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Sample records for blot cambridge biotech

  1. Voices of biotech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Ido; Baker, David; Barker, Roger;

    2016-01-01

    What will be the most important areas of research in biotech over the coming years? Which technologies will be most important to advance knowledge and applications in these areas? Nature Biotechnology reached out to a set of investigators working in research areas representative of the journal...

  2. Biotech as 'Biothreat'?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2008-01-01

    groups. In this, the paper tries to make up for the limited focus upon the role played by metaphor and discourse in shaping public attitudes of biotechnology. The paper has two parts; a theoretical part discussing the combination of conceptual metaphor studies and critical discourse analysis to provide......In Denmark, as in many other European countries, biotechnology continues to be a much debated and controversial issue. The paper takes its starting point in this debate, investigating how metaphorical constructions in media discourse reproduce and promote the viewpoints of particular societal...... a more comprehensive frame for explaining the function of metaphor in use, and an empirical part analysing biotech-metaphors in the Danish print press. Although not conclusive, the analysis points to metaphorical constructions in the press being both grounded in basic image schematic structures...

  3. Philosophy at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Newsletter of the Philosophy Faculty. Articles by: Simon Blackburn, 'From the Chair' ; Nick Treanor, 'Inaugural lecture: What is distinctive about human thought?' ; Clare Chambers, 'Political Philosophy at Cambridge' ; Alexis Papazoglou,'Aspects of philosophy at Cambridge' ; Peter Smith, 'Principia at 100' ; Nigel Crisp, 'Turning the World Upside Down' ; Cain Todd, 'Fiction, Emotion, Imagination'; Fraser MacBride, 'Philosophy, St John's, Cambridge, 1986.'

  4. Profiles of four projects in Biotech Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    In April 2004, Copenhagen Business School opens a centre for research on biotech business. Biotech Business includes a number of senior and junior researchers from CBS. Initially the centre takes its point of departure in four projects included in the research program on Competence, Organisation...... and Management in Biotech Industries (COMBI). Starting in March 2004, COMBI is funded jointly by The Danish Social Research Council, firms and organisations in the Danish biotech industry and CBS. This presentation refers exclusively to four COMBI projects....

  5. The University of Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭大任

    2007-01-01

    The University of Cambridge was founded in 1209,just a few decades after Oxford University,making it the second oldest university in the English-speaking world.Like“the other place”, the university is made up of 31 colleges and more than 100 departments,catering for around 15,500 students.Cambridge has a worldwide reputation for outstanding

  6. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950's,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA's original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  7. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Meteorological and Environmental Research has been included by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA) since 2011. CSA is a retrieval system published by Cambridge Information Group. CSA was founded in the late 1950’s,and became part of the CIG family in 1971. CSA’s original mission was publishing secondary source materials relating to the physical sciences. Completely

  8. NMSBA: Sandia Biotech 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the FluorAbody plasmid previously developed by Sandia Biotech to include a binding site for biotin by introducing the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP)and a gold binding protein (GBP) into a loop of the red fluorescent protein (mRFP).

  9. A global need for women's biotech leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Doerr, L.; Kemekliene, G.; Teutonico, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Increasing women's participation in leadership of biotech policy making, funding, research and implementation will strengthen the race to solve global problems......Increasing women's participation in leadership of biotech policy making, funding, research and implementation will strengthen the race to solve global problems...

  10. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membran...

  11. Buying big into biotech: scale, financing, and the industrial dynamics of UK biotech, 1980–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Michael M.; Crane, Philippa A; Nightingale, Paul; Baden-Fuller, Charles

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how the UK's biotech firms have evolved in response to their financial environment. As investors' expectations about the potential of biotech have changed, funding options have opened up and closed down, leading firms to develop new business models and routes of technology development. After a favorable period, new constraints on stock market funding have forced UK biotech firms to compress their life cycles, constraining their ability to generate the late-stage drug can...

  12. Cambridge IGCSE computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Dave; Konrad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Endorsed by Cambridge International Examinations. Develop your students computational thinking and programming skills with complete coverage of the latest syllabus (0478) from experienced examiners and teachers. - Includes a Student CD-ROM with interactive tests, based on the short answer questions from both papers - Follows the order of the syllabus exactly, ensuring complete coverage - Introduces students to self-learning exercises, helping them learn how to use their knowledge in new scenarios This syllabus is for first examination from 2015.

  13. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip

    2011-01-01

    Biotech unit operations are often characterized by a large number of inputs (operational parameters) and outputs (performance parameters) along with complex correlations amongst them. A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product, and has anywhere from 15 to 30 such unit operations in series. The aforementioned parameters can impact process performance and product quality and also interact amongst each other. Chemometrics presents one effective approach to gather process understanding from such complex data sets. The increasing use of chemometrics is fuelled by the gradual acceptance of quality by design and process analytical technology amongst the regulators and the biotech industry, which require enhanced process and product understanding. In this article, we review the topic of chemometrics applications in biotech processes with a special focus on recent major developments. Case studies have been used to highlight some of the significant applications.

  14. Structure, Employment and Performance in Biotech Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Dahlgren, Henrich; Valentin, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This report studies employment effects associated with the adoption of modern biotechnology in Danish industry. In this context we also examine industry structure, patterns of job creation, key outputs such as patents and the pipeline of projects in clinical trials. To see the development of Danish biotech firms in a relevant context we compare a Danish segment of biotech firms with a matching Swedish segment. From an overall assessment modern biotechnology, despite the three decades elap...

  15. Cambridge technicals level 3 IT

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Victoria; Middleton, Saundra

    2016-01-01

    Support your teaching of the new Cambridge Technicals 2016 suite with Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT, developed in partnership between OCR and Hodder Education; this textbook covers each specialist pathway and ensures your ability to deliver a flexible course that is both vocationally focused and academically thorough. Cambridge Technical Level 3 IT is matched exactly to the new specification and follows specialist pathways in IT Infrastructure Technician, Emerging Digital Technology Practitioner, Application Developer, and Data Analyst. - Ensures effective teaching of each specialis

  16. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  17. Business Ethics 101 for the biotech industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology companies face ethical challenges of two distinct types: bioethical challenges faced on account of the nature of work in the life sciences, and corporate ethical challenges on account of their nature as commercial entities. The latter set of challenges has received almost no attention at all in the academic literature or media. This paper begins to remedy that lacuna, examining ethical issues that arise specifically on account of the status of biotech companies as commercial entities. The focus here is on three representative issues: product safety, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance. It is argued that each of these issues poses particular ethical challenges for companies in the biotech sector. In the area of product safety, it is noted that biotech companies face particular challenges in determining what counts as a "safe" product, given the contentious nature of what might count as a "harm" in the biotech field. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the adoption of a "stakeholder approach" and an attempt to manage the social consequences of products pose special challenges for biotech companies. This is due to the enormous range of groups and individuals claiming to have a stake in the doings of such companies, and the trenchant controversies over just what the social consequences of various biotechnologies might be. In the area of corporate governance, biotech companies need to seek out and follow best practices regarding the ways in which information, authority, and influence flow between a company's shareholders, managers, and Board of Directors, if they are to avoid duplicating the ethical and financial scandal that brought down ImClone. An important meta-issue, here--one that renders each of these corporate ethical challenges more vexing--is the difficulty of finding the appropriate benchmarks for ethical corporate behavior in a field as controversial, and as rapidly evolving, as biotechnology. Three

  18. International Commercial Contracts, by Giuditta Cordero Moss. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713......Review of: Giuditta Cordero Moss, International Commercial Contracts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. XV + 329 pages. ISBN: 9781107684713...

  19. Structure, Employment and Performance in Biotech Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    This report studies employment effects associated with the adoption of modern biotechnology in Danish industry. In this context we also examine industry structure, patterns of job creation, key outputs such as patents and the pipeline of projects in clinical trials. To see the development of Danish...... tools and approaches into an operational, reliable, cost-effective technology, sufficiently `pluggable' with other technologies. Therefore employment directly related to biotech is particularly visible and identifiable in firms focused on R&D. Outside this core of R&D activity other industries appear...... a segment of Drug Discovery Firms (DDFs), which almost exclusively are based on capabilities in biotech research. This delimitation gives the advantage of studying a homogenous segment of firms. At the same time, this segment of biotech research firms is an informative indicator of the ability of the Danish...

  20. Neuro-oncology biotech industry progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shamik; Bodhinayake, Imithri; Chiluwal, Amrit; Langer, David J; Ruggieri, Rosamaria; Symons, Marc; Boockvar, John A

    2016-05-01

    The Brain Tumor Biotech Center at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit at in New York City in June 2015. The focus was once again on fostering collaboration between neuro-oncologist, neurosurgeons, scientists, leaders from biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, and members of the financial community. The summit highlighted the recent advances in the treatment of brain tumor, and specifically focused on targeting of stem cells and EGFR, use of prophage and immunostimulatory vaccines, retroviral vectors for drug delivery, biologic prodrug, Cesium brachytherapy, and use of electric field to disrupt tumor cell proliferation. This article summarizes the current progress in brain tumor research as presented at 2015 The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  1. Perspective: Biotech funding trends: Insights from entrepreneurs and investors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Alexandra C

    2009-08-01

    Based on a qualitative study analyzing a series of interviews with dedicated biotech entrepreneurs and high-level investors, "Biotech Funding Trends" provides a comprehensive overview of current trends in biotech funding by taking a close look behind the scenes of the biotech industry. In particular, it illustrates the tensions between both key players based on their different backgrounds and expectations. Here we outline the various funding opportunities for the biotech industry in Europe and identify ways for both sides, entrepreneurs and investors to overcome their prejudices to successfully thrive in a competitive environment. The results are also discussed in the light of the current financial and economic crisis.

  2. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  3. Entrepreneurial culture in innovative biotech clusters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruel, H.J.M.; Frolova, P.; Groen, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the determinants of entrepreneurial culture in innovative biotech clusters. A literature review led to the identification of nine determinants. For the empirical study four clusters in Western Europe with a high entrepreneurial culture were selected. Cluster participan

  4. Clark and Prehistory at Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jane Smith

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available If honours and titles give measure of a man, then Professor Sir Grahame Clark was indeed important. Faculty Assistant Lecturer in the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology at Cambridge University from 1935-46, University Lecturer 1946-52, Disney Professor of Archaeology 1952-74, Head of the Department of Archaeol­ogy and Anthropology 1956-61 and 1968-71, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1950-73, Master of Peterhouse 1973-80, he was a visiting lecturer at diverse universities; appointed CBE in 1971, he received many awards includ­ing the prestigious Erasmus Prize for 1990, presented by Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, for his "long and inspiring devotion to prehistory" (Scarre 1991:10; and in June 1992, he was knighted. Yet well before fame and position were rewards, Clark made major contributions to the establishment of prehis­tory as an academic subject at Cambridge University. Cambridge was the first and, for many years, only British university granting an undergraduate degree which offered prehistory as a specialization. "The development of postgraduate research in prehistoric archaeology at Cambridge had to wait on the provision of undergraduate teaching;' Clark (1989b: 6 recently observed. The "faculty was the only one in Britain producing a flow of graduates in prehistoric archaeology" (Clark 1989a: 53.

  5. Communicating financials in the biotech industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    ; Hyland 1998). This point is arguably of more importance to a biotech company which in its communication to the public may have to consider promoting an overly favourable and trustworthy image not only of its financial results, but also of the industry in which it is engaged, to ensure continuous......In Denmark, biotechnology and its physical product, the genetically modified organism, continues to be controversial, leading to widespread public scepticism. This paper explores the effect of such scepticism on part of the financial communication of one of Denmark's largest biotech companies......, Novozymes. Research indicates that besides accommodating a legal demand for the disclosure of company financial details, the annual report, in particular the letter to the shareholders or the CEO's letter, serves the purpose of marketing the company to its constituents (Bowman 1984; Bülow-Møller 2003...

  6. Much Ado about Something: Cuban Biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cuban advances in biotech have made headlines, particularly since the US-Cuba rapprochement and signing of the historic memorandum of understanding between the US Department of Health and Human Services and Cuba's Ministry of Public Health in June. Some 34 Cuban institutions with 22,000 employees are the backbone of a biotech industry that dates to the early 1980s, obtaining novel products that have sparked interest among potential global partners. While a number of these Cuban products are registered in various countries, their testing in the USA remains ensnared in the red tape of embargo laws that tend to make investors skittish and thus delay, if not curtail, joint research and clinical trial applications to the FDA.

  7. Health care biotech industry (Review Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    G Padmanaban

    2001-01-01

    Modern biotechnology became possible because of the ability to clone genes and produce gene products barriers of species and sex. Potential entrepreneurs are getting interested in venturing into health care biotech industry, stimulated by the success story in information technology. Products of protein therapeutics, such as insulin, growth hormones, interferons, blood proteins, streptokinase and vaccines have received special attention. Pharmaceutical companies got into the field of d...

  8. Investor Outlook: After the Biotech Bubble Popped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven; Yang, Jerry

    2016-03-01

    After a few torrid years of value appreciation, the biotech "bubble" has precipitously popped over the past few months. In this report, we take a look at some of the factors that drove the run-up in valuations, the triggers that led to their substantial pullback, and where the industry may be headed from here. Gene therapy/editing companies have been particularly affected by these dynamics, raising a new set of questions and challenges for the group.

  9. Cambridge IGCSE English first language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus to help your students prepare for their examination and enhance their enjoyment of English. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE First Language English (0500 and 0522) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Develops the skills necessary to become a better reader and writer. ? Offers detailed advice and preparation for the examination. ? Teaches skills for successful writing of essays and coursework assignment. We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain endorsement for this title.

  10. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 1

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint English series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint English tests. - Offers plenty of additional questions for use in class or as homework. - Includes clearly identified questions on grammar and punctuation, comprehension, use of language and essay planning. - Follows the structure of the relevant textbook to ensure a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course. - Provides a space for Students to write their answers. This Workbook is matched to the Cambridge Secondary 1 Curriculum Fr

  11. Fourth Medical Biotech Forum of the Chinese Medical Biotech Association. 8-10 August 2009, Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzmann, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    The Chinese Medical Biotech Association's Fourth Medical Biotech Forum held in Dalian, China included topics covering the biotechnology industry in China and new therapeutic developments in the field of immunological approaches to cancer treatment. This conference report highlights selected presentations on China's biotechnology development policy, tumor-specific antigens, clinical applications of antitumor immune therapy, and novel photodynamic tumor therapy. Investigational therapeutics discussed include astuprotimut-r (GlaxoSmithKline plc) and the dendritic cell vaccine Trivax (Trimed Biotech).

  12. 33 CFR 117.549 - Cambridge Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cambridge Harbor. 117.549 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.549 Cambridge Harbor. The draw of the S342 bridge, mile 0.1 at Cambridge, shall open on signal from 6 a.m. to 8 p.m.; except that, from...

  13. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 2

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  14. Cambridge checkpoint English workbook 3

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Build confidence and understanding throughout the year with hundreds of additional practice questions. This Workbook supports our bestselling Checkpoint series, with exercises specifically matched to the Cambridge Progression tests and the Checkpoint tests. - Develops understanding and builds confidence ahead of assessment with exercises matched to the tests - Ensures a thorough understanding of all aspects of the course by following the structure of the relevant textbook - Saves planning time with exercises that are suitable for use in class or as homework This Workbook is

  15. Indian Biotech Bazaar: a swot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2007-05-01

    Biotechnology is a life science-based technique especially used in agriculture, medicine and food sciences. It is generally defined as the manipulation in organisms to generate products for the welfare of the world. Biotechnology combines disciplines such as genetics, biochemistry, microbiology, and cell biology along with information technology, chemical engineering, robotics etc. It includes basic industries such as food processing, tissue culture, plant development and other sophisticated ones such as recombinant therapeutics and diagnostics. Biotechnology, globally recognized as a rapidly emerging and far-reaching technology, is aptly described as the "technology of hope" for its promise of food, health and environmental sustainability. In India, biotechnology employs more than 10 000 people and generates roughly US$ 500 million in revenue annually. The biotechnology market has increased its sales from Rs. 50 billion in 1997 to Rs.70 billion in 2000, and is expected to cross Rs. 240 billion by the year 2010. In India, the human health biotech products account for 60% of the total market; agribiotech and veterinary 25%, medical devices, contract research and development (R&D), reagents and supplies constitute the remaining 15% Moreover, to facilitate foreign investment, capital and government policies are being revised. Other important industries include industrial enzyme manufacture, bioinformatics, and medical devices. Biotechnology has had limited appeal so far on our capital markets, and we have less then a dozen biotech companies listed on the public markets.

  16. Financial risk of the biotech industry versus the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Joseph; Vernon, John A

    2009-01-01

    The biotech industry now accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total R&D spending on new medicines. However, compared with the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry is financially fragile. This article illustrates the financial fragility of the biotech and pharmaceutical industries in the US and the implications of this fragility for the effects that government regulation could have on biotech firms. Graphical analysis and statistical tests were used to show how the biotech industry differs from the pharmaceutical industry. The two industries' characteristics were measured and compared, along with various measures of firms' financial risk and sensitivity to government regulation. Data from firms' financial statements provided accounting-based measures and firms' stock returns applied to a multifactor asset pricing model provided financial market measures. The biotech industry was by far the most research-intensive industry in the US, averaging 38% R&D intensity (ratio of R&D spending to total firm assets) over the past 25 years, compared with an average of 25% for the pharmaceutical industry and 3% for all other industries. Biotech firms exhibited lower and more volatile profits and higher market-related and size-related risk, and they suffered more negative stock returns in response to threatened government price regulation. Biotech firms' financial risks increase their costs of capital and make them more sensitive to government regulations that affect their financial prospects. As biotech products grow to represent a larger share of new medicines, general stock market conditions and government regulations could have a greater impact on the level of innovation of new medicines.

  17. Honorary Degree Congregation in Cambridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One day in mid-June 2006 when I was on a visit to the Countryside Restoration Trust at Barton near Cambridge, Mr. Christopher Stevenson, the director of Program of Events for Newcomers & Academic Visitors, gave me a letter enclosing a notice and a ticket I booked nearly two months earlier. He told me that I was very lucky because a strictly limited number of tickets had been allocated to academic visitors. It was a ticket to admit me to the Honorary Degree Congregation and to the reception afterwards on Tuesday 27 June.

  18. Health care biotech industry (Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanaban

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnology became possible because of the ability to clone genes and produce gene products barriers of species and sex. Potential entrepreneurs are getting interested in venturing into health care biotech industry, stimulated by the success story in information technology. Products of protein therapeutics, such as insulin, growth hormones, interferons, blood proteins, streptokinase and vaccines have received special attention. Pharmaceutical companies got into the field of diagnostics, a major thrust area being products of antigen/antibody and nucleic acid-based diagnostic kits. The ability to clone and sequence genes from a variety of organisms has culminated in the subject of genomics. High throughput screening of thousands of organic molecules against a battery of drug targets using robotic machinery is the current approach to come up with lead molecules. New drug delivery systems for slow, sustained and direct delivery to target tissues are under way. There is hope that hereditary and metabolic disorders may have a cure through replacements of defective genes by normal cloned genes and by blocking the expression of unwanted genes, respectively. This mega approach would call for the availability of DNA chips, a product of collaboration between molecular biologists and electronic engineers. The tendency now-a-days is for a marriage between biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Animal cloning, spearheaded by the birth of Dolly, has revolutionised cell biology and is of promise to generate animal bio-vectors to produce desired protein pharmaceuticals in milk. Stem cell research has assumed a lot of importance. In our country, reasonable competence has been built-up in the field of biotechnology. Around two dozen institutes carry out front-line research in medical biotechnology. Successful commercialisation of a few diagnostic kits and recombinant vaccines has provided an impetus and enthusiasm to exploit biotechnology in a big way

  19. Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic (Cambridge: Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael L. Johnstone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of: Michael Byers, International Law and the Arctic, Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative law, Cambridge University Press, 2013. pp. 314 + xviii, 65.00 GBP (hardcover; 16.56GBP (kindle edition ISBN: 9781107042759 ISBN: 9781107042759

  20. Trial access to Cambridge University Press ebooks

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2011-01-01

    From 1 August till 31 October, CERN users are invited to enjoy a trial access to all Cambridge University Press electronic books: http://ebooks.cambridge.org/. Please don't hesitate to send feedback to library.desk@cern.ch.

  1. 77 FR 14852 - Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Advanced Growing Systems, Inc., Advantage Capital Development Corp., Amazon Biotech, Inc., Andover... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Amazon ] Biotech, Inc. because...

  2. Biotech 101: an educational outreach program in genetics and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Kelly M; Hott, Adam M; Callanan, Nancy P; Lamb, Neil E

    2012-10-01

    Recent advances in research and biotechnology are making genetics and genomics increasingly relevant to the lives and health of the general public. For the public to make informed healthcare and public policy decisions relating to genetic information, there is a need for increased genetic literacy. Biotech 101 is a free, short-course for the local community introducing participants to topics in genetics, genomics, and biotechnology, created at the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. This study evaluated the effectiveness of Biotech 101 in increasing the genetic literacy of program participants through pre-and-post surveys. Genetic literacy was measured through increases in self-perceived knowledge for each content area covered through the course and the self-reported impact the course had on various aspects of participants' lives. Three hundred ninety-two individuals attended Biotech 101 during the first three course offerings. Participants reported a significant increase in self-perceived knowledge for each content area (p biotechnology.

  3. Biotech 2011 conference Zurich University of applied sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Caspar

    2011-01-01

    More than 160 experts from industry and academia came together this September for the Biotech 2011 at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) in Wädenswil. As one of the main topics, the conference addressed innovations in sensor technology, where new measurement principles and methods have helped to enhance robustness and user friendliness. Another main emphasis of Biotech 2011 was the application of sensors and related analytical techniques in bioprocesses. In this area, the sensor industry needs to meet the challenges introduced by the increasing use of single-use bioreactors. With its strong focus on sensor applications, Biotech 2011 successfully promoted interaction between professionals in academic and industrial research as well as with experts who apply sensors in biopharmaceutical production.

  4. Biotech injectable drugs: clinical applications and financial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogenberg, F Randy; Young, Coleen

    2004-07-01

    Biotechnology-derived injectable medications raise complex issues with respect to access and administration for both manufacturers and payers. In addition, biotech injectables rarely fit within traditional prescription drug benefit design structures, thereby creating inequities in reimbursement and access that can undermine a health benefit plan's goals.Benefit-design changes focusing on short-term solutions can exacerbate such situations. Employers, insurers, and managed care organizations need to consider innovative benefit-plan designs to effectively address issues that are associated with biotech medications.Actuarial models, such as the Reimbursement model described in this article, can help to provide the options analyses and decision-making support that are required.

  5. [Mexico recovers leadership on regulation of biosimilar biotech drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Silva, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Amid the epidemiological transition that Mexico is currently experiencing, an adequate access to biotech medicines is becoming very important. However, these medicines also involve new challenges for the sanitary authorities, given their higher complexity in structure and function than conventional chemical drugs. Consequently, it has been necessary to update the Mexican legal framework, which has placed Mexico at the forefront in this sector. This article describes briefly what biotech drugs are, why it has been necessary to regulate them differently, the evolution of the regulatory framework in Mexico, and the general features of the new system.

  6. Cambridge checkpoint maths revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Alan

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint Maths Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint Maths syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  7. Cambridge checkpoint English revision guide for the Cambridge secondary 1 test

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2013-01-01

    With Checkpoint English Revision Guide for the Cambridge Secondary 1 test you can aim for the best grade with the help of relevant and accessible notes, examiner advice plus questions and answers on each key topic. - Clear explanations of every topic covered in the Cambridge Secondary 1 Checkpoint English syllabus. - Builds revision skills you need for success in the test. - Exam tips wirtten by test setters and examiners giving you their expert advice. This text has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

  8. 76 FR 17621 - Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... issues and biotechnology to discuss industry developments, opportunities, and sales strategies... consumer base and impressive economic growth further reinforce the importance of the market for U.S. firms... trials in Asia. The Biotech Life Science Sector Despite the global financial crisis, China's GDP...

  9. Scientific knowledge dynamics and relatedness in biotech cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron; Heimeriks, Gaston; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of scientif

  10. Project BIOTECH: Use of Modules in Technician Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    Describes Project Biotech, a program that utilizes the audio-tutorial principle to develop skill-oriented modules. The modules are self-pacing, independent units of instruction which concentrate on a few well-defined objectives and allow the student to learn at his own rate with minimal supervision. (PB)

  11. Combining Instructionist and Constructionist Learning in a Virtual Biotech Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawabi, Peter; Wessner, Martin

    The background of this paper is an internal research project at the German National Research Center for Information Technology, Integrated Publication and Information Systems Institute, (GMD-IPSI) dealing with software engineering, computer-supported cooperative learning (CSCL) and practical biotech knowledge. The project goal is to develop a…

  12. 77 FR 3118 - Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... 3118-3121] [FR Doc No: 2012-1172] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1164] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD..., U.S. Coast Guard, Captain of the Port Baltimore. [FR Doc. 2012-1172 Filed 1-20-12; 8:45 am]...

  13. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  14. OCR Cambridge nationals in ICT student book

    CERN Document Server

    Stuart, Sonia; Cushing, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Written by experts and in partnership with OCR, the brand-new OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Student's Book provides invaluable guidance for your teaching of the OCR Cambridge Nationals in ICT Level 1/2 . This textbook covers the mandatory Units 1 and 2 in detail, offering your students the knowledge and practice they require. Unit 1 - Understanding Computer Systems.; Coverage of use of applications and systems.; Case studies of how they are used for different purposes.; Exam style questions and guidance. Unit 2 - Using ICT to Create Business Solutions.; Coverage of the principles of use of re

  15. Impact of America Invents Act on Biotech Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amanda; Stramiello, Michael; Stroud, Jonathan; Lewis, Stacy; Irving, Tom

    2015-04-27

    This review introduces the America Invents Act (AIA), a comprehensive reform of U.S. law on patentability and patent enforceability that Congress enacted in 2011. The AIA's most publicized change transforms the United States from a "first-to-invent" system to a "first-inventor-to-file" regime, bringing U.S. patent law more in line with the patent systems of nearly every other industrialized country in the world. This new system requires small companies and independent inventors to toe the line against larger competitors in what many have called a "race to the patent office." But a closer look at the AIA reveals several opportunities for smaller entities that may even the playing field, particularly for innovators in the biotech sector. This article addresses changes that the AIA brings to U.S. patent law, keeping an eye toward issues relevant to biotech companies.

  16. Industry progress report on neuro-oncology: Biotech update 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenhausen, Malte; Bodhinayake, Imithri; Banu, Matei; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Ray, Ashley; Boockvar, John A

    2013-11-01

    For the second time, The Brain Tumor Center of the Weill Cornell Brain and Spine Center, in collaboration with Voices Against Brain Cancer, hosted The Brain Tumor Biotech Summit in New York City in June 2013. After a very successful first summit in 2012, this innovative event has established a platform for intensive networking between neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, neuroscientists, members of the biotechnology and pharmaceutical communities, members of the financial community and leaders of non-profit organizations. This year's summit highlighted dendritic cell vaccines, novel antibody, heat shock protein and targeted therapies as well as exosome technologies, MRI-guided therapies and other novel drug delivery tools. This report presents a short overview of the current progress in brain tumor research and therapy as presented at the 2013 Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  17. Ethical reasons for narrowing the scope of biotech patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Patents on biotech products have a scope that goes well beyond what is covered by the most widely applied ethical justifications of intellectual property. Neither natural rights theory from Locke, nor public interest theory of IP rights justifies the wide scope of legal protection. The article takes human genes as an example, focusing on the component that is not invented but persists as unaltered gene information even in the synthetically produced complementary DNA, the cDNA. It is argued that patent on cDNA holds this information captive, or illegitimately appropriates it in limiting other researchers and inventors' opportunity to explore new functions and uses based on this non-invented information. A tighter connection between legal IP protection and the use description stated in the patent claim is suggested. By binding protection to the product's foreseeable functions and use, instead of the product itself and all future uses of it, legitimacy of biotech product patents is restored.

  18. Weizmann ties with Cambridge in physics contest

    CERN Multimedia

    Siegel, J

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists and students from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot and Cambridge University in England have tied for first place in a physics competition aimed at simulating the future functioning of the particle accelerator being built at the European center CERN and due to open in 2007" (1/2 page)

  19. Biotech in medicine--the topic of the Olten Meeting 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998, the biotechnet--the national network of competence in biotech research--has been helping partners from industry to access excellence in R&D, giving them optimal support at low cost. Its annual 'Olten Meeting' is a dynamic hub for companies and research institutes as it highlights the latest trends in biotech. On November 24, 2010, the topical subject was biotech in medicine.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of biotech drugs: peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiunn H

    2009-09-01

    With the advances in recombinant DNA biotechnology, molecular biology and immunology, the number of biotech drugs, including peptides, proteins and monoclonal antibodies, available for clinical use has dramatically increased in recent years. Although pharmacokinetic principles are equally applicable to the large molecule drugs and conventional small molecule drugs, the underlying mechanisms for the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of large molecule drugs are often very different from that of small molecule drugs. Therefore, a good understanding of the ADME processes of large molecule drugs is essential in support of the development of therapeutic biologics. The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge of the ADME processes that govern the pharmacokinetics of biotech drugs. The challenges encountered by orally administered peptide and protein drugs, and the nature of lymphatic absorption after subcutaneous administration will be discussed. In addition, molecular mechanisms of biodistribution, metabolism and renal excretion of biotech drugs will also be discussed. Finally, approaches used for prediction of human pharmacokinetics of protein drugs will be briefly discussed.

  1. Industry progress report on neuro-oncology: a biotech update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jessica S; Banu, Matei A; Ray, Ashley; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Boockvar, John A

    2013-04-01

    With steadily rising revenue and large numbers of clinical trials utilizing novel treatment strategies, the field of neuro-oncology is at the core of the growing cancer therapy industry. In June 2012, the Weill Cornell Brain and Tumor Center hosted the first Brain Tumor Biotech Summit as a forum for fostering and encouraging collaboration between researches and investors to accelerate novel treatments for brain cancer. This event brought together neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, academicians, entrepreneurs, non-profits, CEOs and investors in an attempt to bring innovative treatments and concepts to the fore. Specific subjects presented at the meeting included new surgical devices and delivery techniques, targeted therapeutics, immunotherapy, and stem cell biology. The mission of the summit was to provide opportunities for researchers in neuro-oncology to directly interact with leaders from the investment community with insight into the commercial aspects of our work. Our shared goal is to shorten the time for basic science ideas to be translated into the clinical setting. The following serves as a progress report on the biotech industry in neuro-oncology, as presented at the Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  2. Social Network Analysis of the Irish Biotech Industry: Implications for Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egeraat, Chris; Curran, Declan

    This paper presents an analysis of the socio-spatial structures of innovation, collaboration and knowledge flow among SMEs in the Irish biotech sector. The study applies social network analysis to determine the structure of networks of company directors and inventors in the biotech sector. In addition, the article discusses the implications of the findings for the role and contours of a biotech digital ecosystem. To distil these lessons, the research team organised a seminar which was attended by representatives of biotech actors and experts.

  3. 76 FR 12729 - Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... AGENCY Cambridge Environmental Inc; Transfer of Data AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... claimed as Confidential Business Information (CBI) by the submitter, will be transferred to Cambridge Environmental Inc. in accordance with 40 CFR 2.307(h)(3) and 2.308(i)(2). Cambridge Environmental Inc. has...

  4. Deutsche Biotech-Unternehmen und ihre Innovationsfähigkeit im internationalen Vergleich : eine institutionentheoretische Analyse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, K.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    German Biotech-Companies and their Innovativeness in International Comparison – an Institutionalist Analysis 1 Introduction In the mid-1990s, legal changes and policy initiatives in Germany led to the rapid emergence of a biotechnology industry. Initially, German biotech companies focused on the mar

  5. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, G.J.; Boschma, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986–2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitiv

  6. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, Gaston; Boschma, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new cognitiv

  7. 77 FR 10598 - BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... concerning the securities of BIOTECH Holdings Ltd. because it has not filed any annual reports since...

  8. State Incentives for Innovation, Star Scientists, and Jobs: Evidence from Biotech. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 14-203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Enrico; Wilson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of state-provided financial incentives for biotech companies, which are part of a growing trend of placed-based policies designed to spur innovation clusters. We estimate that the adoption of subsidies for biotech employers by a state raises the number of star biotech scientists in that state by about 15 percent over a…

  9. A global overview of biotech (GM) crops: adoption, impact and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Clive

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, some were skeptical that genetically modified (GM) crops, now referred to as biotech crops, could deliver improved products and make an impact at the farm level. There was even more skepticism that developing countries would adopt biotech crops. The adoption of and commercialization of biotech crops in 2008 is reviewed. The impact of biotech crops are summarized including their contribution to: global food, feed and fiber security; a safer environment; a more sustainable agriculture; and the alleviation of poverty, and hunger in the developing countries of the world. Future prospects are discussed. Notably, Egypt planted Bt maize for the first time in 2008 thereby becoming the first country in the Arab world to commercialize biotech crops.

  10. Alchemy in Cambridge. An Annotated Catalogue of Alchemical Texts and Illustrations in Cambridge Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Alchemy in Cambridge captures the alchemical content of 56 manuscripts in Cambridge, in particular the libraries of Trinity College, Corpus Christi College and St John's College, the University Library and the Fitzwilliam Museum. As such, this catalogue makes visible a large number of previously unknown or obscured alchemica. While extant bibliographies, including those by M.R. James a century ago, were compiled by polymathic bibliographers for a wide audience of researchers, Alchemy in Cambridge benefits from the substantial developments in the history of alchemy, bibliography, and related scholarship in recent decades. Many texts are here identified for the first time. Another vital feature is the incorporation of information on alchemical illustrations in the manuscripts, intended to facilitate research on the visual culture of alchemy. The catalogue is aimed at historians of alchemy and science, and of high interest to manuscript scholars, historians of art and historians of college and university libraries.

  11. The new Cambridge English course student 1

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The New Cambridge English Course is a course teachers and students can rely on to cover the complete range and depth of language and skills needed from beginner to upper-intermediate level. Each level is designed to provide at least 72 hours of class work using the Student's Book, with additional self-study material provided in the Practice Book. The course has a proven multi-syllabus approach which integrates work on all the vital aspects of language study: grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, skills, notions and functions.

  12. Cambridge IGCSE english as a second language

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, John

    2014-01-01

    Revised edition for the 2015 syllabus offering the easiest and most cost effective way to teach both the speaking and listening components with one set of books covering two years and free digital material. This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE English as a Second Language (0510 and 0511) syllabuses, for first teaching from 2013. ? Prepares students for their exams with a focus on assessed language features, such as inference, opinion and attitude. ? Develops language abilities at an appropriate pace with extra interactive tests on a free CD-ROM. We are working with Cambr

  13. Chemometrics applications in biotech processes: assessing process comparability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Nitish; Hadpe, Sandip; Rathore, Anurag S

    2012-01-01

    A typical biotech process starts with the vial of the cell bank, ends with the final product and has anywhere from 15 to 30 unit operations in series. The total number of process variables (input and output parameters) and other variables (raw materials) can add up to several hundred variables. As the manufacturing process is widely accepted to have significant impact on the quality of the product, the regulatory agencies require an assessment of process comparability across different phases of manufacturing (Phase I vs. Phase II vs. Phase III vs. Commercial) as well as other key activities during product commercialization (process scale-up, technology transfer, and process improvement). However, assessing comparability for a process with such a large number of variables is nontrivial and often companies resort to qualitative comparisons. In this article, we present a quantitative approach for assessing process comparability via use of chemometrics. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an approach has been published for biotech processing. The approach has been applied to an industrial case study involving evaluation of two processes that are being used for commercial manufacturing of a major biosimilar product. It has been demonstrated that the proposed approach is able to successfully identify the unit operations in the two processes that are operating differently. We expect this approach, which can also be applied toward assessing product comparability, to be of great use to both the regulators and the industry which otherwise struggle to assess comparability.

  14. Studying protein-protein interactions via blot overlay/far western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    Blot overlay is a useful method for studying protein-protein interactions. This technique involves fractionating proteins on SDS-PAGE, blotting to nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane, and then incubating with a probe of interest. The probe is typically a protein that is radiolabeled, biotinylated, or simply visualized with a specific antibody. When the probe is visualized via antibody detection, this technique is often referred to as "Far Western blot." Many different kinds of protein-protein interactions can be studied via blot overlay, and the method is applicable to screens for unknown protein-protein interactions as well as to the detailed characterization of known interactions.

  15. Single cell-resolution western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chi-Chih; Yamauchi, Kevin A; Vlassakis, Julea; Sinkala, Elly; Duncombe, Todd A; Herr, Amy E

    2016-08-01

    This protocol describes how to perform western blotting on individual cells to measure cell-to-cell variation in protein expression levels and protein state. Like conventional western blotting, single-cell western blotting (scWB) is particularly useful for protein targets that lack selective antibodies (e.g., isoforms) and in cases in which background signal from intact cells is confounding. scWB is performed on a microdevice that comprises an array of microwells molded in a thin layer of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG). The gel layer functions as both a molecular sieving matrix during PAGE and a blotting scaffold during immunoprobing. scWB involves five main stages: (i) gravity settling of cells into microwells; (ii) chemical lysis of cells in each microwell; (iii) PAGE of each single-cell lysate; (iv) exposure of the gel to UV light to blot (immobilize) proteins to the gel matrix; and (v) in-gel immunoprobing of immobilized proteins. Multiplexing can be achieved by probing with antibody cocktails and using antibody stripping/reprobing techniques, enabling detection of 10+ proteins in each cell. We also describe microdevice fabrication for both uniform and pore-gradient microgels. To extend in-gel immunoprobing to gels of small pore size, we describe an optional gel de-cross-linking protocol for more effective introduction of antibodies into the gel layer. Once the microdevice has been fabricated, the assay can be completed in 4-6 h by microfluidic novices and it generates high-selectivity, multiplexed data from single cells. The technique is relevant when direct measurement of proteins in single cells is needed, with applications spanning the fundamental biosciences to applied biomedicine.

  16. The Whipple Museum and Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippard, Brian

    The Whipple Museum is part of the History and Philosophy of Science Department in the University of Cambridge. It is on your right as soon as you enter Free School Lane from Pembroke Street, and is normally open between 1:30 and 4:30 P.M. on weekdays. The main room, a hall with hammer-beam roof, is a relic of Stephen Perse’s school (1624) now flourishing elsewhere in the city. It houses a large collection of mathematical, physical and astronomical instruments — abaci, Napier’s bones, slide rules; sextants and other surveying instruments; telescopes, compasses and pocket sundials (especially of ivory from Nuremberg 1500-1700); and a Grand Orrery by George Adams (1750). The gallery of a second room is used for special exhibitions, often of items from the well-stocked store. Some specialist catalogues have been compiled and are on sale.

  17. Can science be a business? Lessons from biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Gary P

    2006-10-01

    In 1976, Genentech, the first biotechnology company, was founded by a young venture capitalist and a university professor to exploit recombinant DNA technology. Thirty years and more than 300 billion dollars in investments later, only a handful of biotech firms have matched Genentech's success or even shown a profit. No avalanche of new drugs has hit the market, and the long-awaited breakthrough in R&D productivity has yet to materialize. This disappointing performance raises a question: Can organizations motivated by the need to make profits and please shareholders successfully conduct basic scientific research as a core activity? The question has largely been ignored, despite intense debate over whether business's invasion of basic science-long the domain of universities and nonprofit research institutions- is limiting access to discoveries, thereby slowing advances in science. Biotech has not lived up to its promise, says the author, because its anatomy, which has worked well in other high-tech sectors, can't handle the fundamental challenges facing drug R&D: profound, persistent uncertainty and high risks rooted in the limited knowledge of human biology; the need for the diverse disciplines involved in drug discovery to work together in an integrated fashion; and barriers to learning, including tacit knowledge and murky intellectual property rights, which can slow the pace of scientific advance. A more suitable anatomy would include increased vertical integration; a smaller number of closer, longer collaborations; an emphasis by universities on sharing rather than patenting scientific discoveries; more cross-disciplinary academic research; and more federal and private funding for translational research, which bridges basic and applied science. With such modifications, science can be a business.

  18. TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot) and Its Application to Functional Lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids-including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids-from a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot), and its biochemical applications are presented. This chapter presents the conventional procedures for separating lipid from tissue samples, cultured cells, and serum and the subsequent development of TLC. Individual lipids separated on an HPTLC plate can be transferred to the PVDF membrane quantitatively and also isolated from the lipid-blotted membrane by a one-step purification procedure. Immunodetection with monoclonal antibodies and treatment with lipid-metabolizing enzymes on the lipid-blotted membrane are possible. The method for identification of individual lipids transferred on the PVDF membrane using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS) is shown as a functional lipidomics application.

  19. Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education. Cambridge Education Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Colleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Teachers Learning: Professional Development and Education" is part of The Cambridge Education Research series, edited by senior colleagues at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education, which has a longstanding tradition of involvement in high quality, innovative teacher education and continuing professional development.…

  20. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  1. 76 FR 13665 - Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Register on January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4731). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the... Employment and Training Administration Cambridge Tool & Die, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Action Total Staffing, Cambridge, OH; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for...

  2. Recent Developments in Cambridge College Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wilson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Cambridge University has three tiers of libraries available to students: the University Library, departmental (subject libraries and college libraries. Over the past thirty years there has been increasing pressure on the colleges to provide more books, reader places and technical resources in their libraries, with the result that a number of new library buildings, of very different styles, have been opened. Other colleges have opted for refurbishment and extension of existing libraries. These libraries are small (30-100,000 books and intimate, often open 24 hours a day and with generous provision for lending books. Great importance is placed on keeping them at the heart of the college. Challenges for architects are the sensitive sites, restrictions on changes to listed buildings, and the limited space available. The constricted sites cause difficulties for the builders too. I will consider some solutions to these problems with reference to projects in four colleges: Pembroke, Peterhouse, Corpus Christi and Newnham. At Pembroke architects Freeland Rees Roberts have built an extension to a listed building and at Peterhouse they have adapted an adjoining room. Corpus Christi is moving its library to a Victorian building which has been internally redesigned by Wright + Wright. Newnham demolished a 1960s extension in order to develop the plot more efficiently to a design by John Miller + Partners. All the architects have shown sensitivity to the needs of their clients and ingenuity in making intensive use of limited space.

  3. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  4. Artificial Pancreas Project at Cambridge 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, R

    2015-08-01

    The development and clinical testing of closed-loop systems (the artificial pancreas) is underpinned by advances in continuous glucose monitoring and benefits from concerted academic and industry collaborative efforts. This review describes the progress of the Artificial Pancreas Project at the University of Cambridge from 2006 to 2014. Initial studies under controlled laboratory conditions, designed to collect representative safety and performance data, were followed by short to medium free-living unsupervised outpatient studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of closed-loop insulin delivery using a model predictive control algorithm. Accompanying investigations included assessment of the psychosocial impact and key factors affecting glucose control such as insulin kinetics and glucose absorption. Translation to other disease conditions such as critical illness and Type 2 diabetes took place. It is concluded that innovation of iteratively enhanced closed-loop systems will provide tangible means to improve outcomes and quality of life in people with Type 1 diabetes and their families in the next decade.

  5. Poor States Urged to Research Biotech, Fight Hunger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Brough; 柯善雪

    2002-01-01

    夜读此文,既兴奋,又悲凉。兴奋,是因为千百年来,人们靠天吃饭,地里的活,种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。得多少,并非“大跃进”可以吹出来的,而是有一个常规,种地能手,能超出常规亩产20%,已有登天之难。而如今,植物的遗传工程(genetic engineering of plants)令世人一惊:It can improve crop yields and develop resis-tance to drought(干旱),salinity(盐份)and pests(害虫)。Biotechnology is also used todevelop drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes and hepatitis(肝炎);悲凉的是,这些专利正紧锁于富国的保险柜中待价而沽:The big biotech companies are locking uppatents at an incredible(难以置信的)rate!其另一个借口是:The full impact of thesenew life sciences on health and the environment is not known。 本文末尾的一句话又让我们另有想法: Biotechnology is by no means the only answer to the problem of hunger as the words already producing more food than it needs。】

  6. The Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT serendipity survey; 2, classification of x-ray luminous galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, B J; Wiles, B J; Elvis, M; Boyle, B J; McMahon, R G; Wiles, B J; Elvis, M

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5\\AA) spectroscopic study of 17 X-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge {\\it ROSAT} Serendipity Survey and the {\\it Einstein} Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Emission-line ratios reveal that the sample is composed of ten Seyfert and seven starburst galaxies. Measured linewidths for the narrow H\\alpha emission lines lie in the range 170-460\\,km\\,s^{-1}. Five of the objects show clear evidence for asymmetry in the [OIII]\\lambda5007 emission-line profile. Broad H\\alpha emission is detected in six of the Seyfert galaxies, which range in type from Seyfert 1.5 to 2. Broad H\\beta emission is only detected in one Seyfert galaxy. The mean full width at half maximum for the broad lines in the Seyfert galaxies is {\\rm FWHM = 3900\\pm 1750\\,km\\,s^{-1}}. Broad ({\\rm FWHM = 2200\\pm 600\\,km\\,s^{-1}}) H\\alpha emission is also detected in three of the starburst galaxies, which could originate from stellar winds or ...

  7. Where is the biotech industry in China headed to?%中国生物技术产生的发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慰国

    2009-01-01

    @@ 2008 was a year marked with changes and turns for biotech industry in China. 2008 began with tremendous promises riding on the waves of a history-making, exceptionally strong year in 2007. However, the biotech industry in China was not immune to the macroeconomic changes during 2008. This report will attempt to examine changes and new trends in biotech industry in China.

  8. Trends in global approvals of biotech crops (1992-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemita, Rhodora R; Reaño, Ian Mari E; Solis, Renando O; Hautea, Randy A

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of genetically modified (GM) events, traits, and crops that are developed to benefit the global population, approval of these technologies for food, feed, cultivation and import in each country may vary depending on needs, demand and trade interest. ISAAA established a GMO Approval Database to document global approvals of biotech crops. GM event name, crops, traits, developer, year of approval for cultivation, food/feed, import, and relevant dossiers were sourced from credible government regulatory websites and biosafety clearinghouses. This paper investigates the trends in GM approvals for food, feed and cultivation based on the number of approving countries, GM crops, events, and traits in the last 23 y (1992-2014), rationale for approval, factors influencing approvals, and their implications in GM crop adoption. Results show that in 2014, there was an accumulative increase in the number of countries granting approvals at 29 (79% developing countries) for commercial cultivation and 31 (70% developing countries) for food and 19 (80% developing developing) for feed; 2012 had the highest number of approving countries and cultivation approvals; 2011 had the highest number of country approvals for feed, and 2014 for food approvals. Herbicide tolerance trait had the highest events approved, followed by insect tolerance traits. Approvals for food product quality increased in the second decade. Maize had the highest number of events approved (single and stacked traits), and stacked traits product gradually increased which is already 30% of the total trait approvals. These results may indicate understanding and acceptance of countries to enhance regulatory capability to be able to benefit from GM crop commercialization. Hence, the paper provided information on the trends on the growth of the GM crop industry in the last 23 y which may be vital in predicting future GM crops and traits.

