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Sample records for blot hybridization spoligotyping

  1. The use of microbead-based spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to evaluate the quality of the conventional method: providing guidelines for Quality Assurance when working on membranes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadia, E.; Zhang, Jian; Ritacco, V.; Kremer, K.; Ruimy, R.; Rigouts, L.; Gomes, H.M.; Elias, A.R.; Fauville-Dufaux, M.; Stoffels, K.; Rasolofo-Razanamparany, V.; rcia de Viedma, D. Ga; Herranz, M.; Al-Hajoj, S.; Rastogi, N.; Garzelli, C.; Tortoli, E.; Suffys, P.N.; Soolingen, D. van; Refregier, G.; Sola, C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classical spoligotyping technique, relying on membrane reverse line-blot hybridization of the spacers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR locus, is used world-wide (598 references in Pubmed on April 8th, 2011). However, until now no inter-laboratory quality control study had bee

  2. Detection and Identification of Eight Trichinella Genotypes by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    OpenAIRE

    Rombout, Y. B.; Bosch, S.; van der Giessen, J.W.B

    2001-01-01

    A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed to identify different Trichinella genotypes. The RLB assay accomplishes detection and specific identification of the different Trichinella genotypes and relies on hybridization of the amplified 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer regions to specific, membrane-bound oligonucleotide probes. After one single amplification, we were able to detect and genetically identify six sibling species, i.e., T. spiralis, T. britovi, T. nativa, T. murrelli, T. nel...

  3. The use of microbead-based spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to evaluate the quality of the conventional method: Providing guidelines for Quality Assurance when working on membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garzelli Carlo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical spoligotyping technique, relying on membrane reverse line-blot hybridization of the spacers of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis CRISPR locus, is used world-wide (598 references in Pubmed on April 8th, 2011. However, until now no inter-laboratory quality control study had been undertaken to validate this technique. We analyzed the quality of membrane-based spoligotyping by comparing it to the recently introduced and highly robust microbead-based spoligotyping. Nine hundred and twenty-seven isolates were analyzed totaling 39,861 data points. Samples were received from 11 international laboratories with a worldwide distribution. Methods The high-throughput microbead-based Spoligotyping was performed on CTAB and thermolyzate DNA extracted from isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC strains coming from the genotyping participating centers. Information regarding how the classical Spoligotyping method was performed by center was available. Genotype discriminatory analyses were carried out by comparing the spoligotypes obtained by both methods. The non parametric U-Mann Whitney homogeneity test and the Spearman rank correlation test were performed to validate the observed results. Results Seven out of the 11 laboratories (63 %, perfectly typed more than 90% of isolates, 3 scored between 80-90% and a single center was under 80% reaching 51% concordance only. However, this was mainly due to discordance in a single spacer, likely having a non-functional probe on the membrane used. The centers using thermolyzate DNA performed as well as centers using the more extended CTAB extraction procedure. Few centers shared the same problematic spacers and these problematic spacers were scattered over the whole CRISPR locus (Mostly spacers 15, 14, 18, 37, 39, 40. Conclusions We confirm that classical spoligotyping is a robust method with generally a high reliability in most centers. The applied DNA extraction procedure (CTAB

  4. DIFFERENTIATION OF PSEUDOCONDYLOMA OF VULVA AND CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA BY DOT BLOT HYBRIDIZATION AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃华; 王家璧; 司静懿

    1996-01-01

    This study differentiated pseudocondyloma of vulva from condyloma acunainata using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 27 cases o{ pseudocondyloma of vulva and 65 cases of condyloma acuminata were selected for the sttldy. The genital lesions were examined clinically and were biopsled. Each biopsy v-as subjected to histological examination and HPV DNA analysis by dot blot hybridization and PCR. Dot blot analysis detected HPV DNA in 19(82.6%) out of 23 cases of condyloma acuminata and 2(25%) out of 8 cases pseudocondyloma of vulvae(P<0. 05). PCR detected HPV DNA in 51(92.7%) our of 55 cases of eondyloma acuminata, compared with none in 23 cases of pseudocondylorna(P<0. 001). HPV DNA was present in the majority of condyloma acuminata specimens, HPV 6 and 11 were the predominant types. Peudocondyloma is probably not associated with HPV. PCR was the most sensitive and useful techntque for HPV DNA detection.

  5. Rapid Detection of Rifampin-resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qian; WAN Kang Lin; YU Yan; ZHU Yan Ling; ZHAO Xiu Qin; LIU Zhi Guang; ZHANG Yuan Yuan; LI Gui Lian; WEI Jian Hao; WU Yi Mou

    2015-01-01

    Objective A PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) assay was developed for rapid detection of rpoB gene mutations in‘hot mutation region’ of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods 12 oligonucleotide probes based on the wild-type and mutant genotype rpoB sequences of M. tuberculosis were designed to screen the most frequent wild-type and mutant genotypes for diagnosing RIF resistance. 300 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were detected by RDBH, conventional drug-susceptibility testing (DST) and DNA sequencing to evaluate the RDBH assay. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the RDBH assay were 91.2%(165/181) and 98.3%(117/119), respectively, as compared to DST. When compared with DNA sequencing, the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDBH assay were 97.7%(293/300), 98.2%(164/167), and 97.0%(129/133), respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most common mutations were in codons 531 (48.6%), 526 (25.4%), 516 (8.8%), and 511 (6.6%), and the combinative mutation rate was 15 (8.3%). One and two strains of insertion and deletion were found among all strains, respectively. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the RDBH assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for diagnosing RIF-resistant tuberculosis.

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity: mining the fourth international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4 for classification, population genetics and epidemiology

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    Sajduda Anna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical laboratory, molecular epidemiology, evolutionary and population genetics. It is easy, robust, cheap, and produces highly diverse portable numerical results, as the result of the combination of (1 Unique Events Polymorphism (UEP (2 Insertion-Sequence-mediated genetic recombination. Genetic convergence, although rare, was also previously demonstrated. Three previous international spoligotype databases had partly revealed the global and local geographical structures of MTC bacilli populations, however, there was a need for the release of a new, more representative and extended, international spoligotyping database. Results The fourth international spoligotyping database, SpolDB4, describes 1939 shared-types (STs representative of a total of 39,295 strains from 122 countries, which are tentatively classified into 62 clades/lineages using a mixed expert-based and bioinformatical approach. The SpolDB4 update adds 26 new potentially phylogeographically-specific MTC genotype families. It provides a clearer picture of the current MTC genomes diversity as well as on the relationships between the genetic attributes investigated (spoligotypes and the infra-species classification and evolutionary history of the species. Indeed, an independent Naïve-Bayes mixture-model analysis has validated main of the previous supervised SpolDB3 classification results, confirming the usefulness of both supervised and unsupervised models as an approach to understand MTC population structure. Updated results on the epidemiological status of spoligotypes, as well as genetic prevalence maps on six main lineages are also shown

  7. Dot-Blot Hybridization for Detection of Five Cucurbit Viruses by Digoxigenin-Labelled cDNA Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Juan; GU Qin-sheng; LIN Shi-ming; PENG Bin; LIU Li-feng; TIAN Yan-ping; LI Li

    2007-01-01

    Dot-blot hybridization was applied in this paper to detect five viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops,Zuccini yellow mosaic virus(ZYMV),Watermelon mosaic virus(WMV),Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV),Papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain(PRSV-W)and Squash mosaic virus(SqMV),as a good alternative assay in seed health test and epidemiological and transgenic research.Digoxigenin-labelled cDNA probes of the five viruses were synthesized by PCR with the specific primers and applied in dot-blot hybridization to detect five viruses in crude extraction of the infected leaves.And three SqMV probes of different lengths(0.55,1.6,and 2.7 kb,respectively)were designed to investigate the effect of hybridization.The results showed that the sensitivity for detecting the crude extraction of infected leaves by ZYMV,WMV,CMV,PRSV-W,and SqMV was down to 1:160,1:160,1:320,1:160,and 1:320,respectively.Three SqMV probes of different length showed no differences on the sensitivity and specificity.The digoxigenin-labelled probes prepared by PCR could be used for accurate and rapid identification of 5 viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops with good stabilities,sensitivities,specificity,and reproducibilities.

  8. Detection of human cytomegalovirus by slot-blot hybridization assay employing oligo-primed 32P-labelled probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32P-labelled Hind III-0 DNA fragment (nine Kilobases; Kb) from human cytomegalovirus AD-169 (HCMV) was used in slot-blot hybridization assay for the detection of HCMV in clinical samples. The results obtained with DNA hybridization assay (DNA HA) were compared with virus isolation using conventional tube cell culture (CTC) and centrifugation vial culture (CVC), immunofluorescence (IF), and complement fixation test (CFT). Of 15 CTC-positive samples, 13 were positive with DNA HA (sensitivity 86.7%). Also, 14 additional samples were DNA HA-positive but CTC-negative. CVC and/or IF confirmed the diagnosis in nine of 14; the remaining five samples were from three patients who showed fourfold rising antibody titre by CFT. Although DNA HA using 32P-labelled probes is relatively cumbersome and expensive, it is a valuable test for quantitation of viral shedding in patients with HCMV infections who may benefit from antiviral therapy

  9. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

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    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  10. Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lita A

    2013-01-01

    Western analysis of apolipoproteins, lipoproteins, and proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism can be challenging due to their size, hydrophobic nature, and, in some cases, low abundance. Here we describe a Western blotting method that has been used successfully for many proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism, as well as intact LDL or HDL particles. Proteins or lipoprotein particles separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a PVDF membrane in a Hoefer TE22 transfer tank with Tris-Glycine-SDS-Methanol transfer buffer. The membrane is blocked with 3 % BSA/5 % milk to prevent nonspecific binding of antibody to the membrane and is then incubated with primary antibody that binds specifically to the protein of interest. After washing away unbound primary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with an HRP-labeled secondary antibody that binds primary antibody. After washing away unbound secondary antibody, the membrane is then incubated with a substrate for HRP, generating a chemiluminescent signal at the location of the protein of interest. The protein is visualized by exposing the membrane to an autoradiography film or an imaging device. Information on the use of several human antibodies, including apoA-I, A-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoD, apoL1, apoM, PON1, SAA, ABCA1, nitrotyrosine, and LCAT, is provided. This method can be used for Western blotting of virtually any protein as well as native lipoprotein particles. PMID:23912997

  11. Comparison of Southern blot analysis with isotopic and nonisotopic in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus sequences in invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, L; Pilotti, S; Rotola, A; Di Luca, D; Cassai, E; Rilke, F

    1992-03-01

    To compare the efficiency of hybridization methods for the detection of HPV genome, 22 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were analyzed by Southern blot analysis and in situ hybridization carried out with 35S- and biotin-labeled probes. These cases contained from less than one to as many as 50 copies per cell of HPV 16 and 18 types. To increase the sensitivity of biotinylated probes, a silver enhancement procedure of the peroxidase reaction product was applied. Results showed that in situ hybridization performed with isotopic probes is as sensitive as Southern blot analysis and is more sensitive than that performed with biotin-labeled probe. However, the application of the silver enhancement procedure increases the percentage of HPV-positive cases from 27 to 50%.

  12. Detection of KatG Gen Mutation on Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Means of PCR-Dot Blot Hybridization with 32P Labeled Oligonucleotide Probe Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handling and controlling of tuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is now complicated since there are many MTBs that are resistant against anti-tuberculosis drugs such as isoniazid. The drug resistance could occurred due to the inadequate and un-regular drug utilization that cause gene mutation of the drug target such as katG gene for isoniazid. The molecular biology techniques such as the PCR- dot blot hybridization with radioisotope (32P) labeled oligonucleotide probe, has been reported as a technique that is more sensitive and rapid for detection of gene mutations related with drug resistances. Hence, the aim of this study was to apply the PCR- dot blot hybridization technique using 32P labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of single mutation at codon 315 of katG gene of MTBs that rise the isoniazid resistance. In this study, we used 89 sputum specimens and a standard MTB (MTB H37RV) as a control. DNA extractions were performed by the BOOM method and the phenol chloroform for sputum samples and standard MTB, respectively. Primers used for PCR technique were Pt8 and Pt9 and RTB59 and RTB36 for detecting tuberculosis causing Mycobacterium and the existence of katG gene, respectively. Both of the primers are specific for IS6110 region and katG gene, respectively. PCR products were detected by an agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Dot blot hybridization with 32P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu was performed to detect mutation at codon 315 of tested samples. Results of the PCR using primer Pt8 and Pt9 showed that all sputum specimens had positive results. Mutation detection by PCR- dot blot hybridization with 32P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu, revealed that 11 of 89 tested samples had a mutation at their codon 315 of katG gene. Based upon these results, it is concluded that PCR-dot blot hybridization with 32P-oligonucleotide probe is a technique that is rapid and highly specific and sensitive for detection of mutation at codon 315 of

  13. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB;

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  14. Supervised learning for the automated transcription of spacer classification from spoligotype films

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    Abernethy Neil

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular genotyping of bacteria has revolutionized the study of tuberculosis epidemiology, yet these established laboratory techniques typically require subjective and laborious interpretation by trained professionals. In the context of a Tuberculosis Case Contact study in The Gambia we used a reverse hybridization laboratory assay called spoligotype analysis. To facilitate processing of spoligotype images we have developed tools and algorithms to automate the classification and transcription of these data directly to a database while allowing for manual editing. Results Features extracted from each of the 1849 spots on a spoligo film were classified using two supervised learning algorithms. A graphical user interface allows manual editing of the classification, before export to a database. The application was tested on ten films of differing quality and the results of the best classifier were compared to expert manual classification, giving a median correct classification rate of 98.1% (inter quartile range: 97.1% to 99.2%, with an automated processing time of less than 1 minute per film. Conclusion The software implementation offers considerable time savings over manual processing whilst allowing expert editing of the automated classification. The automatic upload of the classification to a database reduces the chances of transcription errors.

  15. Detection of mutation in embB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical isolates of tuberculous patients in China by means of reverse-dot blot hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE QIONG WU; YANG LU; JIAN QIN LIANG; JUN XIAN ZHANG; GUANG YU ZHANG; CUI HUAN L(U); HONG MIN LI; BEI CHUAN DING

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between embB mutation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ethambutol (EMB) resistance of the clinical isolates of tuberculous patients in China was investigated by reversedot blot hybridization (RDBH) in addition to evaluating the clinical value with application of PCR-RD-BH technique to detect EMB resistance. In the present study, the genotypes of the 258 bp fragments of embB genes from 196 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were analysed with RDBH and DNA sequencing. It was demonstrated that 60 out of 91 phenotypically EMB-resistant isolates (65.9%) showed 5 types of missense mutations at codon 306 of embB gene, resulting in the replacement of the Met residue of the wild type strain with Val, Ile or Leu residues. In these mutations, the GTP mutation (38/91,41.8% ) and the ATA mutation ( 16/91, 17.6% ) were the most encountered genotypes. The embB mutation at codon 306 could also be found in 69 isolates of phenotypically EMB-sensitive but resistant to other anti-tuberculous drugs, but no such gene mutation could be found in 36 strains of drug-sensitive isolates. Meanwhile, the concordance with the results of DNA sequencing for one wide-type probe and 5 probes for specific mutations was 100%. It was concluded that the EMB-resistance occurring in most M. tuberculosis is due to appearance of embB mutation at codon 306, and the PCR-RDBH assay was proved to be a rapid, simple and reliable method for the detection of gene mutations, which might be a good alternative for the drug-resistance screening.

  16. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  17. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... closing the gap to the more laborious nuclease protection experiments....

  18. Presumptive detection of yellow head virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. stylirostris cultured on the Northwest coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa-Vélez, J; Cedano-Thomas, Y; Cid-Becerra, J; Méndez-Payán, J C; Vega-Pérez, C; Zambrano-García, J; Bonami, J-R

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the presence of yellow head virus (YHV) in shrimp farms along the Pacific coast of Mexico, 39 samples from 26 randomly chosen farms were analysed by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and dot-blot hybridization. Eleven samples were positive for YHV. The disease was reproduced by means of an infectivity bioassay performed with an extract of pleopods from the positive samples. Cumulative mortality reached 50% in 14 days. Four pairs of primers which amplified several YHV genome regions were designed and used to test dead and surviving shrimp from the bioassay by RT-PCR, resulting in positive results for every expected amplicon. The results of this study provide presumptive evidence of the presence of YHV in Mexican shrimp farms at least during 1999-2000. PMID:17169104

  19. Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cases in Acapulco: Spoligotyping and Risk Factors

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    Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrence and reinfection of tuberculosis have quite different implications for prevention. We identified 267 spoligotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from consecutive tuberculosis patients in Acapulco, Mexico, to assess the level of clustering and risk factors for clustered strains. Point cluster analysis examined spatial clustering. Risk analysis relied on the Mantel Haenszel procedure to examine bivariate associations, then to develop risk profiles of combinations of risk factors. Supplementary analysis of the spoligotyping data used SpolTools. Spoligotyping identified 85 types, 50 of them previously unreported. The five most common spoligotypes accounted for 55% of tuberculosis cases. One cluster of 70 patients (26% of the series produced a single spoligotype from the Manila Family (Clade EAI2. The high proportion (78% of patients infected with cluster strains is compatible with recent transmission of TB in Acapulco. Geomatic analysis showed no spatial clustering; clustering was associated with a risk profile of uneducated cases who lived in single-room dwellings. The Manila emerging strain accounted for one in every four cases, confirming that one strain can predominate in a hyperendemic area.

  20. Spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeat analysis of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from cattle in Brazil

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    Patrícia Martins Parreiras

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed spoligotyping and 12-mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs typing to characterise Mycobacterium bovis isolates collected from tissue samples of bovines with lesions suggestive for tuberculosis during slaughter inspection procedures in abattoirs in Brazil. High-quality genotypes were obtained with both procedures for 61 isolates that were obtained from 185 bovine tissue samples and all of these isolates were identified as M. bovis by conventional identification procedures. On the basis of the spoligotyping, 53 isolates were grouped into nine clusters and the remaining eight isolates were unique types, resulting in 17 spoligotypes. The majority of the Brazilian M. bovis isolates displayed spoligotype patterns that have been previously observed in strains isolated from cattle in other countries. MIRU-VNTR typing produced 16 distinct genotypes, with 53 isolates forming eight of the groups, and individual isolates with unique VNTR profiles forming the remaining eight groups. The allelic diversity of each VNTR locus was calculated and only two of the 12-MIRU-VNTR loci presented scores with either a moderate (0.4, MIRU16 or high (0.6, MIRU26 discriminatory index (h. Both typing methods produced similar discriminatory indexes (spoligotyping h = 0.85; MIRU-VNTR h = 0.86 and the combination of the two methods increased the h value to 0.94, resulting in 29 distinct patterns. These results confirm that spoligotyping and VNTR analysis are valuable tools for studying the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis infections in Brazil.

  1. A comparison of real-time PCR and reverse line blot hybridization in detecting feline haemoplasmas of domestic cats and an analysis of risk factors associated with haemoplasma infections

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    Georges Karla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three species of feline haemoplasma are recognised: Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (CMt. This study compared a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB assay for simultaneous detection of Mhf, CMhm with three separate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays used for diagnosis of Mhf, CMhm and CMt. The RLB and qPCR assays were applied to DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 154 cats from Trinidad and Tobago. Results CMhm and Mhf DNA were detected using both RLB and qPCR. CMt DNA was detected by qPCR only. Comparing RLB and qPCR for the detection of CMhm DNA, 40 (26.3% and 48 (31.6% cats, respectively, were positive. The difference was more marked for Mhf, with RLB detecting a total of only 11 (7.2% positive cats whereas qPCR detected 41 (27.0% positive cats. Using qPCR as a gold standard, haemoplasma infected cats were more likely to be retrovirus positive (OR = 5.68, P = 0.02 and older (median age 5.5 years, than non-infected cats. In addition, CMhm positive cats were more likely to be male (OR = 3.4, P = 0.04. Conclusions Overall the qPCR was more sensitive than RLB. In addition, age (median 5.5 years and retrovirus positivity were risk factors for infection with the feline haemoplasmas in this study population. Further studies on feline haemoplasma infections in cats are needed to determine the significance of detecting small amounts of haemoplasma DNA, feline retrovirus infection and other associated risk factors on the clinical manifestation of disease.

  2. Comparison of multiplex real-time PCR and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for the direct and rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon Deok; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay and a PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA) for the rapid detection of bacteria and identification of antibiotic resistance genes directly from blood culture bottles and to compare the results of these molecular assays with conventional culture methods. The molecular diagnostic methods were used to evaluate 593 blood culture bottles from patients with bloodstream infections. The detection positivity of multiplex real-time PCR assay for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida spp. was equivalent to PCR-REBA as 99.6 %, 99.1 % and 100 %, respectively. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of these two molecular methods were 99.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.980-1.000; PPCR assay targeting the mecA gene to detect methicillin resistance was lower than that of the PCR-REBA method, detecting an overall positivity of 98.4 % (n=182; 95 % CI, 0.964-1.000; P<0.009) and 99.5 % (n=184; 95 % CI, 0.985-1.000; P<0.0001), respectively. The entire two methods take about 3 h, while results from culture can take up to 48-72 h. Therefore, the use of these two molecular methods was rapid and reliable for the characterization of causative pathogens in bloodstream infections.

  3. Uso da técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização associada à reação em cadeia da polimerase para aumentar a sensibilidade no diagnóstico das infecções por hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos: Use of Southern Blot/Hybridization technique associated to polymerase chain reaction to improve the sensitivity in the diagnosis of hemoplasma infections in domestic cats

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    Daniel B. Macieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização (SB em associação à reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR aumenta a sensibilidade na detecção de DNA de hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos (Felis catus. O sangue total foi coletado em tubos contendo o anticoagulante ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, o DNA extraído a partir de 149 animais e a PCR realizada com o uso de sequências iniciadoras espécie-específicas, para amplificar subunidade 16S do RNA ribossomal de Mycoplasma haemofelis e 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' dessas amostras. Para a hibridização, foram utilizadas sondas específicas quimicamente marcadas, e os resultados visualizados por meio da adição de substrato quimiluminescente seguida de autoradiografia. Dezoito (12,1% das 149 amostras testadas apresentaram resultado PCR-positivo para o DNA de hemoplasmas. A técnica de SB mostrou que 24/149 (16,1% amostras apresentaram resultado positivo para hemoplasmas, confirmando os 18 resultados PCR-positivos, além de revelar seis outros adicionais (p The aim of this study was to determine whether Southern Blot/Hybridization (SB associated to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR improves the sensitivity in the detection of hemoplasma DNA in domestic cats (Felis catus. Whole blood was collected in tubes containing the anticoagulant ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and DNA extracted from 149 animals. PCR was performed using species specific primers to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA subunit of Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' from these samples. Hybridization was performed using a 16S rDNA probes chemically labeled and the results were visualized using a chemiluminescent substrate addition followed by autoradiography. Eighteen (12.1% of the 149 tested samples had a positive PCR result for hemoplasma species DNA. SB/hybridization technique showed that 24/149 (16.1% samples were positive for hemoplasmas, confirming the 18 PCR

  4. 实时PCR和PCR-RDB法检测人乳头瘤病毒的比对研究%Comparison of real time PCR and PCR¯reverse dot blot hybridization for detection of Human papillomavirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖克林; 严泽浩; 罗茗月; 麦光兴; 陈熙; 熊礼宽

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较实时 PCR 法和 PCR-反向点杂交法(PCR-RDB)检测 HPV 的一致性。方法收集109份女性生殖道样本,利用实时 PCR 法和 PCR-RDB 法分别检测 HPV 感染和基因型分布情况,不一致样本采用 PCR-悬浮芯片杂交法复检。结果83.5%(91/109)的样本两种方法结果一致(kappa=0.671),18例不一致样本 PCR-悬浮芯片杂交法复检显示7例与实时 PCR相符,11例与 PCR-RDB 相符;高、低病毒载量组间 PCR-RDB 法的检测结果差异无统计学意义(χ2=1.476,P =0.224)。结论实时 PCR 和 PCR-RDB 两法用于 HPV 检测一致性一般;HPV 病毒载量在103~108范围内时 PCR-RDB 法的阳性率较稳定。%Objective To compare real time PCR with PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (PCR-RDB)for detecting human pap-illomavirus (HPV)infection in women.Methods A total of 109 genital specimens from women were collected in the study.All specimens were tested HPV by using real time PCR and PCR-RDB,discrepant samples were tested again by PCR-xMAP.Results The concordant rate was 83.5%(91/109)between real time PCR and PCR-RDB (kappa=0.671),the other 18 discrepant samples were retested by PCR-xMAP,7 of those were identical with real time PCR and 11 with PCR-RDB.No differences of PCR-RDB pos-itive rates were found between the high and low viral load groups (χ2 =1.476,P =0.224).Conclusion It demonstrated moderate consistency between real time PCR and PCR-RDB.The HPV positive rates of PCR-RDB were stable when the viral loads were 103-108 .

  5. Comparison of Two Widely Used Human Papillomavirus Detection and Genotyping Methods, GP5+/6+-Based PCR Followed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization and Multiplex Type-Specific E7-Based PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Gary M; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Franceschi, Silvia; Tenet, Vanessa; Umulisa, M Chantal; Tshomo, Ugyen; Dondog, Bolormaa; Vorsters, Alex; Tommasino, Massimo; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Snijders, Peter J F; Gheit, Tarik

    2016-08-01

    GP5+/6+-based PCR followed by reverse line blot hybridization (GP5+/6+RLB) and multiplex type-specific PCR (E7-MPG) are two human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping methodologies widely applied in epidemiological research. We investigated their relative analytical performance in 4,662 samples derived from five studies in Bhutan, Rwanda, and Mongolia coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). A total of 630 samples were positive by E7-MPG only (13.5%), 24 were positive by GP5+/6+RLB only (0.5%), and 1,014 were positive (21.8%) by both methods. Ratios of HPV type-specific positivity of the two tests (E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratio) were calculated among 1,668 samples that were HPV positive by one or both tests. E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios were >1 for all types and highly reproducible across populations and sample types. E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios were highest for HPV53 (7.5) and HPV68 (7.1). HPV16 (1.6) and HPV18 (1.7) had lower than average E7-MPG:GP5+/6+RLB ratios. Among E7-MPG positive infections, median mean fluorescence intensity (MFI; a semiquantitative measure of viral load) tended to be higher among samples positive for the same virus type by GP5+/6+RLB than for those negative for the same type by GP5+/6+RLB. Exceptions, however, included HPV53, -59, and -82, for which the chances of being undetected by GP5+/6+RLB appeared to be MFI independent. Furthermore, the probability of detecting an additional type by E7-MPG was higher when another type was already detected by GP5+/6+RLB, suggesting the existence of masking effects due to competition for GP5+/6+ PCR primers. In conclusion, this analysis is not an evaluation of clinical performance but may inform choices for HPV genotyping methods in epidemiological studies, when the relative merits and dangers of sensitivity versus specificity for individual types should be considered, as well as the potential to unmask nonvaccine types following HPV vaccination. PMID:27225411

  6. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  7. Changes in rRNA levels during stress invalidates results from mRNA blotting: Fluorescence in situ rRNA hybridization permits renormalization for estimation of cellular mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Nielsen, A.K.; Molin, Søren;

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression can be analyzed by a number of different techniques. Some techniques monitor the level of specific mRNA directly, and others monitor indirectly by determining the level of enzymes encoded by the mRNA. Each method has its own inherent way of normalization. When results...... obtained by these techniques are compared between experiments in which differences in growth rates, strains, or stress treatments occur, the normalization procedure may have a significant impact on the results. In this report we present a solution to the normalization problem in RNA slot blotting...

  8. Usefulness of restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping for epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium bovis in Madagascar: description of new genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolofo Razanamparany, Voahangy; Quirin, René; Rapaoliarijaona, Andriampenomaka; Rakotoaritahina, Hugues; Vololonirina, Elie Jeanne; Rasolonavalona, Tiana; Ferdinand, Séverine; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin; Ramarokoto, Herimanana; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2006-04-16

    Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in cattle in Madagascar. An epidemiological study based on genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and its transmission to humans was carried out. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110 and DR markers) and spoligotyping were used to assess the genetic diversity of strains from different regions of Madagascar. One of these strains was isolated from goat, the other strains were isolated from zebu cattle. Nine IS6110 profiles, 20 DR profiles and 12 spoligotypes were obtained. About 90% of all isolates gave a single IS6110 band at about 1.8 kb. Most strains had the same spoligotype. M. bovis strains commonly lack spacers 39-43, and all Malagasy strains also lacked spacers 3-5, 8-10 and 16. This pattern has not been reported elsewhere. DR was the most discriminatory of the three markers. The patterns obtained with the three markers were combined to identify 34 different genotypes, one of which was found in 35% of the strains. No region-specific M. bovis genotype was identified, but the genotyping of 18 M. bovis strains isolated from patients showed that the human and bovine strains were identical, suggesting possible human contamination from zebu cattle.

  9. Distribution of spoligotyping defined genotypic lineages among drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates in Ankara, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgul Kisa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of genetic heterogeneity and spoligotype-defined lineages of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected during a three-year period in two university hospitals and National Tuberculosis Reference and Research Laboratory in Ankara, Turkey. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 95 drug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates collected from three different centers were included in this study. Susceptibility testing of the isolates to four major antituberculous drugs was performed using proportion method on Löwenstein-Jensen medium and BACTEC 460-TB system. All clinical isolates were typed by using spoligotyping and IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods. Seventy-three of the 95 (76.8% drug resistant M. tuberculosis isolates were isoniazid-resistant, 45 (47.4% were rifampicin-resistant, 32 (33.7% were streptomycin-resistant and 31 (32.6% were ethambutol-resistant. The proportion of multidrug-resistant isolates (MDR was 42.1%. By using spoligotyping, 35 distinct patterns were observed; 75 clinical isolates were grouped in 15 clusters (clustering rate of 79% and 20 isolates displayed unique patterns. Five of these 20 unique patterns corresponded to orphan patterns in the SITVIT2 database, while 4 shared types containing 8 isolates were newly created. The most prevalent M. tuberculosis lineages were: Haarlem (23/95, 24.2%, ill-defined T superfamily (22/95, 23.2%, the Turkey family (19/95, 20%; previously designated as LAM7-TUR, Beijing (6/95, 6.3%, and Latin-America & Mediterranean (LAM, 5/95 or 5.3%, followed by Manu (3/95, 3.2% and S (1/95, 1% lineages. Four of the six Beijing family isolates (66.7% were MDR. A combination of IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping reduced the clustering rate from 79% to 11.5% among the drug resistant isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained showed that ill-defined T, Haarlem, the Turkey family (previously designated as LAM7-TUR family with high

  10. Studying protein-protein interactions via blot overlay/far western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    Blot overlay is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. This technique involves fractionating proteins on SDS-PAGE, blotting to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane, and then incubating with a probe of interest. The probe is typically a protein that is radiolabeled, biotinylated, or simply visualized with a specific antibody. When the probe is visualized via antibody detection, this technique is often referred to as "Far Western blot." Many different kinds of protein-protein interactions can be studied via blot overlay, and the method is applicable to screens for unknown protein-protein interactions as well as to the detailed characterization of known interactions.

  11. Multiplexed Western Blotting Using Microchip Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Furtaw, Michael D; Chen, Huaxian; Lamb, Don T; Ferguson, Stephen A; Arvin, Natalie E; Dawod, Mohamed; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    Western blotting is a commonly used protein assay that combines the selectivity of electrophoretic separation and immunoassay. The technique is limited by long time, manual operation with mediocre reproducibility, and large sample consumption, typically 10-20 μg per assay. Western blots are also usually used to measure only one protein per assay with an additional housekeeping protein for normalization. Measurement of multiple proteins is possible; however, it requires stripping membranes of antibody and then reprobing with a second antibody. Miniaturized alternatives to Western blot based on microfluidic or capillary electrophoresis have been developed that enable higher-throughput, automation, and greater mass sensitivity. In one approach, proteins are separated by electrophoresis on a microchip that is dragged along a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane so that as proteins exit the chip they are captured on the membrane for immunoassay. In this work, we improve this method to allow multiplexed protein detection. Multiple injections made from the same sample can be deposited in separate tracks so that each is probed with a different antibody. To further enhance multiplexing capability, the electrophoresis channel dimensions were optimized for resolution while keeping separation and blotting times to less than 8 min. Using a 15 μm deep × 50 μm wide × 8.6 cm long channel, it is possible to achieve baseline resolution of proteins that differ by 5% in molecular weight, e.g., ERK1 (44 kDa) from ERK2 (42 kDa). This resolution allows similar proteins detected by cross-reactive antibodies in a single track. We demonstrate detection of 11 proteins from 9 injections from a single Jurkat cell lysate sample consisting of 400 ng of total protein using this procedure. Thus, multiplexed Western blots are possible without cumbersome stripping and reprobing steps. PMID:27270033

  12. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Tehran, Iran by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyisa, Seifu Gizaw; Haeili, Mehri; Zahednamazi, Fatemeh; Mosavari, Nader; Taheri, Mohammad Mohammad; Hamzehloo, Gholamreza; Zamani, Samin; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates by DNA fingerprinting has contributed to tuberculosis (TB) control. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of MTB isolates from Tehran province in Iran. METHODS MTB isolates from 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan TB patients were fingerprinted by standard IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. RESULTS The copy number of IS6110 ranged from 10-24 per isolate. The isolates were classified into 22 clusters showing ≥ 80% similarity by RFLP analysis. Fourteen multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were grouped into 4 IS6110-RFLP clusters, with 10 isolates [71% (95% CI: 45-89%)] in 1 cluster, suggesting a possible epidemiological linkage. Eighteen Iranian isolates showed ≥ 80% similarity with Afghan isolates. There were no strains with identical fingerprints. Spoligotyping of 70 isolates produced 23 distinct patterns. Sixty (85.7%) isolates were grouped into 13 clusters, while the remaining 10 isolates (14.2%) were not clustered. Ural (formerly Haarlem4) (n = 22, 31.4%) was the most common family followed by Central Asian strain (CAS) (n = 18, 25.7%) and T (n = 9, 12.8%) families. Only 1strain was characterized as having the Beijing genotype. Among 60 Iranian and 10 Afghan MTB isolates, 25% (95% CI: 16-37) and 70% (95% CI: 39-89) were categorized as Ural lineage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS A higher prevalence of Ural family MTB isolates among Afghan patients than among Iranian patients suggests the possible transmission of this lineage following the immigration of Afghans to Iran.

  13. Miniaturized fluorescent RNA dot blot method for rapid quantitation of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadetie Fekadu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA dot blot hybridization is a commonly used technique for gene expression assays. However, membrane based RNA dot/slot blot hybridization is time consuming, requires large amounts of RNA, and is less suited for parallel assays of more than one gene at a time. Here, we describe a glass-slide based miniaturized RNA dot blot (RNA array procedure for rapid and parallel gene expression analysis using fluorescently labeled probes. Results RNA arrays were prepared by simple manual spotting of RNA onto amino-silane coated microarray glass slides, and used for two-color fluorescent hybridization with specific probes labeled with Cy3 and 18S ribosomal RNA house-keeping gene probe labeled with Cy5 fluorescent dyes. After hybridization, arrays were scanned on a fluorescent microarray scanner and images analyzed using microarray image analysis software. We demonstrate that this method gives comparable results to Northern blot analysis, and enables high throughput quantification of transcripts from nanogram quantities of total RNA in hundreds of samples. Conclusion RNA array on glass slide and detection by fluorescently labeled probes can be used for rapid and parallel gene expression analysis. The method is particularly well suited for gene expression assays that involve quantitation of many transcripts in large numbers of samples.

  14. 反向斑点杂交技术快速鉴定泌尿生殖道致病性支原体的研究%Rapid detection of pathogenic mycoplasmas in genitourinary tract using PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛秀娟; 郑和平; 李国明; 黄进梅; 曾维英; 薛耀华; 吴兴中

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立PCR反向斑点杂交方法(PCR-RDB)快速鉴定泌尿生殖道常见致病性支原体.方法 以4种支原体[微小脲原体(Up)、解脲脲原体(Uu)、生殖支原体(Mg)、人型支原体(Mh)]的16SrRNA基因为靶序列设计通用引物和探针,将4种特异的寡核苷酸探针固定于尼龙膜上.利用巢式PCR扩增Up、Uu、Mg和Mh,扩增产物变性后与各特异性探针进行杂交、显色并分析结果,并对检测体系的敏感性、特异性进行测试.同时检测分析60例临床拭子标本.结果 4种特异性探针只与相应的支原体DNA杂交,与其他病原体无交叉反应,其敏感性是1 CFU.60例临床拭子标本PCR-RDB方法共筛选出支原体阳性19例,其中3例为支原体混合感染的标本(Up+Uu 2例,Uu+Mg 1例).结论 该方法可快速、敏感、准确地鉴定引起泌尿生殖道感染的致病性支原体.%Objective To develop a PCR-mverse dot blot hybridization(RDB)assay to rapidly detect pathogenic mycoplasmas in genitourinary tract.Methods Universal primers were designed and applied to amplify the 16S rRNA gone of ureaplasma parvum(Up),ureaplasma urealyticum(Uu),Mycoplasma genitalium(Mg),Mycoplasma hominis(Mh)by using nestcd PCR.Specific nucleotide probes of Up,Uu,Mg and Mh Were constructed and immobilized onto nylon membranes.PCR products were denatured and hybridized、with specific oligonucleofide probes on nylon membrane.The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-RDB assay were evaluated based.on the hybddizafion results.Also,PCR-RDB Was utilized to detect pathogenic mycoplasmas from 60 clinical samples.Results The four probes selectively hybridized with the PCR product of corresponding mycoplasmas,and no cross hybridization was observed.The detection limit of PCR-RDB Was one colony forming unit(CFU)of mycoplasma.Out of the 60 clinical samples、19were positive for mycoplasm,Mixed infections were found in three samples,including two coinfected with Up and Uu and one with Uu and Mg

  15. Spoligotyping of clinic isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis%结核分枝杆菌间隔区寡核苷酸分型法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文建强; 金颖; 田卫花; 刘志广; 吕冰; 同重湘; 万康林

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用间隔区寡核苷酸分型(spoligotyping)方法分析甘肃省结核分枝杆菌临床分离株的分子型别特征.方法 用spoligotyping基因分型方法,对甘肃省兰州市肺科医院住院或门诊确诊患者分离的结核分枝杆菌进行分型,采用BioNumerics4.5软件进行聚类(cluster)分析,对聚类结果与国际间隔寡核苷酸分型数据库(SpolDB4)对比.结果 215株临床分离株被分成3个基因群22种基因型,其中成簇菌株形成11个基因型共204株,独特基因型菌株11株;北京家庭基因型结核分枝杆菌占86.51% (186/215),T4占4.19% (9/215)、H1占1.86% (4/215)、MANU占1.40%( 3/215)等基因型;Logistic多元回归分析结果表明,北京家庭基因型与患者性别、年龄、职业、抗结核治疗史、耐药、发病情况和菌种耐药性、来源地等均无关联.结论 甘肃省结核分枝杆菌临床分离株基因具有多态性,北京家族基因型结核分枝杆菌为该地区主要流行株,其他罕见的基因型结核分枝杆菌也值得重视.%Objective To explore molecular chracteristics and distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis {M. Tuberculosis) in Lanzhou area.Gansu province with traditional 43-space spoligotyping. Methods Totally 215 M. Tuberculosis strains were ioslated front confirmed patients in Lanzhou Pulmonary Disease Hospital and were genotyped by traditional 43-space spoligotyping. The characteristics of ONA fingerprinting of the strains was analyzed with BioNumerics 4.5 software. The results were compaed with International Spoligotyping Datebase ( SpolDB4). Results Of all the strains, 86. 98% (204/215) were grouped into 11 clusters(spoligotypes) with other 11 unique strains. Among 22 spoligotypes(STs), 12 spoligotypes were cluster strains,while 10 spoligotypes( 14 strains) were new and unique (orphan). Beijing family genotype was the most common genotype family(86. 51% ) .followed by T family(4.19% ) ,H family( 1. 86% ) ,and MANU family (1

  16. Simultaneous detection of nine antibiotic resistance-related genes in Streptococcus agalactiae using multiplex PCR and reverse line blot hybridization assay%多重PCR/反向线点杂交检测B族溶血性链球菌耐药相关基因的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪玉; 王辉; 王玮蓁; 段逸群; 孔繁荣; Gwendolyn L.Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    目的 建立和评价多重PCR-反向线点杂交方法(multiplex PCR/reverse line blot hybridization,mPCR/RLB)检测B族溶血性链球菌(GBS)9个耐药及耐药相关基因[erm(A/TR)、erm(B)、mef(A/E)、tet(M)、tet(O)、aphA-3、aad-6、int-Tn和mreA]的方法.方法 针对GBS的9个耐药及耐药相关基因分别设计9对引物及寡核苷酸探针.多重PCR同时扩增9个目的基因,获得生物素标记的PCR产物后,反向线点杂交同时检测上述9个基因.为明确mPCR/RLB方法的特异性和敏感性,对其中318株菌株的9个基因分别进行单个基因PCR扩增,比较两种检测方法结果.结果 用mPCR/RLB方法成功检测512株GBS分离株的9个耐药相关基因,除8株int-Tn和21株mef单个基因PCR阳性的菌株,RLB结果表现为单探针杂交外,其余菌株所有耐药基因RLB检测结果和单个基因PCR完全一致.结论 我们建立的多重PCR/RLB方法具有良好的敏感性和特异性,为GBS耐药基因的流行病学调查和监控提供了一个良好的检测工具.

