight exercise would ameliorate bone loss and hypercalcuria during longduration spaceflight. Measurements include DXA, QCT, pQCT, and urine and blood biomarkers. We have completed analysis of 7 crewmembers treated with alendronate during flight and the immediate postflight (R+week) data collection in 5 of 10 controls without treatment. Both groups used the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) during their missions. We previously reported the pre/postflight results of crew taking alendronate during flight (Osteoporosis Int. 24:2105-2114, 2013). The purpose of this report is to present the 12-month follow-up data in the treated astronauts and to compare these results with preliminary data from untreated crewmembers exercising with ARED (ARED control) or without ARED (Pre-ARED control). Results: the table presents DXA and QCT BMD expressed as percentage change from preflight in the control astronauts (18 Pre-ARED and the current 5 ARED-1-year data not yet available) and the 7 treated subjects. As shown previously the combination of exercise plus antiresorptive is effective in preventing bone loss during flight. Bone measures for treated subjects, 1 year after return from space remain at or near baseline values. Except in one region, the treated group maintained or gained bone 1 year after flight. Biomarker data are not currently available for either control group and therefore not presented. However, data from other studies with or without ARED show elevated bone resorption and urinary Ca excretion while bisphosphonate treated subjects show decreases during flight. Comparing the two control

  16. Astronaut Gordon Cooper during flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, relaxes while waiting for weight and balance tests to begin (03974); Cooper prior to entering the Mercury Spacecraft for a series of simulated flight tests. During these tests NASA doctors, engineers and technicians monitor Cooper's performance (03975); Cooper undergoing suit pressurization tests (03976).

  17. Planning Flight Paths of Autonomous Aerobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, Eric; Elfes, Alberto; Sharma, Shivanjli

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms for planning flight paths of autonomous aerobots (robotic blimps) to be deployed in scientific exploration of remote planets are undergoing development. These algorithms are also adaptable to terrestrial applications involving robotic submarines as well as aerobots and other autonomous aircraft used to acquire scientific data or to perform surveying or monitoring functions.

  18. First Middle East Aircraft Parabolic Flights for ISU Participant Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Frischauf, Norbert; Cohen, Dan; Foster, Matthew; Spannagel, Ruven; Szeszko, Adam; Laufer, Rene

    2017-06-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights are widely used throughout the world to create microgravity environment for scientific and technology research, experiment rehearsal for space missions, and for astronaut training before space flights. As part of the Space Studies Program 2016 of the International Space University summer session at the Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, a series of aircraft parabolic flights were organized with a glider in support of departmental activities on `Artificial and Micro-gravity' within the Space Sciences Department. Five flights were organized with manoeuvres including several parabolas with 5 to 6 s of weightlessness, bank turns with acceleration up to 2 g and disorientation inducing manoeuvres. Four demonstration experiments and two experiments proposed by SSP16 participants were performed during the flights by on board operators. This paper reports on the microgravity experiments conducted during these parabolic flights, the first conducted in the Middle East for science and pedagogical experiments.

  19. Large maneuverable flight control using neural networks dynamic inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Enquan; Gao, Jinyuan

    2003-09-01

    An adaptive dynamic-inversion-based neural network is applied to aircraft large maneuverable flight control. Neural network is used to cancel the inversion error which may arise from imperfect modeling or approximate inversion. Simulation results for an aircraft model are presented to illustrate the performance of the flight control system.

  20. Editorial: Nature-inspired flight - beyond the leap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Biewener, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas humans can outrun horses over large distances (BBC News 2004), because of their adaptation for endurance (Bramble and Lieberman 2004), their swimming performance is mediocre compared to that of tuna and sailfish, and flight is impossible. No wonder that the flight of animals and plants such

  1. Optical Fiber Assemblies for Space Flight from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Photonics Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thoma, William Joe; LaRocca, Frank; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Day, Lance

    2009-01-01

    The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among the projects currently supported are: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Mars Science Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Express Logistics Carrier for the International Space Station and the NASA Electronic Parts. and Packaging Program. A collection of the most pertinent information gathered during project support over the past year in regards to space flight performance of optical fiber components is presented here. The objective is to provide guidance for future space flight designs of instrumentation and communication systems.

  2. Navigation and flight director guidance for the NASA/FAA helicopter MLS curved approach flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, A. V.; Lee, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    The navigation and flight director guidance systems implemented in the NASA/FAA helicopter microwave landing system (MLS) curved approach flight test program is described. Flight test were conducted at the U.S. Navy's Crows Landing facility, using the NASA Ames UH-lH helicopter equipped with the V/STOLAND avionics system. The purpose of these tests was to investigate the feasibility of flying complex, curved and descending approaches to a landing using MLS flight director guidance. A description of the navigation aids used, the avionics system, cockpit instrumentation and on-board navigation equipment used for the flight test is provided. Three generic reference flight paths were developed and flown during the test. They were as follows: U-Turn, S-turn and Straight-In flight profiles. These profiles and their geometries are described in detail. A 3-cue flight director was implemented on the helicopter. A description of the formulation and implementation of the flight director laws is also presented. Performance data and analysis is presented for one pilot conducting the flight director approaches.

  3. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  4. ALOFT Flight Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    conditions affecting automatic reversion to the Class II ( cafe MRI) feature. Table C-4 shows the MRI evaluation flights in the form of the MRI weapon...range data and delta values. 28 .^i^^i^i.^.^^,. *»■ " ,II"III"I1J "’ >*H*,II|1 ■ NWC TP 595A AIRCRAFT RANGE OF NWC The aircraft ranges of

  5. Neural Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  6. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  7. Flight Crew Health Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullett, C. C.

    1970-01-01

    The health maintenance program for commercial flight crew personnel includes diet, weight control, and exercise to prevent heart disease development and disability grounding. The very high correlation between hypertension and overweight in cardiovascular diseases significantly influences the prognosis for a coronary prone individual and results in a high rejection rate of active military pilots applying for civilian jobs. In addition to physical fitness the major items stressed in pilot selection are: emotional maturity, glucose tolerance, and family health history.

  8. Flight Attendant Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    approximately 1700 and dips at around 0500. Conversely, melatonin levels, which are inversely- related to alertness (Arendt, Deacon, English, Hampton...Seattle to Helsinki) on the salivary melatonin and cortisol levels in 35 female flight atten- dants has shown that the resynchronization rate of these...in both summer and winter. Salivary melatonin and cortisol levels were measured at two-hour intervals for five days before, during, and after the 4

  9. Infrared Thermography Flight Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Carter, Matthew L.; Kirsch, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Analysis was done on IR data collected by DFRC on May 8, 2002. This includes the generation of a movie to initially examine the IR flight data. The production of the movie was challenged by the volume of data that needed to be processed, namely 40,500 images with each image (256 x 252) containing over 264 million points (pixel depth 4096). It was also observed during the initial analysis that the RTD surface coating has a different emissivity than the surroundings. This fact added unexpected complexity in obtaining a correlation between RTD data and IR data. A scheme was devised to generate IR data near the RTD location which is not affected by the surface coating This scheme is valid as long as the surface temperature as measured does not change too much over a few pixel distances from the RTD location. After obtaining IR data near the RTD location, it is possible to make a direct comparison with the temperature as measured during the flight after adjusting for the camera s auto scaling. The IR data seems to correlate well to the flight temperature data at three of the four RID locations. The maximum count intensity occurs closely to the maximum temperature as measured during flight. At one location (RTD #3), there is poor correlation and this must be investigated before any further progress is possible. However, with successful comparisons at three locations, it seems there is great potential to be able to find a calibration curve for the data. Moreover, as such it will be possible to measure temperature directly from the IR data in the near future.

