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Sample records for blotting northern

  1. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  2. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  3. Fast and Simple micro-RNA Northern Blots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Tran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA northern blots provide robust measurements of gene expression. The simple northern blot technique described in this report has been optimised to provide rapid, reproducible detection and analysis of mature and precursor forms of microRNAs. This protocol economises on the use of commercially available components and secondly reduces the hybridisation step to 2 hours.

  4. A sensitive non-radioactive northern blot method to detect small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Li, Zhihua; Moore, Patrick S; Monaghan, A Paula; Chang, Yuan; Nichols, Mark; John, Bino

    2010-04-01

    The continuing discoveries of potentially active small RNAs at an unprecedented rate using high-throughput sequencing have raised the need for methods that can reliably detect and quantitate the expression levels of small RNAs. Currently, northern blot is the most widely used method for validating small RNAs that are identified by methods such as high-throughput sequencing. We describe a new northern blot-based protocol (LED) for small RNA (approximately 15-40 bases) detection using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing locked nucleic acids (LNA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide for cross-linking the RNA to the membrane. LED generates clearly visible signals for RNA amounts as low as 0.05 fmol. This method requires as little as a few seconds of membrane exposure to outperform the signal intensity using overnight exposure of isotope-based methods, corresponding to approximately 1000-fold improvement in exposure-time. In contrast to commonly used radioisotope-based methods, which require freshly prepared and hazardous probes, LED probes can be stored for at least 6 months, facilitate faster and more cost-effective experiments, and are more environmentally friendly. A detailed protocol of LED is provided in the Supplementary Data.

  5. Simultaneous preparation of RNA and nuclei for Northern blot and flow cytometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Jaramillo, R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Several methods have been developed to quantify RNA synthesis during the progression of the cell cycle. The rate of RNA synthesis can be detected during different stages of the cell cycle by staining cells with agents that intercalate with nucleic acids. For example, following staining of mammalian cells with acridin orange, the green and red fluorescence that correlates with DNA and RNA content, respectively, can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Increase in RNA content during the progression of cells through the cell cycle can be measured after staining with acridin orange. RNA synthesis resulting from the stimulation of quiescent cells with various growth factors has also been demonstrated by labeling cells with bromo-uridine and using the anti-bromo-deoxyuridine antibody. These methods allow measurement of the overall RNA content in cells; however, they do not allow the measurement of the levels of specific mRNAs throughout the cell cycle. Current methods to quantify specific mRNAs generally require the preparation of a large number of cells (5--10 {times} 10{sup 6} cells) to carry out flow cytometric analyses and to isolate RNA for Northern blot analysis or solution hybridization. In this report, the authors describe a method of simultaneously preparing RNA and nuclei for Northern blot and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. The minimum number of nuclei required to obtain flow cytometric data and the effect of conserving nuclei in methanol for several days are also presented.

  6. The mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP2 subtype: cloning, expression, and northern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, M; Nishigaki, N; Sugimoto, Y; Morimoto, K; Negishi, M; Narumiya, S; Ichikawa, A

    1995-09-25

    A functional cDNA clone for the mouse prostaglandin (PG) E receptor EP2 subtype was isolated from a mouse cDNA library. The mouse EP2 receptor consists of 362 amino acid residues with seven putative transmembrane domains. [3H]PGE2 bound specifically to the membrane of Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned receptor. This binding was displaced by unlabeled prostanoids in the order of PGE2 = PGE1 > iloprost, a stable PGI2 agonist > PGF2 alpha > PGD2. Binding was also inhibited by butaprost (an EP2 agonist) and to a lesser extent by M&B 28767 (an EP3 agonist), but not by sulprostone (an EP1 and EP3 agonist) or SC-19220 (an EP1 antagonist). PGE2 and butaprost increased the cAMP level in the Chinese hamster ovary cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Northern blot analysis revealed that EP2 mRNA is expressed most abundantly in the uterus, followed by the spleen, lung, thymus, ileum, liver, and stomach.

  7. NORTHERN BLOT ANALYSIS OF nm23 GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lun-xu; ZHOU Qing-hua; SHI Ying-kang; QIN Yang; SUN Zhi-lin; SUN Ze-fang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of nm23 gene expression in human lung cancer. Methods: Forty human lung cancer tissues and 19 non-cancer pulmonary tissues were studied for their nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 mRNA expression with non-radioactive Northern blot hybridization. The correlation of nm23 mRNA expression with clinical features of lung cancer was analyzed. Results: The mRNA expression of nm23-H2 gene in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was significantly decreased compared to that in moderate-high differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The mRNA expression of nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 gene in small cell lung cancer was significantly decreased compared to that in squamous cell carcinoma. No significant difference in nm23 mRNA expression was observed between lung cancer with and without lymph node metastasis, nor was there significant difference between tumor stage. Conclusion: The mRNA expression of nm23 gene is correlated with the degree of differentiation of lung cancer, but there is no evidence of metastasis suppression effect by nm23 gene.

  8. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis in search for a putative Paramecium beta-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płatek, A; Wiejak, J; Wyroba, E

    1999-01-01

    RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis were performed in order to search for a putative beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) in Paramecium using several beta2-adrenergic-specific molecular probes. Under strictly defined RT-PCR conditions DNA species of expected molecular size about 360 bp were generated with the primers corresponding to the universal mammalian beta2-AR sequence tagged sites (located within the 4th and the 6th transmembrane regions of the receptor). This RT-PCR product hybridized in Southern blot analysis with the oligonucleotide probe designed to the highly conservative beta2-AR region involved in G-proteins interaction and located within the amplified region. Northern hybridization was performed on Paramecium total RNA and mRNA with human beta2-AR cDNA and two oligonucleotide probes: the first included Phe 290 involved in agonist binding (Strader et al., 1995) and the second was the backward RT-PCR primer. All these probes revealed the presence of about 2 kb mRNA which is consistent with the size of beta2-AR transcripts found in higher eukaryotes.

  9. Molecular diagnosis of Theileria and Babesia species infecting cattle in Northern Spain using reverse line blot macroarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juste Ramón A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piroplasmosis in cattle is caused by tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Molecular detection techniques offer higher sensitivity and specificity than microscopy examination methods and serological tests. A reverse line blot (RLB macroarray that included generic and species-specific probes for Theileria annulata, Theileria buffeli, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia divergens and Babesia major was used to study the presence and identity of the piroplasm species infecting 263 bovine blood samples from 79 farms, most of them in Northern Spain. Microscopy examination of blood smears and haematology were also performed whenever possible to identify animals with parasitaemia. Results RLB hybridisation identified infection in 54.0% of the samples, whereas only 28.8% were positive by microscopy examination. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli, present in 42.6% of the samples. T. annulata was found in 22 samples (8.4% from 12 farms, including 9 farms (14 samples located in Northern Spain where presence of the vector is not very common. Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. major was found in 3.0% of the samples, B. bigemina in 2.7%, B. bovis in 2.3% and B. divergens in 1.1%. Mixed infections were detected in 14 samples, accounting for six different combinations of species. Conclusion This is the first report in which B. major and B. divergens have been detected in Spain using molecular identification techniques and the first time that B. bovis has been detected in Northern Spain. The detection of T. annulata in Northern Spain suggests that the distribution of Mediterranean theileriosis might be changing. Samples with positive RLB hybridisation but negative microscopy had haematology values within the normal ranges suggesting that they corresponded to chronic carriers that may serve as reservoirs of the infection. In this sense, sensitive and specific laboratorial

  10. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumlow, Annekathrin; Keunen, Els; Klein, Jan; Pallmann, Philip; Riemenschneider, Anja; Cuypers, Ann; Papenbrock, Jutta

    Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

  11. Whole genomic sequencing of RT98 mitochondria derived from Oryza rufipogon and northern blot analysis to uncover a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Keisuke; Kazama, Tomohiko; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in the failure to produce functional pollen and is often observed when an alien cytoplasm is transferred into a cultivated species. An RT98A CMS line and an RT98C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1109 and Oryza sativa cultivar Taichung 65. To uncover the CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, we determined the complete sequence of the RT98-CMS mitochondrial genome using next-generation pyrosequencing, and searched new open reading frames (orfs) absent in a reported mitochondrial genome of O. sativa Nipponbare. Then, six candidates were selected for the CMS-associated genes based on the criteria in which they were chimeric in structure or encoded a peptide with transmembrane domains. One of the candidates, orf113, showed different transcript sizes between RT98A and RT98C on Northern blot analysis. The orf113 gene was shown to be co-transcribed with atp4 and cox3 encoding ATP synthase F0 subunit 4 and Cyt c oxidase subunit 3, respectively, and their transcripts were distinctly processed in the presence of a fertility restorer gene. Our results indicate that orf113 is a CMS-associated gene of RT98-CMS.

  12. 地高辛标记的Northern blot检测鼠疫菌sRNA%Detection of Yersinia pestis sRNA by digoxigenin-labeled Northern blot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仲良; 苏山春; 孟祥荣; 吴移谋; 杨瑞馥; 韩延平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]随着高通量测序方法的应用,越来越多的sRNA (small non-coding RNA,sRNA)需验证.本研究建立用地高辛标记Northern blot检测鼠疫菌sRNA的技术,为细菌sRNA验证提供一种灵敏、特异的方法.[方法]在低铁条件下,提取鼠疫菌总RNA,10% dPAGE分离后电转到尼龙膜上并用紫外线交联RNA.膜经地高辛标记RyhB1或RyhB2寡核苷酸RNA探针过夜杂交后洗脱、封闭和免疫检测,最后曝光显影.[结果]地高辛标记的Northern blot曝光时间为20 s-3 min,RyhB1或RyhB2检测灵敏度分别为0.005 μg和0.05 μg.RyhB1或RyhB2探针特异性好,相互间无交叉反应.带正电或中性的尼龙膜都适用于杂交反应.RNA探针在42℃-65℃内杂交均可,提高温度可减少非特异性反应;而DNA探针杂交温度需摸索.[结论]本研究成功构建一种地高辛标记Northern blot检测鼠疫菌sRNA技术,具有特异性好、灵敏度高、探针易保存、曝光时间短等优点,为细菌sRNA验证和功能研究提供有利工具.%[Objective] With the application of high-throughput sequencing methods, more and more sRNAs are required to be verified.In this study, we developed the digoxigenin-labeled Northern blot method for detection of Yersinia pestis sRNA.[Methods] Total RNAs extracted from Yersinia.pestis grown under low-iron conditions were loaded onto 10% denaturing urea polyacrylamide gel (dPAGE) , electrophoresed and transferred to nylon membranes.Northern blots were fixed to the membrane by UV cross-linking and subjected to hybridization with 3 ' -end digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotides RNA probe for RyhBl and RyhB2 overnight and followed by washing, blocking, immunological detection and finally exposed to film.[Results] Exposure time of digoxigenin-labelled Northern blot was 20s-3min.The detection sensitivity of RyhBl and RyhB2 was 0.005μg and 0.05 μg, respectively.RyhBl and RyhB2 probe specificity was high and no cross reaction with each other was found

  13. RNase protection assays and RNA gel blots: a direct comparison of sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, D C; Colbert, J T

    1992-01-01

    RNase protection assays are commonly thought to be a more sensitive means of detecting and quantitating specific mRNAs than are RNA gel blots (Northern blots). We have directly compared the sensitivity of these two approaches by assaying for known amounts of in vitro synthesized beta-glucuronidase mRNA. With the probes and protocols employed here, the ability to detect a specific mRNA was similar whether RNase protection or RNA gel blot analyses were performed.

  14. Studying protein-protein interactions via blot overlay/far western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    Blot overlay is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. This technique involves fractionating proteins on SDS-PAGE, blotting to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane, and then incubating with a probe of interest. The probe is typically a protein that is radiolabeled, biotinylated, or simply visualized with a specific antibody. When the probe is visualized via antibody detection, this technique is often referred to as "Far Western blot." Many different kinds of protein-protein interactions can be studied via blot overlay, and the method is applicable to screens for unknown protein-protein interactions as well as to the detailed characterization of known interactions.

  15. Single cell-resolution western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chi-Chih; Yamauchi, Kevin A; Vlassakis, Julea; Sinkala, Elly; Duncombe, Todd A; Herr, Amy E

    2016-08-01

    This protocol describes how to perform western blotting on individual cells to measure cell-to-cell variation in protein expression levels and protein state. Like conventional western blotting, single-cell western blotting (scWB) is particularly useful for protein targets that lack selective antibodies (e.g., isoforms) and in cases in which background signal from intact cells is confounding. scWB is performed on a microdevice that comprises an array of microwells molded in a thin layer of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG). The gel layer functions as both a molecular sieving matrix during PAGE and a blotting scaffold during immunoprobing. scWB involves five main stages: (i) gravity settling of cells into microwells; (ii) chemical lysis of cells in each microwell; (iii) PAGE of each single-cell lysate; (iv) exposure of the gel to UV light to blot (immobilize) proteins to the gel matrix; and (v) in-gel immunoprobing of immobilized proteins. Multiplexing can be achieved by probing with antibody cocktails and using antibody stripping/reprobing techniques, enabling detection of 10+ proteins in each cell. We also describe microdevice fabrication for both uniform and pore-gradient microgels. To extend in-gel immunoprobing to gels of small pore size, we describe an optional gel de-cross-linking protocol for more effective introduction of antibodies into the gel layer. Once the microdevice has been fabricated, the assay can be completed in 4-6 h by microfluidic novices and it generates high-selectivity, multiplexed data from single cells. The technique is relevant when direct measurement of proteins in single cells is needed, with applications spanning the fundamental biosciences to applied biomedicine.

  16. TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot) and Its Application to Functional Lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids-including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids-from a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot), and its biochemical applications are presented. This chapter presents the conventional procedures for separating lipid from tissue samples, cultured cells, and serum and the subsequent development of TLC. Individual lipids separated on an HPTLC plate can be transferred to the PVDF membrane quantitatively and also isolated from the lipid-blotted membrane by a one-step purification procedure. Immunodetection with monoclonal antibodies and treatment with lipid-metabolizing enzymes on the lipid-blotted membrane are possible. The method for identification of individual lipids transferred on the PVDF membrane using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS) is shown as a functional lipidomics application.

  17. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  18. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) frente a Western Blot

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Ponce, Zahira Maria; Urbano Gámez, Jose Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We propose the SRM technology as a complementary method to the Western Blot for the detection and quantification of proteins in a sample. The technique Western Blot has its own limitations: i) only a protein-of-choice is detected, ignoring any non-relevant proteins, ii) the sensitivity of the technique depends on the specificity of the antibody and iii) Western Blot is expensive and time-consuming. The advantages of SRM with respect Western Blot are remarkable: i) you can detect up to h...

  19. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology.

  20. Miniaturized fluorescent RNA dot blot method for rapid quantitation of gene expression

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    Yadetie Fekadu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA dot blot hybridization is a commonly used technique for gene expression assays. However, membrane based RNA dot/slot blot hybridization is time consuming, requires large amounts of RNA, and is less suited for parallel assays of more than one gene at a time. Here, we describe a glass-slide based miniaturized RNA dot blot (RNA array procedure for rapid and parallel gene expression analysis using fluorescently labeled probes. Results RNA arrays were prepared by simple manual spotting of RNA onto amino-silane coated microarray glass slides, and used for two-color fluorescent hybridization with specific probes labeled with Cy3 and 18S ribosomal RNA house-keeping gene probe labeled with Cy5 fluorescent dyes. After hybridization, arrays were scanned on a fluorescent microarray scanner and images analyzed using microarray image analysis software. We demonstrate that this method gives comparable results to Northern blot analysis, and enables high throughput quantification of transcripts from nanogram quantities of total RNA in hundreds of samples. Conclusion RNA array on glass slide and detection by fluorescently labeled probes can be used for rapid and parallel gene expression analysis. The method is particularly well suited for gene expression assays that involve quantitation of many transcripts in large numbers of samples.

  1. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  2. Mixed lubrication after rewetting of blotted pleural mesothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Pecchiari, Matteo; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2013-01-15

    Coefficient of kinetic friction (μ) of pleural mesothelium blotted with filter paper, and rewetted with Ringer solution markedly increases; this increase is removed if a sufficient amount of sialomucin or hyaluronan is added to Ringer (Bodega et al., 2012. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 180, 34-39). In this research we found that μ of pleural mesothelium blotted, rewetted, and sliding at physiological velocities and loads, decreased with increase of velocity, mainly at low velocities. Despite this decrease, μ at highest velocity was still double that before blotting. With small concentration of sialomucin or hyaluronan μ was markedly smaller at each velocity, decreased less with increase of velocity, and at highest velocity approached preblotting value. These findings indicate a regime of mixed lubrication in post-blotting Ringer, at variance with boundary lubrication occurring before blotting or postblotting with sufficient macromolecule addition. Greater roughness of mesothelial surface, caused by blotting, likely induces zones of elastohydrodynamic lubrication, which increase with velocity, while contact area decreases.

  3. The line blot assay: problems with titrating first and second antibodies for Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Silva-Miranda, M; Wek-Rodriguez, K; Arce-Paredes, P

    2006-01-01

    We describe a technique designed to assess the optimal dilution of primary and secondary antibodies, to be used in Western blot, dot blot, the multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and immunohistochemistry assays. The method that we call "line blot" is not an alternative but a practical, complementary tool for the above techniques that assures definitive results are obtained from single assays, so there is no need to repeat the assay. As with most immunoenzymatic assays, the line blot assay is very sensitive, allowing the detection of absolute amounts of antigen as low as 2.5 ng in the 0.5 cm-long segment line (see Results), depending on the strength of the secondary, enzyme-labelled antibody.

  4. Routine Western blot to check autophagic flux : Cautions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Ruben; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M. S.; Rodriguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M.; Fuentes, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, the analysis of autophagic flux by Western blotting (WB), which measures two of the most important markers of autophagy, i.e., microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and p62, is widely accepted in the scientific community. In this study, we addressed the possible disadvanta

  5. A Simplified Northern Blotting%Northern印迹方法的改良及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡盛平; 陈强锋; 罗金成

    2004-01-01

    目的:简化Northern印迹的操作步骤,建立安全无毒的RNA凝胶电泳方法.方法:RNA经变性处理后在不含任何化学物质的中性琼脂糖凝胶上电泳,然后用0.05mol/L NaOH溶液转印3h至转印膜上,相继与特异核酸探针杂交,检测不同表达丰度的基因,放射自显影成像.结果:凝胶电泳图显示清晰的28S和18S rRNA条带;Nothern杂交检测出低丰度表达基因.结论:改良的Northern印迹法能够达到传统方法有效变性、分离、检测特异基因表达的效果,垂直凝胶电泳可检测低至5ng的RNA.

  6. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  7. Antibody performance in western blot applications is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algenäs, Cajsa; Agaton, Charlotta; Fagerberg, Linn; Asplund, Anna; Björling, Lisa; Björling, Erik; Kampf, Caroline; Lundberg, Emma; Nilsson, Peter; Persson, Anja; Wester, Kenneth; Pontén, Fredrik; Wernérus, Henrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Ottosson Takanen, Jenny; Hober, Sophia

    2014-03-01

    An important concern for the use of antibodies in various applications, such as western blot (WB) or immunohistochemistry (IHC), is specificity. This calls for systematic validations using well-designed conditions. Here, we have analyzed 13 000 antibodies using western blot with lysates from human cell lines, tissues, and plasma. Standardized stratification showed that 45% of the antibodies yielded supportive staining, and the rest either no staining (12%) or protein bands of wrong size (43%). A comparative study of WB and IHC showed that the performance of antibodies is application-specific, although a correlation between no WB staining and weak IHC staining could be seen. To investigate the influence of protein abundance on the apparent specificity of the antibody, new WB analyses were performed for 1369 genes that gave unsupportive WBs in the initial screening using cell lysates with overexpressed full-length proteins. Then, more than 82% of the antibodies yielded a specific band corresponding to the full-length protein. Hence, the vast majority of the antibodies (90%) used in this study specifically recognize the target protein when present at sufficiently high levels. This demonstrates the context- and application-dependence of antibody validation and emphasizes that caution is needed when annotating binding reagents as specific or cross-reactive. WB is one of the most commonly used methods for validation of antibodies. Our data implicate that solely using one platform for antibody validation might give misleading information and therefore at least one additional method should be used to verify the achieved data.

  8. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence.

  9. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad L. Ericson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs. The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions. Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses.

  10. Evaluation of an indigenous western blot kit for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Western Blot test is considered a gold standard test for the confirmation of an ELISA and/or rapid assay screened reactive sample in the diagnosis of HIV infection, especially in the low risk population. In this study, an indigenously developed HIV W. Blot kit (J.Mitra & Co., New Delhi, India was compared for its performance characteristics with a widely used Western Blot kit, HIV Blot 2.2 (Genelabs, Singapore. Antigens of both HIV-1 and the indicator antigen gp36 of HIV-2 are included in the strips. METHODS: A panel of 150 clinical serum samples was used in the evaluation. All the sera were tested simultaneously by both the kits. RESULTS: The HIV W. Blot kit had high performance characteristics (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, like the HIV Blot 2.2. The test procedure was easy to perform. There was clear delineation of the bands. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of the results on the HIV W. Blot was less prone to subjective errors. The test gave positive bands at even very high serum dilutions in the test kit. This fact indicates that HIV W. Blot probably has a potential application in early phases of infection, when the antibody concentrations are still very low.

  11. Immunochemische detectiemethoden na western blotting van cytochroom P-450 iso-enzymen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan CA; Jansen EHJM

    1992-01-01

    In this report a number of staining techniques on Western blots have been compared with respect to sensitivity, background staining, practical applicability and cost aspects. After electrophoresis of a rat microsomal liver sample followed by blotting, an incubation was performed of a primary antibo

  12. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  13. GTP-blot analysis of small GTP-binding proteins. The C-terminus is involved in renaturation of blotted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, F J

    1994-10-01

    Recombinant c-Ha-ras, ralA and rap2, but not rap1A or rap1B proteins retained their ability to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after SDS/PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose. Recombinant c-Has-ras missing the C-terminal 23 amino acid residues failed to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after the blot, and the ability of recombinant ralA missing the C-terminal 28 amino acid residues to bind [alpha-32P]GTP was decreased many-fold. The presence of nonionic detergents of the polyoxyethylene type such as Tween 20, Triton X-100, Nonidet P40 or Lubrol PX in the incubation buffer was necessary to induce renaturation of blotted recombinant c-Ha-ras protein, whereas other types of detergents were ineffective. We propose that detergents of the polyoxyethylene type induce the refolding of some types of blotted small GTP-binding proteins and that the C-terminus is involved in the refolding process. Membranes from NIH3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing c-Ha-ras protein showed much weaker binding of [alpha-32P]GTP as expected from the level of ras immunoreactivity. Treatment of fibroblasts with lovastatin, an inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, caused the accumulation of the unfarnesylated form of c-Ha-ras in the cytosol. Examination of [alpha-32P]GTP-binding and immunoreactivity for cytosolic and membrane-bound c-Ha-ras revealed that binding of [alpha-32P]GTP to unprocessed c-Ha-ras was increased about threefold compared to the same amount of processed c-Ha-ras. Our results demonstrate that detection and quantification of small GTP-binding proteins in eukaryotic cells by GTP-blot analysis is hampered by the fact that these proteins differ strongly in their ability to renature after blotting to nitrocellulose.

  14. Accuracy of Reverse Dot-Blot PCR in Detection of Different β-Globin Gene Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadaly, N; Abd-Elhameed, A; Abd-Elbar, E; El-Shanshory, M

    2016-06-01

    Prevention programs for β-thalassemia based on molecular diagnosis of heterozygous carriers and/or patients require the use of reliable mutation screening methods. The aim of this study was to compare between direct DNA sequencing, and reverse dot-blot PCR in detection of different β-globin gene mutations in Egyptian children with β-thalassemia. Forty children with β-thalassemia were subjected to mutation analysis, performed by both direct DNA sequencing and β-globin Strip Assay MED™ (based on reverse dot-blot PCR). The most frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were; IVSI-110 G>A (31.25 %), IVS I-6 T > C (21.25 %), and IVS I-1 G>A (20 %). Relatively less frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were "IVSII-1 G>A (5 %), IVSII-745 C>G (5 %), IVSII-848 C>A (2.5 %), IVSI-5 G>C (2.5 %), -87 C>G(2.5 %), and cd39 C>T (2.5 %)", While the genotypes of three patients (6 alleles 7.5 %) were not detected by reverse dot-blot PCR. Mutant alleles detected by direct DNA sequencing were the same as reverse dot-blot PCR method except it revealed the genotypes of 3 undetected patients (one patient was homozygous IVSI-110 G>A, and two patients were homozygous IVS I-1 G>A. Sensitivity of the reverse dot-blot PCR was 92.5 % when compared to direct DNA sequencing for detecting β-thalassemia mutations. Our results therefore suggest that, direct DNA sequencing may be preferred over reverse dot-blot PCR in critical diagnostic situations like genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis.

  15. CRITERIA OF POSITIVITY FOR Ig ANTIBODIES IN THE METHOD OF IMMUNE BLOTTING OF LYME DISEASE

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    V G Barskova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no accepted criteria for positive Western blots in Russian patients with Lyme borreliosis. The purpose of the current study was to develop criteria for a positive IgG westem-blot to aid particularly in the diagnosis of patients with joint manifestation of the disorder. Patients: 97 with Lyme disease, 145 - control subjects. IgG antibody responses were determined to 3 species ofB.burgdorferi sensu lato by Western blotting, using blots prepared by manufacturer. The best discriminatory ability of test criteria was chained by requiring any 3 of 11 IgG bands, a definition that could be used with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B.garinii and B.afzelii strains. With these 3 antigen preparation, positive IgG blots were found in 0 to 18% of patients with localized erythema migrans of < 4 weeks duration, 23 to 39% of those with disseminated infection < 20 weeks duration, and in 39 to 46% of those with late arthritis/arthralgia of >6 months duration the specificity was 93 to 99%. Thus, IgG Western blotting may bring greater specificity to serologic testing in Lyme borreliosis, but the sensitivity is limited.

  16. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGEN (Derp1 AND Blot5) LEVELS IN ASTHMATICS' HOME IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Sun; Adrian Wu; Albert Chan; Stanley Chik; Dorothy Wong; Nan-shan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To measure Derpl and Blot5 allergen levels in asthmatics' homes in Hongkong.Methods Seventy houses were enrolled for a mite indoor environment study. Dust samples were obtained from two sites of each patients' house: bed and floor. Derpl and Blot5 levels were quantified by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique.Results The levels of Derpl allergens found in bed (geometric mean (GM) 3.43 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 1.89-4.96 μg/g)and on the floor (GM 1.12 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.71-1.53 μg/g) indicated significant differences (P=0.005). However, the levels of Blot5 allergens found in bed (GM 19.00 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.89-38.90 μg/g) and on the floor (GM 6.14 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.40-11.90 μg/g) showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, in regards to the exposure index for Derpl and Blot5 allergens found in bed and on the floor, 17.6% in bed and 8.6% on the floor had levels of Blot5 ≥ 10 μg/g of dust, higher than those obtained for Derp1 (7.2% and 0% in bed and on the floor respectively, P< 0.05); higher percentages in bed and on the floor (25.0% and 35.7%) were observed for levels of Blot5 =0 μg/g of dust as compared with Derpl in bed and on the floor (4.3% and 14.5% respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusions Derpl and Blot5 are the major allergens found in this regional study, Blot5 is a more potent allergen in Hongkong, probably reflecting the high level of exposure to Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Bt and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergens should be included for precise diagnosis and effective immuno-therapeutic treatment of mite allergy in Hongkong.

  17. Total protein or high-abundance protein: Which offers the best loading control for Western blotting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Yeung, Derrick H; Staines, W Richard; Mielke, John G

    2016-03-01

    Western blotting routinely involves a control for variability in the amount of protein across immunoblot lanes. Normalizing a target signal to one found for an abundantly expressed protein is widely regarded as a reliable loading control; however, this approach is being increasingly questioned. As a result, we compared blotting for two high-abundance proteins (actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]) and two total protein membrane staining methods (Ponceau and Coomassie Brilliant Blue) to determine the best control for loading variability. We found that Ponceau staining optimally balanced accuracy and precision, and we suggest that this approach be considered as an alternative to normalizing with a high-abundance protein.

  18. Indeterminate HIV-1 Western Blots: Etiology, Natural History, and Psychological Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-16

    systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus , Sjogren’s disease, thyroiditis, and Crohn’s disease 4 TABLE 8 45...Cat wound ply 0-no; 1-scratched only; 2-bitten only; 3-both BE.2Bb Owned other pets 0-no;l- dog ; 2-rodent;3-other A/< . 2 # BE.3 SMOKING HISTORY 53 BE...blot. Sera from 26 cases with a pet cat were tested for reactivity on Western blots for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and for feline immunodeficiency

  19. A Streamlined Western Blot Exercise: An Efficient and Greener Approach in the Laboratory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Traci L.; Robinson, Rebekah L.; Mojadedi, Wais; Peavy, Lydia; Weiland, Mitch H.

    2015-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and western blotting are two commonly taught protein detection techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory classrooms. A pitfall associated with incorporating these techniques into the laboratory is the significant wait times that do not allow students to obtain timely results. The waiting associated with SDS-PAGE comes…

  20. A Study of Rubisco through Western Blotting and Tissue Printing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong; Cooper, Cynthia; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Janick-Buckner, Diane

    2009-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for a cell biology course for second-year undergraduate biology majors. It was designed to introduce undergraduates to the basic molecular biology techniques of Western blotting and immunodetection coupled with the technique of tissue printing in detecting the presence, relative abundance, and…

  1. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

  2. PET-blot analysis contributes to BSE strain recognition in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezmi, Stéphane; Bencsik, Anna; Baron, Thierry

    2006-10-01

    Identification of the strain of agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be made histologically through the analysis of both distribution and intensity of brain vacuolar lesions after BSE transmission to mouse. Another useful way to distinguish the BSE agent from other prion strains is the study of the distribution of the abnormal prion protein (PrP(res)). For that purpose, paraffin-embedded tissue blot (PET-blot) method was applied on brains from C57Bl/6 mice infected with cattle BSE, experimental sheep BSE, or feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) from a cheetah. PrP(res) distribution was comparable, whichever of the three BSE agent sources was considered and was distinct from the PrP(res) distribution in C57Bl/6 mice inoculated with a French scrapie isolate or with a mouse-adapted scrapie strain (C506M3). These data confirm a common origin of infectious agent responsible for the British and French cattle BSE. They also indicate that PET-blot method appears as a precise complementary tool in prion strain studies because it offers easy and quick assessment of the PrP(res) mapping. Advantages and limits of the PET-blot method are discussed and compared with other established and validated methods of strain typing.

  3. Combined use of Western blot/ELISA to improve the serological diagnosis of human tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Beck

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two recombinant antigens and a crude bacterial antigen of a wild M. tuberculosis strain were used to detect specific IgG antibodies in sera from 52 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, confirmed by an acid-fast smear and serum culture of these patients and that of 25 contacts. The patients were not infected with HIV. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA, based on the recombinant TbF6® and TbF6/DPEP antigen and a search for reactivity patterns in the Western blot technique, using whole mycobacterium antigen. Serum samples from 22 healthy individuals and from 30 patients with lung diseases other than tuberculosis were used as controls. The best ELISA results were obtained with the TbF6/DPEP antigen combination, which gave 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity. ELISA sensitivity improved from 85% to 92% when the Western blot results were used. Western blot specificity was 100% when antibody reactivity with different antigenic bands was analyzed and associated. The association of TbF6/DPEP antigens used in ELISA with specific patterns of reactivity determined by Western blot can help make an identification when classic methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis are not sufficient.

  4. Effects of Reusing Gel Electrophoresis and Electrotransfer Buffers on Western Blotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotola, Oluwabukola B.; Heda, Rajiv P.; Avery, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and Western blotting are 2 of the most commonly used biochemical methods for protein analysis. Proteins are electrophoretically separated based on their MWs by SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred to a solid membrane surface for subsequent protein-specific analysis by immunoblotting, a procedure commonly known as Western blotting. Both of these procedures use a salt-based buffer, with the latter procedure consisting of methanol as an additive known for its toxicity. Previous reports present a contradictory view in favor or against reusing electrotransfer buffer, also known as Towbin’s transfer buffer (TTB), with an aim to reduce the toxic waste. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of not only reusing TTB but also gel electrophoresis buffer (EB) on proteins of low to high MW range. Our results suggest that EB can be reused for at least 5 times without compromising the electrophoretic separation of mixture of proteins in an MW standard, BSA, and crude cell lysates. Additionally, reuse of EB did not affect the quality of subsequent Western blots. Successive reuse of TTB, on the other hand, diminished the signal of proteins of different MWs in a protein standard and a high MW membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in Western blotting. PMID:27582639

  5. Western blotting as a method for studying cell-biomaterial interactions : The role of protein collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, TG; Klein, CL; Kirkpatrick, CJ

    2001-01-01

    Research of cell-biomaterial interactions is building on knowledge and methods available in cell and molecular biology. Western blotting is one of the options to characterize protein expression in cell populations. Method transfer to biomaterial model systems is not trivial because of the structure

  6. Biofilm detection by wound blotting can predict slough development in pressure ulcers: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Schultz, Gregory; Gibson, Daniel J; Phillips, Priscilla; Kitamura, Aya; Minematsu, Takeo; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Sasaki, Sanae; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-12-26

    Bacteria have been found to form multicellular aggregates which have collectively been termed "biofilms." It is hypothesized that biofilm formation is a means to protect bacterial cells including protection form the immune response of humans. This protective mechanism is believed to explain persistent chronic wound infections. At times, the biofilms are abundant enough to see, and remove by simple wiping. However, recent evidence has shown that the removal of these visible portions are not sufficient, and that biofilms can continue to form even with daily wiping. In this work, we tested an approach to detect the biofilms which are present after clinically wiping or sharp wound debridement. Our method is based on a variation of impression cytology in which a nitrocellulose membrane was used to collect surface biofilm components, which were then differentially stained. In this prospective study, members of an interdisciplinary pressure ulcer team at a university hospital tested our method's ability to predict the generation of wound slough in the week that followed each blotting. A total of 70 blots collected from 23 pressure ulcers produced 27 wounds negative for staining and 43 positive. In the negative blots 55.6% were found to have decreased wound slough, while 81.4% with positive staining had either increase or unchanged wound slough generation. These results lead to an odds ratio of positive blotting cases of 9.37 (95% confidence intervals: 2.47-35.5, p = 0.001) for slough formation; suggesting that the changes in wound slough formation can be predicted clinically using a non-invasive wound blotting method.

  7. Use of a Combined Duplex PCR/Dot Blot Assay for more sensitive genetic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Curry

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and sensitive method of genetic analysis is necessary to detect multiple specific nucleic acid sequences from samples containing limited template. The most widely utilized method of specific gene detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, imparts inconsistent results when assessing samples with restricted template, especially in a multiplex reaction when copies of target genes are unequal. This study aimed to compare two methods of PCR product analysis, fluorescent detection following agarose gel electrophoresis or dot blot hybridization with chemiluminescent evaluation, in the detection of a single copy gene (SRY and a multicopy gene (β-actin. Bovine embryo sex determination was employed to exploit the limited DNA template available and the target genes of unequal copies. Primers were used either independently or together in a duplex reaction with purified bovine genomic DNA or DNA isolated from embryos. When used independently, SRY and β-actin products were detected on a gel at the equivalent of 4-cell or 1-cell of DNA, respectively; however, the duplex reaction produced visible SRY bands at the 256 cell DNA equivalent and β-actin products at the 64 cell DNA equivalent. Upon blotting and hybridization of the duplex PCR reaction, product was visible at the 1–4 cell DNA equivalent. Duplex PCR was also conducted on 186 bovine embryos and product was subjected to gel electrophoresis or dot-blot hybridization in duplicate. Using PCR alone, sex determination was not possible for 22.6% of the samples. Using PCR combined with dot blot hybridization, 100.0% of the samples exhibited either both the male specific and β-actin products or the β-actin signal alone, indicating that the reaction worked in all samples. This study demonstrated that PCR amplification followed by dot blot hybridization provided more conclusive results in the evaluation of samples with low DNA concentrations and target genes of unequal copies.

  8. Design, preparation and use of ligated phosphoproteins: a novel approach to study protein phosphatases by dot blot array, ELISA and Western blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luo; Ghosh, Inca; Barshevsky, Tanya; Kochinyan, Samvel; Xu, Ming-Qun

    2007-07-01

    The study of substrate specificity of protein phosphatases (PPs) is very challenging since it is difficult to prepare a suitable phosphorylated substrate. Phosphoproteins, phosphorylated by a protein kinase, or chemically synthesized phosphopeptides are commonly used substrates for PPs. Both types of these substrates have their advantages and limitations. Phosphoproteins mimic more closely the physiologically relevant PP substrates, but their preparation is technically demanding. Synthetic phosphopeptides present advantages over proteins because they can be easily produced in large quantity and their amino acid sequence can be designed to contain potential determinants of substrate specificity. However, short peptides are less optimal compared to in vivo PP substrates and often display poor and variable binding to different matrices, resulting in low sensitivity in analysis of PP activity on solid support. In this work we utilize the intein-mediated protein ligation (IPL) technique to generate substrates for PPs, combining the advantages of proteins and synthetic peptides in one molecule. The ligation of a synthetic phosphopeptide to an intein-generated carrier protein (CP) with a one-to-one stoichiometry results in the formation of a ligated phosphoprotein (LPP). Three widely used assays, dot blot array, Western blot and ELISA were employed to study the PP activity on LPP substrates. Dephosphorylation was measured by detection of the remaining phosphorylation, or lack of it, with a phospho-specific antibody. The data show the advantage of LPPs over free peptides in assays on solid supports. LPPs exhibited enhanced binding to the matrices used in the study, which significantly improved sensitivity and consistency of the assays. In addition, saturation of the signal was circumvented by serial dilution of the assay samples. This report describes detailed experimental procedures for preparation of LPP substrates and their use in PP assays based on immobilization on

  9. DISKRIMINASI KELAMIN PADA IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Yellowfin tuna MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DOT BLOT DAN ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang penentuan jenis kelamin dalam populasi induk merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi keberhasilan program pembenihan. Pengukuran reaksi antibodi dan aktivitas hormon testosterone, serta estradiol adalah metode dengan potensi yang secara akurat dapat menentukan jenis kelamin ikan tanpa mematikan ikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui akurasi metode dot blot dan ELISA dengan 11-ketotestorsterone (11-KT yang tersedia secara komersial EIA-kit untuk membedakan jenis kelamin ikan tuna sirip kuning. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa metode dot blot menghasilkan ekspresi vitelogenin tampak jelas pada individu betina dan efek plasma terlihat transparan, jika dibandingkan dengan individu jantan. Interpretasi dari metode ini memerlukan pengalaman dan keahlian dalam akurasi pembacaan hasil. Aktivitas hormon 11-KT dengan sampel klip sirip dan plasma memberikan hasil yang baik dengan aktivitas hormon terlihat jelas.

  10. Western blot diagnosis of vivax malaria with multiple stage-specific antigens of the parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Eui-Sun; Kim, Tong Soo; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2001-01-01

    Western blot analysis was performed to diagnose vivax malaria using stage-specific recombinant antigens. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of a malaria patient was used as templates to amplify the coding regions for the antigenic domains of circumsporozoite protein (CSP-1), merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), apical merozoite antigen (AMA-1), serine repeat antigen (SERA), and exported antigen (EXP-1) of Plasmodium vivax. Each amplified DNA fragment was inserted into a pGEX-4T plasmid to induce ...

  11. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  12. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

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    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  13. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  14. DIFFERENTIATION OF PSEUDOCONDYLOMA OF VULVA AND CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA BY DOT BLOT HYBRIDIZATION AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃华; 王家璧; 司静懿

    1996-01-01

    This study differentiated pseudocondyloma of vulva from condyloma acunainata using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 27 cases o{ pseudocondyloma of vulva and 65 cases of condyloma acuminata were selected for the sttldy. The genital lesions were examined clinically and were biopsled. Each biopsy v-as subjected to histological examination and HPV DNA analysis by dot blot hybridization and PCR. Dot blot analysis detected HPV DNA in 19(82.6%) out of 23 cases of condyloma acuminata and 2(25%) out of 8 cases pseudocondyloma of vulvae(P<0. 05). PCR detected HPV DNA in 51(92.7%) our of 55 cases of eondyloma acuminata, compared with none in 23 cases of pseudocondylorna(P<0. 001). HPV DNA was present in the majority of condyloma acuminata specimens, HPV 6 and 11 were the predominant types. Peudocondyloma is probably not associated with HPV. PCR was the most sensitive and useful techntque for HPV DNA detection.

  15. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Marcilia MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT. Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. Hence, a Western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (LPS containing antigen of three Burkholderia mallei strains was developed. The test was validated investigating a comprehensive set of positive and negative sera obtained from horses and mules from endemic and non endemic areas. Results The developed Western blot assay showed a markedly higher diagnostic specificity when compared to the prescribed CFT and therefore can be used as a confirmatory test. However, the CFT remains the test of choice for routine testing of glanders due to its high sensitivity, its feasibility using standard laboratory equipment and its worldwide distribution in diagnostic laboratories. Conclusions The CFT should be amended by the newly validated Western blot to increase the positive likelihood ratio of glanders serodiagnosis in non endemic areas or areas with low glanders prevalence. Its use for international trade of horses and mules should be implemented by the OIE.