  17. 斑点杂交法检测正畸大鼠三叉神经节PPTAmRNA的变化%Changes in the Expression of PPTA mRNA in the Rat trigeminal Ganglion during Tooth Movement using Dot-blot hybridization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷越; 孙应明

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes in the Expression of PPTA mRNA in the Rat trigeminal Ganglion during Tooth Movement. Methods The changes in the expression of PPTA mRNA in the rat trigeminal ganglion.during tooth movement in different periods.were detected using Dot-blot hybridization. Results The expression of PPTA mRNA in trigeminal ganglion was stonger than that in blank group and control group at all the time points; PPTA mRNA level was increased after 2 hours and reached the peak level around 8 hours to 3 days during tooth movement,7days after tooth movement PPTA mRNA level was still higher than in control group. Conclusion Orthodontic tooth movement can lead to a stonger expression of PPTA mRNA in trigeminal ganglion, suggesting that the PPTA may be involved in the occurrence of orthodontic pain.%目的:观察正畸牙齿移动不同时期大鼠三叉神经节(Trigeminal Ganglion,TG)中前速激肽原A(PPTA)mRNA的表达变化,初步探讨牙齿移动导致疼痛的可能机制.方法:采用斑点杂交的方法检测正畸加力后不同时期大鼠TG内PPTAmRNA水平的变化情况.结果:加力2h大鼠三叉神经节PPTA mRNA的表达量开始增加,加力8h至加力3天达到最高,至第7天PPTA mRNA水平仍然明显高于对照组.结论:正畸牙齿移动能导致TG内PPTAmRNA表达水平的上调,提示PPTA可能参与了正畸疼痛的发生.

  18. PCR-反向点杂交基因分型与实时荧光定量PCR检测人乳头瘤病毒的研究%Use of a PCR-based reverse blot hybridization assay for subtyping and real-time quantitative PCR to detect human papilloma virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向华国; 曾锦婷; 何婉意; 黎国

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of a PCR-based reverse blot hybridization (PCR-RDB) assay and realtime quantitative PCR for detecting human papilloma virus in female outpatients. Methods A total of 121 female outpatients were checked for 23 HFV DNA types by PCR-RDB and 13 high-risk HPV genotypes by real-time quantitative PCR. Results According to PCR-RDB, 28.10% of the women(34/121) tested positive while 16. 53%(20/121) tested positive according to real-time quantitative PCR. HPV was detected more often with PCR-RDB than with real-time quantitative PCR (P<0.05). The concordance rate for the two techniques was 93. 39%(113/121). Conclusion PCR-RDB can be used to screen for HPV infection while real-time quantitative PCR facilitates evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment and the prognosis for cervical carcinoma. Combining the two should increase the specificity and sensitivity of HPV detection.%目的 评价PCR-反向点杂交基因分型与实时荧光定量PCR在检测人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)的意义.方法 同时采用PCR-反向点杂交基因分型和实时荧光定量PCR对121例女性官颈脱离细胞标本进行HPV检测.其中PCR-反向点杂交基因分型能检测23种HPV亚型,实时荧光定量PCR定量检测常见的13种高危HPV亚型.结果 PCR-反向点杂交基因分型检测HPV的阳性率为28.10%(34/121),实时荧光定量PCR检测HPV的阳性率为16.53%(20/121),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);二者检测的符合率为93.39%(113/121).结论 PCR-反向杂交基因分型适用于HPV感染的筛查,而实时荧光定量PCR适用于HPV感染相关疾病的疗效与预后的判断.PCR-反向杂交基因分型与实时荧光定量PCR联合检测可提高HPV检测的特异性和敏感度,对于生殖道HPV感染以及子宫颈癌的早期发现、预防和治疗具有重要意义.

  19. Observation on Plant Leaf Transection by Gelatin Blotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Dahai; LI Fuheng; WANG Xiaocen; HUANG Fushan

    2011-01-01

    Blotting was used to observe cell structures of leaf epidermis cells, and the key method of leaf transaction observation was paraffin section. The concentration, suitable solidification time, melting temperature of gelatin solution and the stain for the gelatin blotting were studied in this research. The results showed that the gelatin blotting could be used to study leaf transaction, it was benefit to make operation easily, and save time, money and so on

  20. Development of a multiple PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay(mPCR-RLB)to detect seven sexually transmitted disease pathogens%多重PCR结合反向线点杂交方法检测七种性病病原体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 孔繁荣; 周小勇; 曾宪玉; 王玮蓁; 段逸群; 曾志良; 陈春梅; 琳·吉尔伯特

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop a multiple PCR-based reverse line blot hydrization assay (mPCR-RLB)to simutaneously detect several STD pathogens:Neisserria gonorrhoeae,Chlamydia trachomatis,Ureaplasma urealyticum,U.parvum,Mycoplasma genitalium,M,hominis and Trichomonas vaginalis.Methods Seven pairs of biotin-labelled primer were designed and synthesized to target the 16S rRNA-23S rRNA intergenic spacer regions of Neisserria gonorrhoeae,Chlamydia trachomatis,Mycoplasma,and repetitive DNA sequence of Trichomonas to identify and subtype thesc pathogens.DNA was extracted from the referrence strains of seven pathogens and used as templates.mPCR was performed to simutaneously amplify the target regions of these pathogens.Then,the biotin-labelled amplicons were hybridized with membrane-bound specific oligonucleotide probes followed by the detection of bound amplicons with chemiluminescence assay.Serially diluted plasmids containing the target genes of pathogens were amplified with this method to detect its sensitivity.Two-hundred and eleven specimens,including 104 male urethral swabs and 107 female cervical swabs,were collected from the STD clinic of Wuhan First Hospital;mPCR-RLB and single-primer PCR were performed.For specimens with inconsistent results,nested PCR was performed to confirm the results.Results The assay sensitively and specifically identified referrence strains of the tested pathogens.The detection limit of mPCR-RLB was 100 copies for all the pathogens.Of the 211 clinical specimens,2.8%(6/21)were negative for single-primer PCR,but positive for mPCR-RLB,and nested-PCR results were consistent with those of mPCR-RLB.Conclusion mPCR-RLB is a sensitive,specific and rapid method for the detection of STD pathogens from clinical specimens.%目的 建立多重PCR结合反向线点杂交技术同时检测淋球菌、沙眼衣原体、生殖支原体、人型支原体、微小脲原体、解脲脲原体和毛滴虫的方法.方法 设计7对生物素标记的上述病原体

  1. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage, Wrongly Identified as Mycobacterium pinnipedii (Spoligotype International Type 863 [SIT863]), Causing Active Tuberculosis in South Brazil

    KAUST Repository

    Dalla Costa, Elis R.

    2015-09-23

    We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RDRio, and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n = 8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C(−17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers.

  2. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology. PMID:26924673

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ecology in Venezuela: epidemiologic correlates of common spoligotypes and a large clonal cluster defined by MIRU-VNTR-24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alland David

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis remains an endemic public health problem, but the ecology of the TB strains prevalent, and their transmission, can vary by country and by region. We sought to investigate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in different regions of Venezuela. A previous study identified the most prevalent strains in Venezuela but did not show geographical distribution nor identify clonal genotypes. To better understand local strain ecology, we used spoligotyping to analyze 1298 M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Venezuela from 1997 to 2006, predominantly from two large urban centers and two geographically distinct indigenous areas, and then studied a subgroup with MIRU-VNTR 24 loci. Results The distribution of spoligotype families is similar to that previously reported for Venezuela and other South American countries: LAM 53%, T 10%, Haarlem 5%, S 1.9%, X 1.2%, Beijing 0.4%, and EAI 0.2%. The six most common shared types (SIT's 17, 93, 605, 42, 53, 20 accounted for 49% of the isolates and were the most common in almost all regions, but only a minority were clustered by MIRU-VNTR 24. One exception was the third most frequent overall, SIT 605, which is the most common spoligotype in the state of Carabobo but infrequent in other regions. MIRU-VNTR homogeneity suggests it is a clonal group of strains and was named the "Carabobo" genotype. Epidemiologic comparisons showed that patients with SIT 17 were younger and more likely to have had specimens positive for Acid Fast Bacilli on microscopy, and patients with SIT 53 were older and more commonly smear negative. Female TB patients tended to be younger than male patients. Patients from the high incidence, indigenous population in Delta Amacuro state were younger and had a nearly equal male:female distribution. Conclusion Six SIT's cause nearly half of the cases of tuberculosis in Venezuela and dominate in nearly all regions. Strains with SIT 17, the most common pattern

  4. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  5. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As demonstr

  6. Suitability of IS6110-RFLP and MIRU-VNTR for Differentiating Spoligotyped Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from Sichuan in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC vary with the geographic origin of the patients and can affect tuberculosis (TB transmission. This study was aimed to further differentiate spoligotype-defined clusters of drug-resistant MTBC clinical isolates split in Beijing (n=190 versus non-Beijing isolates (n=84 from Sichuan region, the second high-burden province in China, by IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs. Among 274 spoligotyped isolates, the clustering ratio of Beijing family was 5.3% by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 2.1% by IS6110-RFLP, while none of the non-Beijing isolates were clustered by 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs versus 9.5% by IS6110-RFLP. Hence, neither the 24-locus MIRU-VNTR was sufficient enough to fully discriminate the Beijing family, nor the IS6110-RFLP for the non-Beijing isolates. A region adjusted scheme combining 12 highly discriminatory VNTR loci with IS6110-RFLP was a better alternative for typing Beijing strains in Sichuan than 24-locus MIRU-VNTRs alone. IS6110-RFLP was for the first time introduced to systematically genotype MTBC in Sichuan and we conclude that the region-adjusted scheme of 12 highly discriminative VNTRs might be a suitable alternative to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR scheme for non-Beijing strains, while the clusters of the Beijing isolates should be further subtyped using IS6110-RFLP for optimal discrimination.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF IMMUNOGENS OF 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' BY PROTEIN BLOTTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet by blotting. Sera obtained from infected hamsters and immunized rabbits were then incubated with the nitrocellulose strips. Proteins which are capa...

  8. STUDI PEMETAAN AWAL DNA Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX SECARA Spoligotyping PADA HASIL ISOLASI DAHAK PASIEN TUBERKULOSIS PARU DARI 10 IBU KOTA PROPINSI (BAGIAN I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivi Lisdawati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mapping TB genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb is an important study to identify their distribution or characteristic and also may lead to improve control of the disease. This study conducted a preliminary mapping of the tubercle bacilli which had been circulating in Indonesia. Cultures of DNA isolated from TB patients at urban areas in 16 provinces in Indonesia, are chosen based on TB Case Detection Rate (CDR 2006 from Indonesia Directorate General of Communicable Disease Control and Environment Health (Ministry of Health, were analyzed by spoligotyping for strain differentiation. In this first part, the analyzed result only came from urban areas in 10 provinces, i.e. Palembang, Bandar Lampung, Serang, Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Banjarmasin, Makassar, Pontianak and Ambon. Sample were 269 DNA from 294 isolates collected from sputum of suspect TB patients with sputum-smear positive (SS+ and age above 15 years old. All samples were obtained from peripheral health laboratory in each province. The procedure collection is accordance to Indonesia DOTs guidelines (AFB smears and samples were transported from those 10 areas to Bacteriology Laboratory at CBPRD. Sputum was taken for culture in liquid media MGIT Bactec 960 and solid media Lowenstein Jensen. The DNAs from positive liquid media MGIT Bactec 960 were isolated and analyzed by spoligotyping to identify the spoligo pattern. The spoligotyping results converted into octal format within Words & Excel spreadsheets and compared to International Spoligotype-database (SpolDB4. The previous study (Parwati et.al. found some differences geographical distribution between Beijing genotype strain of tubercle bacilli in West Indonesia compare to East Indonesia, and the same pattern was also found in this study. Furthermore, the results in this study showed the differences in spoligo pattern of Mtb complex at 10 urban areas in West, Middle and East Indonesia. The percentage of Beijing strain

  9. Reverse Line Blot Assay for Direct Identification of Seven Streptococcus agalactiae Major Surface Protein Antigen Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zuotao; Kong, Fanrong; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay (mPCR/RLB) to detect the genes encoding members of the family of variable surface-localized proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), namely, Bca (Cα), Rib, Epsilon (Epsilon/Alp1/Alp5), Alp2, Alp3, and Alp4, and the immunoglobulin A binding protein, Bac (Cβ). We used the assay to identify these genes in a collection of well-characterized GBS isolates and reference strains. The results showed tha...

  10. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  11. Cross Dot Blot Hybridization with Specific Nucleic Acid Probes for Detection of Pathogenic Exogenous Avian Leucosis Virus%鸡致病性外源性禽白血病病毒特异性核酸探针交叉斑点杂交检测试剂盒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔治中; 赵鹏; 孙淑红; 王鑫; 李文平

    2011-01-01

    Four DIG - labeled nucleic acid probes for specific detection of chicken endogenous and pathogenic exogenous avian leukosis virus(ALV) were synthesized by PCR using specific primers, these probes are used to detect exogenous pathogenic ALV specific nucleic acid in suspected samples through cross dot hybridization. Genomic DNA extracted from the samples or its amplified PCR products using the appropriate primers can be detected with specific probes. The results could be reported in 24 - 36h by cross - dot hybridization.%用特定引物通过PCR合成了经地高辛标记的鸡致病性外源性及内源性禽白血病病毒特异性核酸探针,通过交叉斑点分子杂交,这些探针将可用于检测病料样品中致病性外源性禽白血病毒特异性核酸的存在。利用此试剂盒,对从病料组织样品中提取的基因组DNA作交叉斑点分子杂交或对提取的DNA用相应引物扩增后的PCR产物作交叉斑点分子杂交,可在24~36h内完成检测并报告结果。

  12. Use of cluster-graphs from spoligotyping data to study genotype similarities and a comparison of three indices to quantify recent tuberculosis transmission among culture positive cases in French Guiana during a eight year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brudey Karine

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background French Guiana has the highest tuberculosis (TB burden among all French departments, with a strong increase in the TB incidence over the last few years. It is now uncertain how best to explain this incidence. The objective of this study was to compare three different methods evaluating the extent of recent TB transmission in French Guiana. Methods We conducted a population-based molecular epidemiology study of tuberculosis in French Guiana based on culture-positive TB strains (1996 to 2003, n = 344 to define molecular relatedness between isolates, i.e. potential transmission events. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by comparing two methods: a "cluster-graph" method based on spoligotyping results, and a minimum spanning tree method based on both spoligotyping and variable number of tandem DNA repeats (VNTR. Furthermore, three indices attempting to reflect the extent of recent TB transmission (RTIn, RTIn-1 and TMI were compared. Results Molecular analyses showed a total amount of 120 different spoligotyping patterns and 273 clinical isolates (79.4% that were grouped in 49 clusters. The comparison of spoligotypes from French Guiana with an international spoligotype database (SpolDB4 showed that the majority of isolates belonged to major clades of M. tuberculosis (Haarlem, 22.6%; Latin American-Mediterranean, 23.3%; and T, 32.6%. Indices designed to quantify transmission of tuberculosis gave the following values: RTIn = 0.794, RTIn-1 = 0.651, and TMI = 0.146. Conclusion Our data showed a high number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clusters, suggesting a high level of recent TB transmission, nonetheless an estimation of transmission rate taking into account cluster size and mutation rate of genetic markers showed a low ongoing transmission rate (14.6%. Our results indicate an endemic mode of TB transmission in French Guiana, with both resurgence of old spatially restricted genotypes, and a significant importation of new TB

  13. Fingerprinting of Natural Product by Eastern Blotting Using Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We succeeded in developing the fingerprint of natural product by eastern blotting using monoclonal antibodies. After developing and separating them on a TLC plate, solasodine glycosides are oxidized by NaIO4 and reacted with a protein to give conjugates which are recognized with anti-solamargine monoclonal antibody (MAb. Anti-solamargine MAb having wide cross-reactivity can stain and detect all solasodine glycosides by fingerprint. Different sensitivity between solamargine and solasonine was observed. The detection limit was 1.6 ng of solasonine. The hydrolysed products of solamargine were determined by fingerprint of eastern blotting compared to their Rf values depending on the sugar number. Fingerprint by eastern blotting using anti-ginsenoside Rb1 MAb distinguished the formula containing ginseng prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine. By double-staining of ginsenosides it is possible to suggest that the staining color shows the pharmacological activity, such as the purple bands indicate ginsenosides having stimulation activity, and the blue color indicated compound like ginsenosides possessed the depression affect for the central nervous system (CNS, respectively.

  14. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  15. Western blot detection of PMI protein in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Rui-juan; DOU Shi-juan; LI Li-yun; WU Lin; LIU Si-qi; YIN Chang-cheng; LIU Guo-zhen; WU Peng-cheng; LAN Jin-ping; WEI Han-fu; WEI Jian; CHEN Hao; SHI Jia-nan; HAO Yu-jie; LIU Li-juan

    2016-01-01

    Phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) encoding genemanA is a desirable selective marker in transgenic research. Under-standing of its expression patterns in transgenic plant and establishing highly sensitive detection method based on immu-noassay have great impacts on the application of PMI. In this study, PMI-speciifc monoclonal antibodies were generated using recombinant protein as immunogen, and could be used in Western blot to detect as little as 0.5 ng His-tagged PMI protein or rice expressed PMI protein in sample accounted for 0.4% of single rice grain (about 0.08 mg). PMI protein driven by CaMV-35S promoter was detected in dozens of tested tissues, including root, stem, leaf, panicle, and seed at al devel-opmental stages during rice growing, and PMI protein accounted for about 0.036% of total protein in the leaves at seedling stage. The established method potentialy can be used to monitor PMI protein in rice grains.

  16. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad L. Ericson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs. The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions. Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses.

  17. Rapid detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples by an improved reverse dot blot method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ming Xing; Su Zhang; Ying Du; Dan Bi; Li-Hui Yao

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To develop a new, rapid and accurate reverse dot blot (RDB) method for the detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples.METHODS:The 12 intestinal pathogens tested were Salmonella spp., Brucella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7,Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus,Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae,Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.The two universal primers were designed to amplify two variable regions of bacterial 16S and 23S rDNA genes from all of the 12 bacterial species tested. Five hundred and forty fecal samples from the diarrhea patients were detected using the improved RDB assay.RESULTS:The methods could identify the 12 intestinal pathogens specifically, and the detection limit was as low as 103 CFUs. The consistent detection rate of the improved RDB assay compared with the traditional culture method was up to 88.75%.CONCLUSION:The hybridization results indicated that the improved RDB assay developed was a reliable method for the detection of intestinal pathogen in fecal samples.

  18. NORTHERN BLOT ANALYSIS OF nm23 GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lun-xu; ZHOU Qing-hua; SHI Ying-kang; QIN Yang; SUN Zhi-lin; SUN Ze-fang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of nm23 gene expression in human lung cancer. Methods: Forty human lung cancer tissues and 19 non-cancer pulmonary tissues were studied for their nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 mRNA expression with non-radioactive Northern blot hybridization. The correlation of nm23 mRNA expression with clinical features of lung cancer was analyzed. Results: The mRNA expression of nm23-H2 gene in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was significantly decreased compared to that in moderate-high differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The mRNA expression of nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 gene in small cell lung cancer was significantly decreased compared to that in squamous cell carcinoma. No significant difference in nm23 mRNA expression was observed between lung cancer with and without lymph node metastasis, nor was there significant difference between tumor stage. Conclusion: The mRNA expression of nm23 gene is correlated with the degree of differentiation of lung cancer, but there is no evidence of metastasis suppression effect by nm23 gene.

  19. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis in search for a putative Paramecium beta-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płatek, A; Wiejak, J; Wyroba, E

    1999-01-01

    RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis were performed in order to search for a putative beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) in Paramecium using several beta2-adrenergic-specific molecular probes. Under strictly defined RT-PCR conditions DNA species of expected molecular size about 360 bp were generated with the primers corresponding to the universal mammalian beta2-AR sequence tagged sites (located within the 4th and the 6th transmembrane regions of the receptor). This RT-PCR product hybridized in Southern blot analysis with the oligonucleotide probe designed to the highly conservative beta2-AR region involved in G-proteins interaction and located within the amplified region. Northern hybridization was performed on Paramecium total RNA and mRNA with human beta2-AR cDNA and two oligonucleotide probes: the first included Phe 290 involved in agonist binding (Strader et al., 1995) and the second was the backward RT-PCR primer. All these probes revealed the presence of about 2 kb mRNA which is consistent with the size of beta2-AR transcripts found in higher eukaryotes.

  20. RNase protection assays and RNA gel blots: a direct comparison of sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, D C; Colbert, J T

    1992-01-01

    RNase protection assays are commonly thought to be a more sensitive means of detecting and quantitating specific mRNAs than are RNA gel blots (Northern blots). We have directly compared the sensitivity of these two approaches by assaying for known amounts of in vitro synthesized beta-glucuronidase mRNA. With the probes and protocols employed here, the ability to detect a specific mRNA was similar whether RNase protection or RNA gel blot analyses were performed.

  1. Imaging and high-sensitivity quantification of chemiluminescent labeled DNA-blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present thesis has for objective the development of both, methods of DNA labeling by chemiluminescence (via the catalytic activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase - AP) and an appropriate imaging system. Offering a competitive alternative to the detection of classical radio-labels in molecular-biological experiments of the blotting type, this technique should permit the realization of quantitative studies of gene expression at ultra-high sensitivity necessary in particular for differential-screening experiments. To reach our aim. we separated the project into three different parts. In a first step an imager based on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD coupled to a standard optics (50 mm/fl.2) has been installed and characterized. This system offers a sensitive area of up to 625 cm2, a spatial resolution of 0.3-1 mm (depending on the field of view) and a sensitivity sufficient to detect 10 fg/mm2 labeled DNA. In a second part, the chemiluminescent light-generation process in solution has been investigated to optimize the parameters temperature. pH and concentration of the substrate as well as the enzyme. The substrate offering the highest light yield (CDP-Star in addition with the enhancer EMERALD II) allows quantification of AP down to 10-15 M within a dynamic range of 104 in solution. Finally. preparation, immobilization and detection of AP-labeled DNA probes (via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin-AP bridge) on nylon membranes has been optimized. A linear relation between the light intensities and the amount of DNA was observed in a range of 10 fg/mm2 - 100 pg/mm2. Hybridization of the probes to bacterial cloned target-DNA has been addressed after examination of the best hybridization conditions. Our protocol includes the treatment of a proteinase, which resulted in a significantly lower background on the filter. The results of our investigations suggest that the main conditions for a reliable differential-screening experiment are fulfilled when using chemiluminescent

  2. Development of a dot blot assay using gene probes for the detection of enteroviruses in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enteric viruses are viruses which replicate in the intestinal tract of man and animals. One mode of transmission for enteric viruses is the fecal-oral route. Drinking water which has been contaminated with sewage or sewage effluent has been implicated as a means for the spread of enteric viruses. Current methods for the detection of enteric viruses in water requires the use of animal cell culture. This technique has several drawbacks. More rapid techniques, such as fluorescent antibody or radioimmunoassay do not have the needed sensitivity to detect the low levels of virus found in contaminated water. An alternative technique for the detection of viruses in water was sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology now makes it possible to detect viruses without the use of cell culture or antibodies. Gene probes that hybridize to the RNA of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus were tested for their ability to detect different enteric viruses. The probes were labeled with 32P dCTP and 32P dATP to a specific activity greater then 1.0 x 109 cpm/ug DNA. One infectious unit of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus was detected using labeled cDNA probes. Upon comparison, the dot blot assay was as sensitive as tissue culture for the detection of poliovirus in beef extract, secondary effluent, and tap water. Environmental samples, such as secondary effluent, reclaimed wastewater and unchlorinated drinking water were also assayed for poliovirus and hepatitis A virus with the use of gene probes. The results presented here offer an alternative method for screening water samples for the presence of enteric viruses

  3. Evaluation of an indigenous western blot kit for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Western Blot test is considered a gold standard test for the confirmation of an ELISA and/or rapid assay screened reactive sample in the diagnosis of HIV infection, especially in the low risk population. In this study, an indigenously developed HIV W. Blot kit (J.Mitra & Co., New Delhi, India was compared for its performance characteristics with a widely used Western Blot kit, HIV Blot 2.2 (Genelabs, Singapore. Antigens of both HIV-1 and the indicator antigen gp36 of HIV-2 are included in the strips. METHODS: A panel of 150 clinical serum samples was used in the evaluation. All the sera were tested simultaneously by both the kits. RESULTS: The HIV W. Blot kit had high performance characteristics (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, like the HIV Blot 2.2. The test procedure was easy to perform. There was clear delineation of the bands. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of the results on the HIV W. Blot was less prone to subjective errors. The test gave positive bands at even very high serum dilutions in the test kit. This fact indicates that HIV W. Blot probably has a potential application in early phases of infection, when the antibody concentrations are still very low.

  4. Accuracy of Reverse Dot-Blot PCR in Detection of Different β-Globin Gene Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadaly, N; Abd-Elhameed, A; Abd-Elbar, E; El-Shanshory, M

    2016-06-01

    Prevention programs for β-thalassemia based on molecular diagnosis of heterozygous carriers and/or patients require the use of reliable mutation screening methods. The aim of this study was to compare between direct DNA sequencing, and reverse dot-blot PCR in detection of different β-globin gene mutations in Egyptian children with β-thalassemia. Forty children with β-thalassemia were subjected to mutation analysis, performed by both direct DNA sequencing and β-globin Strip Assay MED™ (based on reverse dot-blot PCR). The most frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were; IVSI-110 G>A (31.25 %), IVS I-6 T > C (21.25 %), and IVS I-1 G>A (20 %). Relatively less frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were "IVSII-1 G>A (5 %), IVSII-745 C>G (5 %), IVSII-848 C>A (2.5 %), IVSI-5 G>C (2.5 %), -87 C>G(2.5 %), and cd39 C>T (2.5 %)", While the genotypes of three patients (6 alleles 7.5 %) were not detected by reverse dot-blot PCR. Mutant alleles detected by direct DNA sequencing were the same as reverse dot-blot PCR method except it revealed the genotypes of 3 undetected patients (one patient was homozygous IVSI-110 G>A, and two patients were homozygous IVS I-1 G>A. Sensitivity of the reverse dot-blot PCR was 92.5 % when compared to direct DNA sequencing for detecting β-thalassemia mutations. Our results therefore suggest that, direct DNA sequencing may be preferred over reverse dot-blot PCR in critical diagnostic situations like genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis.

  5. Investigation of immunofluorescence cross-reactions against Trichinella spiralis by western blot (immunoblot) analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, F; Weil, B.; Kassis, N; Dupouy-Camet, J

    1996-01-01

    Immunofluorescence cross-reactions in Trichinella spiralis serodiagnosis are sometimes difficult to identify. We compared the results of an indirect immunofluorescence assay and the profiles obtained by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis for three groups of patients: 10 T. spiralis-infected patients, 10 patients with autoimmune diseases, and 7 patients with parasitic diseases other than trichinellosis. The degree of immunofluorescence cross-reaction was variable. Western blotting allowed us t...

  6. CRITERIA OF POSITIVITY FOR Ig ANTIBODIES IN THE METHOD OF IMMUNE BLOTTING OF LYME DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Barskova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no accepted criteria for positive Western blots in Russian patients with Lyme borreliosis. The purpose of the current study was to develop criteria for a positive IgG westem-blot to aid particularly in the diagnosis of patients with joint manifestation of the disorder. Patients: 97 with Lyme disease, 145 - control subjects. IgG antibody responses were determined to 3 species ofB.burgdorferi sensu lato by Western blotting, using blots prepared by manufacturer. The best discriminatory ability of test criteria was chained by requiring any 3 of 11 IgG bands, a definition that could be used with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B.garinii and B.afzelii strains. With these 3 antigen preparation, positive IgG blots were found in 0 to 18% of patients with localized erythema migrans of < 4 weeks duration, 23 to 39% of those with disseminated infection < 20 weeks duration, and in 39 to 46% of those with late arthritis/arthralgia of >6 months duration the specificity was 93 to 99%. Thus, IgG Western blotting may bring greater specificity to serologic testing in Lyme borreliosis, but the sensitivity is limited.

  7. Imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome detected by Southern blotting using a probe containing exon {alpha} of SNRPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuten, J.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy (UPD), or other mutations. The SNRPN gene maps in this region, is paternally expressed, and is a candidate gene for PWS. Southern blotting using methylation-sensitive enzymes and a genomic DNA probe from the CpG island containing exon {alpha} of the SNRPN gene reveals methylation specific for the maternal allele. In cases of the usual deletions or UPD, the probe detects absence of an unmethylated allele in PWS and absence of a methylated allele in AS. We have analyzed 21 nondeletion/nonUPD AS patients with this probe and found evidence for an imprinting mutation (absence of a methylated allele) in 3 patients. Southern blotting with methylation-sensitive enzymes using the exon {alpha} probe, like use of the PW71 probe, should detect abnormalities in all known PWS cases and in 3 of the 4 forms of AS: deletion, UPD and imprinting mutations. This analysis provides a valuable diagnostic approach for PWS and AS. In efforts to localize the imprinting mutations in AS, one patient was found with failure to inherit a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism near probe 189-1 (D15S13). Analysis of this locus in AS families and CEPH families demonstrates a polymorphism that impairs amplification and a different polymorphism involving absence of hybridization to the 189-1 probe. The functional significance, if any, of deletion of the 189-1 region is unclear.

  8. Blot-MS of Carbonylated Proteins: A Tool to Identify Oxidized Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rita; Domingues, Pedro; Amado, Francisco; Vitorino, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of proteostasis regulation declines during aging and the failure of protein homeostasis is common in age-related diseases. Protein oxidation is a major contributor to the loss of proteome homeostasis, also called "proteostasis," precluding protein misfolding and aggregation. So, the identification of the molecular pathways impaired by protein oxidation will increase the understanding of proteostasis and the pathophysiological conditions related to the loss of proteostasis. Sample derivatization with dinitrophenyl hydrazine and western blot immunoassay detection of carbonylated proteins (commonly known as Oxyblot™) coupled to mass spectrometry (blot-MS) is an attractive methodological approach to identify proteins that are more prone to carbonylation, a typical oxidative modification of amino acid residues. The integration of blot-MS data of carbonylated proteins with bioinformatics tools allows the identification of the biological processes more affected by protein oxidation and that, eventually, result in the loss of proteostasis.In this chapter, we describe a blot-MS methodology to identify the proteins more prone to oxidation in biological samples, as cell and tissue extracts, and biofluids. Analysis of mitochondria isolated from cardiac tissue is provided as an example. Bioinformatic strategy to deal with data retrieved from blot-MS experiments are proposed for the identification of relevant biological processes modulated by oxidative stress stimuli. PMID:27613049

  9. Optimized semi-quantitative blot analysis in infection assays using the Stain-Free technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Anna F; Gerrer, Katrin H; Haas, Rainer; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa F

    2016-07-01

    Western blots are a commonly used method for protein detection and quantification in biological samples. Compensation of loading variations is achieved by housekeeping protein (HKP) normalization and/or total protein normalization (TPN). However, under infection conditions, HKP normalization, traditionally used in cell biology for quantification of western blots, can be problematic. Binding of microbes to target cells via specific receptors can induce signal transduction events resulting in drastic changes in the level of expression of HKPs. Additionally, samples collected after infection assays will include cellular and microbial proteins altering the analysis with TPN. Here we demonstrate under experimental infection conditions, how a reliable semi-quantitative analysis of proteins in western blots can be achieved using the Stain-Free technology. PMID:27150675

  10. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGEN (Derp1 AND Blot5) LEVELS IN ASTHMATICS' HOME IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Sun; Adrian Wu; Albert Chan; Stanley Chik; Dorothy Wong; Nan-shan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To measure Derpl and Blot5 allergen levels in asthmatics' homes in Hongkong.Methods Seventy houses were enrolled for a mite indoor environment study. Dust samples were obtained from two sites of each patients' house: bed and floor. Derpl and Blot5 levels were quantified by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique.Results The levels of Derpl allergens found in bed (geometric mean (GM) 3.43 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 1.89-4.96 μg/g)and on the floor (GM 1.12 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.71-1.53 μg/g) indicated significant differences (P=0.005). However, the levels of Blot5 allergens found in bed (GM 19.00 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.89-38.90 μg/g) and on the floor (GM 6.14 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.40-11.90 μg/g) showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, in regards to the exposure index for Derpl and Blot5 allergens found in bed and on the floor, 17.6% in bed and 8.6% on the floor had levels of Blot5 ≥ 10 μg/g of dust, higher than those obtained for Derp1 (7.2% and 0% in bed and on the floor respectively, P< 0.05); higher percentages in bed and on the floor (25.0% and 35.7%) were observed for levels of Blot5 =0 μg/g of dust as compared with Derpl in bed and on the floor (4.3% and 14.5% respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusions Derpl and Blot5 are the major allergens found in this regional study, Blot5 is a more potent allergen in Hongkong, probably reflecting the high level of exposure to Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Bt and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergens should be included for precise diagnosis and effective immuno-therapeutic treatment of mite allergy in Hongkong.

  11. Comparison of DNA Dot Blot Hybridization and Lancefield Capillary Precipitin Methods for Group B Streptococcal Capsular Typing

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie M. Borchardt; Foxman, Betsy; Chaffin, Donald O.; Rubens, Craig E.; Tallman, Patricia A.; Manning, Shannon D.; Baker, Carol J.; Marrs, Carl F.

    2004-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) (Streptococcus agalactiae) are a major cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and infants and of invasive disease in pregnant women, nonpregnant, presumably immunocompromised adults, and the elderly. Nine GBS serotypes based on capsular polysaccharide antigens have been described. The serotype distributions among invasive and colonizing isolates differ between pediatric and adult populations and have changed over time. Thus, periodic monitoring of GBS serotype d...

  12. Rapid Diagnosis of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis by Use of a Reverse Line Blot Hybridization Assay▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Ajbani, Kanchan; Shetty,Anjali; Mehta, Ajita; Rodrigues, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB) is a matter of grave concern for TB control programs, as there is currently no cure for some extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. There is concern that this resistance could transmit, stressing the need for additional control measures, rapid diagnostic methods, and newer drugs for treatment. We developed an in-house assay that can rapidly detect resistance to drugs involved in the definition of XDR-TB directly from smear-positive specimens. Two hundre...

  13. Effects of Reusing Gel Electrophoresis and Electrotransfer Buffers on Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heda, Ghanshyam D; Omotola, Oluwabukola B; Heda, Rajiv P; Avery, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    SDS-PAGE and Western blotting are 2 of the most commonly used biochemical methods for protein analysis. Proteins are electrophoretically separated based on their MWs by SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred to a solid membrane surface for subsequent protein-specific analysis by immunoblotting, a procedure commonly known as Western blotting. Both of these procedures use a salt-based buffer, with the latter procedure consisting of methanol as an additive known for its toxicity. Previous reports present a contradictory view in favor or against reusing electrotransfer buffer, also known as Towbin's transfer buffer (TTB), with an aim to reduce the toxic waste. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of not only reusing TTB but also gel electrophoresis buffer (EB) on proteins of low to high MW range. Our results suggest that EB can be reused for at least 5 times without compromising the electrophoretic separation of mixture of proteins in an MW standard, BSA, and crude cell lysates. Additionally, reuse of EB did not affect the quality of subsequent Western blots. Successive reuse of TTB, on the other hand, diminished the signal of proteins of different MWs in a protein standard and a high MW membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in Western blotting. PMID:27582639

  14. Combined use of Western blot/ELISA to improve the serological diagnosis of human tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Beck

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two recombinant antigens and a crude bacterial antigen of a wild M. tuberculosis strain were used to detect specific IgG antibodies in sera from 52 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, confirmed by an acid-fast smear and serum culture of these patients and that of 25 contacts. The patients were not infected with HIV. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA, based on the recombinant TbF6® and TbF6/DPEP antigen and a search for reactivity patterns in the Western blot technique, using whole mycobacterium antigen. Serum samples from 22 healthy individuals and from 30 patients with lung diseases other than tuberculosis were used as controls. The best ELISA results were obtained with the TbF6/DPEP antigen combination, which gave 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity. ELISA sensitivity improved from 85% to 92% when the Western blot results were used. Western blot specificity was 100% when antibody reactivity with different antigenic bands was analyzed and associated. The association of TbF6/DPEP antigens used in ELISA with specific patterns of reactivity determined by Western blot can help make an identification when classic methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis are not sufficient.

  15. A Study of Rubisco through Western Blotting and Tissue Printing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong; Cooper, Cynthia; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Janick-Buckner, Diane

    2009-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for a cell biology course for second-year undergraduate biology majors. It was designed to introduce undergraduates to the basic molecular biology techniques of Western blotting and immunodetection coupled with the technique of tissue printing in detecting the presence, relative abundance, and…

  16. Detection of Diverse and High Molecular Weight Nesprin-1 and Nesprin-2 Isoforms Using Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthew, James; Karakesisoglou, Iakowos

    2016-01-01

    Heavily utilized in cell and molecular biology, western blotting is considered a crucial technique for the detection and quantification of proteins within complex mixtures. In particular, the detection of members of the nesprin (nuclear envelope spectrin repeat protein) family has proven difficult to analyze due to their substantial isoform diversity, molecular weight variation, and the sheer size of both nesprin-1 and nesprin-2 giant protein variants (>800 kDa). Nesprin isoforms contain distinct domain signatures, perform differential cytoskeletal associations, occupy different subcellular compartments, and vary in their tissue expression profiles. This structural and functional variance highlights the need to distinguish between the full range of proteins within the nesprin protein family, allowing for greater understanding of their specific roles in cell biology and disease. Herein, we describe a western blotting protocol modified for the detection of low to high molecular weight (50-1000 kDa) nesprin proteins. PMID:27147045

  17. A new analytical solution to axisymmetric Blot's consolidation of a finite soil layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new analytical method is presented to study the axisymmetric Blot's consolidation of a finite soil layer. Starting from the governing equations of axisymmetric Blot's consolidation, and based on the property of Laplace transform, the relation of basic variables for a point of a finite soil layer is established between the ground surface (z= 0) and the depth z in the Laplace and Hankel transform domains. Combined with the boundary conditions of the finite soil layer, the analytical solution of any point in the transform domain can be obtained. The actual solution in the physical domain can be obtained by inverse Laplace and Hankel transforms. A numerical analysis for the axisymmetric consolidation of a finite soil layer is carried out.