  9. Detection methods for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913 by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Jin-Kug; Yi, Bu-Young

    2007-05-01

    Plants derived through agricultural biotechnology, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs), may affect human health and ecological environment. A living GMO is also called a living modified organism (LMO). Biotech cotton is a GMO in food or feed and also an LMO in the environment. Recently, two varieties of biotech cotton, MON 15985 and MON 88913, were developed by Monsanto Co. The detection method is an essential element for the GMO labeling system or LMO management of biotech plants. In this paper, two primer pairs and probes were designed for specific amplification of 116 and 120 bp PCR products from MON 15985 and MON 88913, respectively, with no amplification from any other biotech cotton. Limits of detection of the qualitative method were all 0.05% for MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was developed using a TaqMan real-time PCR. A synthetic plasmid, as a reference molecule, was constructed from a taxon-specific DNA sequence of cotton and two construct-specific DNA sequences of MON 15985 and MON 88913. The quantitative method was validated using six samples that contained levels of biotech cotton mixed with conventional cotton ranging from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-20%. Limits of quantitation of the quantitative method were all 0.1%. Consequently, it is reported that the proposed detection methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analyses for biotech cotton MON 15985 and MON 88913.

  10. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  11. Parameters of Regional Cooperative Behavior in the German Biotech Industry – A Quantitative Social Network Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Strotebeck, Falk

    We analyse the determinants of network formation in Germany’s biotechnology industry using social network analysis combined with a regression approach for count data. Outcome variable of interest is the degree centrality of German regions, which is specified as a function of the region’s innovative...... and economic performance as well as biotech-related policy variables. The inclusion of the latter allows us to shed new light on the question to what extent R&D-based cluster policies are able to impact on the formation of the German biotech network. Our results show that policy indicators such as the volume...

  12. 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, Jonathan; Heylighen, Ann; Dong, Hua

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the 8th Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14), incorporating the 11th Cambridge Workshop on Rehabilitation Robotics, held in Cambridge, England in March 2016. It presents novel and state-of-the-art research from an international group of leaders in the fields of universal access and assistive technology. It explores various issues including the reconciliation of usability, accessibility and inclusive design, the design of inclusive assistive and rehabilitation systems, measuring product demand and human capabilities, data mining and visualizing inclusion, legislation in inclusive design, and situational inclusive interfaces (automotive and aerospace). This book provides an invaluable resource to researchers, postgraduates, design practitioners, therapists and clinical practitioners, as well as design teachers.

  13. Cambridge international AS and A level mathematics mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Porkess, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This brand new series has been written for the University of Cambridge International Examinations course for AS and A Level Mathematics (9709). This title covers the requirements of M1 and M2. The authors are experienced examiners and teachers who have written extensively at this level, so have ensured all mathematical concepts are explained using language and terminology that is appropriate for students across the world. Students are provded with clear and detailed worked examples and questions from Cambridge International past papers, so they have the opportunity for plenty of essential exam

  14. Cambridge international AS and A level mathematics statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Porkess, Roger; Konrad, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This brand new series has been written for the University of Cambridge International Examinations course for AS and A Level Mathematics (9709). This title covers the requirements of S1 and S2. The authors are experienced examiners and teachers who have written extensively at this level, so have ensured all mathematical concepts are explained using language and terminology that is appropriate for students across the world. Students are provded with clear and detailed worked examples and questions from Cambridge International past papers, so they have the opportunity for plenty of essenti

  15. Biotech/GM crops in horticulture: plum cv. HoneySweet resistant to plum pox virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. By 2011, genetically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha. Only 114.507 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.490 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Currently, developing c...

  16. The industrial application requirement for biotech inventions in light of recent EPO & UK case law:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2012-01-01

    at the date of filing to demonstrate a credible – or to use the terminology of the EPO – a plausible industrial application. In the final section of the article we shall also discuss various policy considerations relevant for the biotech industry and briefly refer to corresponding developments in the US...

  17. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented, followed by…

  18. How Is Corporate Social Responsibility Addressed by Biotech Firms? a Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bustamante, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the biotech high-tech sector as a way to achieve competitive advantages. After presenting the importance of science for high-tech firms, the paper focuses on the social and economic role of CSR. Next, the primary reasons for firms' engagement in CSR activities are presented,…

  19. 76 FR 42682 - China Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission-Clarification and Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the Biotech Life Science Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621..., 76 FR 17621, Mar. 30, 2011, are revised to read October 14-18, 2011. In addition, revise the Proposed... Trade Mission to China, 76 FR 17,621, Mar. 30, 2011, is amended to read as follows: Timeframe...

  20. The Cambridge Primary Review: A Reply to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The author was disappointed by R. J. Campbell's sour critique of the Cambridge Primary Review in "FORUM" Volume 52 Number 1 2010. His description of the Review's proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking, cumbersome and partial" is such a bizarre misjudgement that it calls for some response. The author comments in turn on R. J.…

  1. Skype'i stipendium viib Cambridge'i / Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bank, Kadri

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Infotehnoloogia Sihtasutuse (EITSA) Skype'i 100 000-kroonise magistristipendiumi sai Tartu Ülikooli matemaatika-informaatikateaduskonna kevadel lõpetanud Ago-Erik Riet, kes edestas kuut konkurenti ja asub õppima Cambridge'i Ülikooli magistrantuuri matemaatikat

  2. Group photograph: Dark Energy Survey Autumn Collaboration meeting Cambridge 2016 12 December 2016 - 16 December 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Group photograph of participants in the Dark Energy Survey Autumn collaboration meeting Cambridge 2016 12 December 2016 - 16 December 2016 taken outside the Cambridge Observatory building on 14 December 2016, by Amanda Smith, Graphics Officer.

  3. 78 FR 52802 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cambridge Isotope Lab... 01, 2013, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  4. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Cambridge Isotope Lab... 7, 2012, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application...

  5. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) frente a Western Blot

    OpenAIRE

    Heredia Ponce, Zahira Maria; Urbano Gámez, Jose Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We propose the SRM technology as a complementary method to the Western Blot for the detection and quantification of proteins in a sample. The technique Western Blot has its own limitations: i) only a protein-of-choice is detected, ignoring any non-relevant proteins, ii) the sensitivity of the technique depends on the specificity of the antibody and iii) Western Blot is expensive and time-consuming. The advantages of SRM with respect Western Blot are remarkable: i) you can detect up to h...

  6. 40 CFR 81.205 - Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.205 Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Zanesville-Cambridge Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio) consists of the territorial...

  7. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology.

  8. Fast and Simple micro-RNA Northern Blots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nham Tran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA northern blots provide robust measurements of gene expression. The simple northern blot technique described in this report has been optimised to provide rapid, reproducible detection and analysis of mature and precursor forms of microRNAs. This protocol economises on the use of commercially available components and secondly reduces the hybridisation step to 2 hours.

  9. Knowledge management in the QbD paradigm: manufacturing of biotech therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Christoph; Garcia-Aponte, Oscar F; Golabgir, Aydin; Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-07-01

    In the quality by design (QbD) paradigm, global regulatory agencies have introduced the concepts of quality risk management and knowledge management (KM) as enablers for an enhanced pharmaceutical quality system. Although the concept of quality risk management has been well elucidated in the literature, the topic of KM has received relatively scant attention. In this paper we present an opinion on KM in the QbD paradigm as it relates to the manufacturing of biotech therapeutic products. Both academic and industrial viewpoints have been considered and key gaps have been elucidated. The authors conclude that there is an urgent need for the biotech industry to create efficient KM approaches if they wish to be successful in QbD implementation.

  10. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated.

  11. A special report on India's biotech scenario: advancement in biopharmaceutical and health care sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2010-01-01

    India's biotechnology industry has been growing towards new heights in conjunction with the recent economic outburst. The country has the potential to revolutionize biopharmaceutical and healthcare sectors. In this review, we have highlighted the achievements of India's biotechnology industry, especially biopharmaceutical and healthcare sectors that include therapeutics, diagnostics, stem cell research, human healthcare related bioinformatics and animal health care. We have also described regulatory mechanisms involved in India's health care biotech including manpower development.

  12. The Strategic Importance of M&A in the Biotech and Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Savri

    2011-01-01

    Background: The companies involved for the purpose of improving their respective market standings and income executes mergers. It is interesting how this merger & acquisition phenomena continue to attract many organizations across different sectors of the business world. The mergers & acquisition culture around the globe provides an ideal scenario to investigate into the healthcare industry which comprises of pharmaceutical and biotech companies and the impact of the mergers on the firms inv...

  13. NTN Swiss Biotech - A Look at Support Measures for Dynamic Start-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss biotech landscape seems to be on a healthy footing: There are many imaginative start-ups, we have first-class hospitals, highly advanced clinical research and the availability of a great deal of capital. But we have no reason to rest on our laurels as countries like the USA lead the field. We must lay down the tracks today to remain an attractive country and maintain our ranking among the 10 best locations.

  14. Traffic Sign Recognition System based on Cambridge Correlator Image Comparator

    OpenAIRE

    J. Turan; L. Ovsenik; T. Harasthy

    2012-01-01

    Paper presents basic information about application of Optical Correlator (OC), specifically Cambridge Correlator, in system to recognize of traffic sign. Traffic Sign Recognition System consists of three main blocks, Preprocessing, Optical Correlator and Traffic Sign Identification. The Region of Interest (ROI) is defined and chosen in preprocessing block and then goes to Optical Correlator, where is compared with database of Traffic Sign. Output of Optical Correlation is correlation plane, w...

  15. University of Cambridge deploys Procket Networks' PRO/8801

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Procket Networks, a provider of high performance Internet Protocol (IP) technology and products has announced that the University of Cambridge has deployed the PRO/8801(TM) router into its research network to develop industry-leading deep packet inspection applications. The major application for this deployment is to identify and understand new traffic patterns created by large scale scientific computations and downloads such as the GRID (1 page).

  16. Metaphor Analysis of Chinese Premier Wen’s Cambridge Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Luo

    2014-01-01

    Metaphor is more than an ostensible decoration of language. It is an integral part of human thought of ideologized world. This article analyzes the metaphor use of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s speech at Cambridge in February 2009, in an at-tempt to display how the preferred metaphors serve the purpose of this speech and reflect Premier Wen ’s construction of Chi-na’s situation.

  17. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038.

  18. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  19. Mixed lubrication after rewetting of blotted pleural mesothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodega, Francesca; Sironi, Chiara; Porta, Cristina; Pecchiari, Matteo; Zocchi, Luciano; Agostoni, Emilio

    2013-01-15

    Coefficient of kinetic friction (μ) of pleural mesothelium blotted with filter paper, and rewetted with Ringer solution markedly increases; this increase is removed if a sufficient amount of sialomucin or hyaluronan is added to Ringer (Bodega et al., 2012. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 180, 34-39). In this research we found that μ of pleural mesothelium blotted, rewetted, and sliding at physiological velocities and loads, decreased with increase of velocity, mainly at low velocities. Despite this decrease, μ at highest velocity was still double that before blotting. With small concentration of sialomucin or hyaluronan μ was markedly smaller at each velocity, decreased less with increase of velocity, and at highest velocity approached preblotting value. These findings indicate a regime of mixed lubrication in post-blotting Ringer, at variance with boundary lubrication occurring before blotting or postblotting with sufficient macromolecule addition. Greater roughness of mesothelial surface, caused by blotting, likely induces zones of elastohydrodynamic lubrication, which increase with velocity, while contact area decreases.

  20. Biotech crops: imperative for achieving the millenium development goals and sustainability of agriculture in the climate change era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological intervention in the development of crops has opened new vistas in agriculture. Central to the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), biotech-agriculture is essential in meeting these targets. Biotech crops have already made modest contributions toward ensuring food and nutrition security by reducing losses and increasing productivity, with less pesticide input. These crops could help address some of the major challenges in agriculture-based economies created by climate change. Projections of global climate change expect the concentration of greenhouse gases to increase, aridization of the environment to increase, temperature fluctuations to occur sharply and frequently, and spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall to be disturbed-all of which will increase abiotic stress-related challenges to crops. Countering these challenges and to meet the food requirement of the ever-increasing world population (expected to reach 9 billion by 2030) we need to (1) develop and use biotech crops for mitigating adverse climatic changes; (2) develop biotech crops resilient to adverse environmental conditions; and (3) address the issues/non-issues raised by NGO's and educate the masses about the benefits of biotech crops.

  1. The line blot assay: problems with titrating first and second antibodies for Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Espinosa, O; Silva-Miranda, M; Wek-Rodriguez, K; Arce-Paredes, P

    2006-01-01

    We describe a technique designed to assess the optimal dilution of primary and secondary antibodies, to be used in Western blot, dot blot, the multi-antigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and immunohistochemistry assays. The method that we call "line blot" is not an alternative but a practical, complementary tool for the above techniques that assures definitive results are obtained from single assays, so there is no need to repeat the assay. As with most immunoenzymatic assays, the line blot assay is very sensitive, allowing the detection of absolute amounts of antigen as low as 2.5 ng in the 0.5 cm-long segment line (see Results), depending on the strength of the secondary, enzyme-labelled antibody.

  2. Cambridge IGCSE and international certificate French foreign language

    CERN Document Server

    Grime, Yvette; Thacker, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This brand-new Student Book provides a grammar-led approach with extensive exam preparation that will help you develop independent, culturally aware students of French ready for the exam. The book is written to the latest Cambridge International Examinations syllabus by experienced teachers. Extensive use of French reflects the style of the exams and, with specific advice and practice, it helps students use the acquired skills to their best ability. Topics on Francophone cultures are integrated throughout to ensure students gain the cultural awareness that is at the heart of this qualification

  3. WORKING WITH ARCHIVES: CAMBRIDGE ECONOMICS THROUGH THE MAGNIFYING GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Marcuzzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in economics using documentary archives provides clearer interpretations about the ideas and their development throughout time, in the context of the writing process in relation to the interlocutors and antagonists, and the nature of the problems addressed. This document presents examples of works with tough drafts, correspondence, tables of contents, notes, and related material of four economists of the "Cambridge Group": Piero Sraffa, Richard Kahn, Joan Robinson, and John Maynard Keynes. In each case the findings and importance of the research done in the files are described.

  4. The Cambridge MRI database for animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    We describe the Cambridge animal brain magnetic resonance imaging repository comprising 400 datasets to date from mouse models of Huntington disease. The data include raw images as well as segmented grey and white matter images with maps of cortical thickness. All images and phenotypic data for each subject are freely-available without restriction from (http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/243361/). Software and anatomical population templates optimised for animal brain analysis with MRI are also available from this site.

  5. Skin Regeneration Symposium Cambridge, 12-13 April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    The Annual Skin Regeneration Symposium, held in Cambridge, UK, 12-13 April 2016, explored the latest advancements in skin repair, regeneration and restoration, and the impact this has on patients. With over 140 delegates from the disciplines of burn and trauma care, chronic wounds and esthetic medicine, the symposium sparked lively debate and the sharing of results from interesting case studies, clinical trials and basic research to support the use of a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension produced using the ReCell(®) technology. Furthermore, it enabled delegates and speakers alike to share ideas and discuss how to improve the quality of care for patients.

  6. Risks of allergic reactions to biotech proteins in foods: perception and reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, S B; Bannon, G A

    2005-05-01

    In recent years, significant attention has been paid to the use of biotechnology to improve the quality and quantity of the food supply due in part to the projected growth in the world population, plus limited options available for increasing the amount of land under cultivation. Alterations in the food supply induced by classical breeding and selection methods typically involve the movement of large portions of genomic DNA between different plant varieties to obtain the desired trait. This is in contrast to techniques of genetic engineering which allows the selection and transfers specific genes from one species to another. The primary allergy risk to consumers from genetically modified crops may be placed into one of three categories. The first represents the highest risk to the allergic consumer is the transfer of known allergen or cross-reacting allergen into a food crop. The second category, representing an intermediate risk to the consumer, is the potential for replacing the endogenous allergenicity of a genetically-modified crop. The last category involves expression of novel proteins that may become allergens in man and generally represents a relatively low risk to the consumer, although this possibility has received attention of late. In order to mitigate the three categories of potential allergy risk associated with biotech crops, all genes introduced into food crops undergo a series of tests designed to determine if the biotech protein exhibits properties of known food allergens. The result of this risk assessment process to date is that no biotech proteins in foods have been documented to cause allergic reactions. These results indicate that the current assessment process is robust, although as science of allergy and allergens evolves, new information and new technology should help further the assessment process for potential allergenicity.

  7. The Cambridge Structural Database in retrospect and prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Allen, Frank H

    2014-01-13

    The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC) was established in 1965 to record numerical, chemical and bibliographic data relating to published organic and metal-organic crystal structures. The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now stores data for nearly 700,000 structures and is a comprehensive and fully retrospective historical archive of small-molecule crystallography. Nearly 40,000 new structures are added each year. As X-ray crystallography celebrates its centenary as a subject, and the CCDC approaches its own 50th year, this article traces the origins of the CCDC as a publicly funded organization and its onward development into a self-financing charitable institution. Principally, however, we describe the growth of the CSD and its extensive associated software system, and summarize its impact and value as a basis for research in structural chemistry, materials science and the life sciences, including drug discovery and drug development. Finally, the article considers the CCDC's funding model in relation to open access and open data paradigms.

  8. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

    2010-10-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

  9. Sediment remediation of the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeloni, D.; Eby, M.; Jarvis, S.; Martin, P. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: danielle.angeloni@earthtech.ca

    2002-06-15

    'Full text:' Low dissolved oxygen levels and large accumulated sediment remediation alternatives were examined to assemble the Hespeler Mill Pond, Cambridge (HMP) into a healthier and more desirable recreational area in the City of Cambridge. The theory that a large amount of sediment has been deposited into the HMP from the Speed River upstream over a number of years predicts the depressed oxygen levels, high nutrient-loading rates and the odour problems in the summer months. The initial phase in the remediation plan for this project involved extensive background research and investigation. The focus was on determining the characteristics of the sediment and the history of the pond, to ultimately decide if the sediment was the source of the issues. Dissolved oxygen field tests and sediment sampling were conducted to get information on the magnitude of the problem and the environmental hazards potentially present in the pond. The pond was modelled utilising the Streeter-Phelps oxygen-sag model to predict the oxygen deficit. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD{sub 5}) testing was completed to determine the oxygen demand in the pond. These tests were conducted by using water samples obtained from various sample points at the pond. The proposed solution is a combined dredging and aeration approach. Mechanical dredging using a clamshell bucket and the installation of aerators is expected to solve the dissolved oxygen and water quality issues. (author)

  10. [Clinical usefulness and psychometric properties of the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Martinez, R; Kokoulina, E; Carballido-Araujo, E; Garcia-Fuertes, I; Gutierrez-Martinez, O; Santiago-Lopez, F; Vazquez-Batan, P

    2016-11-16

    Introduccion. Un area importante de la evaluacion neuropsicologica son los sintomas psicologicos y conductuales. El inventario conductual de CambridgeCambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI)– es una medida de autoinforme dirigida a allegados que recoge una amplia variedad de sintomas conductuales que pueden darse en el curso de las enfermedades neurologicas. El principal objetivo del estudio es comprobar la utilidad clinica de su adaptacion al castellano. Sujetos y metodos. El CBI fue cumplimentado por 215 allegados de pacientes remitidos desde los servicios de neurologia y psiquiatria. Se compararon los perfiles del CBI de cuatro grupos de pacientes formados sobre la base de sus principales caracteristicas clinicas, datos psicometricos, pruebas de imagen y juicio clinico del profesional solicitante del estudio neuropsicologico. Resultados. La mayoria de las escalas (10 de 13) del CBI tuvo valores de consistencia interna aceptables, y las escalas de memoria y atencion/orientacion, correlaciones elevadas con medidas objetivas de memoria y orientacion temporal. Los perfiles del CBI de los grupos de pacientes con distintas condiciones (trastorno organico de la memoria, trastorno funcional de la memoria, variante conductual de demencia frontotemporal y enfermedad de Alzheimer) fueron consistentes con sus principales caracteristicas. Conclusiones. El CBI es un instrumento psicometricamente fiable y con adecuada validez convergente y discriminante que puede ser util en el proceso de evaluacion neuropsicologica, aportando informacion relevante no solo sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo y las capacidades funcionales, sino tambien sobre los sintomas conductuales y psicologicos de los pacientes con trastornos cognitivos.

  11. Growth and profitability in small privately held biotech firms: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännback, Malin; Carsrud, Alan; Renko, Maija; Ostermark, Ralf; Aaltonen, Jaana; Kiviluoto, Niklas

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on preliminary findings on a study of the relationship of growth and profitability among small privately held Finnish Life Science firms. Previous research results concerning growth and profitability are mixed, ranging from strongly positive to a negative relationship. The conventional wisdom states that growth is a prerequisite for profitability. Our results suggest that the reverse is the case. A high profitability-low growth biotech firm is more probably to make the transition to high profitability-high growth than a firm that starts off with low profitability and high growth.

  12. Safety assessment of nonbrowning potatoes: opening the discussion about the relevance of substantial equivalence on next generation biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; Alonso, Guillermo D; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Rodríguez, Vanina; López, Mariana G; Carrari, Fernando; Torres, Héctor N; Flawiá, Mirtha M

    2011-02-01

    It is expected that the next generation of biotech crops displaying enhanced quality traits with benefits to both farmers and consumers will have a better acceptance than first generation biotech crops and will improve public perception of genetic engineering. This will only be true if they are proven to be as safe as traditionally bred crops. In contrast with the first generation of biotech crops where only a single trait is modified, the next generation of biotech crops will add a new level of complexity inherent to the mechanisms underlying their output traits. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the comparative safety approach on a quality-improved biotech crop with metabolic modifications is presented. Three genetically engineered potato lines with silenced polyphenol oxidase (Ppo) transcripts and reduced tuber browning were characterized at both physiological and molecular levels and showed to be equivalent to wild-type (WT) plants when yield-associated traits and photosynthesis were evaluated. Analysis of the primary metabolism revealed several unintended metabolic modifications in the engineered tubers, providing evidence for potential compositional inequivalence between transgenic lines and WT controls. The silencing construct sequence was in silico analysed for potential allergenic cross-reactivity, and no similarities to known allergenic proteins were identified. Moreover, in vivo intake safety evaluation showed no adverse effects in physiological parameters. Taken together, these results provide the first evidence supporting that the safety of next generation biotech crops can be properly assessed following the current evaluation criterion, even if the transgenic and WT crops are not substantially equivalent.

  13. The Cambridge Equation with government activity revisited A Equação de Cambridge com atividade governamental revisitada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silva Azevedo Araujo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the steady-state distributional features found in a Kaldor-Pasinetti process, in which the government sector is allowed to run persistent deficits that may be financed through different instruments. Productive capital and bonds generate single rates of return, while workers' saving propensity remains uniform. This paper seeks to establish a generalization of Cambridge Eauqtion, considering the specific contributions of Steedman (1972, Pasinetti (1989, Dalziel (1991, and Faria (2000.Neste artigo faz-se uma análise das características distributivas do processo Kaldor-Pasinetti, assumindo-se que o setor governamental incorre em persistentes déficits que podem ser financiados através de diferentes instrumentos, como a emissão de títulos e de moeda. Através dessa abordagem é possível estudar como a atividade governamental afeta a distribuição de renda entre capitalistas e trabalhadores e assim obter generalizações do Teorema de Cambridge em que versões anteriores como as de Steedman (1972, Pasinetti (1989, Dalziel (1991 e Faria (2000 surgem como casos particulares.

  14. Routine Western blot to check autophagic flux : Cautions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Ruben; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M. S.; Rodriguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M.; Fuentes, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, the analysis of autophagic flux by Western blotting (WB), which measures two of the most important markers of autophagy, i.e., microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and p62, is widely accepted in the scientific community. In this study, we addressed the possible disadvanta

  15. The income and production effects of biotech crops globally 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A critical feature in evaluating the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture must include an assessment of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income, indirect (non-pecuniary) farm level income effects and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of biotech crops is continuing to proceed rapidly, with significant changes in the overall level of adoption and impact taking place in 2010. This updated analysis shows that there have been substantial net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $14 billion in 2010 and $78.4 billion for the 15-year period (in nominal terms). The non-pecuniary benefits associated with the use of the technology have also had a positive impact on adoption (in the US accounting for the equivalent of 22% of the total US direct farm income benefit). Biotech crops are, moreover, making important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops. They have, for example, now added 97.5 million tons and 159 million tons respectively, to the global production of soybeans and corn since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s.

  16. 7th Cambridge Workshops on Universal Access and Assistive Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Lazar, J; Heylighen, A; Dong, H; Inclusive Designing : Joining Usability, Accessibility, and Inclusion

    2014-01-01

    ‘Inclusive Designing’ presents the proceedings of the seventh Cambridge Workshop on Universal Access and Assistive Technology (CWUAAT '14). It represents a unique multi-disciplinary workshop for the Inclusive Design Research community where designers, computer scientists, engineers, architects, ergonomists, policymakers and user communities can exchange ideas. The research presented at CWUAAT '14 develops methods, technologies, tools and guidance that support product designers and architects to design for the widest possible population for a given range of capabilities, within a contemporary social and economic context. In the context of developing demographic changes leading to greater numbers of older people and people with disabilities, the general field of Inclusive Design Research strives to relate the capabilities of the population to the design of products. Inclusive populations of older people contain a greater variation in sensory, cognitive and physical user capabilities. These variations may be...

  17. Traffic Sign Recognition System based on Cambridge Correlator Image Comparator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents basic information about application of Optical Correlator (OC, specifically Cambridge Correlator, in system to recognize of traffic sign. Traffic Sign Recognition System consists of three main blocks, Preprocessing, Optical Correlator and Traffic Sign Identification. The Region of Interest (ROI is defined and chosen in preprocessing block and then goes to Optical Correlator, where is compared with database of Traffic Sign. Output of Optical Correlation is correlation plane, which consist of highly localized intensities, know as correlation peaks. The intensity of spots provides a measure of similarity and position of spots, how images (traffic signs are relatively aligned in the input scene. Several experiments have been done with proposed system and results and conclusion are discussed.

  18. A Comparison between Oxford University and Cambridge University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Qiong-hui; ZHENG Yun-yan; YANG Zhi-min

    2016-01-01

    牛津大学和剑桥大学是两所世界著名的英国大学。他们不同于英国的其他大学,但两者本身却在历史、组织构造、教学风格方面拥有很多的相似之处。与此同时,它们在发展过程、框架结构、教学重点方面也有着不同之处。牛津大学和剑桥大学是两所世界一流的大学,它们因此成为世界各地的年青人所向往的理想大学。这两所大学将继续保持它们在将来高等教育界的显著地位。%Oxford University and Cambridge University in the United Kingdom are two world-famous universities, they differ from other universities in the United Kingdom, but they themselves have much in common in history, organizational makeup, and teaching style. Meanwhile, they also have some differences in development, framework, and educational focus. As two of the first-class universities in the world, Oxford University and Cambridge University have become the ideal universities that many young people all over the world yearn to enter. The two universities will keep themselves in the foreground of higher education in the future.

  19. A snuff, Sir? Et ego in Arcadia - op sabbatical in Cambridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Een maand lang heb ik in Cambridge onderzoek mogen doen. In deze column wil ik daar verslag van uitbrengen. Niet van mijn onderzoek — ik heb vooral rondgekeken in de bibliotheek en gesproken met collega's om te zien wat momenteel in de common law te koop is - maar van Cambridge zelf.

  20. Anneli Randla kaitses doktorikraadi Cambridge'is / Anneli Randla ; interv. Reet Varblane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Randla, Anneli

    1999-01-01

    5. mail kaitses Cambridge'is esimese eesti kunstiteadlasena doktorikraadi Anneli Randla. Töö teema: kerjusmungaordukloostrite arhitektuur Põhja-Euroopas. Juhendaja dr. Deborah Howard. Doktorikraadile esitatavatest nõudmistest, doktoritöö kaitsmisest, magistrikraadi kaitsnu õppimisvõimalustest Cambridge's.

  1. Success in the US: Are Cambridge International Assessments Good Preparation for University Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Bailey, Clare

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by University of Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate for continued studies in colleges and universities. The primary purpose of the research is to highlight…

  2. Investigating the Impact of Cambridge International Assessments on U.S. Stakeholders: Student and Teacher Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    As part of the continuing program to study the impact of its international assessments, the University of Cambridge International Examinations ("Cambridge") has undertaken a series of studies investigating the impact on a range of US stakeholders. This paper reports on research designed to respond to a series of washback and impact questions…

  3. 77 FR 64143 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cambridge Isotope Lab By Notice dated June 18, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on June 26, 2012, 77 FR 38086, Cambridge Isotope Lab, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, Massachusetts 01810, made application by renewal to...

  4. Assessing the Impact of Arts and Humanities Research at the University of Cambridge. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ruth; Celia, Claire; Diepeveen, Stephanie; Chonaill, Siobhan Ni; Rabinovich, Lila; Tiessen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This project for the University of Cambridge and the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) assesses the impacts of arts and humanities research at the University of Cambridge. Evidence from interviews, a survey of research staff and detailed case studies indicates that these disciplines already have a broad range of impacts. Many of these…

  5. Intuitive Expertise and Empowerment: The Long-Term Impact of Simulation Training on Changing Accountabilities in a Biotech Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBello, Lia; Missildine, Whit; Struttman, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a two-year study in which high levels of performance were achieved and sustained among so-called low-level workers in a biotech company. The purpose of the study--funded by National Science Foundation and lnvitrogen Corporation--were to explore the effectiveness of an accelerated learning Operational Simulation (OpSim)…

  6. The Cambridge-Cambridge x-ray serendipity survey. 2: Classification of x-ray luminous galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, B. J.; Mcmahon, R. G.; Wilkes, B. J.; Elvis, Martin

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of an intermediate-resolution (1.5 A) spectroscopic study of 17 x-ray luminous narrow emission-line galaxies previously identified in the Cambridge-Cambridge ROSAT Serendipity Survey and the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. Emission-line ratios reveal that the sample is composed of ten Seyfert and seven starburst galaxies. Measured linewidths for the narrow H alpha emission lines lie in the range 170 - 460 km s(exp -1). Five of the objects show clear evidence for asymmetry in the (OIII) lambda 5007 emission-line profile. Broad H alpha emission is detected in six of the Seyfert galaxies, which range in type from Seyfert 1.5 to 2. Broad H beta emission is only detected in one Seyfert galaxy. The mean full width at half maximum for the broad lines in the Seyfert galaxies is FWHM = 3900 +/- 1750 km s(exp -1). Broad (FWHM = 2200 +/- 600 km s(exp -1) H alpha emission is also detected in three of the starburst galaxies, which could originate from stellar winds or supernovae remnants. The mean Balmer decrement for the sample is H alpha / H beta = 3, consistent with little or no reddening for the bulk of the sample. There is no evidence for any trend with x-ray luminosity in the ratio of starburst galaxies to Seyfert galaxies. Based on our previous observations, it is therefore likely that both classes of object comprise approximately 10 percent of the 2 keV x-ray background.

  7. Implementing quality by design for biotech products: Are regulators on track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Francesca; Galluzzo, Sara; Gaggioli, Andrea; Kruse, Nanna Aaby; Venneugues, Pascal; Schneider, Christian K; Pini, Carlo; Melchiorri, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is an innovative approach to drug development that has started to be implemented into the regulatory framework, but currently mainly for chemical drugs. The recent marketing authorization of the first monoclonal antibody developed using extensive QbD concepts in the European Union paves the way for future further regulatory approvals of complex products employing this cutting-edge technological concept. In this paper, we report and comment on insights and lessons learnt from the non-public discussions in the European Medicines Agency's Biologicals Working Party and Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use on the key issues during evaluation related to the implementation of an extensive QbD approach for biotechnology-derived medicinal products. Sharing these insights could prove useful for future developments in QbD for biotech products in general and monoclonal antibodies in particular.

  8. BIOTECH CHINA 2007新闻发布会在沪举行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    本着“整合资源,培育品牌,多方受益”的原则,世博集团上海现代国际展览有限公司、上海科技会展有限公司和德国汉诺威展览公司将在2007年7月4-6日联手推出“2007中国国际生物技术和仪器设备博览会。(BIOTECH CHINA 2007),三大展览公司携手打造的此次展会预计展出面积6000m2。

  9. Capacity optimization and scheduling of a multiproduct manufacturing facility for biotech products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Munawar A; Dhakre, Ankita; Rathore, Anurag S; Patil, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    A general mathematical framework has been proposed in this work for scheduling of a multiproduct and multipurpose facility involving manufacturing of biotech products. The specific problem involves several batch operations occurring in multiple units involving fixed processing time, unlimited storage policy, transition times, shared units, and deterministic and fixed data in the given time horizon. The different batch operations are modeled using state-task network representation. Two different mathematical formulations are proposed based on discrete- and continuous-time representations leading to a mixed-integer linear programming model which is solved using General Algebraic Modeling System software. A case study based on a real facility is presented to illustrate the potential and applicability of the proposed models. The continuous-time model required less number of events and has a smaller problem size compared to the discrete-time model.

  10. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women’s daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  11. The hermeneutics of mental symptoms in the Cambridge School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current Psychiatry is in crisis. Decades of neuroscientific research have not yet delivered adequate explanations or treatments. One reason for this failure may be the wrongness of its central assumption, namely that mental symptoms and disorders are natural kinds. The Cambridge School has proposed that a new Epistemology must be constructed for Psychiatry, and that this should start with the development of a new model of mental symptom-formation. ‘Mental symptoms’ should be considered as hermeneutic co-constructions occurring in a intersubjective space created by the dialogue between sufferer and healer. Subjective experiences (caused either by neurobiological or psychosocial upheaval penetrate the awareness of sufferers causing perplexity and/or distress. To understand, handle and communicate these experiences, sufferers proceed to configure them by means of templates borrowed from their own culture. Importantly, however, the same neurobiological information can be configured into different symptoms; and different neurobiological information into the same symptom. Therefore, ‘mental symptoms’ are dissimilar hybrid combinations of neurobiological and cultural information. To be ethical, therapeutic interventions must take into account such dissimilarities. Blind manipulation of the brain in all cases should be considered as counterproductive.

  12. Worries of Pregnant Women: Testing the Farsi Cambridge Worry Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Forough; Akaberi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy adds many sources of concerns to women's daily life worries. Excessive worry can affect maternal physiological and psychological state that influences the pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to validate the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in a sample of Iranian pregnant women. After translation of the CWS, ten experts evaluated the items and added six items to the 17-item scale. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 405 of pregnant women booked for prenatal care completed the Farsi CWS. We split the sample randomly. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted on the first half of the sample to disclose the factorial structure of the 23-item scale. The results of the EFA on the Farsi CWS indicated four factors altogether explained 51.5% of variances. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was done on the second half of the sample. The results of the CFA showed that the model fit our data (chi-square/df = 2.02, RMSEA = 0.071, SRMR = 0.071, CFI = 0.95, and NNFI = 0.94). Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Farsi CWS was 0.883. The Farsi CWS is a reliable and valid instrument for understanding common pregnancy worries in the third trimester of pregnancy in Iranian women.

  13. Who Needs a Revision? 20 Years of Cambridge Shunt Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czosnyka, Zofia; Czosnyka, Marek; Pickard, John D; Chari, Aswin

    2016-01-01

    Shunt testing independent of manufacturers provides knowledge that can significantly improve the management of patients with hydrocephalus. The Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory was created 20 years ago. Thanks to financial support from the Department of Health (1993-1998), all shunts in use in the UK were systematically evaluated, with "blue reports" being published. Later new devices were tested as they appeared in public domain.Twenty-six models have been evaluated. The majority of the valves had a non-physiologically low hydrodynamic resistance that may result in over-drainage, both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100-200 %. Drainage through valves without a siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture. Shunts with siphon-preventing accessories offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure. Bench parameters were used to test shunt performance in vivo using infusion tests. A criterion for correctly performing a shunt procedure was established. Pressure measured in the shunt prechamber during the plateau phase of infusion should not remain more than 5 mmHg above the le shunt's operating pressure plus hydrodynamic resistance of the valve multiplied by the infusion rate. "Critical levels" for every shunt and every performance level have been used in the shunt testing wizard of ICM+ software.

  14. Development and current status of the "Cambridge" loudness models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-13

    This article reviews the evolution of a series of models of loudness developed in Cambridge, UK. The first model, applicable to stationary sounds, was based on modifications of the model developed by Zwicker, including the introduction of a filter to allow for the effects of transfer of sound through the outer and middle ear prior to the calculation of an excitation pattern, and changes in the way that the excitation pattern was calculated. Later, modifications were introduced to the assumed middle-ear transfer function and to the way that specific loudness was calculated from excitation level. These modifications led to a finite calculated loudness at absolute threshold, which made it possible to predict accurately the absolute thresholds of broadband and narrowband sounds, based on the assumption that the absolute threshold corresponds to a fixed small loudness. The model was also modified to give predictions of partial loudness-the loudness of one sound in the presence of another. This allowed predictions of masked thresholds based on the assumption that the masked threshold corresponds to a fixed small partial loudness. Versions of the model for time-varying sounds were developed, which allowed prediction of the masked threshold of any sound in a background of any other sound. More recent extensions incorporate binaural processing to account for the summation of loudness across ears. In parallel, versions of the model for predicting loudness for hearing-impaired ears have been developed and have been applied to the development of methods for fitting multichannel compression hearing aids.

  15. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  16. 1919: psychology and psychoanalysis, Cambridge and London - Myers, Jones and MacCurdy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, John

    2008-01-01

    Viewing the reception of psychoanalysis in Britain from Cambridge, the paper examines the intertwining histories of the post-War British Psychological Society and the founding of the British Psycho-Analytical Society, following the initiatives of the two principal psychological entrepreneurs of the era, Charles Myers and Ernest Jones, Reforms in Cambridge in which psychoanalysis played a significant part are analysed, including the foundation of a Clinic for Nervous Diseases and the establishment of a separate Department of Experimental Psychology. The career of J. T. MacCurdy, Jones's student and Lecturer in Psychopathology at Cambridge, is discussed.

  17. Plastination in Anatomy Learning: An Experience at Cambridge University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael; Bainbridge, David; Tavernor, Angie; López Albors, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of objective data, the benefits of using plastination in combination with wet dissection in teaching gross anatomy are unknown. The aim of this study was to obtain objective evidence from students regarding the effectiveness of combining plastinated specimens (PS) with an established gross anatomy education program at Cambridge University that uses wet cadaver dissection and small-group tutorials. For a complete academic year, a total of 135 PS were used alongside wet cadaver dissections. The PS were also available for small-group tutorials. An anonymous closed questionnaire, using a 5-point numerical-estimation Likert scale, was used to gather information relating to the effectiveness of the PS. The level of student satisfaction with the combined use of wet dissections and PS was high, although higher (p<.05) for second-year students (98.4%) than for first-year students (95.5%). Students felt the specimens allowed them to see details that were often more difficult to identify in their dissections, for instance nerves. Voluntary use of PS was higher (p<.01) for second-year students (96.9%), who had previously experienced anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection alone, than for first-year students (77.7%). Overall, 97.7% of all students thought that the PS helped them understand and learn anatomy. All students surveyed (100%) recommended the use of PS in the future. Students considered the use of PS in the dissection room combined with wet cadaver dissection to be beneficial when learning anatomy, particularly when combined with their use during small-group tutorials.

  18. 75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known..., 2010, applicable to workers of Sansata Technologies MA, Incorporated, Power Controls Division, formerly... under the control of the Cambridge, Maryland location of Sensata Technologies MA, Incorporated,...

  19. Antibody performance in western blot applications is context-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algenäs, Cajsa; Agaton, Charlotta; Fagerberg, Linn; Asplund, Anna; Björling, Lisa; Björling, Erik; Kampf, Caroline; Lundberg, Emma; Nilsson, Peter; Persson, Anja; Wester, Kenneth; Pontén, Fredrik; Wernérus, Henrik; Uhlén, Mathias; Ottosson Takanen, Jenny; Hober, Sophia

    2014-03-01

    An important concern for the use of antibodies in various applications, such as western blot (WB) or immunohistochemistry (IHC), is specificity. This calls for systematic validations using well-designed conditions. Here, we have analyzed 13 000 antibodies using western blot with lysates from human cell lines, tissues, and plasma. Standardized stratification showed that 45% of the antibodies yielded supportive staining, and the rest either no staining (12%) or protein bands of wrong size (43%). A comparative study of WB and IHC showed that the performance of antibodies is application-specific, although a correlation between no WB staining and weak IHC staining could be seen. To investigate the influence of protein abundance on the apparent specificity of the antibody, new WB analyses were performed for 1369 genes that gave unsupportive WBs in the initial screening using cell lysates with overexpressed full-length proteins. Then, more than 82% of the antibodies yielded a specific band corresponding to the full-length protein. Hence, the vast majority of the antibodies (90%) used in this study specifically recognize the target protein when present at sufficiently high levels. This demonstrates the context- and application-dependence of antibody validation and emphasizes that caution is needed when annotating binding reagents as specific or cross-reactive. WB is one of the most commonly used methods for validation of antibodies. Our data implicate that solely using one platform for antibody validation might give misleading information and therefore at least one additional method should be used to verify the achieved data.

  20. Dynamics of center-periphery patterns in knowledge networks - the case of China's biotech science and technology system

    CERN Document Server

    Hennemann, Stefan; Liefner, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Science and technology systems - and their epistemic communities - are usually hierarchical and composed of a number of strong, large, leading organizations, along with a number of smaller and less influential ones. Moreover, these hierarchical patterns have a spatial structure: the leading organizations are concentrated in a few places, creating a science and technology center, whereas the majority of locations are peripheral. In the example of biotech research in China, we found dynamic changes in center-periphery patterns. These results are based on a network analysis of evolving co-authorship networks from 2001 to 2009 that were built combining national and international databases. Therefore, our results are not only relevant for evaluating the spatial structure and dynamics in the Chinese biotech system and its integration into the global knowledge network, but also revive a discussion on persistence and processes of change in the systems theory for sciencebased industries.

  1. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence.

  2. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad L. Ericson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs. The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions. Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses.

  3. Biotech outsourcing strategies cmc--biologics stream. June 17, 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Now in its third year, the Biotech Outsourcing Strategies (BOS) meeting organized by Bio2Business took place at the Søhuset Conference Centre in Hørsholm, Copenhagen. The focus of this year's event was the demanding and challenging area of chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC), and the meeting provided ample opportunity for lively discussion of the key issues surrounding this area. New for the 2010 conference, a biologics-focused lecture stream ran in parallel to the established small molecule stream. Both streams boasted a distinguished panel of keynote speakers who discussed all aspects of CMC from early stage scale-up through late stage clinical development. In addition to the keynote speakers, selected contract research organizations (CROs) gave short presentations on the solutions that they could provide to some of the challenges facing CMC. The meeting attracted more than 150 delegates from leading drug development companies and CRO service providers, and greatly facilitated the forging of new working relationships through pre-arranged one-to-one meetings. Moreover, exhibitions from event sponsors and considerable scheduled networking time over lunch and evening reception further enhanced the highly productive and interactive nature of the meeting.

  4. A history of plant biotechnology: from the Cell Theory of Schleiden and Schwann to biotech crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil, Indra K

    2008-09-01

    Plant biotechnology is founded on the principles of cellular totipotency and genetic transformation, which can be traced back to the Cell Theory of Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, and the discovery of genetic transformation in bacteria by Frederick Griffith, respectively. On the 25th anniversary of the genetic transformation of plants, this review provides a historical account of the evolution of the theoretical concepts and experimental strategies that led to the production and commercialization of biotech (transformed or transgenic) plants expressing many useful genes, and emphasizes the beneficial effects of plant biotechnology on food security, human health, the environment, and conservation of biodiversity. In so doing, it celebrates and pays tribute to the contributions of scores of scientists who laid the foundation of modern plant biotechnology by their bold and unconventional thinking and experimentation. It highlights also the many important lessons to be learnt from the fascinating history of plant biotechnology, the significance of history in science teaching and research, and warns against the danger of the growing trends of ignoring history and historical illiteracy.

  5. Trait stacking for biotech crops: an essential consideration for agbiotech development projects for building trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of agricultural biotechnology humanitarian projects for food security in the last five years has been rapid in developing countries and is expected to rise sharply over the coming years. An extremely critical issue in these projects involves building trust with the community and farmers they aim to serve. For the first time, our social audit engagement with one of these initiatives, the Water Efficient Maize for Africa project, has revealed that a critical but unrecognized component of building trust with farmers involves publicly addressing the concerns surrounding stacked trait crops. As a result, we argue in this article that it is critical to actively anticipate the concerns that could be raised over trait stacking by incorporating them into global access plans of such initiatives early in order to facilitate adoption, provide the best value to the small-scale farmer and gain trust with the community whom these projects aim to serve. This perspective, based on an actual international social audit, should be of value to scientists, funders and partners involved in biotech development initiatives for food security.

  6. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L. Michael [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Batson, Philip E. [Institute for Advanced Materials, Devices and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Materials Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Dellby, Niklas [Nion Company, 11515 NE 118th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 (United States); Krivanek, Ondrej L. [Nion Company, 11515 NE 118th Street, Kirkland, WA 98034 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper “In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday”, recently published in Ultramicroscopy. - Highlights: • We provide a brief history of the Cambridge project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction work and related research. • We summarize our corrector development work that followed the Cambridge project, and which was the first to reach higher spatial resolution than any non-corrected electron microscope.

  7. Taxonomic review of the New World spider genus Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 (Araneae, Clubionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Regiane; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio

    2015-11-23

    Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 is characterized and redescribed, including 49 species occurring from the United States to Argentina. Thirty seven previously known species are redescribed: Elaver achuca (Roddy, 1966) revalidated, E. balboae (Chickering, 1937), E. barroana (Chickering, 1937), E. calcarata (Kraus, 1955), E. carlota (Bryant, 1940), E. chisosa (Roddy, 1966), E. crinophora (Franganillo, 1934), E. crocota (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. albicans (Franganillo, 1930) name restored, E. depuncta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. elaver (Bryant, 1940), E. excepta (L. Koch, 1866), E. grandivulva (Mello-Leitão, 1930), E. hortoni (Chickering, 1937), E. implicata (Gertsch, 1941), E. juana (Bryant, 1940), E. kohlsi (Gertsch & Jellison, 1939), E. linguata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. madera (Roddy, 1966), E. mirabilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) new. comb., E. mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935), E. multinotata (Chickering, 1937), E. orvillei (Chickering, 1937), E. placida O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. portoricensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930), E. quadrata (Kraus, 1955), E. richardi (Gertsch, 1941), E. sericea O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. sigillata (Petrunkevitch, 1925), E. simplex (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. texana (Gertsch, 1933), E. tigrina O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 name restored, E. tricuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. tristani (Banks, 1909), E. tumivulva (Banks, 1909), E. valvula (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) and E. wheeleri (Roewer, 1933). Ten new species are described: E. candelaria n. sp. and E. helenae n. sp. from Mexico; E. arawakan n. sp. from Haiti; E. lizae n. sp. from Costa Rica; E. darwichi n. sp. from Ecuador; E. juruti n. sp., E. tourinhoae n. sp. and E. vieirae n. sp. from Brazil; E. shinguito n. sp. from Peru and E. beni n. sp. from Bolivia. The female of E. hortoni is described for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for E. sigillata and its actual female is described for the first time. Four new synonyms are proposed: E. languida

  8. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  9. Insect-resistant biotech crops and their impacts on beneficial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatehouse, A M R; Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Bell, H A

    2011-05-12

    With a projected population of 10 billion by 2050, an immediate priority for agriculture is to achieve increased crop yields in a sustainable and cost-effective way. The concept of using a transgenic approach was realized in the mid-1990s with the commercial introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops. By 2010, the global value of the seed alone was US $11.2 billion, with commercial biotech maize, soya bean grain and cotton valued at approximately US $150 billion. In recent years, it has become evident that insect-resistant crops expressing δ-endotoxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have made a significant beneficial impact on global agriculture, not least in terms of pest reduction and improved quality. However, because of the potential for pest populations to evolve resistance, and owing to lack of effective control of homopteran pests, alternative strategies are being developed. Some of these are based on Bacillus spp. or other insect pathogens, while others are based on the use of plant- and animal-derived genes. However, if such approaches are to play a useful role in crop protection, it is desirable that they do not have a negative impact on beneficial organisms at higher trophic levels thus affecting the functioning of the agro-ecosystem. This widely held concern over the ecological impacts of GM crops has led to the extensive examination of the potential effects of a range of transgene proteins on non-target and beneficial insects. The findings to date with respect to both commercial and experimental GM crops expressing anti-insect genes are discussed here, with particular emphasis on insect predators and parasitoids.