  16. Fluorescent detection of Southern blots and PCR-based genetic typing tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, E.S.; Worley, J.M. [Molecular Dynamics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Zimmerman, P.A. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Southern blot is used to study gene organization, to identify disease-causing genomic rearrangements, or for typing RFLP markers in forensic, paternity, or prenatal diagnostic testing. Fluorescence offers a much greater dynamic range and a more linear response than film used in radioactive or chemiluminescent detection of RFLPs. We therefore investigated using the Fluorimager{trademark} 575 (Molecular Dynamics, Inc.) for analyzing Southern blots. Using a single-locus probe to D2S44 (YNH24) (Promega Corp.), we detect as little as 100 ng (0.05 attomole) genomic DNA. The alkaline phosphatase-labeled probe is detected using AttoPhos (JBL Scientific), and the developed membrane is scanned with the Fluorimager. Biotinylated hybridization probes can also be developed using a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and AttoPhos. The instrument scan parameters can be adjusted to prevent overexposure and accompanying loss of resolution in images of blots, gels, or 96-well microplates. We have used these other sample formats in PCR-based genetic typing assays. We use FluorKit DQS (Molecular Dynamics) to accurately quantify PCR template DNA (1-500 ng) in 96-well microplates scanned using the same instrument. Mutation detection assays run include heteroduplex gels (5% polyacrylamide, 2.7 M urea), short tandem repeat (STR) markers, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AmpFLP), competitive priming PCR, and allele-specific oligotyping. These assays are run using either 1- or 2-color labeling. We detect unlabeled PCR products, such as the AmpFLP marker D1S80 (Perkin-Elmer) by post-staining gels for 10 minutes with SYBR Green 1 (Molecular Probes) and scanning the wet gel. The Fluorimager scans a 20 x 25 cm sample within three minutes, allowing rapid optimization of fluorescent protocols and high sample throughput.

  17. Proteínas inmunodominantes de Brucella Melitensis evaluadas por Western Blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anaya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron extractos de proteínas totales de Brucella melitensis en gel 15% SDS-PAGE. Su seroreactividad fue analizada por Western Blot con resultados satisfactorios. Para éste propósito sueros controles negativos (n=03, sueros de pacientes con brucelosis (n=34, cólera (n=12, tifoidea (n=02 y tuberculosis (n=02 fueron usados. Esta prueba inmunodiagnóstica detectó bandas seroreactivas altamente específicas (100% correspondientes a 8,14,18, un complejo de 25-48 y 58kDa. La sensibilidad del test fue del 90% usando los sueros antes mencionados.

  18. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific...... that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting...

  19. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin-Gonzalez, Javier; Avram, Alexandra; Munk, Stephanie; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J

    2017-01-19

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific genomic locus, but limits the detection of its correct genomic integration by standard PCR methods. Genomic Long Range PCR (LR-PCR), using primers adjacent to the homology arms, has been used as an alternative to radioactive-based Southern blot screenings. However, LR-PCRs are often difficult and render many false positive and false negative results. Here, we propose an alternative screening method based on the detection of a genetic modification at the mRNA level, which we successfully optimized in two mouse models. This screening method consists of a reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using primers that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting constructs which can also be useful to screen KO and KI mutant mice or cell lines including those generated by CRISPR/Cas9.

  20. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  1. Gel electrophoresis of polyphenol oxidase with instant identification by in situ blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Huang, Pei-Chen; Pan, Ju-Pin; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Mao, Simon J T

    2007-04-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) or tyrosinase is an important and ubiquitous enzyme responsible for browning in plants and melanization in animals. The molecular size of the plant PPO is varied among the species and its activity can be enhanced by a variety of anionic detergents. In the present study, we developed a simple method for the first-step identification of PPO in fruit and vegetable extracts. First, 3mm chromatographic paper was immersed in 0.5% (w/v) catechol solution as an immobilized PPO substrate. After running the extract with 10% sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), one side of the glass plate was removed. The plate was immediately laid on top of the dried catechol-paper. A dark-brown band corresponding to PPO was visualized within 1 min and was further confirmed by a conventional Western blot using an antibody prepared against mushroom PPO. It also reveals that some vegetation (such as tomato, radish, and oriental melon) with low or no detectable activity in a conventional enzyme assay actually possessed marked levels of PPO activity when assessed by PAGE-blot. We propose that an inhibitor is associated with PPO in some plants; the inhibitor, however, is dissociated during the electrophoresis. Therefore, in addition to identify the molecular form of PPO, the present technique may explore the existence of PPO inhibitor(s) in plants. The detail of the method with respect to its relevance for searching a natural PPO inhibitor is described and discussed.

  2. Application of a Dot Blot Hybridization Platform to Assess Streptococcus uberis Population Structure in Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Ribeiro, Niza; Almeida, Alexandre; Panschin, Irena; Porfirio, Afonso; Vales, Marta; Diniz, Francisca; Madeira, Helena; Tavares, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is considered one of the most important pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. While traditionally acknowledged as an environmental pathogen, S. uberis has been shown to adopt a contagious epidemiological pattern in several dairy herds. Since different control strategies are employed depending on the mode of transmission, in-depth studies of S. uberis populations are essential to determine the best practices to control this pathogen. In this work, we optimized and validated a dot blot platform, combined with automatic image analysis, to rapidly assess the population structure of infective S. uberis, and evaluated its efficiency when compared to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) genotyping. Two dairy herds with prevalent S. uberis infections were followed in a 6 month period, in order to collect and characterize isolates from cows with persistent infections. These herds, located in Portugal (Barcelos and Maia regions), had similar management practices, with the herd from Barcelos being smaller and having a better milking parlor management, since infected cow segregation was immediate. A total of 54 S. uberis isolates were obtained from 24 different cows from the two herds. To overcome operator-dependent analysis of the dot blots and increase the technique's consistency and reliability, the hybridization signals were converted into probability values, with average probabilities higher than 0.5 being considered positive results. These data allowed to confirm the isolates' identity as S. uberis using taxa-specific markers and to determine the presence of virulence- and antibiotic resistance-related genes. In addition, MLSA allowed to disclose the most prevalent S. uberis clonal lineages in both herds. Seven different clusters were identified, with Barcelos showing a high clonal diversity and Maia a dominant lineage infecting most cows, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns, with S. uberis displaying an environmental or contagious

  3. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F.; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  4. Analysis of sperm membrane antigens relevant to antisperm antibody using Western blot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHF

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To identify the sperm membrane antigens associated with antisperm antibody.Methods:The antisperm antibody in serum was tested by ELISA.Antisperm antibody positive sera from 18 infertile men and 15 infertile women were used.The molecular weight(MW) of sperm membrane antigens associated with the antisperm antibody was analyzed with antisperm antibody positive serum using Western blot.Results:Eight kinds of MW of sperm membrane antigens were identified.The ratio of identification on the 78 KD(60.7%),60KD(71.4%),51KD(14.9%) and 23KD(14.29%)sperm antigen was higher than other.Conclusion:sperm membrane antigens with MW of 78KD,60KD,51KD and 23KD were associated with antisperm antibody and immunological infertility.

  5. Electrospun nitrocellulose and nylon: Design and fabrication of novel high performance platforms for protein blotting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowlin Gary L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospinning is a non-mechanical processing strategy that can be used to process a variety of native and synthetic polymers into highly porous materials composed of nano-scale to micron-scale diameter fibers. By nature, electrospun materials exhibit an extensive surface area and highly interconnected pore spaces. In this study we adopted a biological engineering approach to ask how the specific unique advantages of the electrospinning process might be exploited to produce a new class of research/diagnostic tools. Methods The electrospinning properties of nitrocellulose, charged nylon and blends of these materials are characterized. Results Nitrocellulose electrospun from a starting concentration of Conclusion The flexibility afforded by electrospinning process makes it possible to tailor blotting membranes to specific applications. Electrospinning has a variety of potential applications in the clinical diagnostic field of use.

  6. Rapid detection and differentiation of important Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples by dot blot and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Cecchini, Francesca; Comi, Giuseppe; Manzano, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    The detection of Campylobacter, the most commonly reported cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the European Union, is very important for human health. The most commonly recognised risk factor for infection is the handling and/or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. The methods typically applied to evaluate the presence/absence of Campylobacter in food samples are direct plating and/or enrichment culture based on the Horizontal Method for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. (ISO 10272-1B: 2006) and PCR. Molecular methods also allow for the detection of cells that are viable but cannot be cultivated on agar media and that decrease the time required for species identification. The current study proposes the use of two molecular methods for species identification: dot blot and PCR. The dot blot method had a sensitivity of 25 ng for detection of DNA extracted from a pure culture using a digoxigenin-labelled probe for hybridisation; the target DNA was extracted from the enrichment broth at 24 h. PCR was performed using a pair of sensitive and specific primers for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli after 24 h of enrichment in Preston broth. The initial samples were contaminated by 5 × 10 C. jejuni cells/g and 1.5 × 10(2)C. coli cells/g, thus the number of cells present in the enrichment broth at 0 h was 1 or 3 cell/g, respectively.

  7. Western blot diagnosis of vivax malaria with multiple stage-specific antigens of the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E S; Kim, T S; Nam, H W

    2001-06-01

    Western blot analysis was performed to diagnose vivax malaria using stage-specific recombinant antigens. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of a malaria patient was used as templates to amplify the coding regions for the antigenic domains of circumsporozoite protein (CSP-1), merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), apical merozoite antigen (AMA-1), serine repeat antigen (SERA), and exported antigen (EXP-1) of Plasmodium vivax. Each amplified DNA fragment was inserted into a pGEX-4T plasmid to induce the expression of GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli by IPTG. The bacterial cell extracts were separated on 10% SDS-PAGE followed by western blot analysis with patient sera which was confirmed by blood smear examination. When applied with patient sera, 147 (91.9%) out of 160 vivax malaria, 12 (92.3%) out of 13 falciparum malaria, and all 9 vivax/falciparum mixed malaria reacted with at least one antigen, while no reactions occurred with 20 normal uninfected sera. In the case of vivax malaria, CSP-1 reacted with 128 (80.0%) sera, MSP-1 with 102 (63.8%), AMA-1 with 128 (80.0%), SERA with 115 (71.9%), and EXP-1 with 89 (55.6%), respectively. We obtained higher detection rates when using 5 antigens (91.9%) rather than using each antigen solely (55.6-80%), a combination of 2 (76.3-87.5%), 3 (85.6-90.6%), or 4 antigens (89.4-91.3%). This method can be applied to serological diagnosis, mass screening in endemic regions, or safety test in transfusion of prevalent vivax malaria.

  8. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  9. Evaluation of the Western blotting method for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the Western blotting method for the detection of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii (IgG-WB in the serum of children with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: We accompanied 47 mothers with acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and their children, between June of 2011 and June of 2014. The IgG-WB was done in house and the test was considered positive if the child had antibodies that recognized at least one band on IgG blots different from the mother's or with greater intensity than the corresponding maternal band, during the first three months of life. Results: 15 children (15.1% met the criteria for congenital toxoplasmosis and 32 (32.3% had the diagnosis excluded. The symptoms were observed in 12 (80.0% children and the most frequent were cerebral calcification in 9 (60.0%, chorioretinitis in 8 (53.3%, and hydrocephalus in 4 (26.6%. IgM antibodies anti-T. gondii detected by chemiluminescence (CL were found in 6 (40.0% children and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of T. gondii DNA was positive in 5 of 7 performed (71.4%. The sensitivity of IgG-WB was of 60.0% [95% confidence interval (CI 32.3-83.7%] and specificity 43.7% (95% CI 26.7-62.3%. The sensitivity of IgG-WB increased to 76.0 and 89.1% when associated to the research of IgM anti-T. gondii or PCR, respectively. Conclusions: The IgG-WB showed greater sensitivity than the detection of IgM anti-T. gondii; therefore, it can be used for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in association with other congenital infection markers.

  10. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation

  11. Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs.

  12. Rapid detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples by an improved reverse dot blot method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ming Xing; Su Zhang; Ying Du; Dan Bi; Li-Hui Yao

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To develop a new, rapid and accurate reverse dot blot (RDB) method for the detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples.METHODS:The 12 intestinal pathogens tested were Salmonella spp., Brucella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7,Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus,Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae,Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.The two universal primers were designed to amplify two variable regions of bacterial 16S and 23S rDNA genes from all of the 12 bacterial species tested. Five hundred and forty fecal samples from the diarrhea patients were detected using the improved RDB assay.RESULTS:The methods could identify the 12 intestinal pathogens specifically, and the detection limit was as low as 103 CFUs. The consistent detection rate of the improved RDB assay compared with the traditional culture method was up to 88.75%.CONCLUSION:The hybridization results indicated that the improved RDB assay developed was a reliable method for the detection of intestinal pathogen in fecal samples.

  13. A simple dot-blot-Sirius red-based assay for collagen quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Arribas, Silvia M; de Pablo, Angel Luis López; González, M Carmen; Abderrahim, Fatima; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of collagen content in tissues is important in biomedical research, since this protein is altered in numerous diseases. Hydroxyproline and Sirius red based assays are the most common methods for collagen quantification. However, these procedures have some pitfalls, such as the requirement of oxygen-free medium or expensive equipment and large sample size or being unsuitable for hydrolyzed collagen, respectively. Our objective was to develop a specific, versatile, and user-friendly quantitative method applicable to small tissue samples and extracts obtained from elastin purification, therefore, suitable for simultaneous quantification of elastin. This method is based on the binding of Sirius red to collagen present in a sample immobilized on a PVDF membrane, as in the dot-blot technique, and quantified by a scanner and image analysis software. Sample loading, Sirius red concentration, temperature and incubation time, type of standard substance, albumin interference, and quantification time are optimized. The method enabled the quantification of (1) intact collagen in several rat tissue homogenates, including small resistance-sized arteries, (2) partially hydrolyzed collagen obtained from NaOH extracts, compatible with elastin purification, and (3) for the detection of differences in collagen content between hypertensive and normotensive rats. We conclude that the developed technique can be widely used since it is versatile (quantifies intact and hydrolyzed collagen), requires small sample volumes, is user-friendly (low-cost, easy to use, minimum toxic materials, and reduced time of test), and is specific (minimal interference with serum albumin).

  14. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Folk, Scott M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Abstract. We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.

  15. Binding of 16S rRNA to chloroplast 30S ribosomal proteins blotted on nitrocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, C; Mache, R

    1984-10-11

    Protein-RNA associations were studied by a method using proteins blotted on a nitrocellulose sheet. This method was assayed with Escherichia Coli 30S ribosomal components. In stringent conditions (300 mM NaCl or 20 degrees C) only 9 E. coli ribosomal proteins strongly bound to the 16S rRNA: S4, S5, S7, S9, S12, S13, S14, S19, S20. 8 of these proteins have been previously found to bind independently to the 16S rRNA. The same method was applied to determine protein-RNA interactions in spinach chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunits. A set of only 7 proteins was bound to chloroplast rRNA in stringent conditions: chloroplast S6, S10, S11, S14, S15, S17 and S22. They also bound to E. coli 16S rRNA. This set includes 4 chloroplast-synthesized proteins: S6, S11, S15 and S22. The core particles obtained after treatment by LiCl of chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunit contained 3 proteins (S6, S10 and S14) which are included in the set of 7 binding proteins. This set of proteins probably play a part in the early steps of the assembly of the chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunit.

  16. Renaturation of blotted allergens increases the sensitivity of specific IgE detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, M D; Fernández, C; Moneo, I

    1996-01-01

    Several authors have demonstrated that renaturation is an essential step for the appropriate recognition of blotted proteins. The use of nonionic detergents has been described as a useful alternative to enhance the antigenicity in immunoblotting, although elution from proteins by detergents has been observed. To measure the influence of different factors on the sensitivity of specific IgE by immunoblotting, we used twenty human sera from atopic patients who were allergic or nonallergic to a common, reliable allergen (grass pollen mixture). The use of Nonidet-P40 was found to be a useful alternative for the renaturation of the allergens. No elution from the membrane was found when employing this detergent, even at high concentrations (3%), and its use gave better sensitivity than methanol. On the other hand, we detected that methanol possessed renaturing properties. A transfer method using diffusion instead of electric transfer gave the best results and two membranes could be obtained from each gel. Using this method, we found that after NP-40 incubation of the membrane, the use of bovine albumin could be omitted as blocking agent and that its use had even deleterious effects.

  17. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: a universal internal control for Western blots in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Wu, Min; He, Guowei; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Weiguang; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhihui; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2012-04-01

    In the current study, we examined the expression level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) protein in a number of organisms and the stability of GAPDH under various conditions. Our results revealed that GAPDH is present in multiple Escherichia coli strains, the yeast strain GS115, Caenorhabditis elegans, rat PC12 cells, and both mouse and rat brain. Furthermore, GAPDH was stably expressed under different concentrations of inducer and at different times of induction in E. coli (BL21) cells and yeast GS115 cells. Stable expression of GAPDH protein was also observed in C.elegans and PC12 cells that were treated with different concentrations of paraquat or sodium sulfite, respectively. In addition, we were able to detect and identify the endogenous gapA protein in E.coli via immunoprecipitation and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Endogenous gapA protein and exogenously expressed (subcloned) GAPDH proteins were detected in E. coli BL21 but not for gapC. With the exception of gapC in E. coli, the various isoforms of GAPDH possessed enzymatic activity. Finally, sequence analysis revealed that the GAPDH proteins were 76% identical, with the exception of E. coli gapC. Taken together, our results indicate that GAPDH could be universally used as an internal control for the Western blot analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic samples.

  18. Rapid Detection of Rifampin-resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qian; WAN Kang Lin; YU Yan; ZHU Yan Ling; ZHAO Xiu Qin; LIU Zhi Guang; ZHANG Yuan Yuan; LI Gui Lian; WEI Jian Hao; WU Yi Mou

    2015-01-01

    Objective A PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) assay was developed for rapid detection of rpoB gene mutations in‘hot mutation region’ of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods 12 oligonucleotide probes based on the wild-type and mutant genotype rpoB sequences of M. tuberculosis were designed to screen the most frequent wild-type and mutant genotypes for diagnosing RIF resistance. 300 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were detected by RDBH, conventional drug-susceptibility testing (DST) and DNA sequencing to evaluate the RDBH assay. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the RDBH assay were 91.2%(165/181) and 98.3%(117/119), respectively, as compared to DST. When compared with DNA sequencing, the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDBH assay were 97.7%(293/300), 98.2%(164/167), and 97.0%(129/133), respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most common mutations were in codons 531 (48.6%), 526 (25.4%), 516 (8.8%), and 511 (6.6%), and the combinative mutation rate was 15 (8.3%). One and two strains of insertion and deletion were found among all strains, respectively. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the RDBH assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for diagnosing RIF-resistant tuberculosis.

  19. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Roldán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis. Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%, whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  20. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, William H; Espinoza, Yrma A

    2009-05-01

    To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG) test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis). Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%), whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  1. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

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    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  2. Electrostatic protein immobilization using charged polyacrylamide gels and cationic detergent microfluidic Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Karns, Kelly; Tia, Samuel Q; He, Mei; Herr, Amy E

    2012-03-06

    We report a novel protein immobilization matrix for fully integrated microfluidic Western blotting (WB). The electrostatic immobilization gel (EIG) enables immobilization of all proteins sized using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CTAB-PAGE), for subsequent electrophoretic probing with detection affinity reagents (e.g., labeled antibodies). The "pan-analyte" capture strategy introduced here uses polyacrylamide gel grafted with concentrated point charges (zwitterionic macromolecules), in contrast to existing microfluidic WB strategies that rely on a sandwich immunoassay format for analyte immobilization and detection. Sandwich approaches limit analyte immobilization to capture of only a priori known targets. A charge interaction mechanism study supports the hypothesis that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in analyte immobilization on the EIG. We note that protein capture efficiency depends on both the concentration of copolymerized charges and ionic strength of the gel buffer. We demonstrate pan-analyte immobilization of sized CTAB-laden model proteins (protein G, ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin, β-galactosidase, lactoferrin) on the EIG with initial capture efficiencies ranging from 21 to 100%. Target proteins fixed on the EIG (protein G, lactoferrin) are detected using antibody probes with signal-to-noise ratios of 34 to 275. The approach advances protein immunoblotting performance through 200× reduction on sample consumption, 12× reduction in assay duration, and automated assay operation, compared to slab-gel WB. Using the microfluidic WB assay, assessment of lactoferrin in human tear fluid is demonstrated with a goal of advancing toward nonbiopsy-based diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome, an autoimmune disease.

  3. Evaluation of a Western Blot Test in an Outbreak of Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzini, Claudia V.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Reiss, Errol; Hajjeh, Rana; Kaufman, Leo; Peralta, José Mauro

    1999-01-01

    A western blot (WB) test was evaluated for detection of antibodies against native glycosylated and chemically deglycosylated M and H antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum in serum obtained from patients during the acute phase of pulmonary histoplasmosis that occurred during an outbreak. Of 275 serum samples tested by immunodiffusion and complement fixation (CF) samples from 40 patients affected during this outbreak and from 37 negative controls were tested by WB test. A group of patients whose sera were negative for CF antibodies and precipitins early in the acute stage of histoplasmosis but who all seroconverted during convalescence 6 weeks later were tested with the WB test. Antibodies against untreated H and M antigens were detected at a 1:100 dilution by WB test in 45% of the 20 acute-phase serum samples and in all 20 of the convalescent-phase specimens. The WB test’s sensitivity for acute-phase specimens increased to 90% (18 of 20 specimens) when H and M antigens were treated by periodate oxidation to inactivate susceptible carbohydrate epitopes. When native glycosylated antigens were used in the WB test, positive reactions were observed in negative control serum specimens (3 of 37 specimens; 8%) and in serum specimens obtained from asymptomatic persons screened as part of the outbreak investigation (13 of 20 specimens; 65%). These positive reactions were also attributed to glycosidic epitopes since the specificity of the WB test increased from 78 to 100% when periodate-treated H and M antigens were used. WB test with deglycosylated H and M antigens of histoplasmin provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific test to diagnose acute pulmonary histoplasmosis before precipitins can be detected. PMID:9874658

  4. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

    2015-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method.

  5. Evaluation of immunodominant proteins of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cell wall by Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Maryam; Madani, Rasool; Razmi, Nematollah

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is a slow growing mycobactin, whose dependence on mycobacterial species is known to be the causative agent of Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in all species of domestic ruminants worldwide. The organism is transmitted via close contact, ingestion, or transplacentally from mother to fetus and occurs commonly in grazing domestic animals. Johne's disease (JD) is characterized by gradual weight loss, decreased milk production, and diarrhea due to the chronic, progressive, granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis. The disease can cause serious economic damage to the dairy industry due to the loss of milk production and early culling of infected animals. In recent years, researchers have focused on the identification of a specific antigen of M. paratuberculosis to use in diagnosis test and preparation of effective vaccine. The goal of this study is evaluation of the immunodominant proteins of M. paratuberculosis cell wall. The amount of protein was determined with a Lowry assay (22.68 μg/100 μL). For production of polyclonal antibody against proteins of M. paratuberculosis cell wall, a New Zealand white rabbit was immunized with antigen and Freund's adjuvant. After immunization, the rabbit was bled to produce enriched serum. Antibodies were purified from serum with ion exchange chromatography. In the Ouchterlony test, the reactions between antigen and antibodies were seen in dilutions of one quarter for serum, one quarter for Ig, and one half for IgG by clear precipitation lines due to the well immunization of the rabbit. Electrophoresis and Western blot analysis were used and subsequently a sharp band appeared in nitrocellulose paper; these bands were about 25, 37, 50, 75, and 150 kDa molecular weight, which indicated immunodominant proteins.

  6. Detection of classical and atypical/Nor98 scrapie by the paraffin-embedded tissue blot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, W M; Benestad, S L; Wrede, A; Wemheuer, W E; Brenig, B; Bratberg, B; Schulz-Schaeffer, W J

    2009-05-30

    The paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot method was used to investigate sections of the central nervous system and lymphatic tissues from 24 cases of classical scrapie and 25 cases of atypical/Nor98 scrapie in sheep and four healthy control sheep. The PET blot detected deposits of PrP(Sc) in the brain tissue of all 49 sheep with scrapie but no PrP(Sc) labelling could be detected in the control sheep. By contrast, not all the atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases were detectable by immunohistochemistry. The high sensitivity of the PET blot method made it possible to observe that in some atypical/Nor98 cases, deposits of PrP(Sc) may be restricted to supratentorial brain structures and that the diagnosis may be missed when only testing the obex area, where deposits are common in classical scrapie, and the cerebellar structures, where deposits are considered to be common in atypical/Nor98 cases.

  7. A slot blot immunoassay for quantitative detection of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein in mosquito midgut oocyst.

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    Sanjai Kumar

    Full Text Available There is still a need for sensitive and reproducible immunoassays for quantitative detection of malarial antigens in preclinical and clinical phases of vaccine development and in epidemiology and surveillance studies, particularly in the vector host. Here we report the results of sensitivity and reproducibility studies for a research-grade, quantitative enhanced chemiluminescent-based slot blot assay (ECL-SB for detection of both recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (rPfCSP and native PfCSP from Oocysts (Pf Oocyst developing in the midguts of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The ECL-SB detects as little as 1.25 pg of rPfCSP (linear range of quantitation 2.5-20 pg; R2 = 0.9505. We also find the earliest detectable expression of native PfCSP in Pf Oocyst by ECL-SB occurs on day 7 post feeding with infected blood meal. The ECL-SB was able to detect approximately as few as 0.5 day 8 Pf Oocysts (linear quantitation range 1-4, R2 = 0.9795 and determined that one Pf Oocyst expressed approximately 2.0 pg (0.5-3 pg of native PfCSP, suggesting a similar range of detection for recombinant and native forms of Pf CSP. The ECL-SB is highly reproducible; the Coefficient of Variation (CV for inter-assay variability for rPf CSP and native PfCSP were 1.74% and 1.32%, respectively. The CVs for intra-assay variability performed on three days for rPf CSP were 2.41%, 0.82% and 2% and for native Pf CSP 1.52%, 0.57%, and 1.86%, respectively. In addition, the ECL-SB was comparable to microscopy in determining the P. falciparum prevalence in mosquito populations that distinctly contained either high and low midgut Pf Oocyst burden. In whole mosquito samples, estimations of positivity for P. falciparum in the high and low burden groups were 83.3% and 23.3% by ECL-SB and 85.7% and 27.6% by microscopy. Based on its performance characteristics, ECL-SB could be valuable in vaccine development and to measure the parasite prevalence in mosquitoes

  8. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As demonstr

  9. Comparison of Diagnostic Value of Antigen B and Protoscoleces Antigen in Diagnosis of Hydatid Cyst by Blotting Method

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    F. Oreizi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Hydatidosis, a disease caused by the cestod helminth echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important parasitic zoonosis in man and a variety of animals. Sensitive and reliable serologic methods are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, Ag B and Psc Ag were purified as two specific parasitic antigens and evaluated by Dot blotting used on the serum of hydatidosis patients and control group in order to identify the most sensitive and specific subunits.Materials and Methods: In an analytic and comparative study, serum samples collected from 22 patients under operation of hydatid cyst. As a control group, 4 patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 4 patients with leishmaniasis, 4 patients infected by non-hydatid cestods(Tenia saginata and H.nana and 4 normal subjects were included in this investigation. Infected sheep’s liver and lung were used for the preparation of antigen. Cyst fluid containing protoscoleces was extracted and then partially purified with a protein A column. AgB and Psc Ags were interacted with hydatid and control sera, with Dot blot method and sensitivity and specificity of these antigens were evaluated. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were estimated 95.9% and 81% respectively, for AgB and 100% and 63% respectively, for Psc Ag in Dot blot Method. Conclusion: Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of AgB and Psc Ag using Dot blotting revealed that AgB has high value for diagnosis of hydatidosis. and presumably can help physicians to diagnose hydatid cyst easier than other routine tests.

  10. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  11. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples.

  12. Investigation of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Epileptic Patients and Comparison of Two Methods: ELISA and Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zibaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Toxocara infection and epilepsy was previously demonstrated by several case-control studies and case reports. These previous studies were often based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, which are not specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, and anisakiasis. An immunoblot analysis is highly specific and can detect low levels of Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, this assay may be useful in the identification of toxocariasis in epileptic patients. We examined patients who had epilepsy and healthy subjects for seropositivity for Toxocara infection by ELISA and Western blotting. Out of 85 epileptic patients, 10 (11.8% and 3 (3.5% persons exhibited Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and by both techniques, respectively. Moreover, in the healthy group (, 3 (3.5% persons were positive by ELISA, but none was detected by Western blotting. This study indicates that Toxocara infection is a risk factor for epilepsy in Iran. These findings strongly suggest the need to perform Western blotting immunodiagnosis, as well as the ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, to improve diagnosis of human toxocariasis in patients with epilepsy.

  13. Northern Dimension: Participant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busygina Irina

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the “Northern Dimension” initiative of the EU which also includes North-West Russia, Norway and Iceland. It is noted that the “Northern Dimension” in the theoretical perspective can be considered as part of strategic multi-level interactions between member-states of the EU and Russia. On this basis, the authors analyze implications and effects of the strategic interdependence of all the EU-Russia relation levels.

  14. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Park, Chang W; Steer, Clifford J

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  15. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia.

  16. How to Distinguish Between the Activity of HDAC1-3 and HDAC6 with Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Mandy; Kiweler, Nicole; Mahboobi, Siavosh; Krämer, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the deacetylation of lysine residues in their target proteins. This biochemical modification can have profound effects on the functions of these proteins and a dysregulation of HDAC activity contributes to severe diseases, including neoplastic transformation. In the following chapter, we present a strategy that allows to distinguish between the inhibition of the class I HDACs HDAC1, 2, and 3 and of the class IIb HDAC HDAC6. This method is based on Western blot and relies on the detection of hyperacetylated substrates of class I or class IIb HDACs in lysates from cells that were treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi).

  17. Analysis of Sperm Membrane Protein Relevant to Antisperm Antibody by Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-fei WANG; Zhu-qiong XIANG; Yi-xing WANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify the sperm membrane proteins that are associated with antisperm antibodyMethods Using antisperm antibody positive serum through unidimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Western blot analysis to determine the molecular weights (MW) and isoelectric points (pI) of sperm membrane proteins that are associated with antisperm antibody.Results Eight kinds of MW with more than ten sperm membrane proteins can be recognized by antisperm antibody positive serum, of which the MWs and pI were 23 kD, 31 kD, 32 kD, 34 kD, 41 kD, 51 kD, 60 kD, 78 kD and 5.3, 5.5,5.7, 5.0, 5.3, 5.8, 6.0, 5.5~6.2, 4.6,5.1,5.5~5.8 respectively. The identification ratios of the sperm membrane proteins on 78 kD (60.7%), 60 kD (71.4%), 51 kD (14.9%) and 23 kD (14.29%) were higher.Conclusion The sperm membrane proteins with MW of 78 kD, 60 kD, 51 kD and 23 kD were associated with antisperm antibody and immunological infertility. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting can precisely identify the sperm membrane proteins that are associated with antisperm antibody.

  18. Dot-Blot Hybridization for Detection of Five Cucurbit Viruses by Digoxigenin-Labelled cDNA Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Juan; GU Qin-sheng; LIN Shi-ming; PENG Bin; LIU Li-feng; TIAN Yan-ping; LI Li

    2007-01-01

    Dot-blot hybridization was applied in this paper to detect five viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops,Zuccini yellow mosaic virus(ZYMV),Watermelon mosaic virus(WMV),Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV),Papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain(PRSV-W)and Squash mosaic virus(SqMV),as a good alternative assay in seed health test and epidemiological and transgenic research.Digoxigenin-labelled cDNA probes of the five viruses were synthesized by PCR with the specific primers and applied in dot-blot hybridization to detect five viruses in crude extraction of the infected leaves.And three SqMV probes of different lengths(0.55,1.6,and 2.7 kb,respectively)were designed to investigate the effect of hybridization.The results showed that the sensitivity for detecting the crude extraction of infected leaves by ZYMV,WMV,CMV,PRSV-W,and SqMV was down to 1:160,1:160,1:320,1:160,and 1:320,respectively.Three SqMV probes of different length showed no differences on the sensitivity and specificity.The digoxigenin-labelled probes prepared by PCR could be used for accurate and rapid identification of 5 viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops with good stabilities,sensitivities,specificity,and reproducibilities.

  19. Mere end blot pirringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Østergaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i en række cases på vellykkede oplevelsesøkonomiske forretningsmodeller argumenterer artiklen for, at oplevelsesprodukter skal bygge på et klart tema, som forbrugeren kan koble sig sanse- og følelsesmæssigt op på. Forbrugeren skal kunne omsætte produktets pirringer til egne erfar...

  20. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  1. The application of a photon-counting camera in very sensitive, bioluminescence-enhanced detection systems for protein blotting. Ultrasensitive detection systems for protein blotting and DNA hybridization, II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, R; Miska, W; Schleinkofer, L; Geiger, R

    1988-03-01

    A relatively simple, very sensitive bioluminescence-enhanced detection system for protein blots was described recently. This method utilizes antibodies conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase releases D-luciferin (Photinus pyralis) from D-luciferin-O-phosphate. Liberated D-luciferin reacts with luciferase, ATP and oxygen with light emission. The light produced is measured with a very sensitive photon counting camera (Argus 100), permitting visualization and localization of the alkaline phosphatase-conjugated antibodies on nitrocellulose sheets. Under non-optimized conditions the limit of detection is at present 5 to 500 fg of protein (rabbit immunoglobulin G), corresponding to 30 to 3 amol. The method is therefore 10(5) times more sensitive than other used at present.

  2. 用DNA探针检测沙眼衣原体%Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis by DNA Probe Blot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫萍; 陈亚利; 武建国

    2001-01-01

    目的: 建立一种敏感而特异的沙眼衣原体分子生物学检测方法. 方法: 用PCR扩增517bp的沙眼衣原体种特异性基因片段并标记成探针,建立DNA探针杂交检测沙眼衣原体的方法.结果: 探针只与沙眼衣原体L2、TE55株DNA呈阳性杂交斑点,与其他两种衣原体、解脲支原体、淋病奈瑟菌、大肠埃希菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、流感嗜血杆菌及白色念珠菌DNA斑点膜无阳性杂交信号.从100例慢性宫颈炎和前列腺炎病人生殖道分泌物中检出阳性22例,阳性率22%. 结论: 建立的DNA探针检测沙眼衣原体方法具有较高的敏感性和特异性,可用于批量临床标本的检测.%Objectives: To establish a sensitive and specific molecular biologicalmethod for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis of genital tract infection patients. Methods: A DNA blot assay was developed by coating DNA of Chlamydia trachomatisand/or extract of clinical samples on nitrocellulose (NC) membrane, blotting witha DNA probe labeled with DIG. Results: There was no positive blotting in Chlamydiapneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae,Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus infuenzae and Candida albicansexcept Chlamydia trachomatis. The sensitivity could be improved to 1pg. The positivepercentage was 22% (22/100) in detection of swabs collected from 100 chroniccervicitis and prostatitis patients. Conclusions: This method was not only sensitive, rapid and specific but also could be applied to detect batch samples. Natl J Androl,2001,7(2):102~104

  3. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; Mathew, Mohit P; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, "Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  4. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  5. Imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome detected by Southern blotting using a probe containing exon {alpha} of SNRPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuten, J.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy (UPD), or other mutations. The SNRPN gene maps in this region, is paternally expressed, and is a candidate gene for PWS. Southern blotting using methylation-sensitive enzymes and a genomic DNA probe from the CpG island containing exon {alpha} of the SNRPN gene reveals methylation specific for the maternal allele. In cases of the usual deletions or UPD, the probe detects absence of an unmethylated allele in PWS and absence of a methylated allele in AS. We have analyzed 21 nondeletion/nonUPD AS patients with this probe and found evidence for an imprinting mutation (absence of a methylated allele) in 3 patients. Southern blotting with methylation-sensitive enzymes using the exon {alpha} probe, like use of the PW71 probe, should detect abnormalities in all known PWS cases and in 3 of the 4 forms of AS: deletion, UPD and imprinting mutations. This analysis provides a valuable diagnostic approach for PWS and AS. In efforts to localize the imprinting mutations in AS, one patient was found with failure to inherit a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism near probe 189-1 (D15S13). Analysis of this locus in AS families and CEPH families demonstrates a polymorphism that impairs amplification and a different polymorphism involving absence of hybridization to the 189-1 probe. The functional significance, if any, of deletion of the 189-1 region is unclear.

  6. MDR-TB Antibody Response (Western Blot) to Fractions of Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistant Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Yari, Shamsi; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2015-12-01

    Drug-resistant TB poses a major threat to control of TB worldwide. Despite progress in the detection of Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases, a major diagnostic gap remains: 55% of reported TB patients estimated to have MDR-TB were not detected in 2013. MDR-TB antigens were conjugated to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Specific polyclonal antibodies against MDR-TB Ags were prepared in rabbits using two boosted injections of the MDR-TB antigen. The antibodies were purified and treated with susceptible TB to remove any non-specific and cross-reactive antibodies. In the present study, comparative analysis of electrophoretic pattern of different antigens of INH/RIF-resistant TB were studied for identifying protein profiles. A RIF-resistant TB antigen was shown here to have different protein profiles from INH-resistant TB isolate. The results of Western blotting analysis showed that in the RIF- and INH-resistant antigenic fractions some bands of 14.4 and 45 kDa as immunogenic were common. Moreover, four bands of RIF-resistant TB antigen fractions (16, 19, 21, and 45 KDa) and one band of INH-resistant TB (about 26 KDa) were detected as diagnostic antigens. This study suggests that the Western blot is an accurate test to survey INH- and RIF-resistant TB antigens of M. tuberculosis infection. These findings indicate that MDR-TB diagnosis (based on Ag detection) could be useful in the identification of disease stages that precede symptomatic and microbiologically positive TB, such as subclinical and incipient TB.

  7. 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  8. Spectrophotometric quantitation of DNA on blots after ethanol-solubilization of the MTT-formazan from anti-digoxigenin-based detection of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, D J

    1993-01-01

    The tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) has recently been established as a substitute for Nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) in stain mixtures using antibody-conjugated alkaline phosphatase for the location of proteins on Western blots (Heegaard, 1990). Experiments reported here show that MTT is as sensitive as NBT in digoxigenin-labeled probe localization (on nucleic acid blots) utilizing alkaline-phosphatase-labelled, anti-digoxigenin antibodies. Moreover, as the formazan from MTT is soluble in ethanol, it is shown that spectrophotometric quantitation can be used to estimate the amount of target DNA on dot and Southern blots. For dot blotting, pBR328 was used as the probe and pBR322 as target. For Southern blots, human rDNA was used as the probe and total genomic calf DNA as the target. Staining response was linear over at least six twofold DNA dilutions in both types of blot.

  9. [Optimization of the immunoelectrophoresis technic (western blot) for the confirmation of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, J M; de Austin, E; de Moreno, N O; Ledezma, C; de Márquez, E; Blanco, R; Quiroz, E; Calzada, J; Vincensini, A R; de Martin, M C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the results of the authors' investigation to apply the western blot technique (WB UP-LCS) in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. To do this, the authors separated the proteins of the HIV-1 virus by electrophoresis, based on their molecular weight, in poliacilamide gel with SDS (SDS-PAGE) during 3 hours at 200 volts. Then they electrotransferred these proteins to nitrocellulose paper during four hours at 200 milliamperes, with the aid of external cooling. The nitrocellulose strips were evaluated considering the incubation time (1 and 16 hours), two conjugates (human anti IgG with Peroxidase and human anti IgG Biotin plus Streptatividine with Peroxidase) and two dilutions of the patients' sera (1/50 and 1/100). Based on their results the Authors conclude that, in the first place, the optimal conditions for the test include a dilution of 1/100 of the patients serum, incubation of the serum for 16 hours and the use of the conjugate of anti human IgG with Biotin and Streptavidine with Peroxidase; secondary, that the immunologic reactivity against proteins p24 and gp 160/120 is the most important diagnostic criterion for the confirmation of infection with HIV-1 and that they obtained a diagnostic correlation of 100% at a cost which was 5 to 7 times less than that of the commercial system.

  10. Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium.

  11. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  12. Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pereira Silva

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum IgG antibodies in Western blotting (WB using a Strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. In addition, the WB results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT results. Serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, and 40 healthy individuals. S. ratti was obtained from fecal culture of experimentally infected Rattus rattus. For IFAT, S. ratti larvae were used as antigen and S. ratti larval antigenic extracts were employed in WB and ELISA. Eleven S. ratti antigenic components were predominantly recognized by IgG antibodies in sera of patients with strongyloidiasis. There was a positive concordance for the three tests in 87.5% of the cases of strongyloidiasis. The negative concordance in the three tests was 94% and 97.5%, in patients with other intestinal parasitoses and healthy individuals, respectively. In cases of positive ELISA and negative IFAT results, diagnosis could be confirmed by WB. ELISA, IFAT, and WB using S. ratti antigens showed a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, WB using S. ratti larval extract was able to recognize 11 immunodominant antigenic components, showing to be a useful tool to define the diagnosis in cases of equivocal serology.