  18. Evaluation of an adaptive virtual laboratory environment using Western Blotting for diagnosis of disease

    OpenAIRE

    Polly, Patsie; Marcus, Nadine; Maguire, Danni; Belinson, Zack; Gary M Velan

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing large numbers of undergraduate students in scientific disciplines with engaging, authentic laboratory experiences is important, but challenging. Virtual laboratories (vLABs) are a potential means to enable interactive learning experiences. A vLAB focusing on Western Blotting was developed and implemented in a 3rd year undergraduate Pathology course for science students to facilitate learning of technical molecular laboratory skills that are linked to development of diagno...

  19. Strategies for laboratory HIV testing: an examination of alternative approaches not requiring Western blot.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, P. A.; Maskill, W. J.; Tamashiro, H.; Heymann, D L

    1994-01-01

    Advances in laboratory tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have permitted the development of alternative HIV testing strategies that do not require use of the Western blot approach. Three strategies are proposed. In strategy I, sera are tested for HIV antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/rapid/simple (ERS) test; in strategy II, sera reactive in an initial ERS test are retested using a second ERS test; strategy III involves retesting with a third E...

  20. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  1. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Marcilia MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT. Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. Hence, a Western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (LPS containing antigen of three Burkholderia mallei strains was developed. The test was validated investigating a comprehensive set of positive and negative sera obtained from horses and mules from endemic and non endemic areas. Results The developed Western blot assay showed a markedly higher diagnostic specificity when compared to the prescribed CFT and therefore can be used as a confirmatory test. However, the CFT remains the test of choice for routine testing of glanders due to its high sensitivity, its feasibility using standard laboratory equipment and its worldwide distribution in diagnostic laboratories. Conclusions The CFT should be amended by the newly validated Western blot to increase the positive likelihood ratio of glanders serodiagnosis in non endemic areas or areas with low glanders prevalence. Its use for international trade of horses and mules should be implemented by the OIE.

  2. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  3. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOT ANALYSIS FOR DETECTION OF PROLAMIN PROTEINS IN CEREAL GRAINS AND BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Cieślik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an inflammatory condition of the small intestine in genetically susceptible individuals caused by ingestion of wheat gluten and corresponding proteins from barley and rye. Cereal storage proteins (prolamins are responsible for immunological response of patients with celiac disease. Prolamins are alcohol soluble fractions, namely gliadins (wheat, hordeins (barley and secalins (rye. The main triggering factor is wheat fraction with low molecular weight (20-30 kDa called α-gliadins. Immunochemical detection of celiac active proteins is based on reactivity of gluten-detecting antibodies with prolamins extracted from cereals. In our study, we used Western blot analysis for detection of prolamin complex in cereal grains and processed foods (breads. Western blot was carried out by polyclonal antibody raised against wheat gluten. Reaction was positive for all kind of cereal grains. The samples of wheat and spelt wheat show much more positive affinity to antibody than rye and oat. As well as for cereal grains, all samples of bread showed positive immunological reaction with used antibody. Western blot analysis with gluten polyclonal antibody is suitable method for qualitative detection of prolamin complex in cereal grains and processed foods.doi:10.5219/115

  4. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  5. ANALYSIS OF Treponema pallidum RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    SATO Neuza Satomi; HIRATA Mário H.; HIRATA Rosário D.C.; Lia Carmen M.S. ZERBINI; Edilene P.R. SILVEIRA; MELO Carmem Silvia de; Ueda, Mirthes

    1999-01-01

    Three GST fusion recombinant antigen of Treponema pallidum, described as GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15 were analyzed by Western blotting techniques. We have tested 53 serum samples: 25 from patients at different clinical stages of syphilis, all of them presenting anti-treponemal antibody, 25 from healthy blood donors and three from patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD) other than syphilis. Almost all samples from patients with syphilis presented a strong reactivity with GST-rT...

  6. Proteínas inmunodominantes de Brucella Melitensis evaluadas por Western Blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anaya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron extractos de proteínas totales de Brucella melitensis en gel 15% SDS-PAGE. Su seroreactividad fue analizada por Western Blot con resultados satisfactorios. Para éste propósito sueros controles negativos (n=03, sueros de pacientes con brucelosis (n=34, cólera (n=12, tifoidea (n=02 y tuberculosis (n=02 fueron usados. Esta prueba inmunodiagnóstica detectó bandas seroreactivas altamente específicas (100% correspondientes a 8,14,18, un complejo de 25-48 y 58kDa. La sensibilidad del test fue del 90% usando los sueros antes mencionados.

  7. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  8. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  9. Simultaneous extraction from clinical biopsies of high-molecular-weight DNA and RNA: comparative characterization by biotinylated and 32P-labeled probes on Southern and Northern blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for efficient simultaneous extraction of high-molecular-weight DNA and RNA from solid mammalian tissues including clinical biopsies is described. It is based on the disruption and subsequent melting of deep frozen tissue in the presence of frozen phenol and nucleic acid extraction buffer; this allows for simultaneous disruption of tissue and inactivation of nucleases. The yield is about 0.7-5.8 mg of DNA and 0.5-8.1 mg of total RNA/g of tissue depending upon the tissue type; this is higher than the yield of other methods tested. Analysis of total RNA by denaturing gel electrophoresis, and of DNA and poly(A)+ RNA by Southern and Northern blot hybridization using 32P and biotinylated probes, indicated that c-Ha-ras gene and its transcripts were undegraded. Biotinylated and 32P probes had approximately the same sensitivity in detecting nucleic acids on Southern and Northern blots. This extraction procedure is simple and, when used with biotinylated probes, is rapid, inexpensive, and nonhazardous. The methodology can be modified for use with other clinical samples and cells grown in culture

  10. Detection of yellowhead virus and Chinese baculovirus in penaeid shrimp by the Western blot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadala, E C; Tapay, L M; Cao, S; Loh, P C

    1997-12-01

    The continuing threat posed by viral diseases in cultured shrimp calls for the development of detection technologies for monitoring the animals, especially broodstock. Two of the most highly pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp are the yellow-head virus (YHV) and Chinese baculovirus (CBV, also called white spot baculovirus). A Western blot (WB) protocol capable of detecting YHV and CBV in the hemolymph of infected shrimp was developed. The use of the hemolymph as material for virus detection allowed for sample collection without sacrificing the animals. This protocol was highly specific, rapid, and sensitive enough to detect the presence of the viruses before the appearance of overt symptoms. It was also useful for demonstrating the growth of both viruses in primary shrimp lymphoid cell cultures.

  11. Electrospun nitrocellulose and nylon: Design and fabrication of novel high performance platforms for protein blotting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowlin Gary L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospinning is a non-mechanical processing strategy that can be used to process a variety of native and synthetic polymers into highly porous materials composed of nano-scale to micron-scale diameter fibers. By nature, electrospun materials exhibit an extensive surface area and highly interconnected pore spaces. In this study we adopted a biological engineering approach to ask how the specific unique advantages of the electrospinning process might be exploited to produce a new class of research/diagnostic tools. Methods The electrospinning properties of nitrocellulose, charged nylon and blends of these materials are characterized. Results Nitrocellulose electrospun from a starting concentration of Conclusion The flexibility afforded by electrospinning process makes it possible to tailor blotting membranes to specific applications. Electrospinning has a variety of potential applications in the clinical diagnostic field of use.

  12. Analysis of sperm membrane antigens relevant to antisperm antibody using Western blot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHF

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To identify the sperm membrane antigens associated with antisperm antibody.Methods:The antisperm antibody in serum was tested by ELISA.Antisperm antibody positive sera from 18 infertile men and 15 infertile women were used.The molecular weight(MW) of sperm membrane antigens associated with the antisperm antibody was analyzed with antisperm antibody positive serum using Western blot.Results:Eight kinds of MW of sperm membrane antigens were identified.The ratio of identification on the 78 KD(60.7%),60KD(71.4%),51KD(14.9%) and 23KD(14.29%)sperm antigen was higher than other.Conclusion:sperm membrane antigens with MW of 78KD,60KD,51KD and 23KD were associated with antisperm antibody and immunological infertility.

  13. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  14. Recombinant Dense Granular Protein (GRA5 for Detection of Human Toxoplasmosis by Western Blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Teng Ching

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5 in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5 was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp..

  15. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  16. Observações sobre o TESA blot no diagnóstico sorológico da doença de Chagas Observations on the use of TESA blot for the serological diagnosis of Chagas' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Amato Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparamos o TESA blot com a hemaglutinação indireta, imunofluorescência indireta e ELISA. Nos 30 soros de pessoas infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi, as quatro técnicas foram positivas em todos, e nos 30 não-infectados, totalmente negativas. Nos soros indeterminados e nos de leishmaniose visceral, comprovamos muitas positividades falsas, em quantidade bastante menor com o TESA blot.TESA blot was compared with indirect hemagglutination, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA tests. In sera from 30 participants infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, and in 30 non infected the four techniques produced entirely equivalent results, all positive and all negative, respectively. In cases admitted to be inconclusive or in visceral leishmaniasis, frequent false positives were detected. However, TESA blot contributed with the least proportion of them.

  17. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation

  18. Development of an improved method for quantitative analysis of skin blotting: Increasing reliability and applicability for skin assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ogai, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Masaru; Minematsu, T; Kitamura, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, M.; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Objective A novel skin assessment tool named 'skin blotting' has been recently developed, which can easily predict the skin status to avoid its deterioration. The aim of this study was to propose a normalization method for skin blotting to compensate for individual differences that can hamper the quantitative comparisons and clinical applications. Methods To normalize individual differences, we utilized a total protein as a 'normalizer' with calibration curves. For evaluation, we performed a ...

  19. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Folk, Scott M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Abstract. We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.

  20. Binding of 16S rRNA to chloroplast 30S ribosomal proteins blotted on nitrocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, C; Mache, R

    1984-10-11

    Protein-RNA associations were studied by a method using proteins blotted on a nitrocellulose sheet. This method was assayed with Escherichia Coli 30S ribosomal components. In stringent conditions (300 mM NaCl or 20 degrees C) only 9 E. coli ribosomal proteins strongly bound to the 16S rRNA: S4, S5, S7, S9, S12, S13, S14, S19, S20. 8 of these proteins have been previously found to bind independently to the 16S rRNA. The same method was applied to determine protein-RNA interactions in spinach chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunits. A set of only 7 proteins was bound to chloroplast rRNA in stringent conditions: chloroplast S6, S10, S11, S14, S15, S17 and S22. They also bound to E. coli 16S rRNA. This set includes 4 chloroplast-synthesized proteins: S6, S11, S15 and S22. The core particles obtained after treatment by LiCl of chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunit contained 3 proteins (S6, S10 and S14) which are included in the set of 7 binding proteins. This set of proteins probably play a part in the early steps of the assembly of the chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunit.

  1. [Evaluation of IHA, ELISA and Western Blot tests in diagnosis of pulmonary cystic hidatidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisu, Ciler; Bayram Delibaş, Songül; Yuncu, Gökhan; Aksoy, Umit; Ozkoç, Soykan; Biçmen, Can; Sevinç, Serpil; Yaldiz, Sadik

    2005-01-01

    Pulmonary cystic hidatidosis caused by the larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus is a common parasitic disease in Turkey and throughout the world. In this study IHA, ELISA and Western Blot (WB) tests were performed with a panel of 59 sera from 31 surgically confirmed pulmonary cystic hidatidosis patients, 18 patients with pulmonary disease other than cystic hidatidosis and 10 healthy individual. The overall sensitivity of the IHA, ELISA and WB tests used for the serodiagnosis of pulmonary cystic hidatidosis were found as 96.7%, 87.1%, 100% and the specificities were 82.2%, 89.2% and %85.7, respectively. Using the WB test 8-12 kDa, 24 kDa and 124 kDa bands were detected as valuable for surgically confirmed patients' sera. One or more of these bands were also detected in sera of four patients with other pulmonary diseases false-positively. In conclusion conventional serologic test like IHA and ELISA is valuable in diagnosis of pulmonary cystic hidatidosis, also evaluation of some specific bands in WB would contribute to the diagnosis. PMID:16100652

  2. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  3. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

    2015-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method.

  4. Immunodot blot assay to detect Helicobacter pylori using monoclonal antibodies against the 26 kDa protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini Najafabadi, Hossein; Paknejad, Maliheh; Farshad, Shohreh; Mohammadian, Taher; Seyyed Ebrahimi, Shadi Sadat; Amini Najafabadi, Azadeh

    2012-12-01

    Development of a specific immunoassay to detect Helicobacter pylori infection in stool samples requires monoclonal antibody against the specific antigen. The aims of this study were to establish monoclonal antibodies against the 26 kDa protein of H. pylori and develop an immunodot blot for their application to recognize H. pylori infection using stool samples. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally with homogenized gel containing the 26 kDa band of cell surface proteins of H. pylori in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The monoclonal antibodies were produced using the hybridoma technique. Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies was tested with the purified 26 kDa antigen and cell surface proteins from cultured H. pylori by ELISA. Furthermore reactivity of monoclonal antibodies was tested on negative and positive stool samples for H. pylori and suspensions of several major bacteria in stool by immunodot blot assay. Five stable hybridoma monoclones were obtained. The concordant reactivity of the monoclonal antibodies with H. pylori present in the stool samples, which had been tested previously using an ACON ELISA kit for H. pylori stool antigen testing, and unreactivity with several different major fecal bacteria in immunodot blotting indicates high specificity of the immunodot blot based on the reaction of produced monoclonal antibodies with the H. pylori antigen in stools. The findings indicate that the novel immunodot blot developed based on new monoclonal antibodies for stool antigens would be useful as a noninvasive method of diagnosing H. pylori infection. PMID:23244318

  5. Interpretation criteria for standardized Western blots for three European species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, U; Lehnert, G; Lobentanzer, R; Wilske, B

    1997-06-01

    Western blots (WBs; immunoblots) are a widely used tool for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, but so far, no defined criteria for performance, analysis, and interpretation have been established in Europe. For the current study WBs were produced with strains PKa2 (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto), PKo (Borrelia afzelii), and PBi (Borrelia garinii). To improve resolution we used gels of 17 cm in length. In a first step, 13 immunodominant proteins were identified with monoclonal antibodies. Then, the apparent molecular masses of all visually distinguishable bands were determined densitometrically. Approximately 40 bands of between 14 and 100 kDa were differentiated for each strain. From a study with 330 serum samples (from 189 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 141 controls), all observed bands were documented. To establish criteria for a positive WB result, the discriminating ability of a series of band combinations (interpretation rules) were evaluated separately for each strain (for immunoglobulin G [IgG] WB, > 40 combinations; for IgM WB, > 15 combinations). The following interpretation criteria resulting in specificities of greater than 96% were recommended: for IgG WB, at least one band of p83/100, p58, p56, OspC, p21, and p17a for PKa2; at least two bands of p83/100, p58, p43, p39, p30, OspC, p21, p17, and p14 for PKo; and at least one band of p83/100, p39, OspC, p21, and p17b for PBi; for IgM WB, at least one band of p39, OspC, and p17a or a strong p41 band for PKa2; at least one band of p39, OspC, and p17 or a strong p41 band for PKo; and at least one band of p39 and OspC or a strong p41 band for PBi. The overall sensitivity was the highest for PKo WB, followed by PBi and PKa2 WB, in decreasing order. Standardization of WB assays is necessary for comparison of results from different laboratories.

  6. Assessment by Southern blot analysis of UV-induced damage and repair in human immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M S; Bianchi, N O; de la Chapelle, A

    1990-09-01

    Irradiation of DNA with UV light induces pyrimidine dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. The presence of one of these photolesions in the restriction site of a given endonuclease inhibits DNA cleavage and induces the formation of fragments by incomplete DNA digestion which appear as additional, facultative bands in Southern hybridization autoradiograms. The number and size of these fragments show a positive correlation with the UV dose. The response to UV light of immunoglobulin light-chain constant kappa and heavy-chain constant mu genes was analyzed with 2 specific probes. Constant kappa and mu genes when irradiated as part of the chromatin of living lymphocytes showed a UV sensitivity similar to that of naked DNA. The same genes from granulocytes had 50-60 times lower UV sensitivity. When cells were allowed to repair photolesions for 24 h the facultative bands from granulocytes disappeared indicating that these cells were able to remove photolesions from constant kappa and mu genes. Facultative bands from lymphocytes showed a smaller decrease of density after 24 h repair. This suggests that lymphocytes are less efficient than granulocytes in removing UV damage from constant kappa and mu genes.

  7. Enrichment of PrPSc in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Tissues Prior to Analysis by Western Blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagnosis of prion disease is primarily through immunodetection of the infectious agent. Typically, 2 distinct procedures are recommended for a definitive diagnosis with immunohistochemistry and Western blot providing the most information as to the specific isolate in question. In the past these app...

  8. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc...

  9. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  10. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus genome in leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by RNA-cDNA hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, J.; Aiken, J; Schultz, R D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) cDNA library was constructed. One cloned complementary DNA sequence was used as a probe to detect BVDV RNA by hybridization in infected cell cultures and in mononuclear leukocytes from persistently infected cattle by dot blot and in situ hybridization. The cDNA probe hybridized with all cytopathic and noncytopathic BVDV isolates tested. The hybridization results were consistent with results obtained using conventional subculturing and immunofluorescent sta...

  11. Hybrid Metaheuristics

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to provide a state of the art of hybrid metaheuristics. The book provides a complete background that enables readers to design and implement hybrid metaheuristics to solve complex optimization problems (continuous/discrete, mono-objective/multi-objective, optimization under uncertainty) in a diverse range of application domains. Readers learn to solve large scale problems quickly and efficiently combining metaheuristics with complementary metaheuristics, mathematical programming, constraint programming and machine learning. Numerous real-world examples of problems and solutions demonstrate how hybrid metaheuristics are applied in such fields as networks, logistics and transportation, bio-medical, engineering design, scheduling.

  12. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  13. Nucleic acid hybridization techniques for the detection of bluetongue virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepp, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Virus isolation, antigen detection, and in situ hybridization were compared in their abilities to detect in cell culture, the five serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) occurring in the United States, serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17. For isolation, virus was propagated in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cell culture. For antigen detection, two techniques, indirect fluorescent-antibody (IFA) and enzyme immunocytoassay (EICA) were used. For in situ hybridization, a complementary DNA (cDNA) of the L3 RNA genome segment of BTV, serotype 17 (BTV-17) labeled with {sup 35}S was used as a group-specific probe. Virus isolation was the most sensitive technique, often detecting input virus and then detecting virus throughout the course of the study. IFA and EICA were of similar sensitivity and detected BTV antigen shortly after detection of virus by isolation. A direct-blot hybridization technique using a {sup 32}P-labeled, strand-specific RNA transcript probe was developed, optimized, and used to detect BTV in pools of infected Culicoides variipennis midges. The technique was able to detect as few as one infected Culicoides midge in a pool of 100 and as little as 3.5 log{sub 10} TCID{sub 50} per ml of virus. A sandwich hybridization technique was developed and used to detect BTV in pools of infected Culicoides variipennis midges. The sandwich hybridization technique used a single-stranded DNA catcher sequence bound to a solid support and a {sup 32}P-labeled, single-stranded RNA detector sequence. Sandwich hybridization was compared to direct blot hybridization using a strand-specific RNA transcript probe or a cDNA probe. Sandwich hybridization was able to detect as few as one infected Culicoides midge in a pool of 50; however, the technique was approximately tenfold less sensitive than direct blot hybridization.

  14. Highly Sensitive Fluorescent-labeled Probes and Glass Slide Hybridization for the Detection of Plant RNA Viruses and a Viroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyou DU; Bo JIN; Wenhong LIU; Liang CHEN; Jishuang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a modified method of the conventional RNA dot-blot hybridization was established, by replacing 32P labels with CY5 labels and replacing nylon membranes with positive-charged glass slides, for detecting plant RNA viruses and a viroid. The modified RNA dot-blot hybridization method was named glass slide hybridization. The optimum efficiency of RNA binding onto the surfaces of activated glass slide was achieved using aminosilane-coated glass slide as a solid matrix and 5×saline sodium citrate (SSC) as a spotting solution. Using a CY5-labeled DNA probe prepared through PCR amplification, the optimized glass slide hybridization could detect as little as 1.71 pg of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA.The sensitivity of the modified method was four times that of dot-blot hybridization on nylon membrane with a 32P-labeled probe. The absence of false positive within the genus Potyvirus [potato virus A, potato virus Y (PVY) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus] showed that this method was highly specific. Furthermore,potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) was also detected specifically. A test of 40 field potato samples showed that this method was equivalent to the conventional dot-blot hybridization for detecting PVY and PSTVd. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using dot-blot hybridization on glass slides with fluorescent-labeled probes for detecting plant RNA viruses and a viroid.

  15. A Proteomics Approach to the Protein Normalization Problem: Selection of Unvarying Proteins for MS-Based Proteomics and Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Mann, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Proteomics and other protein-based analysis methods such as Western blotting all face the challenge of discriminating changes in the levels of proteins of interest from inadvertent changes in the amount loaded for analysis. Mass-spectrometry-based proteomics can now estimate the relative and absolute amounts of thousands of proteins across diverse biological systems. We reasoned that this new technology could prove useful for selection of very stably expressed proteins that could serve as better loading controls than those traditionally employed. Large-scale proteomic analyses of SDS lysates of cultured cells and tissues revealed deglycase DJ-1 as the protein with the lowest variability in abundance among different cell types in human, mouse, and amphibian cells. The protein constitutes 0.069 ± 0.017% of total cellular protein and occurs at a specific concentration of 34.6 ± 8.7 pmol/mg of total protein. Since DJ-1 is ubiquitous and therefore easily detectable with several peptides, it can be helpful in normalization of proteomic data sets. In addition, DJ-1 appears to be an advantageous loading control for Western blot that is superior to those used commonly used, allowing comparisons between tissues and cells originating from evolutionarily distant vertebrate species. Notably, this is not possible by the detection and quantitation of housekeeping proteins, which are often used in the Western blot technique. The approach introduced here can be applied to select the most appropriate loading controls for MS-based proteomics or Western blotting in any biological system. PMID:27297043

  16. Stain Free Total Protein Staining is a Superior Loading Control to β-Actin for Western Blots

    OpenAIRE

    Gilda, Jennifer E.; Aldrin V. Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Semi-Quantification of proteins using Western blots typically involves normalization against housekeeping genes such as β-actin. More recently, ponceau S and Coomassie blue staining have both been shown to be suitable alternatives to housekeeping genes as loading controls. Stain free total protein staining offers the advantage of no staining or destaining steps. Evaluation of the use of Stain free staining as an alternative to β-actin or the protein stain ponceau S showed that Stain free stai...

  17. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  18. Analysis of cell wall extracts of Candida albicans by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponton, J; J. M. Jones

    1986-01-01

    Cell walls of intact yeast- and mycelial-phase Candida albicans B311 were extracted with different compounds: dithiothreitol, dithiothreitol with protease, dithiothreitol with lyticase, and dithiothreitol with protease followed by beta-glucuronidase with chitinase. Extracts were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot techniques. Dithiothreitol extracts contained the most satisfactory array of components for study. Analysis of these extracts demo...

  19. Simple and Sensitive Detection of HBsAg by Using a Quantum Dots Nanobeads Based Dot-Blot Immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Huiqi; Chen, Jia; HAN, HUANXING; MA, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Simple and sensitive detection of infectious disease at an affordable cost is urgently needed in developing nations. In this regard, the dot blot immunoassay has been used as a common protein detection method for detection of disease markers. However, the traditional signal reporting systems, such as those using enzymes or gold nanoparticles lack sensitivity and thus restrict the application of these methods for disease detection. In this study, we report a simple and sensitive detection meth...

  20. Investigation of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Epileptic Patients and Comparison of Two Methods: ELISA and Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zibaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Toxocara infection and epilepsy was previously demonstrated by several case-control studies and case reports. These previous studies were often based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, which are not specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, and anisakiasis. An immunoblot analysis is highly specific and can detect low levels of Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, this assay may be useful in the identification of toxocariasis in epileptic patients. We examined patients who had epilepsy and healthy subjects for seropositivity for Toxocara infection by ELISA and Western blotting. Out of 85 epileptic patients, 10 (11.8% and 3 (3.5% persons exhibited Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and by both techniques, respectively. Moreover, in the healthy group (, 3 (3.5% persons were positive by ELISA, but none was detected by Western blotting. This study indicates that Toxocara infection is a risk factor for epilepsy in Iran. These findings strongly suggest the need to perform Western blotting immunodiagnosis, as well as the ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, to improve diagnosis of human toxocariasis in patients with epilepsy.

  1. Detection of Haemophilus influenzae by reverse dot-blot hybridization%反向斑点杂交法检测流感嗜血杆菌核酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊慧珍; 黄文杰; 梁昆; 方怡; 马立人; 刘耀清

    2004-01-01

    目的探讨早期、快速检测流感嗜血杆菌的方法.方法应用流感嗜血杆菌编码外膜蛋白特异的P6基因设计引物,通过聚合酶链反应合成特异探针,采用反向斑点杂交法检测生物素标记DNA,并应用于痰标本的检测.结果只有流感嗜血杆菌扩增出351 bp的DNA片段,该探针能检测出10 ng的细菌DNA,与其他细菌、病毒、真菌无交叉反应.该方法和培养法分别检测50份痰标本,两者的阳性率分别为30%和22%.结论该方法快速、特异,对流感嗜血杆菌感染有早期诊断价值.

  2. Hybride betongkonstruksjoner

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerve, Tor Øystein

    2010-01-01

    Denne oppgaven tar for seg beregning og testing av hybride betongkonstruksjoner. Den inneholder også beskrivelse av materialtester. Bjelkene som testes er tenkt å være utsnitt av dekkekonstruksjoner. Konstruksjonene skal bestå av et lag fiberarmert lettbetong, som er tenkt å opptre som en prefabrikert betongforskaling, samt en påstøp som kan fungere som ferdig gulv.I teoridelen av oppgaven er det sett på utfordringer og fordeler ved å benytte hybride konstruksjoner. I tillegg er beregningsvei...

  3. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Park, Chang W; Steer, Clifford J

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  4. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia.

  5. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  6. Immunohistochemical and Western Blotting Analyses of Ganoine in the Ganoid Scales of Lepisosteus oculatus: an Actinopterygian Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Oka, Shunya; Mikami, Masato; Yokosuka, Hiroyuki; Ishiyama, Mikio; Imai, Akane; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Uchida, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    In order to compare its characteristics with those of jaw tooth collar enamel, normally developing and experimentally regenerating ganoine from ganoid scales of Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar), an actinopterygian fish species, was examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Amelogenin, a major enamel matrix protein (EMP), is widely found from sarcopterygian fish to mammals. Therefore, we used antimammalian amelogenin antibodies and antisera: an antibody against bovine amelogenin; antiserum against porcine amelogenin; and region-specific antibodies or antiserum against the C-terminus, middle region, or N-terminus of porcine amelogenin in this study. Positive immunoreactivity with the antibody against bovine amelogenin, antiserum against porcine amelogenin, and the middle and C-terminal region-specific antibodies was detected in both normally developing and regenerating ganoine matrix, as well as in granules found within inner ganoine epithelial cells. These immunohistochemical analyses indicated that the Lepisosteus ganoine matrix contains EMP-like proteins with epitopes similar to mammalian amelogenins. In Western blotting analyses of regenerating ganoid scales with the antibovine amelogenin antibody, two protein bands with molecular weights of approximately 78 and 65 kDa were detected, which were similar to those found in Lepisosteus tooth enamel. Our study suggests that in Lepisosteus, EMP-like proteins in the ganoine matrix corresponded to those in tooth enamel. However, it was revealed that the 78 and 65 kDa EMP-like proteins were different from 27 kDa bovine amelogenin. PMID:27139791

  7. Simple and sensitive detection of HBsAg by using a quantum dots nanobeads based dot-blot immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Lu, Huiqi; Chen, Jia; Han, Huanxing; Ma, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Simple and sensitive detection of infectious disease at an affordable cost is urgently needed in developing nations. In this regard, the dot blot immunoassay has been used as a common protein detection method for detection of disease markers. However, the traditional signal reporting systems, such as those using enzymes or gold nanoparticles lack sensitivity and thus restrict the application of these methods for disease detection. In this study, we report a simple and sensitive detection method for the detection of infectious disease markers that couples the dot-blot immunoassay with quantum dots nanobeads (QDNBs) as a reporter. First, the QDNBs were prepared by an oil-in-water emulsion-evaporation technique. Because of the encapsulation of several QDs in one particle, the fluorescent signal of reporter can be amplified with QDNBs in a one-step test and be read using a UV lamp obviating the need for complicated instruments. Detection of disease-associated markers in complex mixture is possible, which demonstrates the potential of developing QDNBs into a sensitive diagnostic kit. PMID:24505238

  8. Ej blot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reassert the crucial importance of access to data in lexicographic information tools and, expanding on this, to establish the existence of two distinct lexicographic access modes - consultation and navigation. It is explained how the tools can be decalibrated when...... balance between user, access, and data is disturbed, and how access to data then is jeopardized. Taking online wine guides as a case in point, it is shown how such multifunctional information tools do benefit from a lexicographic design featuring both access modes....

  9. Mere end blot pirringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Østergaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i en række cases på vellykkede oplevelsesøkonomiske forretningsmodeller argumenterer artiklen for, at oplevelsesprodukter skal bygge på et klart tema, som forbrugeren kan koble sig sanse- og følelsesmæssigt op på. Forbrugeren skal kunne omsætte produktets pirringer til egne erfar...... erfaringer, da oplevelser i sidste ende skabes hos individet....

  10. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Park, Chang W; Steer, Clifford J

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type. PMID:27329815

  11. Hybrid microelectronic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.

    Various areas of hybrid microelectronic technology are discussed. The topics addressed include: basic thick film processing, thick film pastes and substrates, add-on components and attachment methods, thin film processing, and design of thick film hybrid circuits. Also considered are: packaging hybrid circuits, automating the production of hybrid circuits, application of hybrid techniques, customer's view of hybrid technology, and quality control and assurance in hybrid circuit production.

  12. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  13. Quantitative Western ligand blotting reveals common patterns and differential features of IGFBP-fingerprints in domestic ruminant breeds and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthgen, Elisa; Höflich, Christine; Spitschak, Marion; Helmer, Carina; Brand, Bodo; Langbein, Jan; Metzger, Friedrich; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are determinants of local IGF-effects and thus have an impact on growth and metabolism in vertebrate species. In farm animals, IGFBPs are associated with traits such as growth rate, body composition, milk production, or fertility. It may be assumed, that selective breeding and characteristic phenotypes of breeds are related to differential expression of IGFBPs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selective breeding on blood IGFBP concentrations of farm animals. Breeds of the sheep, goat, and cattle species were investigated. IGFBP-3, -2, and -4 were analyzed with quantitative Western ligand blotting (qWLB), enabling comprehensive monitoring of intact IGFBPs with IGF-binding capacity. We show that in sera of all species and breeds investigated, IGFBP-3, -2, and -4 were simultaneously detectable by qWLB analysis. IGFBP-3 and the total amount of IGFBPs were significantly increased (Pcows had higher levels of IGFBP-4 (P<0.05), if compared to conventional crossbreeds of beef cattle. In Dwarf goats the ratio of IGFBP-3/IGFBP-2 was about 3-fold higher than in other goat breeds (P<0.001). The total IGFBP amount of Toggenburg goats was reduced (P<0.05), compared to the other goat breeds. In conclusion, our data indicate that common and specific features of IGFBP fingerprints are found in different ruminant species and breeds. Our findings may introduce quantitative Western ligand blotting as an attractive tool for biomarker development and molecular phenotyping in farm animal breeds. PMID:26597140

  14. Murine interleukin 1 receptor. Direct identification by ligand blotting and purification to homogeneity of an interleukin 1-binding glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional receptors (IL1-R) for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL1) were solubilized from plasma membranes of the NOB-1 subclone of murine EL4 6.1 thymoma cells using the zwitterionic detergent 3[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Membrane extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and ligand blotted with 125I-labeled recombinant human IL1 alpha in order to reveal proteins capable of specifically binding IL1. A single polydisperse polypeptide of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 was identified in this way, which bound IL1 alpha and IL1 beta with the same affinity as the IL1-R on intact NOB-1 cells (approximately equal to 10(-10) M). The IL1-binding polypeptide was only seen in membranes from IL1-R-bearing cells and did not react with interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or interferon. IL1-R was purified to apparent homogeneity from solubilized NOB-1 membranes by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and IL1 alpha-Sepharose. Gel electrophoresis and silver staining of purified preparations revealed a single protein of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 which reacted positively in the ligand-blotting procedure and which we identify as the ligand-binding moiety of the murine IL1-R. Purified IL1-R exhibited the same affinity and specificity as the receptor on intact cells. The relationship of this protein to proteins identified by covalent cross-linking studies is discussed

  15. 低温诱导甜菜(Beta vulgaris L.)Ty7Br600基因的Northern blotting 和 Southern blotting分析%Northern blotting and Southern blotting analysis of Ty7Br600 gene in cold induced sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴建军; 程大友; 常缨; 李彩凤; 闫桂萍; 马凤鸣

    2012-01-01

    The sugar beet buds treated with 4 ℃ were tested and the sugar beet buds treated with 25 ℃ were used as the control. Ty7Br600 gene was randomly labeled with a-32P-ATP, and Northern blotting was conducted. Northern blotting results showed that Ty7Br600 gene expressed in sugar beet buds treated with 4 ℃ for 72 d, but it's expression could not be detected in the control treated with 25℃. Ty7Br600 could be a new gene related with biennial sugar beet boltting, which was induced by low temperature. Southern blotting results showed that there were 2-3 copy numbers in the genomic DNA, which suggested that Ty7Br600 should be a gene fragment of sugar beet genome, and have 2 or low copies in sugar beet genome.%以低温诱导甜菜幼苗为试验材料,以来进行低温诱导的甜菜幼苗为对照,采用α-32P-ATP放射标记按随机引物标记法标记本实验室克隆的TyBr600基因,进行Northern杂交.Northern杂交试验结果显示,在低温诱导培养的甜菜幼苗的RNA群体中,出现较强的杂交条带,而在未诱导培养的甜菜幼苗的RNA群体中,则几乎没有阳性杂交条带出现.因此,TyBr600这一序列有可能是二年生甜菜幼苗经低温诱导处理之后被诱导表达的与抽薹相关的新基因序列.Southern杂交结果发现,在每一组酶切中至少有2~3条条带,表明Ty7Br600确为甜菜基因组片段,也同时表明该基因在甜菜基因组中以2个拷贝或低拷贝形式存在.

  16. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...... masters», i.e. by producing skills for the labour market and enabling individuals to progress more or less directly to higher education. The specific focus of this book is placed on conditions, structures and processes which help to combine VET with qualifications leading into higher education...

  17. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  18. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of hybrid automata as timed transition systems. We also relate the synchronized product operator on hybrid automata to the parallel composition operator of the process algebra. It turns out that the f...

  19. A Modified Quantum Dot-Based Dot Blot Assay for Rapid Detection of Fish Pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Jingfan; Wang, Qiyao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2016-08-28

    Vibrio anguillarum, a devastating pathogen causing vibriosis among marine fish, is prevailing in worldwide fishery industries and accounts for grievous economic losses. Therefore, a rapid on-site detection and diagnostic technique for this pathogen is in urgent need. In this study, two mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against V. anguillarum, 6B3-C5 and 8G3-B5, were generated by using hybridoma technology and their isotypes were characterized. MAb 6B3-C5 was chosen as the detector antibody and conjugated with quantum dots. Based on MAb 6B3- C5 labeled with quantum dots, a modified dot blot assay was developed for the on-site determination of V. anguillarum. It was found that the method had no cross-reactivity with other than V. anguillarum bacteria. The detection limit (LOD) for V. anguillarum was 1 × 10(3) CFU/ml in cultured bacterial suspension samples, which was a 100-fold higher sensitivity than the reported colloidal gold immunochromatographic test strip. When V. anguillarum was mixed with turbot tissue homogenates, the LOD was 1 × 10(3) CFU/ml, suggesting that tissue homogenates did not influence the detection capabilities. Preenrichment with the tissue homogenates for 12 h could raise the LOD up to 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml, confirming the reliability of the method. PMID:27116991

  20. Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium.

  1. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  2. Exposure to Sarcocystis spp. in horses from Spain determined by Western blot analysis using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Yeargan, M; Francisco, I; Dangoudoubiyam, S; Becerra, P; Francisco, R; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A; Howe, D K

    2012-04-30

    Horses serve as an intermediate host for several species of Sarcocystis, all of which utilize canids as the definitive host. Sarcocystis spp. infection and formation of latent sarcocysts in horses often appears to be subclinical, but morbidity can occur, especially when the parasite burden is large. A serological survey was conducted to determine the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp. in seemingly healthy horses from the Galicia region of Spain. Western blot analyses using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen suggested greater than 80% seroprevalance of Sarcocystis spp. in a sample set of 138 horses. The serum samples were further tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on recombinant S. neurona-specific surface antigens (rSnSAGs). As expected for horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, less than 4% of the serum samples were positive when analyzed with either the rSnSAG2 or the rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. An additional 246 horses were tested using the rSnSAG2 ELISA, which revealed that less than 3% of the 384 samples were seropositive. Collectively, the results of this serologic study suggested that a large proportion of horses from this region of Spain are exposed to Sarcocystis spp. Furthermore, the anti-Sarcocystis seroreactivity in these European horses could be clearly distinguished from anti-S. neurona antibodies using the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. PMID:22019182

  3. "Enzyme-Linked Immunotransfer Blot Analysis of Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Fasciola hepatica in Diagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis, a liver disease in most part of the world and particularly in north of Iran. Diagnosis of the diseases is anchored in coprological manner but serological methods are preferable due to some obscurities. In this study, sera obtained from human patients infected with Fasciola hepatica were tested by the enzymelinked immunotrotransfer blot (EITB technique with the parasite s somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. The study included sera from 40 patients infected with F. hepatica, 20 infected with hydatidosis, 6 with toxocariasis, 10 with strongyloidiasis, 10 with amoebiasis, 5 with malaria and 30 normal controls. By this assay, most pf the serum samples from humans with fascioliasis recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 27 and 29 kDa using both antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for somatic antigen were 91.0%, 96.2%, 95.2% and 92.7% respectively, while these parameters as for ES antigen were 95.2%, 98.0%, 97.5% and 96.2%, correspondingly. Totally, two cases of reactions for the first antigen and one for the latter were verified. The study suggests that the 27 and 29 kDa bands for two antigens in EITB test could be considered for the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  4. Evaluation of western blotting for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukemia Avaliação da técnica de western blot no diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Gonzalez

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A western blotting (WB procedure has been developed for detecting antibodies to bovine leukosis virus (BLV in cattle sera. Two hundred and thirty three serum samples from naturally infected cattle with BLV virus and serial bleedings from experimentally BLV infected cows were used. An agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID was used for comparing with the results obtained by WB. The AGID positive sera showed a different degree of reactivity by WB test against the two most important viral antigens (gp51 and p24, or against one of them. Other proteins (gp30, p15, p12 and p10 were not detected with any AGID positive sera, being observed occasionally three bands corresponding to the p24 protein. Using sera obtained by BLV experimental inoculation, the antibodies directed to p24 appeared early (between the 2nd and 4th week post inoculation and thereafter antibodies to gp51were detected in some animals. The analysis of field serum samples by AGID as compared to WB showed an agreement of 90.9%. Only 1.7% of sera were negative by AGID and positive by WB and 7.2% that were not conclusive by AGID and were defined by WB (4.2% as positive and 3.0% as negative.Um sistema de western blotting (WB foi desenvolvido para detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da leucose em soros de bovinos. Foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 233 animais naturalmente infectados e soros de vacas experimentalmente infectadas. O teste de imunodifusão em ágar (AGID foi usado para comparação dos resultados. Graus diferentes de reatividade foram observados em soros positivos ao AGID, quando testados em WB frente a um ou aos dois antígenos mais importantes (gp51 e p24. Outras proteínas (gp30, p15, p12 e p10 não foram detectadas por nenhum soro positivo ao AGID, sendo que três bandas correspondentes à proteína p24 foram observadas ocasionalmente. Em soros obtidos por inoculação experimental, anticorpos contra a proteína p24 foram detectados entre a segunda e a quarta semanas

  5. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Pilloni, A.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X , Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0 π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X , Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X (5568) are also made.