  10. Reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for metabolic profiling of vegetables: Lactuca sativa as an example of its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, I M; Contreras, M M; Arráez-Román, D; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-25

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a leafy vegetal widely consumed worldwide, fresh cut or minimally processed, constitutes a major dietary source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds. In this study, reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of polar and semi-polar metabolites from three lettuce cultivars (baby, romaine, and iceberg). The UHPLC systems allowed the use of a small-particle-size C18 column (1.8 μm), with very fine resolution for the separation of up to seven isomers, and the QTOF mass analyzer enabled sensitive detection with high mass resolution and accuracy in full scan. Thus, a total of 171 compounds were tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formula with those previously reported in family Asteraceae. Afterwards, their structures were also corroborated by the MS/MS data provided by the QTOF analyzer. Well-known amino acids, organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterized, e.g. lactucin, lactucopicrin, caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A, luteolin, and quercetin glycosides. For this plant species, this is the first available report of several isomeric forms of the latter polyphenols and other types of components such as nucleosides, peptides, and tryptophan-derived alkaloids. Remarkably, 10 novel structures formed by the conjugation of known amino acids and sesquiterpene lactones were also proposed. Thus, the methodology applied is a useful option to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling of plants that helps to explain their potential biological activities and folk uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous analysis of a wide range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in indoor dust using on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Sánchez, Juan Antonio; Haug, Line Småstuen

    2016-05-06

    A fast and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of 18 traditional and 6 alternative per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) using solid-liquid extraction (SLE), off-line clean-up using activated carbon and on-line solid phase extraction-ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-UHPLC-TOF-MS) was developed. The extraction efficiency was studied and recoveries in range the 58-114% were obtained. Extraction and injection volumes were also optimized to 2mL and 400μL, respectively. The method was validated by spiking dust from a vacuum cleaner bag that had been found to contain low levels of the PFASs in focus. Low method detection limits (MDLs) and method quantification limits (MQLs) in the range 0.008-0.846ngg(-1) and 0.027-2.820ngg(-1) were obtained, respectively. For most of the PFASs, the accuracies were between 70 and 125% in the range from 2 to100ngg(-1) dust. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were in general well below 30%. Analysis of a Standard Reference Material (SRM 2585) showed high accordance with results obtained by other laboratories. Finally, the method was applied to seven indoor dust samples, and PFAS concentrations in the range 0.02-132ngg(-1) were found. The highest median concentrations were observed for some of the alternative PFASs, such as 6:2-diPAP (25ngg(-1)), 8:2-diPAP (49ngg(-1)), and PFOPA (23ngg(-1)), illustrating the importance of inclusion of new PFASs in the analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensitive characterization of polyphenolic antioxidants in Polygonatum odoratum by selective solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Zhao, Huading; Shi, Shuyun; Li, Hui; Zhou, Xiaoling; Jiao, Feipeng; Jiang, Xinyu; Peng, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2015-08-10

    The complexity of natural products always leads to the co-elution of interfering compounds with bioactive compounds, which then has a detrimental effect on structural elucidation. Here, a new method, based on selective solid phase extraction combined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) spiking and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS), is described for sensitive screening, selective extraction and identification of polyphenolic antioxidants in Polygonatum odoratum. First, 25 polyphenolic antioxidants (1-25) were screened by DPPH spiking with HPLC. Second, polydopamine coated Fe3O4 microspheres (Fe3O4@PDA) were prepared to selectively extract target antioxidants with extraction efficiency from 55% to 100% when the amount of Fe3O4@PDA, extraction time, desorption solvent and time were 10mg, 20 min, acetonitrile, and 5 min. Third, 25 antioxidants (10 cinnamides and 15 homoisoflavanones) were identified by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. Furthermore, the DPPH scavenging activities of purified compounds (IC50, 1.6-32.8 μg/mL) validated the method. Among the identified antioxidants, four of them (12, 13, 18 and 19) were new compounds, four of them (2, 4, 8 and 14) were first obtained from family Liliaceae, five of them (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) were first reported in genus Polygonatum, while one compound (24) was first identified in this species. The results indicated that the proposed method was an efficient and sensitive approach to explore polyphenolic antioxidants from complex natural products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin by ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC–QTOF) tandem mass spectrometry combined with diagnostic fragmentation pattern analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chengying; Lv, Haipeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Chen, Zongmao; Shi, Jiang; Lu, Meiling; Lin, Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Found methane elimination is position-specific for methylated flavonols. •Found retro Diels–Alder fragments retained methoxy at original ring of flavonols. •Proposed a diagnostic pattern for discriminating regioisomers of flavonols. •Identified the specificity of three novel flavonol O-methyltransferases. •Identified six biologically active compounds and four new compounds. -- Abstract: The O-methylation of active flavonoids can enhance their antiallergic, anticancerous, and cardioprotective effects depending on the methylation position. Thus, it is biologically and pharmacologically important to differentiate methylated flavonoid regioisomers. In this study, we examined the regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The methyl groups on the flavonoids can generally be cleaved as methyl radicals in a position-independent manner. We found that methyl groups can be cleaved as methane. If there are protons adjacent the methoxy on the flavonol rings, intra-molecule proton transfer can occur via collision-induced dissociation, and one molecule of methane can then be eliminated. The remaining charged fragment ([M+H−CH 4 ] + ) reflects the adjacent structure and is specific to the methoxy position. Furthermore, the retro Diels–Alder (RDA) fragmentation of methylated flavonols can generate fragments with the methoxy at the original methylated ring. Combining the position-specific [M+H−CH 4 ] + fragment with the RDA fragments provides a diagnostic pattern for rapidly identifying methylated regioisomeric flavonols. Along with their retention behaviour, we have successfully identified ten regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin, which include six compounds previously reported in plants and shown to be biologically active. The developed approach is sensitive, rapid, reliable, and requires few standard compounds. It is highly

  14. An improved pseudotargeted metabolomics approach using multiple ion monitoring with time-staggered ion lists based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Wang, Ruibing; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudotargeted metabolomics is a novel strategy integrating the advantages of both untargeted and targeted methods. The conventional pseudotargeted metabolomics required two MS instruments, i.e., ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time- of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) and UHPLC/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QQQ-MS), which makes method transformation inevitable. Furthermore, the picking of ion pairs from thousands of candidates and the swapping of the data between two instruments are the most labor-intensive steps, which greatly limit its application in metabolomic analysis. In the present study, we proposed an improved pseudotargeted metabolomics method that could be achieved on an UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument operated in the multiple ion monitoring (MIM) mode with time-staggered ion lists (tsMIM). Full scan-based untargeted analysis was applied to extract the target ions. After peak alignment and ion fusion, a stepwise ion picking procedure was used to generate the ion lists for subsequent single MIM and tsMIM. The UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted approach exhibited better repeatability and a wider linear range than the UHPLC/Q-TOF MS-based untargeted metabolomics method. Compared to the single MIM mode, the tsMIM significantly increased the coverage of the metabolites detected. The newly developed method was successfully applied to discover plasma biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, which indicated its practicability and great potential in future metabolomics studies. - Highlights: • An UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted metabolomics was proposed. • Compared to full scan, the improved method exhibits better repeatability and a wider linear range. • The proposed method could achieve pseudotargeted analysis on one UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument. • The developed method was successfully used to discover biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury.