  13. "Enzyme-Linked Immunotransfer Blot Analysis of Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Fasciola hepatica in Diagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis, a liver disease in most part of the world and particularly in north of Iran. Diagnosis of the diseases is anchored in coprological manner but serological methods are preferable due to some obscurities. In this study, sera obtained from human patients infected with Fasciola hepatica were tested by the enzymelinked immunotrotransfer blot (EITB technique with the parasite s somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. The study included sera from 40 patients infected with F. hepatica, 20 infected with hydatidosis, 6 with toxocariasis, 10 with strongyloidiasis, 10 with amoebiasis, 5 with malaria and 30 normal controls. By this assay, most pf the serum samples from humans with fascioliasis recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 27 and 29 kDa using both antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for somatic antigen were 91.0%, 96.2%, 95.2% and 92.7% respectively, while these parameters as for ES antigen were 95.2%, 98.0%, 97.5% and 96.2%, correspondingly. Totally, two cases of reactions for the first antigen and one for the latter were verified. The study suggests that the 27 and 29 kDa bands for two antigens in EITB test could be considered for the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  14. A novel methylation PCR that offers standardized determination of FMR1 methylation and CGG repeat length without southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marina; Boon, Elles M J; Filipovic-Sadic, Stela; van Bunderen, Patrick A; Gennaro, Elena; Cao, Ru; Latham, Gary J; Hadd, Andrew G; Coviello, Domenico A

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and associated disorders are characterized by the number of CGG repeats and methylation status of the FMR1 gene for which Southern blot (SB) historically has been required for analysis. This study describes a simple PCR-only workflow (mPCR) to replace SB analysis, that incorporates novel procedural controls, treatment of the DNA in separate control and methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease reactions, amplification with labeled primers, and two-color amplicon sizing by capillary electrophoresis. mPCR was evaluated in two independent laboratories with 76 residual clinical samples that represented typical and challenging fragile X alleles in both males and females. mPCR enabled superior size resolution and analytical sensitivity for size and methylation mosaicism compared to SB. Full mutation mosaicism was detected down to 1% in a background of 99% normal allele with 50- to 100-fold less DNA than required for SB. A low level of full mutation mosaicism in one sample was detected using mPCR but not observed using SB. Overall, the sensitivity for detection of full mutation alleles was 100% (95% CI: 89%-100%) with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 93%-100%). mPCR analysis of DNA from individuals with Klinefelter and Turner syndromes, and DNA from sperm and blood, were consistent with SB. As such, mPCR enables accurate, sensitive, and standardized methods of FMR1 analysis that can harmonize results across different laboratories.

  15. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham A. Badr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  16. Evaluation of western blotting for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukemia Avaliação da técnica de western blot no diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Gonzalez

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A western blotting (WB procedure has been developed for detecting antibodies to bovine leukosis virus (BLV in cattle sera. Two hundred and thirty three serum samples from naturally infected cattle with BLV virus and serial bleedings from experimentally BLV infected cows were used. An agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID was used for comparing with the results obtained by WB. The AGID positive sera showed a different degree of reactivity by WB test against the two most important viral antigens (gp51 and p24, or against one of them. Other proteins (gp30, p15, p12 and p10 were not detected with any AGID positive sera, being observed occasionally three bands corresponding to the p24 protein. Using sera obtained by BLV experimental inoculation, the antibodies directed to p24 appeared early (between the 2nd and 4th week post inoculation and thereafter antibodies to gp51were detected in some animals. The analysis of field serum samples by AGID as compared to WB showed an agreement of 90.9%. Only 1.7% of sera were negative by AGID and positive by WB and 7.2% that were not conclusive by AGID and were defined by WB (4.2% as positive and 3.0% as negative.Um sistema de western blotting (WB foi desenvolvido para detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da leucose em soros de bovinos. Foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 233 animais naturalmente infectados e soros de vacas experimentalmente infectadas. O teste de imunodifusão em ágar (AGID foi usado para comparação dos resultados. Graus diferentes de reatividade foram observados em soros positivos ao AGID, quando testados em WB frente a um ou aos dois antígenos mais importantes (gp51 e p24. Outras proteínas (gp30, p15, p12 e p10 não foram detectadas por nenhum soro positivo ao AGID, sendo que três bandas correspondentes à proteína p24 foram observadas ocasionalmente. Em soros obtidos por inoculação experimental, anticorpos contra a proteína p24 foram detectados entre a segunda e a quarta semanas

  17. Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (PTrichinella DNA in any mainland animals, but did reveal the presence of a second larvae-positive wild boar on Gabba

  18. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  19. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in rat placenta: detection by RT-PCR, real time PCR and Western blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bader Maie D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of estrogens during pregnancy not only retard placental and fetal growth but can lead to reproductive tract abnormalities in male progeny. Estrogens act through estrogen receptors (ER to modulate the transcription of target genes. These ER exist in two isoforms, ER alpha and ER beta and recently several variants of these isoforms have been identified. Methods The expressions of ER isoforms and variants have been studied in rat placenta at 16, 19 and 21 days gestation (dg. Gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR and real time PCR while protein expression was studied using Western blotting followed by immunodetection. Placental homogenates were probed with: a monoclonal antibody raised against the steroid binding domain of the ER alpha (ER alpha -S, a monoclonal antibody raised against the hinge region of ER alpha (ER alpha -H and a polyclonal antibody raised against the amino terminus of ER beta. Results ER alpha and ER beta mRNA and protein were detected from as early as 16 dg. Two PCR products were detected for ER alpha, one for the wild type ER alpha, and a smaller variant. Real time PCR results suggested the presence of a single product for ER beta. The antibodies used for detection of ER alpha protein both identified a single 67 kDa isoform; however a second 54 kDa band, which may be an ER alpha variant, was identified when using the ER alpha -H antibody. The abundance of both ER alpha bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. As for ER beta, four bands (76, 59, 54 and 41 kDa were detected. The abundance of the 59 and 54 kDa bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. Conclusion This study shows that both ER protein isoforms and their variants are present in rat placenta. The decrease in their expression near parturition suggests that the placenta may be relatively unresponsive to estrogens at this stage.

  20. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  1. Northern Pintail Telemetry [ds231

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Using radio-telemetry, female northern pintail (Anas acuta) survival, distribution, and movements during late August-March in Central California were determined...

  2. Evaluation of two sets of immunohistochemical and Western blot confirmatory methods in the detection of typical and atypical BSE cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenlee Justin J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three distinct forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, defined as classical (C-, low (L- or high (H- type, have been detected through ongoing active and passive surveillance systems for the disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of two sets of immunohistochemical (IHC and Western blot (WB BSE confirmatory protocols to detect C- and atypical (L- and H-type BSE forms. Obex samples from cases of United States and Italian C-type BSE, a U.S. H-type and an Italian L-type BSE case were tested in parallel using the two IHC sets and WB methods. Results The two IHC techniques proved equivalent in identifying and differentiating between C-type, L-type and H-type BSE. The IHC protocols appeared consistent in the identification of PrPSc distribution and deposition patterns in relation to the BSE type examined. Both IHC methods evidenced three distinct PrPSc phenotypes for each type of BSE: prevailing granular and linear tracts pattern in the C-type; intraglial and intraneuronal deposits in the H-type; plaques in the L-type. Also, the two techniques gave comparable results for PrPSc staining intensity on the C- and L-type BSE samples, whereas a higher amount of intraglial and intraneuronal PrPSc deposition on the H-type BSE case was revealed by the method based on a stronger demasking step. Both WB methods were consistent in identifying classical and atypical BSE forms and in differentiating the specific PrPSc molecular weight and glycoform ratios of each form. Conclusions The study showed that the IHC and WB BSE confirmatory methods were equally able to recognize C-, L- and H-type BSE forms and to discriminate between their different immunohistochemical and molecular phenotypes. Of note is that for the first time one of the two sets of BSE confirmatory protocols proved effective in identifying the L-type BSE form. This finding helps to validate the suitability of the BSE confirmatory tests for BSE

  3. Relative performance of Organon kit in comparison to Du Pont for confirmatory serological testing of HIV infection by western blot test in sera from blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R K; Chatterjee, R; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S

    1992-06-01

    A total of 32 specimens with different categories of reactivity by Du Pont Western Blot kit comprising of specimens showing full spectrum of HIV-I antigen specific bands, 19 specimens showing total absence of bands and four specimens showing non-specific bands (without any interpretative importance) were subjected to Western Blot testing by Organon test. Of the nine specimens showing full spectrum of bands by Du Pont the correlation with Organon kit was 100 per cent based on WHO criteria. Four specimens with non-specific indeterminate band pattern by Du Pont failed to show any band in Organon kit, indicating that latter to be more specific.

  4. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization......Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  5. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  6. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  7. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  8. A simple explanation for a case of incompatibility with the reading frame theory in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: failure to detect an aberrant restriction fragment in Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patria, S Y; Takeshima, Y; Suminaga, R; Nakamura, H; Iwasaki, R; Minagawa, T; Matsuo, M

    1999-09-01

    According to the translational reading frame theory, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients harbor out-of-frame deletion mutations in the dystrophin gene. We identified a Japanese DMD case who appeared to have an in-frame deletion of exons 46-54 that was disclosed by Southern blot analysis using a dystrophin cDNA as a probe. Analysis of dystrophin mRNA in skeletal muscle revealed the presence of an out-of-frame deletion of exons 46-53. In agreement with this result, the region encompassing exon 54 could be amplified from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, re-analysis by Southern blot using an exon specific probe disclosed that a HindIII fragment containing exon 54 was present at aberrant size, leading to the incorrect conclusion that exon 54 had been deleted. Thus, this particular DMD case does not constitute an exception to the reading frame theory.

  9. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  10. Comparison of Southern blot analysis with isotopic and nonisotopic in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus sequences in invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, L; Pilotti, S; Rotola, A; Di Luca, D; Cassai, E; Rilke, F

    1992-03-01

    To compare the efficiency of hybridization methods for the detection of HPV genome, 22 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were analyzed by Southern blot analysis and in situ hybridization carried out with 35S- and biotin-labeled probes. These cases contained from less than one to as many as 50 copies per cell of HPV 16 and 18 types. To increase the sensitivity of biotinylated probes, a silver enhancement procedure of the peroxidase reaction product was applied. Results showed that in situ hybridization performed with isotopic probes is as sensitive as Southern blot analysis and is more sensitive than that performed with biotin-labeled probe. However, the application of the silver enhancement procedure increases the percentage of HPV-positive cases from 27 to 50%.

  11. Analysis of the Crude Antigen of Hymenolepis nana from Mice by SDS-PAGE and the Determination of Specific Antigens in Protein Structure by Western Blotting

    OpenAIRE

    GÖNENÇ, Bahadır

    2002-01-01

    Protein bands of crude antigens of Hymenolepis nana were determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Thirty Swiss albino mice were allotted into two groups of 15 each as positive (infected with H. nana) and negative (non-infected with H. nana) groups. The natural infections of H. nana and other helminths were determined by centrifugal flotation of faeces. After bleeding, the mice were necropsied and their guts were examined for H. nana and other intestinal helminths. Sera from mice were test...

  12. Western blot analysis of a limited number of cells: a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed tissue after laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Wim; Abbeloos, Vanessa; Van Acker, Nathalie; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Herman, Arnold G; Kockx, Mark M

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, laser capture microdissection (LCM) has been used successfully to obtain distinct populations of cells for subsequent molecular analysis. Because of the limited sample availability and the absence of in vitro amplification steps for proteins, the use of LCM for proteome analysis largely depends on highly sensitive protein detection methods. In this study, a western blot protocol was developed and validated for the detection of beta-actin and the moderately expressed cell death protein caspase-3 in small numbers of cells. Initially, cultured human U937 monocytes and whole sections of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils were used to optimize protein electrophoresis and western blotting conditions. High-performance NuPAGE Bis-Tris gels in combination with high-quality transfer membranes, optimized antibody concentrations, and a sensitive chemiluminescent substrate provided a strong signal for beta-actin with approximately 500 U937 cells. In the same way, procaspase-3 could be identified with approximately 1000 cells. Similar results were obtained with germinal centre cells that were procured from paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils by LCM. Treatment of U937 cells with etoposide rapidly induced cell death and allowed the detection of active caspase-3 with approximately 2500 cells (0.8 pg of protein). The findings of this study suggest that western blotting is a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of LCM procured cells.

  13. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  14. Study of a viral-dual infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by seroneutralization, western blot and polymerase chain reaction assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S; Vilas, M P; Alonso, M; Pérez, S I

    1995-12-01

    Viral-dual infections in fish are of interest to aquaculture practices but they are rarely described and studied. Several methods were applied in this work to demonstrate a case of coinfection in a reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population. Inoculation in cell cultures and cross-neutralization tests were the standard procedures that made it possible to isolate and identify a birnavirus, the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), and suspect of a second virus. Western blotting with both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrate coexistence of both, IPNV and a rhabdovirus.

  15. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  16. A Journey To Northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A tourism promotion launched by Northern European countries was held in Shanghai on February 24. Representatives from the tourism authorities in Denmark, Norway and Sweden introduced their special tourism resources to their Chinese counterparts, expressing their strong desire to expand tourism business in the Chinese market.According to the memorandum of understanding signed

  17. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot-based analysis of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in different motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, Annemarie; Marroquin, Nicolai; Schmoll, Birgit; Vielhaber, Stefan; Just, Marlies; Mayer, Benjamin; Högel, Josef; Dorst, Johannes; Mertens, Thomas; Just, Walter; Aulitzky, Anna; Wais, Verena; Ludolph, Albert C; Kubisch, Christian; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Volk, Alexander E

    2014-05-01

    The GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This study determined the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in different motor neuron diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neuron diseases affecting primarily the first or the second motor neuron and hereditary spastic paraplegia). Whereas most studies on C9orf72 repeat expansions published so far rely on a polymerase chain reaction-based screening, we applied both polymerase chain reaction-based techniques and Southern blotting. Furthermore, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of Southern blotting of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in DNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines. C9orf72 repeat expansions were found in 27.1% out of 166 familial ALS patients, only once in 68 sporadic ALS patients, and not in 61 hereditary spastic paraplegia patients or 52 patients with motor neuron diseases affecting clinically primarily either the first or the second motor neuron. We found hints for a correlation between C9orf72 repeat length and the age of onset. Somatic instability of the C9orf72 repeat was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines compared with DNA derived from whole blood from the same patient and therefore caution is warranted for repeat length determination in immortalized cell lines.

  18. A Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Selected Thyme (Thymus) Species by Means of the Dot Blot Test with Direct Bioautographic Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Marta; Kowalska, Teresa; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Jesionek, Wioleta; Choma, Irena M; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Szymczak, Grażyna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Bioautography carried out with the aid of thin-layer chromatographic adsorbents can be used to assess antibacterial activity in samples of different origin. It can either be used as a simple and cost-effective detection method applied to a developed chromatogram, or to the dot blot test performed on a chromatographic plate, where total antibacterial activity of a sample is scrutinized. It was an aim of this study to compare antibacterial activity of 18 thyme (Thymus) specimens and species (originating from the same gardening plot and harvested in the same period of time) by means of a dot blot test with direct bioautography. A two-step extraction of herbal material was applied, and at step two the polar fraction of secondary metabolites was obtained under the earlier optimized extraction conditions [methanol-water (27+73, v/v), 130°C]. This fraction was then tested for its antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis bacteria. It was established that all investigated extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, yet distinct differences were perceived in the size of the bacterial growth inhibition zones among the compared thyme species. Based on the results obtained, T. citriodorus "golden dwarf" (sample No. 5) and T. marschallianus (sample No. 6) were selected as promising targets for further investigations and possible inclusion in a herbal pharmacopeia, which is an essential scientific novelty of this study.

  19. Detection of genetically modified microorganisms in soil using the most-probable-number method with multiplex PCR and DNA dot blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jinki; Lee, Yunho; Noh, Jaemin; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Jungsoon; Seo, Hyoju; Kim, Jisun; Han, Jiwon; Jeon, Che Ok; Kim, Taesung; Park, Woojun

    2011-10-01

    The principal objective of this study was to detect genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) that might be accidentally released into the environment from laboratories. Two methods [plate counting and most-probable-number (MPN)] coupled with either multiplex PCR or DNA dot blots were compared using genetically modified Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Acinetobacter oleivorans harboring an antibiotic-resistance gene with additional gfp and lacZ genes as markers. Alignments of sequences collected from databases using the Perl scripting language (Perl API) and from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the gfp, lacZ and antibiotic-resistance genes (kanamycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin) in GMMs differed from the counterpart genes in many sequenced genomes and in soil DNA. Thus, specific multiplex PCR primer sets for detection of plasmid-based gfp and lacZ antibiotic-resistance genes could be generated. In the plate counting method, many antibiotic-resistant bacteria from a soil microcosm grew as colonies on antibiotic-containing agar plates. The multiplex PCR verification of randomly selected antibiotic-resistant colonies with specific primers proved ineffective. The MPN-multiplex PCR method and antibiotic-resistant phenotype could be successfully used to detect GMMs, although this method is quite laborious. The MPN-DNA dot blot method screened more cells at a time in a microtiter plate containing the corresponding antibiotics, and was shown to be a more efficient method for the detection of GMMs in soil using specific probes in terms of labor and accuracy.

  20. GAPDH and β-actin protein decreases with aging, making Stain-Free technology a superior loading control in Western blotting of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Dybboe, Rie; Hansen, Christina Neigaard;

    2015-01-01

    [β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and α-tubulin], as well as TP loaded measured by Stain-Free technology (SF) as normalization tool were tested. This was done using skeletal muscle samples from men subjected to physiological conditions often investigated in applied...... of β-actin and GAPDH was lower in older men compared with young men. In conclusion, β-actin, GAPDH, and α-tubulin may not be used for normalization in studies that include subjects with a large age difference. In contrast, the RPs may not be affected in studies that include muscle wasting...... and differences in muscle fiber type. The novel SF technology adds lower variation to the results compared with the existing methods for correcting for loading inaccuracy in Western blotting of human skeletal muscle in applied physiology....

  1. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis.

  2. A comparison of antigenic peptides in muscle larvae of several Trichinella species by two-dimensional western-blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antigens recognised by mAb US5 specific to 53 kDa glycoprotein (gp 53 in T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL1 antigens, mAb US9 specific to gp 53 in TSL1 from all encapsulated species and mAb US4 specific to a tyvelose containing tetrasaccharide present in TSL1, were investigated in crude extracts from muscle larvae of T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. britovi by 2D-electrophoresis and western-blot. At least four proteins of different pI were recognised by mAb US5 on T. spiralis antigens. Recognition profile of mAb US9 on T. spiralis antigens exhibited some variation with regard to that of the US5. Polymorphism was apparent in gp 53. High reactivity was shown by the mAb US4 with the three species.

  3. Isolation and RNA gel blot analysis of genes that could serve as potential molecular markers for leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Ito, M; Nishida, I; Watanabe, A

    2001-02-01

    Nine cDNAs, representing genes in which the transcripts accumulated in senescent leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, were isolated by differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) and the genes were designated yellow-leaf-specific gene 1 to 9 (YLS1-YLS9). Sequence analysis revealed that none of the YLS genes, except YLS6, had been reported as senescence-up-regulated genes. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the transcripts of YLS3 accumulated at the highest level at an early senescence stage, whereas the transcripts from the other YLS genes reached their maximum levels in late senescence stages. Transcripts of YLS genes showed various accumulation patterns under natural senescence, and under artificial senescence induced by darkness, ethylene or ABA. These expression characteristics of YLS genes will be useful as potential molecular markers, which will enhance our understanding of natural and artificial senescence processes.

  4. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergseth, S. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  5. Localization and Distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in Citrus and Periwinkle by Direct Tissue Blot Immuno Assay with an Anti-OmpA Polyclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fang; Duan, Yongping; Paul, Cristina; Brlansky, Ronald H; Hartung, John S

    2015-01-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas), a non-cultured member of the α-proteobacteria, is the causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB). Due to the difficulties of in vitro culture, antibodies against CaLas have not been widely used in studies of this pathogen. We have used an anti-OmpA polyclonal antibody based direct tissue blot immunoassay to localize CaLas in different citrus tissues and in periwinkle leaves. In citrus petioles, CaLas was unevenly distributed in the phloem sieve tubes, and tended to colonize in phloem sieve tubes on the underside of petioles in preference to the upper side of petioles. Both the leaf abscission zone and the junction of the petiole and leaf midrib had fewer CaLas bacteria compared to the main portions of the petiole and the midribs. Colonies of CaLas in phloem sieve tubes were more frequently found in stems with symptomatic leaves than in stems with asymptomatic leaves with an uneven distribution pattern. In serial sections taken from the receptacle to the peduncle, more CaLas were observed in the peduncle sections adjacent to the stem. In seed, CaLas was located in the seed coat. Many fewer CaLas were found in the roots, as compared to the seeds and petioles when samples were collected from trees with obvious foliar symptoms. The direct tissue blot immuno assay was adapted to whole periwinkle leaves infected by CaLas. The pathogen was distributed throughout the lateral veins and the results were correlated with results of qPCR. Our data provide direct spatial and anatomical information for CaLas in planta. This simple and scalable method may facilitate the future research on the interaction of CaLas and host plant.

  6. Localization and Distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in Citrus and Periwinkle by Direct Tissue Blot Immuno Assay with an Anti-OmpA Polyclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas, a non-cultured member of the α-proteobacteria, is the causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB. Due to the difficulties of in vitro culture, antibodies against CaLas have not been widely used in studies of this pathogen. We have used an anti-OmpA polyclonal antibody based direct tissue blot immunoassay to localize CaLas in different citrus tissues and in periwinkle leaves. In citrus petioles, CaLas was unevenly distributed in the phloem sieve tubes, and tended to colonize in phloem sieve tubes on the underside of petioles in preference to the upper side of petioles. Both the leaf abscission zone and the junction of the petiole and leaf midrib had fewer CaLas bacteria compared to the main portions of the petiole and the midribs. Colonies of CaLas in phloem sieve tubes were more frequently found in stems with symptomatic leaves than in stems with asymptomatic leaves with an uneven distribution pattern. In serial sections taken from the receptacle to the peduncle, more CaLas were observed in the peduncle sections adjacent to the stem. In seed, CaLas was located in the seed coat. Many fewer CaLas were found in the roots, as compared to the seeds and petioles when samples were collected from trees with obvious foliar symptoms. The direct tissue blot immuno assay was adapted to whole periwinkle leaves infected by CaLas. The pathogen was distributed throughout the lateral veins and the results were correlated with results of qPCR. Our data provide direct spatial and anatomical information for CaLas in planta. This simple and scalable method may facilitate the future research on the interaction of CaLas and host plant.

  7. Beta-thalassaemia mutations in northern India (Delhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, N; Sharma, S; Rusia, U; Sen, S; Sood, S K

    1998-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to define beta-thalassaemia mutations prevalent in northern India (Delhi). Forty six children of beta-thalassaemia major and their families were investigated. DNA was extracted from leucocytes and screened for mutations prevalent in the Indian population. These mutations included 619bp deletion, IVS 1-1 (G-T), IVS 1-5 (G-C), frameshift mutations FS 8/9 (+G), FS 41/42 (-CTTT), Codon 16(-C), Codon 15 (G-A), codon 30 (G-C), IVS 1-110 (G-A) and -88 (C-T). 619 bp deletion mutation was detected directly by amplification of DNA by PCR followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Other mutations were studied by DNA amplification and dot blot hybridization using synthetic normal and mutant oligonucleotide probes labelled at 5' end with gamma-32 P-ATP. Five mutations accounted for all the chromosomes in 46 patients. 619 bp deletion mutation was found to be the commonest mutation (34.8%) followed by IVS 1-5 (G-C) in 22.8 per cent, IVS 1-1 (G-T) in 19.6 per cent, FS 8/9 (+G) in 13 per cent and FS 41/42 (-CTTT) in 9.8 per cent. Nineteen (41.3%) patients were homozygous and 27 (58.7%) double heterozygous for different beta-thalassaemia mutations. This observation of limited number of mutations is significant and will be useful in planning strategies for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia in northern India.

  8. Pteridophyta collected in Northern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan kornaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 species of Pteridophyta were collected in Northern Nigeria (mainly the Lake Chad Basin and the Mandara Mts. and in the neighbouring parts of Cameroon. 11 of them have not been recorded previously from this area: Isoetes schweinfurthii A. Br. in Bak., Selaginella tenerrima A. Br. ex Kuhn, Ophioglossum gomenzianum Welw. ex A. Br., Marsilea coromandeliana Willd., M. distorta A. Br., M. nubica A. Br., M. subterranea Lepr. ex A. Br., Azolla africana Desv., Ceratopteris richardii Brogn., Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn., and Actiniopleris semiflabellata Pic. Ser.

  9. Storage and stability of IgG and IgM monoclonal antibodies dried on filter paper and utility in Neisseria meningitidis serotyping by Dot-blot ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yto André Y

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A simple filter paper method was developed for, the transport and storage of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs at room temperature or -20°C after spotting on filter paper, for subsequent serotyping of outer membrane antigens of N.meningitidis by dot-blot ELISA. Methods Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs were spotted within a 0.5–1 cm diameter area of Whatman grade 903 paper, which were stored individually at room temperature or at -20°C. These MAbs were stored and analyzed after periods of one week, 4 weeks, 12 months, or 13 years in the case of frozen Mab aliquots, or after 4 weeks at -20°C or at room temperature (RT in the case of Mabs dried on filter paper strips. Assays were performed in parallel using dot-blot ELISA. In addition to the MAbs specific for serotyping class 1, 2 or 3, we used a larger number of Mabs for polysaccharides, lipooligosaccharides (LOS, class 5 and cross-reactive antigens for native outer membrane of N.meningitidis. The Mabs dried on filter paper were eluted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS containing 0.2% gelatin. Results Mabs of the isotypes IgG and IgM dried on filter papers were not affected by duration of storage. The detection by serotyping Mabs was generally consistent for dried filter paper MAb samples stored frozen for over 1 year at -20°C, and although decreased reactive antibody titers were found after storage, this did not interfere with the specificity of the Mabs used after 13 years as dry spots on filter paper. Conclusion The use of filter paper is an inexpensive and convenient method for collecting, storing, and transporting Mab samples for serotyping studies. In addition, the samples occupy little space and can be readily transported without freezing. The efficiency of using immunoglobulin G (IgG or M (IgM eluted was found to be consistent with measurement of IgG or IgM titers in most corresponding, ascites Mabs stored frozen for over 1 year. The application of meningococcal typing

  10. Utility of slot-blot-ELISA as a new, fast, and sensitive immunoassay for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen in the urine samples of patients with various gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, Samir; El-Sayed, Ibrahim H; Lotfy, Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Lamiaa; El-Naggar, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most widely used clinical tumor marker. CEA immunoassay has found acceptance as a diagnostic adjunct in clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors (GIT). Several immunoassays have been established for detection of CEA in plasma, serum, tissue, feces, and urine of cancer patients using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies raised against CEA. Some of these assays display both high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CEA. However, these assays require special and highly expensive equipment and the procedures require long periods for their completion. In the present study, we established a Slot-Blot Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (SB-ELISA), based on anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (CEA-mAb), as a new, simple, fast, cheap, and non-invasive immunodiagnostic technique for detection of CEA in the urine of GIT patients. Urine and serum samples were collected from 248 GIT patients (58 with pancreatic cancer, 20 with hepatoma, 23 with ampullary carcinoma, 15 with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 28 with gastric cancer, 14 with esophageal cancer, and 90 with colorectal cancer). Moreover, urine and serum samples were collected from 50 healthy individuals to serve as negative controls. The traditional ELISA technique was used for determination of CEA in the sera of GIT patients using anti-CEA monoclonal antibody. A comparison between the results of both techniques (ELISA and SB-ELISA) was carried out. The traditional ELISA detected CEA in the sera of 154 out of 248 GIT patients with a sensitivity of 59.8%, 51.7% positive predictive value (PPV) and 75.37% negative predictive value (NPV). In addition, it identified 15 false positive cases out of 50 healthy individuals with a specificity of 70%. The urinary CEA was identified by a Western blotting technique and CEA-mAb at a molecular mass of 180 Kda. The developed SB-ELISA showed higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV (70.1%, 78%, 62.4%, and 82.13%, respectively) for detection

  11. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  12. Northern Alaska Landscape/Permafrost GIS Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This update includes permafrost mapping to include the following new layers:...

  13. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 2000. The...

  14. Waterfowl production survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, Saskatchewan River Delta: July 10-22, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1973. The...

  15. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1993. The...

  16. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba and western Ontario: May-June 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Saskatchewan, northern Manitoba, and western Ontario during 1959. The...

  17. A comparison of DNA extraction protocols from blood spotted on FTA cards for the detection of tick-borne pathogens by Reverse Line Blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Ahmed, Jabbar Sabir; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard Menzo

    2017-01-01

    An essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in blood is the extraction of DNA. When cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to DNA extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. We evaluated six DNA extraction methods from blood spotted on FTA Classic(®) cards (FTA cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of TBPs by PCR and the Reverse Line Blot hybridization assay (RLB). Ten-fold serial dilutions of bovine blood infected with Babesia bovis, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale or Ehrlichia ruminantium were made by dilution with uninfected blood and spotted on FTA cards. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from FTA cards using six different DNA extraction protocols. DNA was also isolated from whole blood dilutions using a commercial kit. PCR/RLB results showed that washing of 3mm discs punched from FTA cards with FTA purification reagent followed by DNA extraction using Chelex(®) resin was the most sensitive procedure. The detection limit could be improved when more discs were used as starting material for the DNA extraction, whereby the use of sixteen 3mm discs proved to be most practical. The presented best practice method for the extraction of DNA from blood spotted on FTA cards will facilitate epidemiological studies on TBPs. It may be particularly useful for field studies where a cold chain is absent.

  18. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 in Fortaleza (Brazil: a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available How to handle Western blot (WB seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 constitutes a challenge for blood banks and fam ilies. We made a cross-sectional study of 191 enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA reactive individuals from the hematological center (HEMOCE of Fortaleza (Brazil, examining their serological (WB and molecular (PCR diagnosis, and demographic profiles, as well as a possible association of their condition with other infectious pathologies and risk factors. Ethical institutional approval and personal consent were obtained. Out of 191 EIA reactive individuals, 118 were WB seroindeterminate and 73 were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. In the PCR analysis of 41 WB seroindeterminate individuals, 9 (22% were positive and 32 (78% were negative for HTLV-1/2. The demographic analysis indicated a trend towards a predominance of males among the seroindeterminate individuals and females in the seropositive ones. The seroindeterminate individuals were younger than the seropositive ones. We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis and IDU.

  19. Inverse PCR and Quantitative PCR as Alternative Methods to Southern Blotting Analysis to Assess Transgene Copy Number and Characterize the Integration Site in Transgenic Woody Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Biricolti; Patrizia, Bogani; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Massimo, Gori

    2016-06-01

    One of the major unanswered questions with respect to the commercial use of genetic transformation in woody plants is the stability of the transgene expression over several decades within the same individual. Gene expression is strongly affected by the copy number which has been integrated into the plant genome and by the local DNA features close to the integration sites. Because woody plants cannot be subjected to selfing or backcrossing to modify the transgenic allelic structure without affecting the valuable traits of the cultivar, molecular characterization of the transformation event is therefore crucial. After assessing the transgene copy number of a set of apple transgenic clones with Southern blotting, we describe two alternative methods: the first is based on inverse PCR (i-PCR) and the second on the quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The methods produced comparable results with the exception of the data regarding a high copy number clone, but while the q-PCR-based system is rapid and easily adaptable to high throughput systems, the i-PCR-based method can provide information regarding the transformation event and the characteristics of the sequences flanking the transgenic construct.

  20. Utility of Schistosoma bovis Adult Worm Antigens for Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Electroimmunotransfer Blot Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, J.; Carranza, C.; Turrientes, M. C.; Arellano, J. L. Pérez; Vélez, R. López; Ramajo, V.; Muro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive. PMID:15539523

  1. Diversity of Borrelia genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Switzerland identified by using new probes for reverse line blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Lise; Douet, Véronique; López, Zully; Rais, Olivier; Cadenas, Francisca Morán

    2010-03-01

    In Europe, 7 Borrelia species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have been reported in Ixodes ricinus ticks. In addition, another Borrelia, related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, has also been described. In the present study, we designed probes for reverse line blotting allowing detection and identification of all these Borrelia species after amplification of the variable spacer region between the 23S and 5S ribosomal genes. These new probes allowed us investigate the diversity of Borrelia in 915 I. ricinus collected on the south-facing slope of Chaumont (Switzerland). Among the 159 infected ticks, 7 Borrelia species were identified, and B. spielmanii and relapsing fever-like (RFL) spirochaetes were identified in this area for the first time. B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii were significantly less present in male than in female or nymphal ticks. Mixed infection with RFL spirochaetes and Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes were detected in 4 ticks. In addition, the set of probes could identify the recently described species, B. bavariensis.

  2. A Western blot-based investigation of the yeast secretory pathway designed for an intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Degrenier, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in two distinct steps of protein secretion were differentiated using a genetic reporter designed specifically to identify defects in the first step of the pathway, the insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (Vallen, 2002). We have developed two versions of a Western blotting assay that serves as a second way of distinguishing the two secretory mutants, which we pair with the genetic assay in a 3-wk laboratory module. A quiz administered before and after students participated in the lab activities revealed significant postlab gains in their understanding of the secretory pathway and experimental techniques used to study it. A second survey administered at the end of the lab module assessed student perceptions of the efficacy of the lab activities; the results of this survey indicated that the experiments were successful in meeting a set of educational goals defined by the instructor.

  3. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  4. Identification of liver protein targets modified by tienilic acid metabolites using a two-dimensional Western blot-mass spectrometry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methogo, Ruth Menque; Dansette, Patrick M.; Klarskov, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    A combined approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis-immuno-blotting and nanoliquid chromatography coupled on-line with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) was used to identify proteins modified by a reactive intermediate of tienilic acid (TA). Liver homogenates from rats exposed to TA were fractionated using ultra centrifugation; four fractions were obtained and subjected to 2D electrophoresis. Following transfer to PVDF membranes, modified proteins were visualized after India ink staining, using an anti-serum raised against TA and ECL detection. Immuno-reactive spots were localized on the PVDF membrane by superposition of the ECL image, protein spots of interest were excised, digested on the membrane with trypsin followed by nLC-MS/MS analysis and protein identification. A total of 15 proteins were identified as likely targets modified by a TA reactive metabolite. These include selenium binding protein 2, senescence marker protein SMP-30, adenosine kinase, Acy1 protein, adenosylhomocysteinase, capping protein (actin filament), protein disulfide isomerase, fumarylacetoacetase, arginase chain A, ketohexokinase, proteasome endopeptidase complex, triosephosphate isomerase, superoxide dismutase, dna-type molecular chaperone hsc73 and malate dehydrogenase.

  5. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of two protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors, R and Z1, in colorectal carcinoma, colon adenoma and normal colon tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Marta; Gamian, Elżbieta; Łaczmańska, Izabela; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Two classes of proteins, namely tyrosine kinases (PTK) and phosphatases (PTP), play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation, thus leading to an acceleration or inhibition of tumour growth. The role of the above proteins in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) growth is a well-known event. In this study we carried out immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and normal colon tissue in relation to two protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors, R and Z1. Twenty-five cases of CRC were analyzed and the results were compared with similar data obtained in non-malignant tissues. High expression of both PTP receptors was observed in all examined cases of CRC, adenoma and normal colon tissue in this study. These results are not in line with recently published data, showing that genetic coding for PTPRR and PTPRZ1 were hypermethylated in CRC's. We presume that the protein tyrosine phosphatase overexpression in colorectal carcinoma is not enough to protect from the progression of disease.

  6. Direct measurement of tubulin and bulk message distributions on polysomes of growing, starved and deciliated Tetrahymena using RNA gel blots of sucrose gradients containing acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, F J; Callahan, R; Gorovsky, M A

    1988-10-25

    A method was developed using sucrose gradients containing acrylamide which greatly simplifies the measurement of the polysomal distribution of messages. After centrifugation, the acrylamide was polymerized, forming a "polysome gel". RNA gel blots of polysome gels were used to determine the polysomal distributions of alpha-tubulin and total polyadenylated mRNA in growing, starved (nongrowing) and starved-deciliated Tetrahymena and the number of messages loaded onto polysomes was calculated. These measurements indicated that the translational efficiencies of alpha-tubulin mRNA and total polyadenylated mRNA are largely unaffected when the rates of tubulin and total protein synthesis vary dramatically. Thus, differential regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA translation initiation does not contribute to the greater than 100-fold induction of tubulin synthesis observed during cilia regeneration and in growing cells. The major translation-level process regulating tubulin synthesis in Tetrahymena appears to be a change in message loading mediated by a non-specific message recruitment or unmasking factor.

  7. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  8. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  9. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  10. Detection of mutation in embB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical isolates of tuberculous patients in China by means of reverse-dot blot hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE QIONG WU; YANG LU; JIAN QIN LIANG; JUN XIAN ZHANG; GUANG YU ZHANG; CUI HUAN L(U); HONG MIN LI; BEI CHUAN DING

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between embB mutation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ethambutol (EMB) resistance of the clinical isolates of tuberculous patients in China was investigated by reversedot blot hybridization (RDBH) in addition to evaluating the clinical value with application of PCR-RD-BH technique to detect EMB resistance. In the present study, the genotypes of the 258 bp fragments of embB genes from 196 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were analysed with RDBH and DNA sequencing. It was demonstrated that 60 out of 91 phenotypically EMB-resistant isolates (65.9%) showed 5 types of missense mutations at codon 306 of embB gene, resulting in the replacement of the Met residue of the wild type strain with Val, Ile or Leu residues. In these mutations, the GTP mutation (38/91,41.8% ) and the ATA mutation ( 16/91, 17.6% ) were the most encountered genotypes. The embB mutation at codon 306 could also be found in 69 isolates of phenotypically EMB-sensitive but resistant to other anti-tuberculous drugs, but no such gene mutation could be found in 36 strains of drug-sensitive isolates. Meanwhile, the concordance with the results of DNA sequencing for one wide-type probe and 5 probes for specific mutations was 100%. It was concluded that the EMB-resistance occurring in most M. tuberculosis is due to appearance of embB mutation at codon 306, and the PCR-RDBH assay was proved to be a rapid, simple and reliable method for the detection of gene mutations, which might be a good alternative for the drug-resistance screening.

  11. A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in mink using a modified agglutination test, a Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Zedong; Cai, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Wei, Feng; Shang, Limin; Li, Jiping; Liu, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, and many serological methods have been developed to detect T. gondii infection in a variety of animal species. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in farmed mink in northeast China was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT), a Western blot (WB), and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with protein A/G conjugate, using either of 2 recombinant dense granule antigens, GRA1 and GRA7, or Toxoplasma soluble antigens (TSA). There was no significant difference between the detection results of the GRA1-, GRA7-, and TSA-ELISAs and WB (McNemar chi-square, P > 0.05), but a significant difference was observed between MAT and WB (P < 0.05). A near perfect agreement (97.0%) was found between the GRA7-ELISA and WB (κ = 0.83), and a substantial agreement (92.4-93.1%) was observed in the TSA- and GRA1-ELISAs (κ = 0.68-0.73). The GRA7-ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, and the lowest false-positive and negative rates, while the MAT gave both a low sensitivity and frequent false positives in comparison to the WB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the largest area under curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96), and the highest relative sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (99.0%) for a cutoff value of 0.19 in the GRA7-ELISA. These results indicate that the GRA7-ELISA is suitable for detection of T. gondii infection in mink and that MAT should be used with caution.

  12. Western blot data using two distinct anti-O-GlcNAc monoclonal antibodies showing unique glycosylation status on cellular proteins under 2-deoxy-d-glucose treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein modification by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation is one of the post transcriptional modifications occurring on cellular proteins. This paper provides a data set relating to the O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins detected by RL2 and CTD110.6 antibodies, which are commonly used for detection of protein O-GlcNAcylation, in 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG-treated human teratocarcinoma NCCIT cells in support of the research article entitled “A novel, promoter-based, target-specific assay identifies 2-deoxy-d-glucose as an inhibitor of globotriaosylceramide biosynthesis” (Okuda et al., 2009 [1]. The main article described a suppressive effect of 2DG on an Sp1 target gene in NCCIT cells and discussed the relationship between the effect of 2DG and O-GlcNAcylation status of Sp1. The data in this paper complements this relationship by Western blotting and clearly showed that the 2DG treatment increased O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins in NCCIT cells, whereas the RL2 and CTD110.6 epitopes were detected in a different manner. The RL2 epitope was detected on Sp1 during 2DG treatment, and the level was transiently increased at 24 h. In contrast, the CTD110.6 epitope became detectable on Sp1 over 72 h after 2DG treatment, and then the other proteins containing CTD110.6 epitopes also appeared in the cell lysates and the anti-Sp1 antibody precipitates.

  13. HIV-1/2 indeterminate Western blot results: follow-up of asymptomatic blood donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARNEIRO-PROIETTI A.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and public health importance of indeterminate results in HIV-1/2 testing is still difficult to evaluate in volunteer blood donors. At Fundação Hemominas, HIV-1/2 ELISA is used as the screening test and, if reactive, is followed by Western blot (WB. We have evaluated 84 blood donors who had repeatedly reactive ELISA tests for HIV-1/2, but indeterminate WB results. Sixteen of the 84 donors (19.0% had history of sexually transmitted diseases; 18/84 (21.4% informed receiving or paying for sex; 3/84 (3.6% had homosexual contact; 2/26 women (7.6% had past history of multiple illegal abortions and 3/84 (3.6% had been previously transfused. Four out of 62 donors (6.5% had positive anti-nuclear factor (Hep2, with titles up to 1:640. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed eggs of S. mansoni in 4/62 (6.4% donors and other parasites in 8/62 (12.9%. Five (5.9% of the subjects presented overt seroconversion for HIV-1/2, 43/84 (51.2% had negative results on the last visit, while 36/84 (42.9% remained WB indeterminate. Although some conditions could be found associated with the HIV-1/2 indeterminate WB results and many donors had past of risky behavior, the significance of the majority of the results remains to be determined.

  14. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection. PMID:28232823

  15. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection.