  6. Hybridized tetraquarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Esposito

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X,Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules but rather a manifestation of the interplay between the two. While meson molecules need a negative or zero binding energy, its counterpart for h-tetraquarks is required to be positive. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs0π± channel by the D0 Collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb Collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X,Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568 are also made.

  7. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in rat placenta: detection by RT-PCR, real time PCR and Western blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bader Maie D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of estrogens during pregnancy not only retard placental and fetal growth but can lead to reproductive tract abnormalities in male progeny. Estrogens act through estrogen receptors (ER to modulate the transcription of target genes. These ER exist in two isoforms, ER alpha and ER beta and recently several variants of these isoforms have been identified. Methods The expressions of ER isoforms and variants have been studied in rat placenta at 16, 19 and 21 days gestation (dg. Gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR and real time PCR while protein expression was studied using Western blotting followed by immunodetection. Placental homogenates were probed with: a monoclonal antibody raised against the steroid binding domain of the ER alpha (ER alpha -S, a monoclonal antibody raised against the hinge region of ER alpha (ER alpha -H and a polyclonal antibody raised against the amino terminus of ER beta. Results ER alpha and ER beta mRNA and protein were detected from as early as 16 dg. Two PCR products were detected for ER alpha, one for the wild type ER alpha, and a smaller variant. Real time PCR results suggested the presence of a single product for ER beta. The antibodies used for detection of ER alpha protein both identified a single 67 kDa isoform; however a second 54 kDa band, which may be an ER alpha variant, was identified when using the ER alpha -H antibody. The abundance of both ER alpha bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. As for ER beta, four bands (76, 59, 54 and 41 kDa were detected. The abundance of the 59 and 54 kDa bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. Conclusion This study shows that both ER protein isoforms and their variants are present in rat placenta. The decrease in their expression near parturition suggests that the placenta may be relatively unresponsive to estrogens at this stage.

  8. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  9. State-of-the-art housekeeping proteins for quantitative western blotting: Revisiting the first draft of the human proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Jo, Jihoon; Hong, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Kee K; Park, Joong-Ki; Cho, Sung-Jin; Park, Chungoo

    2016-07-01

    Western blotting (WB) analysis is the most popular and widely used methodology for protein detection and characterization over recent decades. In accordance with the advancement of the technologies for the acquisition of WB signals, a quantitative value is used to present the abundance of target proteins in a complex sample, thereby requiring the use of specific proteins as internal references that represent total proteins. Heretofore, proteins encoded by housekeeping genes such as GAPDH, β-tubulin and β-actin have been commonly used as loading controls without any hesitation because their mRNA expression levels tend to be high and constant in many different cells and tissues. Experimentally, however, some of the housekeeping reference proteins are often displayed with inconsistent expression levels in both homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues, and, in terms of mRNA levels, they have a weak correlation to the abundance of proteins. To estimate accurate, reliable, and reproducible protein quantifications, it is crucial to define appropriate reference controls. For this paper, we explored the recently released large-scale, human proteomic database ProteomicsDB including 16 857 liquid chromatography tandem-mass-spectrometry data from 27 human tissues, and suggest 20 ubiquitously- and constitutively-expressed, putative internal-reference controls for the quantification of differential protein expressions. Intriguingly, the most commonly used, known housekeeping genes were entirely excluded in our newly defined candidates. Although the applications of the candidates under many different biological conditions and in other organisms are yet to be empirically verified, we propose reliable, potential loading controls for a WB analysis in this paper. PMID:27125885

  10. Evaluation of a Western Blot and ELISA for the detection of anti-Trichinella-IgG in pig sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöckler, K; Reckinger, S; Broglia, A; Mayer-Scholl, A; Bahn, P

    2009-08-26

    Human trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by ingestion of infective Trichinella muscle larvae via pork or meat of other food animals which are susceptible to this zoonotic parasite. There are new approaches for a risk-oriented meat inspection for Trichinella in pigs which are accompanied by monitoring programmes on herd level to control freedom from this parasite. For this purpose, testing schemes utilizing serological tests with a high sensitivity and specificity are required. This study aimed at the evaluation of an ELISA and a Western Blot (WB) for the detection of anti-Trichinella-IgG in terms of sensitivity and specificity taking results of artificial digestion as gold standard. For this purpose, 144 field sera from pigs confirmed as Trichinella-free as well as 159 sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. spiralis (123), T. britovi (19) or T. pseudospiralis (17) were examined by ELISA (excretory-secretory antigen) and WB (crude worm extract). Sera from pigs experimentally infected with four other nematode species were included to investigate the cross-reactivity of the antigen used in the WB. For all Trichinella-positive pig sera, band pattern profiles were identified in the WB and results were analysed in relation to ELISA OD% values. Testing of pig sera revealed a sensitivity of 96.8% for the ELISA and 98.1% for the WB whereas the methods showed a specificity of 97.9 and 100%, respectively. WB analysis of Trichinella-positive pig sera revealed five specific band patterns of 43, 47, 61, 66, and 102 kDa of which the 43 kDa protein was identified as the predominant antigen. The frequency of the band pattern profile was irrespective of the dose and the period of infection as well as the Trichinella species investigated. In conclusion, monitoring in swine farms for Trichinella antibodies should be based on screening pig sera by means of ELISA followed by confirmatory testing through WB analysis. PMID:19473770

  11. Reduction of telomeric repeats as a possible predictor for development of hepatocellular carcinoma: convenient evaluation by slot-blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isokawa, O; Suda, T; Aoyagi, Y; Kawai, H; Yokota, T; Takahashi, T; Tsukada, K; Shimizu, T; Mori, S; Abe, Y; Suzuki, Y; Nomoto, M; Mita, Y; Yanagi, M; Igarashi, H; Asakura, H

    1999-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mainly arises from the liver with chronic inflammation. Because telomere reduction reflects replicative history in somatic cells, we analyzed the possibility that liver tissues surrounding HCC consist of the cells carrying substantial reduction of telomere. We studied 20 HCC and surrounding noncancerous liver tissues (SL) obtained by surgical resection, and 10 laparoscopically obtained needle biopsy specimens of the liver with chronic inflammation including no overt HCC (CI). Five liver tissues without chronic liver diseases (ND) were also examined. Extracted genomic DNAs were blotted on a nylon membrane, and probed at first with radio-labeled d(TTAGGG)(3) and reprobed with radio-labeled d(CCT)(7). The intensity caused by d(TTAGGG)(3) was divided by that of d(CCT)(7). The ratio was defined as telomeric repeats content (TC). Dilution experiments reproducibly revealed almost the same TC. The reduction rate of telomere length through aging estimated by regression analysis of TC was 0.62% per year. Concomitant analyses of TC and average telomere length revealed that both values were significantly correlated (r =.45; P =.009). To compare TC in the liver with respect to chronic inflammation, the value was divided by TC in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from the same donor. The ratio was defined as relative TC (RTC). There was a statistically significant decrease of RTC in CI compared with that in ND (P =.03). Furthermore, RTC in SL was significantly lower than that in CI (P =.0001). These observations suggest that RTC value in liver tissues may digitally indicate a replicative history of hepatocytes under chronic inflammation, and a risk of HCC development. PMID:10421648

  12. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  13. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  14. 热带果树基因组DNA提取方法的改良及Southern blot分析%A Modified DNA Extraction Method for Tropical Fruit Trees and Southern Blot Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 曾凡云; 龙海波; 黄俊生; 郭建荣

    2012-01-01

    Tissues of most tropical fruit trees contain polysaccharide and polyphenolics that restrict the extraction of high-quality genomie DNA for further molecular biology analysis. This experiment was conducted to develop a simple, universal and effective modified CTAB method for genomie DNA extraction from tissues of tropical fruit trees for southern blot analysis. This optimized procedure includes two steps. First, before the DNA was extrac- ted, the polysaccharide and polyphenolics were pre-removed through the STE lysis buffer by centrifugation. In addition, possible contamination by secondary metaboliates could be avoided by picking up the cotton-shaped ge- nomie DNA floccules resuspended in liquid at the DNA precipitation step with ethanol. With the modified CTAB method, high-quality DNAs were extracted from young leaves of the three representative tropical fruit trees, ba- nana (Musa spp. ) , papaya (Carica papaya L. ) and longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. ). After digested with different restriction enzymes, fragments of banana ethylene receptor gene (GenBank accession No. AF113748), papaya phytoene desaturase gene (DQ779922) and longan flowering-related LEAFY homologous gene (DQ160214) were used as probes for further Southern blot analysis, respectively. The hybridization bands were clear with high background. The results indicate that the modified CTAB method, with pre-treated conjugation by DNA pick-up, is a simple and effective protocol for genomic DNA isolation from tropical fruit trees, which pro- duces high-quality genomic DNA available for further Southern blot analysis and other tests in molecular biology.%以香蕉、番木瓜、龙眼为代表材料,建立一套适合热带果树基因组DNA提取的方法——改良CTAB法。将提取各基因组DNA经限制性内切酶完全消化后,分别以香蕉内源乙烯受体基因(AF113748)、番木瓜八氢番茄红素脱氢酶基因PDS(DQ779922)、龙眼开花相关基因LEAFY(ADQ160214

  15. Differential Hybrid Games

    OpenAIRE

    Platzer, André

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces differential hybrid games, which combine differential games with hybrid games. In both kinds of games, two players interact with continuous dynamics. The difference is that hybrid games also provide all the features of hybrid systems and discrete games, but only deterministic differential equations. Differential games, instead, provide differential equations with continuous-time game input by both players, but not the luxury of hybrid games, such as mode switches and d...

  16. Validity of interpretation criteria for standardized Western blots (immunoblots) for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis based on sera collected throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, U; Lehnert, G; Wilske, B

    1999-07-01

    Western blotting (WB; immunoblotting) is a widely used tool for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB), but so far, no generally accepted criteria for performance and interpretation have been established in Europe. The current study was preceeded by a detailed analysis of WB with whole-cell lysates of three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (U. Hauser, G. Lehnert, R. Lobentanzer, and B. Wilske, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1433-1444, 1997). In that study, interpretation criteria for a positive WB result were developed with the data for 330 serum samples (from patients with LB in different stages [n = 189] and from a control group [n = 141]) originating mostly from southern Germany. In the present work, the interpretation criteria for strains PKo (Borrelia afzelii) and PBi (Borrelia garinii) developed in the previous study were reevaluated with 224 serum samples (from patients with LB in different stages [n = 97] and from a control group [n = 127]) originating from throughout Europe that were provided by the European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB). De novo criteria were developed on the basis of the reactivities of the EUCALB sera and were evaluated with the data for the samples from southern Germany. Comparison of all results led to the following recommendations: For WB for immunoglobulin G (IgG), at least two bands among p83/100, p58, p43, p39, p30, OspC, p21, p17, and p14 for PKo and at least one band among p83/100, p39, p30, OspC, p21, and p17b for PBi; for WB for IgM, at least one band among p39, OspC, and p17 or a strong p41 band for PKo and at least one band among p39 and OspC or a strong p41 band for PBi. WB with PKo was the most sensitive, and this strain is recommended for use in WB for the serodiagnosis of LB throughout Europe.

  17. Identification of recombinant human EPO variants in greyhound plasma and urine by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Mark; Steel, Rohan; Vine, John

    2016-02-01

    The recombinant human erythropoietins epoetin alfa (Eprex®), darbepoetin (Aranesp®) and methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta (Mircera®) were administered to greyhounds for 7, 10 and 14 days respectively. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for erythropoietin by ELISA, LC-MS/MS and western blotting. Limits of confirmation in plasma for western blotting and LC-MS/MS methods ranged from a low of 2.5mIU/mL, and closely matched the sensitivity of ELISA screening. PMID:26290355

  18. Relative performance of Organon kit in comparison to Du Pont for confirmatory serological testing of HIV infection by western blot test in sera from blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R K; Chatterjee, R; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S

    1992-06-01

    A total of 32 specimens with different categories of reactivity by Du Pont Western Blot kit comprising of specimens showing full spectrum of HIV-I antigen specific bands, 19 specimens showing total absence of bands and four specimens showing non-specific bands (without any interpretative importance) were subjected to Western Blot testing by Organon test. Of the nine specimens showing full spectrum of bands by Du Pont the correlation with Organon kit was 100 per cent based on WHO criteria. Four specimens with non-specific indeterminate band pattern by Du Pont failed to show any band in Organon kit, indicating that latter to be more specific.

  19. Native genomic blotting: high-resolution mapping of DNase I-hypersensitive sites and protein-DNA interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNase I-hypersensitive sites are observed in the promoter regions of actively expressed genes, potentially active genes, and genes that were once active. The authors have developed an approach that greatly increases the resolution for mapping these sites by electrophoresing genomic DNA on native polyacrylamide gels prior to electroblotting and hybridization. This improved method has been used to scan the promoter and coding region of a cell-cycle-dependent human histone H4 gene with an accuracy of +/- 5-10 base pairs. Protein-DNA interactions can be seen in the autoradiograph as light areas and DNase I-hypersensitive sites as dark bands. Therefore, this method provides a rapid and relatively simple means to accurately localize protein-DNA interactions as well as DNase I-hypersensitive sites, thus directly displaying DNase I hypersensitivity and protein-DNA complexes on one autoradiograph. It also potentially allows the analysis of small changes in DNase I-hypersensitive sites under various biological conditions. With this technique rather large regions of DNA can be screened to determine areas that should be analyzed by more sophisticated methods, such as genomic sequencing or gel retardation assays

  20. Detection of H pylori infection by ELISA and Western blot techniques and evaluation of anti CagA seropositivity in adult Turkish dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (O)zlem Yilmaz; Nazime (S)en; Ahmet Ali Küpelio(g)lu; (I)lkay (S)im(s)ek

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect H pylori infection and to evaluate the anti CagA seropositivity in adult Turkish dyspeptic patients. METHODS: We evaluated anti-H pylori IgA, IgG and anti-CagA antibodies using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and Western blot in dyspeptic Turkish patients. H pylori status was determined by histology and rapid urease testing.RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were entered. Forty-eight (85.7%) out of the 56 patients were positive for H pylori.H pylori IgG seropositivity was 82.1%, IgA seropositivity 48.2%. CagA ELISA showed that IgG was positive in 50% and IgA in 30.4% of those with H pylori infections.Western blot showed that IgG seropositivity was 80.4%and IgA seropositivity 33.9%. Western blot detected IgG antibodies with reactivity to CagA in 50%, VacA in 62.5%, UreB in 87.5%, UreA in 80.4%, and OMP in 57.1%. None of the tests had a sensitivity and specificity above 80%.CONCLUSION: None of these commercial tests seems clinically useful for H pylori detection in adult dyspeptic patients, while Western blot can give seropositivity and determine anti-CagA, VacA virulence factor status of Turkish dyspeptic patients in the Izmir region.

  1. Resolution and identification of major peanut allergens using a combination of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, western blotting and Q-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut allergy is triggered by several proteins known as allergens. The matching resolution and identification of major peanut allergens in 2D protein maps, was accomplished by the use of fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE), Western blotting and quadrupole time-of...

  2. Hybrid rocket propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Allen L.

    1993-01-01

    Topics addressed are: (1) comparison of the theoretical impulses; (2) comparison of the density-specific impulses; (3) general propulsion system features comparison; (4) hybrid systems, booster applications; and (5) hybrid systems, upper stage propulsion applications.

  3. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  4. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introgression of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals 40,000 YBP after a half-million years of separation, may have led to the best example of a hybrid swarm on earth. Modern trade and transportation in support of the human hybrids has continued to introduce additional species, genotyp...

  5. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  6. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  7. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  8. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-01

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  9. Hybridization and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todesco, Marco; Pascual, Mariana A; Owens, Gregory L; Ostevik, Katherine L; Moyers, Brook T; Hübner, Sariel; Heredia, Sylvia M; Hahn, Min A; Caseys, Celine; Bock, Dan G; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization may drive rare taxa to extinction through genetic swamping, where the rare form is replaced by hybrids, or by demographic swamping, where population growth rates are reduced due to the wasteful production of maladaptive hybrids. Conversely, hybridization may rescue the viability of small, inbred populations. Understanding the factors that contribute to destructive versus constructive outcomes of hybridization is key to managing conservation concerns. Here, we survey the literature for studies of hybridization and extinction to identify the ecological, evolutionary, and genetic factors that critically affect extinction risk through hybridization. We find that while extinction risk is highly situation dependent, genetic swamping is much more frequent than demographic swamping. In addition, human involvement is associated with increased risk and high reproductive isolation with reduced risk. Although climate change is predicted to increase the risk of hybridization-induced extinction, we find little empirical support for this prediction. Similarly, theoretical and experimental studies imply that genetic rescue through hybridization may be equally or more probable than demographic swamping, but our literature survey failed to support this claim. We conclude that halting the introduction of hybridization-prone exotics and restoring mature and diverse habitats that are resistant to hybrid establishment should be management priorities. PMID:27468307

  10. Spoof Plasmon Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingjing; Luo, Yu; Shen, Xiaopeng; Maier, Stefan A; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Plasmon hybridization between closely spaced nanoparticles yields new hybrid modes not found in individual constituents, allowing for the engineering of resonance properties and field enhancement capabilities of metallic nanostructure. Experimental verifications of plasmon hybridization have been thus far mostly limited to optical frequencies, as metals cannot support surface plasmons at longer wavelengths. Here, we introduce the concept of 'spoof plasmon hybridization' in highly conductive metal structures and investigate experimentally the interaction of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) in adjacent metal disks corrugated with subwavelength spiral patterns. We show that the hybridization results in the splitting of spoof plasmon modes into bonding and antibonding resonances analogous to molecular orbital rule and plasmonic hybridization in optical spectrum. These hybrid modes can be manipulated to produce enormous field enhancements (larger than 5000) by tuning the separation between disks or alte...

  11. A simple explanation for a case of incompatibility with the reading frame theory in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: failure to detect an aberrant restriction fragment in Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patria, S Y; Takeshima, Y; Suminaga, R; Nakamura, H; Iwasaki, R; Minagawa, T; Matsuo, M

    1999-09-01

    According to the translational reading frame theory, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients harbor out-of-frame deletion mutations in the dystrophin gene. We identified a Japanese DMD case who appeared to have an in-frame deletion of exons 46-54 that was disclosed by Southern blot analysis using a dystrophin cDNA as a probe. Analysis of dystrophin mRNA in skeletal muscle revealed the presence of an out-of-frame deletion of exons 46-53. In agreement with this result, the region encompassing exon 54 could be amplified from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, re-analysis by Southern blot using an exon specific probe disclosed that a HindIII fragment containing exon 54 was present at aberrant size, leading to the incorrect conclusion that exon 54 had been deleted. Thus, this particular DMD case does not constitute an exception to the reading frame theory.

  12. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  13. The seroprevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis among epileptic patients in León, Nicaragua, as evaluated by ELISA and western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, F; Meza-Lucas, A; Espinoza, F; García-Jerónimo, R C; García-Rodea, R; Correa, D

    2005-01-01

    The Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis complex is an important public-health problem in several countries, where many epileptic seizures appear to be associated with neurocysticercosis. As few data on this problem in Nicaragua exist, the seroprevalence of antibodies reacting with antigens from T. solium cysticerci was investigated among 88 Nicaraguan epileptics (45 males and 43 females, aged 6-53 years). In questionnaire-based interviews, each adult subject and a caregiver of each child investigated were asked about potential risk factors for taeniasis/cysticercosis. When a serum sample from each subject was then checked for anti-cysticercus antibodies, 8.0% of the subjects were found seropositive by ELISA and 14.8% by western blotting. Five samples (all from individuals who had been epileptic for > 5 years) were positive in both tests. When the level of association between each potential risk factor and seropositivity (in ELISA or by blotting) was evaluated, the only statistically significant association detected was that between a positive ELISA and the subject living in a household where pigs were raised (odds ratio = 5.18; 95% confidence interval = 0.8-41.6; P = 0.05). The bands most frequently recognized in the western blots (of 50, 42-39, 24 and 14 kDa) were those previously reported. The results indicate that, in the city of Léon, cysticercosis may be endemic and the cause of a significant proportion of the epilepsy recorded.

  14. BSA Hybrid Synthesized Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Bin LIU; Xiao Pei DENG; Chang Sheng ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), a naturally occurring biopolymer, was regarded as a polymeric material to graft to an acrylic acid (AA)-N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) copolymer to form a biomacromolecular hybrid polymer. The hybrid polymer can be blended with polyethersulfone (PES) to increase the hydrophilicity of the PES membrane, which suggested that the hybrid polymer might have a wide application in the modification of biomaterials.

  15. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran Venugopal; K.K. Rajesh; V. Ramanujachari

    2011-01-01

    With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nonto...

  16. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  18. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments. PMID:10107959

  19. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  20. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  1. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  2. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  3. Study of a viral-dual infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by seroneutralization, western blot and polymerase chain reaction assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S; Vilas, M P; Alonso, M; Pérez, S I

    1995-12-01

    Viral-dual infections in fish are of interest to aquaculture practices but they are rarely described and studied. Several methods were applied in this work to demonstrate a case of coinfection in a reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population. Inoculation in cell cultures and cross-neutralization tests were the standard procedures that made it possible to isolate and identify a birnavirus, the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), and suspect of a second virus. Western blotting with both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrate coexistence of both, IPNV and a rhabdovirus.

  4. Modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the central nervous system visualized by in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berod, A.; Biguet, N.F.; Dumas, S.; Bloch, B.; Mallet, J.

    1987-03-01

    cDNA probe was used for in situ hybridization studies on histological sections through the locus coeruleus, substantia nigra, and the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain. Experimental conditions were established that yielded no background and no signal when pBR322 was used as control probe. Using the tyrosine hydroxylase probe, the authors ascertained the specificity of the labeling over catecholaminergic cells by denervation experiments and comparison of the hybridization pattern with that of immunoreactivity. The use of /sup 35/S-labeled probe enabled the hybridization signal to be resolved at the cellular level. A single injection of reserpine into the rat led to an increase of the intensity of the autoradiographic signal over the locus coeruleus area, confirming an RNA gel blot analysis. The potential of in situ hybridization to analyze patterns of modulation of gene activity as a result of nervous activity is discussed.

  5. Hybridization kinetics analysis of an oligonucleotide microarray for microRNA detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Zhao; Shuo Ding; Wei Li; Youxin Jin

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) microarrays have been successfully used for profiling miRNA expression in many physiological processes such as development, differentiation, oncogenesis,and other disease processes. Detecting miRNA by miRNA microarray is actually based on nucleic acid hybridization between target molecules and their corresponding complementary probes. Due to the small size and high degree of similarity among miRNA sequences, the hybridization condition must be carefully optimized to get specific and reliable signals. Previously, we reported a microarray platform to detect miRNA expression. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of our microarray platform. After systematic analysis, we determined an optimized hybridization condition with high sensitivity and specificity for miRNA detection. Our results would be helpful for other hybridization-based miRNA detection methods, such as northern blot and nuclease protection assay.

  6. Detection and Identification of Entamoeba Species in Stool Samples by a Reverse Line Hybridization Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, Jaco J.; Laeijendecker, Daphne; Brienen, Eric A. T.; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M.

    2003-01-01

    Classically, detection of Entamoeba histolytica is performed by microscopic examination for characteristic cysts and/or trophozoites in fecal preparations. Differentiation of E. histolytica cysts and those of nonpathogenic amoebic species is made on the basis of the appearance and the size of the cysts. However, by classical means objective tools for confirmation and quality control do not exist. Therefore, a reverse line blot hybridization assay was developed to detect a variety of Entamoeba...

  7. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  8. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  9. A hybrid bat algorithm:

    OpenAIRE

    Fister, Iztok; Yang, Xin-She; Fister, Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Swarm intelligence is a very powerful technique to be used for optimization purposes. In this paper we present a new swarm intelligence algorithm, based on the bat algorithm. The Bat algorithm is hybridized with differential evolution strategies. Besides showing very promising results of the standard benchmark functions, this hybridization also significantly improves the original bat algorithm.

  10. Hybrid trajectory spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general framework for describing and studying hybrid systems. We represent the trajectories of the system as functions on a hybrid time domain, and the system itself by its trajectory space, which is the set of all possible trajectories. The trajectory space is given a na

  11. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  12. Hybrid propulsion technology program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Technology was identified which will enable application of hybrid propulsion to manned and unmanned space launch vehicles. Two design concepts are proposed. The first is a hybrid propulsion system using the classical method of regression (classical hybrid) resulting from the flow of oxidizer across a fuel grain surface. The second system uses a self-sustaining gas generator (gas generator hybrid) to produce a fuel rich exhaust that was mixed with oxidizer in a separate combustor. Both systems offer cost and reliability improvement over the existing solid rocket booster and proposed liquid boosters. The designs were evaluated using life cycle cost and reliability. The program consisted of: (1) identification and evaluation of candidate oxidizers and fuels; (2) preliminary evaluation of booster design concepts; (3) preparation of a detailed point design including life cycle costs and reliability analyses; (4) identification of those hybrid specific technologies needing improvement; and (5) preperation of a technology acquisition plan and large scale demonstration plan.

  13. Demonstration of functional low-density lipoprotein receptors by protein blotting in fibroblasts from a subject with homozygous receptor-negative familial hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors by the technique of receptor blotting in fibroblasts from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC) previously classified as ''receptor negative.'' Solubilized receptors were electrophoresed, transferred to nitrocellulose paper, treated with LDL followed by radiolabeled antibody to LDL, and visualized by autoradiography. GM 2000 FHC fibroblasts revealed LDL receptors with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 140,000, the same as in normal cells. LDL receptor activity by blotting in GM 2000 cells was greatly diminished in comparison with normal cells, but was calcium dependent. Receptor activity was also detectable by conventional monolayer binding and degradation assays. Thus, GM 2000 cells have profoundly diminished LDL receptor activity, but retain the genetic capacity to make LDL receptor material of normal molecular weight that is capable of binding LDL. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of trace amounts of immunoreactive LDL receptor protein in fibroblasts from some receptor-negative FHC homozygotes. These studies are extended by demonstrating the ability of this material to bind LDL

  14. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot-based analysis of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in different motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, Annemarie; Marroquin, Nicolai; Schmoll, Birgit; Vielhaber, Stefan; Just, Marlies; Mayer, Benjamin; Högel, Josef; Dorst, Johannes; Mertens, Thomas; Just, Walter; Aulitzky, Anna; Wais, Verena; Ludolph, Albert C; Kubisch, Christian; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Volk, Alexander E

    2014-05-01

    The GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This study determined the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in different motor neuron diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neuron diseases affecting primarily the first or the second motor neuron and hereditary spastic paraplegia). Whereas most studies on C9orf72 repeat expansions published so far rely on a polymerase chain reaction-based screening, we applied both polymerase chain reaction-based techniques and Southern blotting. Furthermore, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of Southern blotting of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in DNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines. C9orf72 repeat expansions were found in 27.1% out of 166 familial ALS patients, only once in 68 sporadic ALS patients, and not in 61 hereditary spastic paraplegia patients or 52 patients with motor neuron diseases affecting clinically primarily either the first or the second motor neuron. We found hints for a correlation between C9orf72 repeat length and the age of onset. Somatic instability of the C9orf72 repeat was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines compared with DNA derived from whole blood from the same patient and therefore caution is warranted for repeat length determination in immortalized cell lines.

  15. Analysis of the insulin receptor gene in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus by denaturing gradient gel blots: A clinical research center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magre, J.; Goldfine, A.B.; Warram, J.H. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    We have used a new technique of denaturing gradient gel blotting to determine the prevalence of alterations in the intracellular domain of the insulin receptor in normal individuals and subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This method detects DNA sequence differences as restriction fragment melting polymorphisms (RFMP) and is sensitive to changes in sequence at both restriction sites and within the fragments themselves. Using restriction digests with AluI, HaeIII, HinfI, RsaI, Sau3A, and Sau96, 12 RFMPs were found to localize to the region of the {beta}-subunit of the insulin receptor gene. Using exon-specific probes, these RFMPs could be localized to specific regions surrounding individual exons, including exons, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 22. In general, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphisms was inversely related to their distance in the gene structure, although there was a {open_quotes}hot spot{close_quotes} for recombination between exons 19 and 20. No difference in melting temperatures or allele frequency was observed between NIDDM patients and controls. These data indicate that the region of the insulin receptor gene coding for the intracellular portion of the {beta}-subunit is highly polymorphic and that polymorphisms surrounding specific exons can be identified by denaturing gradient gel blotting, but there is no evidence that variation at this locus contributes to NIDDM susceptibility in most individuals. 36 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Selected Thyme (Thymus) Species by Means of the Dot Blot Test with Direct Bioautographic Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Marta; Kowalska, Teresa; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Jesionek, Wioleta; Choma, Irena M; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Szymczak, Grażyna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Bioautography carried out with the aid of thin-layer chromatographic adsorbents can be used to assess antibacterial activity in samples of different origin. It can either be used as a simple and cost-effective detection method applied to a developed chromatogram, or to the dot blot test performed on a chromatographic plate, where total antibacterial activity of a sample is scrutinized. It was an aim of this study to compare antibacterial activity of 18 thyme (Thymus) specimens and species (originating from the same gardening plot and harvested in the same period of time) by means of a dot blot test with direct bioautography. A two-step extraction of herbal material was applied, and at step two the polar fraction of secondary metabolites was obtained under the earlier optimized extraction conditions [methanol-water (27+73, v/v), 130°C]. This fraction was then tested for its antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis bacteria. It was established that all investigated extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, yet distinct differences were perceived in the size of the bacterial growth inhibition zones among the compared thyme species. Based on the results obtained, T. citriodorus "golden dwarf" (sample No. 5) and T. marschallianus (sample No. 6) were selected as promising targets for further investigations and possible inclusion in a herbal pharmacopeia, which is an essential scientific novelty of this study. PMID:26268965

  17. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  18. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  19. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions in action systems are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. Recently, we introduced...... a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  20. Functional Hybrid Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romero, Pedro; Sanchez, Clément

    2004-04-01

    Functional Hybrid Materials consist of both organic and inorganic components, assembled for the purpose of generating desirable properties and functionalities. The aim is twofold: to bring out or enhance advantageous chemical, electrochemical, magnetic or electronic characteristics and at the same time to reduce or wholly suppress undesirable properties or effects. Another target is the creation of entirely new material behavior. The vast number of hybrid material components available has opened up a wide and diversified field of fascinating research. In this book, a team of highly renowned experts gives an in-depth overview, illustrating the superiority of well-designed hybrid materials and their potential applications.

  1. Isolation and RNA gel blot analysis of genes that could serve as potential molecular markers for leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Ito, M; Nishida, I; Watanabe, A

    2001-02-01

    Nine cDNAs, representing genes in which the transcripts accumulated in senescent leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, were isolated by differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) and the genes were designated yellow-leaf-specific gene 1 to 9 (YLS1-YLS9). Sequence analysis revealed that none of the YLS genes, except YLS6, had been reported as senescence-up-regulated genes. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the transcripts of YLS3 accumulated at the highest level at an early senescence stage, whereas the transcripts from the other YLS genes reached their maximum levels in late senescence stages. Transcripts of YLS genes showed various accumulation patterns under natural senescence, and under artificial senescence induced by darkness, ethylene or ABA. These expression characteristics of YLS genes will be useful as potential molecular markers, which will enhance our understanding of natural and artificial senescence processes.

  2. Twenty-two year follow-up of an Indian family with dysferlinopathy-clinical, immunocytochemical, western blotting and genetic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadilkar Satish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations over a period of 22 years in an Indian family with primary dysferlinopathy are recorded, defining phenotypic variability. In the propositus, the dystrophy began distally in the tibialis anterior muscles, before involving the gastrocnemius. Transient painful calf hypertrophy, followed by calf wasting was observed. The proximal lower and upper limbs weakened after three to four years. The younger sibling presented with the proximo-distal phenotype. Both patients showed very high creatine kinase values early into the illness. Disease progression was slow. The younger sibling lost ambulation 14 years after onset, while the elder one remains ambulatory 22 years into the illness. Muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features and absence of dysferlin. Monocyte western blotting confirmed absence of dysferlin. Genetic analysis detected a heterozygous mutation in Exon 54 [c.6124C>T] in the DYSF gene. This is the first family with a diagnosis of dysferlinopathy supported by genetic data, reported from India.

  3. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis. PMID:26267107

  4. A comparison of antigenic peptides in muscle larvae of several Trichinella species by two-dimensional western-blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antigens recognised by mAb US5 specific to 53 kDa glycoprotein (gp 53 in T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL1 antigens, mAb US9 specific to gp 53 in TSL1 from all encapsulated species and mAb US4 specific to a tyvelose containing tetrasaccharide present in TSL1, were investigated in crude extracts from muscle larvae of T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. britovi by 2D-electrophoresis and western-blot. At least four proteins of different pI were recognised by mAb US5 on T. spiralis antigens. Recognition profile of mAb US9 on T. spiralis antigens exhibited some variation with regard to that of the US5. Polymorphism was apparent in gp 53. High reactivity was shown by the mAb US4 with the three species.

  5. GAPDH and β-actin protein decreases with aging, making Stain-Free technology a superior loading control in Western blotting of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Dybboe, Rie; Hansen, Christina Neigaard;

    2015-01-01

    [β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and α-tubulin], as well as TP loaded measured by Stain-Free technology (SF) as normalization tool were tested. This was done using skeletal muscle samples from men subjected to physiological conditions often investigated in applied...... of β-actin and GAPDH was lower in older men compared with young men. In conclusion, β-actin, GAPDH, and α-tubulin may not be used for normalization in studies that include subjects with a large age difference. In contrast, the RPs may not be affected in studies that include muscle wasting...... and differences in muscle fiber type. The novel SF technology adds lower variation to the results compared with the existing methods for correcting for loading inaccuracy in Western blotting of human skeletal muscle in applied physiology....

  6. Análisis de la expresión transgénica en plantas, mediante la técnica Western Blotting

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro; Ávila Sánchez Leidy Andrea

    2006-01-01

    La transformación de plantas mediante la tecnología del DNA recombinante es un proceso cuyo resultado debe evaluarse a nivel molecular aplicando técnicas de análisis de la expresión transgénica. Western Blotting es una técnica útil para el análisis de esta expresión ya que trabaja en la detección de los transcritos (proteínas) de los genes de DNA foráneo, teniendo en cuenta que su presencia podría confirmar tanto la inserción de estos genes como su posterior trascripción y traducción. Ésta es...

  7. Nitrous Paraffin Hybrid Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nitrous Oxide Paraffin Hybrid engine (N2OP) is a proposed technology designed to provide small launch vehicles with high specific impulse, indefinitely storable...

  8. Hybrid Rocket Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Venugopal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available With their unique operational characteristics, hybrid rockets can potentially provide safer, lower-cost avenues for spacecraft and missiles than the current solid propellant and liquid propellant systems. Classical hybrids can be throttled for thrust tailoring, perform in-flight motor shutdown and restart. In classical hybrids, the fuel is stored in the form of a solid grain, requiring only half the feed system hardware of liquid bipropellant engines. The commonly used fuels are benign, nontoxic, and not hazardous to store and transport. Solid fuel grains are not highly susceptible to cracks, imperfections, and environmental temperature and are therefore safer to manufacture, store, transport, and use for launch. The status of development based on the experience of the last few decades indicating the maturity of the hybrid rocket technology is given in brief.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.193-200, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.518

  9. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  10. Concept of hybrid embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukue Masaharu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technique which is similar to a natural process, i.e., biogeochemical (carbonate diagenesis, is proposed to construct a hybrid embankment. In this study, the hybrid embankment is defined as a soil embankment which has a microbially induced framework structure of sand sheets and columns in the soft soil matrix. The sand materials are cemented with magnesium-calcite or dolomite, induced by ureolytic microbes. To design and construct hybrid embankments, fundamental problems, such as feasibility in terms of stability, geoenvironmental engineering practices, etc., are examined and discussed. It was shown that the hybrid embankment can be environmentally friendly and also can contribute solving technical and financial problems encountered in actual practice.

  11. Hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C

    2003-01-01

    Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

  12. Hybrid rocket combustion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, L. D.; Ray, R. L.; Cohen, N. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study of 'pure' or 'classic' hybrids are to (1) extend our understanding of the boundary layer combustion process and the critical engineering parameters that define this process, (2) develop an up-to-date hybrid fuel combustion model, and (3) apply the model to correlate the regression rate and scaling properties of potential fuel candidates. Tests were carried out with a hybrid slab window motor, using several diagnostic techniques, over a range of motor pressure and oxidizer mass flux conditions. The results basically confirmed turbulent boundary layer heat and mass transfer as the rate limiting process for hybrid fuel decomposition and combustion. The measured fuel regression rates showed good agreement with the analytical model predictions. The results of model scaling calculations to Shuttle SRM size conditions are presented.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Hybridity in Disgrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建平

    2015-01-01

    John Maxwell Coetzee's masterpiece-Disgrace is the representative work about post colonialism.The novel describes a series of disgraceful events happened between the white and the black in the post apartheid South Africa.The famous literature theory-hybridity of Homi K.Bhabha is the very key theory to analyze the work.In post apartheid South Africa,hybridity is the only way for the white and the black to coexist.

  15. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  16. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  17. Comparative study of bacteriological culture and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay in the diagnosis of bacterial neonatal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yajuan; Guo, Gaili; Wang, Huixin; Yang, Xuefang; Shao, Fang; Yang, Caiyun; Gao, Wei; Shao, Zhujun; Zhang, Jinjing; Luo, Jie; Yang, Yonghong; Kong, Fanrong; Zhu, Bingqing

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial meningitis is more common in the neonatal period than any other time in life; however, it is still a challenge for the evidence based diagnosis. Strategy for identification of neonatal bacterial meningitis pathogens is presented by evaluating three different available methods to establish evidence-based diagnosis for neonatal bacterial meningitis. Methods The cerebrospinal fluid samples from 56 neonates diagnosed as bacterial meningitis in 2009 in Beijing Children’s Hospi...