  10. Analysis and Assessment of Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 within the Scope of Communicative Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润霞

    2015-01-01

    this essay analyzes and assesses Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 from the perspective of communicative approach.The first part analyzes the theoretical basis of the textbook,including the organizational,pragmatic competence.The second part analyzes the syllabus contents.The last part analyzes the material and tasks of it.In summary,Cambridge English Skills Real Reading 2 is mainly communicative textbook from several aspects based on the detailed assessment and explanation.It can be helpful to the designing of reading textbooks.

  11. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  12. Explaining ICT Infrastructure and E-Commerce Uses and Benefits in Industrial Clusters-Evidence from a Biotech Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles

    2006-01-01

    in an industrial cluster might utilize and derive benefit from a public, broadband ICT infrastructure, particularly in support of e-commerce applications. A case study of a successful biotech cluster in Denamrk and Sweden-The Medicon Valley-provides a preliminary test of these expectations. Distinctions in uses...... and benefits based upon firm size are considered. A key finding is that small firms that would not otherwise be expected to gain from global e-commerce can rely on the cluster "brand" to enable trade with unknown and distant partners....

  13. 《科学新闻》携手“科学网”亮相BIOTECH CHINA2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    6月1日,“中国国际生物技术和仪器设备博览会”(BIOTECH CHINA2009)暨“上海国际生物技术与医药研讨会”(BIO—FOURM)在上海国际展览中心隆重开幕,《科学新闻》杂志携手“科学网”共同参加了这一生物技术界的集会。

  14. High Added Value - but Many Stumbling Blocks along the Way NTN Biotech Identifies where the Shoe Pinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    The year 1958, when DNA was first made in a test tube, marked the birth of modern biotechnology. DNA has now developed into an important technology that makes a key contribution in various sectors such as agriculture, environment and cleansing, and it has triggered a veritable boom in medicine. Today, biologics account for more than 60% of newly approved drugs. They are efficient, save time and money and have few or minimal side effects, fuelling the appetite of big pharma to take over biotech companies. Where will the journey lead?

  15. Measuring Impairments in Memory and Executive Function in Older People Using the Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Mimpen, G.; Melis, R.J.F.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG-R) is a cognitive screen that has been used to discriminate individuals with dementia from cognitively intact older people. It consists of items assessing various cognitive domains, but the construct validity of the cognitive subscores

  16. Measuring impairments in memory and executive function in older people using the Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Mimpen, G.; Melis, R.J.F.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Revised Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG-R) is a cognitive screen that has been used to discriminate individuals with dementia from cognitively intact older people. It consists of items assessing various cognitive domains, but the construct validity of the cognitive subscores

  17. What To Look for in ESL Admission Tests: Cambridge Certificate Exams, IELTS, and TOEFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline; Turner, Carolyn E.

    2000-01-01

    Familiarizes test users with issues to consider when employing assessments for screening and admission purposes. Examines the purpose, content, and scoring methods of three English-as-a-Second-Language admissions tests--the Cambridge certificate exams, International English Language Teaching System, and Test of English as a Foreign…

  18. A Comparison of the Abilities Measured by the Cambridge and Educational Testing Service EFL Test Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The abilities measured by the First Certificate of English (FCE) administered by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate are compared with the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) administered by the Educational Testing Service. The analyses suggest that the FCE and TOEFL appear to measure the same common aspect of language…

  19. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Cambridge Primary Review: A Response to R. J. Campbell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to R.J. Campbell's critique of the "Cambridge Primary Review," which was published in the autumn of 2009. The author argues that Campbell's description of the "Review's" central proposals on curriculum and pedagogy as "backward-looking and inadequately theorised" is so misjudged as to call for a…

  20. Psychiatry in the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship: An Innovative, Year-Long Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Todd; Bullock, Christopher; Gaufberg, Elizabeth; Albanese, Mark; Bonilla, Pedro; Dvorak, Ramona; Epelbaum, Claudia; Givon, Lior; Kueppenbender, Karsten; Joseph, Robert; Boyd, J. Wesley; Shtasel, Derri

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors present what is to their knowledge the first description of a model for longitudinal third-year medical student psychiatry education. Method: A longitudinal, integrated psychiatric curriculum was developed, implemented, and sustained within the Harvard Medical School-Cambridge Integrated Clerkship. Curriculum elements…

  1. The Target of the Question: A Taxonomy of Textual Features for Cambridge University "O" Levels English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Shanti Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the typical textual features that are most frequently targeted in short-answer reading comprehension questions of the Cambridge University "O" Level English Paper 2. Test writers' awareness of how textual features impact on understanding of meanings in text decisions will determine to great extent their decisions…

  2. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  3. Ideology, Class and Rationality: A Critique of Cambridge International Examinations' "Thinking Skills" Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel

    2012-01-01

    This article undertakes a critique of the aims and objectives of "Thinking Skills", one of the most widely and internationally used curricula in the teaching of thinking, offered by the University of Cambridge International Examinations. By engaging in a critical discourse analysis of how political and class biases are (re-)produced in the forms…

  4. Legacies, Policies and Prospects: One Year on from the Cambridge Primary Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This article features the "Cambridge Primary Review." The "Review" has been supported from the beginning by Esmee Fairbairn Foundation, and this has given it the independence which is essential to its credibility. Its remit was to investigate, report and make recommendations on the condition and future of primary education in England. Its scope…

  5. The Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level General Paper Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nurul Huda; Shih, Chih-Min

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and reviews the Singapore-Cambridge General Certificate of Education Advanced Level General Paper (GP) examination. As a written test that is administered to preuniversity students, the GP examination is internationally recognised and accepted by universities and employers as proof of English competence. In this article, the…

  6. Linguistic Turn and Gendering Language in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimbi, Diah A.; Kwary, Deny A.

    2016-01-01

    Language constructs how humans perceive things. Since language is a human construction, it tends to be biased as it is mainly men's construction. Using gender perspectives, this paper attempts to discuss the imbalance in gender representations found in the examples given in an English learner's dictionary, that is, the "Cambridge Advanced…

  7. An Improved Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology to Obtain More Accurate Water and “Tar” Values: In Situ Cambridge Filter Pad Extraction Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous investigations by others and internal investigations at Philip Morris International (PMI have shown that the standard trapping and extraction procedure used for conventional cigarettes, defined in the International Standard ISO 4387 (Cigarettes -- Determination of total and nicotine-free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine, is not suitable for high-water content aerosols. Errors occur because of water losses during the opening of the Cambridge filter pad holder to remove the filter pad as well as during the manual handling of the filter pad, and because the commercially available filter pad holder, which is constructed out of plastic, may adsorb water. This results in inaccurate values for the water content, and erroneous and overestimated values for Nicotine Free Dry Particulate Matter (NFDPM. A modified 44 mm Cambridge filter pad holder and extraction equipment which supports in situ extraction methodology has been developed and tested. The principle of the in situ extraction methodology is to avoid any of the above mentioned water losses by extracting the loaded filter pad while kept in the Cambridge filter pad holder which is hermetically sealed by two caps. This is achieved by flushing the extraction solvent numerous times through the hermetically sealed Cambridge filter pad holder by means of an in situ extractor. The in situ methodology showed a significantly more complete water recovery, resulting in more accurate NFDPM values for high-water content aerosols compared to the standard ISO methodology. The work presented in this publication demonstrates that the in situ extraction methodology applies to a wider range of smoking products and smoking regimens, whereas the standard ISO methodology only applies to a limited range of smoking products and smoking regimens, e.g., conventional cigarettes smoked under ISO smoking regimen. In cases where a comparison of yields between the PMI HTP and

  8. Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage. The Ballet d'Action. Edward Nye, Cambridge-New York, Cambridge University Press, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Onesti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Mime, Music and Drama on the Eighteenth-Century Stage by Edward Nye (Cambridge University Press, 2011 has the merit of inspiring a strong reflection on ballet d'action, connected with cultural, literaturary and philosophic environment of Eighteenth century. The author, with brilliant insight and careful historical research, explores the most debated issues of the new genre, providing an unusual interpretation. The review traces the focal points and the structure of the book, developing further consideration of some of the most challenging aspects offered by the text.

  9. RNase protection assays and RNA gel blots: a direct comparison of sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, D C; Colbert, J T

    1992-01-01

    RNase protection assays are commonly thought to be a more sensitive means of detecting and quantitating specific mRNAs than are RNA gel blots (Northern blots). We have directly compared the sensitivity of these two approaches by assaying for known amounts of in vitro synthesized beta-glucuronidase mRNA. With the probes and protocols employed here, the ability to detect a specific mRNA was similar whether RNase protection or RNA gel blot analyses were performed.

  10. The Cambridge Car Memory Test: a task matched in format to the Cambridge Face Memory Test, with norms, reliability, sex differences, dissociations from face memory, and expertise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Tavashmi, Raka; Hall, Ashleigh; Pidcock, Madeleine; Edwards, Mark; Duchaine, Bradley

    2012-06-01

    Many research questions require a within-class object recognition task matched for general cognitive requirements with a face recognition task. If the object task also has high internal reliability, it can improve accuracy and power in group analyses (e.g., mean inversion effects for faces vs. objects), individual-difference studies (e.g., correlations between certain perceptual abilities and face/object recognition), and case studies in neuropsychology (e.g., whether a prosopagnosic shows a face-specific or object-general deficit). Here, we present such a task. Our Cambridge Car Memory Test (CCMT) was matched in format to the established Cambridge Face Memory Test, requiring recognition of exemplars across view and lighting change. We tested 153 young adults (93 female). Results showed high reliability (Cronbach's alpha = .84) and a range of scores suitable both for normal-range individual-difference studies and, potentially, for diagnosis of impairment. The mean for males was much higher than the mean for females. We demonstrate independence between face memory and car memory (dissociation based on sex, plus a modest correlation between the two), including where participants have high relative expertise with cars. We also show that expertise with real car makes and models of the era used in the test significantly predicts CCMT performance. Surprisingly, however, regression analyses imply that there is an effect of sex per se on the CCMT that is not attributable to a stereotypical male advantage in car expertise.

  11. Evaluation of an indigenous western blot kit for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The Western Blot test is considered a gold standard test for the confirmation of an ELISA and/or rapid assay screened reactive sample in the diagnosis of HIV infection, especially in the low risk population. In this study, an indigenously developed HIV W. Blot kit (J.Mitra & Co., New Delhi, India was compared for its performance characteristics with a widely used Western Blot kit, HIV Blot 2.2 (Genelabs, Singapore. Antigens of both HIV-1 and the indicator antigen gp36 of HIV-2 are included in the strips. METHODS: A panel of 150 clinical serum samples was used in the evaluation. All the sera were tested simultaneously by both the kits. RESULTS: The HIV W. Blot kit had high performance characteristics (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, like the HIV Blot 2.2. The test procedure was easy to perform. There was clear delineation of the bands. CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of the results on the HIV W. Blot was less prone to subjective errors. The test gave positive bands at even very high serum dilutions in the test kit. This fact indicates that HIV W. Blot probably has a potential application in early phases of infection, when the antibody concentrations are still very low.

  12. Immunochemische detectiemethoden na western blotting van cytochroom P-450 iso-enzymen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan CA; Jansen EHJM

    1992-01-01

    In this report a number of staining techniques on Western blots have been compared with respect to sensitivity, background staining, practical applicability and cost aspects. After electrophoresis of a rat microsomal liver sample followed by blotting, an incubation was performed of a primary antibo

  13. Zinc Blotting Assay for Detection of Zinc-Binding Prolamin in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Langkilde, Ane; Vincze, Éva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  14. PET/MRI in the infarcted mouse heart with the Cambridge split magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonincontri, Guido, E-mail: gb396@cam.ac.uk [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Sawiak, Stephen J. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Methner, Carmen; Krieg, Thomas [Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T. [Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Box 65, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-21

    Chronic heart failure, as a result of acute myocardial infarction, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Combining diagnostic imaging modalities may aid the direct assessment of experimental treatments targeting heart failure in vivo. Here we present preliminary data using the Cambridge combined PET/MRI imaging system in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. The split-magnet design can deliver uncompromised MRI and PET performance, for better assessment of disease and treatment in a preclinical environment.

  15. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Ball L; Crowley J; Laur C; Rajput-Ray M; Gillam S; Ray S

    2014-01-01

    Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary C...

  16. Inequality and growth in neo-Kaleckian and Cambridge growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between inequality and growth in the neo-Kaleckian and Cambridge growth models. The paper explores the channels whereby functional and personal income distribution impact growth. The growth - inequality relationship can be negative or positive, depending on the economy's characteristics. Contrary to widespread claims, inequality per se does not impact growth through macroeconomic channels. Instead, both growth and inequality are impacted by changes in the ...

  17. Sir Joseph Barcroft, Cambridge placental and fetal research (1933-1966) and inter-generational Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert; Boyd, C A Richard

    2010-01-01

    The nature of Cambridge (UK) placental and fetal research in the middle third of the twentieth century is reviewed on the basis of published literature and personal recollection. Joseph Barcroft is a central figure who came to fetal research late in an extremely productive career which is briefly sketched. Contemporaneous Cambridge academics in the field included J.D. Boyd (the authors father), J. Hammond, F.H.A. Marshall, R.A. McCance, J. Needham, A.S. Parkes and Elsie Widdowson. The then current Cambridge academic geography is explained and features of its scientific life such as funding, institutional structure and ethos, teaching and clinical duties, domestic and gender roles, and political context, including war and empire, are briefly considered. The testing of research findings against general principles and use of quantitative thinking are identified as important features. Intergenerational connections, often within individual families, are identified as a striking feature. The long-term impact of Cambridge work of this period; locally, in current trophoblast and feto-placental genetic research, in Oxford in probably influencing G.S. Dawes research leadership, and internationally, especially through D.H. Barron, and through him to the Denver School, is considered. That human placental and embryological specimens collected by J.D. Boyd have received a new lease of life as the "Boyd Collection", including use by Allen Enders is noted. Mechanisms for the maintenance of scientific quality and productivity during the period, mainly through the scientist himself relying on an internalised sense of "obligation", are contrasted with those current in the UK and more widely; formal peer-review at frequent intervals, with subsequent allocation of short-term funding. The strengths and weaknesses of each are considered.

  18. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

    2014-01-01

    Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education.

  19. GTP-blot analysis of small GTP-binding proteins. The C-terminus is involved in renaturation of blotted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, F J

    1994-10-01

    Recombinant c-Ha-ras, ralA and rap2, but not rap1A or rap1B proteins retained their ability to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after SDS/PAGE and transfer to nitrocellulose. Recombinant c-Has-ras missing the C-terminal 23 amino acid residues failed to bind [alpha-32P]GTP after the blot, and the ability of recombinant ralA missing the C-terminal 28 amino acid residues to bind [alpha-32P]GTP was decreased many-fold. The presence of nonionic detergents of the polyoxyethylene type such as Tween 20, Triton X-100, Nonidet P40 or Lubrol PX in the incubation buffer was necessary to induce renaturation of blotted recombinant c-Ha-ras protein, whereas other types of detergents were ineffective. We propose that detergents of the polyoxyethylene type induce the refolding of some types of blotted small GTP-binding proteins and that the C-terminus is involved in the refolding process. Membranes from NIH3T3 fibroblasts overexpressing c-Ha-ras protein showed much weaker binding of [alpha-32P]GTP as expected from the level of ras immunoreactivity. Treatment of fibroblasts with lovastatin, an inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, caused the accumulation of the unfarnesylated form of c-Ha-ras in the cytosol. Examination of [alpha-32P]GTP-binding and immunoreactivity for cytosolic and membrane-bound c-Ha-ras revealed that binding of [alpha-32P]GTP to unprocessed c-Ha-ras was increased about threefold compared to the same amount of processed c-Ha-ras. Our results demonstrate that detection and quantification of small GTP-binding proteins in eukaryotic cells by GTP-blot analysis is hampered by the fact that these proteins differ strongly in their ability to renature after blotting to nitrocellulose.

  20. Accumulation and Circulation of the Knowledge Needed for Biotech Business Promotion by Engineers of R&D Section in an IT Enterprise: The Case of Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Ota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been carried out on the accumulation and effective use of knowledge as a company-specific form of intellectual property. However, insufficient attention has been given to research focusing on the effects of micro-level knowledge absorption and its effective use. In this paper, we try to demonstrate what should be done in order to promote new biotech business from the perspective of each engineer’s knowledge, through a micro-level investigation focusing on the life science business section of one IT enterprise. Based on the results of a questionnaire survey of engineers, interviews of several engineers, and patent data analysis, we discuss the progress of the biotech business in an IT enterprise from the aspect of accumulation and circulation of knowledge in a core technology field, the IT business, and a technology field of new entry, the biotech business. This paper reports that the positive growth cycle of biotech business promotion in an IT enterprise, using Hitachi Software Engineering Co., Ltd. as a case, attained by incorporating the latest biotech knowledge from junior engineers and utilizing IT knowledge from middle engineers leads to the recruiting of qualified students.Keywords: accumulation and circulation of the knowledge, biotech business, open innovation, patent data analysis, questionnaire survey

  1. Research in Undergraduate Instruction: A Biotech Lab Project for Recombinant DNA Protein Expression in Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Mark; Ordman, Alfred B.; Campbell, A. Malcolm

    1996-06-01

    In the sophomore-level Molecular Biology and Biotechnology course at Beloit College, students learn basic methods in molecular biology in the context of pursuing a semester-long original research project. We are exploring how DNA sequence affects expression levels of proteins. A DNA fragment encoding all or part of the guanylate monokinase (gmk) sequence is cloned into pSP73 and expressed in E. coli. A monoclonal antibody is made to gmk. The expression level of gmk is determined by SDS gel elctrophoresis, a Western blot, and an ELISA assay. Over four years, an increase in enrollment in the course from 9 to 34 students, the 85% of majors pursuing advanced degrees, and course evaluations all support the conclusion that involving students in research during undergraduate courses encourages them to pursue careers in science.

  2. Accuracy of Reverse Dot-Blot PCR in Detection of Different β-Globin Gene Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadaly, N; Abd-Elhameed, A; Abd-Elbar, E; El-Shanshory, M

    2016-06-01

    Prevention programs for β-thalassemia based on molecular diagnosis of heterozygous carriers and/or patients require the use of reliable mutation screening methods. The aim of this study was to compare between direct DNA sequencing, and reverse dot-blot PCR in detection of different β-globin gene mutations in Egyptian children with β-thalassemia. Forty children with β-thalassemia were subjected to mutation analysis, performed by both direct DNA sequencing and β-globin Strip Assay MED™ (based on reverse dot-blot PCR). The most frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were; IVSI-110 G>A (31.25 %), IVS I-6 T > C (21.25 %), and IVS I-1 G>A (20 %). Relatively less frequent mutant alleles detected by reverse dot-blot PCR were "IVSII-1 G>A (5 %), IVSII-745 C>G (5 %), IVSII-848 C>A (2.5 %), IVSI-5 G>C (2.5 %), -87 C>G(2.5 %), and cd39 C>T (2.5 %)", While the genotypes of three patients (6 alleles 7.5 %) were not detected by reverse dot-blot PCR. Mutant alleles detected by direct DNA sequencing were the same as reverse dot-blot PCR method except it revealed the genotypes of 3 undetected patients (one patient was homozygous IVSI-110 G>A, and two patients were homozygous IVS I-1 G>A. Sensitivity of the reverse dot-blot PCR was 92.5 % when compared to direct DNA sequencing for detecting β-thalassemia mutations. Our results therefore suggest that, direct DNA sequencing may be preferred over reverse dot-blot PCR in critical diagnostic situations like genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis.

  3. CRITERIA OF POSITIVITY FOR Ig ANTIBODIES IN THE METHOD OF IMMUNE BLOTTING OF LYME DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V G Barskova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no accepted criteria for positive Western blots in Russian patients with Lyme borreliosis. The purpose of the current study was to develop criteria for a positive IgG westem-blot to aid particularly in the diagnosis of patients with joint manifestation of the disorder. Patients: 97 with Lyme disease, 145 - control subjects. IgG antibody responses were determined to 3 species ofB.burgdorferi sensu lato by Western blotting, using blots prepared by manufacturer. The best discriminatory ability of test criteria was chained by requiring any 3 of 11 IgG bands, a definition that could be used with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B.garinii and B.afzelii strains. With these 3 antigen preparation, positive IgG blots were found in 0 to 18% of patients with localized erythema migrans of < 4 weeks duration, 23 to 39% of those with disseminated infection < 20 weeks duration, and in 39 to 46% of those with late arthritis/arthralgia of >6 months duration the specificity was 93 to 99%. Thus, IgG Western blotting may bring greater specificity to serologic testing in Lyme borreliosis, but the sensitivity is limited.

  4. 强强联手 盛会空前——前瞻BIOTECH CHINA 2008,BIO-FORUM 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾定槐

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008"中国国际生物技术和仪器设备博览会"(BIOTECH CHINA)和"上海国际生物技术与医药研讨会"(BIO-FOURM).将于5月28~30日在上海国际展览中心及上海国际会议中心举办.

  5. Innovations and challenges in renal cell carcinoma: summary statement from the Second Cambridge Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Michael B; Ernstoff, Marc S; Figlin, Robert A; Flaherty, Keith T; George, Daniel J; Kaelin, William G; Kwon, Eugene D; Libermann, Towia A; Linehan, W Marston; McDermott, David F; Ochoa, Augusto C; Pantuck, Allan J; Rini, Brian I; Rosen, Mark A; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Vieweg, Johannes W; Wood, Christopher G; King, Laura

    2007-01-15

    Innovations and Challenges in Renal Cancer, chaired by Michael B. Atkins, was held April 28 to 29, 2006 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The conference brought together leading experts in the fields of cancer research, medical oncology, urology, immunology, radiology, and immunotherapy, with the goal of advancing the field of renal cancer treatment by critiquing new data from ongoing clinical trials and stimulating communication among those involved in basic and clinical research. The conference proceedings published in this educational supplement to Clinical Cancer Research are intended to provide timely information and recommendations on important aspects of renal cancer genetics and biology and advances in prognostic classification and treatment.

  6. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L Michael; Batson, Philip E; Dellby, Niklas; Krivanek, Ondrej L

    2015-10-01

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper "In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday", recently published in Ultramicroscopy.

  7. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  8. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  9. The factors influencing car use in a cycle-friendly city: the case of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carse, Andrew; Goodman, Anna; Mackett, Roger L; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Encouraging people out of their cars and into other modes of transport, which has major advantages for health, the environment and urban development, has proved difficult. Greater understanding of the influences that lead people to use the car, particularly for shorter journeys, may help to achieve this. This paper examines the predictors of car use compared with the bicycle to explore how it may be possible to persuade more people to use the bicycle instead of the car. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the socio-demographic, transport and health-related correlates of mode choice for work, shopping and leisure trips in Cambridge, a city with high levels of cycling by UK standards. The key findings are that commuting distance and free workplace parking were strongly associated with use of the car for work trips, and car availability and lower levels of education were associated with car use for leisure, shopping and short-distanced commuting trips. The case of Cambridge shows that more policies could be adopted, particularly a reduction in free car parking, to increase cycling and reduce the use of the car, especially over short distances.

  10. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGEN (Derp1 AND Blot5) LEVELS IN ASTHMATICS' HOME IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Sun; Adrian Wu; Albert Chan; Stanley Chik; Dorothy Wong; Nan-shan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To measure Derpl and Blot5 allergen levels in asthmatics' homes in Hongkong.Methods Seventy houses were enrolled for a mite indoor environment study. Dust samples were obtained from two sites of each patients' house: bed and floor. Derpl and Blot5 levels were quantified by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique.Results The levels of Derpl allergens found in bed (geometric mean (GM) 3.43 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 1.89-4.96 μg/g)and on the floor (GM 1.12 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.71-1.53 μg/g) indicated significant differences (P=0.005). However, the levels of Blot5 allergens found in bed (GM 19.00 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.89-38.90 μg/g) and on the floor (GM 6.14 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.40-11.90 μg/g) showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, in regards to the exposure index for Derpl and Blot5 allergens found in bed and on the floor, 17.6% in bed and 8.6% on the floor had levels of Blot5 ≥ 10 μg/g of dust, higher than those obtained for Derp1 (7.2% and 0% in bed and on the floor respectively, P< 0.05); higher percentages in bed and on the floor (25.0% and 35.7%) were observed for levels of Blot5 =0 μg/g of dust as compared with Derpl in bed and on the floor (4.3% and 14.5% respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusions Derpl and Blot5 are the major allergens found in this regional study, Blot5 is a more potent allergen in Hongkong, probably reflecting the high level of exposure to Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Bt and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergens should be included for precise diagnosis and effective immuno-therapeutic treatment of mite allergy in Hongkong.

  11. Total protein or high-abundance protein: Which offers the best loading control for Western blotting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Yeung, Derrick H; Staines, W Richard; Mielke, John G

    2016-03-01

    Western blotting routinely involves a control for variability in the amount of protein across immunoblot lanes. Normalizing a target signal to one found for an abundantly expressed protein is widely regarded as a reliable loading control; however, this approach is being increasingly questioned. As a result, we compared blotting for two high-abundance proteins (actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH]) and two total protein membrane staining methods (Ponceau and Coomassie Brilliant Blue) to determine the best control for loading variability. We found that Ponceau staining optimally balanced accuracy and precision, and we suggest that this approach be considered as an alternative to normalizing with a high-abundance protein.

  12. Indeterminate HIV-1 Western Blots: Etiology, Natural History, and Psychological Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-16

    systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile onset diabetes mellitus , Sjogren’s disease, thyroiditis, and Crohn’s disease 4 TABLE 8 45...Cat wound ply 0-no; 1-scratched only; 2-bitten only; 3-both BE.2Bb Owned other pets 0-no;l- dog ; 2-rodent;3-other A/< . 2 # BE.3 SMOKING HISTORY 53 BE...blot. Sera from 26 cases with a pet cat were tested for reactivity on Western blots for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and for feline immunodeficiency

  13. A Streamlined Western Blot Exercise: An Efficient and Greener Approach in the Laboratory Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Traci L.; Robinson, Rebekah L.; Mojadedi, Wais; Peavy, Lydia; Weiland, Mitch H.

    2015-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and western blotting are two commonly taught protein detection techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory classrooms. A pitfall associated with incorporating these techniques into the laboratory is the significant wait times that do not allow students to obtain timely results. The waiting associated with SDS-PAGE comes…

  14. A Study of Rubisco through Western Blotting and Tissue Printing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong; Cooper, Cynthia; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Janick-Buckner, Diane

    2009-01-01

    We describe a laboratory exercise developed for a cell biology course for second-year undergraduate biology majors. It was designed to introduce undergraduates to the basic molecular biology techniques of Western blotting and immunodetection coupled with the technique of tissue printing in detecting the presence, relative abundance, and…

  15. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds at high concentrations are known to form insoluble complexes with proteins. We hypothesized that this complex formation could interfere with Western blot and ELISA assays for peanut allergens. To verify this, three simple phenolic compounds (ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids...

  16. PET-blot analysis contributes to BSE strain recognition in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezmi, Stéphane; Bencsik, Anna; Baron, Thierry

    2006-10-01

    Identification of the strain of agent responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) can be made histologically through the analysis of both distribution and intensity of brain vacuolar lesions after BSE transmission to mouse. Another useful way to distinguish the BSE agent from other prion strains is the study of the distribution of the abnormal prion protein (PrP(res)). For that purpose, paraffin-embedded tissue blot (PET-blot) method was applied on brains from C57Bl/6 mice infected with cattle BSE, experimental sheep BSE, or feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE) from a cheetah. PrP(res) distribution was comparable, whichever of the three BSE agent sources was considered and was distinct from the PrP(res) distribution in C57Bl/6 mice inoculated with a French scrapie isolate or with a mouse-adapted scrapie strain (C506M3). These data confirm a common origin of infectious agent responsible for the British and French cattle BSE. They also indicate that PET-blot method appears as a precise complementary tool in prion strain studies because it offers easy and quick assessment of the PrP(res) mapping. Advantages and limits of the PET-blot method are discussed and compared with other established and validated methods of strain typing.

  17. Combined use of Western blot/ELISA to improve the serological diagnosis of human tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Beck

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two recombinant antigens and a crude bacterial antigen of a wild M. tuberculosis strain were used to detect specific IgG antibodies in sera from 52 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, confirmed by an acid-fast smear and serum culture of these patients and that of 25 contacts. The patients were not infected with HIV. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA, based on the recombinant TbF6® and TbF6/DPEP antigen and a search for reactivity patterns in the Western blot technique, using whole mycobacterium antigen. Serum samples from 22 healthy individuals and from 30 patients with lung diseases other than tuberculosis were used as controls. The best ELISA results were obtained with the TbF6/DPEP antigen combination, which gave 85% sensitivity and 91% specificity. ELISA sensitivity improved from 85% to 92% when the Western blot results were used. Western blot specificity was 100% when antibody reactivity with different antigenic bands was analyzed and associated. The association of TbF6/DPEP antigens used in ELISA with specific patterns of reactivity determined by Western blot can help make an identification when classic methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis are not sufficient.

  18. Effects of Reusing Gel Electrophoresis and Electrotransfer Buffers on Western Blotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotola, Oluwabukola B.; Heda, Rajiv P.; Avery, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and Western blotting are 2 of the most commonly used biochemical methods for protein analysis. Proteins are electrophoretically separated based on their MWs by SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred to a solid membrane surface for subsequent protein-specific analysis by immunoblotting, a procedure commonly known as Western blotting. Both of these procedures use a salt-based buffer, with the latter procedure consisting of methanol as an additive known for its toxicity. Previous reports present a contradictory view in favor or against reusing electrotransfer buffer, also known as Towbin’s transfer buffer (TTB), with an aim to reduce the toxic waste. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of not only reusing TTB but also gel electrophoresis buffer (EB) on proteins of low to high MW range. Our results suggest that EB can be reused for at least 5 times without compromising the electrophoretic separation of mixture of proteins in an MW standard, BSA, and crude cell lysates. Additionally, reuse of EB did not affect the quality of subsequent Western blots. Successive reuse of TTB, on the other hand, diminished the signal of proteins of different MWs in a protein standard and a high MW membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in Western blotting. PMID:27582639

  19. Miniaturized fluorescent RNA dot blot method for rapid quantitation of gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadetie Fekadu

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA dot blot hybridization is a commonly used technique for gene expression assays. However, membrane based RNA dot/slot blot hybridization is time consuming, requires large amounts of RNA, and is less suited for parallel assays of more than one gene at a time. Here, we describe a glass-slide based miniaturized RNA dot blot (RNA array procedure for rapid and parallel gene expression analysis using fluorescently labeled probes. Results RNA arrays were prepared by simple manual spotting of RNA onto amino-silane coated microarray glass slides, and used for two-color fluorescent hybridization with specific probes labeled with Cy3 and 18S ribosomal RNA house-keeping gene probe labeled with Cy5 fluorescent dyes. After hybridization, arrays were scanned on a fluorescent microarray scanner and images analyzed using microarray image analysis software. We demonstrate that this method gives comparable results to Northern blot analysis, and enables high throughput quantification of transcripts from nanogram quantities of total RNA in hundreds of samples. Conclusion RNA array on glass slide and detection by fluorescently labeled probes can be used for rapid and parallel gene expression analysis. The method is particularly well suited for gene expression assays that involve quantitation of many transcripts in large numbers of samples.

  20. Western blotting as a method for studying cell-biomaterial interactions : The role of protein collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, TG; Klein, CL; Kirkpatrick, CJ

    2001-01-01

    Research of cell-biomaterial interactions is building on knowledge and methods available in cell and molecular biology. Western blotting is one of the options to characterize protein expression in cell populations. Method transfer to biomaterial model systems is not trivial because of the structure

  1. Biofilm detection by wound blotting can predict slough development in pressure ulcers: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Gojiro; Schultz, Gregory; Gibson, Daniel J; Phillips, Priscilla; Kitamura, Aya; Minematsu, Takeo; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Sasaki, Sanae; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2016-12-26

    Bacteria have been found to form multicellular aggregates which have collectively been termed "biofilms." It is hypothesized that biofilm formation is a means to protect bacterial cells including protection form the immune response of humans. This protective mechanism is believed to explain persistent chronic wound infections. At times, the biofilms are abundant enough to see, and remove by simple wiping. However, recent evidence has shown that the removal of these visible portions are not sufficient, and that biofilms can continue to form even with daily wiping. In this work, we tested an approach to detect the biofilms which are present after clinically wiping or sharp wound debridement. Our method is based on a variation of impression cytology in which a nitrocellulose membrane was used to collect surface biofilm components, which were then differentially stained. In this prospective study, members of an interdisciplinary pressure ulcer team at a university hospital tested our method's ability to predict the generation of wound slough in the week that followed each blotting. A total of 70 blots collected from 23 pressure ulcers produced 27 wounds negative for staining and 43 positive. In the negative blots 55.6% were found to have decreased wound slough, while 81.4% with positive staining had either increase or unchanged wound slough generation. These results lead to an odds ratio of positive blotting cases of 9.37 (95% confidence intervals: 2.47-35.5, p = 0.001) for slough formation; suggesting that the changes in wound slough formation can be predicted clinically using a non-invasive wound blotting method.

  2. Use of a Combined Duplex PCR/Dot Blot Assay for more sensitive genetic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Curry

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and sensitive method of genetic analysis is necessary to detect multiple specific nucleic acid sequences from samples containing limited template. The most widely utilized method of specific gene detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR, imparts inconsistent results when assessing samples with restricted template, especially in a multiplex reaction when copies of target genes are unequal. This study aimed to compare two methods of PCR product analysis, fluorescent detection following agarose gel electrophoresis or dot blot hybridization with chemiluminescent evaluation, in the detection of a single copy gene (SRY and a multicopy gene (β-actin. Bovine embryo sex determination was employed to exploit the limited DNA template available and the target genes of unequal copies. Primers were used either independently or together in a duplex reaction with purified bovine genomic DNA or DNA isolated from embryos. When used independently, SRY and β-actin products were detected on a gel at the equivalent of 4-cell or 1-cell of DNA, respectively; however, the duplex reaction produced visible SRY bands at the 256 cell DNA equivalent and β-actin products at the 64 cell DNA equivalent. Upon blotting and hybridization of the duplex PCR reaction, product was visible at the 1–4 cell DNA equivalent. Duplex PCR was also conducted on 186 bovine embryos and product was subjected to gel electrophoresis or dot-blot hybridization in duplicate. Using PCR alone, sex determination was not possible for 22.6% of the samples. Using PCR combined with dot blot hybridization, 100.0% of the samples exhibited either both the male specific and β-actin products or the β-actin signal alone, indicating that the reaction worked in all samples. This study demonstrated that PCR amplification followed by dot blot hybridization provided more conclusive results in the evaluation of samples with low DNA concentrations and target genes of unequal copies.

  3. Reginald Crundall Punnett: first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A W F

    2012-09-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett's career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of "partial coupling" in the sweet pea (later "linkage") and to the diagram known as Punnett's square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

  4. Debate on Bruce Bimber´s Book Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003

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    Karpf, David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availablePresentation José Manuel Robles Abstract of Information and American Democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2003 Bruce Bimber From Regimes to Ecologies: Globalizing Bruce Bimber’s Model of Information and Politics Steven Livingston Internet, new forms of power and democracy José Luís Garcia Internet: A Technological Tool and Changes in Political Power Liu Gang Information and American Democracy in the era of web 2.0 Lorenzo Mosca What Comes Next?: Bimber’s Information Revolutions and Institutional Disruptions David Karpf Online Political Information and Online Political Participation José Manuel Robles Digital Media and Political Change: A Response to Garcia, Karpf, Livingston, Liu, Mosca, and Robles Bruce Bimber

  5. Possessing History and American Innocence: James Baldwin, William F. Buckley, Jr., and the 1965 Cambridge Debate

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    Daniel Robert McClure

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1965 debate at Cambridge University between James Baldwin and William F. Buckley, Jr., posed the question: “Has the American Dream been achieved at the Expense of the American Negro?” Within the contours of the debate, Baldwin and Buckley wrestled with the ghosts of settler colonialism and slavery in a nation founded on freedom and equality. Framing the debate within the longue durée, this essay examines the deep cultural currents related to the American racial paradox at the height of the Civil Rights movement. Underscoring the changing language of white resistance against black civil rights, the essay argues that the Baldwin and Buckley debate anticipated the ways the U.S. would address racial inequality in the aftermath of the civil rights era and the dawn of neoliberalism in the 1970s.

  6. Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in organic chemistry and crystal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Motherwell, W D Samuel

    2002-06-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and its associated software systems have formed the basis for more than 800 research applications in structural chemistry, crystallography and the life sciences. Relevant references, dating from the mid-1970s, and brief synopses of these papers are collected in a database, DBUse, which is freely available via the CCDC website. This database has been used to review research applications of the CSD in organic chemistry, including supramolecular applications, and in organic crystal chemistry. The review concentrates on applications that have been published since 1990 and covers a wide range of topics, including structure correlation, conformational analysis, hydrogen bonding and other intermolecular interactions, studies of crystal packing, extended structural motifs, crystal engineering and polymorphism, and crystal structure prediction. Applications of CSD information in studies of crystal structure precision, the determination of crystal structures from powder diffraction data, together with applications in chemical informatics, are also discussed.

  7. Fiftieth Anniversary of the Cambridge Structural Database and Thirty Years of Its Use in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić-Prodić B.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the memory of Dr. F. H. Allen and the 50th anniversary of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC; the world-renowned centre for deposition and control of crystallographic data including atomic coordinates that define the three-dimensional structures of organic molecules and metal complexes containing organic ligands. The mission exposed at the web site (http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk is clearly stated: “The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC is dedicated to the advancement of chemistry and crystallography for the public benefit through providing high quality information, software and services.” The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD, one among the first established electronic databases, nowadays is one of the most significant crystallographic databases in the world. In the International Year of Crystallography 2014, the CSD announced in December over 750,000 deposited structures. The use of the extensive and rapidly growing database needs support of sophisticated and efficient software for checking, searching, analysing, and visualising structural data. The seminal role of the CSD in researches related to crystallography, chemistry, materials science, solid state physics and chemistry, (biotechnology, life sciences, and pharmacology is widely known. The important issues of the CCDC are the accuracy of deposited data and development of software for checking the data. Therefore, the Crystallographic Information File (CIF is introduced as the standard text file format for representing crystallographic information. Among the most important software for users is ConQuest, which enables searching all the CSD information fields, and the web implementation WebCSD software. Mercury is available for visualisation of crystal structures and crystal morphology including intra- and intermolecular interactions with graph-set notations of hydrogen bonds, and analysis of geometrical parameters. The CCDC gives even

  8. The Cambridge Structural Database: a quarter of a million crystal structures and rising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H

    2002-06-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) now contains data for more than a quarter of a million small-molecule crystal structures. The information content of the CSD, together with methods for data acquisition, processing and validation, are summarized, with particular emphasis on the chemical information added by CSD editors. Nearly 80% of new structural data arrives electronically, mostly in CIF format, and the CCDC acts as the official crystal structure data depository for 51 major journals. The CCDC now maintains both a CIF archive (more than 73,000 CIFs dating from 1996), as well as the distributed binary CSD archive; the availability of data in both archives is discussed. A statistical survey of the CSD is also presented and projections concerning future accession rates indicate that the CSD will contain at least 500,000 crystal structures by the year 2010.

  9. Does the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) Distinguish Between Cognitive Domains in Healthy Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenehan, Megan E; Summers, Mathew J; Saunders, Nichole L; Summers, Jeffery J; Vickers, James C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a semiautomated computer interface for assessing cognitive function. We examined whether CANTAB tests measured specific cognitive functions, using established neuropsychological tests as a reference point. A sample of 500 healthy older (M = 60.28 years, SD = 6.75) participants in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project completed battery of CANTAB subtests and standard paper-based neuropsychological tests. Confirmatory factor analysis identified four factors: processing speed, verbal ability, episodic memory, and working memory. However, CANTAB tests did not consistently load onto the cognitive domain factors derived from traditional measures of the same function. These results indicate that five of the six CANTAB subtests examined did not load onto single cognitive functions. These CANTAB tests may lack the sensitivity to measure discrete cognitive functions in healthy populations or may measure other cognitive domains not included in the traditional neuropsychological battery.

  10. Experience from two decades of the Cambridge Rapid Access Neurology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinte, Laura T; Fiddes, Barnaby D; Donaghy, Alastair; Whyte, Adam; Allen, Chris; Sawcer, Stephen J; Adam, Robert J; Stacpoole, Sybil R L

    2015-10-01

    We report on the evolution of the rapid access neurology clinic (established in 1995) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge. Annualised attendance data demonstrate an ever increasing demand, with primary headache disorders now accounting for more than 40% of referrals. Secondary causes of headache (including intracranial tumours, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, carotid or vertebral artery dissection and subdural haematomas) remain infrequent. In all such cases, there were additional diagnostic clues. The number of patients referred with problems related to chronic neurological diseases has fallen considerably, reflecting the roles of specialist nurses and clinics. Imaging investigation of choice shifted from computerised tomography scan (45 to 16%) towards magnetic resonance imaging (17 to 47%). Management is increasingly on an outpatient basis, often without the need for a follow-up appointment. The experience presented here should inform further development of rapid access neurology clinics across the UK and suggests the need for acute headache services, in line with those for transient ischaemic attack and first seizure.

  11. Bericht uber den 2. Internationalen Kongress fur Angewandte Linguistik. Cambridge 8.-12. IX. 1969. [Report on the Second International Congress for Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, Dec. 8-12, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    This paper is a summary report on the Second International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Cambridge, England in September 1969. Because of the large number of papers delivered, only a selection of the papers delivered in any one section of the Congress are considered, and the author attempts to identify current interests and trends in…

  12. Design, preparation and use of ligated phosphoproteins: a novel approach to study protein phosphatases by dot blot array, ELISA and Western blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Luo; Ghosh, Inca; Barshevsky, Tanya; Kochinyan, Samvel; Xu, Ming-Qun

    2007-07-01

    The study of substrate specificity of protein phosphatases (PPs) is very challenging since it is difficult to prepare a suitable phosphorylated substrate. Phosphoproteins, phosphorylated by a protein kinase, or chemically synthesized phosphopeptides are commonly used substrates for PPs. Both types of these substrates have their advantages and limitations. Phosphoproteins mimic more closely the physiologically relevant PP substrates, but their preparation is technically demanding. Synthetic phosphopeptides present advantages over proteins because they can be easily produced in large quantity and their amino acid sequence can be designed to contain potential determinants of substrate specificity. However, short peptides are less optimal compared to in vivo PP substrates and often display poor and variable binding to different matrices, resulting in low sensitivity in analysis of PP activity on solid support. In this work we utilize the intein-mediated protein ligation (IPL) technique to generate substrates for PPs, combining the advantages of proteins and synthetic peptides in one molecule. The ligation of a synthetic phosphopeptide to an intein-generated carrier protein (CP) with a one-to-one stoichiometry results in the formation of a ligated phosphoprotein (LPP). Three widely used assays, dot blot array, Western blot and ELISA were employed to study the PP activity on LPP substrates. Dephosphorylation was measured by detection of the remaining phosphorylation, or lack of it, with a phospho-specific antibody. The data show the advantage of LPPs over free peptides in assays on solid supports. LPPs exhibited enhanced binding to the matrices used in the study, which significantly improved sensitivity and consistency of the assays. In addition, saturation of the signal was circumvented by serial dilution of the assay samples. This report describes detailed experimental procedures for preparation of LPP substrates and their use in PP assays based on immobilization on

  13. A survey on worries of pregnant women - testing the German version of the Cambridge Worry Scale

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    Gensichen Jochen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a transition period in a woman's life characterized by increased worries and anxiety. The Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS was developed to assess the content and extent of maternal worries in pregnancy. It has been increasingly used in studies over recent years. However, a German version has not yet been developed and validated. The aim of this study was (1 to assess the extent and content of worries in pregnancy on a sample of women in Germany using a translated and adapted version of the Cambridge Worry Scale, and (2 to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study and enrolled 344 pregnant women in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Women filled out structured questionnaires that contained the CWS, the Spielberger-State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI, as well as questions on their obstetric history. Antenatal records were also analyzed. Results The CWS was well understood and easy to fill in. The major worries referred to the process of giving birth (CWS mean value 2.26 and the possibility that something might be wrong with the baby (1.99, followed by coping with the new baby (1.57, going to hospital (1.29 and the possibility of going into labour too early (1.28. The internal consistency of the scale (0.80 was satisfactory, and we found a four-factor structure, similar to previous studies. Tests of convergent validity showed that the German CWS represents a different construct compared with state and trait anxiety but has the desired overlap. Conclusions The German CWS has satisfactory psychometric properties. It represents a valuable tool for use in scientific studies and is likely to be useful also to clinicians.

  14. Solid lipid nanoparticles for hydrophilic biotech drugs: optimization and cell viability studies (Caco-2 & HEPG-2 cell lines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Patrícia; Andreani, Tatiana; Jäger, Alessandro; Chaud, Marco V; Santana, Maria Helena A; Silva, Amélia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2014-06-23

    Insulin was used as model protein to developed innovative Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) for the delivery of hydrophilic biotech drugs, with potential use in medicinal chemistry. SLNs were prepared by double emulsion with the purpose of promoting stability and enhancing the protein bioavailability. Softisan(®)100 was selected as solid lipid matrix. The surfactants (Tween(®)80, Span(®)80 and Lipoid(®)S75) and insulin were chosen applying a 2(2) factorial design with triplicate of central point, evaluating the influence of dependents variables as polydispersity index (PI), mean particle size (z-AVE), zeta potential (ZP) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) by factorial design using the ANOVA test. Therefore, thermodynamic stability, polymorphism and matrix crystallinity were checked by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD), whereas the effect of toxicity of SLNs was check in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. Results showed a mean particle size (z-AVE) width between 294.6 nm and 627.0 nm, a PI in the range of 0.425-0.750, ZP about -3 mV, and the EE between 38.39% and 81.20%. After tempering the bulk lipid (mimicking the end process of production), the lipid showed amorphous characteristics, with a melting point of ca. 30 °C. The toxicity of SLNs was evaluated in two distinct cell lines (HEPG-2 and Caco-2), showing to be dependent on the concentration of particles in HEPG-2 cells, while no toxicity in was reported in Caco-2 cells. SLNs were stable for 24 h in in vitro human serum albumin (HSA) solution. The resulting SLNs fabricated by double emulsion may provide a promising approach for administration of protein therapeutics and antigens.