  15. An improved pseudotargeted metabolomics approach using multiple ion monitoring with time-staggered ion lists based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Wang, Ruibing; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-07-13

    Pseudotargeted metabolomics is a novel strategy integrating the advantages of both untargeted and targeted methods. The conventional pseudotargeted metabolomics required two MS instruments, i.e., ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time- of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) and UHPLC/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QQQ-MS), which makes method transformation inevitable. Furthermore, the picking of ion pairs from thousands of candidates and the swapping of the data between two instruments are the most labor-intensive steps, which greatly limit its application in metabolomic analysis. In the present study, we proposed an improved pseudotargeted metabolomics method that could be achieved on an UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument operated in the multiple ion monitoring (MIM) mode with time-staggered ion lists (tsMIM). Full scan-based untargeted analysis was applied to extract the target ions. After peak alignment and ion fusion, a stepwise ion picking procedure was used to generate the ion lists for subsequent single MIM and tsMIM. The UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted approach exhibited better repeatability and a wider linear range than the UHPLC/Q-TOF MS-based untargeted metabolomics method. Compared to the single MIM mode, the tsMIM significantly increased the coverage of the metabolites detected. The newly developed method was successfully applied to discover plasma biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, which indicated its practicability and great potential in future metabolomics studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Short-term toxicity assessments of an antibiotic metabolite in Wistar rats and its metabonomics analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Hongxing; Xiao, Hailong; Lu, Zhenmei

    2016-01-01

    4-Epi-oxytetracycline (4-EOTC), one of main oxytetracycline (OTC) metabolites, can be commonly detected in food and environment. The toxicity and effects of OTC on animals have been well characterized; however, its metabolites have never been studied systemically. This study aims to investigate 15-day oral dose toxicity and urine metabonomics changes of 4-EOTC after repeated administration in Wistar rats at daily doses of 0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw (bodyweight). Hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, including white blood cell count, red blood cell count, total protein, globulin and albumin/globulin, were obviously altered in rats of 5.0 and 50.0 mg/kg bw. Histopathology changes of kidney and liver tissues were also observed in high-dose groups. Urinary metabolites from all groups were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Seventeen metabolites contributing to the clusters were identified as potential biomarkers from multivariate analysis, including aminoadipic acid, 6-phosphogluconate, sebacic acid, pipecolic acid, etc. The significant changes of these biomarkers demonstrated metabonomic variations in treated rats, especially lysine and purine metabolism. For the first time in this paper, we combined the results of toxicity and metabonomics induced by 4-EOTC for the serious reconsideration of the safety and potential risks of antibiotics and its degradation metabolites. - Highlights: • 4-Epioxytetracycline (4-EOTC) induced damages in liver and kidney. • Metabonomics changes especially amino acid and purine metabolism were observed. • Security of OTC metabolite 4-EOTC should be taken into serious reconsideration.

  17. An improved pseudotargeted metabolomics approach using multiple ion monitoring with time-staggered ion lists based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fang; Li, Peng; He, Chengwei; Wang, Ruibing; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo, E-mail: jbwan@umac.mo

    2016-07-13

    Pseudotargeted metabolomics is a novel strategy integrating the advantages of both untargeted and targeted methods. The conventional pseudotargeted metabolomics required two MS instruments, i.e., ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time- of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) and UHPLC/triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QQQ-MS), which makes method transformation inevitable. Furthermore, the picking of ion pairs from thousands of candidates and the swapping of the data between two instruments are the most labor-intensive steps, which greatly limit its application in metabolomic analysis. In the present study, we proposed an improved pseudotargeted metabolomics method that could be achieved on an UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument operated in the multiple ion monitoring (MIM) mode with time-staggered ion lists (tsMIM). Full scan-based untargeted analysis was applied to extract the target ions. After peak alignment and ion fusion, a stepwise ion picking procedure was used to generate the ion lists for subsequent single MIM and tsMIM. The UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted approach exhibited better repeatability and a wider linear range than the UHPLC/Q-TOF MS-based untargeted metabolomics method. Compared to the single MIM mode, the tsMIM significantly increased the coverage of the metabolites detected. The newly developed method was successfully applied to discover plasma biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury in mice, which indicated its practicability and great potential in future metabolomics studies. - Highlights: • An UHPLC/Q-TOF tsMIM MS-based pseudotargeted metabolomics was proposed. • Compared to full scan, the improved method exhibits better repeatability and a wider linear range. • The proposed method could achieve pseudotargeted analysis on one UHPLC/Q-TOF/MS instrument. • The developed method was successfully used to discover biomarkers for alcohol-induced liver injury.

  18. Characterization of metabolite profiles from the leaves of green perilla (Perilla frutescens by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and screening for their antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Hee Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to access the determination of metabolite profiles and antioxidant properties in the leaves of green perilla (Perilla frutescens, where these are considered functional and nutraceutical substances in Korea. A total of 25 compositions were confirmed as six phenolic acids, two triterpenoids, eight flavonoids, seven fatty acids, and two glucosides using an ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS technique from the methanol extract of this species. The individual and total compositions exhibited significant differences, especially rosmarinic acid (10, and linolenic acids (22 and 23 were detected as the predominant metabolites. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid (10 was observed to have considerable differences with various concentrations in three samples (Doryong, 6.38 μg/g; Sinseong, 317.60 μg/g; Bongmyeong, 903.53 μg/g by UPLC analysis at 330 nm. The scavenging properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals also showed potent effects with remarkable differences at a concentration of 100 μg/mL, and their abilities were as follows: Sinseong (DPPH, 86%; ABTS, 90% > Bongmyeong (71% and 84%, respectively > Doryong (63% and 73%, respectively. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activities of green perilla leaves are correlated with metabolite contents, especially the five major compositions 10 and 22–25. Moreover, this study may be useful in evaluating the relationship between metabolite composition and antioxidant activity.

  19. Compound control methodology for flight vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yuanqing

    2013-01-01

    “Compound Control Methodology for Flight Vehicles” focuses on new control methods for flight vehicles. In this monograph the concept of compound control is introduced. It is demonstrated that both Sliding Mode Control (SMC) and Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) have their own advantages and limitations, i.e., chattering of SMC and the observability of extended state observer (ESO), respectively. It is shown that compound control combines their advantages and improves the performance of the closed-loop systems. The book is self-contained, providing sufficient mathematical foundations for understanding the contents of each chapter. It will be of significant interest to scientists and engineers engaged in the field of flight vehicle control.

  20. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, Gal; Barkan, Shay; Soroker, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus) in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.