  18. DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER MICROMETASTASES IN BONE MARROW USING REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTASE CHAIN REACTION AND SOUTHERN HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jin-feng; ZHANG Lei; SUN Su-lian

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to detect micrometastases in bone marrow of primary breast cancer patients, and compare with other clinical parameters.Methods: Cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) gene mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot hybridization.Human breast cancer cell line T47D was mixed with bone marrow cells in different proportions. The positive detection rate was compared among RT-PCR, Southern blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods. Results: Cytokeratin 19 gene was expressed in all 6 positive control samples while the expression was not seen in 8 negative control samples. In all 54 patients 14 cases were CK-19 positive (25.9%) by RT-PCR, another positive signal was obtained in 5/54 (9.3%) of bone marrow samples by Southern blotting. The total positive cases are 19/54 (35.2%).CK-19 IHC+ cells were detected at a dilution of one T47D cell in 5×104 bone marrow cells, while the sensitivity detected by PCR and Southern blot hybridization was at 1:5×105 and 1:1×106, respectively. This demonstrates that RT-PCR and Southern blotting was at least 20 times more sensitive than the IHC method. The micrometastases positive rate of the larger tumor size group (>5.0 cm) was significantly (P<0.05) greater than that of the smaller tumor size group (0-2.0 cm). Conclusion: detection of micrometastases in bone marrow by RT-PCR and Southern blotting, using CK-19 as a biological marker, is highly sensitive and it is a method to be used for anticipating the prognosis of breast cancer patients.

  19. Utility of slot-blot-ELISA as a new, fast, and sensitive immunoassay for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen in the urine samples of patients with various gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, Samir; El-Sayed, Ibrahim H; Lotfy, Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Lamiaa; El-Naggar, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most widely used clinical tumor marker. CEA immunoassay has found acceptance as a diagnostic adjunct in clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors (GIT). Several immunoassays have been established for detection of CEA in plasma, serum, tissue, feces, and urine of cancer patients using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies raised against CEA. Some of these assays display both high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CEA. However, these assays require special and highly expensive equipment and the procedures require long periods for their completion. In the present study, we established a Slot-Blot Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (SB-ELISA), based on anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (CEA-mAb), as a new, simple, fast, cheap, and non-invasive immunodiagnostic technique for detection of CEA in the urine of GIT patients. Urine and serum samples were collected from 248 GIT patients (58 with pancreatic cancer, 20 with hepatoma, 23 with ampullary carcinoma, 15 with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 28 with gastric cancer, 14 with esophageal cancer, and 90 with colorectal cancer). Moreover, urine and serum samples were collected from 50 healthy individuals to serve as negative controls. The traditional ELISA technique was used for determination of CEA in the sera of GIT patients using anti-CEA monoclonal antibody. A comparison between the results of both techniques (ELISA and SB-ELISA) was carried out. The traditional ELISA detected CEA in the sera of 154 out of 248 GIT patients with a sensitivity of 59.8%, 51.7% positive predictive value (PPV) and 75.37% negative predictive value (NPV). In addition, it identified 15 false positive cases out of 50 healthy individuals with a specificity of 70%. The urinary CEA was identified by a Western blotting technique and CEA-mAb at a molecular mass of 180 Kda. The developed SB-ELISA showed higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV (70.1%, 78%, 62.4%, and 82.13%, respectively) for detection

  20. The Hybrids of Postmodernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana BĂDULESCU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization is a fundamental characteristic of postmodernism, included by Ihab Hassan in his “catena” of features. This paper looks into the hybrids of postmodernism, which are the result of migration, displacement and uprooting, the re-visitation of myths, folklore and legends, or projections of their author’s imagination. The hybrids used as examples here are drawn from several novels written by Salman Rushdie, especially The Satanic Verses, two short stories, one by Márquez and the other by Donald Barthelme, Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, Cărtărescu’s Encyclopaedia of Dragons and Michelle Cliff’s No Telephone to Heaven. Diverse as they may be, these hybrids emphasize a defining characteristic of postmodernism, which is its pluralism. I conclude that the hybrids of postmodernism are aesthetically or politically subversive. Besides, what makes them difficult to grasp is their unfixed and protean nature. They ask for high leaps of the imagination, a total suspension of disbelief and a complete surrender to the powerful seduction of imagination on the reader’s part.

  1. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  2. [Construction and Identification of the Bait Vector Containing Duck Circovirus Cap Gene for the Yeast Two-hybrid System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu; Zhang, Zhilong; Lu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Pengfei; Jia, Renyong

    2015-05-01

    To construct a bait expression vector containing the duck circovirus Cap gene for use in the yeast two-hybrid system, the whole cap codon-optimized gene was inserted into pGBKT7 vector and confirmed by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion, and sequence analysis. After transformation into a Y2HGold yeast strain, the expression of Cap protein was analyzed by Western blotting. Toxicity and self-activation of the bait protein were detected using different dropout minimal base. PCR reaction, restriction enzyme digestion, and sequencing analyses indicated that the duck circovirus Cap gene was correctly inserted into pG- BKT7. Western blotting showed that the whole Cap protein was expressed. The recombinant bait protein had no toxicity and self-activation. Therefore, the bait vector with the Cap gene was constructed successfully, providing a foundation for future screening for interacting proteins in the yeast two-hybrid system.

  3. ANALYSIS OF Treponema pallidum RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE Análise de antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum no diagnóstico da sífilis utilizando a técnica de Western Blotting

    OpenAIRE

    SATO Neuza Satomi; HIRATA Mário H.; HIRATA Rosário D.C.; Lia Carmen M.S. ZERBINI; Edilene P.R. SILVEIRA; MELO Carmem Silvia de; Ueda, Mirthes

    1999-01-01

    Three GST fusion recombinant antigen of Treponema pallidum, described as GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15 were analyzed by Western blotting techniques. We have tested 53 serum samples: 25 from patients at different clinical stages of syphilis, all of them presenting anti-treponemal antibody, 25 from healthy blood donors and three from patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD) other than syphilis. Almost all samples from patients with syphilis presented a strong reactivity with GST-rT...

  4. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational power...... of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t secure with agreement on abort (privacy and correctness only) for up to t secure...

  5. for hybrid dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim M. Haddad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a unified dynamical systems framework for a general class of systems possessing left-continuous flows; that is, left-continuous dynamical systems. These systems are shown to generalize virtually all existing notions of dynamical systems and include hybrid, impulsive, and switching dynamical systems as special cases. Furthermore, we generalize dissipativity, passivity, and nonexpansivity theory to left-continuous dynamical systems. Specifically, the classical concepts of system storage functions and supply rates are extended to left-continuous dynamical systems providing a generalized hybrid system energy interpretation in terms of stored energy, dissipated energy over the continuous-time dynamics, and dissipated energy over the resetting events. Finally, the generalized dissipativity notions are used to develop general stability criteria for feedback interconnections of left-continuous dynamical systems. These results generalize the positivity and small gain theorems to the case of left-continuous, hybrid, and impulsive dynamical systems.

  6. Direct measurement of tubulin and bulk message distributions on polysomes of growing, starved and deciliated Tetrahymena using RNA gel blots of sucrose gradients containing acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, F J; Callahan, R; Gorovsky, M A

    1988-10-25

    A method was developed using sucrose gradients containing acrylamide which greatly simplifies the measurement of the polysomal distribution of messages. After centrifugation, the acrylamide was polymerized, forming a "polysome gel". RNA gel blots of polysome gels were used to determine the polysomal distributions of alpha-tubulin and total polyadenylated mRNA in growing, starved (nongrowing) and starved-deciliated Tetrahymena and the number of messages loaded onto polysomes was calculated. These measurements indicated that the translational efficiencies of alpha-tubulin mRNA and total polyadenylated mRNA are largely unaffected when the rates of tubulin and total protein synthesis vary dramatically. Thus, differential regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA translation initiation does not contribute to the greater than 100-fold induction of tubulin synthesis observed during cilia regeneration and in growing cells. The major translation-level process regulating tubulin synthesis in Tetrahymena appears to be a change in message loading mediated by a non-specific message recruitment or unmasking factor.

  7. Inverse PCR and Quantitative PCR as Alternative Methods to Southern Blotting Analysis to Assess Transgene Copy Number and Characterize the Integration Site in Transgenic Woody Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Biricolti; Patrizia, Bogani; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Massimo, Gori

    2016-06-01

    One of the major unanswered questions with respect to the commercial use of genetic transformation in woody plants is the stability of the transgene expression over several decades within the same individual. Gene expression is strongly affected by the copy number which has been integrated into the plant genome and by the local DNA features close to the integration sites. Because woody plants cannot be subjected to selfing or backcrossing to modify the transgenic allelic structure without affecting the valuable traits of the cultivar, molecular characterization of the transformation event is therefore crucial. After assessing the transgene copy number of a set of apple transgenic clones with Southern blotting, we describe two alternative methods: the first is based on inverse PCR (i-PCR) and the second on the quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The methods produced comparable results with the exception of the data regarding a high copy number clone, but while the q-PCR-based system is rapid and easily adaptable to high throughput systems, the i-PCR-based method can provide information regarding the transformation event and the characteristics of the sequences flanking the transgenic construct.

  8. Hybrid Weyl semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Luo, Xi; Dai, Xi; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2016-09-01

    We construct a tight-binding model realizing one pair of Weyl nodes and three distinct Weyl semimetals. In the type-I (type-II) Weyl semimetal, both nodes belong to type-I (type-II) Weyl nodes. In addition, there exists a third type, previously undiscovered and dubbed "hybrid Weyl semimetal", in which one Weyl node is of type I while the other is of type II. For the hybrid Weyl semimetal, we further demonstrate the bulk Fermi surfaces and the topologically protected surface states, analyze the unique Landau-level structure and quantum oscillation, and discuss the conditions for possible material realization.

  9. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  10. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  11. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  12. Human-mouse hybrids with an embryonal carcinoma phenotype continue to transcribe HLA-A,B,C.

    OpenAIRE

    Benham, F J; M.A. Quintero; Goodfellow, P N

    1983-01-01

    We previously constructed a hybrid cell line, MCP6, which contains an X/6 translocation chromosome as its sole human genetic component in a mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cell background. This chromosome, which carries the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) originated from a human B cell which expresses class I and class II MHC antigens. EC cells do not express class I or class II antigens on their cell surface. Northern blot analysis has now shown that in the MCP6 hybrid, human class I g...

  13. Simultaneous in situ hybridization for DNA and RNA reveals the presence of HPV in the majority of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, L; Pilotti, S; Longoni, A; Donghi, R; Rilke, F

    1992-02-01

    Thirteen cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix containing HPV types 16 or 18 DNA sequences, as detected by Southern blot analysis, were investigated by in situ hybridization on routine paraffin sections, using 35S nick-translated DNA probes. Simultaneous in situ hybridization for DNA and RNA showed that in ten out of 13 cases (77%) the percentage of tumor cells containing HPV 16 or 18 varied from 75 to 100%. In one case, harboring both in situ and invasive carcinoma, the same type of HPV DNA was detected in both components. This finding suggests that neoplastic cells retained the viral genome during progression to invasiveness.

  14. Hybrid architecture: object, landscape, infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto de Freitas, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "hybrid architecture" developed in this study considers hybrid all architecture that is at once object, landscape and infrastructure. Hybrid architecture, pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-, landscape- and infrastructure-related nature, generates architectural answers with very specific features, and its study achieves following goals: 1: Clarify the term hybrid related to architectural intervention; 2: Tran...

  15. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  16. Homologous genes for mouse 4.5S hybRNA are found in all eukaryotes and their low molecular weight RNA transcripts intermolecularly hybridize with eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh-Rohlik, Q; Maxwell, E S

    1988-07-11

    Previous work has reported the isolation and sequencing of a mouse low molecular weight RNA species designated 4.5S hybridizing RNA or hybRNA because of its ability to intermolecularly hybridize with mouse mRNA and 18S rRNA sequences. Using synthetic DNA oligonucleotide probes we have examined the conservation of this gene sequence and its expression as a lmwRNA transcript across evolution. Southern blot analysis has shown that homologous genes of single or low copy number are found in all eukaryotes examined as well as in E. coli. Northern blot analysis has demonstrated 4.5S hybRNA transcription in all mouse tissues as well as expression in yeast and Xenopus laevis as lmwRNAs of approximately 130 and 100 nucleotides, respectively, as compared with mouse/rat/hamster species of approximately 87 nucleotides. Yeast and X. laevis 4.5S hybRNA homologs, isolated by hybrid-selection, were shown by Northern blot analysis to intermolecularly hybridize with homologous as well as heterologous 18S rRNA sequences. The conservation of 4.5S hybRNA homologous genes and their expression as lmwRNA transcripts with common intermolecular RNA:RNA hybridization capabilities in fungi, amphibians, and mammals argues for a common, conserved and required biological function for this lmwRNA in all eukaryotes and potential utilization of its intermolecular RNA:RNA hybridization capabilities to carry out this function.

  17. Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    Herder, E., & Kärger, P. (2008). Hybrid Personalization for Recommendations. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 20-25). October, 6-10, 2008, Würzburg, Germany: Universität Würzburg. Website with link

  18. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  19. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  20. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  1. Glueballs and Hybrid Mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Michael, C

    1992-01-01

    We discuss states in the meson spectrum which have explicit gluonic components. Glueballs (with no valence quarks) and hybrid mesons (with valence quarks) are both reviewed. We present in some detail lattice simulation results. ( to appear in proceedings of QCD-20 years, Aachen Workshop)

  2. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...

  3. Rethinking Resources and Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Seiler, Gale; Salter, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    This review explores Alfred Schademan's "What does playing cards have to do with science? A resource-rich view of African American young men" by examining how he uses two key concepts--hybridity and resources--to propose an approach to science education that counters enduring deficit notions associated with this population. Our response to…

  4. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now...

  5. Hybrid Gauge Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    McGarrie, Moritz

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by four dimensional (de)constructions, we use the framework of "General gauge mediation in five dimensions" to interpolate between gaugino and ordinary gauge mediation. In particular we emphasise that an intermediate hybrid regime of mediation may be obtained in these higher dimensional models as has been obtained in the quiver gauge models.

  6. Hybrid Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, I; Barty, C P J

    2002-05-07

    We present a novel chirped pulse amplification method which combines optical parametric amplification and laser amplification. We have demonstrated this hybrid CPA concept with a combination of beta-barium borate and Ti:sapphire. High-efficiency, multi-terawatt compatible amplification is achieved without gain narrowing and without electro-optic modulators using a simple commercial pump laser.

  7. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  8. Evaluation of a New Dot Blot Enzyme Immunoassay (Directigen Flu A+B) for Simultaneous and Differential Detection of Influenza A and B Virus Antigens from Respiratory Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Jordi; Padilla, Emma; Alonso, Fermin; Ruiz de Gopegui, Enrique; Munar, Maria; Mari, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    We report a prospective evaluation of a new dot blot enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method for the direct, rapid, qualitative, simultaneous, and differential detection of the influenza A (IA) and B (IB) virus antigen in different respiratory samples. The EIA method was compared with the shell vial culture system (MDCK cell line) used with the same samples. We studied 160 samples from 93 (58.1%) pediatric patients (hospital emergency room) and from 67 (41.9%) adult patients (sentinel network). Seventy-four(46.2%) samples were considered positive; of them, 46 (62.2%) were from pediatric patients and 28 (37.8%) were from an adult group (P < 0.05), with overall positive values of 49.9% and 41.7%, respectively. All 74 (100%) of the positive samples were isolated in cell culture versus the 68.9% that were detected as positive by the new EIA method (P < 0.05). Of the 41 samples positive for the IA virus, the EIA detected 34 (82.9%) positive samples; of the 33 samples positive for the IB virus, the EIA detected 17 (51.5%) positive samples (P < 0.05). No false-positive reaction was detected with the EIA method (specificity and positive predictive value of 100%). The overall results obtained in the comparison between the new EIA and the shell vial culture had a sensibility of 82.9% and predictive negative values of 92.4% for the IA virus and 51.5% and 84.3%, respectively, for the IB virus. This evaluation shows sensitivity and specificity percentages for the new EIA method that is acceptable for routine use in IA virus detection. The results obtained were worse for IB virus detection, but this new EIA method is actually the only one with the capacity to differentiate between the two influenza viruses. PMID:12202608

  9. Identification of reference proteins for Western blot analyses in mouse model systems of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenie D Prokopec

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a well-established, inexpensive and accurate way of measuring protein content. Because of technical variation between wells, normalization is required for valid interpretation of results across multiple samples. Typically this involves the use of one or more endogenous controls to adjust the measured levels of experimental molecules. Although some endogenous controls are widely used, validation is required for each experimental system. This is critical when studying transcriptional-modulators, such as toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD.To address this issue, we examined hepatic tissue from 192 mice representing 47 unique combinations of strain, sex, Ahr-genotype, TCDD dose and treatment time. We examined 7 candidate reference proteins in each animal and assessed consistency of protein abundance through: 1 TCDD-induced fold-difference in protein content from basal levels, 2 inter- and intra- animal stability, and 3 the ability of each candidate to reduce instability of the other candidates. Univariate analyses identified HPRT as the most stable protein. Multivariate analysis indicated that stability generally increased with the number of proteins used, but gains from using >3 proteins were small. Lastly, by comparing these new data to our previous studies of mRNA controls on the same animals, we were able to show that the ideal mRNA and protein control-genes are distinct, and use of only 2-3 proteins provides strong stability, unlike in mRNA studies in the same cohort, where larger control-gene batteries were needed.

  10. HIV-1/2 indeterminate Western blot results: follow-up of asymptomatic blood donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARNEIRO-PROIETTI A.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and public health importance of indeterminate results in HIV-1/2 testing is still difficult to evaluate in volunteer blood donors. At Fundação Hemominas, HIV-1/2 ELISA is used as the screening test and, if reactive, is followed by Western blot (WB. We have evaluated 84 blood donors who had repeatedly reactive ELISA tests for HIV-1/2, but indeterminate WB results. Sixteen of the 84 donors (19.0% had history of sexually transmitted diseases; 18/84 (21.4% informed receiving or paying for sex; 3/84 (3.6% had homosexual contact; 2/26 women (7.6% had past history of multiple illegal abortions and 3/84 (3.6% had been previously transfused. Four out of 62 donors (6.5% had positive anti-nuclear factor (Hep2, with titles up to 1:640. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed eggs of S. mansoni in 4/62 (6.4% donors and other parasites in 8/62 (12.9%. Five (5.9% of the subjects presented overt seroconversion for HIV-1/2, 43/84 (51.2% had negative results on the last visit, while 36/84 (42.9% remained WB indeterminate. Although some conditions could be found associated with the HIV-1/2 indeterminate WB results and many donors had past of risky behavior, the significance of the majority of the results remains to be determined.

  11. Discovery of novel poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors by a quantitative assay system using dot-blot with anti-poly(ADP-ribose)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okita, Naoyuki, E-mail: nokita7@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Genome and Drug Research Center, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Ashizawa, Daisuke; Ohta, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan); Abe, Hideaki [Genome and Drug Research Center, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan); Tanuma, Sei-ichi, E-mail: tanuma@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Genome and Drug Research Center, Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-0022 (Japan)

    2010-02-19

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, which is mainly regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), is a unique protein modification involved in cellular responses such as DNA repair and replication. PARG hydrolyzes glycosidic linkages of poly(ADP-ribose) synthesized by PARP and liberates ADP-ribose residues. Recent studies have suggested that inhibitors of PARG are able to be potent anti-cancer drug. In order to discover the potent and specific Inhibitors of PARG, a quantitative and high-throughput screening assay system is required. However, previous PARG assay systems are not appropriate for high-throughput screening because PARG activity is measured by radioactivities of ADP-ribose residues released from radioisotope (RI)-labeled poly(ADP-ribose). In this study, we developed a non-RI and quantitative assay system for PARG activity based on dot-blot assay using anti-poly(ADP-ribose) and nitrocellulose membrane. By our method, the maximum velocity (V{sub max}) and the michaelis constant (k{sub m}) of PARG reaction were 4.46 {mu}M and 128.33 {mu}mol/min/mg, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 of adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol (ADP-HPD), known as a non-competitive PARG inhibitor, was 0.66 {mu}M. These kinetics values were similar to those obtained by traditional PARG assays. By using our assay system, we discovered two novel PARG inhibitors that have xanthene scaffold. Thus, our quantitative and convenient method is useful for a high-throughput screening of PARG specific inhibitors.

  12. Ants exhibit asymmetric hybridization in a mosaic hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jessica; Zahnd, Sacha; Athanasiades, Anouk; Türler, Rebecca; Chapuisat, Michel; Brelsford, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Research on hybridization between species provides unparalleled insights into the pre- and postzygotic isolating mechanisms that drive speciation. In social organisms, colony-level incompatibilities may provide additional reproductive barriers not present in solitary species, and hybrid zones offer an opportunity to identify these barriers. Here, we use genotyping-by-sequencing to sequence hundreds of markers in a hybrid zone between two socially polymorphic ant species, Formica selysi and Formica cinerea. We characterize the zone, determine the frequency of hybrid workers, infer whether hybrid queens or males are produced and investigate whether hybridization is influenced by colony social organization. We also compare cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and aggression levels between the two species. The hybrid zone exhibits a mosaic structure. The asymmetric distribution of hybrids skewed towards F. cinerea suggests a pattern of unidirectional nuclear gene flow from F. selysi into F. cinerea. The occurrence of backcrossed individuals indicates that hybrid queens and/or males are fertile, and the presence of the F. cinerea mitochondrial haplotype in 97% of hybrids shows that successful F1 hybrids will generally have F. cinerea mothers and F. selysi fathers. We found no evidence that social organization contributes to speciation, because hybrids occur in both single-queen and multiple-queen colonies. Strongly differentiated cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and heightened interspecific aggression further reveal that species recognition cues are both present and perceived. The discovery of fertile hybrids and asymmetrical gene flow is unusual in ants, and this hybrid zone will therefore provide an ideal system with which to investigate speciation in social insects.

  13. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  14. Evaluación de la técnica Western blot para la detección de antígenos de Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Chávez-Salas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la técnica de inmunoelectrotransferencia (Western Blot para detectar los antígenos específicos de excreción/secreción de Hymenolepis nana en sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas. Se utilizó a Mesocricetus auratus “hamster” para obtener ejemplares adultos de H. nana. Los antígenos de excreción/secreción fueron obtenidos en el medio MEM (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, y enfrentados con un grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada para evaluar su calidad inmunológica y con sueros individuales de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas para detectar mediante la técnica de “Western Blot”, los antígenos específicos de este cestode. El grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada reconoció las bandas antigénicas de 50,1; 42,6; 38,9; 32,9; 26,3; 22,4 y 18,6 kDa; sin embargo, los sueros individuales reconocieron diferente número de bandas, siendo la de 50,1 KDa la que fue reconocida por todos ellos. Los sueros de pacientes con helmintiosis confirmadas no reconocieron la banda de 50,1 kDa; sin embargo, dieron reacción cruzada con algunas de las demás bandas, a excepción de los sueros de pacientes con cisticercosis que no reconocieron a ninguna de las bandas de estos antígenos. Se concluye que el antígeno de excreción/secreción de H. nana de 50,1 kDa es específico de este cestode por ser reconocido por todos los sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada y no por sueros de pacientes con otras helmintiosis utilizando la técnica de “Western Blot”.

  15. A comparison of the immune parameters of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis using Western blot and neutralization techniques Comparação dos parâmetros imunológicos de cães infectados com leishmaniose visceral usando as técnicas de Western blot e neutralização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda L. Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western blot technique was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies in the blood of dogs that presented canine visceral leishmaniasis. This technique was used against some specific molecules present in the lysate of the promastigote form of Leshmania chagasi.Through the association of the results of the Western blot technique with the morphological alterations seen as a result of the serum neutralization technique performed in McCoy cells (which mimetizes the macrophage it was possible to observe the role of some molecules of great relevance in determining the disease in symptomatic dogs as well as that of some other molecules associated with asymptomatic infected dogs that may become transmitters as well as differentiating them as asymptomatic resistant dogs. In the sera analyses carried out during the immunobloting a variation of 9 to 27 immunoreacting bands was observed, which were then compared using Dice's similarity coefficient. In the dendrogram constructed on the basis of the coefficient, 50% similarity was observed among the total number of reagent bands with the promastigote lysate, thus creating five groups. The main difference observed related to the clinical condition of the dogs: symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs were found in separate groups. The asymptomatic group of dogs was distributed in two different places in the dendrogram because they presented two different behavior patterns regarding the cellular morphology in the serum neutralization reaction: the presence or absence of cellular lysis. According to this analysis it is possible to evaluate the immune status and associate it with specific markers observed in the reaction found in the Western blot strips.A técnica de Western blot foi utilizada para demonstrar a presença de anticorpos do soro de cães, que apresentavam leishmaniose visceral canina, contra algumas moléculas específicas no lisado da forma promastigota de Leshmania chagasi.Através da associa

  16. Hybrid plasma modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; DeChant, Lawrence Justin.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Pointon, Timothy David

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2007 and FY2008 for the LDRD project ''Hybrid Plasma Modeling''. The goal of this project was to develop hybrid methods to model plasmas across the non-continuum-to-continuum collisionality spectrum. The primary methodology to span these regimes was to couple a kinetic method (e.g., Particle-In-Cell) in the non-continuum regions to a continuum PDE-based method (e.g., finite differences) in continuum regions. The interface between the two would be adjusted dynamically ased on statistical sampling of the kinetic results. Although originally a three-year project, it became clear during the second year (FY2008) that there were not sufficient resources to complete the project and it was terminated mid-year.

  17. The Power of Hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    Programming languages always seem to do some things well but not others: Python punts when it comes to user interfaces, Java’s artificial complexity prevents rapid development and produces tangles, and it will be awhile before we see benefits from C++ concurrency work. The cognitive load of languages and their blind spots increases the cost of experimentation, impeding your ability to fail fast and iterate. If you use a single language to solve your problem, you are binding yourself to the worldview limitations and the mistakes made by the creator of that language. Consider increasing your wiggle room by crossing language boundaries, complementing a language that is powerful in one area with a different language powerful in another. Language hybridization can speed development to quickly discover your real problems, giving you more time to fix them. After making a case for hybridizing your thinking in general, I will present a number of simple examples; first showing the benefits of using other languages...

  18. Hybrid Neurofibroma-Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Namath S; Specht, Charles S; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth; Glantz, Michael; Harbaugh, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas and schwannomas are common lesions that may be idiopathic or may occur in association with neural crest genetic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis type 1, neurofibromatosis type 2, and schwannomatosis. A hybrid tumor that contains pathological characteristics of both neurofibroma and schwannoma has been described as a rare entity. We present the clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings of such a case. PMID:27158577

  19. Hybrid undulator numerical optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.

  20. Hybrid and Creative Taipei

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Muñoz, Laura; Galán Hergueta, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper examines the hybrid condition of Taipei's built environment within its socio-cultural context and daily activity of the city. It also points out certain forward-looking policies adopted by the City Government that over the last decades gave way to interesting and radical ambiances within the city. To illustrate this fact three case studies are described from the point of view of a pedestrian and on the basis of a journey. By identifying the key qualities t...

  1. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  2. Fibonacci-Pell Hybridities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    We develop a recurrence satisfied by the Fibonacci and Pell families. We then use it to find explicit formulae and generating functions for the hybrids "F[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]P[subscript n]", "F[subscript n]Q[subscript n]" and "L[subscript n]Q[subscript n]", where "F[subscript n]", "L[subscript n]", "P[subscript n]" and…

  3. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Mateescu; Marius Vladescu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the...

  4. Hybrid bundle divertor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid bundle divertor design is presented that produces <0.3% magnetic ripple at the center of the plasma while providing adequate space for the coil shielding and structure for a tokamak fusion test reactor similar to the International Tokamak Reactor and the Engineering Test Facility (with R = 5 m, B = 5 T, and a /SUB wall/ = 1.5 m, in particular). This hybrid divertor consists of a set of quadrupole ''wing'' coils running tangent to the tokamak plasma on either side of a bundle divertor. The wing coils by themselves pull the edge of the plasma out 1.5 m and spread the thickness of the scrape-off layer from 0.1 to 0.7 m at the midplane. The clear aperture of the bundle divertor throat is 1.0 m high and 1.8 m wide. For maintenance or replacement, the hybrid divertor can be disassembled into three parts, with the bundle divertor part pulling straight out between toroidal field coils and the wing coils then sliding out through the same opening

  5. Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, G. E.; Holzman, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    Future launch systems of the United States will require improvements in booster safety, reliability, and cost. In order to increase payload capabilities, performance improvements are also desirable. The hybrid rocket motor (HRM) offers the potential for improvements in all of these areas. The designs are presented for two sizes of hybrid boosters, a large 4.57 m (180 in.) diameter booster duplicating the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) vacuum thrust-time profile and smaller 2.44 m (96 in.), one-quater thrust level booster. The large booster would be used in tandem, while eight small boosters would be used to achieve the same total thrust. These preliminary designs were generated as part of the NASA Hybrid Propulsion Technology Program. This program is the first phase of an eventual three-phaes program culminating in the demonstration of a large subscale engine. The initial trade and sizing studies resulted in preferred motor diameters, operating pressures, nozzle geometry, and fuel grain systems for both the large and small boosters. The data were then used for specific performance predictions in terms of payload and the definition and selection of the requirements for the major components: the oxidizer feed system, nozzle, and thrust vector system. All of the parametric studies were performed using realistic fuel regression models based upon specific experimental data.

  6. Asymmetric Hybrid Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chumanov, George [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2015-11-05

    Hybrid Nanoparticles (AHNs) are rationally-designed multifunctional nanostructures and novel building blocks for the next generation of advanced materials and devices. Nanoscale materials attract considerable interest because of their unusual properties and potential for practical applications. Most of the activity in this field is focused on the synthesis of homogeneous nanoparticles from metals, metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymers. It is well recognized that properties of nanoparticles can be further enhanced if they are made as hybrid structures. This program is concerned with the synthesis, characterization, and application of such hybrid structures termed AHNs. AHNs are composed of a homogeneous core and several caps of different materials deposited on its surface (Fig. 1). Combined properties of the core and the caps as well as new properties that arise from core-cap and cap-cap interactions render AHNs multifunctional. In addition, specific chemical reactivity of the caps enables directional self-assembly of AHNs into complex architectures that are not possible with only spherical nanoparticles.

  7. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1) It takes into account the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2) For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, the hybrid auction can result in significantly higher revenue. 3) An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's es...

  8. Printed hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  9. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Manwell, J.F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Hybrid GTO cycloconverter. Hybrid shiki GTO cycloconverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, H.; Endo, K. (Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-09-20

    In the field of alternating current variable speed drives, cycloconverters have been used for running middle to low speed machines exceeding several thousands KW in electric capacity. However, the conventional cycloconverter has a disadvantage of low power factor in power source. To improve this disadvantage, a hybrid cycloconverter which is composed of thyristors and self-turn-off devices mutually connected in antiparallel was proposed, and its characteristics were discussed. Also, an experiment was carried out with an application of GTOs to self-turn-off devices, and its fundamental properties were verified. As a result, the followings were found out: in the case of three phase output, the basic wave power factor of power source was unity theoretically and high power factors were obtained at the actual measurement; the output current had no circulating current which reduces capacity and efficiency of the device, there was no need to waste time for switching plus and minus groups of convertors and the output current had no interruption; in case of multiplication, when line-commutated converters and self -commutated converters were connected in series, the characteristic higher harmonic was null theoretically; etc. 11 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes after partial rat liver ischemia/reperfusion by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Fallsehr; Christina Zapletal; Michael Kremer; Resit Demir; Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz; Ernst Klar

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To identify potential diagnostic target genes in early reperfusion periods following warm liver ischemia before irreversible liver damage occurs.METHODS: We used two strategies (SSH suppression subtractive hybridization and hybridization of cDNA arrays)to determine early changes in gene expression profiles in a rat model of partial WI/R, comparing postischemic and adjacent nonischemic liver lobes. Differential gene expression was verified (WT/R; 1 h/2 h) and analyzed in more detail after warm ischemia (1 h) in a reperfusion time kinetics (0, 1, 2 and 6 h) and compared to untreated livers by Northern blot hybridizations. Protein expression was examined on Western blots and by immunohistochemistry for four differentially expressed target genes (Hsp70,Hsp27, Gadd45a and IL-1rl).RESULTS: Thirty-two individual WI/R target genes showing altered RNA levels after confirmation by Northern blot analyzes were identified. Among them, six functionally uncharacteristic expressed sequences and 26 known genes (12 induced in postischemic liver lobes, 14 with higher transcriptional expression in adjacent nonischemic liver lobes). Functional categories of the verified marker genes indicate on the one hand cellular stress and tissue damage but otherwise activation of protective cellular reactions (AP-1 transcription factors, apoptosis related genes, heat shock genes). In order to assign the transcriptional status to the biological relevant protein level we demonstrated that Hsp70, Hsp27, Gadd45a and IL-1rI were clearly up-regulated comparing postischemic and untreated rat livers, suggesting their involvement in the WI/R context.CONCLUSION: This study unveils a WI/R response gene set that will help to explore molecular pathways involved in the tissue damage after WI/R. In addition, these genes especially Hsp70and Gadd45a might represent promising new candidates indicating WI/R liver damage.

  12. Hybrid drive train configurations for hybrid vehicles; Antriebskonfigurationen fuer Hybridfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H. [Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Wuerzburg (Germany)]|[Siemens VDO Automotive AG, Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the following contribution, the hybrid drives will be sorted as follows: Hybrid drives by using classical car transmissions, Hybrid drives by using power split transmissions, Hybrid drives without mechanical transmissions. Within this paper only newest drive configurations will be considered. For example, solutions without torque converter in connection to an automatic transmission, CVT or an automated manual transmission are counted among to new drive configurations. Further, solutions to consist of a combination of electric machines and one - or two planetary gear sets are counted among too. Also newest developments of electric transmissions are considered which contain a special electrical drive structure without any mechanical transmission. (orig.)

  13. Molecular cytogenetics of Alstroemeria: identification of parental genomes in interspecific hybrids and characterization of repetitive DNA families in constitutive heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, A G; van Os, D P; de Jong, J H; Ramanna, M S

    1997-02-01

    The genus Alstroemeria consists of diploid (2n = 2x = 16) species originating mainly from Chile and Brazil. Most cultivars are triploid or tetraploid interspecific hybrids. C-banding of eight species revealed obvious differentiation of constitutive heterochromatin within the genus. The present study focused on the molecular (cyto)genetic background of this differentiation. Genomic slot-blot analysis demonstrated strong conservation of major parts of the genomes among six species. The chromosomes of A. aurea and A. ligtu, species with pronounced interstitial C-bands, were found to contain large amounts of highly repetitive and species-specific DNA. The variation in size, number and intensity of strongly probed bands of major repetitive DNA families observed in genomic Southern blots of Sau3A, HaeIII, and MseI digests indicated a strong correlation between variation in genomic DNA composition and different C-banding patterns among Alstroemeria species. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) revealed a clear distinction between parental chromosomes in the hybrids between Chilean and Brazilian species and also between Chilean species, as long as at least one of the parental species possessed prominent C-banding. Regarding the latter, discriminative hybridization resulted from highly repetitive species specific DNA in the heterochromatic chromosome regions of A. aurea and A. ligtu, and caused GISH banding patterns that coincided with the C-banding patterns. PMID:9088641

  14. Expression of an insulin/interleukin-1 receptor antagonist hybrid gene in insulin-producing cell lines (HIT-T15 and NIT-1) confers resistance against interleukin-1-induced nitric oxide production.

    OpenAIRE

    Welsh, N; K. Bendtzen; Welsh, M.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid gene consisting of the insulin gene enhancer/promoter region, the signal sequence, the insulin B- and C-chains, and the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene was constructed. This hybrid gene was transfected together with the pSV2-neo construct into the insulin-producing cell lines HIT-T15 and NIT-1. One of the geneticin-selected clones, HITra2, expressed a 1.4-kb mRNA, which hybridized both to insulin and IL-1ra-cDNA in Northern blot analysis. Three proteins, with th...

  15. Solar thermal electric hybridization issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, T A; Bohn, M S; Price, H W

    1994-10-01

    Solar thermal electric systems have an advantage over many other renewable energy technologies because the former use heat as an intermediate energy carrier. This is an advantage as it allows for a relatively simple method of hybridization by using heat from fossil-fuel. Hybridization of solar thermal electric systems is a topic that has recently generated significant interest and controversy and has led to many diverse opinions. This paper discusses many of the issues associated with hybridization of solar thermal electric systems such as what role hybridization should play; how it should be implemented; what are the efficiency, environmental, and cost implications; what solar fraction is appropriate; how hybrid systems compete with solar-only systems; and how hybridization can impact commercialization efforts for solar thermal electric systems.

  16. First-Order Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid logic is an extension of modal logic which allows us to refer explicitly to points of the model in the syntax of formulas. It is easy to justify interest in hybrid logic on applied grounds, with the usefulness of the additional expressive power. For example, when reasoning about time one...... often wants to build up a series of assertions about what happens at a particular instant, and standard modal formalisms do not allow this. What is less obvious is that the route hybrid logic takes to overcome this problem often actually improves the behaviour of the underlying modal formalism....... For example, it becomes far simpler to formulate proof-systems for hybrid logic, and completeness results can be proved of a generality that is simply not available in modal logic. That is, hybridization is a systematic way of remedying a number of known deficiencies of modal logic. First-order hybrid logic...

  17. Western blot used for detection of syphilis antibodies and its evaluation%免疫印迹法检测梅毒抗体及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹谊; 金一鸣; 董丽; 江妮娜; 厦伟凤

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立梅毒抗体免疫印迹法(TP-WB)检测梅毒(TP),并对其效果进行评价.方法 对第1组(13份)用甲苯胺红不加热试验与酶联免疫吸附试验法检测和第2组(28份)对双酶联免疫吸附试验法筛检的可疑样本进行明胶颗粒凝集试验与TP-WB方法确证检测并比较.结果 两组用明胶颗粒凝集试验确证分别为6例阳性、2例可疑、5例阴性和12例阳性、2例可疑、14例阴性,阳性率为46.2%、42.9%;而用TP-WB法检测分别为11例阳性、2例可凝和18例阳性、2例可凝、8例阴性阳性率为84.6%、64.3%.结论 TP-WB法操作简便,结果易观察,无需特殊设备,灵敏度特异性好,更适宜各级实验室梅毒确证检测.%OBJECTIVE To set up western blot method for the detection of syphilis antibodies and evaluate its effect. METHODS Gelatin particle agglutination test was conducted towards the following two groups, 13 shares in Group 1 adopted Toluidine red non-heating test and enzyme-linked immunity and adsorption assay test; 28 shares of spacious samples in Group 2 screened by double enzyme-linked immunity and adsorption assay test performed the gelatin particle agglutination test and confirmatory test and compared the above mentioned test with TP-WB method toward two groups. RESULTS The confirmatory results obtained through gelatin particle agglutination test were 6 cases positive* 2 cases suspicious, 5 cases negative and 12 cases positive, 2 cases suspicious, 14 cases negative; the positive rates were 46. 2% , 42. 9% ; while the results obtained through TP-WB were 11 cases positive, 2 cases suspicious, and 18 cases positive, 2 cases suspicious, 8 cases negative; the positive rates were 78. 4%, 64. 3%. CONCLUSION TP-WB method is simple in operation, easy to observe the results without special equipments, good at sensitivity and specificity, and more suitable for syphilis confirmatory test in all levels of laboratory.