  15. Assessing the Impact of the Cambridge International Acceleration Program on U.S. University Determinants of Success: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stuart; Warren, Jayne; Gill, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the research being conducted by Cambridge International Examinations (Cambridge) to ensure that its international assessments prepare students as well as other acceleration programs for continued study in U.S. colleges and universities. The study, which builds on previous freshman GPA data modeling work using data supplied…

  16. Tartu Ülikooli teadur kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi / Krõõt Nõges

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nõges, Krõõt

    2006-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli filosoofia osakonna teadur ja eetikakeskuse stipendiaat Eva Piirimäe kaitses Cambridgeì Ülikoolis doktorikraadi ideede ajaloo erialal doktoritööga "Thomas Abbt (1738-1766) and the Philosophical Genesis of German Nationalism"

  17. M-DCPS Student Performance in International Baccalaureate and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education Programs. Research Brief. Volume 1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    This Research Brief summarizes the performance of M-DCPS students participating in the International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge Advanced International Certificate of Education (AICE) programs. Outcome data are provided for the eight M-DCPS schools offering the two programs and corresponding examinations. Participation in international…

  18. Degrees of Influence: The Politics of Honorary Degrees in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Michael; Jons, Heike

    2007-01-01

    The universities of Oxford and Cambridge had developed different attitudes towards the award of honorary degrees through the early and middle decades of the twentieth century. Recently, both have adopted a similar cautious and apolitical stance. This essay describes the role of honorary degrees in the production and reproduction of their cultural…

  19. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  20. DISKRIMINASI KELAMIN PADA IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Yellowfin tuna MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DOT BLOT DAN ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang penentuan jenis kelamin dalam populasi induk merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi keberhasilan program pembenihan. Pengukuran reaksi antibodi dan aktivitas hormon testosterone, serta estradiol adalah metode dengan potensi yang secara akurat dapat menentukan jenis kelamin ikan tanpa mematikan ikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui akurasi metode dot blot dan ELISA dengan 11-ketotestorsterone (11-KT yang tersedia secara komersial EIA-kit untuk membedakan jenis kelamin ikan tuna sirip kuning. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa metode dot blot menghasilkan ekspresi vitelogenin tampak jelas pada individu betina dan efek plasma terlihat transparan, jika dibandingkan dengan individu jantan. Interpretasi dari metode ini memerlukan pengalaman dan keahlian dalam akurasi pembacaan hasil. Aktivitas hormon 11-KT dengan sampel klip sirip dan plasma memberikan hasil yang baik dengan aktivitas hormon terlihat jelas.

  1. Western blot diagnosis of vivax malaria with multiple stage-specific antigens of the parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Eui-Sun; Kim, Tong Soo; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2001-01-01

    Western blot analysis was performed to diagnose vivax malaria using stage-specific recombinant antigens. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of a malaria patient was used as templates to amplify the coding regions for the antigenic domains of circumsporozoite protein (CSP-1), merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), apical merozoite antigen (AMA-1), serine repeat antigen (SERA), and exported antigen (EXP-1) of Plasmodium vivax. Each amplified DNA fragment was inserted into a pGEX-4T plasmid to induce ...

  2. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

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    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  3. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

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    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  4. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

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    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  5. DIFFERENTIATION OF PSEUDOCONDYLOMA OF VULVA AND CONDYLOMA ACUMINATA BY DOT BLOT HYBRIDIZATION AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘跃华; 王家璧; 司静懿

    1996-01-01

    This study differentiated pseudocondyloma of vulva from condyloma acunainata using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 27 cases o{ pseudocondyloma of vulva and 65 cases of condyloma acuminata were selected for the sttldy. The genital lesions were examined clinically and were biopsled. Each biopsy v-as subjected to histological examination and HPV DNA analysis by dot blot hybridization and PCR. Dot blot analysis detected HPV DNA in 19(82.6%) out of 23 cases of condyloma acuminata and 2(25%) out of 8 cases pseudocondyloma of vulvae(P<0. 05). PCR detected HPV DNA in 51(92.7%) our of 55 cases of eondyloma acuminata, compared with none in 23 cases of pseudocondylorna(P<0. 001). HPV DNA was present in the majority of condyloma acuminata specimens, HPV 6 and 11 were the predominant types. Peudocondyloma is probably not associated with HPV. PCR was the most sensitive and useful techntque for HPV DNA detection.

  6. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders

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    de Souza Marcilia MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT. Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. Hence, a Western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (LPS containing antigen of three Burkholderia mallei strains was developed. The test was validated investigating a comprehensive set of positive and negative sera obtained from horses and mules from endemic and non endemic areas. Results The developed Western blot assay showed a markedly higher diagnostic specificity when compared to the prescribed CFT and therefore can be used as a confirmatory test. However, the CFT remains the test of choice for routine testing of glanders due to its high sensitivity, its feasibility using standard laboratory equipment and its worldwide distribution in diagnostic laboratories. Conclusions The CFT should be amended by the newly validated Western blot to increase the positive likelihood ratio of glanders serodiagnosis in non endemic areas or areas with low glanders prevalence. Its use for international trade of horses and mules should be implemented by the OIE.

  7. Fluorescent detection of Southern blots and PCR-based genetic typing tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, E.S.; Worley, J.M. [Molecular Dynamics, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Zimmerman, P.A. [Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Southern blot is used to study gene organization, to identify disease-causing genomic rearrangements, or for typing RFLP markers in forensic, paternity, or prenatal diagnostic testing. Fluorescence offers a much greater dynamic range and a more linear response than film used in radioactive or chemiluminescent detection of RFLPs. We therefore investigated using the Fluorimager{trademark} 575 (Molecular Dynamics, Inc.) for analyzing Southern blots. Using a single-locus probe to D2S44 (YNH24) (Promega Corp.), we detect as little as 100 ng (0.05 attomole) genomic DNA. The alkaline phosphatase-labeled probe is detected using AttoPhos (JBL Scientific), and the developed membrane is scanned with the Fluorimager. Biotinylated hybridization probes can also be developed using a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and AttoPhos. The instrument scan parameters can be adjusted to prevent overexposure and accompanying loss of resolution in images of blots, gels, or 96-well microplates. We have used these other sample formats in PCR-based genetic typing assays. We use FluorKit DQS (Molecular Dynamics) to accurately quantify PCR template DNA (1-500 ng) in 96-well microplates scanned using the same instrument. Mutation detection assays run include heteroduplex gels (5% polyacrylamide, 2.7 M urea), short tandem repeat (STR) markers, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AmpFLP), competitive priming PCR, and allele-specific oligotyping. These assays are run using either 1- or 2-color labeling. We detect unlabeled PCR products, such as the AmpFLP marker D1S80 (Perkin-Elmer) by post-staining gels for 10 minutes with SYBR Green 1 (Molecular Probes) and scanning the wet gel. The Fluorimager scans a 20 x 25 cm sample within three minutes, allowing rapid optimization of fluorescent protocols and high sample throughput.

  8. Swift observations of unidentified radio sources in the revised Third Cambridge Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, A.; Massaro, F.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Harris, D. E.; Paggi, A.; Liuzzo, E.; Tremblay, G. R.; Baum, S. A.; O'Dea, C. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated a group of unassociated radio sources included in the Third Cambridge Catalogue (3CR) to increase the multifrequency information on them and possibly obtain an identification. We have carried out an observational campaign with the Swift satellite to observe with the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) the field of view of 21 bright NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) sources within the positional uncertainty region of the 3CR sources. Furthermore, we have searched in the recent AllWISE Source Catalogue for infrared sources matching the position of these NVSS sources. We have detected significant emission in the soft X-ray band for nine of the investigated NVSS sources. To all of them, and in four cases with no soft X-ray association, we have associated a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared counterpart. Eight of these infrared candidates have not been proposed earlier in the literature. In the five remaining cases our candidate matches one among a few optical candidates suggested for the same 3CR source in previous studies. No source has been detected in the UVOT filters at the position of the NVSS objects, confirming the scenario that all of them are heavily obscured. With this in mind, a spectroscopic campaign, preferably in the infrared band, will be necessary to establish the nature of the sources that we have finally identified.

  9. Characteristic Conformation of Mosher’s Amide Elucidated Using the Cambridge Structural Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Ichikawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Conformations of the crystalline 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylpropanamide derivatives (MTPA amides deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD were examined statistically as Racid-enantiomers. The majority of dihedral angles (48/58, ca. 83% of the amide carbonyl groups and the trifluoromethyl groups ranged from –30° to 0° with an average angle θ1 of −13°. The other conformational properties were also clarified: (1 one of the fluorine atoms was antiperiplanar (ap to the amide carbonyl group, forming a staggered conformation; (2 the MTPA amides prepared from primary amines showed a Z form in amide moieties; (3 in the case of the MTPA amide prepared from a primary amine possessing secondary alkyl groups (i.e., Mosher-type MTPA amide, the dihedral angles between the methine groups and the carbonyl groups were syn and indicative of a moderate conformational flexibility; (4 the phenyl plane was inclined from the O–Cchiral bond of the methoxy moiety with an average dihedral angle θ2 of +21°; (5 the methyl group of the methoxy moiety was ap to the ipso-carbon atom of the phenyl group.

  10. Marrying content and process in clinical method teaching: enhancing the Calgary-Cambridge guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Suzanne; Silverman, Jonathan; Benson, John; Draper, Juliet

    2003-08-01

    Communication skills training is now internationally accepted as an essential component of medical education. However, learners and teachers in communication skills programs continue to experience problems integrating communication with other clinical skills, ensuring that clinical faculty support and teach communication beyond the formal communication course, extending communication training coherently into clerkship and residency, and applying communication skills in medical practice at a professional level of competence. One factor contributing to these problems is that learners confront two apparently conflicting models of the medical interview: a communication model describing the process of the interview and the "traditional medical history" describing the content of the interview. The resulting confusion exacerbates the above dilemmas and interferes with learners using communication skills training to advantage in real-life practice. The authors propose a comprehensive clinical method that explicitly integrates traditional clinical method with effective communication skills. To implement this more comprehensive approach, they have modified their own Calgary-Cambridge guides to the medical interview by developing three diagrams that visually and conceptually improve the way communication skills teaching is introduced and that place communication process skills within a comprehensive clinical method; devising a content guide for medical interviewing that is more closely aligned with the structure and process skills used in communication skills training; and incorporating patient-centered medicine into both process and content aspects of the medical interview. These enhancements help resolve ongoing difficulties associated with both teaching communication skills and applying them effectively in medical practice.

  11. Item response theory analyses of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Wilmer, Jeremy; Herzmann, Grit; McGugin, Rankin Williams; Fiset, Daniel; Van Gulick, Ana E; Ryan, Kaitlin F; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). First, we assessed the dimensionality of the test with a bifactor exploratory factor analysis (EFA). This EFA analysis revealed a general factor and 3 specific factors clustered by targets of CFMT. However, the 3 specific factors appeared to be minor factors that can be ignored. Second, we fit a unidimensional item response model. This item response model showed that the CFMT items could discriminate individuals at different ability levels and covered a wide range of the ability continuum. We found the CFMT to be particularly precise for a wide range of ability levels. Third, we implemented item response theory (IRT) differential item functioning (DIF) analyses for each gender group and 2 age groups (age ≤ 20 vs. age > 21). This DIF analysis suggested little evidence of consequential differential functioning on the CFMT for these groups, supporting the use of the test to compare older to younger, or male to female, individuals. Fourth, we tested for a gender difference on the latent facial recognition ability with an explanatory item response model. We found a significant but small gender difference on the latent ability for face recognition, which was higher for women than men by 0.184, at age mean 23.2, controlling for linear and quadratic age effects. Finally, we discuss the practical considerations of the use of total scores versus IRT scale scores in applications of the CFMT.

  12. Characteristic conformation of Mosher's amide elucidated using the cambridge structural database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akio; Ono, Hiroshi; Mikata, Yuji

    2015-07-16

    Conformations of the crystalline 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-methoxy-2-phenylpropanamide derivatives (MTPA amides) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) were examined statistically as Racid-enantiomers. The majority of dihedral angles (48/58, ca. 83%) of the amide carbonyl groups and the trifluoromethyl groups ranged from -30° to 0° with an average angle θ1 of -13°. The other conformational properties were also clarified: (1) one of the fluorine atoms was antiperiplanar (ap) to the amide carbonyl group, forming a staggered conformation; (2) the MTPA amides prepared from primary amines showed a Z form in amide moieties; (3) in the case of the MTPA amide prepared from a primary amine possessing secondary alkyl groups (i.e., Mosher-type MTPA amide), the dihedral angles between the methine groups and the carbonyl groups were syn and indicative of a moderate conformational flexibility; (4) the phenyl plane was inclined from the O-Cchiral bond of the methoxy moiety with an average dihedral angle θ2 of +21°; (5) the methyl group of the methoxy moiety was ap to the ipso-carbon atom of the phenyl group.

  13. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance.

  14. Proteínas inmunodominantes de Brucella Melitensis evaluadas por Western Blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anaya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron extractos de proteínas totales de Brucella melitensis en gel 15% SDS-PAGE. Su seroreactividad fue analizada por Western Blot con resultados satisfactorios. Para éste propósito sueros controles negativos (n=03, sueros de pacientes con brucelosis (n=34, cólera (n=12, tifoidea (n=02 y tuberculosis (n=02 fueron usados. Esta prueba inmunodiagnóstica detectó bandas seroreactivas altamente específicas (100% correspondientes a 8,14,18, un complejo de 25-48 y 58kDa. La sensibilidad del test fue del 90% usando los sueros antes mencionados.

  15. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific...... that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting...

  16. The present state of research and exploitation of biotech (GM) crops in horticulture: results of research on plum cv. 'HoneySweet' resistant to plum pox virus (Sharka) and the deregulation of this cultivar in the CR & Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentically modified (GM) crops were grown world-wide on 160 million ha in 2011. Only 114.57 ha of GM crops were grown in Europe, of that, 114.90 ha were Bt maize and 17 ha were potato for industrial starch production. Commercialization of Biotech crops started in 1995. Currently, developing count...

  17. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin-Gonzalez, Javier; Avram, Alexandra; Munk, Stephanie; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J

    2017-01-19

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific genomic locus, but limits the detection of its correct genomic integration by standard PCR methods. Genomic Long Range PCR (LR-PCR), using primers adjacent to the homology arms, has been used as an alternative to radioactive-based Southern blot screenings. However, LR-PCRs are often difficult and render many false positive and false negative results. Here, we propose an alternative screening method based on the detection of a genetic modification at the mRNA level, which we successfully optimized in two mouse models. This screening method consists of a reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) using primers that match exons flanking the targeting construct. The detection of the expected modification in this PCR product confirms the integration at the correct genomic location and shows that the mutant mRNA is expressed. This is a simple and sensitive strategy to screen locus-specific recombination of targeting constructs which can also be useful to screen KO and KI mutant mice or cell lines including those generated by CRISPR/Cas9.

  18. A sensitive non-radioactive northern blot method to detect small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woo; Li, Zhihua; Moore, Patrick S; Monaghan, A Paula; Chang, Yuan; Nichols, Mark; John, Bino

    2010-04-01

    The continuing discoveries of potentially active small RNAs at an unprecedented rate using high-throughput sequencing have raised the need for methods that can reliably detect and quantitate the expression levels of small RNAs. Currently, northern blot is the most widely used method for validating small RNAs that are identified by methods such as high-throughput sequencing. We describe a new northern blot-based protocol (LED) for small RNA (approximately 15-40 bases) detection using digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled oligonucleotide probes containing locked nucleic acids (LNA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide for cross-linking the RNA to the membrane. LED generates clearly visible signals for RNA amounts as low as 0.05 fmol. This method requires as little as a few seconds of membrane exposure to outperform the signal intensity using overnight exposure of isotope-based methods, corresponding to approximately 1000-fold improvement in exposure-time. In contrast to commonly used radioisotope-based methods, which require freshly prepared and hazardous probes, LED probes can be stored for at least 6 months, facilitate faster and more cost-effective experiments, and are more environmentally friendly. A detailed protocol of LED is provided in the Supplementary Data.

  19. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  20. Simultaneous preparation of RNA and nuclei for Northern blot and flow cytometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Jaramillo, R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Several methods have been developed to quantify RNA synthesis during the progression of the cell cycle. The rate of RNA synthesis can be detected during different stages of the cell cycle by staining cells with agents that intercalate with nucleic acids. For example, following staining of mammalian cells with acridin orange, the green and red fluorescence that correlates with DNA and RNA content, respectively, can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Increase in RNA content during the progression of cells through the cell cycle can be measured after staining with acridin orange. RNA synthesis resulting from the stimulation of quiescent cells with various growth factors has also been demonstrated by labeling cells with bromo-uridine and using the anti-bromo-deoxyuridine antibody. These methods allow measurement of the overall RNA content in cells; however, they do not allow the measurement of the levels of specific mRNAs throughout the cell cycle. Current methods to quantify specific mRNAs generally require the preparation of a large number of cells (5--10 {times} 10{sup 6} cells) to carry out flow cytometric analyses and to isolate RNA for Northern blot analysis or solution hybridization. In this report, the authors describe a method of simultaneously preparing RNA and nuclei for Northern blot and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. The minimum number of nuclei required to obtain flow cytometric data and the effect of conserving nuclei in methanol for several days are also presented.

  1. Gel electrophoresis of polyphenol oxidase with instant identification by in situ blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsai-Mu; Huang, Pei-Chen; Pan, Ju-Pin; Lin, Kuan-Yu; Mao, Simon J T

    2007-04-15

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) or tyrosinase is an important and ubiquitous enzyme responsible for browning in plants and melanization in animals. The molecular size of the plant PPO is varied among the species and its activity can be enhanced by a variety of anionic detergents. In the present study, we developed a simple method for the first-step identification of PPO in fruit and vegetable extracts. First, 3mm chromatographic paper was immersed in 0.5% (w/v) catechol solution as an immobilized PPO substrate. After running the extract with 10% sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), one side of the glass plate was removed. The plate was immediately laid on top of the dried catechol-paper. A dark-brown band corresponding to PPO was visualized within 1 min and was further confirmed by a conventional Western blot using an antibody prepared against mushroom PPO. It also reveals that some vegetation (such as tomato, radish, and oriental melon) with low or no detectable activity in a conventional enzyme assay actually possessed marked levels of PPO activity when assessed by PAGE-blot. We propose that an inhibitor is associated with PPO in some plants; the inhibitor, however, is dissociated during the electrophoresis. Therefore, in addition to identify the molecular form of PPO, the present technique may explore the existence of PPO inhibitor(s) in plants. The detail of the method with respect to its relevance for searching a natural PPO inhibitor is described and discussed.

  2. The Cambridge Face Tracker: Accurate, Low Cost Measurement of Head Posture Using Computer Vision and Face Recognition Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Peter B. M.; Baltrušaitis, Tadas; Robinson, Peter; Vivian, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We validate a video-based method of head posture measurement. Methods The Cambridge Face Tracker uses neural networks (constrained local neural fields) to recognize facial features in video. The relative position of these facial features is used to calculate head posture. First, we assess the accuracy of this approach against videos in three research databases where each frame is tagged with a precisely measured head posture. Second, we compare our method to a commercially available mechanical device, the Cervical Range of Motion device: four subjects each adopted 43 distinct head postures that were measured using both methods. Results The Cambridge Face Tracker achieved confident facial recognition in 92% of the approximately 38,000 frames of video from the three databases. The respective mean error in absolute head posture was 3.34°, 3.86°, and 2.81°, with a median error of 1.97°, 2.16°, and 1.96°. The accuracy decreased with more extreme head posture. Comparing The Cambridge Face Tracker to the Cervical Range of Motion Device gave correlation coefficients of 0.99 (P < 0.0001), 0.96 (P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (P < 0.0001) for yaw, pitch, and roll, respectively. Conclusions The Cambridge Face Tracker performs well under real-world conditions and within the range of normally-encountered head posture. It allows useful quantification of head posture in real time or from precaptured video. Its performance is similar to that of a clinically validated mechanical device. It has significant advantages over other approaches in that subjects do not need to wear any apparatus, and it requires only low cost, easy-to-setup consumer electronics. Translational Relevance Noncontact assessment of head posture allows more complete clinical assessment of patients, and could benefit surgical planning in future. PMID:27730008

  3. John Howard Marsden (1803–1891 First Disney Professor of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge 1851–1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leach

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there were ten chairs of archaeology at universities in Germany, and one in France, by the mid-nineteenth century, in Great Britain it was the amateur societies and museums (the British Museum in particular that encouraged the study of this subject. In 1851 John Disney established the first university chair in Great Britain at Cambridge University. His proposal was initially received with considerable caution by the governing body of the university, and was only accepted by the narrowest margin of eight votes to seven. His agreement with the University of Cambridge stipulated that six lectures a year should be given on the subject of ‘Classical, Medieval, and other Antiquities, the Fine Arts and all matters and things connected therewith’ (Clark 1904, 222–225. However university archaeology was slow to establish its academic credibility nationally, and it was more than thirty years before Oxford University established its chair of classical archaeology. The Cambridge Board of Anthropological Studies, which included instruction in prehistoric archaeology, was not created until 1915, and as late as 1945 there were still only a few university lecturers in archaeology in Great Britain. It was not until 1946 that Oxford University appointed a Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology (Wilson 2002, 153; Daniel 1976, 6–12; Smith 2004, 4–5, 53–54.

  4. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor McKone

    Full Text Available Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony. Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese, with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian.

  5. A robust method of measuring other-race and other-ethnicity effects: the Cambridge Face Memory Test format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Stokes, Sacha; Liu, Jia; Cohan, Sarah; Fiorentini, Chiara; Pidcock, Madeleine; Yovel, Galit; Broughton, Mary; Pelleg, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Other-race and other-ethnicity effects on face memory have remained a topic of consistent research interest over several decades, across fields including face perception, social psychology, and forensic psychology (eyewitness testimony). Here we demonstrate that the Cambridge Face Memory Test format provides a robust method for measuring these effects. Testing the Cambridge Face Memory Test original version (CFMT-original; European-ancestry faces from Boston USA) and a new Cambridge Face Memory Test Chinese (CFMT-Chinese), with European and Asian observers, we report a race-of-face by race-of-observer interaction that was highly significant despite modest sample size and despite observers who had quite high exposure to the other race. We attribute this to high statistical power arising from the very high internal reliability of the tasks. This power also allows us to demonstrate a much smaller within-race other ethnicity effect, based on differences in European physiognomy between Boston faces/observers and Australian faces/observers (using the CFMT-Australian).

  6. 生物技术药物中残留DNA检测方法的比较%Comparison of testing methods for residual DNA in biotech drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭燕

    2016-01-01

    Biotech drugs are drugs made by modem biotechnology with bioactive substances and their synthetic analogs,using biomass as raw materials.Biotech drugs,including cytokines,recombinant proteins,antibodies,vaccines,and oligonucleotides,have begun to be widely used clinically,and brought revolutionary change for the pharmaceutical industry.However,residual DNA in biological products may be potentially dangerous,so purification processes need to be validated to confirm its clearance.The new United States pharmacopoeia will recommend real-time quantitative PCR method be the only standard method for testing host residual DNA in biotech drugs.This method has the technical advantage of high specificity,high sensitivity,good reproducibility,and quantitative detection,making results more accurate,thereby provides a reliable means of detection in process research and product quality control for biopharmaceutical enterprises.This review compares 4 types of testing methods and focuses on two real-time quantitative methods.%生物技术药物是所有以生物质为原料的生物活性物质及其人工合成类似物通过现代生物技术制得的药物,包括细胞因子、重组蛋白、抗体、疫苗和寡核苷酸等,临床上已开始广泛应用,为制药工业带来了革命性变化.但是生物技术药物中残留DNA可能存在安全性问题,因此应尽可能将产品中残留DNA的水平降到最低.新版美国药典将推荐实时定量PCR法作为生物技术药物中宿主残留DNA检定的唯一标准方法.该法的技术优势在于序列特异性高、灵敏度高、重现性好,还可以实现定量检测,使得结果更为精确,从而为生物技术药物企业在工艺研究和成品质量控制方面提供了可靠的检测手段.此综述对4类检测方法进行了比较,重点比较两种实时定量方法.

  7. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  8. Application of a Dot Blot Hybridization Platform to Assess Streptococcus uberis Population Structure in Dairy Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pedro; Ribeiro, Niza; Almeida, Alexandre; Panschin, Irena; Porfirio, Afonso; Vales, Marta; Diniz, Francisca; Madeira, Helena; Tavares, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is considered one of the most important pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. While traditionally acknowledged as an environmental pathogen, S. uberis has been shown to adopt a contagious epidemiological pattern in several dairy herds. Since different control strategies are employed depending on the mode of transmission, in-depth studies of S. uberis populations are essential to determine the best practices to control this pathogen. In this work, we optimized and validated a dot blot platform, combined with automatic image analysis, to rapidly assess the population structure of infective S. uberis, and evaluated its efficiency when compared to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) genotyping. Two dairy herds with prevalent S. uberis infections were followed in a 6 month period, in order to collect and characterize isolates from cows with persistent infections. These herds, located in Portugal (Barcelos and Maia regions), had similar management practices, with the herd from Barcelos being smaller and having a better milking parlor management, since infected cow segregation was immediate. A total of 54 S. uberis isolates were obtained from 24 different cows from the two herds. To overcome operator-dependent analysis of the dot blots and increase the technique's consistency and reliability, the hybridization signals were converted into probability values, with average probabilities higher than 0.5 being considered positive results. These data allowed to confirm the isolates' identity as S. uberis using taxa-specific markers and to determine the presence of virulence- and antibiotic resistance-related genes. In addition, MLSA allowed to disclose the most prevalent S. uberis clonal lineages in both herds. Seven different clusters were identified, with Barcelos showing a high clonal diversity and Maia a dominant lineage infecting most cows, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns, with S. uberis displaying an environmental or contagious

  9. The German adaptation of the Cambridge pulmonary hypertension outcome review (CAMPHOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cima Katharina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH experience severely impaired quality of life. A disease-specific outcome measure for PH, the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR was developed and validated in the UK and subsequently adapted for use in additional countries. The aim of this study was to translate and assess the reliability and validity of the CAMPHOR for German-speaking populations. Methods Three main adaptation stages involved; translation (employing bilingual and lay panels, cognitive debriefing interviews with patients and validation (assessment of the adaptation’s psychometric properties. The psychometric evaluation included 107 patients with precapillary PH (60 females; age mean (standard deviation 60 (15 years from 3 centres in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Results No major problems were found with the translation process with most items easily rendered into acceptable German. Participants in the cognitive debriefing interviews found the questionnaires relevant, comprehensive and easy to complete. Psychometric analyses showed that the adaptation was successful. The three CAMPHOR scales (symptoms, activity limitations and quality of life had excellent test-retest reliability correlations (Symptoms = 0.91; Activity limitations = 0.91; QoL = 0.90 and internal consistency (Symptoms = 0.94; Activity limitations = 0.93; QoL = 0.94. Predicted correlations with the Nottingham Health Profile provided evidence of the construct validity of the CAMPHOR scales. The CAMPHOR adaptation also showed known group validity in its ability to distinguish between participants based on perceived general health, perceived disease severity, oxygen use and NYHA classification. Conclusions The CAMPHOR has been shown to be valid and reliable in the German population and is recommend for use in clinical practice.

  10. Evaluation of a brief anti-stigma campaign in Cambridge: do short-term campaigns work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Claire

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the high costs of mass-media campaigns, it is important to understand whether it is possible for a media campaign to have significant population effects over a short period of time. This paper explores this question specifically in reference to stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems using the Time to Change Cambridge anti-stigma campaign as an example. Methods 410 face-to-face interviews were performed pre, during and post campaign activity to assess campaign awareness and mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Results Although campaign awareness was not sustained following campaign activity, significant and sustained shifts occurred for mental health-related knowledge items. Specifically, there was a 24% (p If a friend had a mental health problem, I know what advice to give them to get professional help, following the campaign. Additionally, for the statement: Medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems, there was a 10% rise (p = 0.05 in the proportion of interviewees responding 'agree' or 'strongly agree' following the campaign. These changes, however, were not evident for attitudinal or behaviour related questions. Conclusions Although these results only reflect the impact of one small scale campaign, these preliminary findings suggest several considerations for mass-media campaign development and evaluation strategies such as: (1 Aiming to influence outcomes pertaining to knowledge in the short term; (2 Planning realistic and targeted outcomes over the short, medium and long term during sustained campaigns; and (3 Monitoring indirect campaign effects such as social discourse or other social networking/contact in the evaluation.

  11. Hindi translation and validation of Cambridge-Hopkins Diagnostic Questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restless legs syndrome also known as Willis-Ekbom′s Disease (RLS/WED is a common illness. Cambridge-Hopkins diagnostic questionnaire for RLS (CHRLSq is a good diagnostic tool and can be used in the epidemiological studies. However, its Hindi version is not available. Thus, this study was conducted to translate and validate it in the Hindi speaking population. Materials and Methods: After obtaining the permission from the author of the CHRLSq, it was translated into Hindi language by two independent translators. After a series of forward and back translations, the finalized Hindi version was administered to two groups by one of the authors, who were blinded to the clinical diagnosis. First group consisted of RLS/WED patients, where diagnosis was made upon face to face interview and the other group - the control group included subjects with somatic symptoms disorders or exertional myalgia or chronic insomnia. Each group had 30 subjects. Diagnosis made on CHRLSq was compared with the clinical diagnosis. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v 21.0. Descriptive statistics was calculated. Proportions were compared using chi-square test; whereas, categorical variables were compared using independent sample t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the translated version of questionnaire were calculated. Results: Average age was comparable between the cases and control group (RLS/WED = 39.1 ± 10.1 years vs 36.2 ± 11.4 years in controls; P = 0.29. Women outnumbered men in the RLS/WED group (87% in RLS/WED group vs 57% among controls; χ2 = 6.64; P = 0.01. Both the sensitivity and specificity of the translated version was 83.3%. It had the positive predictive value of 86.6%. Conclusion: Hindi version of CHRLSq has positive predictive value of 87% and it can be used to diagnose RLS in Hindi speaking population.

  12. Validation of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (Hong Kong Chinese version) for people with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, David W K; Chan, M K L; Yip, C C K

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a Hong Kong Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT-HKCV). Thirty-three subjects at least one year post-stroke participated in the study. They were simultaneously rated on version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV by two testers to establish its internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Raters used the parallel versions of the test (A and B), in rating 10 patients within 2 weeks to establish the parallel form reliability. Another 10 were also assessed on the same day using both version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV and the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-Chinese version (RBMT-CV) to establish concurrent validity. A new group of 40 stroke patients and 44 healthy controls was recruited to establish its sensitivity and specificity. Results indicated that test-retest reliability on time-based, event-based and total scores, and inter-rater reliability for versions A and B of the test were high. Cronbach's alpha of the event-based score was higher than that of the time-based score. The reliability and concurrent validity of the parallel forms were established. There was a significant difference in performance on CAMPROMPT-HKCV (version A) between the stroke group and the healthy control group. ROC analysis showed that the ability of the cut-off CAMPROMPT-HKCV (total score) to differentiate PM problems was 20.5 (out of 36) with sensitivity at 95.5% and specificity at 55.9%. Further study in developing stratified norms across different age groups in Chinese-speaking stroke patients is recommended.

  13. Arvustus. Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk / Lauri Mälksoo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2016-01-01

    Arvustus: Katri Lõhmus. Caring Autonomy. European Human Rights Law and the Challenge of Individualism. Cambridge University Press 2015, 246 lk. Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artikli 8 sisustamisest

  14. Western Blot Detection of Human Anti-Chikungunya Virus Antibody with Recombinant Envelope 2 Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Lee, Jihoo; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Dias, Ronaldo F.; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a tropical pathogen, has re-emerged and has massive outbreaks abruptly all over the world. Containing many dominant epitopes, the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV has been explored for the vaccination or diagnosis. In the present study, the antigenicity of a recombinant expressed intrinsically disorder domain (IUD) of E2 was tested for the detection of the antibody against CHIKV through western blot method. The gene of the IUD of E2 was inserted into 2 different vectors and expressed as recombinant GST-E2 and recombinant MBP-E2 fusion protein, respectively. Two kinds of fusion proteins were tested with 30 CHIKV patient sera and 30 normal sera, respectively. Both proteins were detected by 25 patients sera (83.3%) and 1 normal serum (3.3%). This test showed a relatively high sensitivity and very high specificity of the recombinant E2 proteins to be used as diagnostic antigens against CHIKV infection. PMID:27180586

  15. Analysis of sperm membrane antigens relevant to antisperm antibody using Western blot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHF

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To identify the sperm membrane antigens associated with antisperm antibody.Methods:The antisperm antibody in serum was tested by ELISA.Antisperm antibody positive sera from 18 infertile men and 15 infertile women were used.The molecular weight(MW) of sperm membrane antigens associated with the antisperm antibody was analyzed with antisperm antibody positive serum using Western blot.Results:Eight kinds of MW of sperm membrane antigens were identified.The ratio of identification on the 78 KD(60.7%),60KD(71.4%),51KD(14.9%) and 23KD(14.29%)sperm antigen was higher than other.Conclusion:sperm membrane antigens with MW of 78KD,60KD,51KD and 23KD were associated with antisperm antibody and immunological infertility.

  16. Electrospun nitrocellulose and nylon: Design and fabrication of novel high performance platforms for protein blotting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowlin Gary L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospinning is a non-mechanical processing strategy that can be used to process a variety of native and synthetic polymers into highly porous materials composed of nano-scale to micron-scale diameter fibers. By nature, electrospun materials exhibit an extensive surface area and highly interconnected pore spaces. In this study we adopted a biological engineering approach to ask how the specific unique advantages of the electrospinning process might be exploited to produce a new class of research/diagnostic tools. Methods The electrospinning properties of nitrocellulose, charged nylon and blends of these materials are characterized. Results Nitrocellulose electrospun from a starting concentration of Conclusion The flexibility afforded by electrospinning process makes it possible to tailor blotting membranes to specific applications. Electrospinning has a variety of potential applications in the clinical diagnostic field of use.

  17. Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF) purchases ten Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers to dramatically increase power of eScience research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "The Cambridge-Cranfield High Performance Computing Facility (HPCF), a collaborative environment for data and numerical intensive computing privately run by the University of Cambridge and Cranfield University, has purchased 10 Sun Fire(TM) 15K servers from Sun Microsystems, Inc.. The total investment, which includes more than $40 million in Sun technology, will dramatically increase the computing power, reliability, availability and scalability of the HPCF" (1 page).

  18. Rapid detection and differentiation of important Campylobacter spp. in poultry samples by dot blot and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanot, Marco; Iacumin, Lucilla; Cecchini, Francesca; Comi, Giuseppe; Manzano, Marisa

    2014-10-01

    The detection of Campylobacter, the most commonly reported cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in the European Union, is very important for human health. The most commonly recognised risk factor for infection is the handling and/or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. The methods typically applied to evaluate the presence/absence of Campylobacter in food samples are direct plating and/or enrichment culture based on the Horizontal Method for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacter spp. (ISO 10272-1B: 2006) and PCR. Molecular methods also allow for the detection of cells that are viable but cannot be cultivated on agar media and that decrease the time required for species identification. The current study proposes the use of two molecular methods for species identification: dot blot and PCR. The dot blot method had a sensitivity of 25 ng for detection of DNA extracted from a pure culture using a digoxigenin-labelled probe for hybridisation; the target DNA was extracted from the enrichment broth at 24 h. PCR was performed using a pair of sensitive and specific primers for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli after 24 h of enrichment in Preston broth. The initial samples were contaminated by 5 × 10 C. jejuni cells/g and 1.5 × 10(2)C. coli cells/g, thus the number of cells present in the enrichment broth at 0 h was 1 or 3 cell/g, respectively.

  19. Western blot diagnosis of vivax malaria with multiple stage-specific antigens of the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E S; Kim, T S; Nam, H W

    2001-06-01

    Western blot analysis was performed to diagnose vivax malaria using stage-specific recombinant antigens. Genomic DNA from the whole blood of a malaria patient was used as templates to amplify the coding regions for the antigenic domains of circumsporozoite protein (CSP-1), merozoite surface protein (MSP-1), apical merozoite antigen (AMA-1), serine repeat antigen (SERA), and exported antigen (EXP-1) of Plasmodium vivax. Each amplified DNA fragment was inserted into a pGEX-4T plasmid to induce the expression of GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli by IPTG. The bacterial cell extracts were separated on 10% SDS-PAGE followed by western blot analysis with patient sera which was confirmed by blood smear examination. When applied with patient sera, 147 (91.9%) out of 160 vivax malaria, 12 (92.3%) out of 13 falciparum malaria, and all 9 vivax/falciparum mixed malaria reacted with at least one antigen, while no reactions occurred with 20 normal uninfected sera. In the case of vivax malaria, CSP-1 reacted with 128 (80.0%) sera, MSP-1 with 102 (63.8%), AMA-1 with 128 (80.0%), SERA with 115 (71.9%), and EXP-1 with 89 (55.6%), respectively. We obtained higher detection rates when using 5 antigens (91.9%) rather than using each antigen solely (55.6-80%), a combination of 2 (76.3-87.5%), 3 (85.6-90.6%), or 4 antigens (89.4-91.3%). This method can be applied to serological diagnosis, mass screening in endemic regions, or safety test in transfusion of prevalent vivax malaria.

  20. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  1. Evaluation of the Western blotting method for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Dario Capobiango

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the Western blotting method for the detection of IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii (IgG-WB in the serum of children with suspected congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: We accompanied 47 mothers with acquired toxoplasmosis in pregnancy and their children, between June of 2011 and June of 2014. The IgG-WB was done in house and the test was considered positive if the child had antibodies that recognized at least one band on IgG blots different from the mother's or with greater intensity than the corresponding maternal band, during the first three months of life. Results: 15 children (15.1% met the criteria for congenital toxoplasmosis and 32 (32.3% had the diagnosis excluded. The symptoms were observed in 12 (80.0% children and the most frequent were cerebral calcification in 9 (60.0%, chorioretinitis in 8 (53.3%, and hydrocephalus in 4 (26.6%. IgM antibodies anti-T. gondii detected by chemiluminescence (CL were found in 6 (40.0% children and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of T. gondii DNA was positive in 5 of 7 performed (71.4%. The sensitivity of IgG-WB was of 60.0% [95% confidence interval (CI 32.3-83.7%] and specificity 43.7% (95% CI 26.7-62.3%. The sensitivity of IgG-WB increased to 76.0 and 89.1% when associated to the research of IgM anti-T. gondii or PCR, respectively. Conclusions: The IgG-WB showed greater sensitivity than the detection of IgM anti-T. gondii; therefore, it can be used for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in association with other congenital infection markers.

  2. Judicial activism, the Biotech Directive and its institutional implications – Is the Court acting as a legislator or a court when defining the ‘human embryo’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faeh, Andrea Beata

    2015-01-01

    The Court of Justice of the European Union (Court) delivered a preliminary ruling in 2011 in the case of Oliver Brüstle v Greenpeace on the interpretation of Article 6(2) of the Biotech Directive and thereby established an autonomous concept of the term ‘human embryo’. The Brüstle decision raises......, this autonomous interpretation of ‘human embryo’ and the flexibility allowed to the national courts needed further clarification. This clarification was recently given by the Court’s Grand Chamber in International Stem Cell Corporation v Comptroller General Patents where the Court concluded that a non......-fertilised human ovum, not capable of developing into a human being, is not a ‘human embryo’. Hence, ‘where a non-fertilised human ovum does not fulfil that condition [inherent capacity of developing into a human being], the mere fact that that organism commences a process of development is not sufficient...

  3. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation

  4. Features and Advantages of Swedish Biotech Industry Cluster%瑞典生物科技产业集群的特征与优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明龙; 张琼妮

    2012-01-01

    瑞典是世界上最具创新能力的国家,而其生物科技产业集群贡献的创新成果又是最集中的.瑞典生物科技产业集群主要分布在斯德哥尔摩与乌普萨拉之间、哥德堡周围、隆德与马尔默之间的三大地带.它的主要特征是,形成了一条完整的生产链,并集中分布在这一产业技术链和价值链的高端领域.瑞典生物科技产业集群整体实力强大,并拥有雄厚的研发力量,拥有优越的成长环境,它创造了众多举世瞩目的新成果.%Sweden is the most innovative cowntry in the world, and its contribution to biotechnology industry cluster innovation is the most concentrated. Swedish biotech industry clusters are mainly distributed in Stockholm and Uppsala, Gothenburg around Lund and Malm area. Its main feature is that it has a complete production chain, and it is concentrated in the industrial technology and value chain is in the high end. Swedish biotech industry cluster has a strong research and development strength and a superior environment for the growth. It has created many remarkable new results.

  5. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  6. Characterization of excretory-secretory antigens of adult Toxocara canis by western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N R; Samanta, S; Sahu, Shivani; Raina, O K; Gupta, S C; Goswami, T K; Lokesh, K M; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-06-01

    Toxocara canis is one of the most common helminth worm of dogs which continues to stimulate both public health concern alongside the higher scientific interest. It may cause visceral and ocular damage in humans especially in children. The identification of specific antigens of T. canis is important so as to develop better diagnostic techniques. Excretory-secretory (ES) antigens were prepared by culturing the adult T. canis worms in RPMI 1640 medium without serum supplementation followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation. These antigens were separated using sodium dodecyl sulphate-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Recovered proteins ranged from 30 to 384 kDa. The specific reactivity of the T. canis excretory-secretory (TC-ES) proteins was checked by western blotting. The immuno-reactivity of the naturally infected dog sera with the TC-ES antigens showed five bands at 43, 57,105, 139 and 175 kDa. The immuno-reactivity of the hyper immune serum raised in rabbits against TC-ES antigens was observed with ten polypeptides of 21, 25, 30, 37, 45, 50, 57, 69, 77 and 105 kDa. Common antigens band were observed at 57 and 105 KDa. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidate for use in diagnosis of toxocariasis in humans and adult dogs.

  7. The mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP2 subtype: cloning, expression, and northern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, M; Nishigaki, N; Sugimoto, Y; Morimoto, K; Negishi, M; Narumiya, S; Ichikawa, A

    1995-09-25

    A functional cDNA clone for the mouse prostaglandin (PG) E receptor EP2 subtype was isolated from a mouse cDNA library. The mouse EP2 receptor consists of 362 amino acid residues with seven putative transmembrane domains. [3H]PGE2 bound specifically to the membrane of Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned receptor. This binding was displaced by unlabeled prostanoids in the order of PGE2 = PGE1 > iloprost, a stable PGI2 agonist > PGF2 alpha > PGD2. Binding was also inhibited by butaprost (an EP2 agonist) and to a lesser extent by M&B 28767 (an EP3 agonist), but not by sulprostone (an EP1 and EP3 agonist) or SC-19220 (an EP1 antagonist). PGE2 and butaprost increased the cAMP level in the Chinese hamster ovary cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Northern blot analysis revealed that EP2 mRNA is expressed most abundantly in the uterus, followed by the spleen, lung, thymus, ileum, liver, and stomach.

  8. Rapid detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples by an improved reverse dot blot method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ming Xing; Su Zhang; Ying Du; Dan Bi; Li-Hui Yao

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To develop a new, rapid and accurate reverse dot blot (RDB) method for the detection of intestinal pathogens in fecal samples.METHODS:The 12 intestinal pathogens tested were Salmonella spp., Brucella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7,Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus,Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae,Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus.The two universal primers were designed to amplify two variable regions of bacterial 16S and 23S rDNA genes from all of the 12 bacterial species tested. Five hundred and forty fecal samples from the diarrhea patients were detected using the improved RDB assay.RESULTS:The methods could identify the 12 intestinal pathogens specifically, and the detection limit was as low as 103 CFUs. The consistent detection rate of the improved RDB assay compared with the traditional culture method was up to 88.75%.CONCLUSION:The hybridization results indicated that the improved RDB assay developed was a reliable method for the detection of intestinal pathogen in fecal samples.

  9. A simple dot-blot-Sirius red-based assay for collagen quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Arribas, Silvia M; de Pablo, Angel Luis López; González, M Carmen; Abderrahim, Fatima; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2013-08-01

    The assessment of collagen content in tissues is important in biomedical research, since this protein is altered in numerous diseases. Hydroxyproline and Sirius red based assays are the most common methods for collagen quantification. However, these procedures have some pitfalls, such as the requirement of oxygen-free medium or expensive equipment and large sample size or being unsuitable for hydrolyzed collagen, respectively. Our objective was to develop a specific, versatile, and user-friendly quantitative method applicable to small tissue samples and extracts obtained from elastin purification, therefore, suitable for simultaneous quantification of elastin. This method is based on the binding of Sirius red to collagen present in a sample immobilized on a PVDF membrane, as in the dot-blot technique, and quantified by a scanner and image analysis software. Sample loading, Sirius red concentration, temperature and incubation time, type of standard substance, albumin interference, and quantification time are optimized. The method enabled the quantification of (1) intact collagen in several rat tissue homogenates, including small resistance-sized arteries, (2) partially hydrolyzed collagen obtained from NaOH extracts, compatible with elastin purification, and (3) for the detection of differences in collagen content between hypertensive and normotensive rats. We conclude that the developed technique can be widely used since it is versatile (quantifies intact and hydrolyzed collagen), requires small sample volumes, is user-friendly (low-cost, easy to use, minimum toxic materials, and reduced time of test), and is specific (minimal interference with serum albumin).

  10. Serological diagnosis of North American Paragonimiasis by Western blot using Paragonimus kellicotti adult worm antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Folk, Scott M; Wilkins, Patricia P; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Abstract. We studied the value of an IgG Western blot (WB) with Paragonimus kellicotti (Pk) antigen for diagnosis of North American paragonimiasis. The test was evaluated with sera from patients with Pk and Paragonimus westermani infections, with control sera from patients with other helminth infections, and sera from healthy Americans. All 11 proven Pk infection sera and two samples from suspected cases that were negative by P. westermani WB at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contained antibodies to antigens at 34 kDa and at 21/23 kDa. Seven of 7 P. westermani sera contained antibodies to the 34 kDa antigen, but only 2 recognized the 21/23 kDa doublet. No control samples were reactive with these antigens. Antibody reactivity declined after praziquantel treatment. Thus, the P. kellicotti WB appears to be superior to P. westermani WB for diagnosing Pk infections, and it may be useful for assessing responses to treatment.

  11. Binding of 16S rRNA to chloroplast 30S ribosomal proteins blotted on nitrocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, C; Mache, R

    1984-10-11

    Protein-RNA associations were studied by a method using proteins blotted on a nitrocellulose sheet. This method was assayed with Escherichia Coli 30S ribosomal components. In stringent conditions (300 mM NaCl or 20 degrees C) only 9 E. coli ribosomal proteins strongly bound to the 16S rRNA: S4, S5, S7, S9, S12, S13, S14, S19, S20. 8 of these proteins have been previously found to bind independently to the 16S rRNA. The same method was applied to determine protein-RNA interactions in spinach chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunits. A set of only 7 proteins was bound to chloroplast rRNA in stringent conditions: chloroplast S6, S10, S11, S14, S15, S17 and S22. They also bound to E. coli 16S rRNA. This set includes 4 chloroplast-synthesized proteins: S6, S11, S15 and S22. The core particles obtained after treatment by LiCl of chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunit contained 3 proteins (S6, S10 and S14) which are included in the set of 7 binding proteins. This set of proteins probably play a part in the early steps of the assembly of the chloroplast 30S ribosomal subunit.

  12. Renaturation of blotted allergens increases the sensitivity of specific IgE detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, M D; Fernández, C; Moneo, I

    1996-01-01

    Several authors have demonstrated that renaturation is an essential step for the appropriate recognition of blotted proteins. The use of nonionic detergents has been described as a useful alternative to enhance the antigenicity in immunoblotting, although elution from proteins by detergents has been observed. To measure the influence of different factors on the sensitivity of specific IgE by immunoblotting, we used twenty human sera from atopic patients who were allergic or nonallergic to a common, reliable allergen (grass pollen mixture). The use of Nonidet-P40 was found to be a useful alternative for the renaturation of the allergens. No elution from the membrane was found when employing this detergent, even at high concentrations (3%), and its use gave better sensitivity than methanol. On the other hand, we detected that methanol possessed renaturing properties. A transfer method using diffusion instead of electric transfer gave the best results and two membranes could be obtained from each gel. Using this method, we found that after NP-40 incubation of the membrane, the use of bovine albumin could be omitted as blocking agent and that its use had even deleterious effects.