  1. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using high performance thin layer chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Gafner, Stefan; Upton, Roy; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2015-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems from having a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have a similar phytochemical profile as the clinically tested extracts. The standardized commercial extracts of G. biloba leaf used in ginkgo supplements contain not less than 6% sesquiterpene lactones and 24% flavonol glycosides. While sesquiterpene lactones are unique constituents of ginkgo leaf, the flavonol glycosides are found in many other botanical extracts. Being a high value botanical, low quality ginkgo extracts may be subjected to adulteration with flavonoids to meet the requirement of 24% flavonol glycosides. Chemical analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that adulteration of ginkgo leaf extracts in many of these products is common, the naturally flavonol glycoside-rich extract being spiked with pure flavonoids or extracts made from another flavonoid-rich material, such as the fruit/flower of Japanese sophora (Styphnolobium japonicum), which also contains the isoflavone genistein. Recently, genistein has been proposed as an analytical marker for the detection of adulteration of ginkgo extracts with S. japonicum. This study confirms that botanically authenticated G. biloba leaf and extracts made therefrom do not contain genistein, and the presence of which even in trace amounts is suggestive of adulteration. In addition to the mass spectrometric approach, a high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed as a fast and economic method for chemical fingerprint analysis of ginkgo samples.

  2. In-flight Assessment of Lower Body Negative Pressure as a Countermeasure for Post-flight Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. B.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Arzeno, N. M.; Lee, S. M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. We investigated the efficacy of combining fluid loading with sustained lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to reverse orthostatic intolerance associated with weightlessness during and immediately after Space Shuttle missions. Methods. Shuttle astronauts (n=13) underwent 4 hours of LBNP at -30 mm(Hg) and ingested water and salt ( soak treatment) during flight in two complementary studies. In the first study (n=8), pre-flight heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) responses to an LBNP ramp (5-min stages of -10 mm(Hg) steps to -50 mm(Hg) were compared to responses in-flight one and two days after LBNP soak treatment. In the second study (n=5), the soak was performed 24 hr before landing, and post-flight stand test results of soak subjects were compared with those of an untreated cohort (n=7). In both studies, the soak was scheduled late in the mission and was preceded by LBNP ramp tests at approximately 3-day intervals to document the in-flight loss of orthostatic tolerance. Results. Increased HR and decreased BP responses to LBNP were evident early in-flight. In-flight, one day after LBNP soak, HR and BP responses to LBNP were not different from pre-flight, but the effect was absent the second day after treatment. Post-flight there were no between-group differences in HR and BP responses to standing, but all 5 treatment subjects completed the 5-minute stand test whereas 2 of 7 untreated cohort subjects did not. Discussion. Exaggerated HR and BP responses to LBNP were evident within the first few days of space flight, extending results from Skylab. The combined LBNP and fluid ingestion countermeasure restored in-flight LBNP HR and BP responses to pre-flight levels and provided protection of post-landing orthostatic function. Unfortunately, any benefits of the combined countermeasure were offset by the complexity of its implementation, making it inappropriate for routine application during Shuttle flights.

  3. 14 CFR 91.109 - Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests. 91.109 Section 91.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons when— (1) The...

  4. Task complexity modulates pilot electroencephalographic activity during real flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Suárez, Juan; McCamy, Michael B; Martinez-Conde, Susana; Roca-Dorda, Joaquín; Catena, Andrés

    2015-07-01

    Most research connecting task performance and neural activity to date has been conducted in laboratory conditions. Thus, field studies remain scarce, especially in extreme conditions such as during real flights. Here, we investigated the effects of flight procedures of varied complexity on the in-flight EEG activity of military helicopter pilots. Flight procedural complexity modulated the EEG power spectrum: highly demanding procedures (i.e., takeoff and landing) were associated with higher EEG power in the higher frequency bands, whereas less demanding procedures (i.e., flight exercises) were associated with lower EEG power over the same frequency bands. These results suggest that EEG recordings may help to evaluate an operator's cognitive performance in challenging real-life scenarios, and thus could aid in the prevention of catastrophic events. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Advances in the Remote Monitoring of Balloon Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, S.

    At the National Scientific Balloon Facility (NSBF), we must staff the Long Duration Balloon (LDB) control center 24 hours a day during LDB flights. This requires three daily shifts of two operators (balloon control and tdrss scheduling). In addition to this we also have one engineer on-call as LDB Lead to resolve technical issues and one manager on-call for flight management. These on-call periods are typically 48 to 72 hours in length. In the past the on-call staff had to travel to the LDB control center in order to monitor the status of a flight in any detail. This becomes problematic as flight durations push out beyond 20 to 30 day lengths, as these staff members are not available for business travel during these periods. This paper describes recent advances which allow for the remote monitoring of scientific balloon flight ground station computer displays. This allows balloon flight managers and lead engineers to check flight status and performance from any location with a network or telephone connection. This capability frees key personnel from the NSBF base during flights. It also allows other interested parties to check on the flight status at their convenience.

  6. A unified flight control methodology for a compound rotorcraft in fundamental and aerobatic maneuvering flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Adam

    This study investigates a novel approach to flight control for a compound rotorcraft in a variety of maneuvers ranging from fundamental to aerobatic in nature. Fundamental maneuvers are a class of maneuvers with design significance that are useful for testing and tuning flight control systems along with uncovering control law deficiencies. Aerobatic maneuvers are a class of aggressive and complex maneuvers with more operational significance. The process culminating in a unified approach to flight control includes various control allocation studies for redundant controls in trim and maneuvering flight, an efficient methodology to simulate non-piloted maneuvers with varying degrees of complexity, and the setup of an unconventional control inceptor configuration along with the use of a flight simulator to gather pilot feedback in order to improve the unified control architecture. A flight path generation algorithm was developed to calculate control inceptor commands required for a rotorcraft in aerobatic maneuvers. This generalized algorithm was tailored to generate flight paths through optimization methods in order to satisfy target terminal position coordinates or to minimize the total time of a particular maneuver. Six aerobatic maneuvers were developed drawing inspiration from air combat maneuvers of fighter jet aircraft: Pitch-Back Turn (PBT), Combat Ascent Turn (CAT), Combat Descent Turn (CDT), Weaving Pull-up (WPU), Combat Break Turn (CBT), and Zoom and Boom (ZAB). These aerobatic maneuvers were simulated at moderate to high advance ratios while fundamental maneuvers of the compound including level accelerations/decelerations, climbs, descents, and turns were investigated across the entire flight envelope to evaluate controller performance. The unified control system was developed to allow controls to seamlessly transition between manual and automatic allocations while ensuring that the axis of control for a particular inceptor remained constant with flight

  7. Rocket Flight Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Waters

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This project uses Newton’s Second Law of Motion, Euler’s method, basic physics, and basic calculus to model the flight path of a rocket. From this, one can find the height and velocity at any point from launch to the maximum altitude, or apogee. This can then be compared to the actual values to see if the method of estimation is a plausible. The rocket used for this project is modeled after Bullistic-1 which was launched by the Society of Aeronautics and Rocketry at the University of South Florida.

  8. Flight to America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneli Gün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Güneli Gün’s memoir piece truly combines the excitement of the young traveler with the humor of the mature narrator. Born in Izmir, Turkey, she breaks her engagement to a young but conservative Turkish architect and overcomes her father’s concerns to eventually study at Hollins College, Virginia. Addressing topics such as breaking out of a traditional society, being torn between the home country and the imagined new home, and finding comfort in the arts, “Flight to America” compellingly reflects Güneli Gün’s mastery as a storyteller.