  18. Fuel cell based hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davat, B.; Astier, S.; Bethoux, O.; CANDUSSO,D; Coquery, G.; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; DRUART, F; Francois, M; GARCIA ARREGUI, F; Harel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different works which are currently developed in the field of fuel cell hybrid systems indifferent public laboratories in France. These works are presented in three sections corresponding to: 1. Hybrid fuel cell/battery or supercapacitor power sources; 2. Fuel cell multistack power sources; 3. Fuel cell in hybrid power systems for distributed generation. The presented works combine simulation and experimental results.

  19. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  20. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  1. Analysis of nuclear and organellar DNA of somatic hybrid calli and plants between Lycopersicon spp. and Nicotiana spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, A A; Vergunst, A C; van der Werff, F; Koornneef, M

    1993-12-01

    Protoplast fusion experiments between Lycopersicon esculentum or L. peruvianum and Nicotiana tabacum or N. plumbaginifolia were performed to investigate the possibility of producing symmetric and asymmetric somatic hybrids between these genera. These fusions, which involved 1.7 x 10(8) protoplasts, yielded 35 viable hybrid calli. Plant regeneration was successful with two calli. One of these regenerants flowered, but developed no fruits. Analysis of the nuclear DNA by means of dot blot hybridization with species-specific repetitive DNA probes combined with flow cytometry, revealed that the nuclei of most hybrid calli contained the same absolute amount of Nicotiana DNA as the Nicotiana parent or (much) less, whereas the amount of Lycopersicon DNA per nucleus was 2-5 times that of the parental genotype. Eighteen of the 34 hybrids analyzed possessed Lycopersicon chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), whereas the other 16 had DNA from Nicotiana chloroplasts. The cpDNA type was correlated with the nuclear DNA composition; hybrids with more than 2C Nicotiana nuclear DNA possessed Nicotiana chloroplasts, whereas hybrids with 2C or less Nicotiana nuclear DNA contained Lycopersicon chloroplasts. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) composition was correlated with both nuclear DNA constitution and chloroplast type. Hybrids possessed only or mainly species-specific mtDNA fragments from the parent predominating in the nucleus and often providing the chloroplasts. The data are discussed in relation to somatic incompatibility which could explain the low frequency at which hybrids between Lycopersicon and Nicotiana species are obtained and the limited morphogenetic potential of such hybrids. PMID:7903413

  2. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  3. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  4. The governance of hybrid organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Cornforth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?......The focus of this chapter is on the governance of third sector organizations (TSOs) and the challenges that are raised by hybridity. In particular it will focus on the question how does hybridity affect governance structures and processes and the challenges that governing bodies face?...

  5. Hybrid silicon modulators Invited Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Wen Chen; Yinghao Kuo; J. E. Bowers

    2009-01-01

    A number of active elements have been demonstrated using the hybrid silicon evanescent platform, includ- ing lasers, amplifiers, and detectors. In this letter, two types of hybrid silicon modulators, fulfilling the building blocks in optical communication on this platform, are presented. A hybrid silicon electroabsorp-tion modulator, suitable for high speed interconnects, with 10-dB extinction ratio at -5 V and 16-GHz modulation bandwidth is demonstrated. In addition, a hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator utilizing carrier depletion in multiple quantum wells is proved with 2 V.mm voltage-length product, 150-nm optical bandwidth, and a large signal modulation up to 10 Gb/s.

  6. Indexical Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2012-01-01

    operator N) and prove completeness results for both logical and contextual validity. We then add propositional constants to handle yesterday, today and tomorrow; our system correctly treats sentences like “Niels will die yesterday” as contextually unsatisfiable. Building on our completeness results for now......In this paper we explore the logic of now, yesterday, today and tomorrow by combining the semantic approach to indexicality pioneered by Hans Kamp [9] and refined by David Kaplan [10] with hybrid tense logic. We first introduce a special now nominal (our @now corresponds to Kamp’s original now......, we prove completeness for the richer language, again for both logical and contextual validity....

  7. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  8. Hybrid Textures of Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, S; Tanimoto, M; Kaneko, Satoru; Sawanaka, Hideyuki; Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2005-01-01

    We present numerical and comprehensive analyses of the sixty hybrid textures of neutrinos, which have an equality of matrix elements and one zero. These textures are possibly derived from the discrete symmetry. Only six textures among sixty ones are excluded by the present experimental data. Since there are many textures which give similar predictions, the textures are classified based on the numerical results. The neutrinoless double beta decay is also examined in these textures. Our results suggest that there remain still rich structures of the neutrino mass matrix in the phenomenological point of view.

  9. Hybrid power semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.

    1985-10-01

    The voltage rating of a bipolar transistor may be greatly extended while at the same time reducing its switching time by operating it in conjunction with FETs in a hybrid circuit. One FET is used to drive the bipolar transistor while the other FET is connected in series with the transistor and an inductive load. Both FETs are turned on or off by a single drive signal of load power, the second FET upon ceasing conductions, rendering one power electrode of the bipolar transistor open. Means are provided to dissipate currents which flow after the bipolar transistor is rendered nonconducting.

  10. Hybrid Keyword Search Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2008-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the ...

  11. Reflections on Intellectual Hybridity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimala Price

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the growing literature on interdisciplinarity and my own experiences as an intellectual hybrid, I discuss the personal and institutional challenges inherent in crossing disciplinary boundaries in the academy. I argue that boundary crossing is a natural occurrence and that the issue of (interdisciplinarity is a matter of degree and of determining who gets to define the boundaries. Defining boundaries is not merely an intellectual enterprise, but also a political act that delineates what is, or is not, legitimate scholarship. This issue is especially salient to women's and gender studies during times of economic distress and educational budget cuts.

  12. Hybrid vehicle potential assessment. Volume 7. Hybrid vehicle review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leschly, K.O.

    1979-09-30

    Review of hybrid vehicles (HVs) built during the past ten years or planned to be built in the near future is presented. An attempt is made to classify and analyze these vehicles to get an overall picture of their key characteristics. The review includes on-road hybrid passenger cars, trucks, vans, and buses.

  13. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker;

    2016-01-01

    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  14. Unified Hybrid Network Theoretical Model Trilogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The first of the unified hybrid network theoretical model trilogy (UHNTF) is the harmonious unification hybrid preferential model (HUHPM), seen in the inner loop of Fig. 1, the unified hybrid ratio is defined.

  15. Hybrid microcircuit intraconnection processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonham, H.B.

    1976-08-01

    Hybrid intraconnections join thin film networks and applique components into an electrically functional hybrid microcircuit (HMC). Applique components were intraconnected with thermocompression (TC) bonds to chromium/gold metallized thin film networks. The project determined critical processes, material parameters, quality criteria, and characterization techniques. The program began on July 1, 1970, and initial efforts consisted of organizing the development program and forecasting needed equipment and manpower. The total time schedule was then PERT-charted. Gold beam-lead devices, gold wire, and chromium/gold films had already been selected for these intraconnection technologies. Thermocompression bonding was developed to provide intraconnections between the HMC gold conductor metallization and gold beam-lead active devices, gold plated external leads, and gold terminated applique devices, such as capacitors. An optimum combination of bonding parameters based on the fundamental physics of the process was developed. This philosophy required bonding equipment to be thoroughly characterized so that the value of bonding parameters (such as force and temperature) indicated on the bonder could be translated into measurable values of the force and temperature within the bond zone.

  16. Towards Cancer Hybrid Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes Olde Loohuis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Cancer Hybrid Automata (CHAs, a formalism to model the progression of cancers through discrete phenotypes. The classification of cancer progression using discrete states like stages and hallmarks has become common in the biology literature, but primarily as an organizing principle, and not as an executable formalism. The precise computational model developed here aims to exploit this untapped potential, namely, through automatic verification of progression models (e.g., consistency, causal connections, etc., classification of unreachable or unstable states and computer-generated (individualized or universal therapy plans. The paper builds on a phenomenological approach, and as such does not need to assume a model for the biochemistry of the underlying natural progression. Rather, it abstractly models transition timings between states as well as the effects of drugs and clinical tests, and thus allows formalization of temporal statements about the progression as well as notions of timed therapies. The model proposed here is ultimately based on hybrid automata, and we show how existing controller synthesis algorithms can be generalized to CHA models, so that therapies can be generated automatically. Throughout this paper we use cancer hallmarks to represent the discrete states through which cancer progresses, but other notions of discretely or continuously varying state formalisms could also be used to derive similar therapies.

  17. Overview on hybrid propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabro, M.

    2011-10-01

    Aside of research works, this historical survey shows propulsion units used by students for small satellites and for gas generation, or those for the Space Ship One, even if LOx/HTPB was studied and tested in large motors for its potential very low cost; however, this combination highlights a series of technical problems without any performance advantage over the existing LOx/Kerosene family and never been operational for ETO applications. The particularity of hybrid propulsion is to use the state-of-the-art of both liquids and solids; the only show stopper is the propellant itself. The past work focused on LOx/HTPB (selected for its low cost) appears to be a dead-end (combustion problems and global low performances resulting from a high level of residuals). The solution that appears through the past experience is the addition of hydrides to a binder (HTPB or other) or to a binder and a homogeneous fuel or a mixture of both, with or without others additives; within these solutions some will not present any manufacturing problem and some may have a low cost. Nevertheless, the studies of the following phases have to demonstrate the compatibility of the potential regression rate range with a high-performance global design of a hybrid Motor and the manufacturing at a reasonable cost of a hydride giving a high level of performances.

  18. De Novo Centromere Formation and Centromeric Sequence Expansion in Wheat and its Wide Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Su, Handong; Shi, Qinghua; Fu, Shulan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Xiangqi; Hu, Zanmin; Han, Fangpu

    2016-04-01

    Centromeres typically contain tandem repeat sequences, but centromere function does not necessarily depend on these sequences. We identified functional centromeres with significant quantitative changes in the centromeric retrotransposons of wheat (CRW) contents in wheat aneuploids (Triticum aestivum) and the offspring of wheat wide hybrids. The CRW signals were strongly reduced or essentially lost in some wheat ditelosomic lines and in the addition lines from the wide hybrids. The total loss of the CRW sequences but the presence of CENH3 in these lines suggests that the centromeres were formed de novo. In wheat and its wide hybrids, which carry large complex genomes or no sequenced genome, we performed CENH3-ChIP-dot-blot methods alone or in combination with CENH3-ChIP-seq and identified the ectopic genomic sequences present at the new centromeres. In adcdition, the transcription of the identified DNA sequences was remarkably increased at the new centromere, suggesting that the transcription of the corresponding sequences may be associated with de novo centromere formation. Stable alien chromosomes with two and three regions containing CRW sequences induced by centromere breakage were observed in the wheat-Th. elongatum hybrid derivatives, but only one was a functional centromere. In wheat-rye (Secale cereale) hybrids, the rye centromere-specific sequences spread along the chromosome arms and may have caused centromere expansion. Frequent and significant quantitative alterations in the centromere sequence via chromosomal rearrangement have been systematically described in wheat wide hybridizations, which may affect the retention or loss of the alien chromosomes in the hybrids. Thus, the centromere behavior in wide crosses likely has an important impact on the generation of biodiversity, which ultimately has implications for speciation. PMID:27110907

  19. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  20. DNA-based hybrid catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphe

  1. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  2. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA

    2010-02-09

    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  3. Massive Hybrid Stars with Strangeness

    CERN Document Server

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki; Masuda, Kota

    2014-01-01

    How massive the hybrid stars could be is discussed by a "3-window model" proposed from a new strategy to construct the equation of state with hadron-quark transition. It is found that hybrid stars have a strong potentiality to generate a large mass compatible with two-solar-mass neutron star observations.

  4. Hybridity in Embedded Computing Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞慧群; 孙永强

    1996-01-01

    An embedded system is a system that computer is used as a component in a larger device.In this paper,we study hybridity in embedded systems and present an interval based temporal logic to express and reason about hybrid properties of such kind of systems.

  5. Microwell hybridization assay for detection of PCR products from Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strain 1008 used as an internal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, L F; Noordhoek, G T; Kunakorn, M; Mulder, S; Sterrenburg, M; Kolk, A H

    1996-01-01

    A microwell hybridization assay was developed for the detection of the PCR products from both Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria and the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis strain 1008 that is used as an internal control to monitor inhibition in the PCR based on the M. tuberculosis complex-specific insertion sequence IS6110. The test is based on specific detection with digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probes of biotinylated PCR products which are captured in a microtiter plate coated with streptavidin. The captured PCR products are hybridized separately with two probes, one specific for the PCR product from IS6110 from M. tuberculosis complex and the other specific for the PCR fragment from the modified IS6110 fragment from the recombinant M. smegmatis 1008. The microwell hybridization assay discriminates perfectly between the two types of amplicon. The amount of PCR product that can be detected by this assay is 10 times less than that which can be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. The test can be performed in 2 h. It is much faster and less laborious than Southern blot hybridization. Furthermore, the interpretation of results is objective. The assay was used with 172 clinical samples in a routine microbiology laboratory, and the results were in complete agreement with those of agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern blot hybridization. PMID:8862568

  6. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes....... Hybrid systems are also an important modeling class for nonlinear systems because a wide variety of nonlinearities are either piecewise-affine (e.g., a saturated linear actuator characteristic) or can be approximated as hybrid systems. The complexity of verifying and assessing general properties...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  7. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  8. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    The economic importance of the ornamental plant industry requires constant development of novel and high quality varieties. Traits attractive for production of new ornamental plants may not be available within the commercial cultivars, but broad genetic variation is present within the plant genera....... Interspecific hybridization is one of the most important breeding strategies to increase the genetic variation. The main difficulty in obtaining interspecific hybrids is due to occurrence of reproductive barriers. In the study, the possibilities of developing novel interspecific hybrids were studied within two...... commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...

  9. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  10. Transcription factor proteomics: identification by a novel gel mobility shift-three-dimensional electrophoresis method coupled with southwestern blot and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Daifeng; Jia, Yinshan; Jarrett, Harry W

    2011-09-28

    Transcription factor (TF) purification and identification is an important step in elucidating gene regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we present two new electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based multi-dimensional electrophoresis approaches to isolate and characterize TFs, using detection with either southwestern or western blotting and HPLC-nanoESI-MS/MS analysis for identification. These new techniques involve several major steps. First, EMSA is performed with agents that diminish non-specific DNA-binding and the DNA-protein complex is separated by native PAGE gel. The gel is then electrotransferred to PVDF membrane and visualized by autoradiography. Next, the DNA-protein complex, which has been transferred onto the blot, is extracted using a detergent-containing elution buffer. Following detergent removal, concentrated extract is separated by SDS-PAGE (EMSA-2DE), followed by in-gel trypsin digestion and HPLC-nanoESI-MS/MS analysis, or the concentrated extract is separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (EMSA-3DE), followed by southwestern or western blot analysis to localize DNA binding proteins on blot which are further identified by on-blot trypsin digestion and HPLC-nanoESI-MS/MS analysis. Finally, the identified DNA binding proteins are further validated by EMSA-immunoblotting or EMSA antibody supershift assay. This approach is used to purify and identify GFP-C/EBP fusion protein from bacterial crude extract, as well as purifying AP1 and CEBP DNA binding proteins from a human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293) nuclear extract. AP1 components, c-Jun, Jun-D, c-Fos, CREB, ATF1 and ATF2 were successfully identified from 1.5 mg of nuclear extract (equivalent to 3×10(7) HEK293 cells) with AP1 binding activity of 750 fmol. In conclusion, this new strategy of combining EMSA with additional dimensions of electrophoresis and using southwestern blotting for detection proves to be a valuable approach in the identification of transcriptional complexes

  11. Ac Hybrid Charge Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini S. Durgam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary needs for socio-economic development in any nation in the world is the provision of reliable electricity supply systems with lower carbon footprint levels. The purpose of this work is the development of a hybrid Power system that harnesses the renewable energy in sun and electricity to generate electricity. The working model can able to run on dual mode- solar and electricity. It can also be driven independently either by solar or electricity. The battery can be charge from solar panel (40W or by power supply. The household single phase A.C. power supply of 230V is converted into 12V D.C. using step down transformer and rectifying circuit. The working model can achieve energy saving, low carbon emission, environmental protection for the upcoming future of human life.

  12. Auditing Hybrid IT Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Mateescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a personal approach of auditing the hybrid IT environments consisting in both on premise and on demand services and systems. The analysis is performed from both safety and profitability perspectives and it aims to offer to strategy, technical and business teams a representation of the value added by the cloud programme within the company’s portfolio. Starting from the importance of the IT Governance in the actual business environments, we presented in the first section the main principles that drive the technology strategy in order to maximize the value added by IT assets in the business products. Section two summarizes the frameworks leveraged by our approach in order to implement the safety and profitability computation algorithms described in the third section. The paper concludes with benefits of our personal frameworks and presents the future developments.

  13. Recognition Using Hybrid Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchy, Margarita; Keren, Daniel; Raviv, Dolev

    2016-04-01

    A canonical problem in computer vision is category recognition (e.g., find all instances of human faces, cars etc., in an image). Typically, the input for training a binary classifier is a relatively small sample of positive examples, and a huge sample of negative examples, which can be very diverse, consisting of images from a large number of categories. The difficulty of the problem sharply increases with the dimension and size of the negative example set. We propose to alleviate this problem by applying a "hybrid" classifier, which replaces the negative samples by a prior, and then finds a hyperplane which separates the positive samples from this prior. The method is extended to kernel space and to an ensemble-based approach. The resulting binary classifiers achieve an identical or better classification rate than SVM, while requiring far smaller memory and lower computational complexity to train and apply. PMID:26959677

  14. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives...... in modelling continuous-time dynamics. The generalized differential action has an intuitively appealing predicate transformer semantics, which we show to be both conjunctive and monotonic. In addition, we show that differential actions blend smoothly with conventional actions in action systems, even under...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...

  15. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  16. Hybrid vehicle control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallvari, Iva; Velnati, Sashidhar; DeGroot, Kenneth P.

    2015-07-28

    A method and apparatus for heating a catalytic converter's catalyst to an efficient operating temperature in a hybrid electric vehicle when the vehicle is in a charge limited mode such as e.g., the charge depleting mode or when the vehicle's high voltage battery is otherwise charge limited. The method and apparatus determine whether a high voltage battery of the vehicle is incapable of accepting a first amount of charge associated with a first procedure to warm-up the catalyst. If it is determined that the high voltage battery is incapable of accepting the first amount of charge, a second procedure with an acceptable amount of charge is performed to warm-up the catalyst.

  17. Nanoporous hybrid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Schaefer, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomer-suspended SiO2-polyethylene glycol nanoparticles are studied as porous media electrolytes. At SiO2 volume fractions, , bracketing a critical value y ≈ 0.29, the suspensions jam and their mechanical modulus increase by more than seven orders. For >y, the mean pore diameter is close to the anion size, yet the ionic conductivity remains surprisingly high and can be understood, at all , using a simple effective medium model proposed by Maxwell. SiO 2-polyethylene glycol hybrid electrolytes are also reported to manifest attractive electrochemical stability windows (0.3-6.3 V) and to reach a steady-state interfacial impedance when in contact with metallic lithium. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Hybrid Natural Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Graham G.; Germán, Gabriel; Vázquez, J. Alberto

    2016-05-01

    We construct two simple effective field theory versions of Hybrid Natural Inflation (HNI) that illustrate the range of its phenomenological implications. The resulting inflationary sector potential, V = Δ4(1 + acos( ϕ/f)), arises naturally, with the inflaton field a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The end of inflation is triggered by a waterfall field and the conditions for this to happen are determined. Also of interest is the fact that the slow-roll parameter ɛ (and hence the tensor r) is a non-monotonic function of the field with a maximum where observables take universal values that determines the maximum possible tensor to scalar ratio r. In one of the models the inflationary scale can be as low as the electroweak scale. We explore in detail the associated HNI phenomenology, taking account of the constraints from Black Hole production, and perform a detailed fit to the Planck 2015 temperature and polarisation data.

  19. A Hybrid Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew; Christensen, Steen Hyldgaard; Botin, Lars

    This book presents a cultural perspective on scientific and technological development. As opposed to the “story-lines” of economic innovation and social construction that tend to dominate the both the popular and scholarly literature on science, technology and society (or STS, the authors offer......” on the part of many a scientist and engineer and neglect the consequences - and a hybrid imagination, connecting scientific “facts” and technological “artifacts” with cultural understanding. The book concludes with chapters on the recent transformations in the modes of scientific and technological production...... since the Second World War and the contending approaches to “greening” science and technology in relation to the global quest for sustainable development. The book is based on a series of lectures that were given by Andrew Jamison at the Danish Technological University (DTU) in 2010 and draws...

  20. Hybrid Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jianping Gene; Shih, Wei

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid light-weight heat exchanger concept has been developed that uses high-conductivity carbon-carbon (C-C) composites as the heat-transfer fins and uses conventional high-temperature metals, such as Inconel, nickel, and titanium as the parting sheets to meet leakage and structural requirements. In order to maximize thermal conductivity, the majority of carbon fiber is aligned in the fin direction resulting in 300 W/m.K or higher conductivity in the fin directions. As a result of this fiber orientation, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the C-C composite in both non-fiber directions matches well with the CTE of various high-temperature metal alloys. This allows the joining of fins and parting sheets by using high-temperature braze alloys.

  1. Hybrid Filter Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laicer, Castro; Rasimick, Brian; Green, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    Cabin environmental control is an important issue for a successful Moon mission. Due to the unique environment of the Moon, lunar dust control is one of the main problems that significantly diminishes the air quality inside spacecraft cabins. Therefore, this innovation was motivated by NASA s need to minimize the negative health impact that air-suspended lunar dust particles have on astronauts in spacecraft cabins. It is based on fabrication of a hybrid filter comprising nanofiber nonwoven layers coated on porous polymer membranes with uniform cylindrical pores. This design results in a high-efficiency gas particulate filter with low pressure drop and the ability to be easily regenerated to restore filtration performance. A hybrid filter was developed consisting of a porous membrane with uniform, micron-sized, cylindrical pore channels coated with a thin nanofiber layer. Compared to conventional filter media such as a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, this filter is designed to provide high particle efficiency, low pressure drop, and the ability to be regenerated. These membranes have well-defined micron-sized pores and can be used independently as air filters with discreet particle size cut-off, or coated with nanofiber layers for filtration of ultrafine nanoscale particles. The filter consists of a thin design intended to facilitate filter regeneration by localized air pulsing. The two main features of this invention are the concept of combining a micro-engineered straight-pore membrane with nanofibers. The micro-engineered straight pore membrane can be prepared with extremely high precision. Because the resulting membrane pores are straight and not tortuous like those found in conventional filters, the pressure drop across the filter is significantly reduced. The nanofiber layer is applied as a very thin coating to enhance filtration efficiency for fine nanoscale particles. Additionally, the thin nanofiber coating is designed to promote capture of

  2. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more powering sources/fuels. Feasibility of this technology is been proved in four wheelers and automobile giants like Toyota, Honda, and Hyundai have launched successful vehicles like Toyota prius, Honda insight etc. This technology maximizes the advantages of the two fuels and minimizes the disadvantages of the same. The best preferred hybrid pair is electric and fossil fuel. This increases the mileage of the vehicle twice the existing and also reduces the emission to half. At present, we like to explore the hybrid technology in the two wheeler sector and its feasibility on road. This paper deals with an attempt to make a hybrid with electric start and petrol run. Further a design of basic hybrid elements like motor, battery, and engine. As on today, hybrid products are one of the best solutions for all pollution hazards at a fairly nominal price. An investment within the means of a common man that guarantees a better environment to live in.

  3. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  4. Hybrid computing - Generalities and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This note presents the content of a research thesis. It describes the evolution of hybrid computing systems, discusses the benefits and shortcomings of analogue or hybrid systems, discusses the building up of an hybrid system (requires properties), comments different possible uses, addresses the issues of language and programming, discusses analysis methods and scopes of application. An appendix proposes a bibliography on these issues and notably the different scopes of application (simulation, fluid dynamics, biology, chemistry, electronics, energy, errors, space, programming languages, hardware, mechanics, and optimisation of equations or processes, physics)

  5. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  6. Hybrid Rocket Propulsion for Sounding Rocket Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of the H-225K hybrid rocket motor, produced by the American Rocket Company, is given. The H-225K motor is presented in terms of the following topics: (1) hybrid rocket fundamentals; (2) hybrid characteristics; and (3) hybrid advantages.

  7. Design Procedure for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Tjelflaat, Per Olaf

    Mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately during many years. The natural next step in this development is development of ventilation concepts that utilises and combines the best features from each system into a new type of ventilation system - Hybrid Ventilation....... Buildings with hybrid ventilation often include other sustainable technologies and an energy optimisation requires an integrated approach in the design of the building and its mechanical systems. Therefore, the hybrid ventilation design procedure differs from the design procedure for conventional HVAC....... The first ideas on a design procedure for hybrid ventilation is presented and the different types of design methods, that is needed in different phases of the design process, is discussed....

  8. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  9. A hybrid Brayton engine concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Elkins, R.

    1980-01-01

    A first generation open cycle Brayton engine concept for use in full scale solar module testing was defined. The concept extended to include solar/fossil hybrid capability. The combustion system defined for hybrid operation consists of a wide range combustor liner, a single airblast atomizer, an ignitor and a high-voltage ignition unit. Wide range combustor operation would be achieved through combining pilot and primary zones. The hybrid control mode and the solar only control mode are both based on the concept of maintaining constant turbine inlet temperature and varying the engine speed for part-power operation. In addition, the hybrid control concept will allow the operator to set a minimum thermal power input to the engine by setting a corresponding minimum engine speed. When the solar thermal power input falls below this minimum, fossil fuel would be utilized to augment the solar thermal power input.

  10. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  11. Towards Modelling of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal

    2006-01-01

    The article is an attempt to use methods of category theory and topology for analysis of hybrid systems. We use the notion of a directed topological space; it is a topological space together with a set of privileged paths. Dynamical systems are examples of directed topological spaces. A hybrid...... system consists of a number of dynamical systems that are glued together according to information encoded in the discrete part of the system. We develop a definition of a hybrid system as a functor from the category generated by a transition system to the category of directed topological spaces. Its...... directed homotopy colimit (geometric realization) is a single directed topological space. The behavior of hybrid systems can be then understood in terms of the behavior of dynamical systems through the directed homotopy colimit....

  12. Annular Hybrid Rocket Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engineers at SpaceDev have conducted a preliminary design and analysis of a proprietary annular design concept for a hybrid motor. A U.S. Patent application has...

  13. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C; Zhou, S.; Miller, J. C.; Cox, I J; Chain, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by local spreading, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and global spreading, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemic...

  14. RHO—Radiation Hybrid Ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Dor, Amir; Chor, Benny; Pelleg, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is a somatic cell technique that is used for ordering markers along a chromosome and estimating the physical distances between them. With the advent of this mapping technique, analyzing the experimental data is becoming a challenging and demanding computational task. In this paper we present the software package RHO (radiation hybrid ordering). The package implements a number of heuristics that attempt to order genomic markers along a chromosome, given as input t...

  15. Hybrid systems controller design methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Pluska, Michal; Sinclair, David

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed Around ninety percent of vehicle innovations are driven mainly by electronics. The software implementing control algorithms combines the sensor values and calculates some meaningful actuator signals. On the other hand software in the vehicle can be seen as a part of a hybrid system. The hybrid system is a dynamic system that can have both continuous and discrete dynamic behaviour, its mean a system is described by both a differential equation and a difference equation. Moreov...

  16. Analysing hybrid drive system topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Jonasson, Karin

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis a simulation model is presented that enables a comparison of different hybrid topologies, with respect to fuel consumption, emissions and performance. The obtained results stress the properties of the different topologies and form a foundation for the choice of hybrid topology. The simulation models included in this thesis are the result of collaboration with Petter Strandh at the Division of Combustion Engines, Department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund University. The stu...

  17. Fabrication of Hybrid Petroelectric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    G. Adinarayana; Ch. Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In automobile sector, the need for alternative fuel as a replacement of conventional fossil fuel, due to its depletion and amount of emission has given way for new technologies like Fuel cells vehicles, Electric vehicles. Still a lot of advancement has to take place in these technologies for commercialization. The gap between the current fossil fuel technology and zero emission vehicles can be bridged by hybrid technology. Hybrid vehicles are those which can run on two or more...

  18. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  19. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  20. Hybrid Power Management (HPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s Avionics, Power and Communications Branch of the Engineering and Systems Division initiated the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program for the GRC Technology Transfer and Partnership Office. HPM is the innovative integration of diverse, state-of-the-art power devices in an optimal configuration for space and terrestrial applications. The appropriate application and control of the various power devices significantly improves overall system performance and efficiency. The advanced power devices include ultracapacitors and fuel cells. HPM has extremely wide potential. Applications include power generation, transportation systems, biotechnology systems, and space power systems. HPM has the potential to significantly alleviate global energy concerns, improve the environment, and stimulate the economy. One of the unique power devices being utilized by HPM for energy storage is the ultracapacitor. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy storage device, which has extremely high volumetric capacitance energy due to high surface area electrodes, and very small electrode separation. Ultracapacitors are a reliable, long life, maintenance free, energy storage system. This flexible operating system can be applied to all power systems to significantly improve system efficiency, reliability, and performance. There are many existing and conceptual applications of HPM.

  1. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  2. Hybrid power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  3. Optimal control of hybrid vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Jager, Bram; Kessels, John

    2013-01-01

    Optimal Control of Hybrid Vehicles provides a description of power train control for hybrid vehicles. The background, environmental motivation and control challenges associated with hybrid vehicles are introduced. The text includes mathematical models for all relevant components in the hybrid power train. The power split problem in hybrid power trains is formally described and several numerical solutions detailed, including dynamic programming and a novel solution for state-constrained optimal control problems based on Pontryagin’s maximum principle.   Real-time-implementable strategies that can approximate the optimal solution closely are dealt with in depth. Several approaches are discussed and compared, including a state-of-the-art strategy which is adaptive for vehicle conditions like velocity and mass. Two case studies are included in the book: ·        a control strategy for a micro-hybrid power train; and ·        experimental results obtained with a real-time strategy implemented in...

  4. Combined Detection of Breast Cancer Micrometastases in the Lymph Nodes and Bone Marrow Using Reverse-transcriptase chain Reaction and Southern Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The presence of lymph nodes and bone marrow micrometastases of patients with breast carcinoma by immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods has been strongly correlated to early recurrence and shorter overall survival. The aim of this study was to detect micrometastases in matched sample pairs of lymph nodes and the bone marrow of primary breast cancer patients using a more sensitive method, and compare with other clinical parameters. Methods: Cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) gene mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot hybridization. Human breast cancer cell line T47D was mixed with bone marrow cells at different proportions. The positive detection rate was compared among RT-PCR, Southern blotting and IHC methods. Results: Cytokeratin 19 gene was expressed in all 6 positive control samples, while the expression wasn't seen in 18 negative control samples. CK-19 IHC positive cells were detected at a dilution of one T47D cell in 5×105 bone marrow cells, while the sensitivity detected by PCR and Southern blot hybridization was at 1:5′ 104 and 1:106, respectively. In the samples from the 35 patients, we found CK-19 positive cells in 2 cases (5.7%) by IHC. CK-19 gene expression signal was detected in 14/35 (40%) by RT-PCR,and 17/35 (48.6%) by southern blotting. Four cases were micrometastases positive both in lymph node and bone marrow (11.4%). There was no correlation between CK-1 9 detection and other clinical parameters. Conclusion: combined detection of micrometastases in lymph node and bone marrow by RT-PCR and Southern blotting, using CK-19 as a biological marker, is a highly sensitive method for breast cancer.

  5. Fiber reinforced hybrid phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Amit

    Hybrid composites in recent times have been developed by using more than one type of fiber reinforcement to bestow synergistic properties of the chosen filler and matrix and also facilitating the design of materials with specific properties matched to end use. However, the studies for hybrid foams have been very limited because of problems related to fiber dispersion in matrix, non uniform mixing due to presence of more than one filler and partially cured foams. An effective approach to synthesize hybrid phenolic foam has been proposed and investigated here. Hybrid composite phenolic foams were reinforced with chopped glass and aramid fibers in varied proportions. On assessing mechanical properties in compression and shear several interesting facts surfaced but overall hybrid phenolic foams exhibited a more graceful failure, greater resistance to cracking and were significantly stiffer and stronger than foams with only glass and aramid fibers. The optimum fiber ratio for the reinforced hybrid phenolic foam system was found to be 1:1 ratio of glass to aramid fibers. Also, the properties of hybrid foam were found to deviate from rule of mixture (ROM) and thus the existing theories of fiber reinforcement fell short in explaining their complex behavior. In an attempt to describe and predict mechanical behavior of hybrid foams a statistical design tool using analysis of variance technique was employed. The utilization of a statistical model for predicting foam properties was found to be an appropriate tool that affords a global perspective of the influence of process variables such as fiber weight fraction, fiber length etc. on foam properties (elastic modulus and strength). Similar approach could be extended to study other fiber composite foam systems such as polyurethane, epoxy etc. and doing so will reduce the number of experimental iterations needed to optimize foam properties and identify critical process variables. Diffusivity, accelerated aging and flammability

  6. Fuel Consumption Reduction By Use Of Hybrid Drive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Renken, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Vehicles with hybrid drive systems are characterized by their driving dynamics, their energy efficiency and their environment-friendliness especially. Dependent on the electrical power and the drive train structure these hybrid drives are grouped into different classes. Designations such as micro-hybrid, mild- hybrid, full-hybrid, serial-hybrid, serial/parallel-hybrid or power-split-hybrid reflect the large variance of these different drive train possibilities. In hybrid drive systems electro...

  7. Two quality-associated HMW glutenin subunits in a somatic hybrid line between Triticum aestivum and Agropyron elongatum

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Deshun; Xia, Guangmin; Zhao, Shuangyi; Chen, Fanguo

    2004-01-01

    High-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) from hybrid line II-12 between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Agropyron elongatum (Host) Nivski were characterized with SDS-PAGE. Out of these HMW-GSs, two subunits, h1Bx and h1By, had mobilities similar to the subunits 1Bx13 and 1By16 from common wheat 4072, which was used as control. Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) of h1Bx and h1By were prepared, and Western blotting showed that the pAbs had strong affinities for h1Bx and h1By, separately. Th...

  8. Molecular characterization of a novel human hybrid-type receptor that binds the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Linda; Madsen, P; Moestrup, S K;

    1996-01-01

    but not in several major organs. Both RAP and an antibody against a synthetic peptide derived from a sequence determined in the mature protein detected sorLA-1 in crude human brain extracts. The domain structure suggests that sorLA-1 is an endocytic receptor possibly implicated in the uptake of lipoproteins...... density lipoprotein receptor gene family receptors, and 3) six tandemly arranged fibronectin type III repeats also found in certain neural adhesion proteins. sorLA-1 may therefore be classified as a hybrid receptor. Northern blotting revealed specific mRNA transcripts in brain, spinal cord, and testis...

  9. Hybridization in a warmer world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunco, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is profoundly affecting the evolutionary trajectory of individual species and ecological communities, in part through the creation of novel species assemblages. How climate change will influence competitive interactions has been an active area of research. Far less attention, however, has been given to altered reproductive interactions. Yet, reproductive interactions between formerly isolated species are inevitable as populations shift geographically and temporally as a result of climate change, potentially resulting in introgression, speciation, or even extinction. The susceptibility of hybridization rates to anthropogenic disturbance was first recognized in the 1930s. To date, work on anthropogenically mediated hybridization has focused primarily on either physical habitat disturbance or species invasion. Here, I review recent literature on hybridization to identify how ecological responses to climate change will increase the likelihood of hybridization via the dissolution of species barriers maintained by habitat, time, or behavior. Using this literature, I identify several cases where novel hybrid zones have recently formed, likely as a result of changing climate. Future research should focus on identifying areas and taxonomic groups where reproductive species interactions are most likely to be influenced by climate change. Furthermore, a better understanding of the evolutionary consequences of climate-mediated secondary contact is urgently needed. Paradoxically, hybridization is both a major conservation concern and an important source of novel genetic and phenotypic variation. Hybridization may therefore both contribute to increasing rates of extinction and stimulate the creation of novel phenotypes that will speed adaptation to novel climates. Predicting which result will occur following secondary contact will be an important contribution to conservation for many species.

  10. Development of a dot blot assay with antibodies to recombinant “core” 14-3-3 protein: Evaluation of its usefulness in diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD requires demonstration of infective prion protein (PrPSc in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry or immunoblot, making antemortem diagnosis of CJD difficult. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of dementia, with clinical correlation, as a useful diagnostic marker for CJD, obviating the need for brain biopsy.This facility is currently available in only a few specialized centers in the West and no commercial kit is available for clinical diagnostic use in India. Hence the objective of this study was to develop an in-house sensitive assay for quantitation of 14-3-3 protein and to evaluate its diagnostic potential to detect 14-3-3 proteins in CSF as a biomarker in suspected cases of CJD. Materials and Methods: A minigene expressing the “core” 14-3-3 protein was synthesized by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the recombinant protein was produced by employing a bacterial expression system. Polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit against the purified recombinant protein were used for developing a dot blot assay with avidin-biotin technology for signal amplification and quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF. Results: The results in the present study suggest the diagnostic potential of the dot blot method with about 10-fold difference (P< 0.001 in the CSF levels of 14-3-3 protein between the CJD cases (N= 50 and disease controls (N= 70. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis of the results suggested an optimal cutoff value of 2 ng/mL. Conclusions: We have developed an indigenous, economical, and sensitive dot blot method for the quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF.

  11. Fission fusion hybrids- recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2012-03-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power, and can do this at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant- so it could be a nearer term application. For waste incineration, hybrids can burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs) with far fewer hybrid reactors than a comparable system within the realm of fission alone. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for ˜4 times as many LWRs with NO fuel reprocessing. For both waste incineration or fuel production, the most severe kind of nuclear accident- runaway criticality- can be excluded, unlike either fast reactors or typical accelerator based reactors. The proliferation risks for hybrid fuel production are, we strongly believe, far less than any other fuel production method, including today's gas centrifuges. US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ˜ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  12. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  13. Mechanical and thermal design of hybrid blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal and mechanical aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design considerations are discussed. This paper is intended as a companion to that of J. D. Lee of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the nuclear aspects of hybrid reactor blanket design. The major design characteristics of hybrid reactor blankets are discussed with emphasis on the areas of difference between hybrid reactors and standard fusion or fission reactors. Specific examples are used to illustrate the design tradeoffs and choices that must be made in hybrid reactor design. These examples are drawn from the work on the Mirror Hybrid Reactor

  14. Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.

  15. DNA-based hybrid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioz-Martínez, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, DNA-based hybrid catalysis has merged as a promising novel approach to homogeneous (asymmetric) catalysis. A DNA hybrid catalysts comprises a transition metal complex that is covalently or supramolecularly bound to DNA. The chiral microenvironment and the second coordination sphere interactions provided by the DNA are key to achieve high enantioselectivities and, often, additional rate accelerations in catalysis. Nowadays, current efforts are focused on improved designs, understanding the origin of the enantioselectivity and DNA-induced rate accelerations, expanding the catalytic scope of the concept and further increasing the practicality of the method for applications in synthesis. Herein, the recent developments will be reviewed and the perspectives for the emerging field of DNA-based hybrid catalysis will be discussed.