  16. Identification of reference proteins for Western blot analyses in mouse model systems of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenie D Prokopec

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a well-established, inexpensive and accurate way of measuring protein content. Because of technical variation between wells, normalization is required for valid interpretation of results across multiple samples. Typically this involves the use of one or more endogenous controls to adjust the measured levels of experimental molecules. Although some endogenous controls are widely used, validation is required for each experimental system. This is critical when studying transcriptional-modulators, such as toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD.To address this issue, we examined hepatic tissue from 192 mice representing 47 unique combinations of strain, sex, Ahr-genotype, TCDD dose and treatment time. We examined 7 candidate reference proteins in each animal and assessed consistency of protein abundance through: 1 TCDD-induced fold-difference in protein content from basal levels, 2 inter- and intra- animal stability, and 3 the ability of each candidate to reduce instability of the other candidates. Univariate analyses identified HPRT as the most stable protein. Multivariate analysis indicated that stability generally increased with the number of proteins used, but gains from using >3 proteins were small. Lastly, by comparing these new data to our previous studies of mRNA controls on the same animals, we were able to show that the ideal mRNA and protein control-genes are distinct, and use of only 2-3 proteins provides strong stability, unlike in mRNA studies in the same cohort, where larger control-gene batteries were needed.

  17. Simultaneous detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in ruminants and detection of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks by reverse line blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cornelis P J; de Vos, Sander; Taoufik, Amar; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Jongejan, Frans

    2002-10-22

    The detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species is usually based on species-specific PCR assays, since no assay is yet available which can detect and identify these species simultaneously. To this end, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB) assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in domestic ruminants and ticks. In a PCR the hypervariable V1 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified with a set of primers unique for members of the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia [Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (2001) 2145]. Amplified PCR products from blood of domestic ruminants or Amblyomma variegatum tick samples were hybridized onto a membrane to which eight species-specific oligonucleotide probes and one Ehrlichia and Anaplasma catch-all oligonucleotide probe were covalently linked. No DNA was amplified from uninfected blood, nor from other hemoparasites such as Theileria annulata, or Babesia bigemina. The species-specific probes did not cross-react with DNA amplified from other species. E. ruminantium, A. ovis and another Ehrlichia were identified by RLB in blood samples collected from small ruminants in Mozambique. Finally, A. variegatum ticks were tested after feeding on E. ruminantium infected sheep. E. ruminantium could be detected in adult ticks even if feeding of nymphs was carried out 3.5 years post-infection. In conclusion, the developed species-specific oligonucleotide probes used in an RLB assay can simultaneously detect and identify several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species. However, as no quantitative data for the detection limit are available yet, only positive results are interpretable at this stage.

  18. TSUNAMI HAZARD IN NORTHERN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Theilen-Willige

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on LANDSAT ETM and Digital Elevation Model (DEM data derived by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM, 2000 of the coastal areas of Northern Venezuela were investigated in order to detect traces of earlier tsunami events. Digital image processing methods used to enhance LANDSAT ETM imageries and to produce morphometric maps (such as hillshade, slope, minimum and maximum curvature maps based on the SRTM DEM data contribute to the detection of morphologic traces that might be related to catastrophic tsunami events. These maps combined with various geodata such as seismotectonic data in a GIS environment allow the delineation of coastal regions with potential tsunami risk. The LANDSAT ETM imageries merged with digitally processed and enhanced SRTM data clearly indicate areas that might be prone by flooding in case of catastrophic tsunami events.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY IN NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1973-06-01

    Full Text Available The existence of Ra 226 is proved and measured by radiom emanation-method in waters and food products of North , North West and North – East of Iran. A total of 126 water, 249 food and 22 air samples have been examined. The concertration of Ra 226 in waters found to be 0.01 to 1.104 Pci/1 and in food products from 0.01 to Pci/gr. Ash.The amount found in due ranges from 0.003 to 0.227 Pci/m 3.It is concluded that the presence of higher than normal activity in some parts of Northern Iran is due to radiationanomalies in subsurface strata, where these mineral waters pass. Further investigattions are recommended.

  20. Northern Security and Global Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book takes a comprehensive approach to security in the Nordic-Baltic region, studying how this region is affected by developments in the international system. The advent of the new millennium coincided with the return of the High North to the world stage. A number of factors have contributed......-unipolar", indicating a period of flux and of declining US unipolar hegemony. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field, Northern Security and Global Politics explores how this situation has affected the Nordic-Baltic area by addressing two broad sets of questions. First, it examines what impact...... declining unipolarity - with a geopolitical shift to Asia, a reduced role for Europe in United States policy, and a more assertive Russia - will have on regional Nordic-Baltic security. Second, it takes a closer look at how the regional actors respond to these changes in their strategic environment...

  1. Succulent Euphorbias or northern Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauh, Werner

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey is given or the Euphorbia species occurring in northern Madagascar. The systematic groups which shaw no affinities with African-Indian Euphorbia species. are discussed. One new combination: Euphorbia aureo-vindiflora (Rauh Rauh is proposed.

    Es presenta una revisió de les espècies suculentes del gènere Euphorbia L del nord de Madagascar. Es discuteixen els grups sistemàtics que no mostren afinitat amb les espècies indo-africanes d'Euphorbia. Es proposa una nova combinació: Euphorbia aureo-vitidiftora (Rauh Rauh.

  2. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  3. Evaluación de la técnica Western blot para la detección de antígenos de Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Chávez-Salas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la técnica de inmunoelectrotransferencia (Western Blot para detectar los antígenos específicos de excreción/secreción de Hymenolepis nana en sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas. Se utilizó a Mesocricetus auratus “hamster” para obtener ejemplares adultos de H. nana. Los antígenos de excreción/secreción fueron obtenidos en el medio MEM (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, y enfrentados con un grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada para evaluar su calidad inmunológica y con sueros individuales de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas para detectar mediante la técnica de “Western Blot”, los antígenos específicos de este cestode. El grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada reconoció las bandas antigénicas de 50,1; 42,6; 38,9; 32,9; 26,3; 22,4 y 18,6 kDa; sin embargo, los sueros individuales reconocieron diferente número de bandas, siendo la de 50,1 KDa la que fue reconocida por todos ellos. Los sueros de pacientes con helmintiosis confirmadas no reconocieron la banda de 50,1 kDa; sin embargo, dieron reacción cruzada con algunas de las demás bandas, a excepción de los sueros de pacientes con cisticercosis que no reconocieron a ninguna de las bandas de estos antígenos. Se concluye que el antígeno de excreción/secreción de H. nana de 50,1 kDa es específico de este cestode por ser reconocido por todos los sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada y no por sueros de pacientes con otras helmintiosis utilizando la técnica de “Western Blot”.

  4. A comparison of the immune parameters of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis using Western blot and neutralization techniques Comparação dos parâmetros imunológicos de cães infectados com leishmaniose visceral usando as técnicas de Western blot e neutralização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda L. Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western blot technique was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies in the blood of dogs that presented canine visceral leishmaniasis. This technique was used against some specific molecules present in the lysate of the promastigote form of Leshmania chagasi.Through the association of the results of the Western blot technique with the morphological alterations seen as a result of the serum neutralization technique performed in McCoy cells (which mimetizes the macrophage it was possible to observe the role of some molecules of great relevance in determining the disease in symptomatic dogs as well as that of some other molecules associated with asymptomatic infected dogs that may become transmitters as well as differentiating them as asymptomatic resistant dogs. In the sera analyses carried out during the immunobloting a variation of 9 to 27 immunoreacting bands was observed, which were then compared using Dice's similarity coefficient. In the dendrogram constructed on the basis of the coefficient, 50% similarity was observed among the total number of reagent bands with the promastigote lysate, thus creating five groups. The main difference observed related to the clinical condition of the dogs: symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs were found in separate groups. The asymptomatic group of dogs was distributed in two different places in the dendrogram because they presented two different behavior patterns regarding the cellular morphology in the serum neutralization reaction: the presence or absence of cellular lysis. According to this analysis it is possible to evaluate the immune status and associate it with specific markers observed in the reaction found in the Western blot strips.A técnica de Western blot foi utilizada para demonstrar a presença de anticorpos do soro de cães, que apresentavam leishmaniose visceral canina, contra algumas moléculas específicas no lisado da forma promastigota de Leshmania chagasi.Através da associa

  5. Earthquake Damage, Northern Iran, June 21, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990. The event, the largest...

  6. Northern California 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  7. Biological processes of the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Physical processes such as wind-driven coastal run-off during the monsoons and convective overturning of surface waters due to winter cooling bring in nutrients into the euphotic zone and enhance primary productivity of the northern Indian Ocean...

  8. Permafrost Soils Database for Northern Alaska 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This database contains soil and permafrost stratigraphy for northern Alaska compiled from numerous project data files and reports. The Access Database has main data...

  9. Northern California 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second Northern California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  10. Northern Pintail - Flight Path Telemetry [ds117

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — North-south flight paths of radio-tagged female northern pintails were monitored in a section of Highway 152 near Los Banos, California during 4 and 11 November and...

  11. Faith-based humanitarianism in northern Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Benson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The response of faith-based organisations to displacement in northern Myanmar has been remarkable but sustaining an open and collaborative relationship with the international community remains an ongoing challenge.

  12. CNMI Northern Island Bottomfish System (NIBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) conducted a market sampling program that existed for a few years back in...

  13. Ecological Subsections for Northern Alaska, 2012 update

    Data.gov (United States)

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This data set represents an updated Ecological Subsection Map for Northern Alaska. This 2012 revision focused on completing the incompletely mapped portion of the...

  14. The rock resources of the Northern Emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Styles, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Rock Resources of the Northern Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has vast resources of limestone and hard rock in the northern Emirates. These are currently exploited by quarrying companies to produce construction aggregate and raw material for the manufacture of cement, with a small amount being used to produce rock wool, dimension stone and mineral filler. The demand by industry for higher value mineral products that could be produced from these resources is mostly met by impor...

  15. War and reconstruction in northern Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses some of the economic effects of war in northern Mozambique. It indicates how the historical and structural features of the economy of northern Mozambique restricted post-war reconstruction and post-war poverty alleviation. These features include the dominance of only a few cash crops for export, the absence of much rural trading, poor communication infrastructure, and weak political and state institutions. The specific nature of the internal war further weakened the stat...

  16. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  17. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  18. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  19. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  20. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C A

    2014-01-01

    Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hitoshi; Ahsan, Md Nazmul; Watabe, Shugo

    2003-04-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding cathepsin B from the hepatopancreas of northern shrimp Pandalus borealis (NsCtB). Nucleotide sequence of the isolated clone encoded a preproenzyme of 328 amino acids, comprising a 15-residue putative signal peptide, a 60-residue propeptide and the 253-residue mature enzyme. The mature NsCtB was 53% identical to human cathepsin B and conserved all the structural features characteristic of cysteine protease. The presence of an occluding loop in the mature region, a unique feature of cathepsin B, suggested the shrimp protein to be cathepsin B. Northern blot analysis revealed expression of NsCtB transcripts exclusively in the hepatopancreas tissues, suggesting a possible digestive role of this enzyme. An interesting feature of NsCtB was its remarkably high negative charge in comparison with other cysteine proteases, which was predicted to effectively locate and guide the positively charged residues of a substrate into the binding cleft. We also observed a repertoire of cysteine protease activities in the acidic milieu of shrimp hepatopancreas using synthetic substrates specific to various cathepsins. The activity profile revealed cathepsin B as the single most dominant enzyme with a specific activity comparable to that attributable to combined activities of other cathepsins. This activity could be blocked by E-64, a cysteine protease inhibitor, but not by Z-Phe-Tyr (t-Bu)-CHN(2), a specific inhibitor of cathepsin L.

  2. Comparison of Linear Array and Line Blot Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus and Diagnosis of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study▿

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, Philip E.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Schiffman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated Linear Array (LA), a newly commercialized PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primer PCR test that detects 37 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes by reverse line blot hybridization, for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV and its clinical performance for detecting 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer using archived specimens from the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. LA...

  3. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Martinez, P. [Northern New Mexico Community Coll., Espanola, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  4. Northern and Southern RE Groups Ended Resultlessly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In September 2002, "Organizing of National Rare EarthEnterprises Group" which was delivered by original NationalEconomy & Trade Committee and original National PlanningCommittee, Ministry of Finance P.R.C, Ministry of Land &Resource P.R.C. and Ministry of Foreign Economy & Trade,was approved by the State Council of P.R.C. to organizeSouthern and Northern Rare Earth Groups. On October 30,2002, China Northern RE Group Co., Ltd Preparation Teamheld the foundation convention in Baotou, which drew thecurtain of ...

  5. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  6. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  7. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  8. Reconnaissance soil survey in northern Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyk, van der J.J.

    1957-01-01

    By aerial photography and numerous field observations a map with soil landscapes of the northern part of Surinam on a scale of approximately 1: 600,000 was constructed. On this map three main landscapes were distinguished: the landscapes with young soils from sedimentary parent materials on young co

  9. Northern Ireland: post-conflict education model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nolan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Northern Ireland’s Good Friday Agreement of 1998 calledfor “initiatives to facilitate and encourage integratededucation” but progress has been painfully slow. Only 5%of the total school population are in integrated schools(those bringing together students and staff from boththe Protestant and Catholic traditions. Only 1.4% of theadult population has experienced integrated schooling.

  10. Forest carbon sinks in the northern hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodale, C.L.; Apps, M.J.; Birdsey, R.A.; Field, C.B.; Heath, L.S.; Houghton, R.A.; Jenkins, J.C.; Kohlmaier, G.H.; Kurz, W.; Liu, S.R.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Nilsson, S.; Shvidenko, A.Z.

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that terrestrial systems in the Northern Hemisphere provide a significant sink for atmospheric CO2; however, estimates of the magnitude and distribution of this sink vary greatly. National forest inventories provide strong, measuretment-based constraints on the magnitude o

  11. Controlling human oesophagostomiasis in northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziem, Juventus Benogle

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes aspects of the epidemiology and attempts to control infection and pathology due to the nematode parasite Oesophagostomum bifurcum . In northern Ghana and Togo O. bifurcum is an important parasite of humans; elsewhere it is predominantly seen as a parasite of non-human primates.

  12. The Times and the Northern Ireland Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhaïr Abassi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In societies in conflict the role of the media is supposed to be neutral and to report conflicts fairly and with balanced analyses. By their public debates on conflicts they are also supposed to take part in pacifying societies and in helping to bring peace. Cottle (1997, for instance, explained that even though some findings related to the British media and its reporting of the Northern Ireland conflict were relevant, he argued that they needed revision. Consequently, he proposed new paradigms of media studies. Elliott (1977 and Curtis(1996 showed that the British media concentrated on violence in general and on republican violence in particular. Moreover, they argued that the British media neglected social and political contexts in their reporting of the conflict. The aim of this paper is then to examine some aspects of how the British media cover the Northern Ireland conflict. We studied the coverage of the Northern Ireland conflict by The (London Times (1990-1995. We used a discourse analysis method to study the paper’s discourse structure in its representation of the Northern Ireland conflict.

  13. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability.

  14. Coping with rainfall variability in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...

  15. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Northern Islands Municipality Unclassifiable/Attainment. Rota Municipality Unclassifiable/Attainment. Saipan Municipality Unclassifiable/Attainment. Tinian Municipality Unclassifiable/Attainment. a Includes...: Northern Islands Municipality Unclassifiable/Attainment Unclassifiable/Attainment. Rota...

  16. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl production survey: July 5-23, 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during 1983. The...

  17. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  18. Contrasting territorial policy perspectives for Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Lars

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northern Sweden is increasingly influenced by competing social interests striving for advantages and claiming territorial influence through “scalar politics”. The strategic deployment of scalar conceptions is an integral part of policy making and implementation. Increasing use of varying scalar conceptions follows from “new spatial planning” practices. Set territorial delineations and administrative responsibilities are opened up to complex associational relationships with varying spatial claims. Focusing on territorial policies, this paper examines what orientations there are in territorial policy development in and for northern Sweden. The 29 municipalities embraced by the two northernmost counties Norrbotten and Västerbotten are the geographical delimitation of the study. As the analysis shows, the dominating scalar constructs relate to national and EU territorial policies rather than to competing constructs focused on Nordic, Barents and Arctic territorialization.

  19. Trace gas fluxes from northern peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada). Geography Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Peatlands cover large areas in northern environments: 1.1, 0.1 and 1.7 x 10{sup 4} km{sup 2} in Canada, Finland and the former Soviet Union, respectively. Interest has been generated into the role these extensive areas of peatlands play in controlling the chemistry of the atmosphere. In particular, it has become established that peatlands can be a source of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and a sink of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the latter through the rates of plant production exceeding the rate of decomposition of plant material and peat. In this presentation the recent advances in trace gas flux measurements in northern peatlands are presented. (16 refs.)

  20. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne;

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown a ‘greening of the Sahel’ on the basis of analysis of time series of satellite images and this has shown to be, at least partly, explained by changes in rainfall. In northern Burkina Faso, an area stands out as anomalous in such analysis, since it is characterized by a dis......Many studies have shown a ‘greening of the Sahel’ on the basis of analysis of time series of satellite images and this has shown to be, at least partly, explained by changes in rainfall. In northern Burkina Faso, an area stands out as anomalous in such analysis, since it is characterized...... by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non...

  1. Aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eybye, Birgitte Tanderup

    2014-01-01

    The aisle-truss houses of Northern Jutland were built under hard conditions, such as harsh climate and scarce resources. Hence, the aisle-truss houses display a number of resource-saving and sustainable building principles, including the arcade construction and the use of passive energy strategies......, which make them relevant to research. This paper investigates resource-saving and sustainable principles in the aisle-truss houses of Thy, Northern Jutland. General features as well as three cases of the one-wing dwelling aisle-truss houses are studied. The aim is to improve the understanding of aisle......-truss houses. Another aim is to suggest strategies for modern sustainable building on the basis of the identified principles in aisle-truss houses....

  2. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation.

  3. Early millet use in northern China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Wan, Zhiwei; Perry, Linda; Lu, Houyuan; WANG Qiang; Zhao, Chaohong; Li, Jun; Xie, Fei; Yu, Jincheng; Cui, Tianxing; WANG Tao; Li, Mingqi; Ge, Quansheng

    2012-01-01

    It is generally understood that foxtail millet and broomcorn millet were initially domesticated in Northern China where they eventually became the dominant plant food crops. The rarity of older archaeological sites and archaeobotanical work in the region, however, renders both the origins of these plants and their processes of domestication poorly understood. Here we present ancient starch grain assemblages recovered from cultural deposits, including carbonized residues adhering to an early p...

  4. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  5. Mobile rural youth in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Young people in northern Ghana are growing up in a very different environment from their southern counterparts. While the south is the locus of the major cities, industries, and most important cash crops, the north is primarily rural with an agricultural base, much of it subsistence. This distinc......Young people in northern Ghana are growing up in a very different environment from their southern counterparts. While the south is the locus of the major cities, industries, and most important cash crops, the north is primarily rural with an agricultural base, much of it subsistence....... This distinction between the southern core and northern periphery has a long history, stemming from when the country of Ghana came into being. Under colonial rule, the north was treated as a cheap source of labour to support the development of the export sector concentrated in the coastal port towns...... line of US$1.25 per day (Amanor-Boadu, Zereyesus, & Asiedu-Dartey, 2013). Despite Ghana having recently crossed the threshold to being predominantly urban, the primary occupation for both men and women remains agriculture, forestry, and fishing; approaching half (45.8%) of all households are defined...

  6. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification efficiency after on-blot or in-gel digestion with and without desalting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, S; Jungblut, P R

    2001-03-10

    In theory, peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has the potential to identify all of the proteins detected by silver staining on gels. In practice, if the genome of the organism investigated is completely sequenced, using current techniques, all proteins stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue can be identified. This loss of identification sensitivity of ten to hundred-fold is caused by loss of peptides by surface contacts. Therefore, we performed digestion and transfer of peptides in the lower microl range and reduced the number of steps. The peptide mix obtained from in-gel or on-blot digestion was analyzed directly after digestion or after concentration on POROS R2 beads. Eight protein spots of a 2-DE gel from Mycobacterium bovis BCG were identified using these four preparation procedures for MALDI-MS. Overall, on-blot digestion was as effective as in-gel digestion. Whereas higher signal intensities resulted after concentration, hydrophilic peptides are better detected by direct measurement of the peptide mix without POROS R2 concentration.

  7. 热带果树基因组DNA提取方法的改良及Southern blot分析%A Modified DNA Extraction Method for Tropical Fruit Trees and Southern Blot Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 曾凡云; 龙海波; 黄俊生; 郭建荣

    2012-01-01

    Tissues of most tropical fruit trees contain polysaccharide and polyphenolics that restrict the extraction of high-quality genomie DNA for further molecular biology analysis. This experiment was conducted to develop a simple, universal and effective modified CTAB method for genomie DNA extraction from tissues of tropical fruit trees for southern blot analysis. This optimized procedure includes two steps. First, before the DNA was extrac- ted, the polysaccharide and polyphenolics were pre-removed through the STE lysis buffer by centrifugation. In addition, possible contamination by secondary metaboliates could be avoided by picking up the cotton-shaped ge- nomie DNA floccules resuspended in liquid at the DNA precipitation step with ethanol. With the modified CTAB method, high-quality DNAs were extracted from young leaves of the three representative tropical fruit trees, ba- nana (Musa spp. ) , papaya (Carica papaya L. ) and longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. ). After digested with different restriction enzymes, fragments of banana ethylene receptor gene (GenBank accession No. AF113748), papaya phytoene desaturase gene (DQ779922) and longan flowering-related LEAFY homologous gene (DQ160214) were used as probes for further Southern blot analysis, respectively. The hybridization bands were clear with high background. The results indicate that the modified CTAB method, with pre-treated conjugation by DNA pick-up, is a simple and effective protocol for genomic DNA isolation from tropical fruit trees, which pro- duces high-quality genomic DNA available for further Southern blot analysis and other tests in molecular biology.%以香蕉、番木瓜、龙眼为代表材料,建立一套适合热带果树基因组DNA提取的方法——改良CTAB法。将提取各基因组DNA经限制性内切酶完全消化后,分别以香蕉内源乙烯受体基因(AF113748)、番木瓜八氢番茄红素脱氢酶基因PDS(DQ779922)、龙眼开花相关基因LEAFY(ADQ160214

  8. Accumulation of carbon in northern mire ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, K.; Turunen, J.; Alm, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology; Korhola, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Physical Geography; Jungner, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dating Lab.; Vasander, H. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    The basic feature in the functional ecology of any mire ecosystem is retardation of the effective decay of organic material resulting in a conspicuous accumulation of plant debris as peat overtime. The carbon accumulation process is slow, and climatic change may have an impact on the carbon cycle of peatlands, therefore, it has been of interest to study the rate of carbon accumulation by geological methods from dated peat strata. The approach is hampered by several facts. First, the mires vary enormously as to their vegetation and hydrology and hence their production and decay properties. It follows that a great number of study sites are needed. Second, the peat in mires expands both vertically and laterally, and this requires a spatial reconstruction of carbon accumulation within a mire basin. Third, simple geological methods cannot account for the actual rate of carbon accumulation in peat, and finally, an additional carbon sink in the mire ecosystems can be the mineral subsoil beneath peat. The proposed warming will perhaps shift northwards the existing climatic mire regimes and, thus, the northern aapa fens will change to Sphagnum bogs that are more effective in sequestering carbon, but distinctly less effective in their CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emanation. The role of mire fires in more remote northern areas may then become another important factor. The answer to the important question of future total sequestration of carbon to peatlands depends on the precipitation and its seasonal distribution pattern. Most climatic scenarios predict a decrease in the evaporation surplus during the summer at northern regions. Presumably, the consequent lowering of the water table would improve growth of forest on mires and simultaneously decrease the methane fluxes from peat. The combined net effect could be a clear restraining of the radiative forcing

  9. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  10. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  11. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  12. Scale heights of 84 northern spiral galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马骏; 彭秋和

    1997-01-01

    Using the method proposed by Peng (1988) on the basis of density waves theory and the solution of three-dimensional Poisson s equation for a logarithmic disturbance of density,and analyzing the spiral patterns,the scale heights of 84 northern spiral galaxies,whose images are taken from the Digitized Sky Survey at Xinglong Observational Station of Beijing Observatory,are measured.The spiral arms of all these galaxies have been fitted on their photographs with some logarithmic spiral curves for getting their correct inclinations.

  13. Northern Jutland as an Intertextual Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    Rushmore's presidential sculptures from Hitchcock's North by Northwest (1959). More generally, places may also appear as stereotypical location topoi. E.g., underground car parks are recognized from innumerable crime films and thrillers as a dramaturgically perilous location, and not just as an Augé......-non-place. They are not just places to park. In the same sense, already in 1981 in his treatment of hyperreality Baudrillard claimed that America in itself was a sign, as America could only be recognized from media and films and not cognized in itself. The article will view Northern Jutland in this light, and places...

  14. Offshore wind market outlook in Northern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta de Miranda, Wilfried; Trulsson, Ola; Ekloef, Eva-Britt; Niemenen, Karel

    2010-08-15

    After more than 10 years of slow developments, the offshore wind market is now accelerating. Thanks to a sustained political drive from UK and Germany, the rest of Northern Europe is now following the path as offshore wind is being recognized as one of the key resources available to the EU to meet its renewable energy ambitions. Exposed to increasing technical issues, rising costs and the financial crisis, lessons learned are now being shared and integrated throughout Europe and appropriate regulatory and planning reforms are now being deployed to speed the deployment of offshore wind. (Author)

  15. Dalian: A Beautiful City of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dalian is a young city with only a 100-year history. Situated at the tip of China's Liaodong Peninsular, it is a trading and financial center in northeastern Asia and has gained the name the "Hong Kong of Northern China". The old name of Dalian was first used by an official in his memorial to Emperor Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty referring to the present Dalian Gulf. In the early 20th century, the gulf area developed quickly and Dalian expanded into a city of significant size and importance.

  16. Leeds and the Northern Arts Prize

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B; Beresford, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to look at the nature of the relationship between the marketing of the contemporary visual arts, cultural tourism and city and urban regeneration. This exploratory study of the marketing of the contemporary visual arts in Leeds has, as its background narrative, the emergence of BritArt.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The growth of contemporary visual arts provides the context for a case study of the Northern Art Prize, which was first awarded in 2007.\\ud \\ud Fi...

  17. Detection of lightning in Saturn's Northern Hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Moghimi, Mohsen Hassanzadeh

    2012-01-01

    During Cassini flyby of Saturn at a radial distance 6.18R_s (Saturn Radius), a signal was detected from about 200 to 430 Hz that had the proper dispersion characteristics to be a whistler. The frequency-time dispersion of the whistler was found to be 81 Hz1/2s. Based on this dispersion constant, we determined, from a travel time computation, that the whistler must have originated from lightning in the northern hemisphere of Saturn. Using a simple centrifugal potential model consisting of water group ions, and hydrogen ions we also determine the fractional concentration and scale height that gave the best fit to the observed dispersion.

  18. Principles for poverty alleviation among the youth in Northern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the statistical data and analysis con-cerning poverty among the young people in Uganda. The poverty is continuously ascending, with the most affected region being Northern Uganda. The major cause of poverty in Uganda has been the “South-North divide” fuelled by poor political leadership, that divides people along the lines of politics and ethnicity. Poverty has caused many young people of Northern Uganda to resort to rebellion against the government currently in power. This has led to unending political instability and civil strife most especially in Northern Uganda. In this article atten-tion is given to the conflict in Northern Uganda and attempts are made to propose some amicable resolutions. The discussion includes the current poverty scenario in Northern Uganda and possible strategies for reducing the poverty rate that has caused much damage in Northern Uganda.

  19. Molecular detection and characterization of piroplasms infecting cervids and chamois in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanmartín, J; Aurtenetxe, O; Barral, M; Marco, I; Lavin, S; García-Pérez, A L; Hurtado, A

    2007-03-01

    Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens of veterinary and zoonotic importance. To investigate the role of wild ruminants as reservoir of piroplasm infection, 28 red deer, 69 roe deer and 38 chamois from Northern Spain were examined by reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The survey detected a prevalence of 85.7% in red deer, 62.3% in roe deer and 28.9% in chamois. Four different piroplasms were identified: Theileria sp. OT3 (previously described in sheep) as the most prevalent (85.7% in red deer, 46.4% in roe deer and 26.3% in chamois); Theileria sp. 3185/02 (previously described in a red deer in Central Spain) more abundant in red deer (53.6%) than in roe deer (10.1%) but absent from chamois; Babesia divergens detected in 6 roe deer; Theileria ovis present in 1 chamois. Mixed infections (Theileria sp. OT3 and Theileria sp. 3185/02) were only found in red and roe deer. Sequencing analysis of the 18S rRNA gene confirmed the RLB results and showed 99.7% identity between Theileria sp. 3185/02 and T. capreoli, suggesting that they are the same species. Tick distribution and contact of wild ruminants with domestic animals are discussed in terms of piroplasm infection. The results suggest that a considerable number of wildlife ruminants are asymptomatic carriers that may serve as reservoirs of the infection posing a serious concern in terms of piroplasmosis control.

  20. Distribution and molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia in questing ticks from northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanmartín, J; Barandika, J F; Juste, R A; García-Pérez, A L; Hurtado, A

    2008-12-01

    A total of 562 questing adult ixodid ticks, collected during 2003-05 in 10 recreational mountain areas in northern Spain, were analysed for piroplasm infection. Reverse line blot (RLB) analysis using a panel of probes for 23 piroplasm species identified 16 different piroplasms, with an overall prevalence of 9.3%. Most were Theileria spp.-positive (7.7%), 3.0% were positive for Babesia spp. and 1.4% of ticks harboured both genera. Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758), the most abundant tick in the vegetation, ranked third with regard to piroplasm infection prevalence (11.4%) after Rhipicephalus bursa (Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878) (16.0%) and Haemaphysalis punctata (Canestrini & Fanzago, 1878) (13.5%). Infection was detected in 6.2% of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) and in 1.1% of Haemaphysalis inermis (Birula, 1895), but was absent from Haemaphysalis concinna (Koch, 1844). Ixodes ricinus carried more piroplasm species (13), followed by H. punctata (10), D. reticulatus (8), R. bursa (3) and H. inermis (1). Although most of the positive ticks harboured a single infection (76.9%), mixed infections with two or three different piroplasm species were also detected (23.1%). The various tick-pathogen associations found are discussed and prevalences of infection in ticks are compared with previous results on piroplasms infecting animals in the same region.

  1. Comparison analysis between Western blot method and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method detection SLE autoantibody%免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法检测SLE自身抗体的比对分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚清

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较免疫印迹法(Western blot)和磁微粒化学发光法(Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method)检测系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)自身抗体的一致性。方法:用免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法对123份血清进行检测,其中系统性红斑狼疮阳性患者63例,健康体检者60例,用卡方检验对两种方法结果进行比较分析。结果:免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法中抗Sm抗体阳性率分别为27.0%和14.3%、抗RNP/Sm阳性率分别为54.0%和42.9%、dsDNA阳性率分别为41.3%和30.2%、抗核小体抗体阳性率分别为31.7%和20.6%、抗核糖体P蛋白抗体阳性率分别为28.6%和11.1%。两种方法的准确性无显著性差异(>0.05)总符合率为80.6%,Kappa值为0.669。结论:免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法检测系统性红斑狼疮自身抗体的检测结果具有可靠性,较好的符合率和准确性,磁微粒化学发光法可以作为简便、快速、经济的检测方法应用于系统性红斑狼疮自身抗体的检测。%Objective: The present study aims to compare Western blot and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method consistency on autoimmune antibody detection of systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: Western blot assay and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method were used to detect autoimmune antibody from 123 serum samples, of which 63 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, the others from 60 healthy persons. The results of the two methods were compared by X2 test. Results: Anti-Sm antibody positive rate of Western blot and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method were 27.0 and 14.3 percent respectively. Anti- RNP/Sm antibody positive rates were 39.7% and 42.9% respectively. Anti- ds- DNA antibody positive rates were 41.3% and 30.2% respectively. Anti- nucleosome antibody positive rates were 31.7% and 20.6% respectively. Anti- ribosomal protein antibody positive rates were 28.6% and 11.1% respectively. The accuracy

  2. British Ceramics on the Northern European Periphery: Creamware Marketing in Nineteenth-Century Northern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, P.R.; Ylimaunu, T.; Brooks, A.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuorilehto, M.; Nurmi, R.; Oikarinen, T.; Herva, V.-P.; Symonds, J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1822, a devastating town fire sealed a large ceramic assemblage from a store in the town of Oulu in northern Finland. Excavations of the merchant’s stock recovered over a hundred kilograms of ceramics that was almost entirely composed of undecorated creamware, a ware and decorative type whose pop

  3. Study on the Economic Differences between Northern and Southern Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juncheng; DONG

    2014-01-01

    There are great regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang and the expansion of regional economic differences jeopardize social development and social stability,resulting in more serious polarization between the rich and the poor in northern and southern Xinjiang,thereby hampering further improvement of the economic efficiency in Xinjiang. Using factor analysis,this article carries out comprehensive analysis of regional economic differences in Xinjiang,derives the reasons for regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang,and proposes recommendations for narrowing the regional economic differences between northern and southern Xinjiang.

  4. High prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in American Indian women of the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Maria C.; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf; Patrick, Sarah; Ryschon, Tim; Linz, Laurie; Chauhan, Subhash C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Cervical cancer is the leading gynecological malignancy worldwide, and the incidence of this disease is very high in American Indian women. Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for more than 95% of cervical squamous carcinomas. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to analyze oncogenic HPV infections in American Indian women residing in the Northern Plains. Methods Cervical samples were collected from 287 women attending a Northern Plains American Indian reservation outpatient clinic. DNA was extracted from the cervical samples and HPV specific DNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the L1 consensus primer sets. The PCR products were hybridized with the Roche HPV Line Blot assay for HPV genotyping to detect 27 different low and high-risk HPV genotypes. The chi-square test was performed for statistical analysis of the HPV infection and cytology diagnosis data. Results Of the total 287 patients, 61 women (21.25%) tested positive for HPV infection. Among all HPV-positive women, 41 (67.2%) were infected with high-risk HPV types. Of the HPV infected women, 41% presented with multiple HPV genotypes. Additionally, of the women infected with oncogenic HPV types, 20 (48.7%) were infected with HPV 16 and 18 and the remaining 21 (51.3%) were infected with other oncogenic types (i.e., HPV59, 39, 73). Women infected with oncogenic HPV types had significantly higher (p=0.001) abnormal Papanicolaou smear tests (Pap test) compared to women who were either HPV negative or positive for non-oncogenic HPV types. The incidence of HPV infection was inversely correlated (p<0.05) with the age of the patients, but there was no correlation (p=0.33) with seasonal variation. Conclusions In this study, we observed a high prevalence of HPV infection in American Indian women residing on Northern Plains Reservations. In addition, a significant proportion of the oncogenic HPV infections were other than HPV16 and 18. PMID:17659767

  5. Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Illuminating Northern California’s Active Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Furlong, Kevin P.; Philips, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google EarthTM and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2)

  7. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  8. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  10. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  11. The Lemmatisation of Adverbs in Northern Sotho*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Prinsloo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: To date Northern Sotho metalexicographers have focused their attention on lemma-tisation problems in respect of the so-called main or primary part of speech categories, viz. nouns and verbs. See, for example, Prinsloo and De Schryver (1999 and Prinsloo and Gouws (1996. No attention has been given to the lemmatisation of adverbs. The latter are regarded by Ziervogel and Mokgokong (1975: 114, Introduction as a "secondary part of speech". The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries is marred by inconsistencies such as omissions from the macrostruc-ture, insufficient and inconsistent labelling, inferior treatment in the microstructure, under-utiliza-tion of the mediostructure and outer texts, and reflects a lack of a strategy of selection of items for lemmatisation. Linguistic descriptions of adverbs in currently available grammars vary substan-tially and therefore confuse learners of the language and inexperienced lexicographers1. The aim of this article is to offer solutions to the lemmatisation problems regarding adverbs in Northern Sotho and to propose guiding entries for paper and electronic dictionaries which could serve as models for future dictionaries. The treatment of adverbs in Northern Sotho dictionaries will also be criti-cally evaluated, especially in terms of frequency of use and target users' needs.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, LEMMATISATION, ADVERBS, INFORMATION RETRIEV-AL, ELECTRONIC DICTIONARY, MACROSTRUCTURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, CROSS-REFER-ENCING, MEDIOSTRUCTURE, DICTIONARY, AFRICAN LANGUAGES, BACK MATTER, NORTHERN SOTHO

    Opsomming: Die lemmatisering van bywoorde in Noord-Sotho. Tot dusver het Noord-Sotho metaleksikograwe hulle aandag bepaal by lemmatiseringsprobleme ten opsigte van die sogenaamde primêre woordkategorieë, naamlik naamwoorde en werkwoorde. Vergelyk byvoorbeeld, Prinsloo en De Schryver (1999 en Prinsloo en Gouws (1996. Geen aandag is gegee aan die lemmatisering van bywoorde nie

  12. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  13. The Northern HIPASS catalogue - Data presentation, completeness and reliability measures

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, O I; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Webster, R L; Staveley-Smith, L; Zwaan, M A; Meyer, M J; Barnes, D G; Kilborn, V A; Bhathal, R; De Blok, W J G; Disney, M J; Doyle, M T; Drinkwater, M J; Ekers, R D; Freeman, K C; Gibson, B K; Gurovich, S; Harnett, J I; Henning, P A; Jerjen, H; Kesteven, M J; Knezek, P M; Koribalski, B S; Mader, S; Marquarding, M; Minchin, R F; O'Brien, J; Putman, M E; Ryder, S D; Sadler, E M; Stevens, J; Stewart, I M; Stootman, F; Waugh, M

    2006-01-01

    The Northern HIPASS catalogue (NHICAT) is the northern extension of the HIPASS catalogue, HICAT (Meyer et al. 2004). This extension adds the sky area between the declination range of +2 deg 300 km/s . Sources with -300 km/s .

  14. 75 FR 44821 - Northern Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    .... Applicants: Northern Funds (``NF''), Northern Institutional Funds (``NIF'', each of NF and NIF a ``Trust...; Applicants: NF, NIF, and NTI, 50 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60603; NTGIL, 50 Bank Street, Canary... Trust Corporation. NTI is a national banking ] association and serves as the investment adviser to...

  15. Contaminants in northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) exposed to plastic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ask, A.; Anker-Nilssen, T.; Herzke, D.; Trevail, Alice; Franeker, van J.A.; Gabrielsen, G.W.

    2016-01-01

    Northern fulmars are seabirds which feed exclusively at sea, and as such, they are useful indicators of ocean health. Marine plastic pollution is an ever-increasing and global issue that affects the northern fulmar as they are frequently found to have ingested plastic. In this report we investigate

  16. Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuehn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) from Iceland were used to test the hypothesis that plastic debris decreases at northern latitudes in the Atlantic when moving away from major human centres of coastal and marine activities. Stomach analyses of Icelandic fulmars confirm that plastic poll

  17. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  18. Simultaneous identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales species by reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay%应用反向线点杂交技术鉴定临床常见曲霉属和毛霉目真菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵作涛; 李丽丽; 王晓阳; 万喆; 陈伟; 李若瑜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To Rapidly differentiate Aspergillus and Mucorales species by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB). Methods Totally 98 isolates including five Aspergillus strains ( Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus nidulans ) and seven Mucorales species ( Mucor heimalis ,Mucor racemosus ,Mucor cercinelloidea,Rhizopus arrhizus,Rhizopus microsporus,Rhizomucor pusillus and Absidia corymbifera ) were obtained from Research Center for Medical Mycology and Mycoses, Peking University. ITS1 and ITS4 fungal universal primers were chosen for PCR amplification, and the amplified products were used for reverse line blot hybridization with 12 fungal specie-specific probes. RLB data were compared with those by traditional fungal morphology and ITS sequencing methods. Results RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity , with 100% correct identification percentage of all the isolates and no cross hybridization between the species-specific probes. Eight negative control stains ( Candida albicans ,Fusarium solani ,Scedosporium apiospermum ,Penicillium marneffei ,Exophiala verrucosa,Aspergillus clavatus,Aspergillus japonicus and Cunninghamella elegans ) also showed negative by RLB. The analytical sensitivity of RLB was 1. 8 x 10-3 ng/μL by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA. Conclusions The RLB assay provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis and identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales species.%目的 应用反向线点杂交技术(reverse line blot hybridization,RLB)快速鉴定临床常见的曲霉属和毛霉目真菌.方法 收集我院真菌和真菌病研究中心保存的5种曲霉菌(烟曲霉、黄曲霉、黑曲霉、土曲霉、构巢曲霉)和7种毛霉目真菌(冻土毛霉菌、总状毛霉菌、卷枝毛霉菌、少根根霉、小孢根霉、微小根毛霉、伞状犁头霉),共计98株菌株.利用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4对菌株进行PCR扩增,用12个

  19. Dreyfusia nordmannianae in Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans Peter; Havill, N.P.; Akbulut, S.;

    2013-01-01

    , with the purpose of selecting agents for classical biological control in Europe. The literature review suggested that the most promising agent was the Chamaemyiidae fly, Leucopis hennigrata. A new survey in D. nordmannianae's area of origin – Turkey, Georgia and Russia – showed that L. hennigrata was present...... in all localities. It was particularly abundant in Turkey, where its impact on populations of D. nordmannianae appears to be high. Its use as a biological control agent is discussed, as well as other biological control strategies......The silver fir woolly adelgid, Dreyfusia nordmannianae, is the most severe pest occurring on Abies nordmanniana in Central and Northern Europe. The adelgid is particularly damaging to trees in Christmas tree plantations. Dreyfusia nordmannianae is native to the Caucasus region and alien to Europe...

  20. Distribution of TPM in Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wängberg, Ingvar; Munthe, John; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gårdfeldt, Katarina; Iverfeldt, Ake; Sommar, Jonas

    2003-03-20

    Total particulate mercury (TPM) in air has been measured during five 2-week campaigns at five measurement sites in Northern Europe. The measurements covered four seasons and the result constitutes a unique TPM data set from this region. Evidence for transport of TPM on a regional scale is reported as well as the historical trend of TPM in south of Sweden. All TPM measurements were made using a new mini particulate sampler. The device consists of a quartz fibre filter contained in a quarts glass filter holder and is a modified version of the MiniSamplr. This approach proves to be reliable and more cost efficient in comparison to alternative methods. Tests made to evaluate the performance of the sampler in terms of precision and comparability with sampling on Teflon membrane filters are also reported.

  1. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl;

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......Direct dating of the pottery is an important goal in archaeological research and many attempts have been made using radiocarbon. One important goal has been to date the earliest pottery in a region to assess the origin and dispersal of ceramic technology. Also with the increasing application...... of organic residue analysis to study pottery use, it has become important to combine residue data with direct dates on the artefact being investigated. In this study we have radiocarbon dated different organic materials associated with archaeological potsherds from three Ertebølle sites in Northern Germany...

  2. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  3. Crustal deformation in northern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Diego; Monterroso, David; Tavakoli, Behrooz

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of the seismic moment tensor for earthquakes on plate boundary is a standard procedure to determine the relative velocity of plates, which controls the seismic deformation rate predicted from the slip on a single fault. The moment tensor is also decomposed into an isotropic and a deviatoric part to discover the relationship between the average strain rate and the relative velocity between two plates. We utilize this procedure to estimate the rates of deformation in northern Central America where plate boundaries are seismically well defined. Four different tectonic environments are considered for modelling of the plate motions. The deformation rates obtained here compare well with those predicted from the plate motions models and are in good agreement with actual observations. Deformation rates on faults are increasingly being used to estimate earthquake recurrence from information on fault slip rate and more on how we can incorporate our current understanding into seismic hazard analyses.

  4. Northern European adolescent attitudes toward dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Erica; Holdsworth, Emma; Leen, Eline; Sorbring, Emma; Helsing, Bo; Jaans, Sebastian; Awouters, Valère

    2013-01-01

    A focus group methodology was used to examine attitudes toward dating violence among 86 adolescents (aged 12-17) from four northern European countries (England, Sweden, Germany, and Belgium). Four superordinate themes were identified from thematic analyses: gender identities, television as the educator, perceived acceptability of dating violence, and the decision to seek help/tell someone. Although violence in relationships was generally not condoned, when violence was used by females, was unintended (despite its consequences), or was in retaliation for infidelity, violence was perceived as acceptable. Adolescents indicated that their views were stereotypical and based solely on stereotypical television portrayals of violence in relationships. Stereotypical beliefs and portrayals generate barriers for victimized males to seek help because of fear of embarrassment.

  5. Northern peatlands in global climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laiho, R.; Laine, J.; Vasander, H. [eds.] [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Northern peatlands are important in regulating the global climate. While sequestering carbon dioxide, these peatlands release ca. 24-39 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere. This is 5-20 % of the annual anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. The greenhouse gas balance of peatlands may change as a consequence of water level draw-down after land-use change, or if summers become warmer and drier, as has been predicted for high latitudes after climatic warming. Subsequent emissions of methane would decrease, whereas emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide would increase. Within the Finnish Research Programme on Climate Change (SILMU), the research project `Carbon Balance of Peatlands and Climate Change` (SUOSILMU) has been under progress since 1990. It is a co-operative research project, with research groups from the Universities of Helsinki and Joensuu, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, the National Public Health Institute and the Finnish Environment Agency. The research consortium of this project organised a workshop entitled `Northern Peatlands in Global Climatic Change - Hyytiaelae Revisited` October 8-12, 1995. The main objective of the workshop was to review the state of the art of the carbon cycling research in natural and managed peatlands. The role of peatlands in the greenhouse effect, their response and feedback to the predicted climate change, and the consequences of land-use changes were assessed, and the future research needs were evaluated. The latest information on the role of peatlands in the atmospheric change was given in 50 posters and 4 key lectures. Results of SUOSILMU projects were demonstrated during a 1-day field excursion to one of the intensive study sites, Lakkasuo near Hyytiaelae

  6. Spatial distribution of pingos in Northern Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, G.; Jones, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Pingos are prominent periglacial landforms in vast regions of the Arctic and Subarctic. They are indicators of modern and past conditions of permafrost, surface geology, hydrology and climate. A first version of a detailed spatial geodatabase of more than 6000 pingo locations in a 3.5 ?? 106 km2 region of Northern Asia was assembled from topographic maps. A first order analysis was carried out with respect to permafrost, landscape characteristics, surface geology, hydrology, climate, and elevation datasets using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Pingo heights in the dataset vary between 2 and 37 m, with a mean height of 4.8 m. About 64% of the pingos occur in continuous permafrost with high ice content and thick sediments; another 19% in continuous permafrost with moderate ice content and thick sediments. The majority of these pingos likely formed through closed system freezing, typical of those located in drained thermokarst lake basins of northern lowlands with continuous permafrost. About 82% of the pingos are located in the tundra bioclimatic zone. Most pingos in the dataset are located in regions with mean annual ground temperatures between -3 and -11 ??C and mean annual air temperatures between -7 and -18 ??C. The dataset confirms that surface geology and hydrology are key factors for pingo formation and occurrence. Based on model predictions for near-future permafrost distribution, hundreds of pingos along the southern margins of permafrost will be located in regions with thawing permafrost by 2100, which ultimately may lead to increased occurrence of pingo collapse. Based on our dataset and previously published estimates of pingo numbers from other regions, we conclude that there are more than 11 000 pingos on Earth. ?? 2010 Author(s).

  7. Geology and hydrogeology of northern Guam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barner, W.L. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Recent site characterization activities on the northern portion of the island of Guam have provided data challenging the perception of expected rapid flow within the karst ground water system. The main water bearing formations consist of Tertiary and Quaternary age coralline reef limestones of the Barrigada and Mariana formations. The Barrigada formation lies on top of the underlying Tertiary aged volcanics, and the younger Mariana formation overlies and onlaps the Barrigada formation as a vertical and transgressional facies, changing from a deep to a shallow water depositional sequence. Rain water rapidly infiltrates through the limestone recharging the fresh water aquifer. Conditions that affect the occurrence and extent of the fresh water aquifer are: tidal fluctuations, storm surges, stratigraphic settings, and karstification of the limestone. Evidence from boreholes drilled inland and near the coast suggest karstification has occurred between the phreatic and vadose zone at a depth of approximately 150 meters below ground surface, and within the transition zone between the fresh and salt water interface, near sea level. Although one might expect a rapid flow system in this karst aquifer, non-flashy responses on water levels in wells, and current results from a dye tracing study, suggest ground water movement is indicative of diffuse porous flow. However, flow velocity within the vadose zone has been found to be several times that occurring within the aquifer and it is very difficult to predict the direction of movement. Andersen Air Force Base, located on the northern portion of the island of Guam, has been operating since World War II after re-capturing the island from the Japanese in 1944. In the intervening years, sanitary and industrial wastes have been disposed in various trenches, borrow pits, quarries, and sinkholes. Potential ground water degradation may result if hazardous substances, in the form of leachate, are released from these disposal areas.

  8. Marginal selenium status in northern Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Jeffrey M; Ball, Madeleine J

    2011-09-01

    Se plays many important roles in humans. Marginal Se status has been associated with adverse health effects including an increased risk of chronic disease such as cancer. There are few Australian data, but the population of Tasmania, Australia, is potentially at risk of marginal Se status. A cross-sectional study of 498 men and women aged 25-84 years was undertaken to assess the Se status of the northern Tasmanian population. Se status was assessed using dietary estimates and measures of serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean Se intakes were 77·4 (sd 31·3) and 65·1 (sd 23·7) μg/d for men and women, respectively; 27 % of the subjects consumed less than the Australian/New Zealand estimated average requirement. Mean serum Se concentration was 89·1 (sd 15·1) μg/l; 83 % of the study subjects had serum Se concentrations below 100 μg/l and 60 % had serum Se concentration below 90 μg/l, suggesting that Se status in many subjects was inadequate for maximal GPx activity. This was supported by the positive association between serum Se and serum GPx (P < 0·001), indicating that enzyme activity was limited by Se concentrations. The lowest mean serum Se concentrations were observed in the oldest age ranges; however, the prevalence of marginal Se status was similar across age ranges and did not appear to be influenced by sex or socio-economic status. The prevalence of marginal Se status was high in all sex and age subgroups, suggesting that the northern Tasmanian population could benefit from increasing Se intakes.

  9. Comparison of linear array and line blot assay for detection of human papillomavirus and diagnosis of cervical precancer and cancer in the atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion triage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Gravitt, Patti E; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M; Schiffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated Linear Array (LA), a newly commercialized PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primer PCR test that detects 37 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes by reverse line blot hybridization, for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV and its clinical performance for detecting 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer using archived specimens from the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. LA testing was conducted on enrollment specimens from women referred because of an ASCUS Pap test. To gauge the performance of the new test, the results were compared to those of its prototype predecessor assay, Line Blot Assay (LBA), restricted to paired results (n = 3,335). LA testing was done masked to LBA results and clinical outcomes. The results of LA and LBA testing were compared for detection of carcinogenic HPV and clinical outcomes of cervical precancer and cancer. Overall, 50% and 55% of the women tested positive for carcinogenic HPV by LBA and LA, respectively (P < 0.0001). The percent agreement for carcinogenic HPV detection was 88%, percent positive agreement was 80%, and kappa was 0.76 for detection of carcinogenic HPV by the two assays. There was a significant increase in detection by LA for most of the 37 HPV genotypes targeted by both assays, including for 13 of 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. LA detected more multiple-genotype infections for all HPV genotypes among HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001) and for carcinogenic HPV genotypes among carcinogenic-HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001). LA was more sensitive (92.3% versus 87.1%; P = 0.003) and less specific (48.2% versus 54.0%; P < 0.0001) than LBA for 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer as diagnosed by the Pathology Quality Control Group. In conclusion, we found LA to be a promising assay for the detection of HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV, and it may be clinically useful for the detection of

  10. Comparison of Linear Array and Line Blot Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus and Diagnosis of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Schiffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated Linear Array (LA), a newly commercialized PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primer PCR test that detects 37 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes by reverse line blot hybridization, for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV and its clinical performance for detecting 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer using archived specimens from the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. LA testing was conducted on enrollment specimens from women referred because of an ASCUS Pap test. To gauge the performance of the new test, the results were compared to those of its prototype predecessor assay, Line Blot Assay (LBA), restricted to paired results (n = 3,335). LA testing was done masked to LBA results and clinical outcomes. The results of LA and LBA testing were compared for detection of carcinogenic HPV and clinical outcomes of cervical precancer and cancer. Overall, 50% and 55% of the women tested positive for carcinogenic HPV by LBA and LA, respectively (P < 0.0001). The percent agreement for carcinogenic HPV detection was 88%, percent positive agreement was 80%, and kappa was 0.76 for detection of carcinogenic HPV by the two assays. There was a significant increase in detection by LA for most of the 37 HPV genotypes targeted by both assays, including for 13 of 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. LA detected more multiple-genotype infections for all HPV genotypes among HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001) and for carcinogenic HPV genotypes among carcinogenic-HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001). LA was more sensitive (92.3% versus 87.1%; P = 0.003) and less specific (48.2% versus 54.0%; P < 0.0001) than LBA for 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer as diagnosed by the Pathology Quality Control Group. In conclusion, we found LA to be a promising assay for the detection of HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV, and it may be clinically useful for the detection of

  11. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chalathon Choocharoen; Andreas Neef; Pornchai Preechapanya; Volker Hoffmann

    2014-01-01

    Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand an...

  12. 78 FR 50405 - Amended Application for Presidential Permit; Northern Pass Transmission LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Application for Presidential Permit; Northern Pass Transmission LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Amended Application. SUMMARY: Northern Pass Transmission LLC (Northern Pass) has submitted an amended application for a Presidential permit to construct,...

  13. A fragile X male with a broad smear on southern blot analysis representing 100-500 CGG repeats and no methylation at the EagI site of the FMR-1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachiewicz, A.M.; Spiridigliozzi, G.A.; McConkie-Rosell, A. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X DNA studies were carried out on all obligate carriers of a large fragile X family with 10 mentally retarded individuals. One 64-year-old carrier man with an altered FMR-1 allele was not described as being mentally retarded or as having any limitations in function. He was married, raised 8 children, and worked as an auto mechanic. On examination, he had macrocephaly and mild macroorchidism but few of the other typical physical findings of males with fragile X syndrome. His Full Scale IQ is 73, and his Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite is 73. On the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, he achieved standard scores of 64 in Reading, 55 in Math, and 83 in Knowledge. His DNA findings showed a broad smear on Southern blot analysis of 100-500 CGG repeats and no methylation at the EagI site upstream of the FMR-1 protein coding region. His FMR-1 protein production is 12% of normal. His daughters all have large premutations, with somatic instability in the size of the CGG repeat lengths. They all have evidence of academic underachievement and 2 have physical characteristics frequently described in individuals with fragile X. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  15. Uso da técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização associada à reação em cadeia da polimerase para aumentar a sensibilidade no diagnóstico das infecções por hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos: Use of Southern Blot/Hybridization technique associated to polymerase chain reaction to improve the sensitivity in the diagnosis of hemoplasma infections in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Macieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização (SB em associação à reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR aumenta a sensibilidade na detecção de DNA de hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos (Felis catus. O sangue total foi coletado em tubos contendo o anticoagulante ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, o DNA extraído a partir de 149 animais e a PCR realizada com o uso de sequências iniciadoras espécie-específicas, para amplificar subunidade 16S do RNA ribossomal de Mycoplasma haemofelis e 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' dessas amostras. Para a hibridização, foram utilizadas sondas específicas quimicamente marcadas, e os resultados visualizados por meio da adição de substrato quimiluminescente seguida de autoradiografia. Dezoito (12,1% das 149 amostras testadas apresentaram resultado PCR-positivo para o DNA de hemoplasmas. A técnica de SB mostrou que 24/149 (16,1% amostras apresentaram resultado positivo para hemoplasmas, confirmando os 18 resultados PCR-positivos, além de revelar seis outros adicionais (p The aim of this study was to determine whether Southern Blot/Hybridization (SB associated to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR improves the sensitivity in the detection of hemoplasma DNA in domestic cats (Felis catus. Whole blood was collected in tubes containing the anticoagulant ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and DNA extracted from 149 animals. PCR was performed using species specific primers to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA subunit of Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' from these samples. Hybridization was performed using a 16S rDNA probes chemically labeled and the results were visualized using a chemiluminescent substrate addition followed by autoradiography. Eighteen (12.1% of the 149 tested samples had a positive PCR result for hemoplasma species DNA. SB/hybridization technique showed that 24/149 (16.1% samples were positive for hemoplasmas, confirming the 18 PCR

  16. Northern杂交检测多肽:N-乙酰氨基半乳糖转移酶2在不同肿瘤细胞中的表达水平%Detection on Expressive level of pp-GalNAc-T2 in Different Tumor Cells by Northern-blotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仇灏; 陈克平; 周嘉梁; 彭淼; 吴士良

    2005-01-01

    目的:从mRNA水平检测五种不同肿瘤细胞株中多肽:N-乙酰氨基半乳糖转移酶2(pp-GalNAc-T2)的表达情况.方法:采用Northern杂交方法.结果:Northern杂交结果显示了两条区带,并且pp-GalNAc-T2在不同肿瘤细胞中存在表达差异.结论:pp-GalNAc-T2基因在不同细胞存在差异表达并可能存在着剪切现象.

  17. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent

  18. The Use of Biotin to Demonstrate Immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting, and Dot Blots in University Practical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas James; Knighton, Ronald; Chuck, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Immunological detection of proteins is an essential method to demonstrate to undergraduate biology students, however, is often difficult in resource and time poor student laboratory sessions. This method describes a failsafe method to rapidly and economically demonstrate this technique using biotinylated proteins or biotin itself as targets for…

  19. Marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous of northern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Z.; Casadio, S.; Fernández, M.; Salgado, L.

    2001-04-01

    During the Campanian-Maastrichtian, Patagonia was flooded by the Atlantic and reduced to an archipelago. Several localities of northern Patagonia have yielded marine reptiles. Analysis of several assemblages suggests that the diversity and abundance of pelagic marine reptiles in northern Patagonia was higher by the end of the Cretaceous than previously thought. Several plesiosaurids, including Aristonectes parvidens and the polycotylid Sulcusuchus, and the first remains of mosasaurinae have been found. The Cretaceous marine reptile record from South America is scanty. Nevertheless, materials described here suggest that Tethyan and Weddelian forms converged in northern Patagonia, as seen with invertebrates.

  20. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  1. 孕产妇HIV抗体筛查阳性与免疫印迹试验对比%Comparison of Positive of HIV Antibody Screening and Western Blot Test in Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱厚宏; 王晨笛; 刘杨; 张祁; 孟建彤; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the results of HIV antibody screening test and Westem Blot test ( WB) in pregnant women. Methods Thirty three positive samples from pregnant women were tested with the ELISA and Westem blot test (WB). Those with indefinite result by WB test were re-tested 3 and 6 months later, and HIV-1 viral load testing ( VL) was carried out at 6th month. The results of ELISA and the WB test were analyzed. Result The 33 samples were all positive by ELISA and 20 were HIV-1 positive by WB test. The ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate was 60. 61 % (20/33). Of 20 samples 0were with S/CO value more than 8, the WB test results of HIV-1 antibody were all positive. Of 13 samples were with S/CO value less than 1 , 5 were negative and 8 were indefinite in WB test. The HIV-1 viral load test result at 6th month was less than the minimum detection limit (50 IU/ml ) . Conclusion The false positive in HIV antibody screening test (ELISA) was observed. The false positive sample were in the WB test negative and indefinite ones. ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate increased with the S/CO value of ELISA. The HIV WB test indefinite result in pregnant women was mostly due to non-specific immune response.%目的 探讨孕产妇人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体筛查试验阳性与免疫印迹试验(WB)结果的关系.方法 对33份孕产妇HIV抗体待复查样本,进行酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )及免疫印迹试验(WB),对WB试验结果不确定者进行3个月、6个月随访检测,6个月随访样本补充HIV-1病毒载量检测,分析ELISA检测与WB试验检测结果.结果 33份样本ELISA复检均呈阳性,免疫印迹试验(WB)中20份确认为HIV-1抗体阳性,ELISA检测与WB试验阳性符合率为60.61%(20/33); S/CO值>8的20份样本,WB试验结果均为HIV-1抗体阳性,I < S/CO值<8的13份样本,WB试验5份为HIV抗体阴性,8份为HIV抗体不确定;6个月随访样本HIV-1病毒载量检测,

  2. 亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴特异性抗原筛选和鉴定%Screen and detection of specific antigens of Taenia asiatica cysticercus with two dimensional electrophoresis, western blotting and MS/MS spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To screen and identify specific antigens of Taenia asiatica cysticercus and to predict the function of target proteins using bioinformatics method. Methods Six three-way cross hybrid pigs were randomly divided into experimental group and control group and each experimental pig was infected with 84 000 eggs. Serum samples were collected 40 days after the infection. The total protein of Taenia asiatica cysticercus was separated by two dimensional electrophoresis and western blotting was performed to find out distinct antigens. Proteins from the two groups were identified by electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry(ESI-Trap MS). Results Totally 204 ± 11 spots were detected through Coomassie brilliant blue stained gels with relative molecular weight( Mr) of 14 400 -94 000 kDa and isoelectric point(pl) of 3. 0 - 10. 0. Western-blotting showed 6 specific antigen spots with pool sera of infected pigs. Two of the 6 antigens with known functions were ascribed to ATPase family gene 3-like protein 2 and ATP synthase beta subunit. Conclusion Two specific antigens of Taenia asiatica cysticercus have been identified.%目的 对亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴的特异性抗原进行筛选、鉴定和生物信息学分析.方法 6头20d龄三元杂交乳猪随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组每头灌胃亚洲带绦虫虫卵悬液8.4万个;20 d后,分别制备实验组及对照组心脏血混合血清;收集、制备实验组亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴蛋白并进行双向电泳分析,将凝胶蛋白斑点转移至聚偏氟乙烯膜,用实验组及对照组混合血清(均为1∶10)为一抗,羊抗猪辣根过氧化物酶- IgG(1∶200)为二抗,进行蛋白质印迹分析和质谱鉴定.结果 双向电泳凝胶共检测到( 204±11)个蛋白质斑点,相对分子质量为14 400 ~94 000 kPa,等电点(pI)为3.0~10.0;筛选出6个特异性抗原,经质谱鉴定出其中2个蛋白,分别为ATP酶管家基因3-类蛋白2(AT-Pase family gene 3-like protein 2)

  3. Genotypic analysis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a comparative study of Southern blot analysis with polymerase chain reaction amplification of the T-cell receptor-gamma gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcó, N; Servitje, O; Llucià, M; Bertran, J; Limón, A; Carmona, M; Romagosa, V; Peyrí, J

    1997-11-01

    The diagnosis of early cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a difficult point in dermatology. Recently, Southern blot analysis (SBA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been used to detect clonality in initial lesions in which clinical and histological findings are unspecific. Forty-one samples from 25 patients with CTCL were investigated for the presence of T-cell receptor-gamma gene rearrangement using a nested PCR technique and analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Conventional SBA was also performed on 28 samples from 20 of these patients. In addition, 20 samples corresponding to patients with large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP), cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL) and eczema were analysed by PCR in the same way as were the CTCL specimens. Most of the CTCL specimens (81%) showed clonality on PCR analysis. Among patients with mycosis fungoides, 71% of initial patch lesions and 100% of plaques and tumours showed clonal disease. Clonality could be detected in three of four histologically negative post-treatment lesions. Clonal rearrangement was detected in one of three patients with LPP and in three of 10 patients with CBCL. None of the samples corresponding to patients with eczema showed positive results. SBA was significantly less sensitive than PCR in detecting clonality in CTCL patients (42% among early disease and 60% among advanced cases). The results indicate that this PCR/PAGE technique is a reliable and useful method for the detection of clonality in early skin lesions of CTCL patients and probably in the identification of silent extracutaneous involvement.

  4. Comparison of multiplex real-time PCR and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for the direct and rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon Deok; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay and a PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA) for the rapid detection of bacteria and identification of antibiotic resistance genes directly from blood culture bottles and to compare the results of these molecular assays with conventional culture methods. The molecular diagnostic methods were used to evaluate 593 blood culture bottles from patients with bloodstream infections. The detection positivity of multiplex real-time PCR assay for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida spp. was equivalent to PCR-REBA as 99.6 %, 99.1 % and 100 %, respectively. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of these two molecular methods were 99.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.980-1.000; PReal-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the mecA gene to detect methicillin resistance was lower than that of the PCR-REBA method, detecting an overall positivity of 98.4 % (n=182; 95 % CI, 0.964-1.000; P<0.009) and 99.5 % (n=184; 95 % CI, 0.985-1.000; P<0.0001), respectively. The entire two methods take about 3 h, while results from culture can take up to 48-72 h. Therefore, the use of these two molecular methods was rapid and reliable for the characterization of causative pathogens in bloodstream infections.

  5. Use of the Falcon assay screening test--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Rodriguez-Perez, J; Bjorland, J; Silva de Lagrava, M; Ramirez Guzman, S; Bryan, R T

    1992-05-01

    A collaborative study between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, and private voluntary organizations (Foster Parents Plan International and Danchurchaid) working in Bolivia has identified a region in the northwestern Altiplano of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca as harboring the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis in the world reported to date. Two serologic techniques (the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [FAST-ELISA] and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]) were used in the determination of its prevalence. One hundred serum samples and 73 stool samples were obtained from Aymara Indians from Corapata, Bolivia. Antibody absorbance levels to Fasciola hepatica excretion-secretion antigens were compared with EITB banding patterns using the same antigen preparation. A positive FAST-ELISA result was defined as an absorbance value greater than the mean plus three standard deviations of two sets of normal negative controls (Puerto Rican and Bolivian). Using this criterion, 53 of 100 sera tested were found positive by this technique. Within this group, 19 (95%) of 20 individuals who were parasite positive were also positive by FAST-ELISA. An additional 24 individuals who were negative for F. hepatica eggs and 10 individuals for whom no specimens were received were also positive by FAST-ELISA. Among the 53 individuals negative for F. hepatica eggs, 29 were also negative by FAST-ELISA. The EITB analysis of the sera from confirmed infected individuals revealed at least three F. hepatica (Fh) bands with molecular weights of 12, 17, and 63 kD, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. A comparison of real-time PCR and reverse line blot hybridization in detecting feline haemoplasmas of domestic cats and an analysis of risk factors associated with haemoplasma infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three species of feline haemoplasma are recognised: Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (CMt. This study compared a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB assay for simultaneous detection of Mhf, CMhm with three separate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays used for diagnosis of Mhf, CMhm and CMt. The RLB and qPCR assays were applied to DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 154 cats from Trinidad and Tobago. Results CMhm and Mhf DNA were detected using both RLB and qPCR. CMt DNA was detected by qPCR only. Comparing RLB and qPCR for the detection of CMhm DNA, 40 (26.3% and 48 (31.6% cats, respectively, were positive. The difference was more marked for Mhf, with RLB detecting a total of only 11 (7.2% positive cats whereas qPCR detected 41 (27.0% positive cats. Using qPCR as a gold standard, haemoplasma infected cats were more likely to be retrovirus positive (OR = 5.68, P = 0.02 and older (median age 5.5 years, than non-infected cats. In addition, CMhm positive cats were more likely to be male (OR = 3.4, P = 0.04. Conclusions Overall the qPCR was more sensitive than RLB. In addition, age (median 5.5 years and retrovirus positivity were risk factors for infection with the feline haemoplasmas in this study population. Further studies on feline haemoplasma infections in cats are needed to determine the significance of detecting small amounts of haemoplasma DNA, feline retrovirus infection and other associated risk factors on the clinical manifestation of disease.

  7. Monitoring expression profiles of rice genes under cold, drought, and high-salinity stresses and abscisic acid application using cDNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, M Ashiq; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Abe, Hiroshi; Khan, M Ayub; Katsura, Koji; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshiwara, Kyoko; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2003-12-01

    To identify cold-, drought-, high-salinity-, and/or abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible genes in rice (Oryza sativa), we prepared a rice cDNA microarray including about 1700 independent cDNAs derived from cDNA libraries prepared from drought-, cold-, and high-salinity-treated rice plants. We confirmed stress-inducible expression of the candidate genes selected by microarray analysis using RNA gel-blot analysis and finally identified a total of 73 genes as stress inducible including 58 novel unreported genes in rice. Among them, 36, 62, 57, and 43 genes were induced by cold, drought, high salinity, and ABA, respectively. We observed a strong association in the expression of stress-responsive genes and found 15 genes that responded to all four treatments. Venn diagram analysis revealed greater cross talk between signaling pathways for drought, ABA, and high-salinity stresses than between signaling pathways for cold and ABA stresses or cold and high-salinity stresses in rice. The rice genome database search enabled us not only to identify possible known cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of several stress-inducible genes but also to expect the existence of novel cis-acting elements involved in stress-responsive gene expression in rice stress-inducible promoters. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis and rice showed that among the 73 stress-inducible rice genes, 51 already have been reported in Arabidopsis with similar function or gene name. Transcriptome analysis revealed novel stress-inducible genes, suggesting some differences between Arabidopsis and rice in their response to stress.

  8. Northern tropical Atlantic climate since late Medieval times from Northern Caribbean coral geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, K. H.; Xu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions of different global climate modes over the last 1000 years provide the basis for testing the relative roles of forced and unforced variability climate system, which can help us improve projections of future climate change. The Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) has been characterized by a combination of persistent La Niña-like conditions, a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (+NAO), and increased Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The northern tropical Atlantic is sensitive to each of these climate patterns, but not all of them have the same regional fingerprint in the modern northern tropical Atlantic. The relative influence of different processes related to these climate patterns can help us better understand regional responses to climate change. The regional response of the northern tropical Atlantic is important because the tropical Atlantic Ocean is a large source of heat and moisture to the global climate system that can feedback onto global climate patterns. This study presents new coral Sr/Ca and δ18O data from the northern tropical Atlantic (Anegada, British Virgin Islands). Comparison of the sub-fossil corals that grew during the 13th and 14th Centuries with modern coral geochemical data from this site indicates relatively cooler mean conditions with a decrease in the oxygen isotopic composition of the water consistent with lower salinities. Similar average annual cycles between modern and sub-fossil Sr/Ca indicate no change in seasonal temperature range, but a difference in the relative phasing of the δ18O seasonal cycles indicates that the fresher mean conditions may be due to a more northerly position of the regional salinity front. This localized response is consistent with some, but not all of the expected regional responses to a La Niña-like state, a +NAO state, and increased AMOC. Understanding these differences can provide insight into the relative importance of advection versus surface fluxes for

  9. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for benthic marine habitats and plants in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this...

  10. Analysis of alcohol dependence in indigenous peoples in Northern Siberia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Savchenko

    2015-06-01

    More severe course of alcoholism among indigenous population of North of Siberia leads to the destruction of traditional lifestyles and reduction of the indigenous population in the northern territories of the Russian Federation.

  11. Northern Fur Seal Captures and Tag Sightings Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the capture, tagging and re-sighting of northern fur seals on the Pribilof Islands and Bogoslof Island, Alaska, from 1986...

  12. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: WETLANDS (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetland habitats for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands classified according to the Environmental...

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: First surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  14. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  15. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  16. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  17. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for intertidal-, reef-, and mangrove-associated invertebrate species in Guam and the Northern Mariana...

  18. Structures prospective for petroleum in northern Afghanistan (structafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polygons that describe structures prospective for petroleum in northern Afghanistan compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey, Central Energy...

  19. Total Petroleum Systems of northern Afghanistan (tpsafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey delineated Total Petroleum Systems of northern Afghanistan. Each petroleum system is defined as...

  20. Bathymetry and Acoustic Backscatter: Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This report presents bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data collected in July 2008 in the northern Santa Barbara Channel, California, using a bathymetric sidescan...

  1. Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissues and samples collected from marine mammals during investigation of the Northern Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Event are tracked within this...

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico, 2007: Bare earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the northern Gulf of Mexico barrier islands and Naval Live Oaks was produced from...

  3. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  4. Assessment units of northern Afghanistan (auafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes polygons and regions that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of northern Afghanistan. Each...

  5. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector polygons in this data set represent turtle...

  6. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Bird Data NH0005, 0007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Bird Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007. As a part of...

  7. Distribution model for Fishers in the northern US Rocky Mountains

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The results of this proposed project would provide the first comprehensive identification of fisher distribution in the northern Rocky Mountains, which may serve as...

  8. Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160300.html Climate Change May Bring More Tainted Shellfish to Northern Seas ... must be monitored "in the light of ongoing climate change, especially in coastal areas most heavily affected by ...

  9. Northern fur seal pup weights, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1957-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains northern fur seal pup mass and length data by date, island, rookery and sex on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected between 1957-2012. Mass...

  10. Prediction Center (CPC) Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Tropical/ Northern Hemisphere teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  11. Variation of drought over northern China during 1950-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhiwei; ZHAIPanmao; ZHANGHongtao

    2003-01-01

    Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wemess grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions disolaved different trends.

  12. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie Bell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods . PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results . Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and

  13. Morphometrics of genus Caluromys (Didelphimorphia : Didelphidae) in northern South America

    OpenAIRE

    López Fuster, María José; Pérez Hernández, Roger; Ventura Queija, Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the morphometric relationships between different forms of the woolly opossum, genus Caluromys, in northern South America by means of univariate and multivariate analyses of skull characters. Results revealed that specimens from Trinidad and northern Venezuela differ substantially in size and shape from other representatives of the genus. Thus, we propose that they should be attributed to Caluromys trinitatis rather to C. philander. Consequently, the specific name given by Thomas (...

  14. Paludification and Forest Retreat in Northern Oceanic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the treeline in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discuss...

  15. Estimating the frequency of volcanic ash clouds over northern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. J.; Swindles, G. T.; Savov, I. P.; Lawson, I. T.; Connor, C. B.; Wilson, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Fine ash produced during explosive volcanic eruptions can be dispersed over a vast area, where it poses a threat to aviation, human health and infrastructure. Here, we focus on northern Europe, which lies in the principal transport direction for volcanic ash from Iceland, one of the most active volcanic regions in the world. We interrogate existing and newly produced geological and written records of past ash fallout over northern Europe in the last 1000 years and estimate the mean return (repose) interval of a volcanic ash cloud over the region to be 44 ± 7 years. We compare tephra records from mainland northern Europe, Great Britain, Ireland and the Faroe Islands, with records of proximal Icelandic volcanism and suggest that an Icelandic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index rating (VEI) ≥ 4 and a silicic magma composition presents the greatest risk of producing volcanic ash that can reach northern Europe. None of the ash clouds in the European record which have a known source eruption are linked to a source eruption with VEI < 4. Our results suggest that ash clouds are more common over northern Europe than previously proposed and indicate the continued threat of ash deposition across northern Europe from eruptions of both Icelandic and North American volcanoes.

  16. Variations in Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Northern East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinmin; ZHAI Panmao; WANG Cuicui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an improved objective cyclone detection and tracking algorithm, decadal variations in extratropical cyclones in northern East Asia are studied by using the ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure data during 1958-2001. The results reveal that extratropical cyclone activity has displayed clear seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability in northern East Asia. Spring is the season when cyclones occur most frequently. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclones shows that cyclones occur mainly within the 40°-50°N latitudinal band in northern East Asia, and the most frequent region of occurrence is in Mongolia. Furthermore, this study also reveals the fact that the frequency of extratropical cyclones has significantly decreased in the lower latitude region of northern East Asia during 1958-2001, but dccadal variability has dominated in higher latitude bands, with frequent cyclone genesis. The intensity of extratropical cyclones has decreased on an annual and seasonal basis. Variation of the annual number of cyclones in northern East Asia is associated with the mean intensity of the baroclinic frontal zone, which is influenced by climate warming in the higher latitudes. Moreover, the dipole structure of extratopical cyclone change, with increases in the north and decreases in the southern part of northern East Asia, is related to the northward movement of the baroclinic frontal zone on either side of 110°E.

  17. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  18. Factors favouring large organic production in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kraus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy. We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production at the transect in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and in the Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phyto-abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to 1–15 days earlier Po River discharge rates and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phyto-abundances increased 1–3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of circulation fields. During the entire year the phyto-abundances were dependant on forcing of the previous 1–12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. Large February blooms are, as well as February circulation patterns, precondited by low evaporation rates in previous November. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. Performed investigations represent the preliminary actions in building of an empirical ecological model of the northern Adriatic which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, however also in validation of the numerical ecological model of the region, which is currently being developed.

  19. Factors favouring large organic production in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, R.; Supić, N.; Precali, R.

    2015-06-01

    Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy). We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production at the transect in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and in the Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phyto-abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to 1-15 days earlier Po River discharge rates and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phyto-abundances increased 1-3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of circulation fields. During the entire year the phyto-abundances were dependant on forcing of the previous 1-12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. Large February blooms are, as well as February circulation patterns, precondited by low evaporation rates in previous November. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. Performed investigations represent the preliminary actions in building of an empirical ecological model of the northern Adriatic which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, however also in validation of the numerical ecological model of the region, which is currently being developed.

  20. 75 FR 13535 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 12, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South... External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, at...

  1. 76 FR 11772 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens... Norte, Espanola, New Mexico 87532. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern...

  2. 7 CFR 457.143 - Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-quality endorsement... Northern potato crop insurance—quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement...) Both FCIC and reinsured policies: Northern Potato Crop Insurance Quality Endorsement 1....

  3. Anthrax phylogenetic structure in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrò Michela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthrax has almost disappeared from mainland Europe, except for the Mediterranean region where cases are still reported. In Central and South Italy, anthrax is enzootic, but in the North there are currently no high risk areas, with only sporadic cases having been registered in the last few decades. Regional genetic and molecular characterizations of anthrax in these regions are still lacking. To investigate the potential molecular diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Northern Italy, canonical Single nucleotide polymorphism (canSNP and Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA genotyping was performed against all isolates from animal outbreaks registered in the last twenty years in the region. Findings Six B. anthracis strains were analyzed. The canSNP analysis indicates the presence of three sublineages/subgroups each of which belong to one of the 12 worldwide CanSNP genotypes: B.Br.CNEVA (3 isolates, A.Br.005/006 (1 isolates and A.008/009 (2 isolate. The latter is the dominant canSNP genotype in Italy. The 15-loci MLVA analysis revealed five different genotypes among the isolates. Conclusions The major B branch and the A.Br.005/006 were recovered in the Northeast region. The genetic structure of anthrax discovered in this area differs from the rest of the country, suggesting the presence of a separate and independent B. anthracis molecular evolution niche. Although the isolates analyzed in this study are limited in quantity and representation, these results indicate that B. anthracis genetic diversity changes around the Alps.

  4. Aquifer Properties in Hepokangas, Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, M. Sc.

    2012-04-01

    Hepokangas study area is located in northern Finland, app. 60 km north-east of the city of Oulu. It consists of an esker ridge which ranges in elevation from 95 to 105 m.a.s.l. Consequently, all Quaternary deposits in the area have been influenced by erosional and depositional processes during two Baltic Sea stages (Ancylus Lake and Littorina Sea). Therefore, raised beaches are found on the esker slopes and fine grained sediments on the lowlands. The studied aquifer, the Hepokangas esker is part of an discontinuous chain of eskers which, in total, is about 100 km long and is elongated from north-west to south-east. The direction indicates that the esker was deposited by the melt waters during the latest phase of Weichselian glaciation. The primary part of the esker is located in the western segment of the area and a delta-like expansion of an esker is in the eastern part of the study area . Level of the ground water table (GWT) was measured at 14 ground water pipes which were located in varying parts of the Hepokangas formation. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were conducted on the primary part of the esker in order to determine internal structures and estimate permeability of the formation. Ground water flow directions were interpreted based on these measurements. The GWT varies from 91.91 to 97.98 m.a.s.l. Since the Hepokangas formation is surrounded by mires the height of the GWT decreased towards them. There was a water pumping station on the primary part of the formation, but no clear effect to the GWT could be seen to be caused by that. From the GPR results, some locations of the coarse grain sediments with high permeability were found.

  5. Structural curiosity of the northern Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Placer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In northern Istria certain structural particularities exist that till now were not explained,and some of them not even known. They are all associated with underthrusting of the Adriatic microplate (Istra under the Dinarides. The Rokava fault of cross-dinaricdirection was discovered that exerts an important influence on hydrographic pattern in this part of Istria. The cross-dinaric sinistral strike-slip faults above Glinščica stream (Rosandra are of local importance only, since at Kastelec and Črni Kal the dextral strikeslip faults of NNW-SSE direction occur as their conjugated equivalents. This particular feature has been named the Gročana (Grozzana structure. The reason for such a structure is the echelon folding (complete folding in the Istrian hinterland (the Kras-Notranjsko folded structure. In the Tinjan area a wedge shaped block occurs between two thrust faults that are turned up and quite steep owing to secondary folding. The wedge is open northwestward, and the flysch beds within it are folded in the cross-dinaric direction. Theyrepresent an indication of lateral squeezing in a limited area, since in the close-by roadcut of the Ankaran–Trieste motorway no trace of these folds remains (the Tinjan structure.In the Izola and Strunjan area a complex overthrust structure is present that rapidly wedges out toward central Istria. Indirect data suggest that it extends northwestward below the Bay of Trieste. The elements of this structure are the Izola thrust fault with Izolaanticline in the thrust block, and folds at Strunjan that were formed in the belt between the reverse overthrusts in the Strunjan bay and Izola thrust fault area (the Strunjan structure.

  6. 实时PCR和PCR-RDB法检测人乳头瘤病毒的比对研究%Comparison of real time PCR and PCR¯reverse dot blot hybridization for detection of Human papillomavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖克林; 严泽浩; 罗茗月; 麦光兴; 陈熙; 熊礼宽

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较实时 PCR 法和 PCR-反向点杂交法(PCR-RDB)检测 HPV 的一致性。方法收集109份女性生殖道样本,利用实时 PCR 法和 PCR-RDB 法分别检测 HPV 感染和基因型分布情况,不一致样本采用 PCR-悬浮芯片杂交法复检。结果83.5%(91/109)的样本两种方法结果一致(kappa=0.671),18例不一致样本 PCR-悬浮芯片杂交法复检显示7例与实时 PCR相符,11例与 PCR-RDB 相符;高、低病毒载量组间 PCR-RDB 法的检测结果差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.476,P =0.224)。结论实时 PCR 和 PCR-RDB 两法用于 HPV 检测一致性一般;HPV 病毒载量在103~108范围内时 PCR-RDB 法的阳性率较稳定。%Objective To compare real time PCR with PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (PCR-RDB)for detecting human pap-illomavirus (HPV)infection in women.Methods A total of 109 genital specimens from women were collected in the study.All specimens were tested HPV by using real time PCR and PCR-RDB,discrepant samples were tested again by PCR-xMAP.Results The concordant rate was 83.5%(91/109)between real time PCR and PCR-RDB (kappa=0.671),the other 18 discrepant samples were retested by PCR-xMAP,7 of those were identical with real time PCR and 11 with PCR-RDB.No differences of PCR-RDB pos-itive rates were found between the high and low viral load groups (χ2 =1.476,P =0.224).Conclusion It demonstrated moderate consistency between real time PCR and PCR-RDB.The HPV positive rates of PCR-RDB were stable when the viral loads were 103-108 .

  7. Serological Thymidine Kinase 1 is a Biomarker for Early Detection of Tumours—A Health Screening Study on 35,365 People, Using a Sensitive Chemiluminescent Dot Blot Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen He

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1 is a reliable proliferation marker for prognosis, monitoring tumour therapy, and relapse. Here we investigated the use of STK1 in health screening for early detection of pre-malignant and malignant diseases. The investigation was based on 35,365 participants in four independent health screening studies in China between 2005–2011. All participants were clinically examined. The concentration of STK1 was determined by a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot ECL assay. The ROCvalue of the STK1 assay was 0.96. At a cut-off STK1 value of 2.0 pM, the likelihood (+ value was 236.5, and the sensitivity and the specificity were 0.78 and 0.99, respectively. The relative number of city-dwelling people with elevated STK1 values (≥2.0 pM was 0.8% (198/26,484, while the corresponding value for the group of oil-field workers was 5.8% (514/8,355. The latter group expressed significantly higher frequency of refractory anaemia, fatty liver, and obesity, compared to the city dwellers, but no cases of breast hyperplasia or prostate hyperplasia. Furthermore, people working in oil drilling/oil transportation showed higher STK1 values and higher frequency of pre-malignancies and benign diseases than people working in the oil-field administration. In the STK1 elevated group of the city-dwelling people, a statistically significantly higher number of people were found to have malignancies, pre-malignancies of all types, moderate/severe type of hyperplasia of breast or prostate, or refractory anaemia, or to be at high risk for hepatitis B, compared to people with normal STK1 values (< 2.0 pM. No malignancies were found in the normal STK1 group. In the elevated STK1 group 85.4% showed diseases linked to a higher risk for pre-/early cancerous progression, compared to 52.4% of those with normal STK1 values. Among participants with elevated STK1 values, 8.8% developed new malignancies or progress in their pre-malignancies within 5 to 72

  8. 单抗免疫斑点法和组织印迹法检测侵染蝴蝶兰的建兰花叶病毒%Detection of CymMV in Orchids Tissue by Dot-ELISA and Tissue Blot-ELISA with Monoclonal Antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓辉; 孟春梅; 黎军英; 吴建祥; 荣松; 张超; 洪健

    2009-01-01

    Dot-ELISA and tissue blot-ELISA with monoclonal antibody to detect Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) were established. 8000-dilution CymMV monoclonal antibody could be adopted to detect CymMV infecting leaf extract within a dilution limitation of 1:10240. CymMV could still be detected in the eighth print by tissue blot-ELISA . Similar results were shown between the fifth print by tissue blot-ELISA and 80-dilution of infected leaf extract by dot-ELISA. Comparison tests showed that the commonly used tissue blot-ELISA was less sensitive than dot-ELISA. It could illustrate that CymMV monoclonal antibody was more specific and sensitive than the polyclonal antibodies. The improved tissue blot-ELISA is more simple than dot-ELISA, and is suitable for fast detection with a large number of samples in the field.%应用抗建兰花叶病毒(CymMV)的单克隆抗体,建立了快速检测蝴蝶兰病样的免疫斑点法(Dot-ELISA)和组织印迹法(Tissue blot-ELISA).CymMV单抗稀释8000倍时,Dot-ELISA可检出病毒粗汁液的最大稀释度为1:10240;Tissue blot-ELISA中样品1次平切后1~5次印迹与Dot-ELISA样品1:80稀释结果相当,6~8次印迹与Dot-ELISA 1:320稀释结果相当,前8次印迹均可以得到满意的检测效果.Tissue blot-ELISA的灵敏度略低于Dot-ELISA,使用单抗的结果比多抗特异性强,操作更为简便,适合大量兰花样品的快速检测.

  9. Survey of northern informal and formal mental health practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda O’Neill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. This survey is part of a multi-year research study on informal and formal mental health support in northern Canada involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods in an effort to better understand mental health in a northern context. Objective. The main objective of the 3-year study was to document the situation of formal and informal helpers in providing mental health support in isolated northern communities in northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The intent of developing a survey was to include more participants in the research and access those working in small communities who would be concerned regarding confidentiality and anonymity due to their high profile within smaller populations. Design. Based on the in-depth interviews from the qualitative phase of the project, the research team developed a survey that reflected the main themes found in the initial qualitative analysis. The on-line survey consisted of 26 questions, looking at basic demographic information and presenting lists of possible challenges, supports and client mental health issues for participants to prioritise. Results. Thirty-two participants identified various challenges, supports and client issues relevant to their mental health support work. A vast majority of the respondents felt prepared for northern practice and had some level of formal education. Supports for longevity included team collaboration, knowledgeable supervisors, managers, leaders and more opportunities for formal education, specific training and continuity of care to support clients. Conclusion. For northern-based research in small communities, the development of a survey allowed more participants to join the larger study in a way that protected their identity and confidentiality. The results from the survey emphasise the need for team collaboration, interdisciplinary practice and working with community

  10. Lithostratigraphical analysis in northern Sinus Meridiani, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, D.; Sgavetti, M.; Tampella, G.; Wezel, F. C.

    2012-04-01

    In the Terra Meridiani- Arabia Terra region of Mars, layered rock units with a range of stratal patterns have been widely reported in the literature, and the record of the spectral signatures indicative of hydrate minerals suggests the existence of aqueous activity in at least some of the stratigraphic units. . In this work we investigated the area in the northern region of Sinus Meridiani located between 2°N to 3°N latitude and 2°W to 1°E longitude, using multiple remote sensing data sets to identify, characterize in detail, and understand the origin and evolution of the selected units in this region of Mars. MOLA and HiRISE data were used in combination to classify and correlate surface units recorded in distinct stratigraphic logs, based on planimetric configuration, topography, morphological and litho-facies characteristics. In particular, detailed analyses were focused on the layered units discovered in the walls of two impact craters located at a distance of about 100 km to each other within the study area. The stratigraphic interval analysed here corresponds to the upper part of the well known "light-toned layered deposits" identified by several authors. Distinct competent layers are observed in the internal slopes of both craters. Our observations indicate that the lithostratigraphic sections can be divided in three units. The lower unit consists of very thick bodies of light-toned bouldery breccia deposits. In the HiRISE images these white-coloured beds are composed of irregularly-shaped, white nodules which are either isolated or coalescent, distributed between bedding planes. The middle unit mainly consists of alternating thin strong layers and thicker sequences of relatively weak layers, horizontally bedded. The strong, competent layers maintain steeper erosional profiles and play a major role in controlling the overall shape and geomorphology of the wall slopes. The upper unit can be traced laterally in the surrounding ground level, displaying mesa

  11. Women and development in Northern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, C T

    1985-07-01

    Northern Belize, composed of Orange Walk and Corozal districts, is the sugar-producing region of Belize, a newly independent country on the Caribbean coast of Central America, and because of the extensive involvement in the modern sugar industry, existing status differentials in Orange Walk have increased. Town farmers have increased their sugarcane license sizes more than villagers and also are much more likely to meet or exceed their delivery quotas than villagers. There has been the differentiation of a new middle socioeconomic stratum in Orange Walk, with a much higher proportion of villagers remaining in the lower stratum than townspeople. With greater involvement in the market economy, there has been a decline in the social integration of groups in the district as well as less symbiosis between husband and wife and among related male age mates. Some people now consistently work for others; there was an egalitarian labor exchange before. With the decline in subsistence production, the extensive reciprocity in food among related women diminishes. Women have participated in the overall changes in Orange Walk, yet their position vis-a-vis men has become weaker. Women are most likely to hold licenses in the communities that participated earliest in the sugar industry and that are the most traditional. With greater market involvement, women become less likely to hold licenses. Women's licenses have not increased to the same degree as those of men. And, with the income from sugar and wage labor, the family income is more and more viewed as belonging to men, rather than being the result of a joint family enterprise. Women become dependent on what men give them, with less control and security. With declining subsistence production, women have a reduced basis of involvement in traditional reciprocal food exchanges with other households. They lose some independent sources of money income with the result of increasing undernutrition for young children. The economic

  12. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  13. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965-1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s-1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of individual

  14. Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

    2001-12-01

    Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress

  15. Identification, genetic diversity and prevalence of Theileria and Babesia species in a sheep population from Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagore, Daniel; García-Sanmartín, Josune; García-Pérez, Ana L; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2004-08-01

    The genetic diversity and prevalence of virtually all Theileria and Babesia species in a sheep population were studied using a specifically designed reverse line blot macroarray. The amplified hypervariable V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene was hybridised against generic and species-specific probes. In a first screening (Study I), 320 apparently healthy animals corresponding to 32 flocks located in the Basque Country (Northern Spain) were analysed. The survey demonstrated a high prevalence of subclinical infections (64.7%). Three Theileria genotypes were identified, sharing 96.7-97.0% similarity between their 18S rRNA gene sequences: Theileria ovis, Theileria sp. OT1 (99.6% similarity with the recently described pathogenic piroplasm Theileria sp. China 1), and Theileria sp. OT3. Two Babesia species sharing 91.5% similarity were also detected: Babesia ovis and Babesia motasi. The complete 18S rRNA gene sequences of these and other piroplasm species were phylogenetically analysed. Prevalence of piroplasms was also investigated in a second group of 80 sheep from 16 flocks reared in mountain areas that had been heavily exposed to ticks and had suffered a recent abortion episode (Study II). The screening revealed a significantly higher (P distribution of Theileria spp. in the studied sheep population suggests that the parasites involved are of relatively low pathogenicity, in contrast to what has been reported for Theileria sp. China 1 in other countries.

  16. A Seventeen-Year Epidemiological Surveillance Study of Borrelia burgdorferi Infections in Two Provinces of Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lledó

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a 17-year seroepidemiological surveillance study of Borrelia burgdorferi infection, performed with the aim of improving our knowledge of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Serum samples (1,179 from patients (623, stratified with respect to age, sex, season, area of residence and occupation bitten by ticks in two regions of northern Spain were IFA-tested for B. burgdorferi antibodies. Positive results were confirmed by western blotting. Antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi were found in 13.3% of the patients; 7.8% were IgM positive, 9.6% were IgG positive, and 4.33% were both IgM and IgG positive. Five species of ticks were identified in the seropositive patients: Dermacentor marginatus (41.17% of such patients Dermacentor reticulatus (11.76%, Rhiphicephalus sanguineus (17.64%, Rhiphicephalus turanicus (5.88% and Ixodes ricinus (23.52%. B. burgdorferi DNA was sought by PCR in ticks when available. One tick, a D. reticulatus male, was found carrying the pathogen. The seroprevalence found was similar to the previously demonstrated in similar studies in Spain and other European countries.

  17. 'Mixed' religion relationships and well-being in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloney, Kareena

    2014-08-01

    Religion plays a pivotal role in intergroup and interpersonal relationships in Northern Ireland, and individuals traditionally marry within their own religious group. However, 'mixed' marriages between Catholics and Protestants do occur and present an interesting, yet under researched, dynamic within this divided society. Both religion and committed relationships have been associated with physical and psychological health, but little is known about how divergence in religious beliefs within relationships impacts on health. A secondary data analysis of the Northern Ireland cohort of the Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study was conducted to investigate the impact of mixed religion relationships on physical and psychological well-being in Northern Ireland. Less than 10% of relationships were mixed religion relationships, and being in a mixed relationship was associated with poorer mental health but not with physical health. Mixed religion relationships in Northern Ireland are relatively uncommon in Northern Ireland, but are an important form of intergroup contact, as such it is important to fully understand the implications for the individuals involved and develop mechanisms to support those individuals psychological well-being.

  18. Paludification and forest retreat in northern oceanic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R M M; Jeffree, C E; Rees, W G

    2003-01-01

    Examination of temperature variations over the past century for Europe and the Arctic from northern Norway to Siberia suggests that variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation are associated with an increase in oceanicity in certain maritime regions. A southward depression of the tree line in favour of wet heaths, bogs and wetland tundra communities is also observed in northern oceanic environments. The physiological basis for this change in ecological succession from forest to bog is discussed in relation to the long-term effects of flooding on tree survival. The heightened values currently detected in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index, together with rising winter temperatures, and increased rainfall in many areas in northern Europe, presents an increasing risk of paludification with adverse consequences for forest regeneration, particularly in areas with oceanic climates. Climatic warming in oceanic areas may increase the area covered by bogs and, contrary to general expectations, lead to a retreat rather than an advance in the northern limit of the boreal forest. High water-table levels are not automatically detrimental to forest survival as can be seen in swamp, bottom land and mangrove forests. Consequently, the inhibitory effects of flooding on tree survival and regeneration in northern regions should not be uncritically accepted as merely due to high water levels. Evidence is discussed which suggests that physiological and ecological factors may interact to inhibit forest regeneration in habitats where there is a risk of prolonged winter-flooding combined with warmer winters and cool moist summers.

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution topography include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi

  20. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  1. European population substructure: clustering of northern and southern populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Seldin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between "northern" and "southern" European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek have >85% membership in the "southern" population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the "northern" population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the "southern" population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies.

  2. Molecular detection of Theileria species in sheep from northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shinuo; Zhang, Shoufa; Jia, Lijun; Xue, Shujiang; Yu, Longzheng; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Moussa, Ahmed Abd El Moniem; Zhou, Mo; Zhang, Yuanming; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Masatani, Tatsunori; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2013-01-01

    Ovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease that restricts the development of small ruminant husbandry in northern China. In this study, we report on a molecular epidemiological survey of ovine Theileria spp. in 198 blood samples taken from sheep in northern China. The DNA samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 18S rRNA gene of ovine Theileria spp. The prevalence of ovine Theileria spp. in Yanji, Nongan, Longjing, Toudao and Jinchang was 80%, 40%, 37%, 24% and 32%, respectively. The sequencing analyses approved the present of the T. orientalis and/or T. luwenshuni in these regions. Taken together, we have demonstrated a high incidence of Theileria spp. in northern China that calls for the need to design effective control programs for ovine theileriosis.

  3. Tectonics of the Himalayan thrust belt in northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeats, R. S.; Lawrence, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Himalayan ranges of southern Asia represent a dilemma in modern plate tectonic theory. Alvarez (1982) has tried to resolve some of the problems, but inconsistencies remain. The present investigation considers some of the problems which are now encountered in light of present knowledge. The investigation is concerned mainly with the evolution of the Himalaya south of the Main Mantle Thrust (MMT) and the Indus-Tsangpo suture zone, taking into account the neotectonic setting of northern Pakistan. Attention is given to subdivisions of the central Indian Himalaya, the transition from central Himalaya to northern Pakistan, subdivisions of the Himalaya of northern Pakistan, and aspects of neotectonics. Problems for future work are also discussed.

  4. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart E; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-and-around the Cayapas-Mataje Ecological Reserve in northern Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador and certain stands of Rhizophora mangle in-and-around the Isla Corazon y Fragata Wildlife Refuge in central Manabi Province, Ecuador. Our field driven mangrove carbon estimate is higher than all but one of the comparison models evaluated. We find that basic latitudinal mangrove carbon models performed at least as well, if not better, than the more complex species based allometric models in predicting standing carbon levels. In additi...

  5. Responses of northern forest plants to atmospheric changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, K.; Huttunen, S.; Kauppi, M.; Ohtonen, R.; Laehdesmaeki, P. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    This research programme has been under way since 1990 to study the long-term synergistic effects of air pollutants and changing climatic conditions on the northern forest ecosystem and to increase the knowledge of climatic change and its consequences for the fragile northern nature. Ecological, physiological, morphological and biochemical methods have been used to study the responses of forest trees, dwarf shrubs, lichens and soil biology to environmental changes. The research programme is divided into four subprojects concentrating on different ecosystem levels. The subprojects are: (1) life, growth and survival strategies of northern dwarf shrubs under the pressure of a changing environment, (2) forest trees under the impact of air pollutants, increasing CO{sub 2} and UV-B, (3) susceptibility of lichens to air pollution and climatic change and (4) impact of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} on soil biology with special reference to carbon allocation and N fixation in symbiotic systems. This report summarizes the results of short-term experiments which showed many ecological and physiological changes in almost all elements of the northern boreal forests. These species-level measurements focused on the key species of the northern boreal forest, which have been thought to be useful in large-scale ecosystem experiments and modelling. The results will also facilitate the further studies on the patterns of plant species distribution and northern ecosystem function with respect to the environmental parameters that are expected to change along with global change (e.g. temperature, airchemistry, UV-B, snow condition)

  6. Demarcation of Seabuckthorn Plantations in Three Northern Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) planting areas in the three northern areas (north, northeast and northwest) of China are divided into five planting zones: the semi-humid forest prairie climate zone for ecological and economic types of seabuckthorn plantations in the southern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid steppe climate zone for similar types of plantations in the central part of the Loess Plateau; the arid desert steppe climate zone for ecological type of seabuckthorn plantations in the northern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid and semi-humid steppe climate zone again for ecological and economic types of plantations in northern Hebei and western Liaoning and the cold humid steppe climate zone for economic types of plantations in the northern part of northeast China. The aim of this demarcation is to avoid a random introduction of seabuckthorn. In each of the five zones,objectives should be set and suitable seabuckthorn species, subspecies and varieties should be planted according to site conditions,seed sources and methods of tree breeding. The cultivation centers, bases, stations, or units should be established and successful models of seedling and planting methods should be encouraged. The principle of matching trees with suitable site conditions and adjusting measures to local conditions should be practiced. From a strategic viewpoint of solving ecological and economic problems of seabuckthorn development in the three northern areas, every seabuckthorn center must have its own germplasm nursery, standard plantation for popularizing, excellent seed and seedling nurseries and sufficient afforestation areas for demonstration and propaganda purposes. These measures would improve the ecological environment and promote economic and social development in the three northern areas of China.

  7. Attenuation characteristics of ground motions in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉龙; 赵兴权; 罗奇峰

    2002-01-01

    Four recently developed attenuation models are calibrated by using a very limited amount of strong motion data recorded in China. The research shows that the attenuation characteristics of the earthquake shaking in northern China are similar to those in the western US. The supporting evidence includes Q factors, preliminary results of kappa values, stress drop,shear wave velocity profile in the shallow earth crust, areas enclosed by the isoseismals of Modified Mercalli Intensity V. From these comparisons of different attenuation models, it is recommended that the Crouse and McGuire spectral attenuation model could possibly be used for northern China.

  8. Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups.

  9. Extrathoracic heart in northern Cameroon: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Frigiola

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tantchou et al report a case of ectopia cordis with successful surgical correction on a 7 months old child from northern Cameroon. Sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy continue to be very rare congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. The prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. Ectopia cordis is frequently associated with other congenital defects involving multiple organ systems. We report a case of ectopia cordis with successful surgical correction on a 7 months old child from northern Cameroon.

  10. Market Imperfections on the power markets in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    . These imperfections can be technical, economic or tradition-bound, and can also have political characteristics. It is important to recognise and incorporate the market imperfections in the liberalisation policy and analysis. Otherwise, the purposes of the liberalisation and other energy policy goals may......Up till now, most analyses of the northern European electricity liberalisation have assumed that a perfect competitive electricity market can be obtained. It has not been taken into account that a number of imperfections will inevitably occur - at least during the transition period...... not be achieved. The aim of this paper is to survey market imperfections and their influence on the liberalisation processes in northern Europe...

  11. Petroleum exploration developments in the Northern Territory during 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Petroleum exploration areas under Northern Territory Administration to the end of 1982, can be split into three separate zones. Onshore exploration is administered under the Petroleum (Prospecting and Mining) Act; exploration in waters adjacent to the Northern Territory is administered by joint arrangement with the Commonwealth under the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act; offshore exploration in the Ashmore and Cartier Islands area is administered on behalf of the Commonwealth under the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act. Of course, on declaration of the amended Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Act, the Territorial Sea will become a fourth discrete area.

  12. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  13. Agrosilvopastoral Systems in Northern Thailand and Northern Laos: Minority Peoples’ Knowledge versus Government Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalathon Choocharoen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agrosilvopastoral systems have been an important component of the farming systems and livelihoods of thousands of ethnic minority people in the uplands of Mainland Southeast Asia. Drawing on a combination of qualitative and participatory inquiries in nine ethnic minority communities, this study emphasizes the complex articulation of local farmers’ knowledge which has been so far excluded from governmental development and conservation policies in the northern uplands of Thailand and Laos. Qualitative analysis of local knowledge systems is performed using the Agroecological Knowledge Toolkit (AKT5 software. Results show that ethnic minorities in the two countries perceive large ruminants to be a highly positive component of local forest agro-ecosystems due to their contribution to nutrient cycling, forest fire control, water retention, and leaf-litter dispersal. The knowledge and perceptions of agrosilvopastoral farmers are then contrasted with the remarkably different forestry policy frameworks of the two countries. We find that the knowledge and diversity of practices exercised by ethnic minority groups contrasts with the current simplified and negative image that government officials tend to construct of agrosilvopastoral systems. We conclude that local knowledge of forest-livestock systems can offer alternative or complementary explanations on ecological cause-and-effect relationships which may need further scientific investigation and validation.

  14. Gender and age disparities in adult undernutrition in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Stine; Kaducu, Felix Ocaka; Aas Smedemark, Siri

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adult malnutrition and associated risk factors in a post-conflict area of northern Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional community survey was performed from September 2011 to June 2013. All registered residents in Gulu Health and Demographic Surveillance...

  15. Insect drift over the northern Arabian Sea in early summer

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, S.C.; Kulshrestha, V.; Choubey, A.K.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Air borne insects, mostly carried by wind currents, were trapped over the northern Arabian Sea (16 degrees to 20 degrees N; 68 degrees to 72 degrees E), in the course of cruise No. 111, ORV Sagar Kanya (March 14 to April 7, 1996). A total of 2...

  16. Odonata (Insecta at a wadi Pool near Nizwa, northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Cowan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen damselfly and dragonfly species were recorded in 68 visits to a wadi pool in northern Oman, March 2012 to June 2014.  All identifications were based on photographs.  Apparently the pool has a core community of eight resident species.  Paragomphus sinaiticus, globally Near Threatened, was regularly  recorded. 

  17. At Northern Illinois U., Leaders Grapple with a Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    At even the best-prepared universities, there is no playbook for handling the crush of tough decisions that comes after a mass shooting rocks an otherwise quiet campus. While colleges and universities have always had tragedies, recent occurences like the shootings at Northern Illinois University and Virginia Tech have fundamentally changed the way…

  18. Newcomer Pupils in Northern Ireland: A Pastoral Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Rapid changes in Northern Ireland's demographic, resulting in an increasingly multicultural and multilingual school population, are presenting new opportunities and challenges for schools in a region emerging from a troubled recent past. Reflecting on this from a pastoral perspective, this article focuses on the relationships between the school…

  19. Onate's Foot: Remembering and Dismembering in Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    This essay analyzes the historical construction of "Spanish" icons in northern New Mexico and the complex Hispanic and Chicano identities they both evoke and mask. It focuses on the January 1998 vandalism of a statue depicting New Mexico's first Spanish colonial governor, Don Juan de Onate. The removal of the Onate statue's foot references a…

  20. The Desert and the Sown Project in Northern Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerner, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The desert and sown project, which started in 1999 and continued in 2008-2009, studied the region between the settled areas east of Irbid and Ramtha and the surrounding desert at Mafraq (northern Jordan). Large parts of the material comes from the Palaeolithic period, while some smaller tells date...

  1. Species boundaries in non-tropical Northern Hemisphere Owls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voous, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    A survey is presented of the status of species boundaries in nontropical Northern Hemisphere owls in order to investigate the reality of the biological and geographical species concept applied to these owls in current handbooks. At the same time the practicability of evolutionary systematics as oppo

  2. Ecological studies on rain forest in Northern Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz, J.P.

    1960-01-01

    During the years 1955-1957 ecological data were collected in various types of mesophytic forest occurring in the northern half of central Suriname (fig. 1). Physiognomically as well as floristically these forests correspond with the type of vegetation which in the other parts of tropical America gen

  3. An ecological and phytogeographic study of northern Surinam savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van J.

    1965-01-01

    Geology and soils in general Surinam is situated at the northern edge of the very old and stable Guiana shield. Six-sevenths of the country’s surface are occupied by formations belonging to the shield and designated together as the basal complex. However, the Roraima formation does not belong to the

  4. Ecology of beech forests in the northern hemisphere.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, R.

    1992-01-01

    Beech forests are dominated or codominated by at least one Fagus species. The beeches are a homogeneous group of 11 deciduous tree species growing in the Northern Hemisphere (Figure 1.1). They often dominate forest ecosystems throughout their ranges. The optimum for beech is on acidic and mesic loam

  5. Sex Education in Northern Ireland Schools: A Critical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolston, Bill; Schubotz, Dirk; Simpson, Audrey

    2005-01-01

    To date there has been little research on young people and sexuality in Northern Ireland. This paper draws on the first major study in this area to analyse the delivery of formal sex education in schools. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to access young people's opinions about the quality of the sex education they had received…

  6. Collaborative Management of Technological Resources at Northern Illinois University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Describes the management of computer resources at Northern Illinois University's College of Business through collaboration with university organizations, including the computer network department, academic computing, office machine repair department, and media services department, as well as organizations and individuals outside the university.…

  7. NEW RECORD OF DOLICHOPODA FROM NORTHERN IRAN (Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Di Russo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The record of a new sample of Dolichopoda from Northern Iran is reported. The morphological study of this material allowed the authors to attribute the studied specimens to D. Hyrcana Bey-Bienko, 1969, whose geographic distribution now extends eastwards to the Alborz Mountains in North Iran.

  8. Organizational Transparency & Sense Making: The case of Northern Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    . Additionally, research rarely focuses on how transparency is translated within crisis situations. This article presents a sense-making and discourse analysis perspective of transparency. We use the case of the British bank Northern Rock to show how this bank and its stakeholders enacted transparency...

  9. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  10. Presence of Bartonella species in wild carnivores of northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R A; Barral, Marta

    2012-02-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles).

  11. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; R.A. Juste; Barral, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles).

  12. Socioeconomic status and cutaneous malignant melanoma in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Wulf, H C

    2014-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), also in Northern Europe despite equal access to health care. SES per se is not responsible for this association which must be ascribed to important risk factors for CMM such as intermittent UVR exposure, and screening...

  13. Canadian Space Launch: Exploiting Northern Latitudes For Efficient Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    AU/ACSC/KLEMEN, J/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY CANADIAN SPACE LAUNCH: EXPLOITING NORTHERN LATITUDES FOR EFFICIENT...large provincial wildlife park, the environmental impact posed by any development would be certain to draw extensive criticism. This site is also

  14. Beryllium-10 concentrations in water samples of high northern latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Eisenhauer, A.; Schulz, V.; Baumann, S.; Mangini, A. [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heildelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    {sup 10}Be concentrations in the water column of high northern latitudes were not available so far. We present different {sup 10}Be profiles from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea, the Arctic Ocean, and the Laptev Sea. (author) 3 fig., 3 refs.

  15. Lithogenic fluxes to the northern Indian Ocean - An overview

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.

    Lithogenic fluxes to the northern Indian Ocean, measurEd. by time-series sediment traps, exhibit a strong seasonality with the bulk of the material (40 to 80 %) being deposited during the southwest monsoon period. This seasonality is more pronounced...

  16. A planning survey of the Northern Region, Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); J. de Jong (Jan); J. Sterkenburg (Jan)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis regional planning survey of the Northern Region has been written at the request of the Town Planning Department of the Ministry of Works and Supplies. Initially, it was intended to restrict the survey to the physical aspects of planning, the aspects of settlements, services, service

  17. Modelling Peatland Hydrology: Three cases from Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Mioduszewski, W.; Povilaitis, A.; Slesicka, A.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the peatlands that used to extend over large parts of Northern Europe have been reclaimed for agriculture. Human influence continues to have a major impact on the hydrology of those that remain, affecting river flow and groundwater levels. In order to understand this hydrology it is necessar

  18. Methane Dynamics in Northern Peatlands:A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.Y.F.LAI

    2009-01-01

    Northern peatlands store a large amount of carbon and play a significant role in the global carbon cycle.Owing to the presence of waterlogged and anaerobic conditions,peatlands are typically a source of methane (CH4),a very potent greenhouse gas.This paper reviews the key mechanisms of peatland CH4 production,consumption and transport and the major environmental and biotic controls on peatland CHa emissions.The advantages and disadvantages of micrometeorological and chamber methods in measuring CH4 fluxes from northern peatlands are also discussed.The magnitude of CH4 flux varies considerably among peatland types (bogs and fens) and microtopographic locations (hummocks and hollows).Some anthropogenic activities including forestry,peat harvesting and industrial emission of sulphur dioxide can cause a reduction in CH4 release from northern peatlands.Further research should be conducted to investigate the influence of plant growth forms on CH4 flux from northern peatlands,determine the water table threshold at which plant production in peatlands enhances CH4 release,and quantify peatland CH4 exchange at plant community level with a higher temporal resolution using automatic chambers.

  19. Botteri's Sparrow (Peucaea botterii) Occurs in Northern Coahuila, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Els, Paul; Canales-del-Castillo, Ricardo; Klicka, John

    2011-01-01

    Botteri’s Sparrow (Peucaea botterii) occurs widely in the shrub-grasslands of southern North America. We report a breeding population of the species in the Sierra de la Encantada of northern Coahuila, Mexico, ,80 km from the Big Bend area of Texas and .300 km from the nearest previously known breedi

  20. Constraints on the uplift mechanism of northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haijian; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Ma, Yuanxu; Li, Haibing

    2016-11-01

    Enhanced latest Oligocene to present uplift of northern Tibet is manifest in a variety of geological records. However, the main controversy is how the crust came to be thickened. Theories seeking to explain the growth of northern Tibet include removal of the mantle lithosphere beneath Tibet and the cessation of fast motion on major strike-slip faults. To address this issue, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic study in the central Kumkol basin, south of the Altyn Tagh fault (ATF). Combined with our previous study from the Janggalsay area, north of the ATF, magnetic declination data suggest fast strike-slip motion for the left-lateral ATF between 22 and 15 Ma. However, the fast motion along the ATF terminated between 15 and Tibet at ∼15 Ma. Our results argue in support of a Mid-Miocene transition in tectonic regime from extrusion to distributed shortening in northern Tibet and emphasize the role of the ATF in governing widespread and simultaneous uplift of northern Tibet.

  1. Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, M.E.; Barnhoorn, A.; Wasch, L.; Trabucho-Alexandre, João; Peach, C.J.; Drury, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) Posidonia Shale Formation is a possible unconventional gas source in Northern Europe and occurs within the Cleveland Basin (United Kingdom), the Anglo-Paris Basin (France), the Lower Saxony Basin and the Southwest Germany Basin (Germany), and the Roer Valley Graben, the

  2. Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marxist/feminist concepts to explain employment patterns among female workers in multinational maquiladoras (assembly plants) in northern Mexico. Concludes that maquiladoras have not alleviated regional unemployment for either sex, but have created a docile low-wage work force that includes a pool of surplus labor. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  3. A Rhaeto-Liassic flora from Airel, Northern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muir, M.; Konijnenburg-van Cittert, van J.H.A.

    1970-01-01

    An assemblage of fossil plants from the Upper Triassic/Liassic of Airel (Manche), Northern France, is recorded, and two new species, Hirmerella airelensis sp. nov. and Classopollis harrisii sp. nov., are described and figured. In situ and dispersed pollen is compared and a lycopod megaspore and micr

  4. TOURISM OFFER IN ROMANIA AND NORTHERN TRANSYLVANIA – TERRITORIAL DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUJZA TÜNDE COZMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tourism Offer in Romania and Northern Transylvania – Territorial Disparities. Explaining spatiality has been in the focus of tourism geographers since the beginnings, and the examination of spatial processes still represents a major challenge for researchers, knowing that there is no segment in the functioning of society in which spatiality is not present. The approach was to consider tourism as a complex spatial phenomenon, in order to explain better its processes. Romanian literature abounds in descriptive research of travel and tourism, discussing quantitative and qualitative issues, attraction classifications, tourism potential and geographic dispersal. However, a serious deficit manifests in explanatory research. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the territorial disparities in the tourism offer of Romania, in generally and of Northern Transylvania in particularly, in the light of current trends characterizing the national tourism industry. Besides spatial characteristics, this paper also deals with tourism penetration on regional level, and territorial concentration of accommodation capacity in the region of Northern Transylvania. The results show that in the moderately-high saturated destination of Northern Transylvania the accommodation capacity in use is spatially concentrated and only a few localities can be regarded as the strongholds of the accommodation basis. The study brings novel results especially for tourism planning, but also provides a basis for further research.

  5. A History of the Original Peoples of Northern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Keith J.

    The document was prepared persuant to the Man in the North Conference (Inuvik, November 1970), where northern Indian participants identified a history of the native peoples of Canada as a most important priority. Since existing books on Canadian history are essentially European in nature, this classroom text endeavored to provide a history of the…

  6. Compression and Processing of Space Image Sequences of Northern Lights and Sprites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Martins, Bo; Jensen, Ole Riis

    1999-01-01

    Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated.......Compression of image sequences of auroral activity as northern lights and thunderstorms with sprites is investigated....

  7. Flood of April and May 2008 in Northern Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in Aroostook and Penobscot Counties in northern Maine between April 28 and May 1, 2008, and was most extreme in the town of Fort Kent. Peak streamflows in northern Aroostook County were the result of a persistent heavy snowpack that caused high streamflows when it quickly melted during the third week of April 2008. Snowmelt was followed by from two to four inches of rainfall over a 2-day period in northern Maine. Peak water-surface elevations resulting from the flood were obtained from 13 continuous-record streamgages and 63 surveyed high-water marks in Aroostook and Penobscot Counties. Peak streamflows were obtained from 20 sites on 15 streams through stage/discharge rating curves or hydraulic flow models. Peak water-surface elevations and streamflows were the highest ever recorded at seven continuous-record streamgages, which had between 25 and 84 years of record in northern Aroostook County. The annual exceedance probability (the percent chance of exceeding the streamflow recorded during the April/May 2008 flood during any given year) at six streamgages in northern Maine was equal to or less than 1 percent. Data from flood-insurance studies published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency were available for five of the locations analyzed for the April/May 2008 flood and were compared to streamflows and observed peak water-surface elevations from the 2008 flood. Water-surface elevations that would be expected given the observed flow as applied to the effective flood insurance studies ranged from between 1 and 4 feet from the water-surface elevations observed during the 2008 flood. Differences were likely the result of up to 30 years of additional data for the calculation of recurrence intervals and the fact that hydraulic models used for the models had not previously been calibrated to a flood of this magnitude.

  8. A Northern European power exchange; En nordeuropaeisk elboers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Skytte, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Wolffsen, P. [Roskilde Univ., Inst. for Samfundsvidenskab og erhvervsoekonomi (Denmark)

    1998-09-01

    This report is the final reporting from the research project A Northern European Power Exchange (En nordeuropaeisk elboers) carried out by the Systems Analysis Department at Risoe National Laboratory and the department of Social Sciences at Roskilde University, supported by the Danish Energy Research Program 1996. The aim of this project has been to describe and analyse the current proposals for a Norwegian-Swedish, Nordic or northern European power exchange and alternatives, with regard to the consequences for the Danish electricity and heat supply industry, and Danish targets and measures for energy and environment policy. The main activities of the project have been: Description of existing power exchanges and proposals for multinational power exchanges in Northern Europe; Analysis of possible strategies for Danish actors in the market; Model analysis of the competitive situation for electricity generators; Requirements for changes in the organisation and regulation for the Danish electricity supply industry; Interviews with existing and potential actors in the electricity market, and a seminar, `Actors` expectations to a northern European power exchange` held in march 1997. The final report contains an overview of the theoretical background for spot and futures markets for commodities, e.g. electricity. The experience of the existing power exchanges in northern Europe, so far, is described; and the need for market information and modelling tools is discussed. The final report has been written with the aim of keeping a record of the most important views and options of the market actors during the project period, in which the market development has been very fast. Part of the contents of the report and selected background material have been published on the internet continuously during the project period. (au) EFP-96. 7 tabs., 17 ills., 51 refs.

  9. Ethnic Minorities in Northern Mountains of Vietnam: Poverty, Income and Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Viet, Cuong

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the asset and income pattern of poor ethnic minorities in Northern Mountains of Vietnam using data from a 2010 Northern Mountain Baseline Survey (NMBS) of the Second Northern Mountains Poverty Reduction Project and Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey (VHLSS) 2010. The poor ethnic minorities in Northern Mountains have lower assets and income than ethnic minorities in other regions. Their income is mainly from crops and livestock. Compared with Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minor...

  10. 75 FR 3232 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 8, 2010. Take notice that on December 30, 2009, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111... sections 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization...

  11. 40 CFR 81.150 - Northern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.150 Northern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northern Piedmont Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Piedmont Intrastate...

  12. 78 FR 41499 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican Gartersnake and Narrow... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican Gartersnake and..., the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the northern Mexican...

  13. The Economic Impact of Ulster University on the Northern Ireland Economy. Higher Education in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ursula; McNicoll, Iain; White, James

    2015-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the economic impact of Ulster University and its students on the Northern Ireland economy. With over 26,000 students, Ulster University is Northern Ireland's largest university in terms of student numbers. With its headquarters based at the Coleraine Campus, it has three more campuses in Northern Ireland: the…

  14. 76 FR 18540 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico (known locally as the Northern New Mexico Citizens....m.-4 p.m. ADDRESSES: Holiday Inn Express and Suites, 60 Entrada Drive, Los Alamos, New Mexico...

  15. 78 FR 38305 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Northern New Mexico AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION...-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Northern New Mexico. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463... 87544. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Menice Santistevan, Northern New Mexico Citizens'...

  16. 7 CFR 457.144 - Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-processing quality... Northern potato crop insurance—processing quality endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance.... Definitions Broker. Any business enterprise regularly engaged in the buying and selling of processing...

  17. 78 FR 57372 - Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact Statement: Announcement of Change in Public... amended Notice of Intent (NOI) to modify the scope of the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project... previously announced this change in public meeting location on both the Northern Pass EIS Web site at...

  18. The origin of the Northern Subject Rule : subject positions and verbal morphosyntax in older English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Nynke; van Kemenade, Ans

    2015-01-01

    This article presents new evidence for the early history of the Northern Subject Rule in the form of an exhaustive corpus study of plural present-tense indicative verb forms in Northern and Northern Midlands early Middle English, analysed in relation to their syntactic context, including subject typ

  19. Impacts of Climatic Change on River Runoff in Northern Xinjiang of China over Last Fifty Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuhui; CHEN Yaning; LI Weihong; WANG Minzhong; SUN Guili

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of climatic change and river runoff, as well as the response of river runoff to climatic change in the northern Xinjiang are analyzed on the basis of the hydrological and meteorological data over the last 50 years by the methods of Mann-Kendall nonparametric test and the nonlinear regression model. The results show that: 1) The temperature and the precipitation increased significantly in the whole northern Xinjiang, but the precipitation displayed no obvious change, or even a decreasing trend in the northern mountainous area of the northern Xinjiang. 2) River runoff varied in different regions in the northern Xinjiang. It significantly increased in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang (p=0.05), while slightly increased in the west of the northern Xinjiang. 3) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) affects river runoff by influencing temperature and precipita-tion. The NAO and precipitation had apparent significant correlations with the river runoff, but the temperature did not in the northern Xinjiang. Since the mid-1990s river runoff increase was mainly caused by the increasing temperature in the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains and the north of the northern Xinjiang. Increased precipitation resulted in increased river runoff in the west of the northern Xinjiang.

  20. 7 CFR 457.146 - Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage endorsement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... on the production placed in storage from each unit. Such allocation will be allowed only if... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance-storage coverage... Northern potato crop insurance—storage coverage endorsement. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance...

  1. Northern Forest DroughtNet: A New Framework to Understand Impacts of Precipitation Change on the Northern Forest Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Rustad, L.; Templer, P. H.; Jennings, K.; Phillips, R.; Smith, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent trends and projections for future change for the U.S. northern forests suggest that the region's climate is becoming warmer, wetter, and, ironically, drier, with more precipitation occurring as large events, separated by longer periods with no precipitation. However, to date, precipitation manipulation experiments conducted in forest ecosystems represent only ~5% of all such experiments worldwide, and our understanding of how the mesic-adapted northern forest will respond to greater frequency and intensity of drought in the future is especially poor. Several important challenges have hampered previous research efforts to conduct forest drought experiments and draw robust conclusions, including difficulties in reducing water uptake by deep and lateral tree roots, logistical and financial constraints to establishing and maintaining large-scale field experiments, and the lack of standardized approaches for determining the appropriate precipitation manipulation treatment (e.g., amount and timing of throughfall displacement), designing and constructing the throughfall displacement infrastructure, identifying key response variables, and collecting and analyzing the field data. The overarching goal of this project is to establish a regional research coordination network - Northern Forest DroughtNet - to investigate the impacts of changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and carbon (C) cycling dynamics of northern temperate forests. Specific objectives include the development of a standard prototype for conducting precipitation manipulation studies in forest ecosystems (in collaboration with the international DroughtNet-RCN) and the implementation of this prototype drought experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, we present the advances made thus far towards achieving the objectives of Northern Forest DroughtNet, plans for future work, and an invitation to the larger scientific community interested

  2. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2009-01-01

    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  3. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  4. A new species of Raricirrus from northern Europe, with notes on its biology and a discussion of the affinities of the genus (Polychaeta: Ctenodrilidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mary E.; George, J. David

    1991-01-01

    Zoologi, Polychaeta, Ctenodrilidae, Raricirrus, systematics, reproductive biology, northern Europe......Zoologi, Polychaeta, Ctenodrilidae, Raricirrus, systematics, reproductive biology, northern Europe...

  5. Characterizing an "uncharacteristic" ETS event in northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Dragert, Herb; Kao, Honn; Roeloffs, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    GPS and borehole strainmeter data allowed the detection and model characterization of a slow slip event in northern Cascadia in November 2006 accompanying a brief episode of seismic tremor. The event is much smaller in area and duration than other well-known ETS events in northern Cascadia but is strikingly similar to typical ETS events at the Nankai subduction zone. The 30-45 km depth range and the 2-3 cm slip magnitude as interpreted for this event appear to be common to most ETS events in these two subduction zones, regardless of their sizes. We infer that the Nankai-type small ETS events must be abundant at Cascadia and that ETS events at the two subduction zones are governed by a similar physical process.

  6. Characterizing an "uncharacteristics" ETS event in northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Dragert, H.; Kao, H.; Roeloffs, E.

    2008-01-01

    GPS and borehole strainmeter data allowed the detection and model characterization of a slow slip event in northern Cascadia in November 2006 accompanying a brief episode of seismic tremor. The event is much smaller in area and duration than other well-known ETS events in northern Cascadia but is strikingly similar to typical ETS events at the Nankai subduction zone. The 30-45 km depth range and the 2-3 cm slip magnitude as interpreted for this event appear to be common to most ETS events in these two subduction zones, regardless of their sizes. We infer that the Nankai-type small ETS events must be abundant at Cascadia and that ETS event at the two subduction zones are governed by a similar physical process. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. ANTARES and other Neutrino Telescopes in the Northern Hemisphere

    CERN Document Server

    Kouchner, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Several projects are concentrating their efforts on opening the high energy neutrino window on the Universe with km-scale detectors. The detection principle relies on the observation, using photomultipliers, of the Cherenkov light emitted by charged leptons induced by neutrino interactions in the surrounding detector medium. In the Northern hemisphere, while the pioneering Baikal telescope, has been operating for 10 years, most of the activity now concentrates in the Mediterranean sea. Recently, the Antares collaboration has completed the construction of a 12 line array comprising ~ 900 photomultipliers. In this paper we will review the main results achieved with the detectors currently in operation in the Northern hemisphere, as well as the R&D efforts towards the construction of a large volume neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean.

  8. Mitigating wildfire carbon loss in managed northern peatlands through restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granath, Gustaf; Moore, Paul A.; Lukenbach, Maxwell C.; Waddington, James M.

    2016-06-01

    Northern peatlands can emit large amounts of carbon and harmful smoke pollution during a wildfire. Of particular concern are drained and mined peatlands, where management practices destabilize an array of ecohydrological feedbacks, moss traits and peat properties that moderate water and carbon losses in natural peatlands. Our results demonstrate that drained and mined peatlands in Canada and northern Europe can experience catastrophic deep burns (>200 t C ha‑1 emitted) under current weather conditions. Furthermore, climate change will cause greater water losses in these peatlands and subject even deeper peat layers to wildfire combustion. However, the rewetting of drained peatlands and the restoration of mined peatlands can effectively lower the risk of these deep burns, especially if a new peat moss layer successfully establishes and raises peat moisture content. We argue that restoration efforts are a necessary measure to mitigate the risk of carbon loss in managed peatlands under climate change.

  9. Identification of rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks in northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambou, Masse; Faye, Ngor; Bassène, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    The spotted fevers, caused by the Rickettsia bacteria, are a group of emerging diseases that are responsible for significant human morbidity. In Africa, the distribution of different species of Rickettsia in their tick vectors is poorly studied. We have collected 1169 hard ticks from 5 different species in the northern Senegal, close to the Saharan border. In a far northern collection site, corresponding to the Rickettsia africae distribution area, we collected three Amblyomma variegatum ticks infected by R. africae. Rickettsia africae was also identified in a Hyalomma marginatum rufipes tick, which may represent the secondary host for the pathogen. Rickettsia aeschlimannii was identified in H. m. rufipes, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, and Hyalomma impeltatum ticks.

  10. Numerical evaluation of the PCBs transport over the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malanichev, Alexander; Mantseva, Elena; Shatalov, Victor; Strukov, Boris; Vulykh, Nadezhda

    2004-03-01

    The numerical evaluation of selected PCB congener (28, 118, 153, 180) transport over the Northern Hemisphere is carried out for 1996 using MSCE-POP model. This model is a multicompartment three-dimensional one and includes various environmental media such as the atmosphere, soil, vegetation, seawater, and sea ice. The spatial resolution is 2.5 deg. x 2.5 deg. for all media except marine one (1.25 deg. x 1.25 deg.). The main model output information is deposition fluxes, spatial distribution of concentrations in environmental media, pathways and source-receptor relationships. Calculation results are analysed for the whole hemisphere and the Arctic region. In particular, this gives an opportunity to estimate the contributions of individual emission source groups to the Arctic pollution. The reliability of the model assessment is analysed by comparison between calculated and observed data. - Transfer of PCBs to the Arctic is assessed using a model of the whole Northern Hemisphere.

  11. Northern Ireland in Transition: The Role of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Mailhes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.

  12. Asymmetric auroral intensities in the Earth's Northern and Southern hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundal, K. M.; Østgaard, N.

    2009-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the aurora borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and aurora australis (Southern Hemisphere) are mirror images of each other because the charged particles causing the aurora follow the magnetic field lines connecting the two hemispheres. The particles are believed to be evenly distributed between the two hemispheres, from the source region in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Although it has been shown that similar auroral features in the opposite hemispheres can be displaced tens of degree in longitude and that seasonal effects can cause differences in global intensity, the overall auroral patterns were still similar. Here we report observations that clearly contradict the common assumption about symmetric aurora: intense spots are seen at dawn in the Northern summer Hemisphere, and at dusk in the Southern winter Hemisphere. The asymmetry is interpreted in terms of inter-hemispheric currents related to seasons, which have been predicted but hitherto had not been seen.

  13. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates.

  14. Late Pleistocene echimyid rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi) from northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thais M F; Olivares, Adriana Itati; Kerber, Leonardo; Dutra, Rodrigo P; Avilla, Leonardo S

    2016-06-07

    Echimyidae (spiny rats, tree rats and the coypu) is the most diverse family of extant South American hystricognath rodents (caviomorphs). Today, they live in tropical forests (Amazonian, coastal and Andean forests), occasionally in more open xeric habitats in the Cerrado and Caatinga of northern South America, and open areas across the southern portion of the continent (Myocastor). The Quaternary fossil record of this family remains poorly studied. Here, we describe the fossil echimyids found in karst deposits from southern Tocantins, northern Brazil. The analyzed specimens are assigned to Thrichomys sp., Makalata cf. didelphoides and Proechimys sp. This is the first time that a fossil of Makalata is reported. The Pleistocene record of echimyids from this area is represented by fragmentary remains, which hinders their determination at specific levels. The data reported here contributes to the understanding of the ancient diversity of rodents of this region, evidenced until now in other groups, such as the artiodactyls, cingulates, carnivores, marsupials, and squamate reptiles.

  15. Impacts of Northern Pike on stocked Rainbow Trout in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibel, Natalie C.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Davis, Jacob L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of nonnative Northern Pike Esox lucius in Pactola Reservoir, South Dakota, has prompted concern among biologists about the influence of this species on the lake’s intensively managed salmonid fisheries. Ancedotal information suggests that catch rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have declined while mean size and abundance of Northern Pike has increased, although quantitative information on diet and growth of the Northern Pike population is lacking. To address potential interactions between Northern Pike and Rainbow Trout, we assessed size-dependent predation by Northern Pike on Rainbow Trout and determined the relative energetic contribution of stocked Rainbow Trout to Northern Pike growth using bioenergetics modeling. Stable isotopes combined with traditional diet analyses revealed that smaller Northern Pike (Pike (≥600 mm TL) consumed primarily Rainbow Trout, which accounted for 56% of their annual energy consumption. Combining estimates of Northern Pike predation with production costs of catchable-size Rainbow Trout revealed that annual economic losses ranged from US$15,259 to $24,801 per year. Over its lifespan, an age-10 Northern Pike was estimated to consume ~117 Rainbow Trout worth approximately $340. Thus, Northern Pike predation substantially influences salmonid management initiatives and is likely a primary factor contributing to reduced Rainbow Trout abundance and return to anglers in Pactola Reservoir. Strategies for reducing Northern Pike predation on Rainbow Trout include increasing the size of stocked fish or altering the timing and spatial distribution of stocking events.

  16. Research Progress on Northern Leaf Blight in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yingnan; WANG Zhenhua

    2009-01-01

    The northern corn leaf blight is one of the most serious diseases in maize production. The research progress on etiology, generation law and control strategy, antigen identification, resistance mechanism and inheritance of this disease was discussed. And the research work which should be enhanced in China was pointed out, such as mechanism of resistance inheritance, developing function marker, gene mining, screening resistance resource and dominant physiological race in different areas.

  17. Roman Coarse Ware from Bavaria, Austria and Northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluegel, Ch. [Landesstelle fuer die nichtstaatlichen Museen in Bayern (Germany); Fluegel, E. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Palaontologie (Germany); Haeusler, W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany); Joachimski, M. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Geologie und Mineralogie (Germany); Koller, J.; Baumer, U. [Doerner-Institut (Germany); Wagner, U. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E15 (Germany)

    2004-06-15

    This interdisciplinary study focuses on a specific type of Roman coarse ware that was widely distributed in Bavaria, Austria and northern Italy during the 1st half of the 1st century AD. Various physical methods were applied to study the provenance of this characteristic marble tempered blackware and to assess its production techniques. The blackware found in large numbers on the Auerberg and at other sites in southern Germany can be identified as imported from East Tyrol, Austria.

  18. Carbon Storage in Mountain Land Use Systems in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Narit Yimyam; Sithichai Lordkaew; Benjavan Rerkasem

    2016-01-01

    Conversion of forested land for agriculture has obvious detrimental effects on its ecological functions, but these effects are not uniform. Mountain land use systems are diverse, encompassing managed forests and cultivated land. This study examined land use systems in 3 mountain villages in northern Thailand with different patterns of cultivation and evaluated the amount of carbon they have accumulated. Land use and management by individual farmers and communities were determined by interview...

  19. Quantifying Risk Factors for Human Brucellosis in Rural Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kunda John; Julie Fitzpatrick; Nigel French; Rudovick Kazwala; Dominic Kambarage; Mfinanga, Godfrey S; Alastair MacMillan; Sarah Cleaveland

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis of veterinary, public health and economic significance in most developing countries. Human brucellosis is a severely debilitating disease that requires prolonged treatment with a combination of antibiotics. The disease can result in permanent and disabling sequel, and results in considerable medical expenses in addition to loss of income due to loss of working hours. A study was conducted in Northern Tanzania to determine the risk factors for transmission...

  20. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Antonietta Costa; Carney Matheson; Lucia Iachetta; Agustín Llagostera; Otto Appenzeller

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. METHODOLOGY: We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses...

  1. The Northern Bering Sea: An Arctic Ecosystem in Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Arctic systems can be rich and diverse habitats for marine life in spite of the extreme cold environment. Benthic faunal populations and associated biogeochemical cycling processes are influenced by sea-ice extent, seawater hydrography (nutrients, salinity, temperature, currents), and water column production. Benthic organisms on the Arctic shelves and margins are long-term integrators of overlying water column processes. Because these organisms have adapted to living at cold extremes, it is reasonable to expect that these communities will be among the most susceptible to climate warming. Recent observations show that Arctic sea ice in the North American Arctic is melting and retreating northward earlier in the season and the timing of these events can have dramatic impacts on the biological system. Changes in overlying primary production, pelagic-benthic coupling, and benthic production and community structure can have cascading effects to higher trophic levels, particularly benthic feeders such as walruses, gray whales, and diving seaducks. Recent indicators of contemporary Arctic change in the northern Bering Sea include seawater warming and reduction in ice extent that coincide with our time-series studies of benthic clam population declines in the shallow northern Bering shelf in the 1990's. In addition, declines in benthic amphipod populations have also likely influenced the movement of feeding gray whales to areas north of Bering Strait during this same time period. Finally a potential consequence of seawater warming and reduced ice extent in the northern Bering Sea could be the northward movement of bottom feeding fish currently in the southern Bering Sea that prey on benthic fauna. This would increase the feeding pressure on the benthic prey base and enhance competition for this food source for benthic-feeding marine mammals and seabirds. This presentation will outline recent biological changes observed in the northern Bering Sea ecosystem as documented in

  2. NORTHERN SEASON” PROJECT – FASHION POSTER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Pronina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis discusses and analyses fashion photography, graphic design and their combination in the process of poster creation. The objective of current study is to investigate how these two spheres of design can be combined in a project. The first part of the thesis describes the methods used and implemented during the analysis process. In addition, information on the Northern Season project is given in order to illustrate and clarify the results of the study. In the photography chap...

  3. Genetically distinct coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Masato; Sasaki, Takeshi; Emerson, J J; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mzighani, Semvua I; Budeba, Yohana L; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Iwata, Masamitsu; Abe, Yoshitaka; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-11-01

    Since the sensational discovery of a living coelacanth off the east coast of South Africa, the geographic distribution of viable coelacanth populations has been a subject of debate. In the past, the coelacanths off the African mainland were thought to be strays from the Comoros because most coelacanths captured were caught in the waters surrounding the Comoros archipelagos. However, in recent years, a large number of coelacanths were captured off the coast of Tanzania, including nine living specimens observed in a remotely operated vehicles survey. Thus, it is possible that there is a reproducing population inhabiting waters off the Tanzania coast. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 21 Tanzanian and 2 Comoran coelacanths and analyzed these sequences together with two additional full mitochondrial genomes and 47 d-loop sequences from the literature. We found that the coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast is genetically differentiated from those of the southern Tanzania coast and the Comoros, whereas no significant genetic differentiation occurs between the latter two localities. The differentiation between the northern and southern Tanzanian coast populations is consistent with the hypothesis that the existence of northward-flowing ocean current along the Tanzanian coast may reduce or prevent gene flow from the northern to the southern population. Finally, we estimated that the population localized to the southern Tanzanian coast and the Comoros diverged from other coelacanths at least 200,000 y ago. These results indicate that the coelacanths off the northern Tanzania coast are not strays but a genetically distinct group. Our study provides important information for the conservation of this threatened "living fossil."

  4. Estimate of evapotranspiration of reference on the northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendes Sanches

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this study was to evaluate the performance and the calibration methods contained in Sevap software for estimating reference evapotranspiration (ET0 for the Northern region of Brazil. The methodologies tested were Hargreaves-Samani, Jensen-Haise, Linacre, Makkink, Priestley & Taylor and Thornthwaite. The meteorological data needed to perform this work were taken from normal climatic (1961-1990 of 47 localities in northern Brazil, provided by the National Institute of Meteorology. The method taken as the standard was the Penman-Monteith FAO-56 and were realized regression analysis between the values obtained with the tested methodologies and values estimated by Sevap software. The calibration equations were performed by using coefficients "a" and "b" of the respective simple linear regression. The comparison of the results was by the coefficient of determination (r2, the coefficients "a" and "b" of the linear regression equations, standard error of estimate (SEE, concordance index of Willmott (d, the Pearson correlation coefficient (r and confidence coefficient (c. Were analyzed the simple correlations between the values of ET0 obtained by the different methods and the measured climatic elements. It was found that the ET0 obtained by Penman-Monteith FAO-56, Jensen-Haise and Makkink were positively correlated with solar radiation. The Hargreaves-Samani and Priestley and Taylor were not showed correlated with any climatic element. The Linacre and Thornthwaite methods were positively correlated with the average and maximum air temperatures. After the calibration of the studied equations, the estimates of different methods were closer to ET0 values by Penman-Monteith. The method of Priestley & Taylor showed better performance than the other methods and can be used for reliable estimation of ET0 in northern Brazil. After being calibrated, the methodologies of Makkink and Jensen-Haise can be used in the estimation of ET0 on the Northern

  5. Large earthquake processes in the northern Vanuatu subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.; Lay, Thorne

    2014-12-01

    The northern Vanuatu (formerly New Hebrides) subduction zone (11°S to 14°S) has experienced large shallow thrust earthquakes with Mw > 7 in 1966 (MS 7.9, 7.3), 1980 (Mw 7.5, 7.7), 1997 (Mw 7.7), 2009 (Mw 7.7, 7.8, 7.4), and 2013 (Mw 8.0). We analyze seismic data from the latter four earthquake sequences to quantify the rupture processes of these large earthquakes. The 7 October 2009 earthquakes occurred in close spatial proximity over about 1 h in the same region as the July 1980 doublet. Both sequences activated widespread seismicity along the northern Vanuatu subduction zone. The focal mechanisms indicate interplate thrusting, but there are differences in waveforms that establish that the events are not exact repeats. With an epicenter near the 1980 and 2009 events, the 1997 earthquake appears to have been a shallow intraslab rupture below the megathrust, with strong southward directivity favoring a steeply dipping plane. Some triggered interplate thrusting events occurred as part of this sequence. The 1966 doublet ruptured north of the 1980 and 2009 events and also produced widespread aftershock activity. The 2013 earthquake rupture propagated southward from the northern corner of the trench with shallow slip that generated a substantial tsunami. The repeated occurrence of large earthquake doublets along the northern Vanuatu subduction zone is remarkable considering the doublets likely involved overlapping, yet different combinations of asperities. The frequent occurrence of large doublet events and rapid aftershock expansion in this region indicate the presence of small, irregularly spaced asperities along the plate interface.

  6. Exposure to Phthalates and Breast Cancer Risk in Northern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez; Calafat, Antonia M.; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Galván-Portillo,Marcia; Needham, Larry L; Ruiz-Ramos, Rubén; Cebrián, Mariano E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Phthalates, ubiquitous environmental pollutants that may disturb the endocrine system, are used primarily as plasticizers of polyvinyl chloride and as additives in consumer and personal care products. Objectives In this study, we examined the association between urinary concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites and breast cancer (BC) in Mexican women. Methods We age-matched 233 BC cases to 221 women residing in northern Mexico. Sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics w...

  7. ON SEVEN OVERLOOKED CURCULIONOIDEA FROM NORTHERN ITALY (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Seven Curculionoidea described from Lombardy (northern Italy) by Virginio Betta in 1857 and overlooked by subsequent authors are here treated. Since the Betta collection where their types are supposed to have been preserved was never traced, neotypes of all of them are designated with the purpose of clarifying their taxonomic status. Revised combinations are: Pseudeuparius pictus (Betta, 1857) comb. rev. from Tropideres Schoenherr, 1823; Pachytychius aericollis (Betta, 1857) comb. rev. from S...

  8. Histoplasmosis among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Sarah M.; Kirsch, Emily J.; Maro, Venance P.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Msuya, Levina J; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Diefenthal, Helmut C.; Ramadhani, Habib O.; Wheat, L. Joseph; Crump, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Histoplasmosis may be common in East Africa but the diagnosis is rarely confirmed. We report 9 (0.9%) cases of probable histoplasmosis retrospectively identified among 970 febrile inpatients studied in northern Tanzania. Median (range) age was 31 (6, 44) years, 6 (66.7%) were female, 6 (66.7%) HIV-infected; 7 (77.8%) were clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis or bacterial pneumonia. Histoplasmosis is an important cause of febrile illness in Tanzania but is rarely considered in the differenti...

  9. Mountain uplift and the threshold for sustained Northern Hemisphere Glaciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Foster

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene (~24 to ~5 million years ago was a period of relative global warmth (e.g. Zachos et al. 2001 characterised by the glaciation of Antarctica only. Paradoxically, the majority of available proxy data suggest that during the Miocene pCO2 was similar, or even lower, than the pre-industrial levels (280 ppmv; Pagani et al., 1999; Pearson and Palmer, 2000; Kürschner et al., 1996, 2008 and at times probably crossed the modelled threshold value required for sustained glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere (DeConto et al., 2008. Records of ice rafted debris and the oxygen isotope composition of benthic foraminifera suggest that at several times over the last 25 million years substantial amounts of continental ice did build up in the Northern Hemisphere but none of these led to sustained glaciation. In this contribution we review evidence that suggests that in the Miocene the North American Cordillera was, at least in parts, considerably lower than today. We present new GCM simulations that imply that Late Miocene uplift of the North American Cordillera would have resulted in significant cooling of Northern North American Continent. Offline ice sheet modelling, driven by these GCM outputs, suggests that with a reduced topography inception of the Cordilleran ice sheet is prohibited, and there is a small, but potentially significant, reduction in the amount of ice grown on Baffin Island. This suggests uplift of the North American Cordillera in the Late Miocene may have played an important role in priming the climate for the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation in the Late Pliocene.

  10. Rural electrification: Waste biomass Russian northern territories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamian, S. [ECOTRADE, Inc., Glendale, CA (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The primary objective of this pre-feasibility evaluation is to examine the economic and technical feasibility of replacing distillate fuel with local waste biomass in the village of Verkhni-Ozerski, Arkhangelsk Region, Russia. This village is evaluated as a pilot location representing the off-grid villages in the Russian Northern Territories. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has agreed to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MFE). MFE has identified the Northern Territories as a priority area requiring NREL`s assistance. The program initially affects about 900 off-grid villages. Biomass and wind energy, and to a lesser extent small hydro (depending on resource availability) are expected to play the dominant role in the program, Geothermal energy may also have a role in the Russian Far East. The Arkhangelsk, Kariela, and Krasnoyarsk Regions, all in the Russian Northern Territories, have abundant forest resources and forest products industries, making them strong candidates for implementation of small-scale waste biomass-to-energy projects. The 900 or so villages included in the renewable energy program span nine administrative regions and autonomous republics. The regional authorities in the Northern Territories proposed these villages to MFE for consideration in the renewable energy program according to the following selection criteria: (a) Remote off-grid location, (b) high cost of transporting fuel, old age of existing power generation equipment, and (d) preliminary determination as to availability of alternative energy resources. Inclusion of indigenous minorities in the program was also heavily emphasized. The prefeasibility study demonstrates that the project merits continuation and a full feasibility analysis. The demonstrated rate of return and net positive cash flow, the willingness of Onegales and local/regional authorities to cooperate, and the immense social benefits are all good reasons to continue the project.

  11. Areal potential Haude-evapotranspiration for Northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, R.

    1988-02-01

    Daily observations of 66 stations in Northern Germany were used to calculate Haude's potential evapotranspiration. A variogram analysis tested spatial reproduction. A long range annual mean of 1951-80 of potential evapotranspiration is presented in a chart together with charts of mean evapotranspiration for oats, apples, winterwheat, beetroot, winterbarley, maize and pasture within their phenological phases emergence to maturity or end of season.

  12. Geological map of land and seaareas of northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway, in cooperation with the Geological Surveys of 22 other countries and under the aegis of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW), has compiled a geological map of northern Europe at the 1:4 million scale.For the first time the geology of both land and sea areas of this large region is displayed in a single document. The area covered extends

  13. Birds of sacred groves of northern Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Jyothi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred groves are patches of vegetation preserved due to  religious or cultural tradition.  They are protected through spiritual beliefs.  Sacred groves provide an excellent abode to the biodiversity of the region where they are located.   Scientific exploration of fauna from sacred groves of India is few and far between.  The present study was conducted to explore the bird diversity and abundance in 15 selected sacred groves of northern Kerala, eight from Kannur District and seven from Kasargod District each.  A total of 111 bird species were observed belonging to 49 families and 16 orders.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala support many of the ‘forest-birds’ such as the Grey Junglefowl Gallus sonneratii, Asian Fairy-bluebird Irena puella, Tickell’s Blue-flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae, Malabar Trogon Harpactes fasciatus, Heart-spotted Woodpecker Hemicircus canente, Malabar Whistling-Thrush Myophonus horsfieldii, Little Spiderhunter Arachnothera longirostra, etc.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also support two endemic bird species of the Western Ghats, such as the Malabar Grey Hornbill Ocyceros griseus and Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufa. Five species of raptors and four owl species were reported from the sacred groves of north Kerala during the present study.  The breeding of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle has been reported at Edayilakadu Kavu, a sacred grove in Kasargod District.  The sacred groves of northern Kerala also supported 17 species of long distant migratory birds.  Thazhe Kavu, recorded the Black-headed Ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus, a Near-Threatened bird according to IUCN. 

  14. Maintaining the environmental-racial order in northern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmsen, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The environmental - racial order in northern New Mexico is maintained through a process of racial triangulation in which Anglos, Native Americans, and Hispanos are valued relative to one another along axes of environmental stewardship and victimization (Kim C J, 1999, "The racial triangulation of Asian Americans" Politics and Society 27 105 - 138). Both axes involve the juxtaposing of three long-standing images: (1) Spanish injustices to the Indians; (2) the inability of Mexicans to manage th...

  15. Occurrence of haemoparasites in cattle in Monduli district, northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Isihaka J. Haji; Imna Malele; Boniface Namangala

    2014-01-01

    Haemoparasite infections are among the most economically important cattle diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study investigated the occurrence of haemoparasites in 295 indigenous cattle from five villages (Mswakini, Lake Manyara, Naitolia, Makuyuni and Nanja) of the Monduli district, a wildlife-domestic animal-human interface area in northern Tanzania. The data showed that the overall occurrence of haemoparasites in the sampled cattle was 12.5% (95% CI: 8.7% – 16.3%), involving singl...

  16. A decision support tool for basin irrigation in northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumuyiwa S. Asaolu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate rainfall, water resources scarcity and attendant food security-related problems have made irrigation technology a necessity. This work presents the development of a decision support system for solving surface irrigation design problems in northern Nigeria. The arid northern states affected by desert encroachment constitute a good candidate and their climatological data was obtained from the Nigerian Metrological Agency. The interactive system was defined in terms of inputs and outputs. The inputs were properties of soil, surface irrigation method and climate. The outputs were mainly the quantity of water application, scheduling pattern, possible design configuration, advance time, cut-off time, application rate, and water use efficiency. The FAO Penman-Monteith equation was used to estimate evapotranspiration values of major crops grown in Nigeria. Mathematical models outlined by Walker and Skogerboe were adapted, and heuristics applied in determining the best configuration that achieves optimum water application efficiency. We encoded the knowledge base using Matlab® software. The application was successfully used for the modification of a farm irrigation scheme in Kaduna state. This indicates that the adoption of new technologies for irrigation design issues could enhance agricultural productivity in northern Nigeria.

  17. Conjugate observations of Saturn's northern and southern H3+ aurorae

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Cowley, Stan W H; Badman, Sarah V; Moore, Luke; Miller, Steve; Tao, Chihiro; Baines, Kevin H; Blake, James S D

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of recent high spatial and spectral resolution ground-based infrared observations of H3+ spectra obtained with the 10-metre Keck II telescope in April 2011. We observed H3+ emission from Saturn's northern and southern auroral regions, simultaneously, over the course of more than two hours, obtaining spectral images along the central meridian as Saturn rotates. Previous ground-based work has derived only an average temperature of an individual polar region, summing an entire night of observations. Here we analyse 20 H3+ spectra, 10 for each hemisphere, providing H3+ temperature, column density and total emission in both the northern and southern polar regions simultaneously, improving on past results in temporal cadence and simultaneity. We find that: 1) the average thermospheric temperatures are 527+/-18 K in northern Spring and 583+/-13 K in southern Autumn, respectively; 2) this asymmetry in temperature is likely to be the result of an inversely proportional relationship between the t...

  18. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems.

  19. Seroprevalence of Babesia infections of dairy cows in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Hiroshi; Zhou, Lijia; Kim, Chulmin; Inpankaew, Tawin; Sununta, Chainirun; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Xuan, Xuenan; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo

    2010-06-24

    The present study was conducted to demonstrate the epidemiological distribution of bovine babesiosis in the northern regions of Thailand. A total of 700 serum samples of dairy cows in the northern provinces (Chiang Rai, Chiang Mai, Lumpang, and Mae Hong Sorn) were tested for antibodies against Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Species-specific enzyme-linked (rRAP-1/CTs) were performed. According to the results, 517 (73.8%) and 484 (69.1%) were positive for B. bovis and B. bigemina, respectively. In addition, 370 (52.9%) were positive for mixed infections by both ELISAs. On the other hand, all samples were also examined by the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) with B. bovis- and B. bigemina-infected blood smears. According to the IFAT, 482 (68.8%) and 531 (75.8%) were positive for these infections, respectively. The overall concordances between the ELISA and IFAT techniques were 93.6% and 90.7% for B. bovis and B. bigemina infections, respectively. These results indicated that babesia infections are widespread in the northern parts of Thailand. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the epidemiology of Babesia infections using rRAP-1/CT-based ELISAs in these areas.

  20. Lick Northern Proper Motion Program. III. Lick NPM2 Catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, R B; Jones, B F; Monet, D G; Hanson, Robert B.; Klemola, Arnold R.; Jones, Burton F.; Monet, David G.

    2004-01-01

    The Lick Northern Proper Motion (NPM) program, a two-epoch (1947-1988) photographic survey of the northern two-thirds of the sky (Dec. > -23 deg), has measured absolute proper motions, on an inertial system defined by distant galaxies, for 380,000 stars from 8 14) anonymous stars for astrometry and galactic studies, 92,000 bright (B < 14) positional reference stars, and 35,000 special stars chosen for astrophysical interest. The NPM2 proper motions are on the ICRS system, via Tycho-2 stars, to an accuracy of 0.5 mas/yr in each field. RMS proper motion precision is 6 mas/yr. Positional errors average 80 mas at the mean plate epoch 1968, and 200 mas at the NPM2 catalog epoch 2000. NPM2 photographic photometry errors average 0.18 mag in B, and 0.20 mag in B-V. The NPM2 Catalog and the updated (to J2000) NPM1 Catalog are available at the CDS Strasbourg data center and on the NPM WWW site (http://www.ucolick.org/~npm). The NPM2 Catalog completes the Lick Northern Proper Motion program after a half-century of w...

  1. Tourism, biodiversity and protected areas--Review from northern Fennoscandia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Anne; Kangas, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Tourist numbers in northern Fennoscandia outweigh those in other northern boreal - arctic regions, which creates a specific need to evaluate the impacts of tourism. This review 1) identifies patterns and trends in the vegetation and wildlife of northern Fennoscandian terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of tourism and recreation, 2) discusses the implications of findings in terms of the intensity, area and magnitude of impacts, changing climate and management needs under increasing tourist pressure, and 3) identifies research gaps. The reviewed studies show negative environmental and biodiversity impacts that are most pronounced near tourist resorts. The most sensitive plants, birds and mammals decline or disappear from the disturbed sites, and the species composition shifts from 'wild' species to cultural and human associated species. There is little research on the spread of alien species, but the few examples show that alien species can be promoted by tourism activities. Impacts of the use of motorized vehicles have not been widely studied either, despite the extensive track network which can cause disturbance to wildlife. The integrated impacts of tourism and climate change on the vegetation and wildlife was not addressed directly in any of the reviewed studies. In addition, little research has been done on carrying out restoration at tourist areas. Scientific research on these topics is needed to prevent, minimize or restore the most negative ecological impacts of tourism and recreation.

  2. Emission-Line Fluxes of Northern Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Aksaker, N; Kızıloğlu, Ü; Atalay, B

    2015-01-01

    We present long slit spectrophotometric emission line fluxes of bright and extended (<5 arcsec in diameter) Planetary Nebulae (PNe) selected from Acker et al. 1992 catalog with suitable equitorial coordinates for Northern hemisphere. In total, 17 PNe have been choosen and observed in 2008--2010. To measure absolute fluxes, broad slit sizes, ranging from 3.5\\arcsec to 7.5\\arcsec were used and thus equivalent widths of all observable emission line fluxes were also calculated. Among 17 PNe's observed, line flux measurements of 12 of them were made for the first time. This work also aims to extend the sky coverage of emission line flux standards in Northern hemisphere (Dopita & Hua 1997 - 52 PNe in Southern hemisphere; Wright et al. 2005 - 6 PNe in Northern hemisphere). Electron temperatures and densities, and chemical abundances of these PNe were also calculated in this work. These data is expected to lead the photometric or spectrometric further work for absolute emission line flux measurements needed fo...

  3. Peatmoss (Sphagnum) diversification associated with Miocene Northern Hemisphere climatic cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Jonathan; Devos, Nicolas; Cox, Cymon J; Boles, Sandra B; Shaw, Blanka; Buchanan, Alex M; Cave, Lynette; Seppelt, Rodney

    2010-06-01

    Global climate changes sometimes spark biological radiations that can feed back to effect significant ecological impacts. Northern Hemisphere peatlands dominated by living and dead peatmosses (Sphagnum) harbor almost 30% of the global soil carbon pool and have functioned as a net carbon sink throughout the Holocene, and probably since the late Tertiary. Before that time, northern latitudes were dominated by tropical and temperate plant groups and ecosystems. Phylogenetic analyses of mosses (phylum Bryophyta) based on nucleotide sequences from the plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes indicate that most species of Sphagnum are of recent origin (ca. <20 Ma). Sphagnum species are not only well-adapted to boreal peatlands, they create the conditions that promote development of peatlands. The recent radiation that gave rise to extant diversity of peatmosses is temporally associated with Miocene climatic cooling in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of Sphagnum has had profound influences on global biogeochemistry because of the unique biochemical, physiological, and morphological features of these plants, both while alive and after death.

  4. Settlement Dynamics In The Northern Fringes Of Port Harcourt Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibama Brown

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Growth in Port Harcourt has been experienced in terms of population and space. However while some settlements in the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis are growing rapidly some are almost stagnant if not shrinking. This work has identified reasons why Port Harcourt is growing towards the north factors for changes in population land-use and infrastructure the magnitude of the changes in population and infrastructure have been identified the role of both the public and private sector in addressing the issue of rapid growth of settlements that are immerging as the bigger settlements in an unplanned and uncontrollable way have been discussed. Questionnaires were administered oral interviews were conducted and personal observations helped in gathering information about the study area. Findings indicates that there is correlation between population and infrastructural development some settlements are densely populated while others are sparsely populated some settlements need facilities that will cause multipliers effect while others need facilities that will serve their basic needs. People are moving to the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis because land is available less expensive and the topography encourages infrastructural development. This work has assessed the dynamics of settlements in the northern fringes of Port Harcourt metropolis by looking at changes in population and infrastructure.

  5. Holocene tephra deposits in the northern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of sediments of Core CSH1, which was collected from the northern Okinawa Trough, indicate that large amounts of volcanic materials have deposited in the northern Okinawa Trough during the Holocene. On the basis of down-core variations in mineral and element contents of sediments, two layers in the uppermost section of Core CSH1 characterized by high quartz, Na2O, MnO, K2O, uranium contents and low contents of clay minerals, volatiles, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO and strontium, have been identified as the tephra deposits. Systematic grain-size measurements also suggest that sediments from the northern Okinawa Trough are made up of terrigenous materials and volcanic ashes with different proportion during the Holocene. The sediments of tephra layers in Core CSH1 show bi-modal patterns in grain-size distribution with modal grain-sizes of 74.3 and 7.81 μm,respectively. According to the radiocarbon dating on shells of zooplankton foraminifera, two tephra layers in Core CSH1, formed at 7 250 and 10 870 a BP (cal), approximately correspond to the K-Ah tephra [7 300 a BP (cal)] and the eruption of Kuju Volcano (12~10 ka BP), respectively.

  6. Regional metallogenic structure based on aeromagnetic data in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-San; Lu, Min-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Chile is a very important country that forms part of the Andean metallogenic belts. The Atacama and Domeyko fault systems in northern Chile control the tectonic-magmatic activities that migrate eastward and the types of mineral resources. In this paper, we processed and interpreted aeromagnetic data from northern Chile using reduction to pole, upward field continuation, the second derivative calculation in the vertical direction, inclination angle calculation, and analytical signal amplitude analysis. We revealed the locations and planar distribution characteristics of the regional deep faults along the NNE and NS directions. Furthermore, we observed that the major reasons for the formation of the tectonic-magmatic rocks belts were the nearly parallel deep faults distributed from west to east and multiple magmatic activities along these faults. We ascertained the locations of volcanic mechanisms and the relationships between them using these regional deep faults. We deduced the spatial distributions of the basic-intermediate, basic, and acidic igneous rocks, intrusive rocks, and sedimentary sequences. We showed the linear positive magnetic anomalies and magnetic anomaly gradient zones by slowly varying the background, negative magnetic anomaly field, which indicated the presence of strong magmatic activities in these regional deep faults; it also revealed the favorable areas of copper and polymetallic mineralization. This study provides some basic information for further research on the geology, structural characteristics, and mineral resource prospecting in northern Chile.

  7. Time trends and correlates of late presentation for HIV care in Northern Greece during the decade 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simeon Metallidis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to assess the extent of late presentation for HIV care in Northern Greece during the period 2000 to 2010 and to explore correlations aiming to provide guidance for future interventions. Methods: HIV-positive patients with no prior history of HIV care at presentation and with a CD4 T cell count within three months from the first confirmatory Western blot result were eligible for this study. Late presentation and advanced HIV disease were defined in concordance with the recommendations of the European Late Presenter Consensus working group. Time trends in presentation status and risk factors linked to late presentation and advanced HIV disease were identified in multivariable logistic regression models. Additional analyses after multiple imputation of missing values were performed to assess the robustness of our findings. Results: The status at presentation was evaluated for 631 eligible HIV-positive individuals. Overall, 52.5% (95% CI: 48.6% to 56.4% of patients presented late for HIV care and 31.2% (95% CI: 27.6% to 34.8% presented with advanced HIV disease. Time trends were consistent with an improvement in the presentation status of our study population (p<0.001. Risk factors associated with late presentation in multivariable logistic regression were intravenous drug use, heterosexual HIV transmission, immigrant status and age at diagnosis. Conclusions: Despite the trend for improvement, a significant proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients present late for care. Targeted interventions with focus on social groups such as the elderly, persons who inject drugs, immigrants and individuals at risk for heterosexual HIV transmission are mandated.

  8. Possible future changes in extreme events over Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Sokolov, Andrei; Scott, Jeffery

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigate possible future climate change over Northern Eurasia and its impact on extreme events. Northern Eurasia is a major player in the global carbon budget because of boreal forests and peatlands. Circumpolar boreal forests alone contain more than five times the amount of carbon of temperate forests and almost double the amount of carbon of the world's tropical forests. Furthermore, severe permafrost degradation associated with climate change could result in peatlands releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide and methane. Meanwhile, changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme events, such as extreme precipitation, heat waves or frost days are likely to have substantial impacts on Northern Eurasia ecosystems. For this reason, it is very important to quantify the possible climate change over Northern Eurasia under different emissions scenarios, while accounting for the uncertainty in the climate response and changes in extreme events. For several decades, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change has been investigating uncertainty in climate change using the MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) framework, an integrated assessment model that couples an earth system model of intermediate complexity (with a 2D zonal-mean atmosphere) to a human activity model. In this study, regional change is investigated using the MIT IGSM-CAM framework that links the IGSM to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). New modules were developed and implemented in CAM to allow climate parameters to be changed to match those of the IGSM. The simulations presented in this paper were carried out for two emission scenarios, a "business as usual" scenario and a 660 ppm of CO2-equivalent stabilization, which are similar to, respectively, the Representative Concentration Pathways RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios. Values of climate sensitivity and net aerosol

  9. Northern Arabian Sea Circulation Autonomous Research (NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    NASCar) DRI: A Study of Vertical Mixing Processes in the Northern Arabian Sea Ramsey R. Harcourt Applied Physics Laboratory University of...Sullivan of NCAR. Although its physical model is substantially similar to the LES used in prior research (e.g. Harcourt, 2008) the NCAR LES code...convective boundary layer statistics and structures generated by large-eddy simulation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 68, 2395-2415.

  10. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

  11. Northern Hemisphere Polar Moisture Budget and Its Links to the Major Circulation Phenomena over the Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolina, O.; Dufour, A.; Gulev, S.

    2015-12-01

    We analyse atmospheric moisture budget and its components over the Northern Hemisphere north of 60N using 7 first generation and modern era reanalyses (NCEP-1, NCEP-DOE, NCEP-CFSR, MERRA, JRA-25, JRA-55, ERA-Interim) for the period from 1979 onwards. Estimates of moisture transport were derived using decomposition of the moisture advection into the mean flow and transient eddy transport components. Extensive evaluation demonstrates general qualitative consistency of different products in replication the structure of the transports, however quantitative differences between different reanalyses may be quite pronounced and relate in particular to the fractional contribution of transient eddies to the total transport. Transient eddy transport over the Northern Eurasia and the North European basin was further associated with the cyclone activity diagnosed by different products and it has been found that cyclones may seriously contribute to the northward moisture advection. Importantly, this contribution is associated not only with the area of the main subpolar storm track in the North European basin but also with the area of continental storm tracks over the Northern Eurasia. Analysis of long-term interannual variability in different components of the highlatitude moisture budget demonstrated that the moisture advection tended to decrease over the last several decades while the Arctic hydrological cycle has intensifies with upward changes in both evaporation and precipitation. This is confirmed by all reanalyses analyzed and hints on the importance of local diabatic mechanisms in changing Arctic hydrological cycle in the period of rising Arctic temperatures and declining sea ice extent.

  12. Spread of CTX-M-type ESßLs in isolates of E. coli from long-term care and rehabilitation facilities in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Nucleo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period March 2003 – May 2004 at the Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology “Redaelli” LTCRF in Milan, Italy, a total of 529 E. coli, obtained from inpatients of 3 different Long Term Care Rehabilitation Facilities (LTCRFs in Northern Italy, were processed and 77 ESßLs producers (14.5% were identified by Vitek System. The results were confirmed by double-disk synergy test with tazobactam (TZP. 61/77 isolates were characterized by higher levels of resistance to cefotaxime (CTX than to ceftazidime (CAZ. (ß-lactamase production was investigated by analytical isoelectric focusing (IEF coupled with a bioassay and showed multiple (ß-lactamase bands including one enzyme with pI 8.4 that, in a bioassay, was more active on CTX,ATM than on CAZ. The presence of (ß-lactamase genes was investigated by colony blot hybridization and by PCR amplification of blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M alleles. 43/61 isolates produced both TEM-1 and CTX-M-type enzymes, 14/61 expressed only CTX-M-type while in 4 cases were found blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaSHV genes.The remainders (16/77, characterized by high levels of resistance to both CTX and CAZ, produced TEM-1 and SHV-5 enzymes (1/16 and TEM type ESßLs (15/16. Conjugation experiments, performed in liquid medium, confermed that the ESßLs determinants were transferable. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of genomic DNA, digested with NotI, were analysed and revealed clonal heterogeneity. Our work confirms the emergence of CTX-M-type enzymes and their spread in Northern Italy also in longterm care and rehabilitation facilities that may be an important reservoir of ES?L producing E. coli.

  13. Modeling annual discharge of six Mexico’s northern rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Jesus Navar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this report was to understand river discharge variability to improve conventional water management practices of Mexico’s northern subtropical rivers. This report addresses whether: a river discharge tendencies, patterns and cycles can be detected with proxy and instrumental records; and b annual discharge can be forecasted by stochastic models. Eleven gauging stations of six major rivers; three lowland rivers discharging into the Pacific Ocean (Rios Santa Cruz, Acaponeta, and San Pedro; five upland rivers draining into the Pacific Ocean (Rio San Pedro: Peña del Aguila, Refugio Salcido, San Felipe, Vicente Guerrero and Saltito, one river flowing across the interior Basin (Rio Nazas: Salomé Acosta and two more rivers discharging into the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Rio San Juan: El Cuchillo and Rio Ramos: Pablillos were statistically analyzed. Instrumental recorded daily discharge data (1940-1999 and reconstructed time series data (1860-1940 using dendrochronological analysis delivered annual discharge data to be modeled using autoregressive integrated moving average, ARIMA models. Spectral density analysis, autocorrelation functions and the standardized annual discharge data evaluated annual discharge frequency cycles. Results showed ARIMA models with two autoregressive and one moving average coefficient adequately project river discharge for all gauging stations with four of them showing significant declining patterns since 1860. ARIMA models in combination with autocorrelation and spectral density techniques as well as standardized departures, in agreement with present (2002-2010 observations, forecast a wet episode that may last between 9 and 12 years thereafter entering again into a dry episode. Three dry-wet spell cycles with different time scales (1-2 years; 4-7 years; 9-12 years could be discerned from these analyses that are consistent for all three northern Mexico’s river clusters that emerged from a multivariate

  14. Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans in the Northern Andean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald Niklaus J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, the causal agent of potato late blight, is responsible for tremendous crop losses worldwide. Countries in the northern part of the Andes dedicate a large proportion of the highlands to the production of potato, and more recently, solanaceous fruits such as cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana and tree tomato (Solanum betaceum, all of which are hosts of this oomycete. In the Andean region, P. infestans populations have been well characterized in Ecuador and Peru, but are poorly understood in Colombia and Venezuela. To understand the P. infestans population structure in the Northern part of the Andes, four nuclear regions (ITS, Ras, β-tubulin and Avr3a and one mitochondrial (Cox1 region were analyzed in isolates of P. infestans sampled from different hosts in Colombia and Venezuela. Results Low genetic diversity was found within this sample of P. infestans isolates from crops within several regions of Colombia and Venezuela, revealing the presence of clonal populations of the pathogen in this region. We detected low frequency heterozygotes, and their distribution patterns might be a consequence of a high migration rate among populations with poor effective gene flow. Consistent genetic differentiation exists among isolates from different regions. Conclusions The results here suggest that in the Northern Andean region P. infestans is a clonal population with some within-clone variation. P. infestans populations in Venezuela reflect historic isolation that is being reinforced by a recent self-sufficiency of potato seeds. In summary, the P. infestans population is mainly shaped by migration and probably by the appearance of variants of key effectors such as Avr3a.

  15. Northern California Earthquake Data Center: Data Sets and Data Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, D. S.; Allen, R. M.; Zuzlewski, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC) provides a permanent archive and real-time data distribution services for a unique and comprehensive data set of seismological and geophysical data sets encompassing northern and central California. We provide access to over 85 terabytes of continuous and event-based time series data from broadband, short-period, strong motion, and strain sensors as well as continuous and campaign GPS data at both standard and high sample rates. The Northen California Seismic System (NCSS), operated by UC Berkeley and USGS Menlo Park, has recorded over 900,000 events from 1984 to the present, and the NCEDC serves catalog, parametric information, moment tensors and first motion mechanisms, and time series data for these events. We also serve event catalogs, parametric information, and event waveforms for DOE enhanced geothermal system monitoring in northern California and Nevada. The NCEDC provides a several ways for users to access these data. The most recent development are web services, which provide interactive, command-line, or program-based workflow access to data. Web services use well-established server and client protocols and RESTful software architecture that allow users to easily submit queries and receive the requested data in real-time rather than through batch or email-based requests. Data are returned to the user in the appropriate format such as XML, RESP, simple text, or MiniSEED depending on the service and selected output format. The NCEDC supports all FDSN-defined web services as well as a number of IRIS-defined and NCEDC-defined services. We also continue to support older email-based and browser-based access to data. NCEDC data and web services can be found at http://www.ncedc.org and http://service.ncedc.org.

  16. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  17. Lick Northern Proper Motion Program. III. Lick NPM2 Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert B.; Klemola, Arnold R.; Jones, Burton F.; Monet, David G.

    2004-09-01

    The Lick Northern Proper Motion (NPM) program, a two-epoch (1947-1988) photographic survey of the northern two-thirds of the sky (δ>~-23deg), has measured absolute proper motions, on an inertial system defined by distant galaxies, for 378,360 stars in the magnitude range 8NPM1 Catalog contains 148,940 stars in 899 fields outside the Milky Way's zone of avoidance. The 2003 NPM2 Catalog contains 232,062 stars in the remaining 347 NPM fields near the plane of the Milky Way. This paper describes the NPM2 star selection, plate measurements, astrometric and photometric data reductions, and catalog compilation. The NPM2 Catalog contains 122,806 faint (B>=14) anonymous stars for astrometry and Galactic studies, 91,648 bright (BNPM2 proper motions are on the ICRS system, via Tycho-2 stars, to an accuracy of 0.6 mas yr-1 in each field. The rms proper-motion precision is 6 mas yr-1. Positional errors average 80 mas at the mean plate epoch 1968, and 200 mas at the NPM2 catalog epoch 2000. NPM2 photographic photometry errors average 0.18 mag in B and 0.20 mag in B-V. The NPM2 Catalog and the updated (to J2000.0) NPM1 Catalog are available at the CDS Strasbourg data center and on the NPM Web site. The NPM2 Catalog completes the Lick Northern Proper Motion program after a half-century of work by three generations of Lick Observatory astronomers. The NPM Catalogs will serve as a database for research in Galactic structure, stellar kinematics, and astrometry.

  18. Spring Hydrology Determines Summer Net Carbon Uptake in Northern Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John; Reichle, Rolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased photosynthetic activity and enhanced seasonal CO2 exchange of northern ecosystems have been observed from a variety of sources including satellite vegetation indices (such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) and atmospheric CO2 measurements. Most of these changes have been attributed to strong warming trends in the northern high latitudes (greater than or equal to 50N). Here we analyze the interannual variation of summer net carbon uptake derived from atmospheric CO2 measurements and satellite NDVI in relation to surface meteorology from regional observational records. We find that increases in spring precipitation and snow pack promote summer net carbon uptake of northern ecosystems independent of air temperature effects. However, satellite NDVI measurements still show an overall benefit of summer photosynthetic activity from regional warming and limited impact of spring precipitation. This discrepancy is attributed to a similar response of photosynthesis and respiration to warming and thus reduced sensitivity of net ecosystem carbon uptake to temperature. Further analysis of boreal tower eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements indicates that summer net carbon uptake is positively correlated with early growing-season surface soil moisture, which is also strongly affected by spring precipitation and snow pack based on analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals. This is attributed to strong regulation of spring hydrology on soil respiration in relatively wet boreal and arctic ecosystems. These results document the important role of spring hydrology in determining summer net carbon uptake and contrast with prevailing assumptions of dominant cold temperature limitations to high-latitude ecosystems. Our results indicate potentially stronger coupling of boreal/arctic water and carbon cycles with continued regional warming trends.

  19. Future aerosol reductions and widening of the northern tropical belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.; Ajoku, Osinachi

    2016-06-01

    Observations show that the tropical belt has widened over the past few decades, a phenomenon associated with poleward migration of subtropical dry zones and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Although part of this signal is related to natural climate variability, studies have identified an externally forced contribution primarily associated with greenhouse gases (GHGs) and stratospheric ozone loss. Here we show that the increase in aerosols over the twentieth century has led to contraction of the northern tropical belt, thereby offsetting part of the widening associated with the increase in GHGs. Over the 21st century, however, when aerosol emissions are projected to decrease, the effects of aerosols and GHGs reinforce one another, both contributing to widening of the northern tropical belt. Models that have larger aerosol forcing, by including aerosol indirect effects on cloud albedo and lifetime, yield significantly larger Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropical widening than models with direct aerosol effects only. More targeted simulations show that future reductions in aerosols can drive NH tropical widening as large as greenhouse gases, and idealized simulations show the importance of NH midlatitude aerosol forcing. Mechanistically, the 21st century reduction in aerosols peaks near 40°N, which results in a corresponding maximum increase in surface solar radiation, NH midlatitude tropospheric warming amplification, and a poleward shift in the latitude of maximum baroclinicity, implying a corresponding shift in atmospheric circulation. If models with aerosol indirect effects better represent the real world, then future aerosol changes are likely to be an important -- if not dominant -- driver of NH tropical belt widening.

  20. Sustainable Management of Conurbation Forestsin Northern Hesse (FRG)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SCHULZKER; STOLLS

    2005-01-01

    Today 42% (9 000 km2) of the area of Hesse is covered with forests. The total area of forests has slightly increased since several years. But actually the forests adjacent to the conurbations of Northern Hesse in the vicinity of Kassel in particular and in the Rhein-Main Region surrounding Frankfurt are in a very difficult position. There is big demand for land to be converted into settlements, infrastructure, etc., while there is increasing need for the protective and recreational functions of the forests. Therefore maintenance of existing forests and establishment of new forests are amongst the most important responsibilities of the forest authorities on regional and district level.

  1. Orientation of the northern gate of the Goseck Neolithic rondel

    OpenAIRE

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2009-01-01

    The two southernmost gates of the Goseck rondel, built by the Stichbandkeramik culture around 4800 BCE, were oriented to the winter solstice sunrise and sunset. The northern gate of the rondel deviates a few degrees from the Meridian line. It is suggested that this deviation from the cardinal direction is due a stellar orientation towards Edasich, which was the pole star at the time, and is thus related to the concept of the world pillar and the pole star as the top of it.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit is 633 square miles and consists of 35 groundwater basins and subbasins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Mathany and Belitz, 2015). These basins and subbasins were grouped into two study areas based primarily on locality. The groundwater basins and subbasins located inland, not adjacent to the Pacific Ocean, were aggregated into the Interior Basins (NOCO-IN) study area. The groundwater basins and subbasins adjacent to the Pacific Ocean were aggregated into the Coastal Basins (NOCO-CO) study area (Mathany and others, 2011).

  3. The Meridional Flux of Sensible Heat over the Northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    White, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The meridional eddy flux of sensible heat is examined by means of finite difference integration methods from northern hemisphere charts for the winter 1945-46. The eddy sensible heat flux is shown to occur principally in the lowest layers of the atmosphere and to decrease with elevation. The magnitude of the eddy sensible heat transports are compared with the total poleward energy flux required by the radiation balance, and are shown to comprise a very large fraction of this flux.DOI: 10.1111...

  4. Childhood disability and parental moral responsibility in northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the roles played by parents living in Hanoi, Vietnam, in shaping the subjectivities of children who are categorized as physically or intellectually impaired. In an effort to comprehend disability in terms of an active and embodied engagement with the world, I employ...... a phenomenologically inspired 'intercorporeal' perspective as a conceptual alternative to 'medical' and 'social' models of disability. Through this approach I show how, in northern Vietnam, disability in children brings into question the moral integrity of their parents and how this compels parents to define...

  5. Arable land increase in northern China: facts and findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on investigations between 1986 and 1996 in the four provinces of northern China, major problems on land reclamation were discovered. The increase of arable land was mainly low quality fields from barren land and was susceptible to disertification and water-induced soil erosion. In the meantime, large area of grassland and forestland was lost or degraded, and original fertile arable land was occupied for residential and industrial use. As a result the environment deteriorated. This change was mainly caused by economic development, population growth, inferior natural conditions, and irrational management strategies. Finally some positive measures were suggested to stop this negative cycle.

  6. Paleozoic Accretionary Terranes in Northern Tianshan,NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    During the paleozoic,the Northern Tianshan region of China in Central Asia consists of 7 allochthonous terranes which were situated in the ancient sino-Mongolian Ocean as volcanic arcs and splitted continental fragments.The tectonic framework was similar to that of Southwest pacific today,In the Late Paleozoic,these terranes started mutual amalgamation to cause strong thrusting.At thd end of Carboniferous,the Sino-mongolian ocean including several inter-terrane small sea basins closed and these terranes accreted on the margins of the Siberian and Tarim continents,The 6 ophiolitic zones zomong the terranes recorded this collision event.

  7. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George;

    2015-01-01

    Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed......, diabetes, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We checked the availability of diagnostic instruments and medicines, and interviewed health workers. Results : The four conditions were rarely diagnosed in the outpatient population. Hypertension was the most common, but still constituted...

  8. The visibility of non-communicable diseases in northern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Park, Sung-Joon; Odong, George;

    2015-01-01

    Background : WHO and Uganda’s Ministry of Health emphasize the need to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Treatment for these conditions is urgent in northern Uganda where war has negatively affected both health and the public health care system. Objectives : We aimed...... under 1% of diagnoses. Patterns of diagnosis were uneven, with higher frequency of particular diagnoses at some health facilities. Diagnostic equipment was not sufficient and screening was irregular. Medicine was mostly available although stockouts of some relevant drugs were reported. Conclusions...

  9. Geographies of superstition, myths, freedom: Ibsen and Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Torrissen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibsen visited Northern Norway only once in his lifetime and this was in the summer of 1891. Despite this fact, Ibsen was preoccupied with the North both as symbolic and geographical locations throughout his whole literary career. Why? This article will explore how the North is represented in Ibsen’s prose plays. It will assess whether Ibsen contributed to confirm already existing images of the North or whether he contributed to the construction of new images. The article will also explore how Ibsen used images of the North to construct meaning for contemporary audiences.

  10. Thermal infrared exploration in the Carlin trend, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K.; Kruse, F.A.; Hummer-Miller, S.

    1990-01-01

    Experimental Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) aircraft data have been acquired for the Rodeo Creek NE 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Eureka County, northern Nevada, covering the Carlin gold mine. A simple model has been developed to extract spectral emissivities for mapping surface lithology and alteration based on the physical properties of geologic materials. Emissivity-ratio images were prepared that allow generalized lithologic discrimination, identification of areas with high silica content, and the first reported detection of the carbonate secondary rest-strahlen feature. -from Authors

  11. Quality of antenatal and childbirth care in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, E; Williams, A; Williams, J; Loukanova, S; Temmerman, M

    2014-09-01

    The QUALMAT research project aims to improve maternal and newborn health by improving the quality of antenatal and childbirth care provided in primary healthcare facilities. Within the frame of this project, a comprehensive quality assessment took place in selected health centres in northern Ghana. The results of this assessment showed that overall quality of routine antenatal and childbirth care was satisfactory, although some critical gaps were identified. Counselling and health education practices need to be improved; laboratory investigations are often not performed; examination and monitoring of mother and newborn during childbirth are inadequate; partographs are often not used and poorly completed; and equipment to provide assisted vaginal deliveries was absent.

  12. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  13. Challenges in assessing food environments in northern and remote communities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Kelly; Burnett, Kristin; Williams, Patricia; Martin, Debbie; Stothart, Christopher; LeBlanc, Joseph; Veeraraghavan, Gigi; Sheedy, Amanda

    2016-06-09

    Effective tools for retail food environments in northern and remote communities are lacking. This paper examines the challenges of conducting food environment assessments in northern and remote communities in Canada encountered during our experience with a food costing project. One of the goals of the Paying for Nutrition in the North project is to develop guidelines to improve current food costing tools for northern Canada. Paying for Nutrition illustrates the complex context of measuring food environments in northern and remote communities. Through the development of a food costing methodology guide to assess northern food environments, several contextual issues emerged, including retail store oligopolies in communities; the importance of assessing food quality; informal social food economies; and the challenge of costing the acquisition and consumption of land- and water-based foods. Food environment measures designed for northern and remote communities need to reflect the geographic context in which they are being employed and must include input from local residents.

  14. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  15. Upper mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: Volcanism and uplift in the northern Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Adams, Aubreya N.; Hansen, Samantha E.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Hackworth, Lauren; Park, Yongcheol

    2016-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range on Earth, and while a variety of uplift mechanisms have been proposed, the origin of the TAMs is still a matter of great debate. Most previous seismic investigations of the TAMs have focused on a central portion of the mountain range, near Ross Island, providing little along-strike constraint on the upper mantle structure, which is needed to better assess competing uplift models. Using data recorded by the recently deployed Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, as well as data from the Transantarctic Mountains Seismic Experiment and from five stations operated by the Korea Polar Research Institute, we investigate the upper mantle structure beneath a previously unexplored portion of the mountain range. Rayleigh wave phase velocities are calculated using a two-plane wave approximation and are inverted for shear wave velocity structure. Our model shows a low velocity zone (LVZ; ∼4.24 km s-1) at ∼160 km depth offshore and adjacent to Mt. Melbourne. This LVZ extends inland and vertically upwards, with more lateral coverage above ∼100 km depth beneath the northern TAMs and Victoria Land. A prominent LVZ (∼4.16-4.24 km s-1) also exists at ∼150 km depth beneath Ross Island, which agrees with previous results in the TAMs near the McMurdo Dry Valleys, and relatively slow velocities (∼4.24-4.32 km s-1) along the Terror Rift connect the low velocity anomalies. We propose that the LVZs reflect rift-related decompression melting and provide thermally buoyant support for the TAMs uplift, consistent with proposed flexural models. We also suggest that heating, and hence uplift, along the mountain front is not uniform and that the shallower LVZ beneath northern Victoria Land provides greater thermal support, leading to higher bedrock topography in the northern TAMs. Young (0-15 Ma) volcanic rocks associated with the Hallett and the Erebus Volcanic Provinces are situated directly

  16. Resolution VII International Conference Working Group on Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia “Birds of Prey of Northern Eurasia: Problems and Adaptation Under Modern Conditions”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 19 to 24 September, 2016 VII International Conference of the Working Group on Raptors of Northern Eurasia “Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia: problems and adaptation under modern conditions” was held on the basis of the Sochi National Park. Materials for the conference were presented by 198 ornithologists from Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Austria, Great Britain, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Estonia and the USA, who published 148 articles in two collections “Birds of prey of Northern Eurasia” and “Palearctic Harriers”.

  17. Late Quaternary environments, vegetation and agriculture in northern New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S. L.; Augustinus, P. C.; Barber, I. G.

    2007-03-01

    A sedimentological and plant microfossil history of the Late Quaternary is preserved in two sediment cores from early Polynesian ditch systems on southern Aupouri Peninsula. The study places human activities into a geomorphological and ecological context and allows comparison of natural and anthropogenic effects on two different geological settings: a floodplain and a relatively closed peat swamp. The data fill part of the current gap in the environmental record from northern New Zealand, namely MIS 3 (57k-26k yr BP). There is evidence for an increase in fire frequency in the region after 40k 14C yr BP, suggesting a shift to drier (and cooler) conditions. Pollen records show that conifer-hardwood forest dominated by podocarps (especially Dacrydium) prevailed prior to Polynesian arrival and deforestation within the last millennium, with Fuscopsora insignificant throughout. Both cores show sections with gaps in deposition or preservation, possible flood-stripping of peat during the pre-Holocene and mechanical disturbance by early Polynesians. The identification of prehistoric starch grains and other microremains of introduced Colocasia esculenta (taro) in both cores supports indirect evidence that the ditch systems of far northern New Zealand were used for the extensive cultivation of this crop. Copyright

  18. A Study of LFE Magnitudes in Northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    We have compiled a comprehensive suite of ~250 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing spatially distinct tremor sources on or near the plate boundary in northern Cascadia from northern Vancouver Island to southern Washington. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing a total of over 200,000 independent detections spanning a selection of episodic-tremor-and-slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. On the basis of empirical evidence and analytical arguments, these templates can be considered as band-limited, empirical Green's functions excited from shallow-thrust point sources to station locations corresponding to a collection of temporary and permanent network sites. The high fidelity of template match-filtered detections enables precise alignment of individual LFE time series and analysis of LFE amplitudes. Upon correction for geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve for station-channel amplification factors and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a given ETS episode. We will present a spatio-temporal analysis of LFE magnitudes including their variability across different ETS events, their dependence in along-dip location, and their expression in different rupture modes, i.e. main front versus rapid tremor reversals of Houston [2011] versus small scale reversals of Rubin and Armbruster [2013].

  19. Incidence of ovine abortion by Coxiella burnetii in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oporto, B; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; Aduriz, G; Moreno, B; Garcia-Perez, A L

    2006-10-01

    The infectious causes of ovine abortion occurring in 148 farms in northern Spain between 1999 and 2003 were investigated. Laboratory analysis included microbiological, serological, pathological and molecular techniques. Border disease was diagnosed in 16% of the flocks, toxoplasmosis in 15%, chlamydiosis in 12%, salmonellosis in 10%, Q fever in 3%, miscellaneous infections in 7% (Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., Brucella spp.), and inflammatory lesions compatible with an infectious cause were seen in 7% of the flock. In an additional 1% of the flocks non-infectious causes were identified, and a diagnosis was not reached in 38% of the flocks. When a PCR retrospective study was carried out to investigate the possible implication of Coxiella burnetii in the cases without diagnosis, including those with inflammatory lesions, the prevalence of this pathogen increased from 3% up to 9% of the flocks, revealing the importance of this zoonotic pathogen as a small-ruminant abortifacient agent. Placenta was the most commonly positive sample, but other fetal tissues were also of value for C. burnetii DNA detection. The present results update information about the situation of abortion in sheep farms in northern Spain, and highlight the relevance of molecular diagnostic tools in routine laboratory analysis of abortions by C. burnetii.

  20. Seismic Noise Characterization in the Northern Mississippi Embayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, S.; Deshon, H. R.; Boyd, O. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present a study of seismic noise sources present within the northern Mississippi embayment near the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). The northern embayment contains up to 1 km of unconsolidated coastal plain sediments overlying bedrock, making it an inherently noisy environment for seismic stations. The area is known to display high levels of cultural noise caused by agricultural activity, passing cars, trains, etc. We characterize continuous broadband seismic noise data recorded for the months of March through June 2009 at six stations operated by the Cooperative New Madrid Seismic Network. We looked at a single horizontal component of data during nighttime hours, defined as 6:15PM to 5:45AM Central Standard Time, which we determined to be the lowest amplitude period of noise for the region. Hourly median amplitudes were compared to daily average wind speeds downloaded from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We find a correlation between time periods of increased noise and days with high wind speeds, suggesting that wind is likely a prevalent source of seismic noise in the area. The effects of wind on seismic recordings may result from wind induced tree root movement which causes ground motion to be recorded at the vaults located ~3m below ground. Automated studies utilizing the local network or the EarthScope Transportable Array, scheduled to arrive in the area in 2010-11, should expect to encounter wind induced noise fluctuations and must account for this in their analysis.

  1. Thermal numerical modeling of transmission tower foundations in northern Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, D.; Alfaro, M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Bannister, K. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Geotechnical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Structural foundations in cold climates must extend below depths of expected frost penetration to protect against frost heaving. The Radisson-Churchill transmission line is the most northern line constructed by Manitoba Hydro. The transmission line crosses areas of both discontinuous and continuous permafrost. This study focused on potential permafrost degradation in the foundations of the power transmission towers. The thermal effectiveness of the foundation design was investigated through numerical modeling of the thermal effects of climate on the transmission tower foundations. The study showed that changing ground cover affects the thermal regime and may cause permafrost degradation. This may lead to reduced bearing capacity for structures, lateral spreading of embankments, and large settlements. Manitoba Hydro successfully used synthetic foundations insulated with polystyrene geofoam for the towers in order to reduce permafrost degradation in the foundations in the warmer southern portions of the transmission line. The geofoam was also used to help prevent frost heaving in the colder northern portions. As part of the thermal monitoring program, ground temperatures were monitored from 1987-1990. Recent studies have improved the understanding of the performance of geofoam insulated foundations. The results from this study will be expanded in future studies to include effects of groundwater and settlements in the development of an elastic thermo-plastic model. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  2. Restoration in northern Lake Gehu, a eutrophic lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Wenchao; Pan, Jizheng; Ma, Shuzhan; Chen, Bingfa; He, Shangwei

    2017-02-01

    Lake Gehu is a severely eutrophic lake in southeast China. A series of restoration measures have been implemented since 2009 in northern Lake Gehu. This study compared aquatic plants, water quality, sediment, and phytoplankton between restoration and control areas to investigate the effect of restoration measures. The results demonstrated that aquatic macrophyte coverage increased from 0% to 10.6%; mean TP, TN, and CODMn concentrations increased by 50.0%, 42.4%, and 40.8%, respectively, compared with those before the measures were carried out; the mean Secchi depth (SD) increased to 42.5 cm, which is 1.4 times higher than that before restoration; the mean euphotic depth (Zeu) in the summer increased from 91 to 130 cm; the mean chl a concentration decreased from 34.8 to 20.2 μg/L, compared with that before restoration; the Shannon-Wiener index of phytoplankton increased by 28.7%. The mean TP and TN concentrations in sediments decreased by 63.8% and 52.4%, respectively, compared with that before dredging. These results indicate that the restoration in northern Lake Gehu was effective. To complete the transformation from an algae- to a macrophyte-stable state within the region, further measures must be adopted. This restoration of a eutrophic lake can serve as a reference for similar eutrophic lakes.

  3. Eliminating the "divergence problem" at Alaska's northern treeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmking, M.; Singh, J.

    2008-06-01

    Recently, an increasing off-set between tree-ring based temperature reconstructions and measured temperatures at high latitudes has been reported, the so called "divergence problem" (here "divergence effect"). This "divergence effect" seriously questions the validity of tree-ring based climate reconstructions, since it seems to violate the assumption of a stable response of trees to changing climate over time. In this study we eliminated the "divergence effect" in northern Alaska by careful selection of individual trees with consistently significant positive relationships with climate (17% of sample) and successfully attempted a divergence-free climate reconstruction using this sub-set. However, the majority of trees (83%) did not adhere to the uniformitarian principle as usually applied in dendroclimatology. Our results thus support the notion, that factors acting on an individual tree basis are the primary causes for the "divergence effect" (at least in northern Alaska). Neither different detrending methods nor factors acting on larger scales such as global dimming or an increase in UV-B radiation could explain our results. Our results also highlight the necessity to adapt the methods of paleoreconstruction using tree rings to account for non-stable climate growth relationships as these are found in the vast majority of sampled trees and seem to be the norm rather than the exception.

  4. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (PTheileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  5. Degradation of High Mountain Ecosystems in Northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(o)rg L(o)ffler

    2004-01-01

    Data material of a long-term highmountain ecosystem research project was used to interpret the grazing impact of reindeers. In central Norway investigations were conducted to both, areas where reindeer grazing is excluded, and areas where intensive pasturing is present for a long period of time.The comparative analysis of grazing impact was based on similar environmental conditions. The results were transposed to northern Norway where dramatic overgrazing had been exceeding the carrying capacity.Using landscape ecological mappings, especially of vege ation and soils, the impact of reindeer grazing in different areas became obvious. Non-grazedlichen-dominated ecosystems of the snow-free locations functioned sensitively near the limit of organism survival. These localities were most influenced by grazing as they offer the winter forage to the reindeers. So, intensive grazing in central Norway led to landscape degradation by destruction of the vegetation and superinduced by soil erosion.Those features were comparable to the situation in northern Norway, where a broad-scale destruction of the environment combined with a depression of the altitudinal belts had occurred due to overgrazing.Functioning principles of intact high mountain systems were explained and used to interpret the environmental background for the understanding of degradation phenomena. Finally, the use of a new model calculating the carrying capacity of high mountain landscape was discussed.

  6. Statistical Downscaling of Summer Temperature Extremes in Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Lijun; Deliang CHEN; FU Congbin; YAN Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Two approaches of statistical downscaling were applied to indices of temperature extremes based on percentiles of daily maximum and minimum temperature observations at Beijing station in summer during 1960-2008.One was to downscale daily maximum and minimum temperatures by using EOF analysis and stepwise linear regression at first,then to calculate the indices of extremes; the other was to directly downscale the percentile-based indices by using seasonal large-scale temperature and geo-potential height records.The cross-validation results showed that the latter approach has a better performance than the former.Then,the latter approach was applied to 48 meteorological stations in northern China.The crossvalidation results for all 48 stations showed close correlation between the percentile-based indices and the seasonal large-scale variables.Finally,future scenarios of indices of temperature extremes in northern China were projected by applying the statistical downscaling to Hadley Centre Coupled Model Version 3 (HadCM3) simulations under the Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP 4.5) scenario of the Fifth Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5).The results showed that the 90th percentile of daily maximum temperatures will increase by about 1.5℃,and the 10th of daily minimum temperatures will increase by about 2℃ during the period 2011-35 relative to 1980-99.

  7. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jian-wei; Luo, Li-Mei; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Qin, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Ye-Lei; Zheng, Xue-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107) bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species. PMID:28081122

  8. Northern pike (Esox lucius) collagen: Extraction, characterization and potential application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, J; Sionkowska, A; Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Piechowicz, K

    2015-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from the scales of northern pike (Esox lucius) were extracted and characterized. It was the first time that this species was used as sources of collagen. FT-IR and amino acid analysis results revealed the presence of collagen. Glycine accounts for one-third of its amino acid residues and specific for collagen amino acid - hydroxyproline - is present in isolated protein. The content of imino acid: proline and hydroxyproline in ASC and PSC was similar (12.5% Pro and 6.5% Hyp). Both ASC and PSC were type I collagen. The denaturation temperature of ASC and PSC were 28.5 and 27°C, respectively. Thin collagen films were obtained by casting of collagen solution onto glass plates. The surface properties of ASC and PSC films were different - the surface of ASC collagen film was more polar and less rough than PSC and we can observe the formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation. ASC films showed much higher tensile properties than PSC. The obtained results suggest that northern pike scales have potential as an alternative source of collagen for use in various fields.

  9. Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Northern Provinces of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supot Teachavorasinskun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are quite a few active faults recently found in the western and northern parts of Thailand, which could possibly induce earthquakes of magnitude (ML of 5.5-6.5. Although seismic design code has been enforced in the area since 1980, the fundamental knowledge on dynamic soil behavior has not been extensively attained. Approach: Collection of existing borehole information in the targeted areas to form a typical subsoil profile. This borehole information, together with analytical result obtained from logistic regression based on worldwide liquefaction database was used to conduct an effective stress analysis. Result: Literature reviews of the existing boreholes from the two largest provinces in the north, Chiang-Mai and Chiang-Rai, revealed that the areas were underlain by layers of loose to medium dense sand found at shallow depths. The corrected SPT N-value of those sand layers varies in the range of 5-20. A simple tool correlating the liquefaction probability, which correlated excess pore water pressure and peak ground acceleration, was proposed for the studied areas. Conclusion: The proposed correlation provided preliminary tool to evaluate risk of the shallow foundation from partial liquefaction in the two northern provinces of Thailand.

  10. Trajectories of women's homelessness in Canada's 3 northern territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Schmidt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Repairing the Holes in the Net was a 2-year, multilevel action research project designed to inform the development of culturally appropriate and gender-specific services for northern women who are homeless or marginally housed and who face mental health and substance use concerns. The study was designed to learn about the barriers and supports experienced by homeless women in the North when accessing mental health care, shelter, housing and other services; and to inform the work of northern service providers and policy advocates in a position to implement adjustments in their praxis. Methods: This article describes the trajectories of women's service access and their ideas for service improvement from 61 qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with homeless women in Whitehorse, Yukon (YT, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories (NT, and Iqualit, Nunavut (NU. Results: Unresolved trauma, poverty and social exclusion, inability to find and maintain housing and ineffective services emerged as interconnected and multifaceted challenges related to women's service engagement. In the face of these challenges, women displayed significant resilience and resistance, and offered important ideas for service improvement. Conclusions: The 4 interconnected systemic challenges identified in the research, coupled with specific ideas for change cited by the resilient homeless women interviewed, offer points of entry to improve service policy and delivery. Implementing trauma-informed approaches emerged as a key example of how access to, and quality of, services could be improved for homeless women in the North.

  11. Distance to the northern high-latitude HI shells

    CERN Document Server

    Puspitarini, Lucky

    2012-01-01

    A detailed 3D distribution of interstellar matter in the solar neighborhood is increasingly necessary. As part of a 3D mapping program, we aim at assigning a precise distance to the high-latitude HI gas in particular the northern part (b \\geq 55^{circ}) of the shell associated with the conspicuous radio continuum Loop I. This shell is thought to be the expanding boundary of an interstellar bubble inflated and recently reheated by the strong stellar winds of the nearby Scorpius-Centaurus OB. We recorded high-resolution spectra of 30 A-type target stars located at various distances in the direction of the northern part of Loop I. Interstellar NaI 5889-5895 and CaII K-H 3934-3968 {\\AA} are modeled and compared with the HI emission spectra from the LAB Survey. About two-thirds of our stellar spectra possess narrow interstellar lines. Narrow lines are located at the velocity of the main, low-velocity Loop 1 HI shell ([-6,+1] km/s in the LSR). Using Hipparcos distances to the target stars, we show that the closest ...

  12. Late Holocene hydrographic settings of the northern Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Badawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variability of the paleo-oceanographic setting of the northern Red Sea during the last 6 Ky was deduced from high-resolution faunal results and stable isotope records of planktonic foraminifera in three short cores sediment obtained by the German R/V Meteor vessel. In general, the investigated time interval is fundamentally comparable to the present day composition and distribution of planktonic foraminifera. However, interrupted short enhanced arid phase spanning the last 4–2 Ky appears to have existed in the northern Red Sea, and resulted in elevation of salinity and somehow productivity, as hypersaline, dense surface water favored vertical mixing of the water column resulting in an increase in productivity. This paleoclimatic reconstruction is revealed from the distinct gradient in the composition and distribution of planktonic foraminifera, as well as the significant distribution trend of Globigerinoides ruber versus Globigerinoides sacculifer correlated with the stable isotope records. Starting from the last 2 Ky to the present time, less strength arid conditions relative to the previous period prevailed, reflected from a gradual decrease in surface water salinity and productivity assuming that the present water conditions and consequently current climatic conditions began to develop from that time with minor fluctuations reaching the recent conditions.

  13. Complete Alpine reworking of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenki-Tok, B.; Expert, M.; Işık, V.; Candan, O.; Monié, P.; Bruguier, O.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the petrology, geochronology and thermochronology of metamorphic rocks within the northern Menderes Massif in western Turkey. Metasediments belonging to the cover series of the Massif record pervasive amphibolite-facies metamorphism culminating at ca. 625-670 °C and 7-9 kbars. U-Th-Pb in situ ages on monazite and allanite from these metapelites record crustal thickening and nappe stacking associated with the internal imbrication of the Anatolide-Taurides platform during the Eocene. In addition, new 39Ar/40Ar single muscovite grain analyses on deformed rocks were performed in three localities within the northern Menderes Massif and ages range from 19.8 to 25.5 Ma. These mylonites may be related to both well-known detachments, Simav to the north and Alaşehir to the south, which accommodate Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the Menderes core complex. U-Th-Pb data on monazite grains (22.2 ± 0.2 Ma) from migmatites emplaced within the Simav detachment confirm these ages.

  14. Impact of hydroelectric development upon a northern Manitoba native community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldram, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation describes the process of underdevelopment among the Cree Indian people of South Indian Lake, in Northern Manitoba, Canada, following the construction of the Churchill-Nelson River Hydro Project in 1975. The dissertation seeks to link the ecological, political, economic, socio-cultural and health aspects of the impact of the hydro project within the framework of the historical process of underdevelopment as it has occurred in Latin America, among Native people in the United States, and among Native people in Northern Canada. Utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data, a process of increased dependence is described as the product of two related processes. The first process is the impairment of the local commercial and domestic economy caused by the flooding of Southern Indian Lake, which has resulted in a decline in local productivity. The second process is the enhancement of consumerism through rising consumer expectations and a post-project increase in available goods and services which the people are increasingly unable to afford. The overall result has been a process of economic divergence at the local level. The dissertation concludes that the process of underdevelopment which has occurred in South Indian Lake has been the result primarily of changes in the local ecological system caused by the construction of the hydro project. These ecological changes have, in turn, resulted in secondary changes in the socio-economic system.

  15. Isotopic composition and origin of the precipitation in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravena, R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo (Canada); Suzuki, O. [Exploracion y Desarrollo de Recursos Hidricos, Santiago (Chile); Pena, H. [Direccion General de Aguas, Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Santiago (Chile); Pollastri, A. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Fuenzalida, H. [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Grilli, A. [Empresa Metropolitana de Obras Sanitarias, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-06-01

    A 3 a data set of isotopes in precipitation from northern Chile show a very distinct pattern, with {delta}{sup 18}O values ranging between -18 and -15per thousand at high altitude stations, compared to {delta}{sup 18}O values between -10 and -6per thousand at the lower altitude areas. The {sup 18}O-depleted values observed in the high altitude area, the Altiplano, are related to processes that affect the air masses that originated over the Atlantic, cross the Amazon Basin (continental effect), ascend the Andes (altitude effect) and precipitated (convective effect) in the Altiplano. It is postulated that a second source of moisture, associated with air masses from the Pacific, may contribute to the {sup 18}O-enriched values observed in the lower altitude areas. Similar isotopic patterns are documented in springs and groundwater indicating that the data presented in this paper are an accurate representation of the long term behavior isotopic composition of rain in northern Chile. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Hydrogeologic data for the northern Rocky Mountains intermontane basins, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, DeAnn M.; Lawlor, Sean M.; Briar, D.W.; Tresch, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a Regional Aquifer- System Analysis of the Northern Rocky Mountains Intermontane Basins of western Montana and central and central and northern Idaho in 1990 to establish a regional framework of information for aquifers in 54 intermontane basins in an area of about 77,500 square miles. Selected hydrogeologic data have been used as part of this analysis to define the hydro- logic systems. Records of 1,376 wells completed in 31 of the 34 intermontane basins in the Montana part of the study area are tabulated in this report. Data consist of location, alttiude of land surface, date well constructed, geologic unit, depth of well, diameter of casing, type of finish, top of open interval, primary use of water, water level, date water level measured, discharge, specific capacity, source of discharge data, type of log available, date water-quality parameters measured, specific conductance, pH, and temperature. Hydrographs for selected wells also are included. Locations of wells and basins are shown on the accompanying plate.

  17. Identifying water mass depletion in Northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mulder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE mission indicate a mass loss of 31 ± 3 km3 or 130 ± 14 mm in Northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. This data is used as an independent validation of a hydrologic model of the region including lake mass variations. We developed a rainfall–runoff model for five tributaries of the Tigris River, based on local geology and climate conditions. Model inputs are precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM observations, and potential evaporation from GLDAS model parameters. Our model includes a representation of the karstified aquifers that cause large natural groundwater variations in this region. Observed river discharges were used to calibrate our model. In order to get the total mass variations, we corrected for lake mass variations derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS in combination with satellite altimetry and some in-situ data. Our rainfall–runoff model confirms that Northern Iraq suffered a drought between 2007 and 2009 and is consistent with the mass loss observed by GRACE over that period. Also, GRACE observed the annual cycle predicted by the rainfall–runoff model. The total mass depletion seen by GRACE between 2007 and 2009 is mainly explained by a lake mass depletion of 74 ± 4 mm and a natural groundwater depletion of 37 ± 6 mm. Our findings indicate that man-made groundwater extraction has a minor influence in this region while depletion of lake mass and geology play a key role.

  18. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  19. Isotopic Stratification and Its Implications in Groundwater of Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The contents of D, 8O, 3H and 14C, distinctive in shallow and deep Quaternary aquifers beneath northern China, reflect differences in average paleoclimatic conditions between the Holocene and the last glacial period in Pleistocene. Groundwater in deep confined aquifer was recharged during the last glacial period. The depletions of δ(D) and δ(18O) of this water, 4× 10-3 -16× 10-3 and 1 × 10-3 -2 × 10-3 when compared with the shallow water recharged in Holocene, suggest that the annual mean temperature was lower in the last glacial period than that in the Holocene. The continental gradient of D and 18O fount in old groundwater is essentially similar to that in Holocene, suggesting that the atmospheric circulation did not undergo substantial changes over northern China for the past 30 000 years in spite of the changes in the temperature. Groundwater isotopic stratification indicates three different recharge mechanisms and the influence of modern hydrological circulation, which are very important for the understanding of the continental hydrological circulation and the sustainable development of groundwater resources.``

  20. The Russian Northern Fleet. Sources of radioactive contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, T. [Bellona Foundation, Oslo (Norway); Kudrik, I. [Bellona Foundation Branch Office, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Nikitin, A. [Scientific Production Association ``Typhoon``, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The report describes the problems that the Russian Northern Fleet is experiencing with its nuclear powered vessels and with the storage of spent fuel and other nuclear wastes that the operation of these vessels generates. One of the most serious problems is the lack of regional storage and treatment facilities for radioactive waste. This waste is now deposited haphazardly throughout the various navy yards and bases. The establishment of a regional storage facility for spent fuel, radioactive reactor components, and liquid and solid nuclear waste is a necessary precondition for carrying out the decommissioning of nuclear submarines in an environmentally viable manner. A recurrent theme in the report is the lack of civilian control over the different Northern Fleet nuclear facilities. This leads to a disregard of international recommendations with regard to the handling of nuclear waste. Considerable effort has been made to provide comprehensive references in the report, making it clear that the authors sources of information have been open. By presenting this information the authors hope to contribute to increased insight and consequently to help realize necessary national and international measures. 93 refs.