  9. Flight Mechanics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This report documents the generation of an outbound Earth to Moon transfer preliminary database consisting of four cases calculated twice a day for a 19 year period. The database was desired as the first step in order for NASA to rapidly generate Earth to Moon trajectories for the Constellation Program using the Mission Assessment Post Processor. The completed database was created running a flight trajectory and optimization program, called Copernicus, in batch mode with the use of newly created Matlab functions. The database is accurate and has high data resolution. The techniques and scripts developed to generate the trajectory information will also be directly used in generating a comprehensive database.

  10. Development of an active structure flight experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. A.; Wyse, R. E.; Schubert, S. R.

    1993-02-01

    The design and development of the Air Force and TRW's Advanced Control Technology Experiment (ACTEX) flight experiment is described in this paper. The overall objective of ACTEX is to provide an active structure trailblazer which will demonstrate the compatibility of active structures with operational spacecraft performance and lifetime measures. At the heart of the experiment is an active tripod driven by a digitally-programmable analog control electronics subsystem. Piezoceramic sensors and actuators embedded in a graphite epoxy host material provide the sensing and actuation mechanism for the active tripod. Low noise ground-programmable electronics provide a virtually unlimited number of control schemes that can be implemented in the space environment. The flight experiment program provides the opportunity to gather performance, reliability, adaptability, and lifetime performance data on vibration suppression hardware for the next generation of DoD and NASA spacecraft.

  11. The Flight Service Station Training Program : 1981-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    This report describes the performance of the ATC classes in the Flight Service Station Training Program 1981 to 1985 on the skills tests and laboratory exercises in Preflight (pilot briefing), Inflight, and Emergency Services. Over 80% of the final g...

  12. TORCH: Time of Flight Identification with Cherenkov Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, M J

    2010-01-01

    TORCH is a time-of-flight detector concept using Cherenkov light to provide charged particle identification up to 10 GeV/$c$. The concept and design are described and performance in simulation is quantified.

  13. TORCH: Time of flight identification with Cherenkov radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M. J.; Forty, R.; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-05-01

    TORCH is a time-of-flight detector concept using Cherenkov light to provide charged particle identification up to 10 GeV/ c. The concept and design are described and performance in simulation is quantified.

  14. TORCH: Time of Flight Identification with Cherenkov Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, M J

    2011-01-01

    TORCH is a time-of-flight detector concept using Cherenkov light to provide charged particle identification up to 10 GeV/c. The concept and design are described and performance in simulation is quantified.

  15. Core Flight Software (CFS) Maturation Towards Human Rating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research performed under this proposal will assess the applicability of the Core Flight Software (CFS) within human-rated type architectures by prototyping and...

  16. Visual Advantage of Enhanced Flight Vision System During NextGen Flight Test Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Harrison, Stephanie J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ellis, Kyle K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems and Enhanced Flight Vision System (SVS/EFVS) technologies have the potential to provide additional margins of safety for aircrew performance and enable operational improvements for low visibility operations in the terminal area environment. Simulation and flight tests were jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to evaluate potential safety and operational benefits of SVS/EFVS technologies in low visibility Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) operations. The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SVS/EFVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights were flown in Gulfstream's G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SVS/EFVS technologies under low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 feet to 3600 feet reported visibility) under different obscurants (mist, fog, drizzle fog, frozen fog) and sky cover (broken, overcast). Flight test videos were evaluated at three different altitudes (decision altitude, 100 feet radar altitude, and touchdown) to determine the visual advantage afforded to the pilot using the EFVS/Forward-Looking InfraRed (FLIR) imagery compared to natural vision. Results indicate the EFVS provided a visual advantage of two to three times over that of the out-the-window (OTW) view. The EFVS allowed pilots to view the runway environment, specifically runway lights, before they would be able to OTW with natural vision.

  17. Identification of regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin by ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC–QTOF) tandem mass spectrometry combined with diagnostic fragmentation pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Chengying; Lv, Haipeng; Zhang, Xinzhong; Chen, Zongmao; Shi, Jiang [Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9 Meiling South Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310008 (China); Lu, Meiling, E-mail: meilinglu@hotmail.com [Chemical Analysis Group, Agilent Technologies, No. 3 Wangjing North Road, Chaoyang Distr., Beijing 100102 (China); Lin, Zhi, E-mail: linz@mail.tricaas.com [Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 9 Meiling South Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310008 (China)

    2013-09-17

    Highlights: •Found methane elimination is position-specific for methylated flavonols. •Found retro Diels–Alder fragments retained methoxy at original ring of flavonols. •Proposed a diagnostic pattern for discriminating regioisomers of flavonols. •Identified the specificity of three novel flavonol O-methyltransferases. •Identified six biologically active compounds and four new compounds. -- Abstract: The O-methylation of active flavonoids can enhance their antiallergic, anticancerous, and cardioprotective effects depending on the methylation position. Thus, it is biologically and pharmacologically important to differentiate methylated flavonoid regioisomers. In this study, we examined the regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. The methyl groups on the flavonoids can generally be cleaved as methyl radicals in a position-independent manner. We found that methyl groups can be cleaved as methane. If there are protons adjacent the methoxy on the flavonol rings, intra-molecule proton transfer can occur via collision-induced dissociation, and one molecule of methane can then be eliminated. The remaining charged fragment ([M+H−CH{sub 4}]{sup +}) reflects the adjacent structure and is specific to the methoxy position. Furthermore, the retro Diels–Alder (RDA) fragmentation of methylated flavonols can generate fragments with the methoxy at the original methylated ring. Combining the position-specific [M+H−CH{sub 4}]{sup +} fragment with the RDA fragments provides a diagnostic pattern for rapidly identifying methylated regioisomeric flavonols. Along with their retention behaviour, we have successfully identified ten regioisomers of methylated kaempferol and quercetin, which include six compounds previously reported in plants and shown to be biologically active. The developed approach is sensitive, rapid, reliable, and requires few standard

  18. Biomarker discovery in biological specimens (plasma, hair, liver and kidney) of diabetic mice based upon metabolite profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Haruhito; Maeda, Toshio; Min, Jun Zhe; Inagaki, Shinsuke; Higashi, Tatsuya; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2011-05-12

    The number of diabetic patients has recently been increasing worldwide. Diabetes is a multifactorial disorder based on environmental factors and genetic background. In many cases, diabetes is asymptomatic for a long period and the patient is not aware of the disease. Therefore, the potential biomarker(s), leading to the early detection and/or prevention of diabetes mellitus, are strongly required. However, the diagnosis of the prediabetic state in humans is a very difficult issue, because the lifestyle is variable in each person. Although the development of a diagnosis method in humans is the goal of our research, the extraction and structural identification of biomarker candidates in several biological specimens (i.e., plasma, hair, liver and kidney) of ddY strain mice, which undergo naturally occurring diabetes along with aging, were carried out based upon a metabolite profiling study. The low-molecular-mass compounds including metabolites in the biological specimens of diabetic mice (ddY-H) and normal mice (ddY-L) were globally separated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using different reversed-phase columns (i.e., T3-C18 and HS-F5) and detected by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). The biomarker candidates related to diabetes mellitus were extracted from a multivariate statistical analysis, such as an orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), followed by a database search, such as ChemSpider, KEGG and HMDB. Many metabolites and unknown compounds in each biological specimen were detected as the biomarker candidates related to diabetic mellitus. Among them, the elucidation of the chemical structures of several possible metabolites, including more than two biological specimens, was carried out along with the comparison of the tandem MS/MS analyses using authentic compounds. One metabolite was clearly identified as N-acetyl-L-leucine based upon the MS/MS spectra and the retention time on