  16. New Supercapacitors of Hybrid Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Naoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the improvement of the energydensity of nano-composite battery materials hasbeen object of great study. Hybridizing battery andcapacitor materials overcome the energy densitylimitation of existing generation-I capacitors withoutmuch sacrificing the cycling performances. Normalbattery-capacitor hybrids employ high-energy &sluggish redox electrode and low-energy & fastdouble-layer electrodes, possibly producing a largerworking voltage and higher over-all capacitance. Inorder to smoothly operate such asymmetric systems,however, the rates of the two different electrodes mustbe highly balanced. Especially, the redox rates of thebattery electrodes must be substantially increasedto the levels of double-layer process. In this report,we attempt to identify the essential issues for therealizable hybrids and suggest ways to overcomethe rate enhancement by exemplifying ultrafastperformance of the Li4Ti5O12 nanocrystal preparedvia a unique in-situ material processing technologyunder ultra-centrifuging.

  17. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  19. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification efficiency after on-blot or in-gel digestion with and without desalting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, S; Jungblut, P R

    2001-03-10

    In theory, peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has the potential to identify all of the proteins detected by silver staining on gels. In practice, if the genome of the organism investigated is completely sequenced, using current techniques, all proteins stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue can be identified. This loss of identification sensitivity of ten to hundred-fold is caused by loss of peptides by surface contacts. Therefore, we performed digestion and transfer of peptides in the lower microl range and reduced the number of steps. The peptide mix obtained from in-gel or on-blot digestion was analyzed directly after digestion or after concentration on POROS R2 beads. Eight protein spots of a 2-DE gel from Mycobacterium bovis BCG were identified using these four preparation procedures for MALDI-MS. Overall, on-blot digestion was as effective as in-gel digestion. Whereas higher signal intensities resulted after concentration, hydrophilic peptides are better detected by direct measurement of the peptide mix without POROS R2 concentration.

  20. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  1. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  2. Hybrid biotic/abiotic nanofactory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.-J.; Montemagno, C. D.

    2006-03-01

    In vitro biochemical synthesis is considered a major challenge in replicating cellular functions in engineered systems. Presented is the first nanosized hybrid factory where biochemical reactions take place resulting in the production of biomolecules. A cellular ATP synthesis process is reconstructed in vitro within a bubble architecture using engineered artificial organelles. This is the first introduction of biochemical synthesis from a multiprotein polymersome system and the demonstration of complex proteins' stable functionality in an artificial structure. This hybrid system is expected to have wide application in a number of fields ranging from the in vitro investigation of cellular metabolism to the synthesis of a new class of functional materials.

  3. Optical Hybrid Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Furusawa, Akira

    Historically, two complementary approaches to optical quantum information processing have been pursued: qubits and continuous-variables, each exploiting either particle or wave nature of light. However, both approaches have pros and cons. In recent years, there has been a significant progress in combining both approaches with a view to realizing hybrid protocols that overcome the current limitations. In this chapter, we first review the development of the two approaches with a special focus on quantum teleportation and its applications. We then introduce our recent research progress in realizing quantum teleportation by a hybrid scheme, and mention its future applications to universal and fault-tolerant quantum information processing.

  4. Wind-Solar Hybrid Streetlights

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangchen

    2015-01-01

    The wind and solar energy are called green energies. They have many advantages and have become important newly arisen energy types. When using wind and solar energy alone, they greatly depend on the weather. But the wind-solar hybrid system can make up for this disadvantage, because it can effectively use the solar energy when daytime and summer, and the wind energy when night and winter. The wind-solar hybrid system was designed in this thesis.This system uses an AC bus.It is permitted t...

  5. Heavy gravitino in hybrid inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that supersymmetric hybrid inflation model may require severe tunings on the initial condition for large gravitino mass of order 100 - 1000 TeV due to the constant term in the superpotential. We propose a modified hybrid inflation model, where the constant term is suppressed during inflation and generated after inflation by replacing a constant term with dynamical field. In this modified model, successful inflation consistent with large gravitino mass takes place without severe tunings on the initial condition. Constraint from cosmic strings is also relaxed

  6. Apomixis and F1 hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apomixis, or asexual reproduction through seeds, has the potential to revolutionize crop production worldwide. It can maximize production through fixation of hybrid vigour and greatly simplify the hybrid seed production process. Genes controlling apomixis are being transferred by traditional backcrossing methods from wild to cultivated species in maize, wheat and pearl millet. Progress is being made in developing molecular markers and maps so that the gene(s) controlling apomixis can be cloned and transferred to any sexual species. Increased emphasis on apomixis by a number of research programmes around the world is helping to develop this reproductive mechanism as an important plant breeding tool. (author). 18 refs

  7. Charge Qubit-Atom Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Deshui; Hufnagel, C; Kwek, L C; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, R

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a novel hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  8. Charge-qubit-atom hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deshui; Valado, María Martínez; Hufnagel, Christoph; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Amico, Luigi; Dumke, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a hybrid system of a superconducting charge qubit interacting directly with a single neutral atom via electric dipole coupling. Interfacing of the macroscopic superconducting circuit with the microscopic atomic system is accomplished by varying the gate capacitance of the charge qubit. To achieve a strong interaction, we employ two Rydberg states with an electric-dipole-allowed transition, which alters the polarizability of the dielectric medium of the gate capacitor. Sweeping the gate voltage with different rates leads to a precise control of hybrid quantum states. Furthermore, we show a possible implementation of a universal two-qubit gate.

  9. Towards an expansive hybrid psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    2011-01-01

    This article develops an integrative theory of the mind by examining how the mind, understood as a set of skills and dispositions, depends upon four sources of mediators. Harré’s hybrid psychology is taken as a meta-theoretical starting point, but is expanded significantly by including the four...... sources of mediators that are the brain, the body, social practices and technological artefacts. It is argued that the mind is normative in the sense that mental processes do not simply happen, but can be done more or less well, and thus are subject to normative appraisal. The expanded hybrid psychology...

  10. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH......Compressed bitmap indexes are increasingly used for efficiently querying very large and complex databases. The Word Aligned Hybrid (WAH) bitmap compression scheme is commonly recognized as the most efficient compression scheme in terms of CPU efficiency. However, WAH compressed bitmaps use a lot...

  11. Hybrid winding concept for toroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid winding concept for toroids using the traces in a printed circuit board to make connection to bended copper foil cutouts. In a final product a number of strips with a certain thickness would be held by a former and the whole assembly could be placed by pick...... and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...

  12. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, R.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  13. Hybrid Power Management System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system and method for hybrid power management. The system includes photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and pulse generators. In one embodiment, the hybrid power management system is used to provide power for a highway safety flasher.

  14. Field Errors in Hybrid Insertion Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  15. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  16. Distant hybridization leads to different ploidy fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Distant hybridization makes it possible to transfer the genome of one species to another, which results in changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the progenies. This study shows that distant hybridization or the combination of this method with gynogenesis or androgenesis lead to different ploidy fishes with genetic variation, including fertile tetraploid hybrids, sterile triploid hybrids, fertile diploid hybrids, fertile diploid gynogenetic fish, and their derived progenies. The formations of the different ploidy fishes depend on the genetic relationship between the parents. In this study, several types of distant hybridization, including red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) (2n=100, abbreviated as RCC) (♀)×common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) (2n=100, abbreviated as CC) (♂), and RCC (2n=100) (♀)×blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) (2n=48, abbreviated as BSB) (♂) are described. In the distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×CC (♂), bisexual fertile F3–F18 allotetraploid hybrids (4n=200, abbreviated as 4nAT) were formed. The diploid hybrid eggs and diploid sperm generated by the females and males of 4nAT developed into diploid gynogenetic hybrids and diploid androgenetic hybrids, respectively, by gynogenesis and androgenesis, without treatment for doubling the chromosome. Improved tetraploid hybrids and improved diploid fishes with genetic variation were derived from the gynogenetic hybrid line. The improved diploid fishes included the high-body RCC and high-body goldfish. The formation of the tetraploid hybrids was related to the occurrence of unreduced gametes generated from the diploid hybrids, which involved in premeiotic endoreduplication, endomitosis, or fusion of germ cells. The sterile triploid hybrids (3n=150) were produced on a large scale by crossing the males of tetraploid hybrids with females of diploid fish (2n=100). In another distant hybridization of RCC (♀)×BSB (♂), different ploidy fishes were obtained, including

  17. Bromodeoxyuridine combined with UV light and gamma irradiation promotes the production of asymmetric somatic hybrid calli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree of gamma‐ or X‐ray‐induced donor chromosome elimination in asymmetric somatic hybrids is highly variable. Here the beneficial use of bromodeoxyuridine and UV light as additional chromosome destabilizing agents is described. Protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum were fused with protoplasts of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (Np) that carried the kanamycin‐resistance and glucuronidase (GUS) genes on separate chromosomes. Prior to fusion, the Np donor protoplasts were pretreated with bromodeoxyuridine and then were inactivated by treatment with iodoacetate ± UV light ± 200 Gy gamma irradiation. Hybrids were selected on medium containing kanamycin. The elimination of Np DNA was assessed by scoring of the fraction of hybrid calli that expressed GUS and by dot‐blot analysis using a Np‐specific probe. gamma irradiation alone resulted in elimination of 50% of Np DNA. Pretreatment with bromodeoxyuridine (10 μM) followed by 2.5 to 5 min UV light resulted in the elimination of 35–45% of the donor genome, but incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (10 μM) followed by 2,5 to 5 min UV light and 200 Gy gamma irradiation resulted in 85 to 90% elimination of Np DNA

  18. Hybrid reactors: nuclear breeding or energy production?

    OpenAIRE

    Piera, Mireia; Lafuente Mazuecos, Antonio; Abánades Velasco, Alberto; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion–fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-...

  19. Global Optimization with Hybrid Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir, Hassan Abdullahi

    2014-01-01

    An investigation has been made into hybrid systems which include stochastic and deterministic optimization. This thesis aims to provide new and relevant insights into the design of the nature-inspired hybrid optimization paradigms. It combines evolutionary and gradient-based methods. These hybrid evolutionary methods yield improved performance when applied to complex global optimization tasks and recent research has shown many of such hybridization policies.The thesis has three broad contribu...

  20. Metabolic costs of hybridization in newts

    OpenAIRE

    Gvoždík, L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterospecific hybrids often suffer from a lowered fitness relative to parental species. Contextdependent intrinsic costs of hybridization are partially due to a malfunction in cell biochemical machinery that affects metabolic rates at the organismal level. This study examines whether heterospecific hybridization influences the metabolic costs of maintenance in F1 hybrids between closely related newts, Triturus carnifex and T. dobrogicus. When controlled for body size, oxygen consumption in h...

  1. Detection of MYCN Gene Amplification in Neuroblastoma by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: A Pediatric Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mathew

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for analysis of MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma, we compared this assay with Southern blot analysis using tumor specimens collected from 232 patients with presenting characteristics typical of this disease. The FISH technique identified MYCN amplification in 47 cases, compared with 39 by Southern blotting, thus increasing the total number of positive cases by 21%. The major cause of discordancy was a low fraction of tumor cells (≤30% replacement in clinical specimens, which prevented an accurate estimate of MYCN copy number by Southern blotting. With FISH, by contrast, it was possible to analyze multiple interphase nuclei of tumor cells, regardless of the proportion of normal peripheral blood, bone marrow, or stromal cells in clinical samples. Thus, FISH could be performed accurately with very small numbers of tumor cells from touch preparations of needle biopsies. Moreover, this procedure allowed us to discern the heterogeneous pattern of MYCN amplification that is characteristic of neuroblastoma. We conclude that FISH improves the detection of MYCN gene amplification in childhood neuroblastomas in a clinical setting, thus facilitating therapeutic decisions based on the presence or absence of this prognostically important biologic marker.

  2. Hybrid Cars Now, Fuel Cell Cars Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdöven, Nurettin; Deutch, John

    2004-08-01

    We compare the energy efficiency of hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as well as conventional internal combustion engines. Our analysis indicates that fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen from fossil fuels offer no significant energy efficiency advantage over hybrid vehicles operating in an urban drive cycle. We conclude that priority should be placed on hybrid vehicles by industry and government.

  3. Generating series for bilinear hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petreczky, M.; Schuppen, J.H. van

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the novel concept of a hybrid generating series and show that continuous state and output trajectories of bilinear hybrid systems can be described in terms of these series. The results represent an extension of the Fliess-series expansion for bilinear systems to hybrid sys

  4. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  5. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  6. Internal combustion engines in hybrid vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, S.; Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Beckman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the use of internal combustion engines in hybrid powertrains is investigated. The substantial difference between the use of internal combustion engines in conventional and in hybrid vehicles mean that engines for hybrid vehicles should be designed specifically for the purpose. At the T

  7. Organic and hybrid solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a comprehensive evaluation of organic and hybrid solar cells and identifies their fundamental principles and numerous applications. Great attention is given to the charge transport mechanism, donor and acceptor materials, interfacial materials, alternative electrodes, device engineering and physics, and device stability. The authors provide an industrial perspective on the future of photovoltaic technologies.

  8. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia;

    2014-01-01

    found in propositional and first-order hybrid logic, and (as is usual inhybrid logic) we automatically obtain a wide range of completeness results for stronger logics and languages. Our approach is deliberately low-tech. We don’t, for example, make use of Montague’s intensional type s, or Fitting...

  9. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  10. A HYBRID DYNAMIC PROGRAM SLICING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Tong; Wu Fangjun

    2005-01-01

    This letter proposes a hybrid method for computing dynamic program slicing. The key element is to construct a Coverage-Testing-based Dynamic Dependence Graph (CTDDG),which makes use of both dynamic and static information to get execution status. The approach overcomes the limitations of previous dynamic slicing methods, which have to redo slicing if slice criterion changes.

  11. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  12. Hybrid I/O automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, N.A.; Segala, R.; Vaandrager, F.W.; Weinberg, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new hybrid I/O automaton model that is capable of describing both continuous and discrete behavior. The model, which extends the timed I/O automaton model of Lynch et al and the phase transition system models of Manna et al, allows communication among components using both shared variab

  13. Formal Description of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chaochen; Ji, Wang; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    A language to describe hybrid systems, i.e. networks of communicating discrete and continuous processes, is proposed. A semantics of the language is given in Extended Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic with a proof system that allows reasoning in mathematical analysis about continuous...

  14. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and ∼1 S/m electrical conductivity. → New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. → The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. → A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. → The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  15. Inference in hybrid Bayesian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael;

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1980s, Bayesian Networks (BNs) have become increasingly popular for building statistical models of complex systems. This is particularly true for boolean systems, where BNs often prove to be a more efficient modelling framework than traditional reliability-techniques (like fault trees...... decade's research on inference in hybrid Bayesian networks. The discussions are linked to an example model for estimating human reliability....

  16. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma...

  17. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  18. Shape Memory Composite Hybrid Hinge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Houfei; Im, Eastwood; Lin, John; Scarborough, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    There are two conventional types of hinges for in-space deployment applications. The first type is mechanically deploying hinges. A typical mechanically deploying hinge is usually composed of several tens of components. It is complicated, heavy, and bulky. More components imply higher deployment failure probability. Due to the existence of relatively moving components among a mechanically deploying hinge, it unavoidably has microdynamic problems. The second type of conventional hinge relies on strain energy for deployment. A tape-spring hinge is a typical strain energy hinge. A fundamental problem of a strain energy hinge is that its deployment dynamic is uncontrollable. Usually, its deployment is associated with a large impact, which is unacceptable for many space applications. Some damping technologies have been experimented with to reduce the impact, but they increased the risks of an unsuccessful deployment. Coalescing strain energy components with shape memory composite (SMC) components to form a hybrid hinge is the solution. SMCs are well suited for deployable structures. A SMC is created from a high-performance fiber and a shape memory polymer resin. When the resin is heated to above its glass transition temperature, the composite becomes flexible and can be folded or packed. Once cooled to below the glass transition temperature, the composite remains in the packed state. When the structure is ready to be deployed, the SMC component is reheated to above the glass transition temperature, and it returns to its as-fabricated shape. A hybrid hinge is composed of two strain energy flanges (also called tape-springs) and one SMC tube. Two folding lines are placed on the SMC tube to avoid excessive strain on the SMC during folding. Two adapters are used to connect the hybrid hinge to its adjacent structural components. While the SMC tube is heated to above its glass transition temperature, a hybrid hinge can be folded and stays at folded status after the temperature

  19. Quantitative analysis of the IgG and IgG subclass immune responses to chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactamase in serum from patients with cystic fibrosis by western blotting and laser scanning densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O; Pressler, T;

    1996-01-01

    lung infection with P aeruginosa was further investigated by correlating the a beta ab IgG subclasses with pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass a beta ab were investigated by western blotting and quantified by laser scanning densitometry......BACKGROUND: Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) are markers of the development of resistance of P aeruginosa to beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. The role of these antibodies in patients with chronic....... A longitudinal study on 43 consecutive patients with cystic fibrosis who developed chronic lung infection with P aeruginosa was performed. RESULTS: IgG subclass a beta ab appeared in all patients with chronic infection with P aeruginosa. Eleven years after the onset of infection all the patients had IgG1, 79...

  20. Comparison analysis between Western blot method and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method detection SLE autoantibody%免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法检测SLE自身抗体的比对分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚清

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较免疫印迹法(Western blot)和磁微粒化学发光法(Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method)检测系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)自身抗体的一致性。方法:用免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法对123份血清进行检测,其中系统性红斑狼疮阳性患者63例,健康体检者60例,用卡方检验对两种方法结果进行比较分析。结果:免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法中抗Sm抗体阳性率分别为27.0%和14.3%、抗RNP/Sm阳性率分别为54.0%和42.9%、dsDNA阳性率分别为41.3%和30.2%、抗核小体抗体阳性率分别为31.7%和20.6%、抗核糖体P蛋白抗体阳性率分别为28.6%和11.1%。两种方法的准确性无显著性差异(>0.05)总符合率为80.6%,Kappa值为0.669。结论:免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法检测系统性红斑狼疮自身抗体的检测结果具有可靠性,较好的符合率和准确性,磁微粒化学发光法可以作为简便、快速、经济的检测方法应用于系统性红斑狼疮自身抗体的检测。%Objective: The present study aims to compare Western blot and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method consistency on autoimmune antibody detection of systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: Western blot assay and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method were used to detect autoimmune antibody from 123 serum samples, of which 63 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, the others from 60 healthy persons. The results of the two methods were compared by X2 test. Results: Anti-Sm antibody positive rate of Western blot and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method were 27.0 and 14.3 percent respectively. Anti- RNP/Sm antibody positive rates were 39.7% and 42.9% respectively. Anti- ds- DNA antibody positive rates were 41.3% and 30.2% respectively. Anti- nucleosome antibody positive rates were 31.7% and 20.6% respectively. Anti- ribosomal protein antibody positive rates were 28.6% and 11.1% respectively. The accuracy

  1. Collective Identity Formation in Hybrid Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulongne, Romain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    The present article examines the process of collective identity formation in the context of hybrid organizing. Empirically, we investigate hybrid organizing in a collaborative structure at the interface of two heterogeneous organizations in the domain of new renewable energies. We draw...... organizations. Our findings point to two factors that limit knowledge sharing and hence to new collective identity formation in a hybrid space: 1) ambiguous or multiple organizational roles and 2) strong identities of the collaborating organizations. These findings contribute to illuminating the initial...... formation of a new collective identity in hybrid organizing, and hence how new hybrid organizational forms may emerge non-intentionally....

  2. Stable transduction of large DNA by high-capacity adeno-associated virus/adenovirus hybrid vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viral vectors with high cloning capacity and host chromosomal integration ability are in demand for the efficient and permanent genetic modification of target cells with large DNA molecules. We have generated a hybrid gene transfer vehicle consisting of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) replicative intermediates packaged in adenovirus (Ad) capsids. This arrangement allows cell cycle-independent nuclear delivery of recombinant AAV genomes with lengths considerably above the maximum size (i.e., 4.7 kb) that can be accommodated within AAV capsids. Here we show that high-capacity AAV/Ad hybrid vector gene transfer mediates cellular genomic integration of large fragments of foreign DNA and accomplishes stable long-term transgene expression in rapidly proliferating cells. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses of chromosomal DNA extracted from clones of stably transduced cells revealed that most of them contained a single copy of the full-length hybrid vector genome with AAV inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences at both ends. The high-capacity AAV/Ad hybrid vector system can thus be used for the transfer and expression of transgenes that cannot be delivered by conventional integrating viral vectors

  3. Expression of members of immunoglobulin gene family in somatic cell hybrids between human B and T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozbor, D.; Burioni, R.; Ar-Rushdi, A.; Zmijewski, C.; Croce, C.M.

    1987-07-01

    Somatic cell hybrids were obtained between human T and B cells and tested for the expression of differentiated traits of both cell lineages. The T-cell parent SUP-T1 is CD3/sup -/, CD4/sup +/, CD1/sup +/, CD8/sup +/, is weakly positive for HLA class I determinants, and has an inversion of chromosome 14 due to a site-specific recombination event between an immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene and the joining segment of the T-cell receptor ..cap alpha.. chain. The B-cell parent, the 6-thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant mutant GM1500, is a lymphoblastoid cell line that secretes IgG2, K chains, and expresses B1, B532, and HLA class I and II antigens. All hybrids expressed characteristics of B cells (Ig/sup +/, B1/sup +/, B532/sup +/, EBNA/sup +/, HLA antigens), whereas only CD4 among the T-cell markers was expressed. The level of T-cell receptor ..beta..-chain transcript was greatly reduced and no RNA of the chimeric T-cell receptor ..cap alpha..-chain joining segment-immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region was detected. Southern blot analysis indicated that absence of T-cell differentiation markers in the hybrids was not due to chromosomal loss. Rather, some B-cell-specific factor present in the hybrids may account for the suppression.

  4. Expression of members of immunoglobulin gene family in somatic cell hybrids between human B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatic cell hybrids were obtained between human T and B cells and tested for the expression of differentiated traits of both cell lineages. The T-cell parent SUP-T1 is CD3-, CD4+, CD1+, CD8+, is weakly positive for HLA class I determinants, and has an inversion of chromosome 14 due to a site-specific recombination event between an immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene and the joining segment of the T-cell receptor α chain. The B-cell parent, the 6-thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant mutant GM1500, is a lymphoblastoid cell line that secretes IgG2, K chains, and expresses B1, B532, and HLA class I and II antigens. All hybrids expressed characteristics of B cells (Ig+, B1+, B532+, EBNA+, HLA antigens), whereas only CD4 among the T-cell markers was expressed. The level of T-cell receptor β-chain transcript was greatly reduced and no RNA of the chimeric T-cell receptor α-chain joining segment-immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region was detected. Southern blot analysis indicated that absence of T-cell differentiation markers in the hybrids was not due to chromosomal loss. Rather, some B-cell-specific factor present in the hybrids may account for the suppression

  5. Simple hybrid propulsion model for hybrid aircraft design space exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    International audience This article introduces a semi-empirical model for an electric fan and a minimalistic model for a turbofan. The electric fan model provides an easy selection of optimal characteristics based on power loading. The turbofan model has provision for power extraction, and exhibit a physical behaviour. These two models allowed exploring the performance of a hybrid-electric aircraft featuring two turbofans under the wing and one electric fan at the rear of the fuselage. Ass...

  6. Hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the developments and theoretical investigations of a fundamentally new class of microwave devices, namely, hybrid microwave oscillators with a virtual cathode, which combine the useful properties of virtual cathodes with the advantages of those traditional microwave oscillators that operate with subcritical-current beams and have a high efficiency in generating ultrarelativistic electron beams. Among such devices are the following: a hybrid diffractional microwave oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid gyro-device with a virtual cathode, a hybrid beam-plasma vircator, a hybrid gyrocon with a virtual cathode, a hybrid Cherenkov oscillator with a virtual cathode, a hybrid microwave oscillator of the 'vircator + traveling-wave tube' type, an original two-beam tube with a virtual cathode, and a klystron-like vircator

  7. Hybrid methods for cybersecurity analysis :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon,; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Early 2010 saw a signi cant change in adversarial techniques aimed at network intrusion: a shift from malware delivered via email attachments toward the use of hidden, embedded hyperlinks to initiate sequences of downloads and interactions with web sites and network servers containing malicious software. Enterprise security groups were well poised and experienced in defending the former attacks, but the new types of attacks were larger in number, more challenging to detect, dynamic in nature, and required the development of new technologies and analytic capabilities. The Hybrid LDRD project was aimed at delivering new capabilities in large-scale data modeling and analysis to enterprise security operators and analysts and understanding the challenges of detection and prevention of emerging cybersecurity threats. Leveraging previous LDRD research e orts and capabilities in large-scale relational data analysis, large-scale discrete data analysis and visualization, and streaming data analysis, new modeling and analysis capabilities were quickly brought to bear on the problems in email phishing and spear phishing attacks in the Sandia enterprise security operational groups at the onset of the Hybrid project. As part of this project, a software development and deployment framework was created within the security analyst work ow tool sets to facilitate the delivery and testing of new capabilities as they became available, and machine learning algorithms were developed to address the challenge of dynamic threats. Furthermore, researchers from the Hybrid project were embedded in the security analyst groups for almost a full year, engaged in daily operational activities and routines, creating an atmosphere of trust and collaboration between the researchers and security personnel. The Hybrid project has altered the way that research ideas can be incorporated into the production environments of Sandias enterprise security groups, reducing time to deployment from months and

  8. Detection and identification of entamoeba species in stool samples by a reverse line hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jaco J; Laeijendecker, Daphne; Brienen, Eric A T; van Lieshout, Lisette; Polderman, Anton M

    2003-11-01

    Classically, detection of Entamoeba histolytica is performed by microscopic examination for characteristic cysts and/or trophozoites in fecal preparations. Differentiation of E. histolytica cysts and those of nonpathogenic amoebic species is made on the basis of the appearance and the size of the cysts. However, by classical means objective tools for confirmation and quality control do not exist. Therefore, a reverse line blot hybridization assay was developed to detect a variety of Entamoeba species and genetic variants known to infect humans. The assay was performed after amplification with general Entamoeba-specific primers. The assay could identify four genetic variants of Entamoeba polecki-like cysts as well as E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba moshkovskii and Entamoeba coli and even mixed infections in a range of controls and fecal samples. This technique can be used as an additional standard for diagnosis, epidemiology, and quality control for amoebic infections. PMID:14605136

  9. DETECTION OF STRAND BREAKS OF DNA IN HUMAN EARLY CHORIONIC VILLUS CELLS INDUCED BY DIAGNOSTIC ULTRASOUND USING 32p-LABELED ALU HYBRIDIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Caifeng; Li Xu; Zhang Yunjing

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore if strand breaks of DNA in human early chorionic villus cells in uterus were induced by diagnostic ultrasound and to evaluate the method used for detection of single-stranded breaks and doublestranded breaks in human DNA. Methods 60 normal pregnant women aged 20-30, who underwent artificial abortion during 6-8 weeks of gestation, were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups: All 30 cases were exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in uterus for 10 minutes, and 24 hours later chorionic villi were extracted; the other 30 cases were taken as the control group. Single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA in villus cells in all cases were isolated by the alkaline unwinding combined with hydroxylapatite chromatography, and were quantitatively detected using32 P-labeled Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization. Results There was no significant difference in quantity and percentage in single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA between 2 groups (P>0.05). 32 P-Alu probe could only hybridize with human DNA, and could detect DNA isolated from as few as 2.5 × 103 chorionic villus cells and 0.45 ng DNA in human leukocytes. Conclusion The results suggested that there were no DNA strand damages in human chorionic villus cells when the uterus was exposed to diagnostic ultrasound for 10 minutes. The method, 32P-Alu probe for dot-blotting hybridization, was even more specific, sensitive and accurate than conventional approaches.

  10. Enhancing disease resistances of Super Hybrid Rice with four antifungal genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU HuaChen; XU XinPing; XIAO GuoYing; YUAN LongPing; LI BaoJian

    2007-01-01

    A plant expression vector harboring four antifungal genes was delivered into the embryogenic calli of '9311', an indica restorer line of Super Hybrid Rice, via modified biolistic particle bombardment. Southern blot analysis indicated that in the regenerated hygromycin-resistant plants, all the four antifungal genes, including RCH10, RAC22, β-Glu and B-RIP, were integrated into the genome of '9311', co-transmitted altogether with the marker gene hpt in a Mendelian pattern. Some transgenic R1 and R2 progenies, with all transgenes displaying a normal expression level in the Northern blot analysis, showed high resistance to Magnaporthe grisea when tested in the typical blast nurseries located in Yanxi and Sanya respectively. Furthermore, transgenic F1 plants, resulting from a cross of R2 homozygous lines with high resistance to rice blast with the non-transgenic male sterile line Peiai 64S, showed not only high resistance to M. grisea but also enhanced resistance to rice false smut (a disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens) and rice kernel smut (another disease caused by Tilletia barclayana).

  11. Enhancing disease resistances of Super Hybrid Rice with four antifungal genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A plant expression vector harboring four antifungal genes was delivered into the embryogenic calli of ‘9311’, an indica restorer line of Super Hybrid Rice, via modified biolistic particle bombardment. Southern blot analysis indicated that in the regenerated hygromycin-resistant plants, all the four anti-fungal genes, including RCH10, RAC22, β-Glu and B-RIP, were integrated into the genome of ‘9311’, co-transmitted altogether with the marker gene hpt in a Mendelian pattern. Some transgenic R1 and R2 progenies, with all transgenes displaying a normal expression level in the Northern blot analysis, showed high resistance to Magnaporthe grisea when tested in the typical blast nurseries located in Yanxi and Sanya respectively. Furthermore, transgenic F1 plants, resulting from a cross of R2 homo-zygous lines with high resistance to rice blast with the non-transgenic male sterile line Peiai 64S, showed not only high resistance to M. grisea but also enhanced resistance to rice false smut (a disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens) and rice kernel smut (another disease caused by Tilletia barclayana).

  12. Diesel Hybrid. The next generation of hybrid powertrains by Mercedes-Benz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Uwe; Goedecke, Tobias; Weiss, Michael; Enderle, Christian; Henning, Gerhard [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The next generation of hybrid system by Mercedes-Benz combines a parallel hybrid with a 4-cylinder diesel engine. The newly developed hybrid transmission is based on the 7G-TRONIC PLUS transmission and the vast experience of former hybrid projects within the company. Most applications of hybrid powertrains are focused on gasoline engines. These hybrid systems achieve a huge reduction in fuel consumption. However the conventional powertrains are also undergoing tremendous efforts to increase fuel efficiency. As a consequence thereof a diesel parallel hybrid system was developed. The combination of the 7G-TRONIC Hybrid and the 4-cylinder diesel engine OM651 a powertrain with highest fuel efficiency, flexibility and modularity has been achieved. The presentation outlines the specific characteristics of the new hybrid powertrain. Furthermore the functionality is described and the achieved fuel reductions are presented. Finally an insight into the system modularity is rounded up by an outlook on the manifold applications of the system. (orig.)

  13. Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Koivisto, Tomi S; Lobo, Francisco S N; Olmo, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the phenomenology of f(R) gravity has been scrutinized motivated by the possibility to account for the self-accelerated cosmic expansion without invoking dark energy sources. Besides, this kind of modified gravity is capable of addressing the dynamics of several self-gravitating systems alternatively to the presence of dark matter. It has been established that both metric and Palatini versions of these theories have interesting features but also manifest severe and different downsides. A hybrid combination of theories, containing elements from both these two formalisms, turns out to be also very successful accounting for the observed phenomenology and is able to avoid some drawbacks of the original approaches. This article reviews the formulation of this hybrid metric-Palatini approach and its main achievements in passing the local tests and in applications to astrophysical and cosmological scenarios, where it provides a unified approach to the problems of dark energy and dark matter.

  14. Contextual Validity in Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid tense logic is an extension of Priorean tense logic in which it is possible to refer to times using special propositional sym- bols called nominals. Temporal indexicals are expressions such as now, yesterday, today, tomorrow and four days ago that have highly context- dependent...... interpretations. Moreover, such indexicals give rise to a special kind of validity—contextual validity—that interacts with ordinary logi- cal validity in interesting and often unexpected ways. In this paper we model these interactions by combining standard techniques from hybrid logic with insights from the work...... of Hans Kamp and David Kaplan. We introduce a simple proof rule, which we call the Kamp Rule, and first we show that it is all we need to take us from logical validities involving now to contextual validities involving now too. We then go on to show that this deductive bridge is strong enough to carry us...

  15. Developing a Hybrid Graduate Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronda Sturgill

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuing need for flexibility and adaptability in the dynamic world of program development in higher education. Students today have more responsibilities and obligations outside of the classroom. Therefore, educational programs that offer alternative class meeting times and other flexible options are attractive to the nontraditional student. The purpose of this paper is to describe and demonstrate a model for a graduate program delivered by a hybrid, or blended, format. The model will be a master's degree program in exercise and nutrition science where the program is delivered through blending both face to face classroom learning and e-learning teaching methodologies. Challenges of development, lessons learned, and future recommendations will also be presented. This hybrid model is interdisciplinary and can be adapted and utilized across a variety of disciplines.

  16. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  17. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...

  18. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  19. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

  20. Hybrid Models of Tumor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A; Anderson, Alexander R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a complex, multiscale process, in which genetic mutations occurring at a subcellular level manifest themselves as functional changes at the cellular and tissue scale. The multiscale nature of cancer requires mathematical modeling approaches that can handle multiple intra- and extracellular factors acting on different time and space scales. Hybrid models provide a way to integrate both discrete and continuous variables that are used to represent individual cells and concentration or ...

  1. Hybrid Voltage Regulator for Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sei-Ichi Denda; Tadashi Takahashi; Akihiro Sawamura

    1981-01-01

    In the course of the development of hybrid voltage regulators for automobile use, increasing the reverse blocking voltage with decreasing of saturation voltage for output power darlington transistors, the capability of monolithic IC chip against surge pulses generated in cars, and an improvement of the pattern design of thick film in order to withstand temperature cycling, have been important subjects. Power darlingtons have more than 150 V of reverse voltage as well as large secondary breakd...

  2. Hybrid Materials for Integrated Photonics

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Bettotti

    2014-01-01

    In this review materials and technologies of the hybrid approach to integrated photonics (IP) are addressed. IP is nowadays a mature technology and is the most promising candidate to overcome the main limitations that electronics is facing due to the extreme level of integration it has achieved. IP will be based on silicon photonics in order to exploit the CMOS compatibility and the large infrastructures already available for the fabrication of devices. But silicon has severe limits especiall...

  3. Complex hybrid inflation and baryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine, David; Martínez, Carlos; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2007-04-20

    We propose a hybrid inflation model with a complex waterfall field which contains an interaction term that breaks the U(1) global symmetry associated with the waterfall field charge. We show that the asymmetric evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the complex field during the phase transition at the end of inflation translates into a charge asymmetry. The latter strongly depends on the vacuum expectation value of the waterfall field, which is well constrained by diverse cosmological observations.

  4. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  5. Electroactive functional hybrid layered nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destri, Giovanni Li; Torrisi, Vanna; Marletta, Giovanni [Laboratory for Molecular Surfaces and Nanotechnology (LAMSUN) - University of Catania and CSGI - Catania (Italy)

    2012-07-11

    Two methodologies to build new nanostructured hybrid layered nanocomposites are presented. The first one involves the preparation of hybrid metal/polymer nanolayers (NLs) by combining two monolayer preparation techniques: Horizontal Precipitation Langmuir Blodgett method (HP-ML), for copolymer monolayers and sputter deposition technique, for Au NLs deposition. The second methodology is aimed to prepare regular arrays of nanopores, with diameter ranging between 40-100 nm, in ultra-thin films of electroactive polymers, to obtain embedded regular arrays of nanopores filled by a further electroactive organic component. The produced hybrid MLs have been characterized by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GI-XRD). In the first case, current-voltage (I-V) measurements demonstrate that the multilayers exhibit a bipolar conduction behaviour (electrons and holes carriers), with a peculiar transition in the nature of the majority carriers (from holes to electrons) above a threshold number of bilayers. In the second case, it is found that the degree of pore filling, as well as the polymer crystallinity can be easily modulated, prompting the tuning of the photoresponse of the nanocomposites.

  6. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D. F. S.; Cruz, W. T.; Maluf, R. V.; Almeida, C. A. S.

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behavior is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behavior from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's law. The subsequent normalized solutions have diminishing contributions. Moreover, we find out that the phenomenology of the hybrid brane is not different from the usual thick domain wall. The use of numerical techniques for solving the equations of the massive modes is useful for matching possible phenomenological measurements in the gravitational law as a probe to warped extra dimensions.

  7. Energy based hybrid turbulence modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Sigfried; Moser, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Traditional hybrid approaches exhibit deficiencies when used for fluctuating smooth-wall separation and reattachment necessitating ad-hoc delaying functions and model tuning making them no longer useful as a predictive tool. Additionally, complex geometries and flows often require high cell aspect-ratios and large grid gradients as a compromise between resolution and cost. Such transitions and inconsistencies in resolution detrimentally effect the fidelity of the simulation. We present the continued development of a new hybrid RANS/LES modeling approach specifically developed to address these challenges. In general, modeled turbulence is returned to resolved scales by reduced or negative model viscosity until a balance between theoretical and actual modeled turbulent kinetic energy is attained provided the available resolution. Anisotropy in the grid and resolved field are directly integrated into this balance. A viscosity-based correction is proposed to account for resolution inhomogeneities. Both the hybrid framework and resolution gradient corrections are energy conserving through an exchange of resolved and modeled turbulence.

  8. Hybrid metric-Palatini stars

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Lobo, Francisco S N; Mak, M K

    2016-01-01

    We consider the internal structure and the physical properties of specific classes of neutron, quark and Bose-Einstein Condensate stars in the hybrid metric-Palatini gravity theory, which is a combination of the metric and Palatini $f(R)$ formalisms. The theory is very successful in accounting for the observed phenomenology, since it unifies local constraints at the Solar System level and the late-time cosmic acceleration, even if the scalar field is very light. We derive the equilibrium equations for a spherically symmetric configuration (mass continuity and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) in the framework of hybrid metric-Palatini theory, and we investigate their solutions numerically for different equations of state of neutron and quark matter, by adopting for the scalar field potential a Higgs-type form. Stellar models, described by the stiff fluid, radiation-like, the bag model and the Bose-Einstein Condensate equations of state are explicitly constructed in both General Relativity and hybrid metric-Palatini...

  9. The future of hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangraefschepe, F.; Menegazzi, P.

    2004-12-15

    This new demand from the U.S. market is being taken very seriously by key players in the field. GM and Daimler Chrysler have announced an alliance for the joint development of a hybrid vehicle scheduled to reach the market by 2007. Development projects of this type will require capital investment of several hundred million dollars over the period. Given that it is now imperative to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the hybrid vehicle offers a credible alternative. It is already on the market, despite the constraints inherent to a configuration combining an electric motor and an internal combustion engine, and despite the added cost. The technical choices are complex and varied, depending on the objectives: potential CO{sub 2} emissions gains range from a few percentage points to over 45%, depending on the engine/motor architecture. The gasoline hybrid vehicle is emerging as an alternative to the diesel engine, especially in Japan and the United States, but its growth will depend on the ability of the motor industry to reduce the added cost.