  13. NORTHERN BLOT ANALYSIS OF nm23 GENE EXPRESSION IN HUMAN LUNG CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lun-xu; ZHOU Qing-hua; SHI Ying-kang; QIN Yang; SUN Zhi-lin; SUN Ze-fang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of nm23 gene expression in human lung cancer. Methods: Forty human lung cancer tissues and 19 non-cancer pulmonary tissues were studied for their nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 mRNA expression with non-radioactive Northern blot hybridization. The correlation of nm23 mRNA expression with clinical features of lung cancer was analyzed. Results: The mRNA expression of nm23-H2 gene in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was significantly decreased compared to that in moderate-high differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The mRNA expression of nm23-H1 and nm23-H2 gene in small cell lung cancer was significantly decreased compared to that in squamous cell carcinoma. No significant difference in nm23 mRNA expression was observed between lung cancer with and without lymph node metastasis, nor was there significant difference between tumor stage. Conclusion: The mRNA expression of nm23 gene is correlated with the degree of differentiation of lung cancer, but there is no evidence of metastasis suppression effect by nm23 gene.

  14. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: a universal internal control for Western blots in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Wu, Min; He, Guowei; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Weiguang; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhihui; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zhang, Chenggang

    2012-04-01

    In the current study, we examined the expression level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) protein in a number of organisms and the stability of GAPDH under various conditions. Our results revealed that GAPDH is present in multiple Escherichia coli strains, the yeast strain GS115, Caenorhabditis elegans, rat PC12 cells, and both mouse and rat brain. Furthermore, GAPDH was stably expressed under different concentrations of inducer and at different times of induction in E. coli (BL21) cells and yeast GS115 cells. Stable expression of GAPDH protein was also observed in C.elegans and PC12 cells that were treated with different concentrations of paraquat or sodium sulfite, respectively. In addition, we were able to detect and identify the endogenous gapA protein in E.coli via immunoprecipitation and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Endogenous gapA protein and exogenously expressed (subcloned) GAPDH proteins were detected in E. coli BL21 but not for gapC. With the exception of gapC in E. coli, the various isoforms of GAPDH possessed enzymatic activity. Finally, sequence analysis revealed that the GAPDH proteins were 76% identical, with the exception of E. coli gapC. Taken together, our results indicate that GAPDH could be universally used as an internal control for the Western blot analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic samples.

  15. Rapid Detection of Rifampin-resistant Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Reverse Dot Blot Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qian; WAN Kang Lin; YU Yan; ZHU Yan Ling; ZHAO Xiu Qin; LIU Zhi Guang; ZHANG Yuan Yuan; LI Gui Lian; WEI Jian Hao; WU Yi Mou

    2015-01-01

    Objective A PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) assay was developed for rapid detection of rpoB gene mutations in‘hot mutation region’ of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Methods 12 oligonucleotide probes based on the wild-type and mutant genotype rpoB sequences of M. tuberculosis were designed to screen the most frequent wild-type and mutant genotypes for diagnosing RIF resistance. 300 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were detected by RDBH, conventional drug-susceptibility testing (DST) and DNA sequencing to evaluate the RDBH assay. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the RDBH assay were 91.2%(165/181) and 98.3%(117/119), respectively, as compared to DST. When compared with DNA sequencing, the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDBH assay were 97.7%(293/300), 98.2%(164/167), and 97.0%(129/133), respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most common mutations were in codons 531 (48.6%), 526 (25.4%), 516 (8.8%), and 511 (6.6%), and the combinative mutation rate was 15 (8.3%). One and two strains of insertion and deletion were found among all strains, respectively. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the RDBH assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for diagnosing RIF-resistant tuberculosis.

  16. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Roldán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis. Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%, whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  17. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, William H; Espinoza, Yrma A

    2009-05-01

    To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG) test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis). Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%), whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  18. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  19. Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 is a junior synonym of Anepsion maritatum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877) (Araneae, Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamel, Jobi J; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Joseph, Mathew M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2015-11-05

    The Indo-pacific araneid genus Anepsion, with A. rhomboides (L. Koch, 1867) as the type species, was erected by Strand in 1929. He proposed the name Anepsion as a replacement name for Anepsia L. Koch, 1871, preoccupied by Anepsia Gistl, 1848, a dipteran genus (OBIS Australia, 2015). The genus was revised by Chrysanthus (1961, 1969) and currently has 16 described species and 1 subspecies (World Spider Catalog 2015). In the present paper, we are reporting the genus from India for the first time and synonymising Cyrtarachne keralensis Jose, 2011 with Anepsion maritatum O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877. A redescription and illustrations of both male and female of A. maritatum are provided.

  20. Electrostatic protein immobilization using charged polyacrylamide gels and cationic detergent microfluidic Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Karns, Kelly; Tia, Samuel Q; He, Mei; Herr, Amy E

    2012-03-06

    We report a novel protein immobilization matrix for fully integrated microfluidic Western blotting (WB). The electrostatic immobilization gel (EIG) enables immobilization of all proteins sized using cetyl trimethylammonium bromide polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (CTAB-PAGE), for subsequent electrophoretic probing with detection affinity reagents (e.g., labeled antibodies). The "pan-analyte" capture strategy introduced here uses polyacrylamide gel grafted with concentrated point charges (zwitterionic macromolecules), in contrast to existing microfluidic WB strategies that rely on a sandwich immunoassay format for analyte immobilization and detection. Sandwich approaches limit analyte immobilization to capture of only a priori known targets. A charge interaction mechanism study supports the hypothesis that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in analyte immobilization on the EIG. We note that protein capture efficiency depends on both the concentration of copolymerized charges and ionic strength of the gel buffer. We demonstrate pan-analyte immobilization of sized CTAB-laden model proteins (protein G, ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin, β-galactosidase, lactoferrin) on the EIG with initial capture efficiencies ranging from 21 to 100%. Target proteins fixed on the EIG (protein G, lactoferrin) are detected using antibody probes with signal-to-noise ratios of 34 to 275. The approach advances protein immunoblotting performance through 200× reduction on sample consumption, 12× reduction in assay duration, and automated assay operation, compared to slab-gel WB. Using the microfluidic WB assay, assessment of lactoferrin in human tear fluid is demonstrated with a goal of advancing toward nonbiopsy-based diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome, an autoimmune disease.

  1. Evaluation of a Western Blot Test in an Outbreak of Acute Pulmonary Histoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzini, Claudia V.; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M.; Reiss, Errol; Hajjeh, Rana; Kaufman, Leo; Peralta, José Mauro

    1999-01-01

    A western blot (WB) test was evaluated for detection of antibodies against native glycosylated and chemically deglycosylated M and H antigens of Histoplasma capsulatum in serum obtained from patients during the acute phase of pulmonary histoplasmosis that occurred during an outbreak. Of 275 serum samples tested by immunodiffusion and complement fixation (CF) samples from 40 patients affected during this outbreak and from 37 negative controls were tested by WB test. A group of patients whose sera were negative for CF antibodies and precipitins early in the acute stage of histoplasmosis but who all seroconverted during convalescence 6 weeks later were tested with the WB test. Antibodies against untreated H and M antigens were detected at a 1:100 dilution by WB test in 45% of the 20 acute-phase serum samples and in all 20 of the convalescent-phase specimens. The WB test’s sensitivity for acute-phase specimens increased to 90% (18 of 20 specimens) when H and M antigens were treated by periodate oxidation to inactivate susceptible carbohydrate epitopes. When native glycosylated antigens were used in the WB test, positive reactions were observed in negative control serum specimens (3 of 37 specimens; 8%) and in serum specimens obtained from asymptomatic persons screened as part of the outbreak investigation (13 of 20 specimens; 65%). These positive reactions were also attributed to glycosidic epitopes since the specificity of the WB test increased from 78 to 100% when periodate-treated H and M antigens were used. WB test with deglycosylated H and M antigens of histoplasmin provides a rapid, sensitive, and specific test to diagnose acute pulmonary histoplasmosis before precipitins can be detected. PMID:9874658

  2. Evaluation of the Aspergillus Western blot IgG kit for diagnosis of chronic aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Flori, P; Hennequin, C; Dubus, J-C; Reynaud-Gaubert, M; Charpin, D; Vergnon, J M; Gay, P; Colly, A; Piarroux, R; Pelloux, H; Ranque, S

    2015-01-01

    Immunoprecipitin detection (IPD) is the current reference confirmatory technique for anti-Aspergillus antibody detection; however, the lack of standardization is a critical drawback of this assay. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the Aspergillus Western blot (Asp-WB) IgG kit (LDBio Diagnostics, Lyon, France), a recently commercialized immunoblot assay for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of chronic aspergillosis. Three hundred eight serum samples from 158 patients with aspergillosis sensu lato (s.l.) were analyzed. More specifically, 267 serum samples were derived from patients with Aspergillus disease, including 89 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 10 of aspergilloma, and 32 of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, while 41 samples were from patients with Aspergillus colonization, including 15 cystic fibrosis (CF) and 12 non-CF patients. For blood donor controls, the Asp-WB specificity was 94%, while the kit displayed a sensitivity for the aspergillosis s.l. diagnosis of 88.6%, with a diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 119 (95% confidence interval [CI], 57 to 251). The DOR values were 185.22 (95% CI,78.79 to 435.45) and 43.74 (95% CI, 15.65 to 122.20) for the diagnosis of Aspergillus disease and Aspergillus colonization, respectively. Among the patients, the sensitivities of the Asp-WB in the diagnosis of Aspergillus colonization were 100% and 41.7% in CF and non-CF patients, respectively. The Asp-WB yielded fewer false-negative results than did IPD. In conclusion, the Asp-WB kit performed well for the diagnosis of various clinical presentations of aspergillosis in nonimmunocompromised patients, with an enhanced standardization and a higher sensitivity than with IPD, which is the current reference method.

  3. Evaluation of immunodominant proteins of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cell wall by Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Maryam; Madani, Rasool; Razmi, Nematollah

    2014-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) is a slow growing mycobactin, whose dependence on mycobacterial species is known to be the causative agent of Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in all species of domestic ruminants worldwide. The organism is transmitted via close contact, ingestion, or transplacentally from mother to fetus and occurs commonly in grazing domestic animals. Johne's disease (JD) is characterized by gradual weight loss, decreased milk production, and diarrhea due to the chronic, progressive, granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis. The disease can cause serious economic damage to the dairy industry due to the loss of milk production and early culling of infected animals. In recent years, researchers have focused on the identification of a specific antigen of M. paratuberculosis to use in diagnosis test and preparation of effective vaccine. The goal of this study is evaluation of the immunodominant proteins of M. paratuberculosis cell wall. The amount of protein was determined with a Lowry assay (22.68 μg/100 μL). For production of polyclonal antibody against proteins of M. paratuberculosis cell wall, a New Zealand white rabbit was immunized with antigen and Freund's adjuvant. After immunization, the rabbit was bled to produce enriched serum. Antibodies were purified from serum with ion exchange chromatography. In the Ouchterlony test, the reactions between antigen and antibodies were seen in dilutions of one quarter for serum, one quarter for Ig, and one half for IgG by clear precipitation lines due to the well immunization of the rabbit. Electrophoresis and Western blot analysis were used and subsequently a sharp band appeared in nitrocellulose paper; these bands were about 25, 37, 50, 75, and 150 kDa molecular weight, which indicated immunodominant proteins.

  4. Nano Si preparation by constant cell voltage electrolysis of FFC-Cambridge Process in molten CaCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji; Zhao; Shengmei; Lu; Linyan; Hu; Can; Li

    2013-01-01

    Using FFC-Cambridge Process to prepare Si from SiO2 is a promising method to prepare nanostructured and highly pure silicon for solar cells.However,the method still has many problems unsolved and the controlling effect of the cell voltage on silicon product is not clear.Here we report in this article that nano cluster-like silicon product with purity of 99.95%has been prepared by complete conversion of raw material SiO2,quartz glass plate,using constant cell voltage electrolysis FFC-Cambridge Process.By analysis of XRD,EDS,TEM,HRTEM and ICP-AES as well as the discussion from the thermodynamics calculation,the morphology and components of the product based on the change of cell voltage are clarified.It is clear that pure silicon could be prepared at the cell voltage of 1.7 2.1 V in this reaction system.The silicon material have cluster-like structure which are made of silicon nanoparticles in 20 100 nm size.Interestingly,the cluster-like nano structure of the silicon can be tuned by the used cell voltage.The purity,yield and the energy cost of silicon product prepared at the optimized cell voltage are discussed.The purity of the silicon product could be further improved,hence this method is promising for the preparation of solar grade silicon in future.

  5. Diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge classification): Comparative study using secretin injection-magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the usefulness of secretin injection MRCP for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Sixteen patients having mild chronic pancreatitis according to the Cambridge classification and 12 control subjects with no abnormal findings on the pancreatogram were examined for the diagnostic accuracy of secretin injection-MRCP regarding abnormal branch pancreatic ducts associated with mild chronic pancreatitis (Cambridge Classification), using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for comparison. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for abnormal branch pancreatic ducts determined by two reviewers were respectively 55%-63% and 75%-83% in the head, 57%-64% and 82%-83% in the body, and 44%-44%and 72%-76% in the tail of the pancreas. The sensitivity and specificity for mild chronic pancreatitis were 56%-63% and 92%-92%, respectively. Interobserver abnormal branch pancreatic duct and of mild chronic pancreatitis was good to excellent. CONCLUSION: Secretin injection-MRCP might be useful for the diagnosis of mild chronic pancreatitis.

  6. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills.

  7. Intensive cisplatin/oral etoposide for epithelial ovarian cancer: the Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre experience: too toxic for relapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounaris, Ioannis; Iddawela, Mahesh; Parkinson, Christine; Pratt, Jennie; Hatcher, Helen; Basu, Bristi; Tan, Li Tee; Brenton, James D; Earl, Helena M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive cisplatin and oral etoposide for relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), commonly known as the van der Burg (VDB) protocol, has been reported to improve response rates and progression-free survival. We report on all patients with relapsed EOC treated on the VDB protocol at the Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre. From the institutional databases, we identified all patients treated since 2001. We extracted demographic, clinical, treatment, and toxicity data and outcomes. We used Cox regression to identify predictors of survival. A total of 35 patients were treated on the VDB protocol. Toxicity was significant, with grade 3/4 fatigue, nausea and vomiting affecting 46, 46 and 29% of patients, respectively. Six patients had grade 3/4 infection and four (11%) deaths occurred on treatment. Efficacy was encouraging, with a radiological response rate of 43%, a median progression-free survival of 5.8 months and a median overall survival of 14.1 months. No significant difference in efficacy was seen between platinum-resistant and sensitive patients. We report significant activity of the VDB protocol in a routine clinical setting. However, the high rates of serious toxicity and treatment-related deaths among patients treated with palliative intent proved unacceptable. The Cambridge Gynae-Oncology Centre no longer uses this regimen in women with relapsed EOC.

  8. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  9. Detection of classical and atypical/Nor98 scrapie by the paraffin-embedded tissue blot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemheuer, W M; Benestad, S L; Wrede, A; Wemheuer, W E; Brenig, B; Bratberg, B; Schulz-Schaeffer, W J

    2009-05-30

    The paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blot method was used to investigate sections of the central nervous system and lymphatic tissues from 24 cases of classical scrapie and 25 cases of atypical/Nor98 scrapie in sheep and four healthy control sheep. The PET blot detected deposits of PrP(Sc) in the brain tissue of all 49 sheep with scrapie but no PrP(Sc) labelling could be detected in the control sheep. By contrast, not all the atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases were detectable by immunohistochemistry. The high sensitivity of the PET blot method made it possible to observe that in some atypical/Nor98 cases, deposits of PrP(Sc) may be restricted to supratentorial brain structures and that the diagnosis may be missed when only testing the obex area, where deposits are common in classical scrapie, and the cerebellar structures, where deposits are considered to be common in atypical/Nor98 cases.

  10. A slot blot immunoassay for quantitative detection of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein in mosquito midgut oocyst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjai Kumar

    Full Text Available There is still a need for sensitive and reproducible immunoassays for quantitative detection of malarial antigens in preclinical and clinical phases of vaccine development and in epidemiology and surveillance studies, particularly in the vector host. Here we report the results of sensitivity and reproducibility studies for a research-grade, quantitative enhanced chemiluminescent-based slot blot assay (ECL-SB for detection of both recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (rPfCSP and native PfCSP from Oocysts (Pf Oocyst developing in the midguts of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The ECL-SB detects as little as 1.25 pg of rPfCSP (linear range of quantitation 2.5-20 pg; R2 = 0.9505. We also find the earliest detectable expression of native PfCSP in Pf Oocyst by ECL-SB occurs on day 7 post feeding with infected blood meal. The ECL-SB was able to detect approximately as few as 0.5 day 8 Pf Oocysts (linear quantitation range 1-4, R2 = 0.9795 and determined that one Pf Oocyst expressed approximately 2.0 pg (0.5-3 pg of native PfCSP, suggesting a similar range of detection for recombinant and native forms of Pf CSP. The ECL-SB is highly reproducible; the Coefficient of Variation (CV for inter-assay variability for rPf CSP and native PfCSP were 1.74% and 1.32%, respectively. The CVs for intra-assay variability performed on three days for rPf CSP were 2.41%, 0.82% and 2% and for native Pf CSP 1.52%, 0.57%, and 1.86%, respectively. In addition, the ECL-SB was comparable to microscopy in determining the P. falciparum prevalence in mosquito populations that distinctly contained either high and low midgut Pf Oocyst burden. In whole mosquito samples, estimations of positivity for P. falciparum in the high and low burden groups were 83.3% and 23.3% by ECL-SB and 85.7% and 27.6% by microscopy. Based on its performance characteristics, ECL-SB could be valuable in vaccine development and to measure the parasite prevalence in mosquitoes

  11. 近年来我国生物技术药物研究进展和趋势%The Research Progress and Trend of Biotech Drugs in Recent Years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友同; 吴文俊; 李谦; 高美风

    2013-01-01

    Biological technology is the topic height at the development of economy and technology in the 21st century all over the world . The authors based on the world biotech- drugs total development trend, summarized the biotech drugs research achievements in recent five years in China. The content includes: cytokine, protein and peptide drugs, fusion protein, cell-penetrating peptides, enzymes,gene therapy,stem cells,monoclonal antibodies,therapeutic vaccine,polysaccharide drugs,etc. It is found in the survey that the development of biotech drugs has a bright future in treating complicated diseases, protecting the human health, improving the life quality, and developing the biotech drugs industry, thank to the emerging of many creative biotech drug researches within our country. This paper provides the reference for establishing the relevant research plan, deciding the research project, setting development goals for enterprise research,and choosing professional development direction,and to biological pharmaceutical researchers.%生物技术是21世纪世界各国竞相发展的经济、技术的制高点,作者站在世界生物技术药物发展总趋势的高度上,具体而微地调查和总结了我国近5年来生物技术药物研究所取得的成果,内容包括:细胞因子、其它蛋白质和多肽药物、融合蛋白、穿膜肽、酶、基因治疗、干细胞、单克隆抗体、治疗性疫苗及多糖药物等.调查发现,在攻克人类顽疾、保障人民身体健康、提高生活质量和发展我国生物技术药物产业方面,由于国内成批有创见的研究成果持续涌现,发展前景一片光明.该文可为有关部门科研规划、确定研究项目、企业锁定发展目标及生物制药人员选择专业发展方向提供参考.

  12. Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: a mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R; Ogilvie, David

    2012-06-01

    Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study (collected in 2009) and in-depth interviews with 50 participants (collected 2009-2010). Even in Britain's leading 'cycling city', cars were a key resource in bridging the gap between individuals' desires and their circumstances. This applied both to long-term life goals such as home ownership and to shorter-term challenges such as illness. Yet car commuting was also subject to constraints, with rush hour traffic pushing drivers to start work earlier and with restrictions on, or charges for, workplace parking pushing drivers towards multimodal journeys (e.g. driving to a 'park-and-ride' site then walking). These patterns of car commuting were socio-economically structured in several ways. First, the gradient of housing costs made living near Cambridge more expensive, affecting who could 'afford' to cycle and perhaps making cycling the more salient local marker of Bourdieu's class distinction. Nevertheless, cars were generally affordable in this relatively affluent, highly-educated population, reducing the barrier which distance posed to labour-force participation. Finally, having the option of starting work early required flexible hours, a form of job control which in Britain is more common among higher occupational classes. Following a social model of disability, we conclude that socio-economic advantage can make car-oriented environments less disabling via both greater affluence and greater job control, and in ways manifested across the full socio

  13. Identification of the factors that result in obviousness rulings for biotech patents: an updated analysis of the US Federal Circuit decisions after KSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fangyu; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2013-11-01

    To demonstrate the influence of the US Supreme Court's KSR case, our analysis has shown that the ratio of obvious ruling increased from 0.42 to 0.62 after this case, whereas the ratio of non-obvious ruling decreased from 0.47 to 0.28. Therefore, without the rigid application of a "teaching, suggestion or motivation" test, the trends of obvious and non-obvious CAFC rulings significantly increased and decreased, respectively.   Based on this analysis, biotech inventors should contemplate the factors that have resulted in ruling of obviousness, which include claims that are too broad, the lack of secondary considerations, the reasonable expectation of success, and the reason or motivation to create a structure based on structural similarity. The presence of these factors most likely would result in the rejection of the claim during patent prosecution or the invalidation of the claim in patent litigation. Two immunotherapy and vaccine cases have applied these factors to overcome the obvious rejections.

  14. The impact of Myriad and Mayo: will advancements in the biological sciences be spurred or disincentivized? (Or was biotech patenting not complicated enough?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer

    2014-12-11

    For years, purified and isolated naturally occurring biological substances of great medical importance--including genes--have been the subject of U.S. patents. Similarly, methods in which the detection of a biological substance (e.g., in a blood sample) dictates subsequent actions, as in disease diagnostics and treatment, have long enjoyed patent protection. However, two recent Supreme Court cases, Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. (133 S. Ct. 2107) (2013) and Mayo Collaborative Services v. Prometheus Laboratories, Inc. (132 S. Ct. 1289) (2012), have shaken up the status quo of biotech patenting. The highest court in our land unanimously agreed with patent challengers that much of what we took for granted as patentable subject matter is not, as a matter of law, eligible for patenting after all. This review discusses the Myriad and Mayo cases, their impact on which biology-based innovations we may or may not continue to patent, and whether the altered status quo is benignly corrective or gravely disruptive. Is what happened here a good thing or not?

  15. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As demonstr

  16. 76 FR 2807 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... from Biopure Corp. to OPK Biotech, LLC. DATES: This rule is effective January 18, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Biotech, LLC, 11 and 39 Hurley St., Cambridge, MA 02141. There is no change in drug labeler code... addition, OPK Biotech, LLC, is not currently listed in the animal drug regulations as a sponsor of...

  17. A comparison of three infant skinfold reference standards: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and WHO Child Growth Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth M

    2015-10-01

    As researchers increasingly focus on early infancy as a critical period of development, there is a greater need for methodological tools that can address all aspects of infant growth. Infant skinfold measures, in particular, are measurements in need of reliable reference standards that encompass all ages of infants and provide an accurate assessment of the relative fatness of a population. This report evaluates three published reference standards for infant skinfold measurements: Tanner-Whitehouse, Cambridge Infant Growth Study, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards. To assess these standards, triceps skinfolds from a population of rural Kenyan infants (n = 250) and triceps skinfolds and subscapular skinfolds from infants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 (NHANES; n = 1197) were calculated as z-scores from the lambda-mu-sigma curves provided by each reference population. The Tanner-Whitehouse standards represented both the Kenyan and US populations as lean, while the Cambridge standards represented both populations as overfat. The distribution of z-scores based on the WHO standards fell in the middle, but excluded infants from both populations who were below the age of 3 months. Based on these results, the WHO reference standard is the best skinfold reference standard for infants over the age of 3 months. For populations with infants of all ages, the Tanner-Whitehouse standards are recommended, despite representing both study populations as underfat. Ideally, the WHO will extend their reference standard to include infants between the ages of 0 and 3 months.

  18. Update on the Status of the On-Going Range Dependent Low Frequency Active Sonar Model Benchmarking Effort : From Cambridge to Kos [abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010, a symposium in Memory of David Weston was held at Clare College in Cambridge (UK). International researchers from academia and research laboratories met to discuss two sets of test problems for sonar performance models, one aimed at understanding mammal echolocation sonar („Problem AI

  19. Comparative Coh-Metrix Analysis of Reading Comprehension Texts: Unified (Russian) State Exam in English vs. Cambridge First Certificate in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solnyshkina, Marina I.; Harkova, Elena V.; Kiselnikov, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of the comparative study of Reading comprehension texts used in B2 level tests: Unified (Russia) State Exam in English (EGE) and Cambridge First Certificate in English (FCE). The research conducted was mainly focused on six parameters measured with the Coh-Metrix, a computational tool producing indices of the…

  20. Performance on Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery Subtests Sensitive to Frontal Lobe Function in People with Autistic Disorder: Evidence from the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, Sally; Cook, Ian; Coon, Hilary; Dawson, Geraldine; Joseph, Robert M.; Klin, Ami; McMahon, William M.; Minshew, Nancy; Munson, Jeffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging work, as well as neuropathology and neuropsychology studies, provide strong empirical support for the involvement of frontal cortex in autism. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a computer-administered set of neuropsychological tests developed to examine specific components…

  1. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. Allen; A.J. Cruz-Cabeza; P.A. Wood; D.A. Bardwell

    2013-01-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H(2)SQ) and its mono-and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using th

  2. Trajectories of Offending and Their Relation to Life Failure in Late Middle Age: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that over the life course, criminal offending varies with problems in other domains, including life failure and physical and mental health. To examine this issue, the authors use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8…

  3. Proceedings of the Aircraft Wake Vortices Conference, March 15-17, 1977, held at the Transportation Systems Center, Kendall Square, Cambridge, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    CA. Jan. 1977. 309 -1.A IM ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF AIRCRAFT WAKE VORTICES PAUL B. MACCREADY. JR. AND PETER B.S. LISSAMAN...Transportation Systems Center Civil Aviation Authority Kendall Square London Space House Cambridge MA 02142 Kingsway WC2 England Pitchford . Lynn D. Lockheed

  4. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 4. Examples of Discovery-Based Learning Using the Complete Cambridge Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  5. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 2. Teaching Units that Utilize an Interactive Web-Accessible Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    A series of online interactive teaching units have been developed that illustrate the use of experimentally measured three-dimensional (3D) structures to teach fundamental chemistry concepts. The units integrate a 500-structure subset of the Cambridge Structural Database specially chosen for their pedagogical value. The units span a number of key…

  6. Teaching Three-Dimensional Structural Chemistry Using Crystal Structure Databases. 3. The Cambridge Structural Database System: Information Content and Access Software in Educational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.

    2011-01-01

    Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…

  7. Decline of Executive Function in a Clinical Population: Age, Psychopathology, and Test Performance on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, G.T.L.; Aken, L. van; Mey, H.R.A. De; Witteman, C.L.M.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a cross-sectional examination of the age-related executive changes in a sample of adults with a history of psychiatric illness using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. A total of 406 patients, aged 18 to 72 years old, completed executive function tests of wo

  8. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    OpenAIRE

    Panter, J; Griffin, S.; Jones, A; MacKett, R; Ogilvie, D

    2011-01-01

    Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK.

  9. Comparison of Diagnostic Value of Antigen B and Protoscoleces Antigen in Diagnosis of Hydatid Cyst by Blotting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oreizi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Hydatidosis, a disease caused by the cestod helminth echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important parasitic zoonosis in man and a variety of animals. Sensitive and reliable serologic methods are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, Ag B and Psc Ag were purified as two specific parasitic antigens and evaluated by Dot blotting used on the serum of hydatidosis patients and control group in order to identify the most sensitive and specific subunits.Materials and Methods: In an analytic and comparative study, serum samples collected from 22 patients under operation of hydatid cyst. As a control group, 4 patients with acute toxoplasmosis, 4 patients with leishmaniasis, 4 patients infected by non-hydatid cestods(Tenia saginata and H.nana and 4 normal subjects were included in this investigation. Infected sheep’s liver and lung were used for the preparation of antigen. Cyst fluid containing protoscoleces was extracted and then partially purified with a protein A column. AgB and Psc Ags were interacted with hydatid and control sera, with Dot blot method and sensitivity and specificity of these antigens were evaluated. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were estimated 95.9% and 81% respectively, for AgB and 100% and 63% respectively, for Psc Ag in Dot blot Method. Conclusion: Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of AgB and Psc Ag using Dot blotting revealed that AgB has high value for diagnosis of hydatidosis. and presumably can help physicians to diagnose hydatid cyst easier than other routine tests.

  10. Differentiation of Enterococcus faecium from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains by PCR and dot-blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, S; Fernández, A; Martín, R; Reviriego, C; Marín, M L; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

    2003-12-01

    Variations in length and sequence of the 16S/23S spacer region of Enterococcus faecium provided the basis for development of simple PCR and dot-blot hybridisation assays that enabled the differentiation of potentially probiotic Enterococcus faecium strains from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Such assays may be useful for differentiation of yoghurt starter cultures and enterococcal strains when they are simultaneously present in probiotic food products.

  11. Development of PCR/dot blot assay for specific detection and differentiation of taeniid cestode eggs in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Nonaka, Nariaki; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Seita; Gottstein, Bruno; Deplazes, Peter; Phiri, Isaac G K; Katakura, Ken; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a colourimetric PCR/dot blot assay targeting the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs. Partial sequences of the cestode nad1 gene were aligned and new primers were designed based on conserved regions. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes (S-SONP) for canine taeniid cestodes were then designed manually based on the variable region between the conserved primers. Specifically, S-SONP were designed for the Taenia crassiceps, T. hydatigena, T. multiceps, T. ovis, T. taeniaeformis, Echinococcus granulosus (genotype 1), E. multilocularis and E. vogeli. Each probe showed high specificity as no cross-hybridisation with any amplified nad1 fragment was observed. We evaluated the assay using 49 taeniid egg-positive samples collected from dogs in Zambia. DNA from 5 to 10 eggs was extracted in each sample. Using the PCR/dot blot assay, the probes successfully detected PCR products from T. hydatigena in 42 samples, T. multiceps in 3 samples, and both species (mixed infection) in the remaining 4 samples. The results indicate that the PCR/dot blot assay is a reliable alternative for differential diagnosis of taeniid eggs in faecal samples.

  12. Investigation of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Epileptic Patients and Comparison of Two Methods: ELISA and Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zibaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Toxocara infection and epilepsy was previously demonstrated by several case-control studies and case reports. These previous studies were often based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, which are not specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, and anisakiasis. An immunoblot analysis is highly specific and can detect low levels of Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, this assay may be useful in the identification of toxocariasis in epileptic patients. We examined patients who had epilepsy and healthy subjects for seropositivity for Toxocara infection by ELISA and Western blotting. Out of 85 epileptic patients, 10 (11.8% and 3 (3.5% persons exhibited Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies responses by ELISA and by both techniques, respectively. Moreover, in the healthy group (, 3 (3.5% persons were positive by ELISA, but none was detected by Western blotting. This study indicates that Toxocara infection is a risk factor for epilepsy in Iran. These findings strongly suggest the need to perform Western blotting immunodiagnosis, as well as the ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, to improve diagnosis of human toxocariasis in patients with epilepsy.

  13. Robust associations between the 20-item prosopagnosia index and the Cambridge Face Memory Test in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition, characterized by lifelong face recognition deficits. Leading research groups diagnose the condition using complementary computer-based tasks and self-report measures. In an attempt to standardize the reporting of self-report evidence, we recently developed the 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20), a short questionnaire measure of prosopagnosic traits suitable for screening adult samples for DP. Strong correlations between scores on the PI20 and performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) appeared to confirm that individuals possess sufficient insight into their face recognition ability to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits. However, the extent to which people have insight into their face recognition abilities remains contentious. A lingering concern is that feedback from formal testing, received prior to administration of the PI20, may have augmented the self-insight of some respondents in the original validation study. To determine whether the significant correlation with the CFMT was an artefact of previously delivered feedback, we sought to replicate the validation study in individuals with no history of formal testing. We report highly significant correlations in two independent samples drawn from the general population, confirming: (i) that a significant relationship exists between PI20 scores and performance on the CFMT, and (ii) that this is not dependent on the inclusion of individuals who have previously received feedback. These findings support the view that people have sufficient insight into their face recognition abilities to complete a self-report measure of prosopagnosic traits.

  14. Conformer generation with OMEGA: algorithm and validation using high quality structures from the Protein Databank and Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul C D; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Warren, Gregory L; Ellingson, Benjamin A; Stahl, Matthew T

    2010-04-26

    Here, we present the algorithm and validation for OMEGA, a systematic, knowledge-based conformer generator. The algorithm consists of three phases: assembly of an initial 3D structure from a library of fragments; exhaustive enumeration of all rotatable torsions using values drawn from a knowledge-based list of angles, thereby generating a large set of conformations; and sampling of this set by geometric and energy criteria. Validation of conformer generators like OMEGA has often been undertaken by comparing computed conformer sets to experimental molecular conformations from crystallography, usually from the Protein Databank (PDB). Such an approach is fraught with difficulty due to the systematic problems with small molecule structures in the PDB. Methods are presented to identify a diverse set of small molecule structures from cocomplexes in the PDB that has maximal reliability. A challenging set of 197 high quality, carefully selected ligand structures from well-solved models was obtained using these methods. This set will provide a sound basis for comparison and validation of conformer generators in the future. Validation results from this set are compared to the results using structures of a set of druglike molecules extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). OMEGA is found to perform very well in reproducing the crystallographic conformations from both these data sets using two complementary metrics of success.

  15. Color vision impairment in type 2 diabetes assessed by the D-15d test and the Cambridge Colour Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Santana, Claudia; Paramei, Galina V; Nishi, Mauro; Gualtieri, Mirella; Costa, Marcelo F; Ventura, Dora F

    2010-09-01

    Color vision impairment emerges at early stages of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and may precede diabetic retinopathy or the appearance of vascular alterations in the retina. The aim of the present study was to compare the evaluation of the color vision with two different tests - the Lanthony desaturated D-15d test (a traditional color arrangement test), and the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT) (a computerized color discrimination test) - in patients diagnosed with DM2 without clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy (DR), and in sex- and age-matched control groups. Both color tests revealed statistically significant differences between the controls and the worst eyes of the DM2 patients. In addition, the degree of color vision impairment diagnosed by both tests correlated with the disease duration. The D-15d outcomes indicated solely tritan losses. In comparison, CCT outcomes revealed diffuse losses in color discrimination: 13.3% for best eyes and 29% for worst eyes. In addition, elevation of tritan thresholds in the DM2 patients, as detected by the Trivector subtest of the CCT, was found to correlate with the level of glycated hemoglobin. Outcomes of both tests confirm that subclinical losses of color vision are present in DM2 patients at an early stage of the disease, prior to signs of retinopathy. Considering the advantages of the CCT test compared to the D-15d test, further studies should attempt to verify and/or improve the efficiency of the CCT test.

  16. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  17. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Park, Chang W; Steer, Clifford J

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  18. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks and Ctenocephalides felis fleas from southeastern Tunisia by reverse line blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Bouattour, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia.

  19. How to Distinguish Between the Activity of HDAC1-3 and HDAC6 with Western Blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Mandy; Kiweler, Nicole; Mahboobi, Siavosh; Krämer, Oliver H

    2017-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the deacetylation of lysine residues in their target proteins. This biochemical modification can have profound effects on the functions of these proteins and a dysregulation of HDAC activity contributes to severe diseases, including neoplastic transformation. In the following chapter, we present a strategy that allows to distinguish between the inhibition of the class I HDACs HDAC1, 2, and 3 and of the class IIb HDAC HDAC6. This method is based on Western blot and relies on the detection of hyperacetylated substrates of class I or class IIb HDACs in lysates from cells that were treated with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi).

  20. Adaptación y validación al castellano de la escala de despersonalización de Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Castillo, Juan José

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La Escala de Despersonalización de Cambridge es un cuestionario autoadministrativo cuyo objetivo es evaluar la frecuencia y duración de los síntomas de despersonalización en los últimos seis meses. El instrumento ha mostrado ser válido y fiable y está siendo utilizado tanto en la clínica como en la investigación neurobiológica. MÉTODOS: Este trabajo presenta la adaptación y validación al castellano de la Escala de Despersonalización de Cambridge, así como su aplicación en el ...

  1. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  2. Analysis of Sperm Membrane Protein Relevant to Antisperm Antibody by Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-fei WANG; Zhu-qiong XIANG; Yi-xing WANG

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify the sperm membrane proteins that are associated with antisperm antibodyMethods Using antisperm antibody positive serum through unidimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by Western blot analysis to determine the molecular weights (MW) and isoelectric points (pI) of sperm membrane proteins that are associated with antisperm antibody.Results Eight kinds of MW with more than ten sperm membrane proteins can be recognized by antisperm antibody positive serum, of which the MWs and pI were 23 kD, 31 kD, 32 kD, 34 kD, 41 kD, 51 kD, 60 kD, 78 kD and 5.3, 5.5,5.7, 5.0, 5.3, 5.8, 6.0, 5.5~6.2, 4.6,5.1,5.5~5.8 respectively. The identification ratios of the sperm membrane proteins on 78 kD (60.7%), 60 kD (71.4%), 51 kD (14.9%) and 23 kD (14.29%) were higher.Conclusion The sperm membrane proteins with MW of 78 kD, 60 kD, 51 kD and 23 kD were associated with antisperm antibody and immunological infertility. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blotting can precisely identify the sperm membrane proteins that are associated with antisperm antibody.

  3. Dot-Blot Hybridization for Detection of Five Cucurbit Viruses by Digoxigenin-Labelled cDNA Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Juan; GU Qin-sheng; LIN Shi-ming; PENG Bin; LIU Li-feng; TIAN Yan-ping; LI Li

    2007-01-01

    Dot-blot hybridization was applied in this paper to detect five viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops,Zuccini yellow mosaic virus(ZYMV),Watermelon mosaic virus(WMV),Cucumber mosaic virus(CMV),Papaya ringspot virus watermelon strain(PRSV-W)and Squash mosaic virus(SqMV),as a good alternative assay in seed health test and epidemiological and transgenic research.Digoxigenin-labelled cDNA probes of the five viruses were synthesized by PCR with the specific primers and applied in dot-blot hybridization to detect five viruses in crude extraction of the infected leaves.And three SqMV probes of different lengths(0.55,1.6,and 2.7 kb,respectively)were designed to investigate the effect of hybridization.The results showed that the sensitivity for detecting the crude extraction of infected leaves by ZYMV,WMV,CMV,PRSV-W,and SqMV was down to 1:160,1:160,1:320,1:160,and 1:320,respectively.Three SqMV probes of different length showed no differences on the sensitivity and specificity.The digoxigenin-labelled probes prepared by PCR could be used for accurate and rapid identification of 5 viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops with good stabilities,sensitivities,specificity,and reproducibilities.

  4. RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis in search for a putative Paramecium beta-adrenergic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płatek, A; Wiejak, J; Wyroba, E

    1999-01-01

    RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis were performed in order to search for a putative beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) in Paramecium using several beta2-adrenergic-specific molecular probes. Under strictly defined RT-PCR conditions DNA species of expected molecular size about 360 bp were generated with the primers corresponding to the universal mammalian beta2-AR sequence tagged sites (located within the 4th and the 6th transmembrane regions of the receptor). This RT-PCR product hybridized in Southern blot analysis with the oligonucleotide probe designed to the highly conservative beta2-AR region involved in G-proteins interaction and located within the amplified region. Northern hybridization was performed on Paramecium total RNA and mRNA with human beta2-AR cDNA and two oligonucleotide probes: the first included Phe 290 involved in agonist binding (Strader et al., 1995) and the second was the backward RT-PCR primer. All these probes revealed the presence of about 2 kb mRNA which is consistent with the size of beta2-AR transcripts found in higher eukaryotes.

  5. Mere end blot pirringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Østergaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i en række cases på vellykkede oplevelsesøkonomiske forretningsmodeller argumenterer artiklen for, at oplevelsesprodukter skal bygge på et klart tema, som forbrugeren kan koble sig sanse- og følelsesmæssigt op på. Forbrugeren skal kunne omsætte produktets pirringer til egne erfar...

  6. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  7. The application of a photon-counting camera in very sensitive, bioluminescence-enhanced detection systems for protein blotting. Ultrasensitive detection systems for protein blotting and DNA hybridization, II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, R; Miska, W; Schleinkofer, L; Geiger, R

    1988-03-01

    A relatively simple, very sensitive bioluminescence-enhanced detection system for protein blots was described recently. This method utilizes antibodies conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. Alkaline phosphatase releases D-luciferin (Photinus pyralis) from D-luciferin-O-phosphate. Liberated D-luciferin reacts with luciferase, ATP and oxygen with light emission. The light produced is measured with a very sensitive photon counting camera (Argus 100), permitting visualization and localization of the alkaline phosphatase-conjugated antibodies on nitrocellulose sheets. Under non-optimized conditions the limit of detection is at present 5 to 500 fg of protein (rabbit immunoglobulin G), corresponding to 30 to 3 amol. The method is therefore 10(5) times more sensitive than other used at present.

  8. EDITORIAL: Proceedings of the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW 12), Cambridge, MA, USA, 13 16 December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Katsavounidis, E.

    2008-09-01

    It was a great pleasure and an honor for us to host the 12th Gravitational Wave Data Analysis Workshop (GWDAW) at MIT and the LIGO Laboratory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the place where this workshop series started in 1996. This time the conference was held at the conference facilities of the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge from 13 16 December, 2007. This 12th GWDAW found us with the ground interferometers having just completed their most sensitive search for gravitational waves and as they were starting their preparation to bring online and/or propose more sensitive instruments. Resonant mass detectors continued to observe the gravitational wave sky with instruments that have been operating now for many years. LISA, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, was recently reviewed by NASA's Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee (BEPAC) convened by the National Research Council (NRC) and found that 'on purely scientific grounds LISA is the mission that is the most promising and least scientifically risky…thus, the committee gave LISA its highest scientific ranking'. Even so, JDEM, the Joint Dark Energy Mission, was identified to go first, with LISA following a few years after. New methods, analysis ideas, results from the analysis of data collected by the instruments, as well as Mock Data Challenges for LISA were reported in this conference. While data from the most recent runs of the instruments are still being analyzed, the first upper limit results show how even non-detection statements can be interesting astrophysics. Beyond these traditional aspects of GWDAW though, for the first time in this workshop we tried to bring the non-gravitational wave physics and astronomy community on board in order to present, discuss and propose ways to work together as we pursue the first detection of gravitational waves and as we hope to transition to gravitational wave astronomy in the near future. Overview talks by colleagues leading observations in the electromagnetic

  9. 用DNA探针检测沙眼衣原体%Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis by DNA Probe Blot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫萍; 陈亚利; 武建国

    2001-01-01

    目的: 建立一种敏感而特异的沙眼衣原体分子生物学检测方法. 方法: 用PCR扩增517bp的沙眼衣原体种特异性基因片段并标记成探针,建立DNA探针杂交检测沙眼衣原体的方法.结果: 探针只与沙眼衣原体L2、TE55株DNA呈阳性杂交斑点,与其他两种衣原体、解脲支原体、淋病奈瑟菌、大肠埃希菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、流感嗜血杆菌及白色念珠菌DNA斑点膜无阳性杂交信号.从100例慢性宫颈炎和前列腺炎病人生殖道分泌物中检出阳性22例,阳性率22%. 结论: 建立的DNA探针检测沙眼衣原体方法具有较高的敏感性和特异性,可用于批量临床标本的检测.%Objectives: To establish a sensitive and specific molecular biologicalmethod for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis of genital tract infection patients. Methods: A DNA blot assay was developed by coating DNA of Chlamydia trachomatisand/or extract of clinical samples on nitrocellulose (NC) membrane, blotting witha DNA probe labeled with DIG. Results: There was no positive blotting in Chlamydiapneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae,Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus infuenzae and Candida albicansexcept Chlamydia trachomatis. The sensitivity could be improved to 1pg. The positivepercentage was 22% (22/100) in detection of swabs collected from 100 chroniccervicitis and prostatitis patients. Conclusions: This method was not only sensitive, rapid and specific but also could be applied to detect batch samples. Natl J Androl,2001,7(2):102~104

  10. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Haitham A; AlSadek, Dina M M; Mathew, Mohit P; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B; Yarema, Kevin J; Ahmed, Hafiz

    2015-12-01

    This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, "Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  11. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  12. Imprinting mutations in Angelman syndrome detected by Southern blotting using a probe containing exon {alpha} of SNRPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuten, J.; Sutcliffe, J.S.; Nakao, M. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are associated with paternal and maternal deficiencies respectively, of gene expression within human chromosome 15q11-q13, and are caused by deletion, uniparental disomy (UPD), or other mutations. The SNRPN gene maps in this region, is paternally expressed, and is a candidate gene for PWS. Southern blotting using methylation-sensitive enzymes and a genomic DNA probe from the CpG island containing exon {alpha} of the SNRPN gene reveals methylation specific for the maternal allele. In cases of the usual deletions or UPD, the probe detects absence of an unmethylated allele in PWS and absence of a methylated allele in AS. We have analyzed 21 nondeletion/nonUPD AS patients with this probe and found evidence for an imprinting mutation (absence of a methylated allele) in 3 patients. Southern blotting with methylation-sensitive enzymes using the exon {alpha} probe, like use of the PW71 probe, should detect abnormalities in all known PWS cases and in 3 of the 4 forms of AS: deletion, UPD and imprinting mutations. This analysis provides a valuable diagnostic approach for PWS and AS. In efforts to localize the imprinting mutations in AS, one patient was found with failure to inherit a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism near probe 189-1 (D15S13). Analysis of this locus in AS families and CEPH families demonstrates a polymorphism that impairs amplification and a different polymorphism involving absence of hybridization to the 189-1 probe. The functional significance, if any, of deletion of the 189-1 region is unclear.

  13. MDR-TB Antibody Response (Western Blot) to Fractions of Isoniazid and Rifampicin Resistant Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Yari, Shamsi; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2015-12-01

    Drug-resistant TB poses a major threat to control of TB worldwide. Despite progress in the detection of Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases, a major diagnostic gap remains: 55% of reported TB patients estimated to have MDR-TB were not detected in 2013. MDR-TB antigens were conjugated to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Specific polyclonal antibodies against MDR-TB Ags were prepared in rabbits using two boosted injections of the MDR-TB antigen. The antibodies were purified and treated with susceptible TB to remove any non-specific and cross-reactive antibodies. In the present study, comparative analysis of electrophoretic pattern of different antigens of INH/RIF-resistant TB were studied for identifying protein profiles. A RIF-resistant TB antigen was shown here to have different protein profiles from INH-resistant TB isolate. The results of Western blotting analysis showed that in the RIF- and INH-resistant antigenic fractions some bands of 14.4 and 45 kDa as immunogenic were common. Moreover, four bands of RIF-resistant TB antigen fractions (16, 19, 21, and 45 KDa) and one band of INH-resistant TB (about 26 KDa) were detected as diagnostic antigens. This study suggests that the Western blot is an accurate test to survey INH- and RIF-resistant TB antigens of M. tuberculosis infection. These findings indicate that MDR-TB diagnosis (based on Ag detection) could be useful in the identification of disease stages that precede symptomatic and microbiologically positive TB, such as subclinical and incipient TB.

  14. Cambridge IGCSE physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennett, Heather; Konrad, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling title, developed by International experts - now updated to offer comprehensive coverage of the core and extended topics in the latest syllabus. - Includes a student's CD-ROM featuring interactive tests and practice for all examination papers- Covers the core and supplement sections of the updated syllabus- Supported by the most comprehensive range of additional material, including Teacher Resources, Laboratory Books, Practice Books and Revision Guides- Written by renowned, expert authors with vast experience of teaching and examining international qualifications We are working

  15. Philosophy at Cambridge

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Newsletter of the Philosophy Faculty. Articles by: Tim Crane, 'From the Chair' ; Huw Price, "Erroneously supposed to do no harm"; Arthur Gibson, 'The Wittgenstein-Skinner Archive; Emily Thomas, 'Elizabeth Anscombe'.

  16. Biotech drugs : biological therapeutic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Godfrey; Fenech, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The recent years has seen significant growth in a new therapeutic approach to the management of disease. Biological therapeutic agents, constitute a broad category of drugs, usually generated by recombinant techniques from living organisms. These therapies revolutionise the traditional approaches to drug design and development, and regulatory agencies have been swift in developing the necessary structures to ensure their optimal use.

  17. Space Biotech: Hindsight, Insight, Foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Over the past forty years, microgravity has inspired and enabled applications in a wide range of sectors including medicine, materials, computers, communications, and national defense. Trends show that demand for high-tech solutions is increasing in these sectors, solutions that require higher resolution, greater precision, novel materials, innovative processes, and more sophisticated tools. These are areas where microgravity can offer unique capabilities for innovation. The Emerging Space Office (ESO) has engaged in multiple studies over the past year that have found that microgravity RD is one of the most promising technology areas for contributing to economic growth and to NASAs mission. The focus of these studies was on terrestrial markets rather than NASA applications, applied research rather than basic research, and commercial rather than academic investigators. There have been more success stories than are generally appreciated and there are significant areas of promising future potential. Many of the problems that have limited commercial microgravity development in the past are being solved. Microgravity research and development (RD) requires iteration and learning, as rapidly as possible. New technologies enable high throughput and rapid data collection in increasingly small payloads. The International Space Station is in orbit and provides a laboratory that is available 247 at least until 2024. Frequent flights by commercial space providers to and from the ISS now enable the fast learning cycles needed by high-tech industries. Launch costs are decreasing and the ability to return payloads to Earth is increasing. New commercial space laboratories, such as those being developed by SpaceX and Bigelow Aerospace, are in the final stages of development and testing. This ecosystem for microgravity RD has never been available before. These are game-changer conditions for attracting high-tech industries to space for terrestrial, as well as NASA, applications. However, few know that these capabilities are available or how to use them. In aggregate, the potential value for new applications from microgravity RD over the next ten years could add billions of dollars per year in terrestrial applications to the future economy, create new jobs, and generate a wide range of public benefits in medical advances, while broadening the customer base for the emerging space industry.

  18. Editorial: biotech methods and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    This annual Methods and Advances Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal contains a selection of cutting-edge research and review articles with a particular emphasis on vertical process understanding – read more in this editorial by Prof. Alois Jungbauer, BTJ co-Editor-in-Chief.

  19. Scientific Basis for Biotech Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to change the genetic makeup of plants have been ongoing since the beginning of agriculture, thousands of years ago. Early plant improvements relied on simply cross-breeding cultivars with desired traits. Advancements in mutation breeding through chemicals and radiation ...

  20. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  1. Crystal structures of four δ-keto esters and a Cambridge Structural Database analysis of cyano-halogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Kulsoom; Maurya, Hardesh K; Gupta, Atul; Vasudev, Prema G

    2015-10-01

    The revived interest in halogen bonding as a tool in pharmaceutical cocrystals and drug design has indicated that cyano-halogen interactions could play an important role. The crystal structures of four closely related δ-keto esters, which differ only in the substitution at a single C atom (by H, OMe, Cl and Br), are compared, namely ethyl 2-cyano-5-oxo-5-phenyl-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H22N2O3, (1), ethyl 2-cyano-5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C20H24N2O4, (2), ethyl 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-cyano-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H21ClN2O3, (3), and the previously published ethyl 5-(4-bromophenyl)-2-cyano-5-oxo-3-(piperidin-1-yl)pent-2-enoate, C19H21BrN2O3, (4) [Maurya, Vasudev & Gupta (2013). RSC Adv. 3, 12955-12962]. The molecular conformations are very similar, while there are differences in the molecular assemblies. Intermolecular C-H...O hydrogen bonds are found to be the primary interactions in the crystal packing and are present in all four structures. The halogenated derivatives have additional aromatic-aromatic interactions and cyano-halogen interactions, further stabilizing the molecular packing. A database analysis of cyano-halogen interactions using the Cambridge Structural Database [CSD; Groom & Allen (2014). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53, 662-671] revealed that about 13% of the organic molecular crystals containing both cyano and halogen groups have cyano-halogen interactions in their packing. Three geometric parameters for the C-X...N[triple-bond]C interaction (X = F, Cl, Br or I), viz. the N...X distance and the C-X...N and C-N...X angles, were analysed. The results indicate that all the short cyano-halogen contacts in the CSD can be classified as halogen bonds, which are directional noncovalent interactions.

  2. Spectrophotometric quantitation of DNA on blots after ethanol-solubilization of the MTT-formazan from anti-digoxigenin-based detection of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, D J

    1993-01-01

    The tetrazolium salt, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) has recently been established as a substitute for Nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT) in stain mixtures using antibody-conjugated alkaline phosphatase for the location of proteins on Western blots (Heegaard, 1990). Experiments reported here show that MTT is as sensitive as NBT in digoxigenin-labeled probe localization (on nucleic acid blots) utilizing alkaline-phosphatase-labelled, anti-digoxigenin antibodies. Moreover, as the formazan from MTT is soluble in ethanol, it is shown that spectrophotometric quantitation can be used to estimate the amount of target DNA on dot and Southern blots. For dot blotting, pBR328 was used as the probe and pBR322 as target. For Southern blots, human rDNA was used as the probe and total genomic calf DNA as the target. Staining response was linear over at least six twofold DNA dilutions in both types of blot.

  3. [Optimization of the immunoelectrophoresis technic (western blot) for the confirmation of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, J M; de Austin, E; de Moreno, N O; Ledezma, C; de Márquez, E; Blanco, R; Quiroz, E; Calzada, J; Vincensini, A R; de Martin, M C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the results of the authors' investigation to apply the western blot technique (WB UP-LCS) in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. To do this, the authors separated the proteins of the HIV-1 virus by electrophoresis, based on their molecular weight, in poliacilamide gel with SDS (SDS-PAGE) during 3 hours at 200 volts. Then they electrotransferred these proteins to nitrocellulose paper during four hours at 200 milliamperes, with the aid of external cooling. The nitrocellulose strips were evaluated considering the incubation time (1 and 16 hours), two conjugates (human anti IgG with Peroxidase and human anti IgG Biotin plus Streptatividine with Peroxidase) and two dilutions of the patients' sera (1/50 and 1/100). Based on their results the Authors conclude that, in the first place, the optimal conditions for the test include a dilution of 1/100 of the patients serum, incubation of the serum for 16 hours and the use of the conjugate of anti human IgG with Biotin and Streptavidine with Peroxidase; secondary, that the immunologic reactivity against proteins p24 and gp 160/120 is the most important diagnostic criterion for the confirmation of infection with HIV-1 and that they obtained a diagnostic correlation of 100% at a cost which was 5 to 7 times less than that of the commercial system.

  4. Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium.

  5. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  6. Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pereira Silva

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum IgG antibodies in Western blotting (WB using a Strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. In addition, the WB results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT results. Serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, and 40 healthy individuals. S. ratti was obtained from fecal culture of experimentally infected Rattus rattus. For IFAT, S. ratti larvae were used as antigen and S. ratti larval antigenic extracts were employed in WB and ELISA. Eleven S. ratti antigenic components were predominantly recognized by IgG antibodies in sera of patients with strongyloidiasis. There was a positive concordance for the three tests in 87.5% of the cases of strongyloidiasis. The negative concordance in the three tests was 94% and 97.5%, in patients with other intestinal parasitoses and healthy individuals, respectively. In cases of positive ELISA and negative IFAT results, diagnosis could be confirmed by WB. ELISA, IFAT, and WB using S. ratti antigens showed a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, WB using S. ratti larval extract was able to recognize 11 immunodominant antigenic components, showing to be a useful tool to define the diagnosis in cases of equivocal serology.

  7. "Enzyme-Linked Immunotransfer Blot Analysis of Somatic and Excretory- Secretory Antigens of Fasciola hepatica in Diagnosis of Human Fasciolosis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MB Rokni

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis, a liver disease in most part of the world and particularly in north of Iran. Diagnosis of the diseases is anchored in coprological manner but serological methods are preferable due to some obscurities. In this study, sera obtained from human patients infected with Fasciola hepatica were tested by the enzymelinked immunotrotransfer blot (EITB technique with the parasite s somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of the assay. The study included sera from 40 patients infected with F. hepatica, 20 infected with hydatidosis, 6 with toxocariasis, 10 with strongyloidiasis, 10 with amoebiasis, 5 with malaria and 30 normal controls. By this assay, most pf the serum samples from humans with fascioliasis recognized two antigenic polypeptides of 27 and 29 kDa using both antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for somatic antigen were 91.0%, 96.2%, 95.2% and 92.7% respectively, while these parameters as for ES antigen were 95.2%, 98.0%, 97.5% and 96.2%, correspondingly. Totally, two cases of reactions for the first antigen and one for the latter were verified. The study suggests that the 27 and 29 kDa bands for two antigens in EITB test could be considered for the immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis.

  8. A novel methylation PCR that offers standardized determination of FMR1 methylation and CGG repeat length without southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marina; Boon, Elles M J; Filipovic-Sadic, Stela; van Bunderen, Patrick A; Gennaro, Elena; Cao, Ru; Latham, Gary J; Hadd, Andrew G; Coviello, Domenico A

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and associated disorders are characterized by the number of CGG repeats and methylation status of the FMR1 gene for which Southern blot (SB) historically has been required for analysis. This study describes a simple PCR-only workflow (mPCR) to replace SB analysis, that incorporates novel procedural controls, treatment of the DNA in separate control and methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease reactions, amplification with labeled primers, and two-color amplicon sizing by capillary electrophoresis. mPCR was evaluated in two independent laboratories with 76 residual clinical samples that represented typical and challenging fragile X alleles in both males and females. mPCR enabled superior size resolution and analytical sensitivity for size and methylation mosaicism compared to SB. Full mutation mosaicism was detected down to 1% in a background of 99% normal allele with 50- to 100-fold less DNA than required for SB. A low level of full mutation mosaicism in one sample was detected using mPCR but not observed using SB. Overall, the sensitivity for detection of full mutation alleles was 100% (95% CI: 89%-100%) with an accuracy of 99% (95% CI: 93%-100%). mPCR analysis of DNA from individuals with Klinefelter and Turner syndromes, and DNA from sperm and blood, were consistent with SB. As such, mPCR enables accurate, sensitive, and standardized methods of FMR1 analysis that can harmonize results across different laboratories.

  9. Lectin staining and Western blot data showing differential sialylation of nutrient-deprived cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham A. Badr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This report provides data that are specifically related to the differential sialylation of nutrient deprived breast cancer cells to sialic acid supplementation in support of the research article entitled, “Nutrient-deprived cancer cells preferentially use sialic acid to maintain cell surface glycosylation" [1]. Particularly, breast cancer cells, when supplemented with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation, display sialylated glycans at the cell surface, but non-malignant mammary cells show sialylated glycans intracellularly. The impact of sialic acid supplementation under nutrient deprivation was demonstrated by measuring levels of expression and sialylation of two markers, EGFR1 and MUC1. This Data in Brief article complements the main manuscript by providing detailed instructions and representative results for cell-level imaging and Western blot analyses of changes in sialylation during nutrient deprivation and sialic acid supplementation. These methods can be readily generalized for the study of many types of glycosylation and various glycoprotein markers through the appropriate selection of fluorescently-labeled lectins.

  10. Evaluation of western blotting for the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukemia Avaliação da técnica de western blot no diagnóstico da leucose enzoótica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. Gonzalez

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A western blotting (WB procedure has been developed for detecting antibodies to bovine leukosis virus (BLV in cattle sera. Two hundred and thirty three serum samples from naturally infected cattle with BLV virus and serial bleedings from experimentally BLV infected cows were used. An agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID was used for comparing with the results obtained by WB. The AGID positive sera showed a different degree of reactivity by WB test against the two most important viral antigens (gp51 and p24, or against one of them. Other proteins (gp30, p15, p12 and p10 were not detected with any AGID positive sera, being observed occasionally three bands corresponding to the p24 protein. Using sera obtained by BLV experimental inoculation, the antibodies directed to p24 appeared early (between the 2nd and 4th week post inoculation and thereafter antibodies to gp51were detected in some animals. The analysis of field serum samples by AGID as compared to WB showed an agreement of 90.9%. Only 1.7% of sera were negative by AGID and positive by WB and 7.2% that were not conclusive by AGID and were defined by WB (4.2% as positive and 3.0% as negative.Um sistema de western blotting (WB foi desenvolvido para detecção de anticorpos contra o vírus da leucose em soros de bovinos. Foram utilizadas amostras de soros de 233 animais naturalmente infectados e soros de vacas experimentalmente infectadas. O teste de imunodifusão em ágar (AGID foi usado para comparação dos resultados. Graus diferentes de reatividade foram observados em soros positivos ao AGID, quando testados em WB frente a um ou aos dois antígenos mais importantes (gp51 e p24. Outras proteínas (gp30, p15, p12 e p10 não foram detectadas por nenhum soro positivo ao AGID, sendo que três bandas correspondentes à proteína p24 foram observadas ocasionalmente. Em soros obtidos por inoculação experimental, anticorpos contra a proteína p24 foram detectados entre a segunda e a quarta semanas

  11. Evaluation of ELISA coupled with Western blot as a surveillance tool for Trichinella infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttell, Leigh; Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Cookson, Beth; Adams, Peter J; Reid, Simon A; Vanderlinde, Paul B; Jackson, Louise A; Gray, C; Traub, Rebecca J

    2014-01-31

    Trichinella surveillance in wildlife relies on muscle digestion of large samples which are logistically difficult to store and transport in remote and tropical regions as well as labour-intensive to process. Serological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) offer rapid, cost-effective alternatives for surveillance but should be paired with additional tests because of the high false-positive rates encountered in wildlife. We investigated the utility of ELISAs coupled with Western blot (WB) in providing evidence of Trichinella exposure or infection in wild boar. Serum samples were collected from 673 wild boar from a high- and low-risk region for Trichinella introduction within mainland Australia, which is considered Trichinella-free. Sera were examined using both an 'in-house' and a commercially available indirect-ELISA that used excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. Cut-off values for positive results were determined using sera from the low-risk population. All wild boar from the high-risk region (352) and 139/321 (43.3%) of the wild boar from the low-risk region were tested by artificial digestion. Testing by Western blot using E/S antigens, and a Trichinella-specific real-time PCR was also carried out on all ELISA-positive samples. The two ELISAs correctly classified all positive controls as well as one naturally infected wild boar from Gabba Island in the Torres Strait. In both the high- and low-risk populations, the ELISA results showed substantial agreement (k-value=0.66) that increased to very good (k-value=0.82) when WB-positive only samples were compared. The results of testing sera collected from the Australian mainland showed the Trichinella seroprevalence was 3.5% (95% C.I. 0.0-8.0) and 2.3% (95% C.I. 0.0-5.6) using the in-house and commercial ELISA coupled with WB respectively. These estimates were significantly higher (PTrichinella DNA in any mainland animals, but did reveal the presence of a second larvae-positive wild boar on Gabba

  12. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  13. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in rat placenta: detection by RT-PCR, real time PCR and Western blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bader Maie D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of estrogens during pregnancy not only retard placental and fetal growth but can lead to reproductive tract abnormalities in male progeny. Estrogens act through estrogen receptors (ER to modulate the transcription of target genes. These ER exist in two isoforms, ER alpha and ER beta and recently several variants of these isoforms have been identified. Methods The expressions of ER isoforms and variants have been studied in rat placenta at 16, 19 and 21 days gestation (dg. Gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR and real time PCR while protein expression was studied using Western blotting followed by immunodetection. Placental homogenates were probed with: a monoclonal antibody raised against the steroid binding domain of the ER alpha (ER alpha -S, a monoclonal antibody raised against the hinge region of ER alpha (ER alpha -H and a polyclonal antibody raised against the amino terminus of ER beta. Results ER alpha and ER beta mRNA and protein were detected from as early as 16 dg. Two PCR products were detected for ER alpha, one for the wild type ER alpha, and a smaller variant. Real time PCR results suggested the presence of a single product for ER beta. The antibodies used for detection of ER alpha protein both identified a single 67 kDa isoform; however a second 54 kDa band, which may be an ER alpha variant, was identified when using the ER alpha -H antibody. The abundance of both ER alpha bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. As for ER beta, four bands (76, 59, 54 and 41 kDa were detected. The abundance of the 59 and 54 kDa bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. Conclusion This study shows that both ER protein isoforms and their variants are present in rat placenta. The decrease in their expression near parturition suggests that the placenta may be relatively unresponsive to estrogens at this stage.

  14. Hydrogen-bond landscapes, geometry and energetics of squaric acid and its mono- and dianions: a Cambridge Structural Database, IsoStar and computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank H; Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J; Wood, Peter A; Bardwell, David A

    2013-10-01

    As part of a programme of work to extend central-group coverage in the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre's (CCDC) IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions, we have studied the hydrogen-bonding abilities of squaric acid (H2SQ) and its mono- and dianions (HSQ(-) and SQ(2-)) using the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) along with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) calculations for a range of hydrogen-bonded dimers. The -OH and -C=O groups of H2SQ, HSQ(-) and SQ(2-) are potent donors and acceptors, as indicated by their hydrogen-bond geometries in available crystal structures in the CSD, and by the attractive energies calculated for their dimers with acetone and methanol, which were used as model acceptors and donors. The two anions have sufficient examples in the CSD for their addition as new central groups in IsoStar. It is also shown that charge- and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds involving H2SQ and HSQ(-) are similar in strength to those made by carboxylate COO(-) acceptors, while hydrogen bonds made by the dianion SQ(2-) are somewhat stronger. The study reinforces the value of squaric acid and its anions as cocrystal formers and their actual and potential importance as isosteric replacements for carboxylic acid and carboxylate functions.

  15. The Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): graduate outcomes of the first MB/PhD programme in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy M; Brimicombe, James; Wood, Diana F; Peters, D Keith

    2012-12-01

    We reviewed outcomes of the Cambridge Bachelor of Medicine (MB)/Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programme for the period 1989-2010. Of the 90 alumni contacted, 80 (89%; 24 women) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Thirty were academic staff and 35 were in general professional (core) or higher medical training. Of the latter, 11 were specialty registrars, six were academic clinical fellows and three held academic foundation year posts. Eight alumni were overseas, including five in North America. Most (95%) respondents considered that their academic career goals were facilitated by the programme. Sixty-eight of the 80 alumni had conducted further research, 63 (79%) were active in research, and 90% had explicit plans for further full-time research. Twelve graduates had further substantive research support (six clinician scientist awards and three senior fellowships) and two were Wellcome Trust postdoctoral MB/PhD fellows. Alumni included two full university professors, one reader, six senior lecturers, two assistant professors and nine university clinical lecturers. MB/PhD programmes offer an alternative training pathway for clinician-scientists in UK medical schools: the Cambridge programme promotes scientific discovery and sustained academic development within the context of contemporary medicine and clinical practice.

  16. Molecular diagnosis of Theileria and Babesia species infecting cattle in Northern Spain using reverse line blot macroarrays

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    Juste Ramón A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piroplasmosis in cattle is caused by tick-borne haemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia. Molecular detection techniques offer higher sensitivity and specificity than microscopy examination methods and serological tests. A reverse line blot (RLB macroarray that included generic and species-specific probes for Theileria annulata, Theileria buffeli, Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Babesia divergens and Babesia major was used to study the presence and identity of the piroplasm species infecting 263 bovine blood samples from 79 farms, most of them in Northern Spain. Microscopy examination of blood smears and haematology were also performed whenever possible to identify animals with parasitaemia. Results RLB hybridisation identified infection in 54.0% of the samples, whereas only 28.8% were positive by microscopy examination. The most frequently found species was T. buffeli, present in 42.6% of the samples. T. annulata was found in 22 samples (8.4% from 12 farms, including 9 farms (14 samples located in Northern Spain where presence of the vector is not very common. Babesia infections were less frequently detected: B. major was found in 3.0% of the samples, B. bigemina in 2.7%, B. bovis in 2.3% and B. divergens in 1.1%. Mixed infections were detected in 14 samples, accounting for six different combinations of species. Conclusion This is the first report in which B. major and B. divergens have been detected in Spain using molecular identification techniques and the first time that B. bovis has been detected in Northern Spain. The detection of T. annulata in Northern Spain suggests that the distribution of Mediterranean theileriosis might be changing. Samples with positive RLB hybridisation but negative microscopy had haematology values within the normal ranges suggesting that they corresponded to chronic carriers that may serve as reservoirs of the infection. In this sense, sensitive and specific laboratorial

  17. Evaluation of two sets of immunohistochemical and Western blot confirmatory methods in the detection of typical and atypical BSE cases

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    Greenlee Justin J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three distinct forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, defined as classical (C-, low (L- or high (H- type, have been detected through ongoing active and passive surveillance systems for the disease. The aim of the present study was to compare the ability of two sets of immunohistochemical (IHC and Western blot (WB BSE confirmatory protocols to detect C- and atypical (L- and H-type BSE forms. Obex samples from cases of United States and Italian C-type BSE, a U.S. H-type and an Italian L-type BSE case were tested in parallel using the two IHC sets and WB methods. Results The two IHC techniques proved equivalent in identifying and differentiating between C-type, L-type and H-type BSE. The IHC protocols appeared consistent in the identification of PrPSc distribution and deposition patterns in relation to the BSE type examined. Both IHC methods evidenced three distinct PrPSc phenotypes for each type of BSE: prevailing granular and linear tracts pattern in the C-type; intraglial and intraneuronal deposits in the H-type; plaques in the L-type. Also, the two techniques gave comparable results for PrPSc staining intensity on the C- and L-type BSE samples, whereas a higher amount of intraglial and intraneuronal PrPSc deposition on the H-type BSE case was revealed by the method based on a stronger demasking step. Both WB methods were consistent in identifying classical and atypical BSE forms and in differentiating the specific PrPSc molecular weight and glycoform ratios of each form. Conclusions The study showed that the IHC and WB BSE confirmatory methods were equally able to recognize C-, L- and H-type BSE forms and to discriminate between their different immunohistochemical and molecular phenotypes. Of note is that for the first time one of the two sets of BSE confirmatory protocols proved effective in identifying the L-type BSE form. This finding helps to validate the suitability of the BSE confirmatory tests for BSE

  18. Relative performance of Organon kit in comparison to Du Pont for confirmatory serological testing of HIV infection by western blot test in sera from blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, R K; Chatterjee, R; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S

    1992-06-01

    A total of 32 specimens with different categories of reactivity by Du Pont Western Blot kit comprising of specimens showing full spectrum of HIV-I antigen specific bands, 19 specimens showing total absence of bands and four specimens showing non-specific bands (without any interpretative importance) were subjected to Western Blot testing by Organon test. Of the nine specimens showing full spectrum of bands by Du Pont the correlation with Organon kit was 100 per cent based on WHO criteria. Four specimens with non-specific indeterminate band pattern by Du Pont failed to show any band in Organon kit, indicating that latter to be more specific.

  19. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

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    Kinmonth Ann

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control, screening followed by intensive treatment (IT and screening plus routine care (RC in an unbalanced (1:3:3 randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group

  20. 40-Godišnjica institucije Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre posvećene pohranjivanju podataka o molekularnim i kristalnim strukturama -

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    Molčanov, K.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to 40th anniversary of The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC, the world-known centre (http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk responsible for deposition and control of crystallographic data, including atomic coordinates that define the three-dimensional structures of organic molecules and metal complexes containing organic ligands. Cambride Structural Database (CSD, one among the first established electronic databases, nowadays is the most significant crystallographic database in the world. CSD has about 400,000 deposited structures. The use of the extensive database, which is growing rapidly, needs support of efficient and sophisticated software for searching, analysing and visualising structural data. The seminal role of CSD in the research related to crystallography, chemistry, material sciences, solid state physics and chemistry, life sciences, pharmacology, and in particular in drug design, has been documented in more than 1300 scientific papers. The important issues of CCDC are the accuracy of deposited data and development of software that enables a wide variety of applications. Such demanding project requires higly competent team of experts; thus the article brings into focus the scientific approach of the team based on the long tradition in crystallography, modelling and informatics. The article is not dedicated to 40th anniversary of the centre only, but it also reveals how Cambridge Structural Database can be used in the research and teaching. The use of electronic media and computer graphics makes “data mining" very efficient and useful but also esthetically appealing due to the molecular architecture. At the Rudjer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia there is The National Affiliated Centre of Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre responsible for communication and dissemination of CSD in Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia. The use of CSD is illustrated by two examples performed and published by the presenting

  1. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-05-17

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed.

  2. Comparability: manufacturing, characterization and controls, report of a UK Regenerative Medicine Platform Pluripotent Stem Cell Platform Workshop, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 14-15 September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J; Archer, Richard; Archibald, Peter; Bantounas, Ioannis; Baptista, Ricardo; Barker, Roger; Barry, Jacqueline; Bietrix, Florence; Blair, Nicholas; Braybrook, Julian; Campbell, Jonathan; Canham, Maurice; Chandra, Amit; Foldes, Gabor; Gilmanshin, Rudy; Girard, Mathilde; Gorjup, Erwin; Hewitt, Zöe; Hourd, Paul; Hyllner, Johan; Jesson, Helen; Kee, Jasmin; Kerby, Julie; Kotsopoulou, Nina; Kowalski, Stanley; Leidel, Chris; Marshall, Damian; Masi, Louis; McCall, Mark; McCann, Conor; Medcalf, Nicholas; Moore, Harry; Ozawa, Hiroki; Pan, David; Parmar, Malin; Plant, Anne L; Reinwald, Yvonne; Sebastian, Sujith; Stacey, Glyn; Thomas, Robert J; Thomas, Dave; Thurman-Newell, Jamie; Turner, Marc; Vitillio, Loriana; Wall, Ivan; Wilson, Alison; Wolfrum, Jacqueline; Yang, Ying; Zimmerman, Heiko

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes the proceedings of a workshop held at Trinity Hall, Cambridge to discuss comparability and includes additional information and references to related information added subsequently to the workshop. Comparability is the need to demonstrate equivalence of product after a process change; a recent publication states that this 'may be difficult for cell-based medicinal products'. Therefore a well-managed change process is required which needs access to good science and regulatory advice and developers are encouraged to seek help early. The workshop shared current thinking and best practice and allowed the definition of key research questions. The intent of this report is to summarize the key issues and the consensus reached on each of these by the expert delegates.

  3. Experience of University of Cambridge and Its Implications to Jiangsu%英国剑桥大学技术转移经验及江苏借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈瑾秋; 陈艳

    2016-01-01

    技术转移是实施国家创新驱动战略和提升创新核心能力的重要途径,而高校是推动技术转移、科技创新的重要力量,加快发展高校技术转移尤为重要。剑桥大学是世界级的研究型大学,其以独特的产学研模式,不断创造新产业,是欧洲高端要素最集中的地区之一。文章深入总结分析英国剑桥大学在技术转移方面的主要做法,并具体阐述对于江苏省技术转移的主要启示与建议。%Technology transfer is an important way to implement the national innovation-driven strategy and enhance the core innovation competence, and colleges and universities are the important force to promote technology transfer and scientific and technical innovation. Therefore, accelerating the development of technology transfer in colleges and universities is particularly important. Cambridge, a world-grade research university, which continuously creates new industries with its unique research model. This paper deeply analyzes the main practices of Cambridge University in technology transfer, and specifically addresses its main inspiration and advice for technology transfer of Jiangsu Province.

  4. Data-driven high-throughput prediction of the 3-D structure of small molecules: review and progress. A response to the letter by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre

    2011-12-27

    A response is presented to sentiments expressed in "Data-Driven High-Throughput Prediction of the 3-D Structure of Small Molecules: Review and Progress. A Response from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre", recently published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, (1) which may give readers a misleading impression regarding significant impediments to scientific research posed by the CCDC.

  5. A simple explanation for a case of incompatibility with the reading frame theory in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: failure to detect an aberrant restriction fragment in Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patria, S Y; Takeshima, Y; Suminaga, R; Nakamura, H; Iwasaki, R; Minagawa, T; Matsuo, M

    1999-09-01

    According to the translational reading frame theory, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients harbor out-of-frame deletion mutations in the dystrophin gene. We identified a Japanese DMD case who appeared to have an in-frame deletion of exons 46-54 that was disclosed by Southern blot analysis using a dystrophin cDNA as a probe. Analysis of dystrophin mRNA in skeletal muscle revealed the presence of an out-of-frame deletion of exons 46-53. In agreement with this result, the region encompassing exon 54 could be amplified from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, re-analysis by Southern blot using an exon specific probe disclosed that a HindIII fragment containing exon 54 was present at aberrant size, leading to the incorrect conclusion that exon 54 had been deleted. Thus, this particular DMD case does not constitute an exception to the reading frame theory.

  6. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  7. Comparison of Southern blot analysis with isotopic and nonisotopic in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus sequences in invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, L; Pilotti, S; Rotola, A; Di Luca, D; Cassai, E; Rilke, F

    1992-03-01

    To compare the efficiency of hybridization methods for the detection of HPV genome, 22 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were analyzed by Southern blot analysis and in situ hybridization carried out with 35S- and biotin-labeled probes. These cases contained from less than one to as many as 50 copies per cell of HPV 16 and 18 types. To increase the sensitivity of biotinylated probes, a silver enhancement procedure of the peroxidase reaction product was applied. Results showed that in situ hybridization performed with isotopic probes is as sensitive as Southern blot analysis and is more sensitive than that performed with biotin-labeled probe. However, the application of the silver enhancement procedure increases the percentage of HPV-positive cases from 27 to 50%.

  8. Analysis of the Crude Antigen of Hymenolepis nana from Mice by SDS-PAGE and the Determination of Specific Antigens in Protein Structure by Western Blotting

    OpenAIRE

    GÖNENÇ, Bahadır

    2002-01-01

    Protein bands of crude antigens of Hymenolepis nana were determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Thirty Swiss albino mice were allotted into two groups of 15 each as positive (infected with H. nana) and negative (non-infected with H. nana) groups. The natural infections of H. nana and other helminths were determined by centrifugal flotation of faeces. After bleeding, the mice were necropsied and their guts were examined for H. nana and other intestinal helminths. Sera from mice were test...

  9. Western blot analysis of a limited number of cells: a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed tissue after laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Wim; Abbeloos, Vanessa; Van Acker, Nathalie; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Herman, Arnold G; Kockx, Mark M

    2004-03-01

    In recent years, laser capture microdissection (LCM) has been used successfully to obtain distinct populations of cells for subsequent molecular analysis. Because of the limited sample availability and the absence of in vitro amplification steps for proteins, the use of LCM for proteome analysis largely depends on highly sensitive protein detection methods. In this study, a western blot protocol was developed and validated for the detection of beta-actin and the moderately expressed cell death protein caspase-3 in small numbers of cells. Initially, cultured human U937 monocytes and whole sections of paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils were used to optimize protein electrophoresis and western blotting conditions. High-performance NuPAGE Bis-Tris gels in combination with high-quality transfer membranes, optimized antibody concentrations, and a sensitive chemiluminescent substrate provided a strong signal for beta-actin with approximately 500 U937 cells. In the same way, procaspase-3 could be identified with approximately 1000 cells. Similar results were obtained with germinal centre cells that were procured from paraffin wax-embedded, alcohol-fixed human tonsils by LCM. Treatment of U937 cells with etoposide rapidly induced cell death and allowed the detection of active caspase-3 with approximately 2500 cells (0.8 pg of protein). The findings of this study suggest that western blotting is a valuable adjunct to proteome analysis of LCM procured cells.

  10. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumlow, Annekathrin; Keunen, Els; Klein, Jan; Pallmann, Philip; Riemenschneider, Anja; Cuypers, Ann; Papenbrock, Jutta

    Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

  11. Correlates of time spent walking and cycling to and from work: baseline results from the commuting and health in Cambridge study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panter Jenna

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Environmental perceptions and psychological measures appear to be associated with walking and cycling behaviour; however, their influence is still unclear. We assessed these associations using baseline data from a quasi-experimental cohort study of the effects of major transport infrastructural developments in Cambridge, UK. Methods Postal surveys were sent to adults who travel to work in Cambridge (n = 1582. Questions asked about travel modes and time spent travelling to and from work in the last week, perceptions of the route, psychological measures regarding car use and socio-demographic characteristics. Participants were classified into one of two categories according to time spent walking for commuting ('no walking' or 'some walking' and one of three categories for cycling ('no cycling', '1-149 min/wk' and ' ≥ 150 min/wk'. Results Of the 1164 respondents (68% female, mean (SD age: 42.3 (11.4 years 30% reported any walking and 53% reported any cycling to or from work. In multiple regression models, short distance to work and not having access to a car showed strong positive associations with both walking and cycling. Furthermore, those who reported that it was pleasant to walk were more likely to walk to or from work (OR = 4.18, 95% CI 3.02 to 5.78 and those who reported that it was convenient to cycle on the route between home and work were more likely to do so (1-149 min/wk: OR = 4.60, 95% CI 2.88 to 7.34; ≥ 150 min/wk: OR = 3.14, 95% CI 2.11 to 4.66. Positive attitudes in favour of car use were positively associated with time spent walking to or from work but negatively associated with cycling to or from work. Strong perceived behavioural control for car use was negatively associated with walking. Conclusions In this relatively affluent sample of commuters, a range of individual and household characteristics, perceptions of the route environment and psychological measures relating to car use were associated with

  12. “In my end is my beginning”. Una discussione sul caso trascurato dei Cambridge Ritualists fra antropologia comparativa, filosofia e pensiero scientifico - “In my end is my beginning”. An argument on the Cambridge Ritualists’ neglected case, on the wave of comparative anthropology, philosophy and scientific thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Cinellu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Somehow rounding off an intellectual season in which humanities strongly lament the loss of Darwinian incitements, while exploiting both Wilson’s biophilia hypothesis and Rappaport’s engaged anthropology as springboards, this article wants to cast light on how two anthropologically undervalued manifestos of the Cambridge School – Harrison’s Themis (1912 and Cornford’s From Religion to Philosophy (1912 – laid the foundation of post-modern science. It highlights, in other words, how within evolutionary anthropology, to which we owe the birth of the comparative study of religions, were surreptitiously raised significant issues against eco-systemic disfunctionalities due to the scientific pattern rooted in Atomism and modern Cartesianism itself. In order to counteract the conventional belief that evolutionary anthropology was entirely shaped by the kind of Positivism of Illuministic inspiration, the association between the “mystic” and the “savage” will be once more taken into consideration. In this regard, a quite unreleased focus on Lévi-Strauss’ paradigm “le totémism du dedans” is deemed also essential. As a consequence, the unfairly forgotten Cambridge Ritualists, Harrison and Cornford, will be especially rehearsed in the light of their adoption of the philosophical Bergsonian concept of durée as a means of probing into the monist vision enshrined in the mysteric religion of Ancient Greece. It is basically the special attention allotted to the mystic’s incorporation of a limitless cyclic time which helps us to detect the extent to which both Harrison and Cornford aimed at propounding an ethical anthropology eager to denounce the forward end because of the obdurate human projection outside the sphere of Life itself. What this essay thus propounds is not a rehearsal of the Cambridge School for the sake of it. While advocating cumulative knowledge around the very same foundation of the “scientific study of

  13. An investigation into the impact of question structure on the performance of first year physics undergraduate students at the University of Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Valerie; Jardine-Wright, Lisa; Bateman, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    We describe a study of the impact of exam question structure on the performance of first year Natural Sciences physics undergraduates from the University of Cambridge. The results show conclusively that a student’s performance improves when questions are scaffolded compared with university style questions. In a group of 77 female students we observe that the average exam mark increases by 13.4% for scaffolded questions, which corresponds to a 4.9 standard deviation effect. The equivalent observation for 236 male students is 9% (5.5 standard deviations). We also observe a correlation between exam performance and A2-level marks for UK students, and that students who receive their school education overseas, in a mixed gender environment, or at an independent school are more likely to receive a first class mark in the exam. These results suggest a mis-match between the problem-solving skills and assessment procedures between school and first year university and will provide key input into the future teaching and assessment of first year undergraduate physics students.

  14. The case for the continuing use of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the standardization of notation in human mitochondrial DNA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Richards, Martin B; Yao, Yong-Gang; Logan, Ian

    2014-02-01

    Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses--and thus confuses--the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.

  15. Decline of executive function in a clinical population: age, psychopathology, and test performance on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Gwenny; van Aken, Loes; De Mey, Hubert; Witteman, Cilia; Egger, Jos

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a cross-sectional examination of the age-related executive changes in a sample of adults with a history of psychiatric illness using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. A total of 406 patients, aged 18 to 72 years old, completed executive function tests of working memory, strategic planning, and set shifting. Using current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria, patients were diagnosed with: (a) affective disorders (N = 153), (b) substance-related disorders (N = 112), (c) personality disorders (N = 82), or (d) pervasive developmental disorders (N = 59). Test performances were compared to those of 52 healthy adults. Similar rates of age-related executive decline were found for patients and healthy participants. However, as adults with a history of psychiatric illness started out with significantly lower baseline levels of executive functioning, they may require less time before reaching a critical threshold where functional deficits emerge. Limitations as well as implications for future research were discussed.

  16. Test-retest reliability analysis of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests for the assessment of dementia in older people living in retirement homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marta Matos; Pinho, Maria Salomé; Simões, Mário R

    2016-01-01

    The validity of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Automated Tests has been widely studied, but their reliability has not. This study aimed to estimate the test-retest reliability of these tests in a sample of 34 older adults, aged 69 to 90 years old, without neuropsychiatric diagnoses and living in retirement homes in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The battery was administered twice, with a 4-week interval between sessions. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL), Spatial Working Memory (SWM), Rapid Visual Information Processing, and Reaction Time tests revealed measures with high-to-adequate test-retest correlations (.71-.89), although several PAL and SWM measures showed susceptibility to practice effects. Two estimated standardized regression-based methods were found to be more efficient at correcting for practice effects than a method of fixed correction. We also found weak test-retest correlations (.56-.68) for several measures. These results suggest that some, but not all, measures are suitable for cognitive assessment and monitoring in this population.

  17. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study: An experimental medicine platform for evaluating new drugs for relapse prevention in addiction. Part A: Study description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M; Flechais, Remy S A; Murphy, Anna; Reed, Laurence J; Abbott, Sanja; Boyapati, Venkataramana; Elliott, Rebecca; Erritzoe, David; Ersche, Karen D; Faluyi, Yetunde; Faravelli, Luca; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Kalk, Nicola J; Kuchibatla, Shankar S; McGonigle, John; Metastasio, Antonio; Mick, Inge; Nestor, Liam; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Smith, Dana G; Suckling, John; Tait, Roger; Taylor, Eleanor M; Waldman, Adam D; Robbins, Trevor W; Deakin, J F William; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2015-09-01

    Drug and alcohol dependence are global problems with substantial societal costs. There are few treatments for relapse prevention and therefore a pressing need for further study of brain mechanisms underpinning relapse circuitry. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study is an experimental medicine approach to this problem: using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and selective pharmacological tools, it aims to explore the neuropharmacology of putative relapse pathways in cocaine, alcohol, opiate dependent, and healthy individuals to inform future drug development. Addiction studies typically involve small samples because of recruitment difficulties and attrition. We established the platform in three centres to assess the feasibility of a multisite approach to address these issues. Pharmacological modulation of reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity were investigated in a monetary incentive delay task, an inhibitory control task, and an evocative images task, using selective antagonists for µ-opioid, dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors (naltrexone, GSK598809, vofopitant/aprepitant), in a placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover design. In two years, 609 scans were performed, with 155 individuals scanned at baseline. Attrition was low and the majority of individuals were sufficiently motivated to complete all five sessions (n=87). We describe herein the study design, main aims, recruitment numbers, sample characteristics, and explain the test hypotheses and anticipated study outputs.

  18. The conquest of vitalism or the eclipse of organicism? The 1930s Cambridge organizer project and the social network of mid-twentieth-century biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erik

    2014-06-01

    In the 1930s, two concepts excited the European biological community: the organizer phenomenon and organicism. This essay examines the history of and connection between these two phenomena in order to address the conventional 'rise-and-fall' narrative that historians have assigned to each. Scholars promoted the 'rise-and-fall' narrative in connection with a broader account of the devitalizing of biology through the twentieth century. I argue that while limited evidence exists for the 'fall of the organizer concept' by the 1950s, the organicism that often motivated the organizer work had no concomitant fall--even during the mid-century heyday of molecular biology. My argument is based on an examination of shifting social networks of life scientists from the 1920s to the 1970s, many of whom attended or corresponded with members of the Cambridge Theoretical Biology Club (1932-1938). I conclude that the status and cohesion of these social networks at the micro scale was at least as important as macro-scale conceptual factors in determining the relative persuasiveness of organicist philosophy.

  19. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  20. A formação de hábitos e a origem das leis na VII conferência de Cambridge, de Ch. S. Peirce = The formation of habits and the origin of laws in the Cambridge conference VII, by Ch. S. Peirce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibri, Ivo Assad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reflete sobre os argumentos propostos por Charles Sanders Peirce em sua conhecida VII Conferência de Cambridge, proferida em 1898, sob o título “Hábito”, na qual justifica a sua posição acerca de como seria possível explicar a origem do universo através de uma filosofia de caráter genético. Essa explicação toma, no interior de seu complexo sistema arquitetônico de pensamento, a tendência à aquisição de hábitos como o princípio explicativo fulcral sobre a origem e a evolução das Leis da Natureza. Peirce adota tal princípio como aquele que sustentaria uma afinidade entre mente e matéria

  1. Study of a viral-dual infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by seroneutralization, western blot and polymerase chain reaction assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S; Vilas, M P; Alonso, M; Pérez, S I

    1995-12-01

    Viral-dual infections in fish are of interest to aquaculture practices but they are rarely described and studied. Several methods were applied in this work to demonstrate a case of coinfection in a reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population. Inoculation in cell cultures and cross-neutralization tests were the standard procedures that made it possible to isolate and identify a birnavirus, the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), and suspect of a second virus. Western blotting with both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrate coexistence of both, IPNV and a rhabdovirus.

  2. APPLICATION OF WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE EXPRESSION OF VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS IN THE HEART CELLS; IMPORTANCE IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj G Tyagi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin, a posterior pituitary hormone is responsible for water reabsorption by the kidneys and maintenance of cardio-vascular homeostasis. Vasopressin receptors are characterized as VR 1 (V1a, VR2 (V2, and VR3 (V1b. VR1, which is abundant in vascular smooth muscles, causes vasoconstriction by increasing intracellular calcium via the phosphatidylinositol bisphosphonate pathway and a positive inotropic effect in cardiac muscle. VR2 has also been shown to be expressed in the heart. There is emerging role for vasopressin receptors in health and disease. This study describes the application of Western blotting to elucidate the importance of vasopressin receptors in the heart cells.

  3. An English Dictionary of Great Popularity-A brief review on The Cambridge International Dictionary of English%一本不可多得的工具书--《剑桥国际英语词典》评介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜利

    2003-01-01

    (The Cambridge International Dictionary of English)是英语剑桥大学出版社近几年推出的一部在世界上颇具影响的英语学习词典.该词典风格独特,编排新颖,内容丰富,简明实用,一经面市,即受到英语学习者的热烈欢迎.

  4. 浅谈社区教育学院剑桥少儿英语项目发展%Brief Talk on Development of Cambridge Young Learners English at Guanhaiwei Community Col ege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗琼

    2013-01-01

      观海卫社区教育学院剑桥少儿英语培训项目自引入始,在短短的三年间已发展成为社区青少年培训的口碑品牌。本文全面探析剑桥少儿英语项目在该镇开展的初衷、现状及发展要求。重点介绍了具有社区教育特色的创新剑桥少儿英语学习系统的发展情况,以及为确保其健康推进所采取的各项教学管理措施。%  It has been three years since the item of Cambridge Young Learners English which has evolved into an excel ent brand of community primary scholars training was introduced into Guanhaiwei Community Col ege. The writer makes an explorative analysis of original intention, present status and development tendency of introducing Cambridge Young Learners English in Guanhaiwei Town. Development of Innovative Cambridge Young Learners English learning system with Characteristic of community education is discussed in detail as well as different kinds of teaching administration measures to ensure it is carried out smoothly.

  5. The Entrepreneurship Education Strategy of High-Level University:The Case of Cambridge University%高水平大学创业教育发展策略--以剑桥大学为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑞

    2015-01-01

    剑桥大学积淀的创业教育理念促使其经历了创业文化的转型与适应,建立了独特的创业教育体系框架,通过“剑桥创业中心”融入英国宏观创业教育体系,借助“创业学习中心”引领和推动多元化创业教育项目实施,依托“赫尔曼·豪瑟专家中心”创立了“中介运行方式”推进全校性创业教育发展。剑桥大学的创业教育发展策略值得深入分析、反思与借鉴。%Driven by the philosophy of entrepreneurship education,the University of Cambridge has experienced a transformation and adaptation of entrepreneurial culture, and has established a unique entrepreneurship education system. Specifically, the university integrated its entrepreneurship education into UK's macroscopic system of entrepreneurship education via Cambridge Entrepreneurship Centre, initiated diversified entrepreneurship education projects via Centre for Entrepreneurial Learning, and developed the intermediary operation mode to promote campus-wide entrepreneurship education via Hermann Hauser Specialist Center. Cambridge's experience is worthy of our study and can be for our reference.

  6. Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation frequency and antithrombin activity levels in 120 of deep venous thrombosis and 150 of cerebral infarction patients in a single center in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-sen; Tang, Yang-ming; Tang, Mei-qing; Qing, Zi-Ju; Shu, Chang; Tang, Xiang-qi; Deng, Ming-yang; Tan, Li-ming

    2010-09-01

    Antithrombin Cambridge II(A384S) mutation shows a relatively high frequency in western population. Some studies suggest that the mutation is an independent genetic risk factor both for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for arterial thrombosis, but whether the mutation has racial difference or has a general significance for thrombophilia remains unclear. In this study we performed an analysis of the prevalence of the mutation in Chinese southern population; Also, the antithrombin activity levels were evaluated in each investigated individual. The studies included 120 patients with DVT, 150 patients with cerebral infarction, and 110 controls. The mutation was detected using polymerase chain reaction/PvuII restrictive fragment length polymorphism procedures. Antithrombin activity assay was done using chromogenic substrate method. The results showed that no antithrombin Cambridge II mutation was detected in all three groups (DVT, cerebral infarction and controls), the incidence was 0/380. Plasma antithrombin activity was 91.37% +/- 16.15% in the DVT patients and 102.68% +/- 13.10% in the controls; the antithrombin activity was significantly reduced in the DVT group (P Cambridge II mutation has a racial difference, and may not be a valuable risk factor of thrombophilia in Asian population, and antithrombin deficiency remains a major genetic risk factor for DVT patients in China.

  7. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot-based analysis of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in different motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, Annemarie; Marroquin, Nicolai; Schmoll, Birgit; Vielhaber, Stefan; Just, Marlies; Mayer, Benjamin; Högel, Josef; Dorst, Johannes; Mertens, Thomas; Just, Walter; Aulitzky, Anna; Wais, Verena; Ludolph, Albert C; Kubisch, Christian; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Volk, Alexander E

    2014-05-01

    The GGGGCC-hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common genetic cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. This study determined the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in different motor neuron diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neuron diseases affecting primarily the first or the second motor neuron and hereditary spastic paraplegia). Whereas most studies on C9orf72 repeat expansions published so far rely on a polymerase chain reaction-based screening, we applied both polymerase chain reaction-based techniques and Southern blotting. Furthermore, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of Southern blotting of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat in DNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines. C9orf72 repeat expansions were found in 27.1% out of 166 familial ALS patients, only once in 68 sporadic ALS patients, and not in 61 hereditary spastic paraplegia patients or 52 patients with motor neuron diseases affecting clinically primarily either the first or the second motor neuron. We found hints for a correlation between C9orf72 repeat length and the age of onset. Somatic instability of the C9orf72 repeat was observed in lymphoblastoid cell lines compared with DNA derived from whole blood from the same patient and therefore caution is warranted for repeat length determination in immortalized cell lines.

  8. A Comparison of Antibacterial Activity of Selected Thyme (Thymus) Species by Means of the Dot Blot Test with Direct Bioautographic Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Marta; Kowalska, Teresa; Sajewicz, Mieczysław; Jesionek, Wioleta; Choma, Irena M; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Szymczak, Grażyna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Bioautography carried out with the aid of thin-layer chromatographic adsorbents can be used to assess antibacterial activity in samples of different origin. It can either be used as a simple and cost-effective detection method applied to a developed chromatogram, or to the dot blot test performed on a chromatographic plate, where total antibacterial activity of a sample is scrutinized. It was an aim of this study to compare antibacterial activity of 18 thyme (Thymus) specimens and species (originating from the same gardening plot and harvested in the same period of time) by means of a dot blot test with direct bioautography. A two-step extraction of herbal material was applied, and at step two the polar fraction of secondary metabolites was obtained under the earlier optimized extraction conditions [methanol-water (27+73, v/v), 130°C]. This fraction was then tested for its antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis bacteria. It was established that all investigated extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, yet distinct differences were perceived in the size of the bacterial growth inhibition zones among the compared thyme species. Based on the results obtained, T. citriodorus "golden dwarf" (sample No. 5) and T. marschallianus (sample No. 6) were selected as promising targets for further investigations and possible inclusion in a herbal pharmacopeia, which is an essential scientific novelty of this study.

  9. Detection of genetically modified microorganisms in soil using the most-probable-number method with multiplex PCR and DNA dot blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jinki; Lee, Yunho; Noh, Jaemin; Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Jungsoon; Seo, Hyoju; Kim, Jisun; Han, Jiwon; Jeon, Che Ok; Kim, Taesung; Park, Woojun

    2011-10-01

    The principal objective of this study was to detect genetically modified microorganisms (GMMs) that might be accidentally released into the environment from laboratories. Two methods [plate counting and most-probable-number (MPN)] coupled with either multiplex PCR or DNA dot blots were compared using genetically modified Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, and Acinetobacter oleivorans harboring an antibiotic-resistance gene with additional gfp and lacZ genes as markers. Alignments of sequences collected from databases using the Perl scripting language (Perl API) and from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the gfp, lacZ and antibiotic-resistance genes (kanamycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin) in GMMs differed from the counterpart genes in many sequenced genomes and in soil DNA. Thus, specific multiplex PCR primer sets for detection of plasmid-based gfp and lacZ antibiotic-resistance genes could be generated. In the plate counting method, many antibiotic-resistant bacteria from a soil microcosm grew as colonies on antibiotic-containing agar plates. The multiplex PCR verification of randomly selected antibiotic-resistant colonies with specific primers proved ineffective. The MPN-multiplex PCR method and antibiotic-resistant phenotype could be successfully used to detect GMMs, although this method is quite laborious. The MPN-DNA dot blot method screened more cells at a time in a microtiter plate containing the corresponding antibiotics, and was shown to be a more efficient method for the detection of GMMs in soil using specific probes in terms of labor and accuracy.

  10. Development and validation of a preference based measure derived from the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR for use in cost utility analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meads David M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary Hypertension is a severe and incurable disease with poor prognosis. A suite of new disease-specific measures – the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR – was recently developed for use in this condition. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preference based measure from the CAMPHOR that could be used in cost-utility analyses. Methods Items were selected that covered major issues covered by the CAMPHOR QoL scale (activities, travelling, dependence and communication. These were used to create 36 health states that were valued by 249 people representative of the UK adult population, using the time trade-off (TTO technique. Data from the TTO interviews were analysed using both aggregate and individual level modelling. Finally, the original CAMPHOR validation data were used to validate the new preference based model. Results The predicted health state values ranged from 0.962 to 0.136. The mean level model selected for analyzing the data had good explanatory power (0.936, did not systematically over- or underestimate the observed mean health state values and showed no evidence of auto correlation in the prediction errors. The value of less than 1 reflects a background level of ill health in state 1111, as judged by the respondents. Scores derived from the new measure had excellent test-retest reliability (0.85 and construct validity. The CAMPHOR utility score appears better able to distinguish between WHO functional classes (II and III than the EQ-5D and SF-6D. Conclusion The tariff derived in this study can be used to classify an individual into a health state based on their responses to the CAMPHOR. The results of this study widen the evidence base for conducting economic evaluations of interventions designed to improve QoL for patients with PH.

  11. Relationship of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate+glutamine concentrations in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex with performance of Cambridge Gambling Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Kazuyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Suzuki, Yusuke; Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Tagawa, Minami; Ujita, Koichi; Sakai, Yuki; Narumoto, Jin; Near, Jamie; Fukuda, Masato

    2015-04-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), consisting of the perigenual ACC (pgACC) and mid-ACC (i.e., affective and cognitive areas, respectively), plays a significant role in the performance of gambling tasks, which are used to measure decision-making behavior under conditions of risk. Although recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the pgACC is associated with decision-making behavior, knowledge regarding the relationship of GABA concentrations in subdivisions of the ACC with gambling task performance is still limited. The aim of our magnetic resonance spectroscopy study is to investigate in 20 healthy males the relationship of concentrations of GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the pgACC, mid-ACC, and occipital cortex (OC) with multiple indexes of decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). The GABA/creatine (Cr) ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with delay aversion score, which corresponds to the impulsivity index. The Glx/Cr ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with risk adjustment score, which is reported to reflect the ability to change the amount of the bet depending on the probability of winning or losing. The scores of CGT did not significantly correlate with the GABA/Cr or Glx/Cr ratio in the mid-ACC or OC. Results of this study suggest that in the pgACC, but not in the mid-ACC or OC, GABA and Glx concentrations play a distinct role in regulating impulsiveness and risk probability during decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, respectively.

  12. Bernard Comrie, Tense. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En esta obra el autor nos ofrece, desde la perspectiva de la topología de las lenguas y los universales lingüísticos, una excelente introducción a la problemática del tiempo gramatical y, atendiendo a las diferentes maneras como la noción de tiempo (time) se gramaticaliza en distintos sistemas, una teoría general del tiempo lingüístico susceptible a esta variedad y a sus limitaciones. El libro se centra, por tanto, en la topología del tiempo gramatical (tense) y la gama de variedades entre la...

  13. Investigation of prolific sheep from UK and Ireland for evidence on origin of the mutations in BMP15 (FecX(G), FecX(B)) and GDF9 (FecG(H)) in Belclare and Cambridge sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Michael P; Hanrahan, James P; Howard, Dawn J; Powell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the likely origin of three mutations with large effects on ovulation rate identified in the Belclare and Cambridge sheep breeds; two in the BMP15 gene (FecX(G) and FecX(B)) and the third (FecG(H)) in GDF9. All three mutations segregate in Belclare sheep while one, FecX(B), has not been found in the Cambridge. Both Belclare and Cambridge breeds are relatively recently developed composites that have common ancestry through the use of genetic material from the Finnish Landrace and Lleyn breeds. The development of both composites also involved major contributions from exceptionally prolific ewes screened from flocks in Ireland (Belclare) and Britain (Cambridge) during the 1960s. The objective of the current study was to establish the likely origin of the mutations (FecX(G), FecX(B) and FecG(H)) through analysis of DNA from Finnish Landrace and Lleyn sheep, and Galway and Texel breeds which contributed to the development of the Belclare breed. Ewes with exceptionally high prolificacy (hyper-prolific ewes) in current flocks on Irish farms were identified to simulate the screening of ewes from Irish flocks in the 1960s. DNA was obtained from: prolific ewes in extant flocks of Lleyn sheep (n = 44) on the Lleyn peninsula in Wales; hyper-prolific ewes (n = 41); prolific Galway (n = 41) ewes; Finnish Landrace (n = 124) and Texel (n = 19) ewes. The FecX(G) mutation was identified in Lleyn but not in Finnish Landrace, Galway or Texel sheep; FecX(B) was only found among the hyper-prolific ewes. The FecG(H) mutation was identified in the sample of Lleyn sheep. It was concluded from these findings that the Lleyn breed was the most likely source of the FecX(G) and FecG(H) mutations in Belclare and Cambridge sheep and that the FecX(B) mutation came from the High Fertility line that was developed using prolific ewes selected from commercial flocks in Ireland in the 1960's and subsequently used in the genesis of the Belclare.

  14. Water-quality conditions, and constituent loads and yields in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, Massachusetts, water years 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    The source water area for the drinking-water supply of the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, encompasses major transportation corridors, as well as large areas of light industrial, commercial, and residential land use. Because of ongoing development in the drinking-water source area, the Cambridge water supply has the potential to be affected by a wide variety of contaminants. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored surface-water quality in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins, which compose the drinking-water source area, since 1997 (water year 1997) through continuous monitoring and discrete sample collection and, since 2004, through systematic collection of streamwater samples during base-flow and stormflow conditions at five primary sampling stations in the drinking-water source area. Four primary sampling stations are on small tributaries in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins; the fifth primary sampling station is on the main stem of Stony Brook and drains about 93 percent of the Cambridge drinking-water source area. Water samples also were collected at six secondary sampling stations, including Fresh Pond Reservoir, the final storage reservoir for the raw water supply. Storm runoff and base-flow concentrations of calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), sodium (Na), and sulfate (SO4) were estimated from continuous records of streamflow and specific conductance for six monitoring stations, which include the five primary sampling stations. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, estimate loads and yields, and describe trends in Cl and Na in the tributaries and main-stem streams in the Hobbs Brook and Stony Brook Basins. These data also were used to describe how streamwater quality is affected by various watershed characteristics and provide information to guide future watershed management. Water samples were analyzed for physical properties and concentrations of Ca, Cl, Na, and SO4, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP

  15. GAPDH and β-actin protein decreases with aging, making Stain-Free technology a superior loading control in Western blotting of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Dybboe, Rie; Hansen, Christina Neigaard;

    2015-01-01

    [β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and α-tubulin], as well as TP loaded measured by Stain-Free technology (SF) as normalization tool were tested. This was done using skeletal muscle samples from men subjected to physiological conditions often investigated in applied...... of β-actin and GAPDH was lower in older men compared with young men. In conclusion, β-actin, GAPDH, and α-tubulin may not be used for normalization in studies that include subjects with a large age difference. In contrast, the RPs may not be affected in studies that include muscle wasting...... and differences in muscle fiber type. The novel SF technology adds lower variation to the results compared with the existing methods for correcting for loading inaccuracy in Western blotting of human skeletal muscle in applied physiology....

  16. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis.

  17. A comparison of antigenic peptides in muscle larvae of several Trichinella species by two-dimensional western-blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The antigens recognised by mAb US5 specific to 53 kDa glycoprotein (gp 53 in T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL1 antigens, mAb US9 specific to gp 53 in TSL1 from all encapsulated species and mAb US4 specific to a tyvelose containing tetrasaccharide present in TSL1, were investigated in crude extracts from muscle larvae of T. spiralis, T. nativa and T. britovi by 2D-electrophoresis and western-blot. At least four proteins of different pI were recognised by mAb US5 on T. spiralis antigens. Recognition profile of mAb US9 on T. spiralis antigens exhibited some variation with regard to that of the US5. Polymorphism was apparent in gp 53. High reactivity was shown by the mAb US4 with the three species.

  18. Isolation and RNA gel blot analysis of genes that could serve as potential molecular markers for leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Ito, M; Nishida, I; Watanabe, A

    2001-02-01

    Nine cDNAs, representing genes in which the transcripts accumulated in senescent leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, were isolated by differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) and the genes were designated yellow-leaf-specific gene 1 to 9 (YLS1-YLS9). Sequence analysis revealed that none of the YLS genes, except YLS6, had been reported as senescence-up-regulated genes. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the transcripts of YLS3 accumulated at the highest level at an early senescence stage, whereas the transcripts from the other YLS genes reached their maximum levels in late senescence stages. Transcripts of YLS genes showed various accumulation patterns under natural senescence, and under artificial senescence induced by darkness, ethylene or ABA. These expression characteristics of YLS genes will be useful as potential molecular markers, which will enhance our understanding of natural and artificial senescence processes.

  19. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  20. The Cambridge companion to Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    This collection of essays is unparalleled in the depth of its coverage of all facets of Galileo's work. A particular feature of the volume is the treatment of Galileo's relationship with the Church. It will be of particular interest to philosophers, historians of science, cultural historians and those in religious studies. New readers and nonspecialists will find this the most convenient, accessible guide to Galileo available. Advanced students and specialists will find a conspectus of recent developments in the interpretation of Galileo.

  1. Why raspberries flourish in Cambridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne; Brown, Kerry

    The activities and role of entrepreneurial milieu in fostering novel products are examined in this research. Creative ideas that initiate disjuncture from prevailing paradigms and form from the aggregation of individuals and concentrated efforts coalescing around a common problem are the subject ...

  2. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  3. Why raspberries flourish in Cambridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne; Brown, Kerry;

    The activities and role of entrepreneurial milieu in fostering novel products are examined in this research. Creative ideas that initiate disjuncture from prevailing paradigms and form from the aggregation of individuals and concentrated efforts coalescing around a common problem are the subject...

  4. Localization and Distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in Citrus and Periwinkle by Direct Tissue Blot Immuno Assay with an Anti-OmpA Polyclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fang; Duan, Yongping; Paul, Cristina; Brlansky, Ronald H; Hartung, John S

    2015-01-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas), a non-cultured member of the α-proteobacteria, is the causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB). Due to the difficulties of in vitro culture, antibodies against CaLas have not been widely used in studies of this pathogen. We have used an anti-OmpA polyclonal antibody based direct tissue blot immunoassay to localize CaLas in different citrus tissues and in periwinkle leaves. In citrus petioles, CaLas was unevenly distributed in the phloem sieve tubes, and tended to colonize in phloem sieve tubes on the underside of petioles in preference to the upper side of petioles. Both the leaf abscission zone and the junction of the petiole and leaf midrib had fewer CaLas bacteria compared to the main portions of the petiole and the midribs. Colonies of CaLas in phloem sieve tubes were more frequently found in stems with symptomatic leaves than in stems with asymptomatic leaves with an uneven distribution pattern. In serial sections taken from the receptacle to the peduncle, more CaLas were observed in the peduncle sections adjacent to the stem. In seed, CaLas was located in the seed coat. Many fewer CaLas were found in the roots, as compared to the seeds and petioles when samples were collected from trees with obvious foliar symptoms. The direct tissue blot immuno assay was adapted to whole periwinkle leaves infected by CaLas. The pathogen was distributed throughout the lateral veins and the results were correlated with results of qPCR. Our data provide direct spatial and anatomical information for CaLas in planta. This simple and scalable method may facilitate the future research on the interaction of CaLas and host plant.

  5. Localization and Distribution of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in Citrus and Periwinkle by Direct Tissue Blot Immuno Assay with an Anti-OmpA Polyclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    Full Text Available 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas, a non-cultured member of the α-proteobacteria, is the causal agent of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB. Due to the difficulties of in vitro culture, antibodies against CaLas have not been widely used in studies of this pathogen. We have used an anti-OmpA polyclonal antibody based direct tissue blot immunoassay to localize CaLas in different citrus tissues and in periwinkle leaves. In citrus petioles, CaLas was unevenly distributed in the phloem sieve tubes, and tended to colonize in phloem sieve tubes on the underside of petioles in preference to the upper side of petioles. Both the leaf abscission zone and the junction of the petiole and leaf midrib had fewer CaLas bacteria compared to the main portions of the petiole and the midribs. Colonies of CaLas in phloem sieve tubes were more frequently found in stems with symptomatic leaves than in stems with asymptomatic leaves with an uneven distribution pattern. In serial sections taken from the receptacle to the peduncle, more CaLas were observed in the peduncle sections adjacent to the stem. In seed, CaLas was located in the seed coat. Many fewer CaLas were found in the roots, as compared to the seeds and petioles when samples were collected from trees with obvious foliar symptoms. The direct tissue blot immuno assay was adapted to whole periwinkle leaves infected by CaLas. The pathogen was distributed throughout the lateral veins and the results were correlated with results of qPCR. Our data provide direct spatial and anatomical information for CaLas in planta. This simple and scalable method may facilitate the future research on the interaction of CaLas and host plant.

  6. Falls in advanced old age: recalled falls and prospective follow-up of over-90-year-olds in the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Fiona E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The "oldest old" are now the fastest growing section of most western populations, yet there are scarcely any data concerning even the common problem of falls amongst the very old. Prospective data collection is encouraged as the most reliable method for researching older people's falls, though in clinical practice guidelines advise taking a history of any recalled falls. This study set out to inform service planning by describing the epidemiology of falls in advanced old age using both retrospectively and prospectively collected falls data. Methods Design: Re-survey of over-90-year-olds in a longitudinal cohort study – cross-sectional interview and intensive 12-month follow-up. Participants and setting: 90 women and 20 men participating in a population-based cohort (aged 91–105 years, in care-homes and community-dwelling recruited from representative general practices in Cambridge, UK Measurements: Prospective falls data were collected using fall calendars and telephone follow-up for one year after cross-sectional survey including fall history. Results 58% were reported to have fallen at least once in the previous year and 60% in the 1-year follow-up. The proportion reported to have fallen more than once was lower using retrospective recall of the past year than prospective reports gathered the following year (34% versus 45%, as were fall rates (1.6 and 2.8 falls/person-year respectively. Repeated falls in the past year were more highly predictive of falls during the following year – IRR 4.7, 95% CI 2.6–8.7 – than just one – IRR 3.6, 95% CI 2.0–6.3, using negative binomial regression. Only 1/5 reportedly did not fall during either the year before or after interview. Conclusion Fall rates in this representative sample of over-90-year-olds are even higher than previous reports from octogenarians. Recalled falls last year, particularly repeated falls, strongly predicted falls during follow-up. Similar proportions

  7. Storage and stability of IgG and IgM monoclonal antibodies dried on filter paper and utility in Neisseria meningitidis serotyping by Dot-blot ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yto André Y

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A simple filter paper method was developed for, the transport and storage of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs at room temperature or -20°C after spotting on filter paper, for subsequent serotyping of outer membrane antigens of N.meningitidis by dot-blot ELISA. Methods Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs were spotted within a 0.5–1 cm diameter area of Whatman grade 903 paper, which were stored individually at room temperature or at -20°C. These MAbs were stored and analyzed after periods of one week, 4 weeks, 12 months, or 13 years in the case of frozen Mab aliquots, or after 4 weeks at -20°C or at room temperature (RT in the case of Mabs dried on filter paper strips. Assays were performed in parallel using dot-blot ELISA. In addition to the MAbs specific for serotyping class 1, 2 or 3, we used a larger number of Mabs for polysaccharides, lipooligosaccharides (LOS, class 5 and cross-reactive antigens for native outer membrane of N.meningitidis. The Mabs dried on filter paper were eluted with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS containing 0.2% gelatin. Results Mabs of the isotypes IgG and IgM dried on filter papers were not affected by duration of storage. The detection by serotyping Mabs was generally consistent for dried filter paper MAb samples stored frozen for over 1 year at -20°C, and although decreased reactive antibody titers were found after storage, this did not interfere with the specificity of the Mabs used after 13 years as dry spots on filter paper. Conclusion The use of filter paper is an inexpensive and convenient method for collecting, storing, and transporting Mab samples for serotyping studies. In addition, the samples occupy little space and can be readily transported without freezing. The efficiency of using immunoglobulin G (IgG or M (IgM eluted was found to be consistent with measurement of IgG or IgM titers in most corresponding, ascites Mabs stored frozen for over 1 year. The application of meningococcal typing

  8. Utility of slot-blot-ELISA as a new, fast, and sensitive immunoassay for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen in the urine samples of patients with various gastrointestinal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Masry, Samir; El-Sayed, Ibrahim H; Lotfy, Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Lamiaa; El-Naggar, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is the most widely used clinical tumor marker. CEA immunoassay has found acceptance as a diagnostic adjunct in clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors (GIT). Several immunoassays have been established for detection of CEA in plasma, serum, tissue, feces, and urine of cancer patients using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies raised against CEA. Some of these assays display both high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CEA. However, these assays require special and highly expensive equipment and the procedures require long periods for their completion. In the present study, we established a Slot-Blot Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (SB-ELISA), based on anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (CEA-mAb), as a new, simple, fast, cheap, and non-invasive immunodiagnostic technique for detection of CEA in the urine of GIT patients. Urine and serum samples were collected from 248 GIT patients (58 with pancreatic cancer, 20 with hepatoma, 23 with ampullary carcinoma, 15 with hilar cholangiocarcinoma, 28 with gastric cancer, 14 with esophageal cancer, and 90 with colorectal cancer). Moreover, urine and serum samples were collected from 50 healthy individuals to serve as negative controls. The traditional ELISA technique was used for determination of CEA in the sera of GIT patients using anti-CEA monoclonal antibody. A comparison between the results of both techniques (ELISA and SB-ELISA) was carried out. The traditional ELISA detected CEA in the sera of 154 out of 248 GIT patients with a sensitivity of 59.8%, 51.7% positive predictive value (PPV) and 75.37% negative predictive value (NPV). In addition, it identified 15 false positive cases out of 50 healthy individuals with a specificity of 70%. The urinary CEA was identified by a Western blotting technique and CEA-mAb at a molecular mass of 180 Kda. The developed SB-ELISA showed higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV (70.1%, 78%, 62.4%, and 82.13%, respectively) for detection

  9. A Brief Analysis of the Development Factors of Quantum Theory in Cambridge in Early 20th Century%20世纪初量子理论在剑桥的传入

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹沛; 尹晓冬

    2011-01-01

    This Thesis analyses the impact of development of early--stage quantum theory in Cam- bridge from background, thought transformation, Mathematical Tripos and communication, which may re- veal the development of science in Cambridge in 20th century when the revolution of modern physics hap- pened. I hope it has certain significance because of the comparability with the development of China in mod- ern times.%探讨了20世纪初量子理论在剑桥的传入和发展情况,以及相关因素.

  10. A comparison of DNA extraction protocols from blood spotted on FTA cards for the detection of tick-borne pathogens by Reverse Line Blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Ahmed, Jabbar Sabir; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard Menzo

    2017-01-01

    An essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in blood is the extraction of DNA. When cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to DNA extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. We evaluated six DNA extraction methods from blood spotted on FTA Classic(®) cards (FTA cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of TBPs by PCR and the Reverse Line Blot hybridization assay (RLB). Ten-fold serial dilutions of bovine blood infected with Babesia bovis, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale or Ehrlichia ruminantium were made by dilution with uninfected blood and spotted on FTA cards. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from FTA cards using six different DNA extraction protocols. DNA was also isolated from whole blood dilutions using a commercial kit. PCR/RLB results showed that washing of 3mm discs punched from FTA cards with FTA purification reagent followed by DNA extraction using Chelex(®) resin was the most sensitive procedure. The detection limit could be improved when more discs were used as starting material for the DNA extraction, whereby the use of sixteen 3mm discs proved to be most practical. The presented best practice method for the extraction of DNA from blood spotted on FTA cards will facilitate epidemiological studies on TBPs. It may be particularly useful for field studies where a cold chain is absent.

  11. Whole genomic sequencing of RT98 mitochondria derived from Oryza rufipogon and northern blot analysis to uncover a cytoplasmic male sterility-associated gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Keisuke; Kazama, Tomohiko; Motomura, Keiji; Toriyama, Kinya

    2013-02-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait resulting in the failure to produce functional pollen and is often observed when an alien cytoplasm is transferred into a cultivated species. An RT98A CMS line and an RT98C fertility restorer line were obtained by successive backcrossing between Oryza rufipogon W1109 and Oryza sativa cultivar Taichung 65. To uncover the CMS-associated mitochondrial genes, we determined the complete sequence of the RT98-CMS mitochondrial genome using next-generation pyrosequencing, and searched new open reading frames (orfs) absent in a reported mitochondrial genome of O. sativa Nipponbare. Then, six candidates were selected for the CMS-associated genes based on the criteria in which they were chimeric in structure or encoded a peptide with transmembrane domains. One of the candidates, orf113, showed different transcript sizes between RT98A and RT98C on Northern blot analysis. The orf113 gene was shown to be co-transcribed with atp4 and cox3 encoding ATP synthase F0 subunit 4 and Cyt c oxidase subunit 3, respectively, and their transcripts were distinctly processed in the presence of a fertility restorer gene. Our results indicate that orf113 is a CMS-associated gene of RT98-CMS.

  12. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 in Fortaleza (Brazil: a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available How to handle Western blot (WB seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 constitutes a challenge for blood banks and fam ilies. We made a cross-sectional study of 191 enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA reactive individuals from the hematological center (HEMOCE of Fortaleza (Brazil, examining their serological (WB and molecular (PCR diagnosis, and demographic profiles, as well as a possible association of their condition with other infectious pathologies and risk factors. Ethical institutional approval and personal consent were obtained. Out of 191 EIA reactive individuals, 118 were WB seroindeterminate and 73 were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. In the PCR analysis of 41 WB seroindeterminate individuals, 9 (22% were positive and 32 (78% were negative for HTLV-1/2. The demographic analysis indicated a trend towards a predominance of males among the seroindeterminate individuals and females in the seropositive ones. The seroindeterminate individuals were younger than the seropositive ones. We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis and IDU.

  13. Inverse PCR and Quantitative PCR as Alternative Methods to Southern Blotting Analysis to Assess Transgene Copy Number and Characterize the Integration Site in Transgenic Woody Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Biricolti; Patrizia, Bogani; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Massimo, Gori

    2016-06-01

    One of the major unanswered questions with respect to the commercial use of genetic transformation in woody plants is the stability of the transgene expression over several decades within the same individual. Gene expression is strongly affected by the copy number which has been integrated into the plant genome and by the local DNA features close to the integration sites. Because woody plants cannot be subjected to selfing or backcrossing to modify the transgenic allelic structure without affecting the valuable traits of the cultivar, molecular characterization of the transformation event is therefore crucial. After assessing the transgene copy number of a set of apple transgenic clones with Southern blotting, we describe two alternative methods: the first is based on inverse PCR (i-PCR) and the second on the quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The methods produced comparable results with the exception of the data regarding a high copy number clone, but while the q-PCR-based system is rapid and easily adaptable to high throughput systems, the i-PCR-based method can provide information regarding the transformation event and the characteristics of the sequences flanking the transgenic construct.

  14. Utility of Schistosoma bovis Adult Worm Antigens for Diagnosis of Human Schistosomiasis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Electroimmunotransfer Blot Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, J.; Carranza, C.; Turrientes, M. C.; Arellano, J. L. Pérez; Vélez, R. López; Ramajo, V.; Muro, A.

    2004-01-01

    Immunodiagnostic methods based on the detection of antibodies continue to be the most effective and practical methods for the diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Schistosoma bovis is a species whose final natural hosts are bovines, ovines, caprines, and small wild ruminants. Different studies have demonstrated the analogies existing between S. bovis and other Schistosoma species which affect humans. The objective of this work was to evaluate the utility of S. bovis adult worm antigens (AWA) for the diagnosis of imported human schistosomiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electroimmunotransfer blotting (EITB) techniques. By detecting eggs, the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was able to definitively detect imported cases with a sensitivity of 94%. The specificity of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA was 97%. There were no differences between the results of the S. bovis AWA ELISA for patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni and those infected with Schistosoma haematobium. The EITB technique showed bands of 85, 37, and 20 kDa, which are characteristic of infections with Schistosoma spp. Specific bands to indicate infection by different species of Schistosoma have not been detected. The combined use of the ELISA for S. bovis AWA and EITB increased the global sensitivity of the study to 97%. Our findings suggest that the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is a useful test for the immunodiagnosis of imported schistosomiasis and that EITB for detecting S. bovis AWA permits the confirmation of diagnosis when the ELISA for S. bovis AWA is positive. PMID:15539523

  15. Diversity of Borrelia genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Switzerland identified by using new probes for reverse line blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gern, Lise; Douet, Véronique; López, Zully; Rais, Olivier; Cadenas, Francisca Morán

    2010-03-01

    In Europe, 7 Borrelia species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have been reported in Ixodes ricinus ticks. In addition, another Borrelia, related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, has also been described. In the present study, we designed probes for reverse line blotting allowing detection and identification of all these Borrelia species after amplification of the variable spacer region between the 23S and 5S ribosomal genes. These new probes allowed us investigate the diversity of Borrelia in 915 I. ricinus collected on the south-facing slope of Chaumont (Switzerland). Among the 159 infected ticks, 7 Borrelia species were identified, and B. spielmanii and relapsing fever-like (RFL) spirochaetes were identified in this area for the first time. B. valaisiana and B. spielmanii were significantly less present in male than in female or nymphal ticks. Mixed infection with RFL spirochaetes and Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes were detected in 4 ticks. In addition, the set of probes could identify the recently described species, B. bavariensis.

  16. A Western blot-based investigation of the yeast secretory pathway designed for an intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Degrenier, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in two distinct steps of protein secretion were differentiated using a genetic reporter designed specifically to identify defects in the first step of the pathway, the insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (Vallen, 2002). We have developed two versions of a Western blotting assay that serves as a second way of distinguishing the two secretory mutants, which we pair with the genetic assay in a 3-wk laboratory module. A quiz administered before and after students participated in the lab activities revealed significant postlab gains in their understanding of the secretory pathway and experimental techniques used to study it. A second survey administered at the end of the lab module assessed student perceptions of the efficacy of the lab activities; the results of this survey indicated that the experiments were successful in meeting a set of educational goals defined by the instructor.

  17. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  18. Identification of liver protein targets modified by tienilic acid metabolites using a two-dimensional Western blot-mass spectrometry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methogo, Ruth Menque; Dansette, Patrick M.; Klarskov, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    A combined approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis-immuno-blotting and nanoliquid chromatography coupled on-line with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) was used to identify proteins modified by a reactive intermediate of tienilic acid (TA). Liver homogenates from rats exposed to TA were fractionated using ultra centrifugation; four fractions were obtained and subjected to 2D electrophoresis. Following transfer to PVDF membranes, modified proteins were visualized after India ink staining, using an anti-serum raised against TA and ECL detection. Immuno-reactive spots were localized on the PVDF membrane by superposition of the ECL image, protein spots of interest were excised, digested on the membrane with trypsin followed by nLC-MS/MS analysis and protein identification. A total of 15 proteins were identified as likely targets modified by a TA reactive metabolite. These include selenium binding protein 2, senescence marker protein SMP-30, adenosine kinase, Acy1 protein, adenosylhomocysteinase, capping protein (actin filament), protein disulfide isomerase, fumarylacetoacetase, arginase chain A, ketohexokinase, proteasome endopeptidase complex, triosephosphate isomerase, superoxide dismutase, dna-type molecular chaperone hsc73 and malate dehydrogenase.

  19. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of two protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors, R and Z1, in colorectal carcinoma, colon adenoma and normal colon tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Marta; Gamian, Elżbieta; Łaczmańska, Izabela; Sąsiadek, Maria M; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Two classes of proteins, namely tyrosine kinases (PTK) and phosphatases (PTP), play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation, thus leading to an acceleration or inhibition of tumour growth. The role of the above proteins in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) growth is a well-known event. In this study we carried out immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis of colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and normal colon tissue in relation to two protein tyrosine phosphatase receptors, R and Z1. Twenty-five cases of CRC were analyzed and the results were compared with similar data obtained in non-malignant tissues. High expression of both PTP receptors was observed in all examined cases of CRC, adenoma and normal colon tissue in this study. These results are not in line with recently published data, showing that genetic coding for PTPRR and PTPRZ1 were hypermethylated in CRC's. We presume that the protein tyrosine phosphatase overexpression in colorectal carcinoma is not enough to protect from the progression of disease.

  20. Direct measurement of tubulin and bulk message distributions on polysomes of growing, starved and deciliated Tetrahymena using RNA gel blots of sucrose gradients containing acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzone, F J; Callahan, R; Gorovsky, M A

    1988-10-25

    A method was developed using sucrose gradients containing acrylamide which greatly simplifies the measurement of the polysomal distribution of messages. After centrifugation, the acrylamide was polymerized, forming a "polysome gel". RNA gel blots of polysome gels were used to determine the polysomal distributions of alpha-tubulin and total polyadenylated mRNA in growing, starved (nongrowing) and starved-deciliated Tetrahymena and the number of messages loaded onto polysomes was calculated. These measurements indicated that the translational efficiencies of alpha-tubulin mRNA and total polyadenylated mRNA are largely unaffected when the rates of tubulin and total protein synthesis vary dramatically. Thus, differential regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA translation initiation does not contribute to the greater than 100-fold induction of tubulin synthesis observed during cilia regeneration and in growing cells. The major translation-level process regulating tubulin synthesis in Tetrahymena appears to be a change in message loading mediated by a non-specific message recruitment or unmasking factor.

  1. New microbial fuels: a biotech perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rude, Mathew A; Schirmer, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Bioethanol and plant oil-derived biodiesel are generally considered first generation biofuels. Recognizing their apparent disadvantages, scientists and engineers are developing more sustainable and economically feasible second generation biofuels. The new microbial fuels summarized here have great potential to become viable replacements or at least supplements of petroleum-derived liquid transportation fuels. Yields and efficiencies of the four metabolic pathways leading to these microbial fuels-mostly designed and optimized in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae using modern tools of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology-and the robustness of the biocatalysts that convert the metabolic intermediates to, in some cases, finished and engine-ready fuels, will determine if they can be commercially successful and contribute to alleviating our dependence on fossil fuels.

  2. Synthetic Biology in the Biotech Patent Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana García-llerena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the intended positive effects of the current patent system in biotechnological research have been widely questioned. As part of this review, it is discussed here one of the foundations of the model. The assumption of the indispensability of patents is examined through the analysis of their expected benefits; namely, that patents are suitable to ensure access to information, access to and use of inventions and, finally, that they should promote both creativity and research. Applied to synthetic biology, in spite of newly discovered techniques and promising products, this approach reveals that this discipline also encounters similar issues. However, it also offers a new vision of intellectual property rights and their effects on research, which is based on a different conception of the commons and its relationship with private ownership of intangible assets in the knowledge economy.

  3. Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Additionally, the use of analytical methods (analytics) is underuti- lized. Some are as simple as earned value management (EVM). This simple quantitative...of the many opportunities bureaucrats possess to insert themselves between program managers and program or weapon system delivery. The size and role...across programs. Fortune 500 firms have strategic risk- management offices, managing strategic corporate risks with respect to normalized risk appetite

  4. Biotech Tradeoffs in the Rural Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttel, Frederick H.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesizes findings with personal estimates of likely impacts of biotechnology on nonmetropolitan economy, farming, public research institutions. Indicates biotechnology's benefit to rural America may come in expanded demand for raw materials although drawbacks may include declining farm numbers and displacement of rural workers in…

  5. PHP-HT (VitaResc Biotech).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, A; Wiley, E

    2001-04-01

    VitaResc (formerly Apex) is developing PHP-HT, pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate, for the potential treatment of nitric oxide-induced shock (characterized by hypotension), associated with various etiologies, initially in septic shock. A phase I safety study and an initial phase I/II patient trial for NO-induced shock have been completed, and VitaResc has enrolled patients in three of five planned cohorts in a continuation of these trials to include a protocol of continuous infusion and dose escalation [330680,349187,390918]. The results from the dose escalation trials are expected to provide the basis for a randomized, controlled phase II/III pivotal trial of PHP-HT [390918]. VitaResc has licensed PHP-HT exclusively from Ajinomoto for all indications, worldwide, except Japan [275263]. Ajinomoto originally developed the human derived and chemically modified hemoglobin preparation as a blood substitute, but no development has been reported by the company since 1997 [275277,303577]. The other potential indications of PHP-HT include shock associated with burns, pancreatitis, hemodialysis and cytokine therapies [275277]. VitaResc expects the annual market potential of PHP-HT to exceed 1 billion dollars [330680].

  6. On the type species of the genus Aetius O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896: The first description of male with notes on cymbial notch and mating plug (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhin, Puthoor Pattammal; Nafin, Karunnappilli Shamsudheen; Simmons, Zoë; Sudhikumar, Ambalaparambil Vasu

    2016-08-23

    The rare ant mimicking sac spider genus Aetius was erected by O. Pickard-Cambridge in 1896 based on an unspecified number of female specimen(s) collected from Sri Lanka. The type species of the genus, A. decollatus O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896, has been redescribed twice based on the holotype (Majumder & Tikader 1991; Deeleman-Reinhold 2001). Reimoser (1934) recorded the genus for the first time from India, who collected a male specimen from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu State of southern India. This specimen was identified as A. decollatus, but it was never formally described and was later recognised to be a penultimate male (Dankittipakul & Singtripop 2013). Deeleman-Reinhold (2001) described the second representative of the genus, A. nocturnus, based on a single female specimen from Borneo, 105 years after the establishment of the genus. Dankittipakul & Singtripop (2013) described the male of A. nocturnus, thereby revealing the male genitalia of the genus, but the type species was still known only from the female sex.

  7. Detection of mutation in embB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical isolates of tuberculous patients in China by means of reverse-dot blot hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE QIONG WU; YANG LU; JIAN QIN LIANG; JUN XIAN ZHANG; GUANG YU ZHANG; CUI HUAN L(U); HONG MIN LI; BEI CHUAN DING

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between embB mutation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and ethambutol (EMB) resistance of the clinical isolates of tuberculous patients in China was investigated by reversedot blot hybridization (RDBH) in addition to evaluating the clinical value with application of PCR-RD-BH technique to detect EMB resistance. In the present study, the genotypes of the 258 bp fragments of embB genes from 196 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis were analysed with RDBH and DNA sequencing. It was demonstrated that 60 out of 91 phenotypically EMB-resistant isolates (65.9%) showed 5 types of missense mutations at codon 306 of embB gene, resulting in the replacement of the Met residue of the wild type strain with Val, Ile or Leu residues. In these mutations, the GTP mutation (38/91,41.8% ) and the ATA mutation ( 16/91, 17.6% ) were the most encountered genotypes. The embB mutation at codon 306 could also be found in 69 isolates of phenotypically EMB-sensitive but resistant to other anti-tuberculous drugs, but no such gene mutation could be found in 36 strains of drug-sensitive isolates. Meanwhile, the concordance with the results of DNA sequencing for one wide-type probe and 5 probes for specific mutations was 100%. It was concluded that the EMB-resistance occurring in most M. tuberculosis is due to appearance of embB mutation at codon 306, and the PCR-RDBH assay was proved to be a rapid, simple and reliable method for the detection of gene mutations, which might be a good alternative for the drug-resistance screening.

  8. A comparative study of Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in mink using a modified agglutination test, a Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Wang, Zedong; Cai, Yufeng; Li, Xiaoxing; Wei, Feng; Shang, Limin; Li, Jiping; Liu, Quan

    2015-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, and many serological methods have been developed to detect T. gondii infection in a variety of animal species. In the present study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in farmed mink in northeast China was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT), a Western blot (WB), and 3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with protein A/G conjugate, using either of 2 recombinant dense granule antigens, GRA1 and GRA7, or Toxoplasma soluble antigens (TSA). There was no significant difference between the detection results of the GRA1-, GRA7-, and TSA-ELISAs and WB (McNemar chi-square, P > 0.05), but a significant difference was observed between MAT and WB (P < 0.05). A near perfect agreement (97.0%) was found between the GRA7-ELISA and WB (κ = 0.83), and a substantial agreement (92.4-93.1%) was observed in the TSA- and GRA1-ELISAs (κ = 0.68-0.73). The GRA7-ELISA showed the highest sensitivity and specificity, and the lowest false-positive and negative rates, while the MAT gave both a low sensitivity and frequent false positives in comparison to the WB. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed the largest area under curve of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.96), and the highest relative sensitivity (72.7%) and specificity (99.0%) for a cutoff value of 0.19 in the GRA7-ELISA. These results indicate that the GRA7-ELISA is suitable for detection of T. gondii infection in mink and that MAT should be used with caution.

  9. Western blot data using two distinct anti-O-GlcNAc monoclonal antibodies showing unique glycosylation status on cellular proteins under 2-deoxy-d-glucose treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein modification by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation is one of the post transcriptional modifications occurring on cellular proteins. This paper provides a data set relating to the O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins detected by RL2 and CTD110.6 antibodies, which are commonly used for detection of protein O-GlcNAcylation, in 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG-treated human teratocarcinoma NCCIT cells in support of the research article entitled “A novel, promoter-based, target-specific assay identifies 2-deoxy-d-glucose as an inhibitor of globotriaosylceramide biosynthesis” (Okuda et al., 2009 [1]. The main article described a suppressive effect of 2DG on an Sp1 target gene in NCCIT cells and discussed the relationship between the effect of 2DG and O-GlcNAcylation status of Sp1. The data in this paper complements this relationship by Western blotting and clearly showed that the 2DG treatment increased O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins in NCCIT cells, whereas the RL2 and CTD110.6 epitopes were detected in a different manner. The RL2 epitope was detected on Sp1 during 2DG treatment, and the level was transiently increased at 24 h. In contrast, the CTD110.6 epitope became detectable on Sp1 over 72 h after 2DG treatment, and then the other proteins containing CTD110.6 epitopes also appeared in the cell lysates and the anti-Sp1 antibody precipitates.

  10. HIV-1/2 indeterminate Western blot results: follow-up of asymptomatic blood donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARNEIRO-PROIETTI A.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and public health importance of indeterminate results in HIV-1/2 testing is still difficult to evaluate in volunteer blood donors. At Fundação Hemominas, HIV-1/2 ELISA is used as the screening test and, if reactive, is followed by Western blot (WB. We have evaluated 84 blood donors who had repeatedly reactive ELISA tests for HIV-1/2, but indeterminate WB results. Sixteen of the 84 donors (19.0% had history of sexually transmitted diseases; 18/84 (21.4% informed receiving or paying for sex; 3/84 (3.6% had homosexual contact; 2/26 women (7.6% had past history of multiple illegal abortions and 3/84 (3.6% had been previously transfused. Four out of 62 donors (6.5% had positive anti-nuclear factor (Hep2, with titles up to 1:640. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed eggs of S. mansoni in 4/62 (6.4% donors and other parasites in 8/62 (12.9%. Five (5.9% of the subjects presented overt seroconversion for HIV-1/2, 43/84 (51.2% had negative results on the last visit, while 36/84 (42.9% remained WB indeterminate. Although some conditions could be found associated with the HIV-1/2 indeterminate WB results and many donors had past of risky behavior, the significance of the majority of the results remains to be determined.

  11. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938–1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986–1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection. PMID:28232823

  12. Development of a Rapid Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay for Detection of Clinically Relevant Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Blood Cultures Testing Positive for Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, Jong Bae; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections is crucial for the prompt initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy to decrease the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a newly developed PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, and carbapenemase resistance genes directly from the blood culture bottles. The REBA-EAC (ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase) assay was performed on 327 isolates that were confirmed to have an ESBL producer phenotype, 200 positive blood culture (PBCs) specimens, and 200 negative blood culture specimens. The concordance rate between the results of REBA-EAC assay and ESBL phenotypic test was 94.2%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the REBA-EAC assay for GNB identification in blood culture specimens were 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.938-1.000, P < 0.001), and 100% (95% CI 0.986-1.000, P < 0.001), respectively. All 17 EAC-producing GNB isolates from the 73 PBCs were detected by the REBA-EAC assay. The REBA-EAC assay allowed easy differentiation between EAC and non-EAC genes in all isolates. Moreover, the REBA-EAC assay was a rapid and reliable method for identifying GNB and their β-lactamase resistance genes in PBCs. Thus, this assay may provide essential information for accelerating therapeutic decisions to achieve earlier appropriate antibiotic treatment during the acute phase of bloodstream infection.

  13. Identification of reference proteins for Western blot analyses in mouse model systems of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenie D Prokopec

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a well-established, inexpensive and accurate way of measuring protein content. Because of technical variation between wells, normalization is required for valid interpretation of results across multiple samples. Typically this involves the use of one or more endogenous controls to adjust the measured levels of experimental molecules. Although some endogenous controls are widely used, validation is required for each experimental system. This is critical when studying transcriptional-modulators, such as toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD.To address this issue, we examined hepatic tissue from 192 mice representing 47 unique combinations of strain, sex, Ahr-genotype, TCDD dose and treatment time. We examined 7 candidate reference proteins in each animal and assessed consistency of protein abundance through: 1 TCDD-induced fold-difference in protein content from basal levels, 2 inter- and intra- animal stability, and 3 the ability of each candidate to reduce instability of the other candidates. Univariate analyses identified HPRT as the most stable protein. Multivariate analysis indicated that stability generally increased with the number of proteins used, but gains from using >3 proteins were small. Lastly, by comparing these new data to our previous studies of mRNA controls on the same animals, we were able to show that the ideal mRNA and protein control-genes are distinct, and use of only 2-3 proteins provides strong stability, unlike in mRNA studies in the same cohort, where larger control-gene batteries were needed.

  14. Simultaneous detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in ruminants and detection of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks by reverse line blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Cornelis P J; de Vos, Sander; Taoufik, Amar; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Jongejan, Frans

    2002-10-22

    The detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species is usually based on species-specific PCR assays, since no assay is yet available which can detect and identify these species simultaneously. To this end, we developed a reverse line blot (RLB) assay for simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in domestic ruminants and ticks. In a PCR the hypervariable V1 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified with a set of primers unique for members of the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia [Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51 (2001) 2145]. Amplified PCR products from blood of domestic ruminants or Amblyomma variegatum tick samples were hybridized onto a membrane to which eight species-specific oligonucleotide probes and one Ehrlichia and Anaplasma catch-all oligonucleotide probe were covalently linked. No DNA was amplified from uninfected blood, nor from other hemoparasites such as Theileria annulata, or Babesia bigemina. The species-specific probes did not cross-react with DNA amplified from other species. E. ruminantium, A. ovis and another Ehrlichia were identified by RLB in blood samples collected from small ruminants in Mozambique. Finally, A. variegatum ticks were tested after feeding on E. ruminantium infected sheep. E. ruminantium could be detected in adult ticks even if feeding of nymphs was carried out 3.5 years post-infection. In conclusion, the developed species-specific oligonucleotide probes used in an RLB assay can simultaneously detect and identify several Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species. However, as no quantitative data for the detection limit are available yet, only positive results are interpretable at this stage.

  15. Evaluación de la técnica Western blot para la detección de antígenos de Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Chávez-Salas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la técnica de inmunoelectrotransferencia (Western Blot para detectar los antígenos específicos de excreción/secreción de Hymenolepis nana en sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas. Se utilizó a Mesocricetus auratus “hamster” para obtener ejemplares adultos de H. nana. Los antígenos de excreción/secreción fueron obtenidos en el medio MEM (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, y enfrentados con un grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada para evaluar su calidad inmunológica y con sueros individuales de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas para detectar mediante la técnica de “Western Blot”, los antígenos específicos de este cestode. El grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada reconoció las bandas antigénicas de 50,1; 42,6; 38,9; 32,9; 26,3; 22,4 y 18,6 kDa; sin embargo, los sueros individuales reconocieron diferente número de bandas, siendo la de 50,1 KDa la que fue reconocida por todos ellos. Los sueros de pacientes con helmintiosis confirmadas no reconocieron la banda de 50,1 kDa; sin embargo, dieron reacción cruzada con algunas de las demás bandas, a excepción de los sueros de pacientes con cisticercosis que no reconocieron a ninguna de las bandas de estos antígenos. Se concluye que el antígeno de excreción/secreción de H. nana de 50,1 kDa es específico de este cestode por ser reconocido por todos los sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada y no por sueros de pacientes con otras helmintiosis utilizando la técnica de “Western Blot”.

  16. A comparison of the immune parameters of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis using Western blot and neutralization techniques Comparação dos parâmetros imunológicos de cães infectados com leishmaniose visceral usando as técnicas de Western blot e neutralização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda L. Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western blot technique was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies in the blood of dogs that presented canine visceral leishmaniasis. This technique was used against some specific molecules present in the lysate of the promastigote form of Leshmania chagasi.Through the association of the results of the Western blot technique with the morphological alterations seen as a result of the serum neutralization technique performed in McCoy cells (which mimetizes the macrophage it was possible to observe the role of some molecules of great relevance in determining the disease in symptomatic dogs as well as that of some other molecules associated with asymptomatic infected dogs that may become transmitters as well as differentiating them as asymptomatic resistant dogs. In the sera analyses carried out during the immunobloting a variation of 9 to 27 immunoreacting bands was observed, which were then compared using Dice's similarity coefficient. In the dendrogram constructed on the basis of the coefficient, 50% similarity was observed among the total number of reagent bands with the promastigote lysate, thus creating five groups. The main difference observed related to the clinical condition of the dogs: symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs were found in separate groups. The asymptomatic group of dogs was distributed in two different places in the dendrogram because they presented two different behavior patterns regarding the cellular morphology in the serum neutralization reaction: the presence or absence of cellular lysis. According to this analysis it is possible to evaluate the immune status and associate it with specific markers observed in the reaction found in the Western blot strips.A técnica de Western blot foi utilizada para demonstrar a presença de anticorpos do soro de cães, que apresentavam leishmaniose visceral canina, contra algumas moléculas específicas no lisado da forma promastigota de Leshmania chagasi.Através da associa

  17. The Filistatidae in the Caribbean region, with a description of the new genus Antilloides, revision of the genus Filistatoides F. O. P.-Cambridge and notes on Kukulcania Lehtinen (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brescovit, Antonio D; Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Garcia, Giraldo Alayón

    2016-07-07

    A synopsis of Caribbean filistatid diversity is recorded herein. A new genus, Antilloides, is proposed for five new species exclusively found in the Antilles: A. abeli n. sp., A. cubitas n. sp., and A. mesoliticus n. sp. from Cuba; A. haitises n. sp. from the Dominican Republic; and A. zozo n. sp. from the U. S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico. The genus Filistatoides is revised and includes four species: the type species F. insignis F.O.P. Cambridge, which occurs only in Guatemala; the female is described here for the first time; F. polita Franganillo sp. reval., comb. nov., which occurs only in Cuba; F. xichu n. sp. described from Mexico; and F. milloti (Zapfe) which does not appear to belong to the genus based on morphological structures. Additionally, Kukulcania isolinae Alayón is synonymized with Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz), and new records of its distribution are included for the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

  18. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  19. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  20. The Culture Temperament of World-Class Universities---Illustrated by the Case of Cambridge Afternoon Tea System%论一流大学的文化气质--以剑桥大学下午茶为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳逸青

    2014-01-01

    In the view of the world-class universities , they has formed a unique and distinctive university cul-ture, and ran through it in the long -term educational practice , that formed its own unique cultural temperament . This kind of temperament is not only the charm of them , is also the motive power of their sustainable development . In this respect , Cambridge's afternoon tea system is a typical example .This system is not only an important culture carrier of the world-class university temperament , is also the reflection of its vitality and academic freedom .This traditional approach of Cambridge or brings a new idea and reference for the construction of our country university culture .%纵观世界一流大学,在其长期的办学实践中已形成了独特且鲜明的大学文化,而且能够一以贯之,形成自己特有的文化气质。这种气质不仅是学校的魅力所在,更是其持续发展的原动力。在这方面,英国剑桥大学的下午茶制度就是一个典型的例证。这一制度不仅是这所一流大学气质的一个重要的文化载体,更是其活力和宽松自由学术氛围的体现。剑桥大学这一传统做法可为我国名校的大学文化建设带来一种新的思路和好的借鉴。

  1. 17 January 2011 - British (Cambridge) Trustee of the London Science Museum Chair of the Management Committee of the Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences H. Covington in the LHCB underground experimental area with A. Schopper; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; throughout accompanied by R. Veness.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    17 January 2011 - British (Cambridge) Trustee of the London Science Museum Chair of the Management Committee of the Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences H. Covington in the LHCB underground experimental area with A. Schopper; signing the guest book with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers; throughout accompanied by R. Veness.

  2. 24 January 2012 - British Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge Sir Leszek Borysiewicz signing the guest book with CERN Director-General, visiting ATLAS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton and Sm18 with engineer R. Veness.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    24 January 2012 - British Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge Sir Leszek Borysiewicz signing the guest book with CERN Director-General, visiting ATLAS experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson D. Charlton and Sm18 with engineer R. Veness.

  3. Biotech potatoes in the 21st century: 20 years since the first biotech potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato is the world's most important vegetable crop, with nearly 400 million tons produced worldwide every year, lending to stability in food supply and socioeconomics. In general, potato is an intensively managed crop, requiring irrigation, fertilization, and frequent pesticide applications in orde...

  4. Comparison of Linear Array and Line Blot Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus and Diagnosis of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study▿

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, Philip E.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Schiffman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated Linear Array (LA), a newly commercialized PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primer PCR test that detects 37 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes by reverse line blot hybridization, for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV and its clinical performance for detecting 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer using archived specimens from the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. LA...

  5. Adaptação para o Português da seção A do Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly - Revised Version (CAMDEX-R para o diagnóstico de demência Cross-cultural adaptation of section A of the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly - Revised Version (CAMDEX-R for dementia diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Aguiar Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a primeira fase da adaptação transcultural da seção A do Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly - Revised Version (CAMDEX-R, que é uma entrevista para o diagnóstico de demência. A avaliação da equivalência conceitual e de itens envolveu revisão bibliográfica e discussões com especialistas. A avaliação da equivalência semântica constou de: traduções do inglês para o português e retrotraduções, com análise das versões e do texto original; encontros com experts; discussão com 52 idosos através da técnica de grupos focais; nova reunião de especialistas; pré-teste com 35 idosos; produção da versão final. Para avaliar a estabilidade, a versão final foi aplicada a 160 pacientes. A confiabilidade interavaliador foi quase perfeita nas subseções do estado clínico atual e nos itens individuais da história patológica pregressa. A confiabilidade teste-reteste foi moderada ou superior nas subseções e foi quase perfeita ou substancial em 70% dos itens da história patológica progressa. A versão brasileira apresentou boa equivalência com o original e bons níveis de confiabilidade.This article concerns the first phase of the cross-cultural equivalence of Section A in the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly - Revised Version (CAMDEX-R, a clinical interview for dementia diagnosis. Evaluating conceptual and item equivalences involved a literature review and expert groups. Semantic equivalence involved translations of the original into Portuguese and back-translations, with analysis of the versions and the original text; meetings with experts; discussions with 52 elders using the focus group technique; further meeting with experts; pretesting on 35 elders; and elaboration of the final version. For the reliability analysis, the version was applied to 160 patients. Inter-observer reliability was nearly perfect in all sub-sections of present state and in individual

  6. [Adaptation and validation of CAMDEX-DS (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and others with intellectual disabilities) in Spanish population with intellectual disabilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Dalmau-Bueno, Albert; Ribas-Vidal, Núria; Vilà-Alsina, Marta; Novell-Alsina, Ramon; García-Alba, Javier

    2013-10-16

    Introduccion. La demencia causada por la enfermedad de Alzheimer afecta comunmente a la poblacion adulta con sindrome de Down. Esta poblacion presenta dos rasgos clinicos caracteristicos: la presencia de demencia con semiologia distinta a la enfermedad de Alzheimer tipica y deficits intelectuales previos que pueden confundir el diagnostico clinico. Existe una evidente necesidad de validar instrumentos especificos en castellano adaptados a esta poblacion. Objetivo. Adaptar y validar el Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS) en poblacion española. Pacientes y metodos. Se consideraron 146 pacientes con discapacidad intelectual (leve-moderada). Se realizo un estudio de validacion de tipo observacional, transversal y multicentrico. Se administraron los siguientes tests: CAMDEX-DS, test breve de inteligencia de Kaufman y Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Mental Retardation. Se calculo la fiabilidad test-retest, la fiabilidad interjueces, la concordancia del CAMDEX-DS para el diagnostico clinico y la validez. Resultados. La fiabilidad test-retest e interjueces obtuvo un coeficiente kappa de 0,92 y 0,91, respectivamente. El indice kappa del CAMDEX-DS para el diagnostico clinico respecto al resto de los criterios clinicos utilizados fue alto: CAMDEX-DS frente a DSM-IV (kappa = 0,95; p Down's Syndrome (CAMCOG-DS) permite establecer dos puntos de corte para la sospecha de deterioro cognitivo en el grupo de personas con sindrome de Down en funcion del nivel de discapacidad intelectual previo.

  7. The Study on Oral Teaching Mode of Cambridge Business English Based on the Theory of Constructivism%建构主义理论下剑桥商务英语口语教学模式探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵协

    2015-01-01

    基于大部分高职学生“哑巴英语”的现状,本文以建构主义理论为理论依据,以商务英语专业学生为考察对象,根据《剑桥商务英语》教材内容创设情境,采用协作式学习进行英语口语教学方法的尝试,通过调查问卷、访谈等方式了解学生口语表达的困惑,分析并解决口语教学的问题。%Based on the majority of college students"dumb English"status, using the constructivism theory as the theoretical basis, taking business English major students as the research object, the paper creates teaching situations according to the Cambridge Business English textbooks, using cooperative learning to English teaching methods. The aim is to understand students' oral expression confusion and ana-lyze and solve the teaching problems through questionnaires, interviews.

  8. 从剑桥商务英语口试实况看大学生商务口语问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures of College Student Oral Business English through Cambridge BEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利梅

    2015-01-01

    随着全球经济一体化日益加深,商务沟通能力越来越重要。许多高校都为学生开设了商务英语课程,而学生也积极参加商务能力测试,为就业做准备。但笔者在实际商务英语教学及剑桥商务英语培训及测试中发现,考生的商务口语沟通存在不少问题,本文分析了这些问题出现的原因并提出相应对策。%As the global economic integration deepens, business communication proficiency is a vital tool in economic ac-tivities. To build the students' employability on the future job market, many colleges are now offering business courses to the students who highly value the results in professional test. The author, in this article, shares her insights into the problems and solutions out of her teaching and training practice as well as her observation and analysis of the examinees' performance in the Cambridge BEC Oral Test.

  9. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  10. Reseña de Toner, J. (2012 Sesenta Millones de Romanos. La cultura del pueblo en la Antigua Roma. Barcelona: Crítica. Traducción de Luis Noriega, Título original, Popular Culture in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009, pp. 363.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Gerardi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo comento el contenido y el enfoque del libro de Jerry Toner, director de estudios clásicos en el Hughes Hall College de la Universidad de Cambridge, quien en Sesenta millones de romanos… estudia y caracteriza la cultura popular como un conjunto de estrategias empleadas por el pueblo romano para enfrentar los desafíos de la vida cotidiana.

  11. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification efficiency after on-blot or in-gel digestion with and without desalting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, S; Jungblut, P R

    2001-03-10

    In theory, peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has the potential to identify all of the proteins detected by silver staining on gels. In practice, if the genome of the organism investigated is completely sequenced, using current techniques, all proteins stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue can be identified. This loss of identification sensitivity of ten to hundred-fold is caused by loss of peptides by surface contacts. Therefore, we performed digestion and transfer of peptides in the lower microl range and reduced the number of steps. The peptide mix obtained from in-gel or on-blot digestion was analyzed directly after digestion or after concentration on POROS R2 beads. Eight protein spots of a 2-DE gel from Mycobacterium bovis BCG were identified using these four preparation procedures for MALDI-MS. Overall, on-blot digestion was as effective as in-gel digestion. Whereas higher signal intensities resulted after concentration, hydrophilic peptides are better detected by direct measurement of the peptide mix without POROS R2 concentration.

  12. 得失参半的创新之作--《剑桥中国文学史》评议%Success Equals Failure in an Innovated Book-A Review about The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱泽宝

    2015-01-01

    《剑桥中国文学史》旨在打破以往文学史写作中的习惯性范畴,开创新的文学史范式。其中最引人注目的是它特殊的“文学文化史”的书写姿态,立足于在文化史的背景下考察中国文学的发展进程。这种书写策略为我们认识文学史提供了新的视角与方法,但并没有在全书中得到全面的贯彻。《剑桥中国文学史》的文学史分期方式也引人注目,某些基于文学文化史立场的分期方式显得新颖别致。全书的文学史分期方式并没有统一的标准,也存在着按世纪、朝代为文学史分期的现象。由于全书的编者热衷于探求“过去的文学”原貌,在实践中往往对某些重要作家作品叙述较少,而对次要的文学现象评价过高。这种迥异于时流的评价可新人耳目,但有些评价是出于臆测,并没有坚实的依据。%The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History aims at creating a new pattern about the writing of Chinese literature history by removing familiar categories in the field.The Cambridge of Chinese Literature History is famous for its special view of the history of literature culture.The writ-ers believe that the real original appearance of literature is clear when we research literature by the hand of whole history of culture.Some problems in literature could be removed with the view of cul-ture,which is not reflected completely in the whole book.The divisions of literature history are also eye-attracting,some are reasonable based the view of culture history.Other kinds of division of histo-ry carry on changeless criterion as before.The book aims to seek the original appearance of literature happened as announced.Some famous writers in history are not take high while common ones are over praised.So,some evaluations in the book are not valid.

  13. 热带果树基因组DNA提取方法的改良及Southern blot分析%A Modified DNA Extraction Method for Tropical Fruit Trees and Southern Blot Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭军; 曾凡云; 龙海波; 黄俊生; 郭建荣

    2012-01-01

    Tissues of most tropical fruit trees contain polysaccharide and polyphenolics that restrict the extraction of high-quality genomie DNA for further molecular biology analysis. This experiment was conducted to develop a simple, universal and effective modified CTAB method for genomie DNA extraction from tissues of tropical fruit trees for southern blot analysis. This optimized procedure includes two steps. First, before the DNA was extrac- ted, the polysaccharide and polyphenolics were pre-removed through the STE lysis buffer by centrifugation. In addition, possible contamination by secondary metaboliates could be avoided by picking up the cotton-shaped ge- nomie DNA floccules resuspended in liquid at the DNA precipitation step with ethanol. With the modified CTAB method, high-quality DNAs were extracted from young leaves of the three representative tropical fruit trees, ba- nana (Musa spp. ) , papaya (Carica papaya L. ) and longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. ). After digested with different restriction enzymes, fragments of banana ethylene receptor gene (GenBank accession No. AF113748), papaya phytoene desaturase gene (DQ779922) and longan flowering-related LEAFY homologous gene (DQ160214) were used as probes for further Southern blot analysis, respectively. The hybridization bands were clear with high background. The results indicate that the modified CTAB method, with pre-treated conjugation by DNA pick-up, is a simple and effective protocol for genomic DNA isolation from tropical fruit trees, which pro- duces high-quality genomic DNA available for further Southern blot analysis and other tests in molecular biology.%以香蕉、番木瓜、龙眼为代表材料,建立一套适合热带果树基因组DNA提取的方法——改良CTAB法。将提取各基因组DNA经限制性内切酶完全消化后,分别以香蕉内源乙烯受体基因(AF113748)、番木瓜八氢番茄红素脱氢酶基因PDS(DQ779922)、龙眼开花相关基因LEAFY(ADQ160214

  14. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbrán, María del Carmen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante la última década el campo del aprendizaje multimediado ha emergido como una disciplina coherente basada en la investigación. El Manual presenta un panorama actualizado y comprensivo de ambos. Este tipo de aprendizaje tiene lugar a través de palabras (textos orales e impresos e imágenes (ilustraciones, fotografías, mapas, animaciones, video. El Manual se centra en el modo en que se aprende con estos recursos en contextos mediados por la computadora.

  15. The Cambridge companion to fantasy literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "Fantasy is a creation of the Enlightenment and the recognition that excitement and wonder can be found in imagining impossible things. From the ghost stories of the Gothic to the zombies and vampires of twenty-first-century popular literature, from Mrs Radcliffe to Ms Rowling, the fantastic has been popular with readers. Since Tolkien and his many imitators, however, it has become a major publishing phenomenon. In this volume, critics and authors of fantasy look at the history of fantasy sin...

  16. And Now What about Reforming Cambridge Governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, G. R.

    2009-01-01

    After its recent Assurance visit from HEFCE, Oxford went through a high profile public debate at the end of which its academic community voted against moving to a governance structure which would have given Oxford a majority of external members on its Council. The Higher Education Funding Council asked Oxford to answer eight questions justifying…

  17. 地高辛标记的Northern blot检测鼠疫菌sRNA%Detection of Yersinia pestis sRNA by digoxigenin-labeled Northern blot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓仲良; 苏山春; 孟祥荣; 吴移谋; 杨瑞馥; 韩延平

    2013-01-01

    [目的]随着高通量测序方法的应用,越来越多的sRNA (small non-coding RNA,sRNA)需验证.本研究建立用地高辛标记Northern blot检测鼠疫菌sRNA的技术,为细菌sRNA验证提供一种灵敏、特异的方法.[方法]在低铁条件下,提取鼠疫菌总RNA,10% dPAGE分离后电转到尼龙膜上并用紫外线交联RNA.膜经地高辛标记RyhB1或RyhB2寡核苷酸RNA探针过夜杂交后洗脱、封闭和免疫检测,最后曝光显影.[结果]地高辛标记的Northern blot曝光时间为20 s-3 min,RyhB1或RyhB2检测灵敏度分别为0.005 μg和0.05 μg.RyhB1或RyhB2探针特异性好,相互间无交叉反应.带正电或中性的尼龙膜都适用于杂交反应.RNA探针在42℃-65℃内杂交均可,提高温度可减少非特异性反应;而DNA探针杂交温度需摸索.[结论]本研究成功构建一种地高辛标记Northern blot检测鼠疫菌sRNA技术,具有特异性好、灵敏度高、探针易保存、曝光时间短等优点,为细菌sRNA验证和功能研究提供有利工具.%[Objective] With the application of high-throughput sequencing methods, more and more sRNAs are required to be verified.In this study, we developed the digoxigenin-labeled Northern blot method for detection of Yersinia pestis sRNA.[Methods] Total RNAs extracted from Yersinia.pestis grown under low-iron conditions were loaded onto 10% denaturing urea polyacrylamide gel (dPAGE) , electrophoresed and transferred to nylon membranes.Northern blots were fixed to the membrane by UV cross-linking and subjected to hybridization with 3 ' -end digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotides RNA probe for RyhBl and RyhB2 overnight and followed by washing, blocking, immunological detection and finally exposed to film.[Results] Exposure time of digoxigenin-labelled Northern blot was 20s-3min.The detection sensitivity of RyhBl and RyhB2 was 0.005μg and 0.05 μg, respectively.RyhBl and RyhB2 probe specificity was high and no cross reaction with each other was found

  18. Comparison analysis between Western blot method and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method detection SLE autoantibody%免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法检测SLE自身抗体的比对分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚清

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较免疫印迹法(Western blot)和磁微粒化学发光法(Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method)检测系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)自身抗体的一致性。方法:用免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法对123份血清进行检测,其中系统性红斑狼疮阳性患者63例,健康体检者60例,用卡方检验对两种方法结果进行比较分析。结果:免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法中抗Sm抗体阳性率分别为27.0%和14.3%、抗RNP/Sm阳性率分别为54.0%和42.9%、dsDNA阳性率分别为41.3%和30.2%、抗核小体抗体阳性率分别为31.7%和20.6%、抗核糖体P蛋白抗体阳性率分别为28.6%和11.1%。两种方法的准确性无显著性差异(>0.05)总符合率为80.6%,Kappa值为0.669。结论:免疫印迹法和磁微粒化学发光法检测系统性红斑狼疮自身抗体的检测结果具有可靠性,较好的符合率和准确性,磁微粒化学发光法可以作为简便、快速、经济的检测方法应用于系统性红斑狼疮自身抗体的检测。%Objective: The present study aims to compare Western blot and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method consistency on autoimmune antibody detection of systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: Western blot assay and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method were used to detect autoimmune antibody from 123 serum samples, of which 63 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, the others from 60 healthy persons. The results of the two methods were compared by X2 test. Results: Anti-Sm antibody positive rate of Western blot and Magnetic particle Chemiluminescence method were 27.0 and 14.3 percent respectively. Anti- RNP/Sm antibody positive rates were 39.7% and 42.9% respectively. Anti- ds- DNA antibody positive rates were 41.3% and 30.2% respectively. Anti- nucleosome antibody positive rates were 31.7% and 20.6% respectively. Anti- ribosomal protein antibody positive rates were 28.6% and 11.1% respectively. The accuracy

  19. Analysis of N-H···O hydrogen bonds in new C(O)-NH-P(O)-based phosphoric triamides and analogous structures deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourayoubi, Mehrdad; Toghraee, Maryam; Divjakovic, Vladimir; van der Lee, Arie; Mancilla Percino, Teresa; Leyva Ramírez, Marco A; Saneei, Anahid

    2013-04-01

    Five new compounds belonging to the phosphoric triamide family have been synthesized: two of them with the formula XC(O)NHP(O)Y [X = CF3 (1) and CClF2 (2), Y = NHCH2C(CH3)2CH2NH] involving a 1,3-diazaphosphorinane ring part, and three 2,6-Cl2C6H3C(O)NHP(O)Z2 phosphoric triamides [Z = NHC(CH3)3 (3), N(CH3)(C6H11) (4) and N(CH3)(CH2C6H5) (5)]. The characterization was performed by (31)P{(1)H}, (1)H, (13)C NMR, IR spectroscopy besides (19)F NMR for fluorine containing compounds (1) and (2), and X-ray single-crystal structure analysis for (1), (3), (4) and (5). In each molecule the P atom has a distorted tetrahedral environment. The N atoms bonded to P atom have mainly sp(2) character with a very slight tendency to a pyramidal coordination for some amido groups. Different types of N-H···O hydrogen bonds have been analyzed for (1), (3), (4) and (5) and 118 other structures (including 194 hydrogen bonds) deposited in the Cambridge Structural Database, containing either C(O)-NH-P(O)[N(C)(C)]2 or C(O)-NH-P(O)[NH(C)]2. The participation of N(CP)-H···O=P [N(CP) = the nitrogen atom of the C(O)-NH-P(O) fragment], N-H···O=P, N-H···O=C and N(CP)-H···O=C hydrogen bonds in different hydrogen-bonded motifs are discussed. Moreover, the involvement of the O atoms of C=O or P=O in the [N(CP)-H][N-H]···O=P, [N-H]2···O=P, [N-H]2···O=C and [N-H]3···O=C groups are considered. A histogram of N···O distances, the distribution of N-H···O angles and the scatterplot of N-H···O angles versus N···O distances are studied.

  20. Simultaneous identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales species by reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay%应用反向线点杂交技术鉴定临床常见曲霉属和毛霉目真菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵作涛; 李丽丽; 王晓阳; 万喆; 陈伟; 李若瑜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To Rapidly differentiate Aspergillus and Mucorales species by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB). Methods Totally 98 isolates including five Aspergillus strains ( Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Aspergillus nidulans ) and seven Mucorales species ( Mucor heimalis ,Mucor racemosus ,Mucor cercinelloidea,Rhizopus arrhizus,Rhizopus microsporus,Rhizomucor pusillus and Absidia corymbifera ) were obtained from Research Center for Medical Mycology and Mycoses, Peking University. ITS1 and ITS4 fungal universal primers were chosen for PCR amplification, and the amplified products were used for reverse line blot hybridization with 12 fungal specie-specific probes. RLB data were compared with those by traditional fungal morphology and ITS sequencing methods. Results RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity , with 100% correct identification percentage of all the isolates and no cross hybridization between the species-specific probes. Eight negative control stains ( Candida albicans ,Fusarium solani ,Scedosporium apiospermum ,Penicillium marneffei ,Exophiala verrucosa,Aspergillus clavatus,Aspergillus japonicus and Cunninghamella elegans ) also showed negative by RLB. The analytical sensitivity of RLB was 1. 8 x 10-3 ng/μL by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus fumigatus genomic DNA. Conclusions The RLB assay provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis and identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales species.%目的 应用反向线点杂交技术(reverse line blot hybridization,RLB)快速鉴定临床常见的曲霉属和毛霉目真菌.方法 收集我院真菌和真菌病研究中心保存的5种曲霉菌(烟曲霉、黄曲霉、黑曲霉、土曲霉、构巢曲霉)和7种毛霉目真菌(冻土毛霉菌、总状毛霉菌、卷枝毛霉菌、少根根霉、小孢根霉、微小根毛霉、伞状犁头霉),共计98株菌株.利用真菌通用引物ITS1和ITS4对菌株进行PCR扩增,用12个

  1. Ecological Prose“The Cambridge I Know”by Xu Zhi-Mo and His Ecological Ideal%论徐志摩生态散文《我所知道的康桥》及其生态理想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茂全

    2013-01-01

      徐志摩《我所知道的康桥》是中国现代生态散文的代表作。作家以留学剑桥大学的生活体验为书写对象,描绘了一幅自然与人文和谐统一的校园生态画卷,表现了作家热爱自然、崇尚生命、向往自由、追求本真的生态理想。徐志摩生态观的形成不仅受到江南地域生态文化与中国传统生态观念的浸润,还受到受西方浪漫主义文学思潮与剑桥大学校园生态文化的滋养。%The Cambridge I know by XU Zhi-Mo is a masterpiece of modern Chinese ecological prose. Set on his life in University of Cambridge, the essay draws a picture of a campus where human is harmonious with nature, and expresses the writer’s ecological ideal for nature, life, freedom and inwardness. The ecological viewpoint of XU Zhi-Mo is not only affected by ecological culture in South China and traditional Chinese ecological concept, but also by ecological thought of the western romanticism literary trend and ecological culture of the University of Cambridge.

  2. Comparison of linear array and line blot assay for detection of human papillomavirus and diagnosis of cervical precancer and cancer in the atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion triage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Gravitt, Patti E; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M; Schiffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated Linear Array (LA), a newly commercialized PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primer PCR test that detects 37 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes by reverse line blot hybridization, for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV and its clinical performance for detecting 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer using archived specimens from the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. LA testing was conducted on enrollment specimens from women referred because of an ASCUS Pap test. To gauge the performance of the new test, the results were compared to those of its prototype predecessor assay, Line Blot Assay (LBA), restricted to paired results (n = 3,335). LA testing was done masked to LBA results and clinical outcomes. The results of LA and LBA testing were compared for detection of carcinogenic HPV and clinical outcomes of cervical precancer and cancer. Overall, 50% and 55% of the women tested positive for carcinogenic HPV by LBA and LA, respectively (P < 0.0001). The percent agreement for carcinogenic HPV detection was 88%, percent positive agreement was 80%, and kappa was 0.76 for detection of carcinogenic HPV by the two assays. There was a significant increase in detection by LA for most of the 37 HPV genotypes targeted by both assays, including for 13 of 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. LA detected more multiple-genotype infections for all HPV genotypes among HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001) and for carcinogenic HPV genotypes among carcinogenic-HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001). LA was more sensitive (92.3% versus 87.1%; P = 0.003) and less specific (48.2% versus 54.0%; P < 0.0001) than LBA for 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer as diagnosed by the Pathology Quality Control Group. In conclusion, we found LA to be a promising assay for the detection of HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV, and it may be clinically useful for the detection of

  3. Comparison of Linear Array and Line Blot Assay for Detection of Human Papillomavirus and Diagnosis of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Schiffman, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated Linear Array (LA), a newly commercialized PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primer PCR test that detects 37 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes by reverse line blot hybridization, for the detection of individual HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV and its clinical performance for detecting 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer using archived specimens from the Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Triage Study. LA testing was conducted on enrollment specimens from women referred because of an ASCUS Pap test. To gauge the performance of the new test, the results were compared to those of its prototype predecessor assay, Line Blot Assay (LBA), restricted to paired results (n = 3,335). LA testing was done masked to LBA results and clinical outcomes. The results of LA and LBA testing were compared for detection of carcinogenic HPV and clinical outcomes of cervical precancer and cancer. Overall, 50% and 55% of the women tested positive for carcinogenic HPV by LBA and LA, respectively (P < 0.0001). The percent agreement for carcinogenic HPV detection was 88%, percent positive agreement was 80%, and kappa was 0.76 for detection of carcinogenic HPV by the two assays. There was a significant increase in detection by LA for most of the 37 HPV genotypes targeted by both assays, including for 13 of 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. LA detected more multiple-genotype infections for all HPV genotypes among HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001) and for carcinogenic HPV genotypes among carcinogenic-HPV-positive women (P < 0.0001). LA was more sensitive (92.3% versus 87.1%; P = 0.003) and less specific (48.2% versus 54.0%; P < 0.0001) than LBA for 2-year cumulative cervical precancer and cancer as diagnosed by the Pathology Quality Control Group. In conclusion, we found LA to be a promising assay for the detection of HPV genotypes and carcinogenic HPV, and it may be clinically useful for the detection of

  4. Toner, J. Sesenta millones de romanos. La cultura del pueblo en la Antigua Roma : Barcelona: Crítica. 2012. Traducción de Luis Noriega, Título original, Popular Culture in Ancient Rome. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009, pp. 363

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardi, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Jerry Toner, director de estudios clásicos en el Hughes Hall College de la Universidad de Cambridge, en Sesenta millones de romanos… estudia y caracteriza la cultura popular como un conjunto de estrategias empleadas por el pueblo romano para enfrentar los desafíos de la vida cotidiana. El enfoque del autor, en el campo de la historia social, tiene una extensa trayectoria que refleja, en las páginas de este libro, la influencia de los historiadores marxistas británicos, bajo cuyo impulso se de...

  5. A fragile X male with a broad smear on southern blot analysis representing 100-500 CGG repeats and no methylation at the EagI site of the FMR-1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachiewicz, A.M.; Spiridigliozzi, G.A.; McConkie-Rosell, A. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X DNA studies were carried out on all obligate carriers of a large fragile X family with 10 mentally retarded individuals. One 64-year-old carrier man with an altered FMR-1 allele was not described as being mentally retarded or as having any limitations in function. He was married, raised 8 children, and worked as an auto mechanic. On examination, he had macrocephaly and mild macroorchidism but few of the other typical physical findings of males with fragile X syndrome. His Full Scale IQ is 73, and his Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite is 73. On the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, he achieved standard scores of 64 in Reading, 55 in Math, and 83 in Knowledge. His DNA findings showed a broad smear on Southern blot analysis of 100-500 CGG repeats and no methylation at the EagI site upstream of the FMR-1 protein coding region. His FMR-1 protein production is 12% of normal. His daughters all have large premutations, with somatic instability in the size of the CGG repeat lengths. They all have evidence of academic underachievement and 2 have physical characteristics frequently described in individuals with fragile X. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Uso da técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização associada à reação em cadeia da polimerase para aumentar a sensibilidade no diagnóstico das infecções por hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos: Use of Southern Blot/Hybridization technique associated to polymerase chain reaction to improve the sensitivity in the diagnosis of hemoplasma infections in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B. Macieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a técnica de Southern Blot/Hibridização (SB em associação à reação de polimerização em cadeia (PCR aumenta a sensibilidade na detecção de DNA de hemoplasmas em gatos domésticos (Felis catus. O sangue total foi coletado em tubos contendo o anticoagulante ácido etilenodiamino tetra-acético, o DNA extraído a partir de 149 animais e a PCR realizada com o uso de sequências iniciadoras espécie-específicas, para amplificar subunidade 16S do RNA ribossomal de Mycoplasma haemofelis e 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' dessas amostras. Para a hibridização, foram utilizadas sondas específicas quimicamente marcadas, e os resultados visualizados por meio da adição de substrato quimiluminescente seguida de autoradiografia. Dezoito (12,1% das 149 amostras testadas apresentaram resultado PCR-positivo para o DNA de hemoplasmas. A técnica de SB mostrou que 24/149 (16,1% amostras apresentaram resultado positivo para hemoplasmas, confirmando os 18 resultados PCR-positivos, além de revelar seis outros adicionais (p The aim of this study was to determine whether Southern Blot/Hybridization (SB associated to Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR improves the sensitivity in the detection of hemoplasma DNA in domestic cats (Felis catus. Whole blood was collected in tubes containing the anticoagulant ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid and DNA extracted from 149 animals. PCR was performed using species specific primers to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA subunit of Mycoplasma haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' from these samples. Hybridization was performed using a 16S rDNA probes chemically labeled and the results were visualized using a chemiluminescent substrate addition followed by autoradiography. Eighteen (12.1% of the 149 tested samples had a positive PCR result for hemoplasma species DNA. SB/hybridization technique showed that 24/149 (16.1% samples were positive for hemoplasmas, confirming the 18 PCR

  7. The Use of Biotin to Demonstrate Immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting, and Dot Blots in University Practical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas James; Knighton, Ronald; Chuck, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Immunological detection of proteins is an essential method to demonstrate to undergraduate biology students, however, is often difficult in resource and time poor student laboratory sessions. This method describes a failsafe method to rapidly and economically demonstrate this technique using biotinylated proteins or biotin itself as targets for…

  8. 孕产妇HIV抗体筛查阳性与免疫印迹试验对比%Comparison of Positive of HIV Antibody Screening and Western Blot Test in Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱厚宏; 王晨笛; 刘杨; 张祁; 孟建彤; 黄薇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the results of HIV antibody screening test and Westem Blot test ( WB) in pregnant women. Methods Thirty three positive samples from pregnant women were tested with the ELISA and Westem blot test (WB). Those with indefinite result by WB test were re-tested 3 and 6 months later, and HIV-1 viral load testing ( VL) was carried out at 6th month. The results of ELISA and the WB test were analyzed. Result The 33 samples were all positive by ELISA and 20 were HIV-1 positive by WB test. The ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate was 60. 61 % (20/33). Of 20 samples 0were with S/CO value more than 8, the WB test results of HIV-1 antibody were all positive. Of 13 samples were with S/CO value less than 1 , 5 were negative and 8 were indefinite in WB test. The HIV-1 viral load test result at 6th month was less than the minimum detection limit (50 IU/ml ) . Conclusion The false positive in HIV antibody screening test (ELISA) was observed. The false positive sample were in the WB test negative and indefinite ones. ELISA and the WB test positive coincidence rate increased with the S/CO value of ELISA. The HIV WB test indefinite result in pregnant women was mostly due to non-specific immune response.%目的 探讨孕产妇人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)抗体筛查试验阳性与免疫印迹试验(WB)结果的关系.方法 对33份孕产妇HIV抗体待复查样本,进行酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA )及免疫印迹试验(WB),对WB试验结果不确定者进行3个月、6个月随访检测,6个月随访样本补充HIV-1病毒载量检测,分析ELISA检测与WB试验检测结果.结果 33份样本ELISA复检均呈阳性,免疫印迹试验(WB)中20份确认为HIV-1抗体阳性,ELISA检测与WB试验阳性符合率为60.61%(20/33); S/CO值>8的20份样本,WB试验结果均为HIV-1抗体阳性,I < S/CO值<8的13份样本,WB试验5份为HIV抗体阴性,8份为HIV抗体不确定;6个月随访样本HIV-1病毒载量检测,

  9. 亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴特异性抗原筛选和鉴定%Screen and detection of specific antigens of Taenia asiatica cysticercus with two dimensional electrophoresis, western blotting and MS/MS spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方文; 肖靓靓; 包怀恩; 牟荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To screen and identify specific antigens of Taenia asiatica cysticercus and to predict the function of target proteins using bioinformatics method. Methods Six three-way cross hybrid pigs were randomly divided into experimental group and control group and each experimental pig was infected with 84 000 eggs. Serum samples were collected 40 days after the infection. The total protein of Taenia asiatica cysticercus was separated by two dimensional electrophoresis and western blotting was performed to find out distinct antigens. Proteins from the two groups were identified by electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry(ESI-Trap MS). Results Totally 204 ± 11 spots were detected through Coomassie brilliant blue stained gels with relative molecular weight( Mr) of 14 400 -94 000 kDa and isoelectric point(pl) of 3. 0 - 10. 0. Western-blotting showed 6 specific antigen spots with pool sera of infected pigs. Two of the 6 antigens with known functions were ascribed to ATPase family gene 3-like protein 2 and ATP synthase beta subunit. Conclusion Two specific antigens of Taenia asiatica cysticercus have been identified.%目的 对亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴的特异性抗原进行筛选、鉴定和生物信息学分析.方法 6头20d龄三元杂交乳猪随机分为实验组和对照组,实验组每头灌胃亚洲带绦虫虫卵悬液8.4万个;20 d后,分别制备实验组及对照组心脏血混合血清;收集、制备实验组亚洲带绦虫囊尾蚴蛋白并进行双向电泳分析,将凝胶蛋白斑点转移至聚偏氟乙烯膜,用实验组及对照组混合血清(均为1∶10)为一抗,羊抗猪辣根过氧化物酶- IgG(1∶200)为二抗,进行蛋白质印迹分析和质谱鉴定.结果 双向电泳凝胶共检测到( 204±11)个蛋白质斑点,相对分子质量为14 400 ~94 000 kPa,等电点(pI)为3.0~10.0;筛选出6个特异性抗原,经质谱鉴定出其中2个蛋白,分别为ATP酶管家基因3-类蛋白2(AT-Pase family gene 3-like protein 2)

  10. Genotypic analysis of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a comparative study of Southern blot analysis with polymerase chain reaction amplification of the T-cell receptor-gamma gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcó, N; Servitje, O; Llucià, M; Bertran, J; Limón, A; Carmona, M; Romagosa, V; Peyrí, J

    1997-11-01

    The diagnosis of early cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a difficult point in dermatology. Recently, Southern blot analysis (SBA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been used to detect clonality in initial lesions in which clinical and histological findings are unspecific. Forty-one samples from 25 patients with CTCL were investigated for the presence of T-cell receptor-gamma gene rearrangement using a nested PCR technique and analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Conventional SBA was also performed on 28 samples from 20 of these patients. In addition, 20 samples corresponding to patients with large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP), cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (CBCL) and eczema were analysed by PCR in the same way as were the CTCL specimens. Most of the CTCL specimens (81%) showed clonality on PCR analysis. Among patients with mycosis fungoides, 71% of initial patch lesions and 100% of plaques and tumours showed clonal disease. Clonality could be detected in three of four histologically negative post-treatment lesions. Clonal rearrangement was detected in one of three patients with LPP and in three of 10 patients with CBCL. None of the samples corresponding to patients with eczema showed positive results. SBA was significantly less sensitive than PCR in detecting clonality in CTCL patients (42% among early disease and 60% among advanced cases). The results indicate that this PCR/PAGE technique is a reliable and useful method for the detection of clonality in early skin lesions of CTCL patients and probably in the identification of silent extracutaneous involvement.

  11. Comparison of multiplex real-time PCR and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for the direct and rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon Deok; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay and a PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA) for the rapid detection of bacteria and identification of antibiotic resistance genes directly from blood culture bottles and to compare the results of these molecular assays with conventional culture methods. The molecular diagnostic methods were used to evaluate 593 blood culture bottles from patients with bloodstream infections. The detection positivity of multiplex real-time PCR assay for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida spp. was equivalent to PCR-REBA as 99.6 %, 99.1 % and 100 %, respectively. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of these two molecular methods were 99.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.980-1.000; PReal-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the mecA gene to detect methicillin resistance was lower than that of the PCR-REBA method, detecting an overall positivity of 98.4 % (n=182; 95 % CI, 0.964-1.000; P<0.009) and 99.5 % (n=184; 95 % CI, 0.985-1.000; P<0.0001), respectively. The entire two methods take about 3 h, while results from culture can take up to 48-72 h. Therefore, the use of these two molecular methods was rapid and reliable for the characterization of causative pathogens in bloodstream infections.

  12. Use of the Falcon assay screening test--enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) to determine the prevalence of human fascioliasis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, G V; Soler de Galanes, M; Rodriguez-Perez, J; Bjorland, J; Silva de Lagrava, M; Ramirez Guzman, S; Bryan, R T

    1992-05-01

    A collaborative study between the University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, the Centers for Disease Control, the Bolivian Ministry of Health, and private voluntary organizations (Foster Parents Plan International and Danchurchaid) working in Bolivia has identified a region in the northwestern Altiplano of Bolivia near Lake Titicaca as harboring the highest prevalence of human fascioliasis in the world reported to date. Two serologic techniques (the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [FAST-ELISA] and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot [EITB]) were used in the determination of its prevalence. One hundred serum samples and 73 stool samples were obtained from Aymara Indians from Corapata, Bolivia. Antibody absorbance levels to Fasciola hepatica excretion-secretion antigens were compared with EITB banding patterns using the same antigen preparation. A positive FAST-ELISA result was defined as an absorbance value greater than the mean plus three standard deviations of two sets of normal negative controls (Puerto Rican and Bolivian). Using this criterion, 53 of 100 sera tested were found positive by this technique. Within this group, 19 (95%) of 20 individuals who were parasite positive were also positive by FAST-ELISA. An additional 24 individuals who were negative for F. hepatica eggs and 10 individuals for whom no specimens were received were also positive by FAST-ELISA. Among the 53 individuals negative for F. hepatica eggs, 29 were also negative by FAST-ELISA. The EITB analysis of the sera from confirmed infected individuals revealed at least three F. hepatica (Fh) bands with molecular weights of 12, 17, and 63 kD, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. A comparison of real-time PCR and reverse line blot hybridization in detecting feline haemoplasmas of domestic cats and an analysis of risk factors associated with haemoplasma infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three species of feline haemoplasma are recognised: Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ (CMhm and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis (CMt. This study compared a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB assay for simultaneous detection of Mhf, CMhm with three separate quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays used for diagnosis of Mhf, CMhm and CMt. The RLB and qPCR assays were applied to DNA extracted from blood samples collected from 154 cats from Trinidad and Tobago. Results CMhm and Mhf DNA were detected using both RLB and qPCR. CMt DNA was detected by qPCR only. Comparing RLB and qPCR for the detection of CMhm DNA, 40 (26.3% and 48 (31.6% cats, respectively, were positive. The difference was more marked for Mhf, with RLB detecting a total of only 11 (7.2% positive cats whereas qPCR detected 41 (27.0% positive cats. Using qPCR as a gold standard, haemoplasma infected cats were more likely to be retrovirus positive (OR = 5.68, P = 0.02 and older (median age 5.5 years, than non-infected cats. In addition, CMhm positive cats were more likely to be male (OR = 3.4, P = 0.04. Conclusions Overall the qPCR was more sensitive than RLB. In addition, age (median 5.5 years and retrovirus positivity were risk factors for infection with the feline haemoplasmas in this study population. Further studies on feline haemoplasma infections in cats are needed to determine the significance of detecting small amounts of haemoplasma DNA, feline retrovirus infection and other associated risk factors on the clinical manifestation of disease.

  14. Monitoring expression profiles of rice genes under cold, drought, and high-salinity stresses and abscisic acid application using cDNA microarray and RNA gel-blot analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, M Ashiq; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Abe, Hiroshi; Khan, M Ayub; Katsura, Koji; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshiwara, Kyoko; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2003-12-01

    To identify cold-, drought-, high-salinity-, and/or abscisic acid (ABA)-inducible genes in rice (Oryza sativa), we prepared a rice cDNA microarray including about 1700 independent cDNAs derived from cDNA libraries prepared from drought-, cold-, and high-salinity-treated rice plants. We confirmed stress-inducible expression of the candidate genes selected by microarray analysis using RNA gel-blot analysis and finally identified a total of 73 genes as stress inducible including 58 novel unreported genes in rice. Among them, 36, 62, 57, and 43 genes were induced by cold, drought, high salinity, and ABA, respectively. We observed a strong association in the expression of stress-responsive genes and found 15 genes that responded to all four treatments. Venn diagram analysis revealed greater cross talk between signaling pathways for drought, ABA, and high-salinity stresses than between signaling pathways for cold and ABA stresses or cold and high-salinity stresses in rice. The rice genome database search enabled us not only to identify possible known cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of several stress-inducible genes but also to expect the existence of novel cis-acting elements involved in stress-responsive gene expression in rice stress-inducible promoters. Comparative analysis of Arabidopsis and rice showed that among the 73 stress-inducible rice genes, 51 already have been reported in Arabidopsis with similar function or gene name. Transcriptome analysis revealed novel stress-inducible genes, suggesting some differences between Arabidopsis and rice in their response to stress.

  15. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  16. Legal Issues Supporting Production and Distribution of Biotech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Luneva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available in article, on basis of works of Russian and foreign academic lawyers, biologists, microbiologists, zoologists, genetics and also representatives of other sciences of natural-science branch, is researched legal relationship on production and distribution of biotechnological products in the Russian Federation, The law provision in considered sphere is highly unified. Peculiarities of legal mode of biotechnological products are not taken into account. Specification and differentiation of legal regulation of relations on production and distribution of biotechnological products is required. Absence of legal definition of "biotechnology" leads to ambiguity of their legal mode and low efficiency of legal regulation. Reasonability of development of separate legal classification by potential hazard of gene-engineering activity for ecological systems is grounded. Necessity of assignment of legal measures directed on development of biotechnologies and active involvement of biotechnological methods into diverse segments of economic and social provision of human is detected. Conclusion is made about the fact that proportion of stimulation and limitation in legal regulation of production and distribution of biotechnological products should be such that maximally complete application of achievements and developments of biotechnology in production with minimal risk of adverse impact on human and natural environment may occur.

  17. Evaluation and Audience Acceptance in Biotech News Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte; Vestergaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that news texts are not value neutral and that in these texts even genuinely factual statements can function as evaluations. Hence, only an analysis of the types of evaluation used will reveal the true picture of the attitudinal import of reporting texts. The paper explores...

  18. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... meet certain conditions and best satisfy the selection criteria as outlined below. A minimum of 10 and... conference evening dinner on November 1. Conditions for Participation An applicant must submit a completed... mission Referrals from political organizations and any documents containing references to...

  19. Licensing biotech intellectual property in university-industry partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdoff, Vladimir; Fairbairn, Daryl

    2015-01-20

    Appropriate negotiation and drafting of license agreements are critical to successfully establishing and managing the expansive and complex relationships that are becoming more common between industry and universities. More often than not, the resulting licensing agreements become quite lengthy and complex, and the key principles become difficult to discern among all the details. This summary provides a short, nonexhaustive introduction to some of the essential components of these licenses with the intent of providing the non-licensing professional a better appreciation of some of the key commercial and legal terms from both an academic and company perspective, keeping in mind some of the considerations that particularly apply to biotechnology deals.

  20. The Industrial Application Requirement for Biotech Inventions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Nilsson, David

    2016-01-01

    - without leaving other rights of the IP family aside, it also explores geographical indications, industrial designs, trade secrets and databases. The collection offers a full and complete picture of European IP Law, discussing the treatment of intrinsic issues on harmonization, transborder disputes......, collectiveness and individualization in the different fields of IP law. With an original introduction by the editor, this book has been carefully designed to offer law students as well as practitioners a valuable instrument to understand contemporary IP law within the EU. 28 Articles, dating from 1994 to 2014...