  19. Leishmanicidal activity of the root bark of Erythrophleum Ivorense (Fabaceae) and identification of some of its compounds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Francis A; Amponsah, Isaac K; Mensah, Abraham Y; Dickson, Rita A; Steenkamp, Paul A; Madala, Ntakadzeni E; Adokoh, Christian K

    2018-01-30

    Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical disease caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania transmitted by sandflies. High cost and lack of oral formulation of existing drugs, rapid developments of resistance by the parasite coupled with serious side effects require new treatments to augment or replace currently available therapies. The major merits of herbal medicine seem to demonstrate perceived efficacy, low incidence of serious adverse effects and low cost. Erythrophleum plants possess beneficial biological properties and, as such, characterization of the bioactive components of these plants is imperative. Previous work has shown an overwhelming presence of cassaine alkaloids in these plants. However, amongst these plants, the African based specie (Erythrophleum ivorense) is the least studied. In the current study, the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of the crude extract, its fractions and isolated compounds were evaluated using direct counting assay of promastigotes of Leishmania donovani using amphotericin B as positive control. The anti-leishmanial activity of E. ivorense extract was evaluated in vitro against the promastigote forms of Leishmania Donovani using a direct counting assay based on growth inhibition. Different crude extracts from ethyl acetate, pet-ether, and methanol as well as pure isolated compounds of E. ivorense: Erythroivorensin, Eriodictyol and Betulinic acid were screened. To know the possible components of the active methanolic extract, attempt was made to elucidate the extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS). This afforded a weak pet-ether fraction, a moderately active ethyl acetate fraction and a significantly active methanol fraction (IC 50 = 2.97μg/mL) compared to Amphotericin B (IC 50 = 2.40±0.67μg/mL). The novel diterpene erythroivorensin, betulinic acid and the flavanone Eriodictyol, from the ethyl acetate fraction, showed weak activity

  20. Comparison of the Chemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activities of Different Parts of Cultivated Cistanche deserticola Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and a 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-Based Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Jinfang; Guan, Huanyu; Xu, Rong; Luo, Xiaomei; Su, Meifeng; Chang, Xiaoyan; Tan, Wenting; Chen, Jun; Shi, Yue

    2017-11-20

    In this study, a sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array coupled to quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-PDA-Q/TOF-MS) method and a 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-based assay were used to determine the chemical constituents and screen the antioxidant activity profiles of the methanol extracts of different parts of cultivated Cistanche deserticola ( C. deserticola ). First, qualitative and quantitative chemical composition analyses of the different parts of cultivated C. deserticola were conducted. Obvious differences were observed between the chemical profiles and content distribution of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) from the different cultivated C. deserticola parts. The average contents of the six PhGs parts varied from 4.91 to 72.56 mg/g DW (milligrams of extract per gram of plant dry weight) in the six different parts of Cistanche deserticola , displaying a significant decreasing trend from the bottom to the top of cultivated C. deserticola and the highest content in the stems. From the bottom to the top of the plant, the echinacoside and cistanoside A content decreased and the 2 ' -acetylacteoside content increased. Second, an offline DPPH assay revealed that the total scavenging activities of all parts within the range of 20-500 μ g/mL increased in a concentration-dependent manner and that good antioxidant activities were found in all plant parts, particularly in the stems, which could be related to their higher PhG content. Additionally, a DPPH-UPLC-PDA method was successfully applied to rapidly screen the antioxidant profiles and antioxidant components of the different cultivated C. deserticola parts. According to the antioxidant profiles before and after the DPPH reaction, there were wide variations in the antioxidant activities of different cultivated C. deserticola parts. Moreover, the antioxidant profiles revealed the presence of major free radical scavengers identified as PhGs using UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. Finally, the

  1. 14 CFR 121.424 - Pilots: Initial, transition, and upgrade flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program and in appendix E to... holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program that are capable of being performed in... flight training. 121.424 Section 121.424 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...

  2. Human Factors in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  3. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  4. Getting started with Twitter Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Hamshere, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Getting Started with Twitter Flight is written with the intention to educate the readers, helping them learn how to build modular powerful applications with Flight, Twitter's cutting-edge JavaScript framework.This book is for anyone with a foundation in JavaScript who wants to build web applications. Flight is quick and easy to learn, built on technologies you already understand such as the DOM, events, and jQuery.

  5. MABEL Iceland 2012 Flight Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; De Marco, Eugenia L.; Reed, Daniel L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In March and April 2012, NASA conducted an airborne lidar campaign based out of Keflavik, Iceland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet, Iceland ice caps, and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the winter season. Ultimately, the mission, MABEL Iceland 2012, including checkout and transit flights, conducted 14 science flights, for a total of over 80 flight hours over glaciers, icefields, and sea ice.

  6. Biosafety in manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boever, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses

  7. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  8. Cibola flight experiment satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, P.; Liddle, Doug; Paffett, John; Sweeting, Martin; Curiel, A.; Sun, Wei; Eves, Stuart

    2004-11-01

    In order to achieve an "economy of scale" with respect to payload capacity the major trend in telecommunications satellites is for larger and larger platforms. With these large platforms the level of integration between platform and payload is increasing leading to longer delivery schedules. The typical lifecycle for procurement of these large telecommunications satellites is now 3-6 years depending on the level of non-recurring engineering needed. Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) has designed a low-cost platform aimed at telecommunications and navigation applications. SSTL's Geostationary Minisatellite Platform (GMP) is a new entrant addressing the lower end of the market with payloads up to 250kg requiring less than 1.5 kW power. The British National Space Centre through the MOSAIC Small Satellite Initiative supported the development of GMP. The main design goals for GMP are low-cost for the complete mission including launch and operations and a platform allowing flexible payload accommodation. GMP is specifically designed to allow rapid development and deployment with schedules typically between 1 and 2 years from contract signature to flight readiness. GMP achieves these aims by a modular design where the level of integration between the platform and payload is low. The modular design decomposes the satellite into three major components - the propulsion bay, the avionics bay and the payload module. Both the propulsion and avionics bays are reusable, largely unchanged, and independent of the payload configuration. Such a design means that SSTL or a 3rd party manufacturer can manufacture the payload in parallel to the platform with integration taking place quite late in the schedule. In July 2003 SSTL signed a contract for ESA's first Galileo navigation satellite known as GSTBV2/A. The satellite is based on GMP and ESA plan to launch it into a MEO orbit late in 2005. The second flight of GMP is likely to be in 2006 carrying a geostationary payload

  9. VEGA Launch Vehicle: VV02 Flight Campaign Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, D.; Perugini, P.; Mancini, R.; Bonnet, M.

    2014-06-01

    A reliable tool for the prediction of temperature trends vs. time during the operative timeline of a launcher represents one of the key elements for the qualification of a launch vehicle itself.The correct evaluation of the thermal behaviour during the mission, both for the launcher elements (structures, electronic items, tanks, motors...) and for the Payloads carried by the same Launcher, is one of the preliminary activities to be performed before a flight campaign.For such scope AVIO constructed a Thermal Mathematical Model (TMM) by means of the ESA software "ESATAN Thermal Modelling Suite (TMS)" [1] used for the prediction of the temperature trends both on VV01 (VEGA LV Qualification Flight) and VV02 (First VEGA LV commercial flight) with successfully results in terms of post-flight comparison with the sensor data outputs.Aim of this paper is to show the correlation obtained by AVIO VEGA LV SYS TMM in the frame of VV02 Flight.

  10. Knowledge-based system for flight information management. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of knowledge-based system (KBS) architectures to manage information on the primary flight display (PFD) of commercial aircraft is described. The PFD information management strategy used tailored the information on the PFD to the tasks the pilot performed. The KBS design and implementation of the task-tailored PFD information management application is described. The knowledge acquisition and subsequent system design of a flight-phase-detection KBS is also described. The flight-phase output of this KBS was used as input to the task-tailored PFD information management KBS. The implementation and integration of this KBS with existing aircraft systems and the other KBS is described. The flight tests are examined of both KBS's, collectively called the Task-Tailored Flight Information Manager (TTFIM), which verified their implementation and integration, and validated the software engineering advantages of the KBS approach in an operational environment.

  11. 14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... principles of the teaching-learning process; (ii) Teaching methods and procedures; and (iii) The instructor... certificate holder's policies and procedures. (3) The applicable methods, procedures, and techniques for conducting flight instruction. (4) Proper evaluation of student performance including the detection of— (i...

  12. 14 CFR 121.414 - Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... teaching-learning process; (ii) Teaching methods and procedures; and (iii) The instructor-student... policies and procedures. (3) The appropriate methods, procedures, and techniques for conducting flight instruction. (4) Proper evaluation of student performance including the detection of— (i) Improper and...

  13. Hyper-X Hot Structures Comparison of Thermal Analysis and Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; Leonard, Charles P.; Bruce, Walter E., III

    2004-01-01

    The Hyper-X (X-43A) program is a flight experiment to demonstrate scramjet performance and operability under controlled powered free-flight conditions at Mach 7 and 10. The Mach 7 flight was successfully completed on March 27, 2004. Thermocouple instrumentation in the hot structures (nose, horizontal tail, and vertical tail) recorded the flight thermal response of these components. Preflight thermal analysis was performed for design and risk assessment purposes. This paper will present a comparison of the preflight thermal analysis and the recorded flight data.

  14. X-38 - First Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Reminiscent of the lifting body research flights conducted more than 30 years earlier, NASA's B-52 mothership lifts off carrying a new generation of lifting body research vehicle--the X-38. The X-38 was designed to help develop an emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also

  15. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  16. Study of the combined radial post-feeding dispersion of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Estudo da dispersão radial combinada de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius e C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete and ephemeral substrates to feed their larvae. After they run out of food, the larvae begin to disperse in order to find adequate places for pupation or additional food sources, a process named post-feeding larval dispersion. Some important aspects of this process were studied in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersion from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the arena was divided in 72 identical sections starting from the center. The distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa were evaluated. Statistical tests were done to verify the relation between weight, depth and distance for pupation. From the total an average of 976 larvae released (488 for each species were collected considering both experiments 456 C. megacephala pupae and 488 of C. albiceps. This demonstrates that C. albiceps probably preyed on 32 C. megacephala larvae during post-feeding dispersion. The study of this dispersion process can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI of human cadavers in legal medicine.As moscas- varejeiras utilizam-se de substratos discretos e efêmeros para alimentar suas larvas. Após deixarem o substrato alimentar, as larvas começam a dispersar em busca de locais adequados para pupação e fontes adicionais de alimento, um processo denominado dispersão larval pós-alimentar. Alguns aspectos importantes desse processo foram estudados em uma arena permitindo a dispersão radial combinada de larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa, a arena foi dividida em 72 setores iguais começando do centro. A distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso de cada pupa foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram feitos para verificar a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância para pupação. De um total em média de 976 larvas soltas (488 de cada esp

  17. Flight Results of the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Aircraft with Adaptation to a Longitudinally Destabilized Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. The goal for the adaptive system is to provide an increase in survivability in the event that these extreme changes occur. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane. The adaptive element was incorporated into a dynamic inversion controller with explicit reference model-following. As a test the system was subjected to an abrupt change in plant stability simulating a destabilizing failure. Flight evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to stabilize the vehicle and reestablish good onboard reference model-following. Flight evaluation with the simulated destabilizing failure and adaptation engaged showed improvement in the vehicle stability margins. The convergent properties of this initial system warrant additional improvement since continued maneuvering caused continued adaptation change. Compared to the non-adaptive system the adaptive system provided better closed-loop behavior with improved matching of the onboard reference model. A detailed discussion of the flight results is presented.

  18. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  19. In-flight Fault Detection and Isolation in Aircraft Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Allanach, Jeffrey; Poll, Scott; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of test design for real-time fault detection and isolation (FDI) in the flight control system of fixed-wing aircraft. We focus on the faults that are manifested in the control surface elements (e.g., aileron, elevator, rudder and stabilizer) of an aircraft. For demonstration purposes, we restrict our focus on the faults belonging to nine basic fault classes. The diagnostic tests are performed on the features extracted from fifty monitored system parameters. The proposed tests are able to uniquely isolate each of the faults at almost all severity levels. A neural network-based flight control simulator, FLTZ(Registered TradeMark), is used for the simulation of various faults in fixed-wing aircraft flight control systems for the purpose of FDI.

  20. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  1. NASA/FAA/NCAR Supercooled Large Droplet Icing Flight Research: Summary of Winter 1996-1997 Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean; Ratvasky, Thomas; Bernstein, Ben; McDonough, Frank; Strapp, J. Walter

    1998-01-01

    During the winter of 1996-1997, a flight research program was conducted at the NASA-Lewis Research Center to study the characteristics of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) within the Great Lakes region. This flight program was a joint effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Based on weather forecasts and real-time in-flight guidance provided by NCAR, the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Aircraft was flown to locations where conditions were believed to be conducive to the formation of Supercooled Large Droplets aloft. Onboard instrumentation was then used to record meteorological, ice accretion, and aero-performance characteristics encountered during the flight. A total of 29 icing research flights were conducted, during which "conventional" small droplet icing, SLD, and mixed phase conditions were encountered aloft. This paper will describe how flight operations were conducted, provide an operational summary of the flights, present selected experimental results from one typical research flight, and conclude with practical "lessons learned" from this first year of operation.

  2. 49 CFR 1552.3 - Flight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flight training. 1552.3 Section 1552.3..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FLIGHT SCHOOLS Flight Training for Aliens and Other Designated Individuals § 1552.3 Flight training. This section describes the procedures a flight school must...

  3. Flight-Test Validation and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a Rotorcraft UAV Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Bernard; Tuschler, Mark B.; Kanade, Takeo

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a process of design and flight-test validation and flying qualities evaluation of a flight control system for a rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV). The keystone of this process is an accurate flight-dynamic model of the aircraft, derived by using system identification modeling. The model captures the most relevant dynamic features of our unmanned rotorcraft, and explicitly accounts for the presence of a stabilizer bar. Using the identified model we were able to determine the performance margins of our original control system and identify limiting factors. The performance limitations were addressed and the attitude control system was 0ptimize.d for different three performance levels: slow, medium, fast. The optimized control laws will be implemented in our RUAV. We will first determine the validity of our control design approach by flight test validating our optimized controllers. Subsequently, we will fly a series of maneuvers with the three optimized controllers to determine the level of flying qualities that can be attained. The outcome enable us to draw important conclusions on the flying qualities requirements for small-scale RUAVs.

  4. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Katherine M; Shelton, Ryan M; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2015-01-01

    Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics). These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses) rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  5. Field Flight Dynamics of Hummingbirds during Territory Encroachment and Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Sholtis

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds are known to defend food resources such as nectar sources from encroachment by competitors (including conspecifics. These competitive intraspecific interactions provide an opportunity to quantify the biomechanics of hummingbird flight performance during ecologically relevant natural behavior. We recorded the three-dimensional flight trajectories of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds defending, being chased from and freely departing from a feeder. These trajectories allowed us to compare natural flight performance to earlier laboratory measurements of maximum flight speed, aerodynamic force generation and power estimates. During field observation, hummingbirds rarely approached the maximal flight speeds previously reported from wind tunnel tests and never did so during level flight. However, the accelerations and rates of change in kinetic and potential energy we recorded indicate that these hummingbirds likely operated near the maximum of their flight force and metabolic power capabilities during these competitive interactions. Furthermore, although birds departing from the feeder while chased did so faster than freely-departing birds, these speed gains were accomplished by modulating kinetic and potential energy gains (or losses rather than increasing overall power output, essentially trading altitude for speed during their evasive maneuver. Finally, the trajectories of defending birds were directed toward the position of the encroaching bird rather than the feeder.

  6. Toward Real Time Neural Net Flight Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, C. C.; Mah, R. W.; Ross, J.; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center has an ongoing program in neural network control technology targeted toward real time flight demonstrations using a modified F-15 which permits direct inner loop control of actuators, rapid switching between alternative control designs, and substitutable processors. An important part of this program is the ACTIVE flight project which is examining the feasibility of using neural networks in the design, control, and system identification of new aircraft prototypes. This paper discusses two research applications initiated with this objective in mind: utilization of neural networks for wind tunnel aircraft model identification and rapid learning algorithms for on line reconfiguration and control. The first application involves the identification of aerodynamic flight characteristics from analysis of wind tunnel test data. This identification is important in the early stages of aircraft design because complete specification of control architecture's may not be possible even though concept models at varying scales are available for aerodynamic wind tunnel testing. Testing of this type is often a long and expensive process involving measurement of aircraft lift, drag, and moment of inertia at varying angles of attack and control surface configurations. This information in turn can be used in the design of the flight control systems by applying the derived lookup tables to generate piece wise linearized controllers. Thus, reduced costs in tunnel test times and the rapid transfer of wind tunnel insights into prototype controllers becomes an important factor in more efficient generation and testing of new flight systems. NASA Ames Research Center is successfully applying modular neural networks as one way of anticipating small scale aircraft model performances prior to testing, thus reducing the number of in tunnel test hours and potentially, the number of intermediate scaled models required for estimation of surface flow effects.

  7. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Kirpich, A.S.; Murata, R.; Smith, M.A.; Stephen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kW e system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW 2 , Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kW e in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions

  8. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulwoo Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  9. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-07-17

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  10. Consort 1 flight results - A synopsis. [low gravity materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C.; Lundquist, Charles A.; Maybee, George W.

    1989-01-01

    All six experiments performed onboard Consort 1, the first low gravity materials processing payload to be launched by a commercially licensed rocket in the U.S., are evaluated. The six experiments were carried out as planned, during approximately seven minutes of suborbital, low gravity flight and returned in excellent condition within four hour of launch. Nearly 150 physical samples supported by measurements and photographs made during the flight were taken for analysis. The rocket flight and payload configuration is described, along with experiment objectives, methods, results, and conclusions.

  11. DC-10-10 winglet flight test program management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the McDonnell Douglas/NASA DC-10-10 winglet flight test program from a program management viewpoint. The program was conducted to obtain flight test data on the same airplane with and without winglets for direct comparison. As occasionally happens in flight tests, unexpected events occur. This program was encumbered by a low-speed buffet anomaly that required several configuration modifications before satisfactory performance could be attained. This paper relates the management techniques utilized to accommodate the unplanned increases in program scope and still complete the program on time and below the budgeted cost.

  12. Shape matters: improved flight in tapered auto-rotating wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucen; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Many plants use gravity and wind to disperse their seeds. The shape of seed pods influence their aerodynamics. For example, Liana seeds form aerodynamic gliders and Sycamore trees release airborne ``helicopters.'' Here, we use carefully-controlled experiments and high-speed photography to examine dispersion by tumbling (auto-rotation) and we focus on the effect of geometry on flight characteristics. We consider four families of shapes: rectangular, elliptic, tapered, and sharp-tip wings, and we vary the span-to-chord ratio. We find that tapered wings exhibit extended flight time and range, that is, better performance. A quasi-steady two-dimensional model is used to highlight the mechanisms by which shape affects flight performance. These findings could have significant implications on linking seedpod designs to seed dispersion patterns as well as on optimizing wing design in active flight problems.

  13. In-Flight Validation of a Pilot Rating Scale for Evaluating Failure Transients in Electronic Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Kevin F.; Tucker, George E.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    2006-01-01

    Engineering development and qualification of a Research Flight Control System (RFCS) for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Airborne Laboratory (RASCAL) JUH-60A has motivated the development of a pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems. The RASCAL RFCS includes a highly-reliable, dual-channel Servo Control Unit (SCU) to command and monitor the performance of the fly-by-wire actuators and protect against the effects of erroneous commands from the flexible, but single-thread Flight Control Computer. During the design phase of the RFCS, two piloted simulations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) to help define the required performance characteristics of the safety monitoring algorithms in the SCU. Simulated failures, including hard-over and slow-over commands, were injected into the command path, and the aircraft response and safety monitor performance were evaluated. A subjective Failure/Recovery Rating (F/RR) scale was developed as a means of quantifying the effects of the injected failures on the aircraft state and the degree of pilot effort required to safely recover the aircraft. A brief evaluation of the rating scale was also conducted on the Army/NASA CH-47B variable stability helicopter to confirm that the rating scale was likely to be equally applicable to in-flight evaluations. Following the initial research flight qualification of the RFCS in 2002, a flight test effort was begun to validate the performance of the safety monitors and to validate their design for the safe conduct of research flight testing. Simulated failures were injected into the SCU, and the F/RR scale was applied to assess the results. The results validate the performance of the monitors, and indicate that the Failure/Recovery Rating scale is a very useful tool for evaluating failure transients in fly-by-wire flight control systems.

  14. IceBridge Mission Flight Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Mission Flight Reports data set contains flight reports from NASA Operation IceBridge Greenland, Arctic, Antarctic, and Alaska missions. Flight reports...

  15. Cosmic radiation algorithm utilizing flight time tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Mika Helminen, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Katja Kojo, M.Sc.; Anssi Auvinen, M.D.Ph.D. [Tampere Univ., School of Public Health (Finland); Gerhard Leuthold, D.Sc. [GSF - Research Center, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Cosmic radiation is considerably higher on cruising altitudes used in aviation than at ground level. Exposure to cosmic radiation may increase cancer risk among pilots and cabin crew. The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has recommended that air crew should be classified as radiation workers. Quantification of cosmic radiation doses is necessary for as