  10. The plus-hybrid effect on the grain yield of two ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božinović Sofija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cytoplasmic male sterility and xenia on maize hybrid traits is referred to as the plus-hybrid effect. Two studied ZP hybrids differently responded to this effect for grain yield. All plus-hybrid combinations of the firstly observed hybrid had a higher yield than their fertile counterparts, but not significantly, while only one combination of the second hybrid positively responded, also without statistical significance. It seems that the observed effect mostly depended on the genotype of the female component.

  11. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  12. A Hybrid Architecture Approach for Quantum Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R.S. Aghaei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, a general plan of hybrid architecture for quantum algorithms is proposed. Approach: Analysis of the quantum algorithms shows that these algorithms were hybrid with two parts. First, the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the hybrid algorithms was extracted. Then a general plan of hybrid structure was designed. Results: This plan was illustrated the hybrid architecture and the relationship of classical and quantum parts of the algorithms. This general plan was used to increase implementation performance of quantum algorithms. Conclusion/Recommendations: Moreover, simulation results of quantum algorithms on the hybrid architecture proved that quantum algorithms can be implemented on the general plan as well.

  13. Hybrid Airy Plasmons with Dynamically Steerable Trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rujiang; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Huaping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-01

    With the intriguing properties of diffraction-free, self-accelerating, and self-healing, Airy plasmons are promising to be used in the trapping, transporting, and sorting of micro-objects, imaging, and chip scale signal processing. However, the high dissipative loss and the lack of dynamical steerability restrict the implementation of Airy plasmons in these applications. Here we reveal the hybrid Airy plasmons for the first time by taking a hybrid graphene-based plasmonic waveguide in the terahertz (THz) domain as an example. Due to the coupling between an optical mode and a plasmonic mode, the hybrid Airy plasmons can have large propagation lengths and effective transverse deflections, where the transverse waveguide confinements are governed by the hybrid modes with moderate quality factors. Meanwhile, the propagation trajectories of hybrid Airy plasmons are dynamically steerable by changing the chemical potential of graphene. These hybrid Airy plasmons may promote the further discovery of non-diffracting be...

  14. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak;

    2012-01-01

    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due...... to discretization manageable and within bounds. A major advantage of our approach is not only that it avoids errors due to numerical computation, but it also gives a better optimal controller. In order to illustrate our approach, we use the real industrial example of an oil pump provided by the German company HYDAC...

  15. Biological Effect of a Hybrid Anticancer Agent Based on Kinase and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Triple-Negative (MDA-MB231) Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librizzi, Mariangela; Spencer, John; Luparello, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) combined with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1/2 inhibitor (3Z)-5-hydroxy-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-2-one on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells (triple-negative) in the form of both a cocktail of the separate compounds and a chemically synthesized hybrid (N-hydroxy-N'-[(3Z)-2-oxo-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-ylmethylidene)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl]octanediamide). Comparative flow cytometric and Western blot analyses were performed on cocktail- and hybrid-treated cells to evaluate cell cycle distribution, autophagy/apoptosis modulation, and mitochondrial metabolic state in order to understand the cellular basis of the cytotoxic effect. Cell cycle analysis showed a perturbation of the rate of progression through the cycle, with aspects of redistribution of cells over different cycle phases for the two treatments. In addition, the results suggest that the two distinct classes of compounds under investigation could induce cell death by different preferential pathways, i.e., autophagy inhibition (the cocktail) or apoptosis promotion (the hybrid), thus confirming the enhanced potential of the hybrid approach vs. the combination approach in finely tuning the biological activities of target cells and also showing the hybrid compound as an additional promising drug-like molecule for the prevention or therapy of "aggressive" breast carcinoma. PMID:27483253

  16. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sebastian Sudheer; M Sabir

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we study the hybrid synchronization between two identical hyperchaotic Lu systems. Hybrid synchronization of hyperchaotic Lu system is achieved through synchronization of two pairs of states and anti-synchronization of the other two pairs of states. Active controls are designed to achieve hybrid synchronization between drive and response systems using the sum and difference of relevant variables of the chaotic systems. Numerical simulations are presented to evaluate the analysis and effectiveness of the controllers.

  17. Frontier battery development for hybrid vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis Heather; Park Haram; Paolini Maion

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Interest in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has recently spiked, partly due to an increasingly negative view toward the U.S. foreign oil dependency and environmental concerns. Though HEVs are becoming more common, they have a significant price premium over gasoline-powered vehicles. One of the primary drivers of this “hybrid premium” is the cost of the vehicles’ batteries. This paper focuses on these batteries used in hybrid vehicles, examines the types of batteries used f...

  18. Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Aaron P.

    2009-01-01

    A paper reports the results of a Hybrid Diesel Vehicle Project focused on a parallel hybrid configuration suitable for diesel-powered, medium-sized, commercial vehicles commonly used for parcel delivery and shuttle buses, as the missions of these types of vehicles require frequent stops. During these stops, electric hybridization can effectively recover the vehicle's kinetic energy during the deceleration, store it onboard, and then use that energy to assist in the subsequent acceleration.

  19. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Tae Hyeob Kim; Cheong Hoon Kwon; Changsun Lee; Jieun An; Tam Thi Thanh Phuong; Sun Hwa Park; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Tong Mook Kang; Seon Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with p...

  20. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous dynamics deserves increased attention, especially in the context of wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variants of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification...... hybrid systems and develop a general abstraction technique for verifying probabilistic safety problems. This gives rise to the first mechanisable technique that can, in practice, formally verify safety properties of non-trivial continuous-time stochastic hybrid systems. Moreover, being based...

  1. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    The M. Nguyen; Elahinia, Mohammad H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technolo...

  2. Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-05-20

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. This new generation of vehicles, often called electric drive vehicles, can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles(PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to reduce U.S. petroleum use.

  3. The human in multiple, hybrid topologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    hybrid associations with a museum exhibition, fellow visitors and portable, mediating technologies such as exercise pamphlets, mobile phone cameras and animal costumes. Museum visitors couple up with various entities and participate in multiple enactments; they associate and dissociate, and thus...... constitute shifting fluid and flickering human hybrid topologies. The ethnography of hybrid, morphing museum visitors is related to literature on the relations between people and places. Multiplicity-oriented and heterogeneous ways of conceptualizing the human subject are considered for their implications...

  4. Hybrid Dislocated Control and General Hybrid Projective Dislocated Synchronization for Memristor Chaotic Oscillator System

    OpenAIRE

    Junwei Sun; Chun Huang; Guangzhao Cui

    2014-01-01

    Some important dynamical properties of the memristor chaotic oscillator system have been studied in the paper. A novel hybrid dislocated control method and a general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization scheme have been realized for memristor chaotic oscillator system. The paper firstly presents hybrid dislocated control method for stabilizing chaos to the unstable equilibrium point. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, general hybrid projective dislocated synchronization has been...

  5. Hybrid Reactor designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the current, active, interrelated Hybrid Reactor development programs in the United States, and offers a probable future course of action for the technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) program primarily emphasizes development of Hybrid Reactors that are optimized for proliferation resistance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program concentrates on avenues for Hybrid Reactor commercialization. The history of electrical generation technology has been one of steady movement toward higher power densities and higher quality fuels. An apparent advantage of the Hybrid Reactor option is that it follows this trend

  6. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available hybrid similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  7. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula;

    2012-01-01

    of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods......, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...

  8. On Hybrid and mixed finite element methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, T. H. H.

    1981-01-01

    Three versions of the assumed stress hybrid model in finite element methods and the corresponding variational principles for the formulation are presented. Examples of rank deficiency for stiffness matrices by the hybrid stress model are given and their corresponding kinematic deformation modes are identified. A discussion of the derivation of general semi-Loof elements for plates and shells by the hybrid stress method is given. It is shown that the equilibrium model by Fraeijs de Veubeke can be derived by the approach of the hybrid stress model as a special case of semi-Loof elements.

  9. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...... be exploited to reduce the "administrative overhead" of the analysis specification and thus simplify it. Finally, we use HyLoTab, a fully automated theorem prover for hybrid logic, both as a convenient platform for a prototype implementation as well as to formally prove the correctness of the analysis. (C...

  10. Organic/inorganic hybrid coatings for anticorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhouying

    Compared to organic coatings, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings can potentially improve the anticorrosion performance. The organic phase provides the excellent mechaincal and barrier properties while the inorganic phase acts as an adhesion promoter and corrosion inhibitor. Despite that many studies on alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings have been developed and studied, their weatherability and anticorrosion performance has been rarely evaluated. On the other hand, organic-inorganic hybrid coatings based on mixed sol-gel precursors have received much less attention compared to alkoxylsilane-based hybrid coatings. In the first part, polyurethane hybrid coatings with a unique hybrid crosslinked structure as an improved unicoat were successfully prepared. The effect of polyesters on physical properties of the hybrid coatings was studied. Polyurethane coatings derived from cycloaliphatic polyester show comparable properties than those derived from the commercially viable aromatic polyester. Introducing the polysiloxane part into the polyurethane coatings enhanced the crosslinking density, Tg, mechanical properties, and general coating properties. The increased adhesion between the hybrid coating and the substrate make the hybrid coating a good candidate for anticorrosion application, which is shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The degradation mechanism of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings under various weathering conditions was shown to be the scission of the urethane and ester groups in the organic phase along with reorganizing and rearranging of the inorganic phase. The anticorrosion performance of the cycloaliphatic hybrid was much better than that of aromatic based hybrid under outdoor weathering based on visual observation and EIS analysis. Acid undercutting is an issue for TEOS based hybrid coating. In the second part, design of experiments (DOEs) was used to statistically investigate on the effect of sol-gel precursors. The

  11. Hybrid Dynamical Systems Modeling, Stability, and Robustness

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Rafal; Teel, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems exhibit continuous and instantaneous changes, having features of continuous-time and discrete-time dynamical systems. Filled with a wealth of examples to illustrate concepts, this book presents a complete theory of robust asymptotic stability for hybrid dynamical systems that is applicable to the design of hybrid control algorithms--algorithms that feature logic, timers, or combinations of digital and analog components. With the tools of modern mathematical analysis, Hybrid Dynamical Systems unifies and generalizes earlier developments in continuous-time and discret

  12. Development of a Hybrid Photopolymer for Stereolithography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    New liquid free radical-cationic hybrid photopolymer, consisting of acrylate-based photocurable resin and epoxy-based photosensitive resin for stereolithography by UV laser was developed.The experiment results indicated that the hybrid photopolymer exhibits advantages of both the acrylate- based photosensitive resin and the epoxy- based photosensitive polymer contained in the hybrid system with relatively high photospeed and low linear shrinkage.Stereolithography parts without obvious distortion were built on the stereolithography apparatus HRPLAI from this hybrid resin successfully and efficiently.

  13. Development and functional analysis of novel genetic promoters using DNA shuffling, hybridization and a combination thereof.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Ranjan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of novel synthetic promoters with enhanced regulatory activity is of great value for a diverse range of plant biotechnology applications. METHODOLOGY: Using the Figwort mosaic virus full-length transcript promoter (F and the sub-genomic transcript promoter (FS sequences, we generated two single shuffled promoter libraries (LssF and LssFS, two multiple shuffled promoter libraries (LmsFS-F and LmsF-FS, two hybrid promoters (FuasFScp and FSuasFcp and two hybrid-shuffled promoter libraries (LhsFuasFScp and LhsFSuasFcp. Transient expression activities of approximately 50 shuffled promoter clones from each of these libraries were assayed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi protoplasts. It was observed that most of the shuffled promoters showed reduced activity compared to the two parent promoters (F and FS and the CaMV35S promoter. In silico studies (computer simulated analyses revealed that the reduced promoter activities of the shuffled promoters could be due to their higher helical stability. On the contrary, the hybrid promoters FuasFScp and FSuasFcp showed enhanced activities compared to F, FS and CaMV 35S in both transient and transgenic Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis plants. Northern-blot and qRT-PCR data revealed a positive correlation between transcription and enzymatic activity in transgenic tobacco plants expressing hybrid promoters. Histochemical/X-gluc staining of whole transgenic seedlings/tissue-sections and fluorescence images of ImaGene Green™ treated roots and stems expressing the GUS reporter gene under the control of the FuasFScp and FSuasFcp promoters also support the above findings. Furthermore, protein extracts made from protoplasts expressing the human defensin (HNP-1 gene driven by hybrid promoters showed enhanced antibacterial activity compared to the CaMV35S promoter. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSION: Both shuffled and hybrid promoters developed in the present study can be used as molecular tools to

  14. Techno-economic comparison of series hybrid, plug-in hybrid, fuel cell and regular cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, O.P.R.; Kruithof, T.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the competitiveness of series hybrid compared to fuel cell, parallel hybrid, and regular cars. We use public domain data to determine efficiency, fuel consumption, total costs of ownership and greenhouse gas emissions resulting from drivetrain choices. The series hybrid drivetrain can be

  15. Hybrid grapheme plasmonic waveguide modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, D.; Thackray, B. D.; Aznakayeva, D. E.; Thomas, P.; Auton, G. H.; Marshall, O. P.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Radko, I. P.; Han, Z.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2016-03-01

    The unique optical and electronic properties of graphene allow one to realize active optical devices. While several types of graphene-based photonic modulators have already been demonstrated, the potential of combining the versatility of graphene with sub-wavelength field confinement of plasmonic/metallic structures is not fully realized. Here we report fabrication and study of hybrid graphene-plasmonic modulators. We consider several types of modulators and identify the most promising one for light modulation at telecom and near-infrared. Our proof-of-concept results pave the way towards on-chip realization of efficient graphene-based active plasmonic waveguide devices for optical communications.

  16. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  17. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Transgression concepts - such as ‘hybridity', ‘diaspora', ‘creolization', ‘transculturalization' and ‘syncretism' - have to an increasing extent become key concepts in various attempts at escaping the problems of suppression and exclusion involved in notions of purity - be it the purity of race......, culture or whatever. The purpose of focusing on concepts of transgression is usually to try to develop conceptual spaces within which it is possible to grasp and to study cultural identity without resorting to cultural essentialism. These attempts open up new possibilities but also new problems - e...

  18. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, E.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Meany, T.; Floether, F.F.; Lee, J P; Griffiths, J. P.; Jones, G.A.C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Bennett, A J; Shields, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulat...

  19. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  20. Hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2016-11-01

    The present invention provides hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity. The present invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the hybrid polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and processes of using the hybrid polypeptides.

  1. Hybrid Materials for Integrated Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bettotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review materials and technologies of the hybrid approach to integrated photonics (IP are addressed. IP is nowadays a mature technology and is the most promising candidate to overcome the main limitations that electronics is facing due to the extreme level of integration it has achieved. IP will be based on silicon photonics in order to exploit the CMOS compatibility and the large infrastructures already available for the fabrication of devices. But silicon has severe limits especially concerning the development of active photonics: its low efficiency in photons emission and the limited capability to be used as modulator require finding suitable materials able to fulfill these fundamental tasks. Furthermore there is the need to define standardized processes to render these materials compatible with the CMOS process and to fully exploit their capabilities. This review describes the most promising materials and technological approaches that are either currently implemented or may be used in the coming future to develop next generations of hybrid IP devices.

  2. Gravity localization on hybrid branes

    CERN Document Server

    Veras, D F S; Maluf, R V; Almeida, C A S

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with gravity localization on codimension-1 brane worlds engendered by compacton-like kinks, the so-called hybrid branes. In such scenarios, the thin brane behaviour is manifested when the extra dimension is outside the compact domain, where the energy density is non-trivial, instead of asymptotically as in the usual thick brane models. The zero mode is trapped in the brane, as required. The massive modes, although are not localized in the brane, have important phenomenological implications such as corrections to the Newton's law. We study such corrections in the usual thick domain wall and in the hybrid brane scenarios. By means of suitable numerical methods, we attain the mass spectrum for the graviton and the corresponding wavefunctions. The spectra possess the usual linearly increasing behaviour from the Kaluza-Klein theories. Further, we show that the 4D gravitational force is slightly increased at short distances. The first eigenstate contributes highly for the correction to the Newton's ...

  3. Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Hybrid Poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar is a model organism for high in vitro regeneration in woody plants. We have chosen a hybrid poplar Populus davidiana Dode × Populus bollena Lauche. By optimizing the Murashige and Skoog medium with (0.3 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and (0.08 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid, we have achieved the highest frequency (90% for shoot regeneration from poplar leaves. It was also important to improve the transformation efficiency of poplar for genetic breeding and other applications. In this study, we found a significant improvement of the transformation frequency by controlling the leaf age. Transformation efficiency was enhanced by optimizing the Agrobacterium concentration (OD600 = 0.8–1.0 and an infection time (20–30 min. According to transmission electron microscopy observations, there were more Agrobacterium invasions in the 30-day-old leaf explants than in 60-day-old and 90-day-old explants. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP marker, the expression of MD–GFP fusion proteins in the leaf, shoot, and root of hybrid poplar P. davidiana Dode × P. bollena Lauche was visualized for confirmation of transgene integration. Southern and Northern blot analysis also showed the integration of T-DNA into the genome and gene expression of transgenic plants. Our results suggest that younger leaves had higher transformation efficiency (~30% than older leaves (10%.

  4. 孕产妇HIV抗体筛查阳性与免疫印迹试验对比%Comparison of Positive of HIV Antibody Screening and Western Blot Test in Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱厚宏; 王晨笛; 刘杨; 张祁; 孟建彤; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the results of HIV antibody screening test and Westem Blot test ( WB) in pregnant women. Methods Thirty three positive samples from pregnant women were tested with the ELISA and Westem blot test (WB). Those with indefinite result by WB test were re-tested 3 and 6 months later, and HIV-1 viral load testing ( VL) was carried out at 6th month. The results of ELISA and the WB test were analyzed. Result The 33 samples were all positive by ELISA and 20 were HIV-1 positive by WB test. The ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate was 60. 61 % (20/33). Of 20 samples 0were with S/CO value more than 8, the WB test results of HIV-1 antibody were all positive. Of 13 samples were with S/CO value less than 1 , 5 were negative and 8 were indefinite in WB test. The HIV-1 viral load test result at 6th month was less than the minimum detection limit (50 IU/ml ) . Conclusion The false positive in HIV antibody screening test (ELISA) was observed. The false positive sample were in the WB test negative and indefinite ones. ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate increased with the S/CO value of ELISA. The HIV WB test indefinite result in pregnant women was mostly due to non-specific immune response.%目的 探讨孕产妇人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体筛查试验阳性与免疫印迹试验(WB)结果的关系.方法 对33份孕产妇HIV抗体待复查样本,进行酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )及免疫印迹试验(WB),对WB试验结果不确定者进行3个月、6个月随访检测,6个月随访样本补充HIV-1病毒载量检测,分析ELISA检测与WB试验检测结果.结果 33份样本ELISA复检均呈阳性,免疫印迹试验(WB)中20份确认为HIV-1抗体阳性,ELISA检测与WB试验阳性符合率为60.61%(20/33); S/CO值>8的20份样本,WB试验结果均为HIV-1抗体阳性,I < S/CO值<8的13份样本,WB试验5份为HIV抗体阴性,8份为HIV抗体不确定;6个月随访样本HIV-1病毒载量检测,

  5. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  6. The potential of participatory hybrid breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jingsong; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Huang, K.; Qin, L.; Song, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the potential of involving smallholder farmers in hybrid development for their low-external input farming systems. We have developed a conceptual model of the procedures, based on five assumptions: (a) the hybrids are bred for adaptation to local needs and preferences; (b) the

  7. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle Systems Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, R. F.; Hammond, R. A.; Mcgehee, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Predefined components connected to represent wide variety of propulsion systems. Hybrid and Electric Advanced Vehicle System (HEAVY) computer program is flexible tool for evaluating performance and cost of electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion systems. Allows designer to quickly, conveniently, and economically predict performance of proposed drive train.

  8. Hybrid Compounding in New Zealand English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Marta; Onysko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates hybrid compound formation of Maori and English terms in present day New Zealand English (NZE). On the background of Maori and English language contact, the phenomenon of hybrid compounding emerges as a process that, on the one hand, symbolizes the vitality of the Maori element in NZE and, on the other hand, marks the…

  9. Generalised Computability and Applications to Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korovina, Margarita V.; Kudinov, Oleg V.

    2001-01-01

    propose an interesting application to formalisation of hybrid systems. We obtain some class of hybrid systems, which trajectories are computable in the sense of computable analysis. This research was supported in part by the RFBR (grants N 99-01-00485, N 00-01- 00810) and by the Siberian Branch of RAS (a...

  10. Turbo Codes with Hybrid Interleaving Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the investigation of turbo codes, either random interleavers or structured interleavers are used. Combined two kinds of interleavers in one turbo encoder, a hybrid interleaving mode is proposed in this paper. Computer simulations show that the performance of turbo codes with the hybrid interleaving mode is better than that with the typical interleaving mode.

  11. Hybrid logics with infinitary proof systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard; Verbrugge, Rineke

    2006-01-01

    We provide a strongly complete infinitary proof system for hybrid logic. This proof system can be extended with countably many sequents. Thus, although these logics may be non-compact, strong completeness proofs are provided for infinitary hybrid versions of non-compact logics like ancestral logic a

  12. Bisimulation for general stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, Manuela L.; Lygeros, John; Bujorianu, Marius C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we define a bisimulation concept for some very general models for stochastic hybrid systems (general stochastic hybrid systems). The definition of bisimulation builds on the ideas of Edalat and of Larsen and Skou and of Joyal, Nielsen and Winskel. The main result is that this bisimulat

  13. Formal Engineering Hybrid Systems: Semantic Underpinnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be invest

  14. Hybrid RRM Architecture for Future Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tragos, Elias; Mihovska, Albena D.; Mino, Emilio;

    2007-01-01

    and wide area respectively. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, it presents an architectural solution for scalable and hybrid radio resource management to efficiently integrate the different WINNER modes; second, it proposes a hybrid handover mechanism to exploit the availability of the different...

  15. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  16. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  17. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant therapy in the efficacy, safety, and compliance.

  18. Monitoring expression profiles of rice genes under cold, drought, and high-salinity stresses and abscisic acid application using cDNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, M Ashiq; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Abe, Hiroshi; Khan, M Ayub; Katsura, Koji; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshiwara, Kyoko; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2003-12-01

    To identify cold-, drought-, high-salinity-, and/or abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible genes in rice (Oryza sativa), we prepared a rice cDNA microarray including about 1700 independent cDNAs derived from cDNA libraries prepared from drought-, cold-, and high-salinity-treated rice plants. We confirmed stress-inducible expression of the candidate genes selected by microarray analysis using RNA gel-blot analysis and finally identified a total of 73 genes as stress inducible including 58 novel unreported genes in rice. Among them, 36, 62, 57, and 43 genes were induced by cold, drought, high salinity, and ABA, respectively. We observed a strong association in the expression of stress-responsive genes and found 15 genes that responded to all four treatments. Venn diagram analysis revealed greater cross talk between signaling pathways for drought, ABA, and high-salinity stresses than between signaling pathways for cold and ABA stresses or cold and high-salinity stresses in rice. The rice genome database search enabled us not only to identify possible known cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of several stress-inducible genes but also to expect the existence of novel cis-acting elements involved in stress-responsive gene expression in rice stress-inducible promoters. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis and rice showed that among the 73 stress-inducible rice genes, 51 already have been reported in Arabidopsis with similar function or gene name. Transcriptome analysis revealed novel stress-inducible genes, suggesting some differences between Arabidopsis and rice in their response to stress.

  19. Use of the Falcon assay screening test--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Rodriguez-Perez, J; Bjorland, J; Silva de Lagrava, M; Ramirez Guzman, S; Bryan, R T

    1992-05-01

    A collaborative study between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, and private voluntary organizations (Foster Parents Plan International and Danchurchaid) working in Bolivia has identified a region in the northwestern Altiplano of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca as harboring the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis in the world reported to date. Two serologic techniques (the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [FAST-ELISA] and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]) were used in the determination of its prevalence. One hundred serum samples and 73 stool samples were obtained from Aymara Indians from Corapata, Bolivia. Antibody absorbance levels to Fasciola hepatica excretion-secretion antigens were compared with EITB banding patterns using the same antigen preparation. A positive FAST-ELISA result was defined as an absorbance value greater than the mean plus three standard deviations of two sets of normal negative controls (Puerto Rican and Bolivian). Using this criterion, 53 of 100 sera tested were found positive by this technique. Within this group, 19 (95%) of 20 individuals who were parasite positive were also positive by FAST-ELISA. An additional 24 individuals who were negative for F. hepatica eggs and 10 individuals for whom no specimens were received were also positive by FAST-ELISA. Among the 53 individuals negative for F. hepatica eggs, 29 were also negative by FAST-ELISA. The EITB analysis of the sera from confirmed infected individuals revealed at least three F. hepatica (Fh) bands with molecular weights of 12, 17, and 63 kD, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen Western blot assay: evidence for a wide distribution among Old World primates and identification of four new divergent viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) belong to a genetically and antigenically diverse class of retroviruses that naturally infect a wide range of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and can also be transmitted to humans occupationally exposed to NHPs. Current serologic detection of SFV infection requires separate Western blot (WB) testing by using two different SFV antigens [SFVAGM (African green monkey) and SFVCPZ (chimpanzee)]. However, this method is labor intensive and validation is limited to only small numbers of NHPs. To facilitate serologic SFV testing, we developed a WB assay that combines antigens from both SFVAGM and SFVCPZ. The combined-antigen WB (CA-WB) assay was validated with 145 serum samples from 129 NHPs (32 African and Asian species) and 16 humans, all with known SFV infection status determined by PCR. Concordant CA-WB results were obtained for all 145 PCR-positive or -negative primate and human specimens, giving the assay a 100% sensitivity and specificity. In addition, no reactivity was observed in sera from persons positive for human immunodeficiency virus or human T cell lymphotropic virus (HIV/HTLV) (n = 25) or HIV/HTLV-negative U.S. blood donors (n = 100). Using the CA-WB assay, we screened 360 sera from 43 Old World primate species and found an SFV prevalence of about 68% in both African and Asian primates. We also isolated SFV from the blood of four seropositive primates (Allenopithecus nigroviridis, Trachypithecus francoisi, Hylobates pileatus, and H. leucogenys) not previously known to be infected with SFV. Phylogenetic analysis of integrase sequences from these isolates confirmed that all four SFVs represent new, distinct, and highly divergent lineages. These results demonstrate the ability of the CA-WB assay to detect infection in a large number of NHP species, including previously uncharacterized infections with divergent SFVs

  1. Hybrid2: The hybrid system simulation model, Version 1.0, user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1996-06-01

    In light of the large scale desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world, the need for a detailed long term performance prediction model for hybrid power systems was seen. To meet these ends, engineers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) have spent the last three years developing the Hybrid2 software. The Hybrid2 code provides a means to conduct long term, detailed simulations of the performance of a large array of hybrid power systems. This work acts as an introduction and users manual to the Hybrid2 software. The manual describes the Hybrid2 code, what is included with the software and instructs the user on the structure of the code. The manual also describes some of the major features of the Hybrid2 code as well as how to create projects and run hybrid system simulations. The Hybrid2 code test program is also discussed. Although every attempt has been made to make the Hybrid2 code easy to understand and use, this manual will allow many organizations to consider the long term advantages of using hybrid power systems instead of conventional petroleum based systems for remote power generation.

  2. Coumarin hybrids as novel therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sonali; Bansal, Yogita; Silakari, Om; Bansal, Gulshan

    2014-08-01

    Naturally occurring coumarins, having wide spectrum of activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, MAO-B inhibitory and antimicrobial, are frequently used by the researchers to develop novel synthetic and semisynthetic coumarin based therapeutic agents. Many of these agents are hybrid molecules, which are designed through concept of molecular hybridization and have shown multiple pharmacological activities. This multifunctional attribute of these hybrid compounds makes them potential drug candidates for the treatment of multifactorial diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, metabolic syndromes, AIDS, malaria, and cardiovascular diseases. The present review compiles research reports on development of different coumarin hybrids, classify these on the basis of their therapeutic uses and propose structure-activity relationships. It is intended to help medicinal chemist in designing and synthesizing novel and potent hybrid compounds for the treatment of different disorders. PMID:24934993

  3. Flexural performance of woven hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, A. B.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Dan-mallam, Y.; Mazawati, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the flexural performance of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Hybrid composites consist of interwoven kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp fibers was prepared by infusion process using epoxy as polymer matrix. Woven kenaf, jute and hemp composites were also prepared for comparison. Both woven and hybrid composites were subjected to three point flexural test. From the result, bending resistance of hybrid kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp composites was higher compared to their individual fiber. Hybridization with high strength fiber such as kenaf enhanced the capability of jute and hemp fibers to withstand bending load. Interlocking between yarns in woven fabric make pull out fibers nearly impossible and increase the flexural performance of the hybrid composites.

  4. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  5. Programmed cell death and hybrid incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S A; Barr, C M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new theory to explain developmental aberrations in plant hybrids. In our theory, hybrid incompatibilities arise from imbalances in the mechanisms that cause male sterility in hermaphroditic plants. Mitochondria often cause male sterility by killing the tapetal tissue that nurtures pollen mother cells. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria destroy the tapetum by triggering standard pathways of programmed cell death. Some nuclear genotypes repress mitochondrial male sterility and restore pollen fertility. Normal regulation of tapetal development therefore arises from a delicate balance between the disruptive effects of mitochondria and the defensive countermeasures of the nuclear genes. In hybrids, incompatibilities between male-sterile mitochondria and nuclear restorers may frequently upset the regulatory control of programmed cell death, causing tapetal abnormalities and male sterility. We propose that hybrid misregulation of programmed cell death may also spill over into other tissues, explaining various developmental aberrations observed in hybrids.

  6. Hybrid sterility in plant: stories from rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yidan; Liu, Yao-Guang; Zhang, Qifa

    2010-04-01

    Hybrid sterility is the most common form of postzygotic reproductive isolation in plants. The best-known example is perhaps the hybrid sterility between indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.). Major progress has been reported recently in rice in identifying and cloning hybrid sterility genes at two loci regulating female and male fertility, respectively. Genetic analyses and molecular characterization of these genes, together with the results from other model organisms especially Drosophila, have advanced the understanding of the processes underlying reproductive isolation and speciation. These findings also have significant implications for crop genetic improvement, by providing the feasibility and strategies for overcoming intersubspecific hybrid sterility thus allowing the development of intersubspecific hybrids.

  7. Silicon nanocrystal-noble metal hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, H; Fujii, M; Imakita, K

    2016-06-01

    We report a novel and facile self-limiting synthesis route of silicon nanocrystal (Si NC)-based colloidally stable semiconductor-metal (gold, silver and platinum) hybrid nanoparticles (NPs). For the formation of hybrid NPs, we employ ligand-free colloidal Si NCs with heavily boron (B) and phosphorus (P) doped shells. By simply mixing B and P codoped colloidal Si NCs with metal salts, hybrid NPs consisting of metal cores and Si NC shells are spontaneously formed. We demonstrate the synthesis of highly uniform and size controllable hybrid NPs. It is shown that codoped Si NCs act as a reducing agent for metal salts and also as a protecting layer to stop metal NP growth. The process is thus self-limiting. The development of a variety of Si NC-based hybrid NPs is a promising first step for the design of biocompatible multifunctional NPs with broad material choices for biosensing, bioimaging and solar energy conversion. PMID:27121127

  8. Named Models in Coalgebraic Hybrid Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid logic extends modal logic with support for reasoning about individual states, designated by so-called nominals. We study hybrid logic in the broad context of coalgebraic semantics, where Kripke frames are replaced with coalgebras for a given functor, thus covering a wide range of reasoning principles including, e.g., probabilistic, graded, default, or coalitional operators. Specifically, we establish generic criteria for a given coalgebraic hybrid logic to admit named canonical models, with ensuing completeness proofs for pure extensions on the one hand, and for an extended hybrid language with local binding on the other. We instantiate our framework with a number of examples. Notably, we prove completeness of graded hybrid logic with local binding.

  9. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bujorianu, Luminita Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic reachability analysis (SRA) is a method of analyzing the behavior of control systems which mix discrete and continuous dynamics. For probabilistic discrete systems it has been shown to be a practical verification method but for stochastic hybrid systems it can be rather more. As a verification technique SRA can assess the safety and performance of, for example, autonomous systems, robot and aircraft path planning and multi-agent coordination but it can also be used for the adaptive control of such systems. Stochastic Reachability Analysis of Hybrid Systems is a self-contained and accessible introduction to this novel topic in the analysis and development of stochastic hybrid systems. Beginning with the relevant aspects of Markov models and introducing stochastic hybrid systems, the book then moves on to coverage of reachability analysis for stochastic hybrid systems. Following this build up, the core of the text first formally defines the concept of reachability in the stochastic framework and then...

  10. Recombinant hybrid protein, Shiga toxin and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor effectively induce apoptosis of colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehryar Habibi Roudkenar; Saeid Bouzari; Yoshikazu Kuwahara; Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh; Mana Oloomi; Manabu Fukumoto

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the selective cytotoxic effect of constructed hybrid protein on cells expressing granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor.METHODS: HepG2 (human hepatoma) and LS174T (coIon carcinoma) were used in this study. The fused gene was induced with 0.02% of arabinose for 4 h and the expressed protein was detected by Western blotting. The chimeric protein expressed in E. coli was checked for its cytotoxic activity on these cells and apoptosis was measured by comet assay and nuclear staining. RESULTS: The chimeric protein was found to be cytotoxic to the colon cancer cell line expressing GM-CSFRs,but not to HepG2 lacking these receptors. Maximum activity was observed at the concentration of 40 ng/mL after 24 h incubation. The IC50 was 20±3.5 ng/mL.CONCLUSION: Selective cytotoxic effect of the hybrid protein on the colon cancer cell line expressing GMCSF receptors (GM-CSFRs) receptor and apoptosis can be observed in this cell line. The hybrid protein can be considered as a therapeutic agent.

  11. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  12. Acoustic metasurface with hybrid resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guancong; Yang, Min; Xiao, Songwen; Yang, Zhiyu; Sheng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    An impedance-matched surface has the property that an incident wave generates no reflection. Here we demonstrate that by using a simple construction, an acoustically reflecting surface can acquire hybrid resonances and becomes impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies, such that no reflection is generated. Each resonant cell of the metasurface is deep-subwavelength in all its spatial dimensions, with its thickness less than the peak absorption wavelength by two orders of magnitude. As there can be no transmission, the impedance-matched acoustic wave is hence either completely absorbed at one or multiple frequencies, or converted into other form(s) of energy, such as an electrical current. A high acoustic-electrical energy conversion efficiency of 23% is achieved. PMID:24880731

  13. Nonlinear lower hybrid wave depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two numerical ray tracing codes with focusing are used to compute lower hybrid daughter wave amplification by quasi-mode parametric decay. The first code, LHPUMP provides a numerical pump model on a grid. This model is used by a second code, LHFQM which computes daughter wave amplification inside the pump extent and follows the rays until their energy is absorbed by the plasma. An analytic model is then used to estimate pump depletion based on the numerical results. Results for PLT indicate strong pump depletion at the plasma edge at high density operation for the 800 Mhz wave frequency, but weak depletion for the 2.45 Ghz experiment. This is proposed to be the mechanism responsible for the high density limit for current drive as well as for the difficulty to heat ions

  14. Hybrid Forwarding in Cooperative Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Cong; ZHAO Ming; YAO Yan

    2008-01-01

    A cooperative communication scheme was developed in which the relay node performs hybrid forwarding, where the relay node will not forward data for a transmission pair unless the corresponding direct transmission fails, and the relay node will not forward data for a transmission pair unless the quality of the channel between the corresponding source and the relay is good. A performance analysis of the outage probability and the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff for the scheme shows that the forwarding mechanism efficiently reduces fading in wireless channels by achieving full diversity order of magnitude improvement. A considerable signal-to-noise ratio gain is provided by this scheme compared with existing cooperation schemes with fixed forwarding. This flexible forwarding mechanism enables the scheme to provide the optimal diversity-multiplexing tradeoff performance.

  15. Engineering semiconductor hybrids for sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of screening of the coulomb interaction between two layers of two-dimensional electrons, such as in graphene, by a highly doped semiconducting substrate is investigated. We employ the random-phase approximation to calculate the dispersion equation of this hybrid structure in order to determine the plasmon excitation spectrum. When an electric current is passed through a layer, the low-frequency plasmons in the layer may bifurcate into separate streams due to the current-driving effect. At a critical wave vector, determined by the separation between layers and their distance from the surface, their phase velocities may be in opposite directions and a surface plasmon instability leads to the emission of radiation. Applications to detectors and other electromagnetic devices exploiting nano-plasmonics are discussed.

  16. Enhanced performance hybrid-arq

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2016-06-16

    Apparatuses, computer readable media, and methods are provided for enhancing hybrid automatic repeat request (ARQ) performance. In an example method, a communication device transmits a first element of a vector, where the vector is selected using the information bits to be transmitted as an index in a code book. In some embodiments, this code book is constructed using Linear Constellation Precoding (LCP). If a NACK is received, the communication device transmits a second element of the vector. The process of transmitting elements of the vector continues until an ACK is received or the maximum number of transmission attempts is reached. If an ACK is received, the communication device transmits a first element of another vector of the code book that encodes a second set of information bits. This procedure may continue until all information bits have been transmitted successfully.

  17. Construction of radiation hybrid panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, John E; Murphy, William J

    2008-01-01

    Whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be a powerful tool for mapping genes and comparing genome architecture. We describe a protocol for constructing RH panels by rescuing irradiated fibroblast donor cells of any mammalian species by polyethylene glycol fusion to a thymidine kinase-deficient hamster cell line. Characterization and expansion of a panel of 90-100 cell lines can be used to map virtually any PCR-based marker that can be distinguished from the recipient hamster genome. The described procedure has been used successfully to create RH panels from diverse mammalian species such as macaques, elephants, alpacas, and armadillos, and may be applicable to nonmammalian vertebrates as well. PMID:18629660

  18. Hybrid Multifoil Aerogel Thermal Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Paik, Jong-Ah; Jones, Steven; Nesmith, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This innovation blends the merits of multifoil insulation (MFI) with aerogel-based insulation to develop a highly versatile, ultra-low thermally conductive material called hybrid multifoil aerogel thermal insulation (HyMATI). The density of the opacified aerogel is 240 mg/cm3 and has thermal conductivity in the 20 mW/mK range in high vacuum and 25 mW/mK in 1 atmosphere of gas (such as argon) up to 800 C. It is stable up to 1,000 C. This is equal to commercially available high-temperature thermal insulation. The thermal conductivity of the aerogel is 36 percent lower compared to several commercially available insulations when tested in 1 atmosphere of argon gas up to 800 C.

  19. Coaxial hybrid iron (CHI) wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert H.; Freund, Henry P.; Pershing, Dean E.; Taccetti, J. M.

    1993-11-01

    A magnetic wiggler design has been developed for applications in free-electron lasers which is scalable to small periods with high field amplitude, high beam current acceptance, and excellent transverse focusing and beam propagation properties. The Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler design consists of a coaxial arrangement of alternating ferromagnetic and non- ferromagnetic rings with the central portion of the coax shifted by one half period. The entire arrangement is immersed in a solenoidal field which results in a cylindrically symmetric periodic field. A key advantage of this wiggler configuration is its capacity to handle very high beam currents with excellent focusing and transport properties. FEL configuration using the CHI wiggler design have the potential for high power, high frequency coherent generation in relatively compact systems. Analytic and simulated characteristics of the CHI wiggler are presented.

  20. Quantum photonics hybrid integration platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single-photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to a SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single-photon nature of the emission was verified using the on-chip MZI as a beamsplitter in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement