WorldWideScience

Sample records for bloqueio neuromuscular produzido

  1. Influência dos Hipnóticos no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio: emprego da aceleromiografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos farmacodinâmicos dos bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM podem ser influenciados por diferentes drogas, entre elas os hipnóticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do propofol e do etomidato sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 60 pacientes, ASA I e II, submetidos a cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com o hipnótico empregado: GI (propofol e GII (etomidato. As pacientes receberam midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por via muscular como medicação pré-anestésica, a indução foi com propofol (2,5 mg.kg-1 ou etomidato (0,3 mg.kg-1 precedido de fentanil (250 µg e seguido de cisatracúrio (0,1 mg.kg-1. Os pacientes foram ventilados com oxigênio a 100% até a obtenção de redução de 95% ou mais na amplitude da resposta do adutor do polegar, quando foi feita a laringoscopia e a intubação traqueal. A função neuromuscular foi monitorizada com aceleromiografia. Avaliaram-se o início de ação do cisatracúrio, as condições de intubação traqueal e as repercussões hemodinâmicas. RESULTADOS: Os tempos médios e os desvios padrão para o início de ação do cisatracúrio foram: GI (86,6 ± 14,3" e GII (116,9 ± 11,6", com diferença significativa (p < 0,0001. As condições de intubação traqueal foram aceitáveis em 100% dos pacientes do GI e em 53,3% no GII (p < 0,0001. CONCLUSÕES: A instalação do bloqueio neuromuscular com o cisatracúrio foi mais rápida e as condições de intubação traqueal foram melhores nos pacientes que receberam propofol em relação ao grupo que recebeu etomidato, sem repercussões hemodinâmicas.

  2. Influência do propofol e do etomidato no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio: avaliação pela aceleromiografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munhoz Derli Conceição

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Alguns hipnóticos podem interagir com os bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM potencializando seus efeitos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do propofol e do etomidato sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos no estudo 60 pacientes, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos a cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com o hipnótico empregado: Grupo I (propofol e Grupo II (etomidato. Todos os pacientes receberam midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por via muscular como medicação pré-anestésica, 30 minutos antes da cirurgia. A indução anestésica foi obtida com propofol (2,5 mg.kg-1 ou etomidato (0,3 mg.kg-1 precedido de alfentanil (50 µg.kg-1 e seguido de rocurônio (0,6 mg.kg-1. Os pacientes foram ventilados sob máscara com oxigênio a 100% até a obtenção de redução de 75% ou mais na amplitude da resposta do músculo adutor do polegar, quando foram realizadas as manobras de laringoscopia e intubação traqueal. A função neuromuscular foi monitorizada com aceleromiografia. Foram avaliados: tempo de início de ação do rocurônio (T1 <= 25%; tempo para instalação do bloqueio neuromuscular total; grau de bloqueio neuromuscular no momento da intubação traqueal; condições de intubação traqueal e repercussões hemodinâmicas. RESULTADOS: Os tempos de início de ação e instalação de bloqueio neuromuscular total (segundos produzido pelo rocurônio foram: Grupo I (48,20 ± 10,85 s e 58,87 ± 10,73 s e Grupo II (51,20 ± 13,80 s e 64,27 ± 18,55 s. O grau de bloqueio neuromuscular no momento da intubação traqueal foi: Grupo I (77,50% e Grupo II (76,96%. As condições de intubação traqueal foram satisfatórias em 100% dos pacientes do Grupo I e em 83,33% no Grupo II. Nos dois grupos, após a injeção do hipnótico, observou-se diminuição significativa da pressão arterial média seguida de eleva

  3. Influência da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigação sobre o mecanismo de ação da procainamida na junção neuromuscular Influencia de la procainamida sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio e investigación sobre el mecanismo de acción de la procainamida en la junción neuromuscular Influence of procainamide on the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium and investigation on the mechanism of action of procainamide on the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Thalita Duque Martins; Yolanda Christina S. Loyola; Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A potencialização da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pela d-tubocurarina já está comprovada, porém o mecanismo é controverso. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da procainamida no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigar os mecanismos desta interação. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 15 ratos (250 a 300 g) em preparação descrita por Bülbring. Formaram-se os seguintes grupos (n = 5 cada): procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (G...

  4. Influência de anestésicos locais sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio: ação da lidocaína e da mistura enantiomérica em excesso de 50% de bupivacaína na junção neuromuscular Influencia de anestésicos locales sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio: acción de la lidocaína y de la mezcla enantiomérica en exceso de 50% de bupivacaína en la junción neuromuscular Influence of local anesthetics on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium: effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine on the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga; Vanessa Henriques Carvalho; Franklin Sarmento da Silva Braga; Léa Rodrigues-Simioni; Yolanda Christina S Loyola; Glória Braga Potério

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos dos anestésicos locais (AL) na transmissão neuromuscular e sua influência no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido por bloqueadores neuromusculares competitivos são ainda alvo de pouca investigação. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar in vitro os efeitos da lidocaína e da mistura enantiomérica em excesso de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25) no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n = 5) de acordo com o fár...

  5. Influência do sevoflurano e do isoflurano na recuperação do bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio Influencia del sevoflurano y del isoflurano en la recuperación del bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el cisatracúrio The influence of sevoflurane and isoflurane on the recovery from cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos dos agentes bloqueadores neuromusculares sobre a junção neuromuscular são aumentados pelos anestésicos voláteis. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do sevoflurano e do isoflurano na recuperação do bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 90 pacientes, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos à cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo I (sevoflurano, Grupo II (isoflurano e Grupo III (propofol. Todos os pacientes receberam como medicação pré-anestésica, midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por via muscular, 30 minutos antes da cirurgia. A indução anestésica foi obtida com alfentanil (50 µg.kg-1, propofol (2,5 mg.kg-1 e cisatracúrio (0,15 mg.kg-1. Os pacientes foram ventilados com oxigênio a 100% sob máscara até o desaparecimento das quatro respostas a SQE, quando foram realizadas as manobras de laringoscopia e intubação traqueal. Os agente voláteis para a manutenção da anestesia foram introduzidos logo após a intubação traqueal e empregados nas concentrações de 2% e 1%, respectivamente para o sevoflurano e isoflurano, e o propofol em infusão contínua (7 a 10 mg.kg-1.h-1. Em todos os pacientes empregou-se a mistura de oxigênio e óxido nitroso a 50%. A função neuromuscular foi monitorizada por aceleromiografia do músculo adutor do polegar, empregando-se a SQE a cada 15 segundos. Foram avaliados: a duração clínica do bloqueio neuromuscular (T1(25% e o índice de recuperação (IR= T1(25-75%. RESULTADOS: Os tempos médios e desvios padrão para a duração clínica (T1(25% e índice de recuperação (IR = T1(25-75% foram respectivamente: Grupo I (66,2 ± 13,42 min e 23,6 ± 5,02 min, Grupo II (54,4 ± 6,58 min e 14,9 ± 3,82 min e Grupo III (47,2 ± 7,43 min e 16,2 ± 2,93 min. Em relação à duração clínica houve diferença significante entre os grupos I e II, I e III, e II e III. Para o índice de

  6. Influência dos Hipnóticos no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio: emprego da aceleromiografia Influencia de los hipnóticos en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el cisatracurio: uso de la aceleromiografía Influence of hypnotics on cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular block: use of acceleromyograhpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos farmacodinâmicos dos bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM podem ser influenciados por diferentes drogas, entre elas os hipnóticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do propofol e do etomidato sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo cisatracúrio. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 60 pacientes, ASA I e II, submetidos a cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de acordo com o hipnótico empregado: GI (propofol e GII (etomidato. As pacientes receberam midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por via muscular como medicação pré-anestésica, a indução foi com propofol (2,5 mg.kg-1 ou etomidato (0,3 mg.kg-1 precedido de fentanil (250 µg e seguido de cisatracúrio (0,1 mg.kg-1. Os pacientes foram ventilados com oxigênio a 100% até a obtenção de redução de 95% ou mais na amplitude da resposta do adutor do polegar, quando foi feita a laringoscopia e a intubação traqueal. A função neuromuscular foi monitorizada com aceleromiografia. Avaliaram-se o início de ação do cisatracúrio, as condições de intubação traqueal e as repercussões hemodinâmicas. RESULTADOS: Os tempos médios e os desvios padrão para o início de ação do cisatracúrio foram: GI (86,6 ± 14,3" e GII (116,9 ± 11,6", com diferença significativa (p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los efectos farmacodinámicos de los bloqueantes neuromusculares (BNM pueden estar influenciados por diferentes fármacos, entre ellos los hipnóticos. El objetivo de este estudio, fue evaluar la influencia del propofol y del etomidato sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el cisatracurio. MÉTODO: Se incluyeron en el estudio 60 pacientes, con ASA I y II, sometidos a cirugías electivas bajo anestesia general, distribuidos aleatoriamente en dos grupos de acuerdo con el hipnótico usado: GI (propofol y GII (etomidato. Las pacientes recibieron midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por vía muscular como medicación preanest

  7. Influência da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigação sobre o mecanismo de ação da procainamida na junção neuromuscular Influencia de la procainamida sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio e investigación sobre el mecanismo de acción de la procainamida en la junción neuromuscular Influence of procainamide on the neuromuscular blockade caused by rocuronium and investigation on the mechanism of action of procainamide on the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Duque Martins

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A potencialização da procainamida sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pela d-tubocurarina já está comprovada, porém o mecanismo é controverso. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a influência da procainamida no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e investigar os mecanismos desta interação. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 15 ratos (250 a 300 g em preparação descrita por Bülbring. Formaram-se os seguintes grupos (n = 5 cada: procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo I; rocurônio - 4 µg.mL-1 (Grupo II e rocurônio - 4 µg.mL-1 e procainamida - 20 µg.mL-1 (Grupo III. Avaliaram-se: 1 a amplitude das contrações musculares sob estimulação indireta em cada grupo, antes e após a adição dos fármacos; 2 os potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura (PPTM; 3 a eficácia da 4-aminopiridina na reversão do bloqueio neuromuscular. O mecanismo da interação foi estudado em Biventer cervicis (n = 5 e diafragma de rato desnervado (n = 5, observando-se a influência da procainamida na resposta à acetilcolina antes e após a adição da procainamida. RESULTADOS: A procainamida isoladamente não alterou as respostas neuromusculares. O bloqueio produzido com o Grupo III foi de 68,6% ± 7,1%, com diferença significativa (p = 0,0067 em relação ao Grupo II (10,4% ± 4,5%, revertido pela 4-aminopiridina. A procainamida ocasionou aumento na freqüência dos PPTM, seguido de bloqueio revertido pela 4-aminopiridina. Em Biventer cervicis a procainamida aumentou a resposta à ação de contração da acetilcolina, resultado não observado com o diafragma desnervado. CONCLUSÕES: A procainamida potencializou o bloqueio produzido pelo rocurônio. As alterações observadas com PPTM e Biventer cervicis identificaram ação pré-sináptica. O antagonismo da 4-aminopiridina sobre o bloqueio dos PPTM sugeriu dessensibilização dos receptores pela procainamida.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La potenciación de la procainamida sobre

  8. Influência do lítio no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e pelo cisatracúrio: estudo em preparações nervo frênico-diafragma de rato Influencia del litio en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el atracurio y por el cisatracurio: estudio en preparo nervio frénico-diafragma del ratón Influence of lithium on the neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium and cisatracurium: study on rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Cristina Antoniassi Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O lítio, fármaco amplamente utilizado nos distúrbios bipolares, pode interagir com os bloqueadores neuromusculares. Os mecanismos para explicar os seus efeitos na transmissão neuromuscular e a interação com bloqueadores neuromusculares são controversos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em diafragma de rato, os efeitos do lítio sobre a resposta muscular à estimulação indireta e a possível interação com os bloqueadores neuromusculares. MÉTODO: Utilizaram-se ratos com peso entre 250g e 300g, sacrificados sob anestesia com uretana. A preparação nervo frênico-diafragma foi montada de acordo com a técnica descrita por Bulbring. O diafragma foi mantido sob tensão, ligado a um transdutor isométrico e submetido à estimulação indireta de 0,1 Hz de freqüência. As contrações do diafragma foram registradas em fisiógrafo. Da análise da amplitude das respostas musculares avaliaram-se: os efeitos dos fármacos: lítio (1,5 mg.mL-1; atracúrio (20 µg.mL-1 e cisatracúrio (3 µg.mL-1 empregados isoladamente; da associação lítio-bloqueadores neuromusculares; e do lítio no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio (35 µg.mL-1 e cisatracúrio (5 µg.mL-1. Os efeitos foram avaliados antes e 45 minutos após a adição dos fármacos. Também foram estudados os efeitos do lítio nos potenciais de membrana (PM e potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura (PPTM. RESULTADOS: O lítio isoladamente não alterou a amplitude das respostas musculares, mas diminuiu significativamente o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e cisatracúrio. Não alterou o PM e ocasionou aumento inicial da freqüência dos PPTM. CONCLUSÕES: O lítio empregado isoladamente não comprometeu a transmissão neuromuscular e aumentou a resistência ao efeito do atracúrio e cisatracúrio. Não mostrou ação sobre a fibra muscular, sendo que as alterações nos potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura evidenciaram a

  9. Influência da nifedipina no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e pelo cisatracúrio: estudo em preparações nervo frênico-diafragma de rato Influencia de la nifedipina en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por atracurio y cisatracurio: estudio en preparación nervio frénico diafragma de ratón Influence of nifedipine on the neuromuscular block produced by atracurium and cistracurium: study in rat phrenic-diaphragmatic nerve preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Rodrigues de Sousa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os bloqueadores de canais de cálcio podem interagir com bloqueadores neuromusculares potencializando seus efeitos. Os estudos sobre essa interação mostram resultados controversos. Em alguns estudos essas drogas produziram bloqueio neuromuscular, ou contratura, ou nenhum efeito sobre as respostas musculares esqueléticas foi evidenciado. O estudo avaliou, em diafragma de rato, os efeitos da nifedipina sobre a resposta muscular e sua possível interação com os bloqueadores neuromusculares. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 25 ratos, com peso entre 250 e 300 g sacrificados sob anestesia com pentobarbital (40 mg.kg -1 por via intraperitonial. A preparação foi montada de acordo com a técnica descrita por Bulbring. O diafragma foi mantido sob tensão, ligado a um transdutor isométrico e submetido à estimulação indireta de 0,1 Hz de freqüência. As contrações do diafragma foram registradas em fisiógrafo. Para avaliação dos efeitos das drogas na transmissão neuromuscular, estas foram adicionadas isoladamente ou associadas à preparação, nas seguintes concentrações: nifedipina (4 µg.mL-1; atracúrio (20 µg.mL-1; cisatracúrio (3 µg.mL-1. Nas preparações nervo frênico-diafragma avaliaram-se: 1 a amplitude das respostas do músculo diafragma à estimulação indireta, antes e 45 minutos após a adição da nifedipina e dos bloqueadores neuromusculares isoladamente e após a associação das drogas; 2 os efeitos da nifedipina nos potenciais de membrana (PM e potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura (PPTM. RESULTADOS: A nifedipina empregada isoladamente não alterou a amplitude das respostas musculares, mas aumentou significativamente a atividade bloqueadora neuromuscular do atracúrio e do cisatracúrio. Não alterou o potencial de membrana e ocasionou aumento inicial na freqüência dos PPTM, seguido de bloqueio. CONCLUSÕES: A nifedipina na concentração empregada potencializou o bloqueio neuromuscular

  10. Influência de anestésicos locais sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio: ação da lidocaína e da mistura enantiomérica em excesso de 50% de bupivacaína na junção neuromuscular Influencia de anestésicos locales sobre el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio: acción de la lidocaína y de la mezcla enantiomérica en exceso de 50% de bupivacaína en la junción neuromuscular Influence of local anesthetics on the neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium: effects of lidocaine and 50% enantiomeric excess bupivacaine on the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os efeitos dos anestésicos locais (AL na transmissão neuromuscular e sua influência no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido por bloqueadores neuromusculares competitivos são ainda alvo de pouca investigação. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar in vitro os efeitos da lidocaína e da mistura enantiomérica em excesso de 50% de bupivacaína (S75-R25 no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n = 5 de acordo com o fármaco estudado: lidocaína, bupivacaína (S75-R25, rocurônio, isoladamente (grupos I, II e III; rocurônio em preparações previamente expostas aos AL (grupos IV e V. As concentrações utilizadas foram: 20 µg.mL-1, 5 µg.mL-1 e 4 µg.mL¹ para lidocaína, bupivacaína (S75-R25 e rocurônio, respectivamente. Avaliaram-se: 1 a força de contração muscular do diafragma à estimulação elétrica indireta, antes e 60 minutos após a adição dos AL e do rocurônio isoladamente, e a associação AL-rocurônio; 2 os efeitos dos AL sobre o potencial de membrana (PM e potenciais de placa terminal em miniatura (PPTM. Em preparação biventer cérvicis de pintainho, foi avaliado o efeito do AL na resposta contraturante à acetilcolina. RESULTADOS: A lidocaína e a bupivacaína (S75-R25 isoladamente não alteraram as respostas musculares e os valores do PM. Nas preparações expostas aos AL, o bloqueio pelo rocurônio foi significativamente maior em relação ao produzido pelo rocurônio isoladamente. Em preparação biventer cervicis de pintainho, a lidocaína e a bupivacaína (S75-R25 diminuíram a resposta de contração à acetilcolina. A lidocaína aumentou a frequência dos PPTM, seguido de bloqueio; a bupivacaína (S75-R25 produziu diminuição seguida de bloqueio. CONCLUSÕES: Os anestésicos locais potencializaram o bloqueio neuromuscular causado pelo rocurônio. Os resultados mostraram ação pré-sináptica e póssináptica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y

  11. Influência da freqüência de estímulos na instalação do bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo rocurônio e pancurônio: avaliação pelo método acelerográfico Influencia de la frecuencia de estímulos en la instalación del bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el rocuronio y pancuronio: evaluación por el método acelerográfico Influence of stimulation frequency on rocuronium and pancuronium-induced neuromuscular block onset: acceleromyography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derli da Conceição Munhóz

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Fatores relacionados ao paciente e ao bloqueador neuromuscular (BNM, assim como outros inerentes à monitorização da função neuromuscular podem influenciar na instalação do bloqueio neuromuscular. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência de duas diferentes freqüências de estímulos sobre o tempo de instalação do bloqueio produzido pelo pancurônio e pelo rocurônio. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos no estudo 120 pacientes, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidos a cirurgias eletivas sob anestesia geral, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos, de acordo com a freqüência de estímulo empregada, para a monitorização do bloqueio neuromuscular: Grupo I - 0,1 Hz (n = 60 e Grupo II - 1 Hz (n = 60. Em cada grupo formaram-se dois subgrupos (n = 30 de acordo com o bloqueador neuromuscular empregado: Subgrupo P (pancurônio e Subgrupo R (rocurônio. A medicação pré-anestésica consistiu de midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por via muscular, 30 minutos antes da cirurgia. A indução anestésica foi obtida com propofol (2,5 mg.kg-1 precedido de alfentanil (50 µg.kg-1 e seguido de pancurônio ou rocurônio. Os pacientes foram ventilados sob máscara com oxigênio a 100% até a obtenção de redução de 75% ou mais na amplitude da resposta do músculo adutor do polegar, quando foram realizadas as manobras de laringoscopia e intubação traqueal. A função neuromuscular foi monitorizada com aceleromiografia. Foram avaliados: tempo de início de ação do pancurônio e do rocurônio; tempo para instalação do bloqueio total e condições de intubação traqueal. RESULTADOS: Os tempos médios (segundos para o início de ação e instalação de bloqueio neuromuscular total produzido pelo pancurônio foram: Grupo I (159,33 ± 35,22 e 222 ± 46,56 e Grupo II (77,83 ± 9,52 e 105,96 ± 15,58; para o rocurônio: Grupo I (83 ± 17,25 e 125,33 ± 20,12 e Grupo II (48,96 ± 10,16 e 59,83 ± 10,36 com diferença significativa

  12. Influência do lítio no bloqueio neuromuscular produzido pelo atracúrio e pelo cisatracúrio: estudo em preparações nervo frênico-diafragma de rato Influencia del litio en el bloqueo neuromuscular producido por el atracurio y por el cisatracurio: estudio en preparo nervio frénico-diafragma del ratón Influence of lithium on the neuromuscular blockade produced by atracurium and cisatracurium: study on rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta Cristina Antoniassi Fernandes; Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga; Franklin Sarmento da Silva Braga; Yolanda Christina S. Loyola; Silmara Rodrigues de Souza; Caroline Coutinho de Barcelos

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O lítio, fármaco amplamente utilizado nos distúrbios bipolares, pode interagir com os bloqueadores neuromusculares. Os mecanismos para explicar os seus efeitos na transmissão neuromuscular e a interação com bloqueadores neuromusculares são controversos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em diafragma de rato, os efeitos do lítio sobre a resposta muscular à estimulação indireta e a possível interação com os bloqueadores neuromusculares. MÉTODO: Utilizaram-se rato...

  13. Síndrome de Tako-Tsubo em decorrência de bloqueio neuromuscular residual: relato de caso Síndrome de Tako-Tsubo como consecuencia de bloqueo neuromuscular residual: relato de caso Tako-Tsubo syndrome secondary to residual neuromuscular blockade: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel; Fabiano Soares Carneiro; Roberto Cardoso Bessa Junior; Yerkes Pereira e Silva; Mirna Bastos Marques

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A síndrome de Tako-Tsubo é uma complicação pós-operatória rara, com mortalidade em torno de 5%. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar o bloqueio neuromuscular residual como fator desencadeante da referida síndrome, discutir sobre a mesma e alertar sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular residual. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 61 anos, estado físico ASA I, submetida à anestesia geral associada a bloqueio paravertebral cervical para reparo artroscópico de lesão de ...

  14. Síndrome de Tako-Tsubo em decorrência de bloqueio neuromuscular residual: relato de caso Síndrome de Tako-Tsubo como consecuencia de bloqueo neuromuscular residual: relato de caso Tako-Tsubo syndrome secondary to residual neuromuscular blockade: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A síndrome de Tako-Tsubo é uma complicação pós-operatória rara, com mortalidade em torno de 5%. O objetivo deste relato é apresentar o bloqueio neuromuscular residual como fator desencadeante da referida síndrome, discutir sobre a mesma e alertar sobre o bloqueio neuromuscular residual. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo feminino, 61 anos, estado físico ASA I, submetida à anestesia geral associada a bloqueio paravertebral cervical para reparo artroscópico de lesão de manguito rotator. Após extubação foi evidenciado bloqueio neuromuscular residual por meio do exame clínico. Na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica evoluiu com sonolência, taquicardia, hipertensão arterial e acidose respiratória grave. Após a reintubação, evoluiu com parada cardíaca em atividade elétrica sem pulso, revertida com adrenalina e massagem cardíaca externa. Apresentou no pós-operatório elevação de segmento ST, aumento de troponina e acinesia de segmento médio-apical de ventrículo esquerdo com fração de ejeção estimada em 30%. A cineangiocoronariografia mostrou coronárias isentas de ateromatose significativa e grave comprometimento da função sistólica com acinesia inferior e ântero-septo-apical com hipercontratilidade compensatória de suas porções basais. Com o tratamento instituído houve recuperação funcional completa. CONCLUSÕES: O bloqueio neuromuscular residual associado à paralisia diafragmática e possível atelectasia pulmonar levando a insuficiência respiratória, hipercapnia e descarga adrenérgica foram os fatores desencadeantes da síndrome de Tako-Tsubo com sua grave repercussão clínica.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El Síndrome de Tako-Tsubo es una complicación postoperatoria rara con una mortalidad en torno de un 5%. El objetivo de este relato es presentar el bloqueo neuromuscular residual como factor desencadenante del referido síndrome, discutir sobre él y alertar sobre el bloqueo

  15. Avaliação do bloqueio neuromuscular residual e da recurarização tardia na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica Evaluación del bloqueo neuromuscular residual y de la recurarización tardia en la sala de recuperación pós-anestésica Evaluation of residual neuromuscular block and late recurarization in the post-anesthetic care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio neuromuscular residual altera a patência das vias aéreas aumentando o risco de graves complicações no pós-operatório. Nos pacientes que recebem o anticolinesterásico, a transmissão neuromuscular é incrementada pelo acúmulo de acetilcolina na placa motora, mas que, findo o efeito da neostigmina, teoricamente é possível uma "recurarização", visto que o agente antagonista não desloca o bloqueador neuromuscular do seu local de ação. Foi objetivo deste trabalho quantificar o grau de paralisia residual em Sala de Recuperação Pós-Anestésica (SRPA e averiguar se os pacientes que receberam neostigmina apresentam fenômeno de "recurarização" tardia. MÉTODO: Foram estudados na SRPA 119 pacientes adultos que receberam bloqueadores neuromusculares para diferentes tipos de procedimentos. Ao chegarem na SRPA, a transmissão neuromuscular foi quantificada através de um monitor por método acelerográfico. Os eletrodos estimuladores foram instalados no trajeto do nervo ulnar no punho, e empregou-se a seqüência de 4 estímulos, com correntes de 30 mA, na periodicidade de 15 até 120 minutos. Nesta pesquisa considerou-se como resíduo de bloqueio neuromuscular uma relação T4/T1 abaixo de 0,9. No tempo de permanência da SRPA foram igualmente registrados os sintomas clínicos sugestivos de bloqueio neuromuscular residual e aferidos os sinais vitais. Para análise estatística foram empregadas medidas descritivas tais como média e freqüência absoluta. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes que receberam pancurônio apresentaram maior incidência de resíduo de bloqueio neuromuscular, principalmente os idosos. Nos pacientes que receberam neostigmina houve expressivo percentual de bloqueio neuromuscular residual. Em nenhum grupo observou-se o fenômeno de "recurarização" tardia. CONCLUSÕES: Constatou-se expressivo número de pacientes com resíduo de bloqueio neuromuscular, quando utilizado o pancurônio. A

  16. Complete atrioventricular block on isolated guinea pig heart induced by an aqueous fraction obtained from Psidium guajava L. leaf Bloqueio atrioventricular completo em coração isolado de cobaia produzido por uma fração aquosa obtida das folhas de Psidium guajava L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio N.S. Gondim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the electrocardiographic effect produced by the aqueous fraction (AqF obtained from the acetic extract of Psidium guajava L. leaf on the isolated guinea pig heart. Electrocardiographic records (ECG were obtained on isolated hearts beating spontaneously or under regular electrical stimulation. The hearts were mounted in a constant flow Langendorff perfusion system. Until 20 mg/mL, AqF did not change the spontaneous cardiac rate (control: 180 ± 9 bpm, test: 182 ± 10 bpm; N = 3; p > 0.05. Concentrations equal or greater then 20 mg/mL induced complete atrioventricular block (AVB. However, this effect promptly disappeared when AqF was removed from the perfusion fluid (N = 3 hearts. The AVB induced by AqF involves heart muscarinic receptors because atropine sulfate (1.5 mM could prevent the appearance of such disturbance.O presente trabalho visou estudar o efeito eletrocardiográfico produzido pela fração aquosa (AqF obtida do extrato acético das folhas de Psidium guajava L. em coração isolado de cobaia. Os traçados eletrocardiográficos foram obtidos em corações batendo espontaneamente ou então sob estimulação elétrica. Os corações foram montados em uma sistema de perfusão do tipo Langendoff de fluxo constante. A AqF, usada em concentrações menores que 20 mg/mL, não alterou a freqüência espontânea do coração (controle: 180 ± 9 bpm, teste: 182 ± 10 bpm; N = 3; p > 0,05. Todavia, concentrações iguais ou maiores que 20 mg/mL produziram bloqueio atrioventricular completo (BAV. Este efeito, contudo, desapareceu prontamente quando se removeu a AqF do fluido de perfusão coronariana (N = 3 corações. O BAV promovido pela AqF se faz mediado pelos receptores muscarínicos porque o sulfato de atropina (1,5 mM impediu o aparecimento deste efeito.

  17. The tof-guard neuromuscular transmission monitor and its use in horses O monitor da transmissão neuromuscular "tof-guard" e seu uso em eqüinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Noda Bechara

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been emphasized in the human medical literature, that when using a neuromuscular blocking agent, it is of vital importance the monitoring of the neuromuscular block and that these agents should never be used without it. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the neuromuscular transmission monitor TOF-Guard in horses. Twelve horses were randomly assigned whether to receive pancuronium or atracurium as the neuromuscular blocking agent. All horses were pre-medicated with romifidine, anaesthesia induced with diazepam and ketamine and maintenance with halothane. Abolition of spontaneous ventilation was accomplished by the administration of atracurium or pancuronium. The time from injection of the muscle relaxant agent to the onset of maximum block (T1=0, recovery of T1 to 25% and the recovery of TOF ratio to 0.7 were recorded, as was the time for recovery of T1 from 25 to 75%. It was concluded that it is very important the neuromuscular transmission monitoring during the use of a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, since it provides a safer anaesthetic and surgical procedure with the use of adequate dosages and due to the impossibility of a superficialization of the neuromuscular blockade during a surgical procedure. The TOF-Guard showed to be a good option for neuromuscular monitoring in horses.Quando da utilização de bloqueadores neuromusculares, já foi enfatizado na literatura médica humana, que é de vital imporância a monitoração do bloqueio neuromuscular e que estes agentes nunca devem ser utilizados sem a mesma. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o uso do monitor da transmissão neuromuscular TOF-Guard em eqüinos. Para tanto, doze eqüinos foram separados aleatoriamente para receberem como bloqueadores neuromusculares o pancurônio ou o atracúrio. Todos os eqüinos foram pré-medicados com romifidina, induzidos com diazepam e quetamina e mantidos com halotano. Foi administrado o atracúrio ou o

  18. Genetics and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dermatomyositis Inclusion-body myositis Diseases of Neuromuscular Junction Myasthenia gravis Lambert-Eaton (myasthenic) syndrome Congenital myasthenic syndromes Diseases of Peripheral Nerve Charcot-Marie- ...

  19. Doenças neuromusculares Neuromuscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Umbertina C. Reed

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mioneural e músculo). Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de h...

  20. O uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil El uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares en Brasil Neuromuscular blockers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dados estatísticos referentes ao uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil são desconhecidos. Este trabalho se propõe a análise estatística desse tópico. MÉTODO: Foram compiladas 831 respostas de um questionário preenchido em parte por anestesiologistas presentes ao 48º Congresso Brasileiro de Anestesiologia em Recife, 2001 e em parte via Internet, por anestesiologistas cujos endereços eletrônicos constam na página da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (www.sba.com.br. Foram analisados os seguintes dados: tempo de contato com a especialidade, região onde atuam os anestesiologistas, uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares (BNM em ordem de preferência, indicações do uso de succinilcolina, uso do monitor da transmissão neuromuscular, critérios para se considerar o paciente descurarizado, uso de neostigmina, forma de administração dos BNM e descrição de complicações observadas. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos anestesiologistas em questão exerce a profissão há mais de 11 anos e o maior número de respostas foi proveniente da região sudeste do Brasil. O BNM mais empregado é o atracúrio, seguido de pancurônio e succinilcolina. A succinilcolina é mais empregada na indução rápida e em crianças (80% e 25% respectivamente. Monitores da transmissão neuromuscular, 53% dos anestesiologistas nunca usam, e como critério de recuperação, 92% consideram o paciente descurarizado mediante sinais clínicos. Em 45% das vezes os profissionais empregam a neostigmina de forma rotineira, e 94% administra os BNM sob forma de bolus. Cerca de 30% registra ter havido complicação decorrente do uso de BNM. As complicações mais apontadas foram o bloqueio prolongado, o broncoespasmo grave e a curarização residual. CONCLUSÕES: O atracúrio é o bloqueador neuromuscular mais empregado no Brasil, há percentual alto de uso da succinilcolina em situações não emergenciais, o uso de monitores da transmiss

  1. Doenças neuromusculares Neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbertina C. Reed

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os dados essenciais para o diagnóstico diferencial entre as principais doenças neuromusculares, denominação genérica sob a qual agrupam-se diferentes afecções, decorrentes do acometimento primário da unidade motora (motoneurônio medular, raiz nervosa, nervo periférico, junção mioneural e músculo. Fontes dos dados: os aspectos clínicos fundamentais para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre as diferentes doenças neuromusculares, bem como entre estas e as causas de hipotonia muscular secundária ao comprometimento do sistema nervoso central ou a doenças sistêmicas não-neurológicas, são enfatizados, com base na experiência clínica vinda do atendimento a crianças com doenças neuromusculares durante os últimos 12 anos, no ambulatório de doenças neuromusculares do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina, da Universidade de São Paulo. A revisão bibliográfica foi efetuada através do Medline e do periódico Neuromuscular Disorders, publicação oficial da World Muscle Society. Síntese dos dados: nas crianças, a maior parte destas afecções é geneticamente determinada, sendo as mais comuns a distrofia muscular progressiva ligada ao sexo, de Duchenne, a amiotrofia espinal infantil, a distrofia muscular congênita, a distrofia miotônica de Steinert, e as miopatias congênitas, estruturais e não estruturais. Polineuropatias hereditárias, síndrome miastênica congênita e miopatias metabólicas são menos comuns, porém mostram correlação geno-fenotípica cada vez mais precisa. Conclusões: na década passada, inúmeros avanços da genética molecular facilitaram imensamente o diagnóstico e o aconselhamento genético das doenças neuromusculares mais comuns das crianças, inclusive possibilitando diagnóstico fetal e, adicionalmente, vieram permitir melhor caracterização fenotípica e classificação mais objetiva.Objective: to discuss the most important aspects for performing a

  2. Neuromuscular complications in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisold, W; Grisold, A; Löscher, W N

    2016-08-15

    Cancer is becoming a treatable and even often curable disease. The neuromuscular system can be affected by direct tumor invasion or metastasis, neuroendocrine, metabolic, dysimmune/inflammatory, infections and toxic as well as paraneoplastic conditions. Due to the nature of cancer treatment, which frequently is based on a DNA damaging mechanism, treatment related toxic side effects are frequent and the correct identification of the causative mechanism is necessary to initiate the proper treatment. The peripheral nervous system is conventionally divided into nerve roots, the proximal nerves and plexus, the peripheral nerves (mono- and polyneuropathies), the site of neuromuscular transmission and muscle. This review is based on the anatomic distribution of the peripheral nervous system, divided into cranial nerves (CN), motor neuron (MND), nerve roots, plexus, peripheral nerve, the neuromuscular junction and muscle. The various etiologies of neuromuscular complications - neoplastic, surgical and mechanic, toxic, metabolic, endocrine, and paraneoplastic/immune - are discussed separately for each part of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:27423586

  3. Bloqueio seletivo dos nervos supraescapular e axilar promove analgesia satisfatória e menor grau de bloqueio motor: comparação com o bloqueio interescalênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Falcão Pitombo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Cirurgias artroscópicas do ombro cursam com intensa dor pós-operatória. Diversas técnicas analgésicas têm sido preconizadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o bloqueio dos nervos supraescapular e axilar nas cirurgias artroscópicas de ombro com a abordagem interescalênica do plexo braquial. MÉTODO: Sessenta e oito pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos de 34, de acordo com a técnica utilizada: grupo interescalênico (GI e grupo seletivo (GS, sendo ambas as abordagens realizadas com neuroestimulador. No GI, após resposta motora adequada foram injetados 30 mL de levopubivacaína em excesso enantiomérico de 50% a 0,33% com adrenalina 1:200.000. No GS, após resposta motora do nervo supraescapular e axilar, foram injetados 15 mL da mesma substância em cada nervo. Em seguida, realizada anestesia geral. Variáveis avaliadas: tempo para realização dos bloqueios, analgesia, consumo de opioide, bloqueio motor, estabilidade cardiocirculatória, satisfação e aceitabilidade pelo paciente. RESULTADOS: Tempo para execução do bloqueio interescalênico foi significativamente menor que para realização do bloqueio seletivo. Analgesia foi significativamente maior no pós-operatório imediato no GI e no pós-operatório tardio no GS. Consumo de morfina foi significativamente maior na primeira hora no GS. Bloqueio motor foi significativamente menor no GS. Estabilidade cardiocirculatória, satisfação e aceitabilidade da técnica pelo paciente não diferiram entre os grupos. Ocorreu uma falha no GI e duas no GS. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas são seguras, eficazes com mesmo grau de satisfação e aceitabilidade. O bloqueio seletivo de ambos os nervos apresentou analgesia satisfatória, com a vantagem de proporcionar bloqueio motor restrito ao ombro.

  4. Hereditary neuromuscular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezsarlak, O. E-mail: ozkan.ozsarlak@uza.be; Schepens, E.; Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W. van; Vanhoenacker, F.; Schepper, A.M. de; Martin, J.J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents the actual classification of neuromuscular diseases based on present expansion of our knowledge and understanding due to genetic developments. It summarizes the genetic and clinical presentations of each disorder together with CT findings, which we studied in a large group of patients with neuromuscular diseases. The muscular dystrophies as the largest and most common group of hereditary muscle diseases will be highlighted by giving detailed information about the role of CT and MRI in the differential diagnosis. The radiological features of neuromuscular diseases are atrophy, hypertrophy, pseudohypertrophy and fatty infiltration of muscles on a selective basis. Although the patterns and distribution of involvement are characteristic in some of the diseases, the definition of the type of disease based on CT scan only is not always possible.

  5. Electrodiagnosis in neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Bethany M; Han, Jay J

    2012-08-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is an important diagnostic tool for the assessment of individuals with various neuromuscular diseases. It should be an extension of a thorough history and physical examination. Some prototypical characteristics and findings of EMG and nerve conduction studies are discussed; however, a more thorough discussion can be found in the textbooks and resources sited in the article. With an increase in molecular genetic diagnostics, EMG continues to play an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with neuromuscular diseases and also provides a cost-effective diagnostic workup before ordering a battery of costly genetic tests. PMID:22938876

  6. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular: abordagem ântero-posterior

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni; Lúcia Beato; M. A Gouveia

    2001-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo braquial é a técnica preferida pelos anestesiologistas para cirurgias nos membros superiores. Embora o acesso infraclavicular seja menos utilizado, ele pode oferecer algumas vantagens. O objetivo deste estudo prospectivo é mostrar os resultados observados em 50 pacientes submetidos a bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via infraclavicular, usando estimulador de nervo periférico e abordagem ântero-posterior. MÉTODO: Cinqüenta pacientes, com idades ent...

  7. Bloqueio peribulbar com ropivacaína: influência da hialuronidase sobre a qualidade do bloqueio e a pressão intra-ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Mateus Serzedo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Alguns estudos têm relatado melhoria da qualidade do bloqueio peribulbar com o emprego de hialuronidase, enquanto outros concluem pela ausência de efeito. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência da hialuronidase sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO e a qualidade do bloqueio peribulbar com ropivacaína a 1%. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de catarata foram distribuídos de forma aleatória em dois grupos e submetidos a bloqueio peribulbar com 7 ml de ropivacaína a 1% em técnica de dupla punção, com hialuronidase 50 UI.ml-1 no Grupo A (n = 20 e sem hialuronidase no Grupo B (n = 20. As medidas de PIO foram realizadas com tonômetro de aplanação de Perkins em quatro momentos: M0 = antes do bloqueio (controle; M1 = 1 min após o bloqueio; M2 = 5 min após o bloqueio; M3 = 15 min após o bloqueio. A qualidade foi avaliada pelo método de Nicoll, baseado na redução da motilidade do globo ocular. RESULTADOS: As médias de PIO (mmHg antes do bloqueio foram semelhantes nos dois grupos: 16,1 + 2,1 (A vs 16,4 + 3,3 (B. Após o bloqueio, as médias de PIO foram significativamente menores no Grupo A em relação ao Grupo B nos três momentos: M1 = 11,7 + 2,4 vs 17,9 + 3,6; M2 = 8,2 + 1,9 vs 14,1 + 4,0; M3 = 5,3 + 2,1 vs 10,2 + 3,1. O comportamento intragrupos também foi diferente. No Grupo A, as médias de PIO foram significativamente menores em relação ao controle nos três momentos após o bloqueio; no Grupo B a média de PIO elevou-se em M1 e foi significativamente inferior ao controle em M2 e M3. As médias para os índices de motilidade do globo ocular (Nicoll foram significativamente menores no Grupo A em relação ao B nos três momentos: M1 = 2,55 vs 3,65; M2 = 0,25 vs 2,2; M3 = 0,00 vs 1,00. CONCLUSÕES: Quando se emprega solução de ropivacaína a 1% adicionada de hialuronidase 50 UI.ml-1 em bloqueio peribulbar, os valores da PIO são menores e a qualidade do bloqueio é melhor

  8. [Fatigue in neuromuscular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engelen, B G M; Kalkman, J S; Schillings, M L; Van Der Werf, S P; Bleijenberg, G; Zwarts, M J

    2004-07-01

    Chronic fatigue is a symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's and cerebrovascular disease. Fatigue can also be present in people with no demonstrable somatic disease. If certain criteria are met, chronic-fatigue syndrome may be diagnosed in these cases. Fatigue is a multi-dimensional concept with physiological and psychological dimensions. The 'Short Fatigue Questionnaire' consisting of 4 questions is a tool to measure fatigue with a high degree of reliability and validity. Within the group of neuromuscular disorders, fatigue has been reported by patients with post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The percentage of neuromuscular patients suffering from severe fatigue (64%) is comparable with that of patients with multiple sclerosis, a disease in which fatigue is an acknowledged symptom. Now that reliable psychological and clinical neurophysiological techniques are available, a multidisciplinary approach to fatigue in patients with well-defined neuromuscular disorders may contribute towards the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic fatigue, with the ultimate goal being to develop methods of treatment for fatigue in neuromuscular patients. PMID:15283024

  9. Pneumotórax pós-bloqueio de plexo braquial guiado por ultrassonografia: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz L. S. Mandim; Alves, Rodrigo R; Rodrigo de Almeida; João Paulo J. Pontes; Lorena J. Arantes; Fabíola P. Morais

    2012-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo braquial é usado para anestesia nos membros superiores. O uso da ultrassonografia (USG) como técnica de bloqueio vem se popularizando nos últimos anos, facilitando a realização do bloqueio por fornecer imagens em tempo real do plexo e das estruturas circunjacentes, além de minimizar as complicações. O objetivo deste relato foi descrever um caso de pneumotórax após bloqueio interescalênico guiado por ultrassonografia. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente masc...

  10. Neuromuscular junctional disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girija, A S; Ashraf, V V

    2008-07-01

    Neuromuscular junctional disorders (NMJ) in children are distinct entity. They may be acquired or hereditary. They pose problem in diagnosis because of the higher occurrence of sero negative Myasthenia Gravis (MG) cases in children. The identity of MusK antibody positivity in a good percentage of sero negative cases further adds to problems in diagnosis. The Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome (CMS) which are rare disorders of hereditary neuromuscular transmission (NMT) has to be differentiated because immunotherapy has no benefit in this group. Molecular genetic studies of these diseases helps to identify specific type of CMS which is important as other drugs like Fluoxetine, Quinidine are found to be effective in some. In infancy, all can manifest as floppy infant syndrome. The important key to diagnosis is by detailed electrophysiological studies including repetitive nerve stimulation at slow and high rates and its response to anticholinesterases and estimation of Acetyl choline receptor antibodies. Other causes of neuromuscular transmission defects viz. snake venom poisoning and that due to drugs are discussed. PMID:18716738

  11. MRI in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  12. Raquianestesia total após bloqueio do plexo lombar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do plexo lombar (BPL é um método adequado para uso em pacientes idosos e cirurgias na extremidade inferior. Muitas complicações podem ser observadas durante o BPL, mas não tanto quanto no bloqueio central. Neste relato de caso, nosso objetivo foi relatar uma raquianestesia total, uma complicação incomum. BPL com bloqueio ciático foi planejado para um paciente do sexo masculino, 76 anos, programado para artroplastia total do joelho por causa de gonartrose. O paciente ficou inconsciente após o bloqueio do compartimento do psoas com a técnica de Chayen para BPL. A operação terminou em 145 minutos. O paciente foi internado em unidade de terapia intensiva até o segundo dia pós-operatório e recebeu alta hospitalar no quinto dia pós-cirúrgico. A principal preocupação da monitoração do paciente deve ser a presença do anestesiologista. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o contato com o paciente deve ser garantido durante esses procedimentos.

  13. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular: abordagem ântero-posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo braquial é a técnica preferida pelos anestesiologistas para cirurgias nos membros superiores. Embora o acesso infraclavicular seja menos utilizado, ele pode oferecer algumas vantagens. O objetivo deste estudo prospectivo é mostrar os resultados observados em 50 pacientes submetidos a bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via infraclavicular, usando estimulador de nervo periférico e abordagem ântero-posterior. MÉTODO: Cinqüenta pacientes, com idades entre 17 e 87 anos, estado físico ASA I e II, escalados para cirurgias ortopédicas da extremidade superior foram anestesiados com bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via infraclavicular. Todos os bloqueios foram realizados com estimulador de nervo periférico, a partir de 1 mA. Quando se obtinha uma adequada contração muscular na mão, no antebraço ou músculos do braço, a amperagem era diminuída até desaparecimento da resposta. Se a resposta desaparecesse com estímulo superior a 0,6 mA, a agulha poderia ser movimentada a procura de melhor resposta. Se a resposta não desaparecesse com estímulo menor que 0,5 mA, injetavam-se 50 ml de lidocaína a 1,6% com epinefrina 1:200.000. Foram avaliados o tempo de latência, duração da cirurgia, tolerância ao uso do torniquete, duração dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor, complicações e efeitos adversos. RESULTADOS: O bloqueio foi efetivo em 94% dos pacientes, o tempo médio da latência foi de 8,78 min, a duração média da cirurgia foi de 65,52 min e a tolerância ao torniquete foi observada em todos os pacientes. A média de duração do bloqueio sensitivo foi de 195,56 min e do bloqueio motor de 198,86 min. Ocorreu uma punção vascular. Não foram observados sinais e sintomas clínicos de toxicidade do anestésico local ou do vasoconstritor. Nenhum paciente apresentou efeitos adversos do bloqueio. CONCLUSÕES: O bloqueio infraclavicular do plexo braquial proporciona uma anestesia efetiva para

  14. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few re...

  15. Neuromuscular disease classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Aurora; Acha, Begoña; Montero-Sánchez, Adoración; Rivas, Eloy; Escudero, Luis M.; Serrano, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases is based on subjective visual assessment of biopsies from patients by the pathologist specialist. A system for objective analysis and classification of muscular dystrophies and neurogenic atrophies through muscle biopsy images of fluorescence microscopy is presented. The procedure starts with an accurate segmentation of the muscle fibers using mathematical morphology and a watershed transform. A feature extraction step is carried out in two parts: 24 features that pathologists take into account to diagnose the diseases and 58 structural features that the human eye cannot see, based on the assumption that the biopsy is considered as a graph, where the nodes are represented by each fiber, and two nodes are connected if two fibers are adjacent. A feature selection using sequential forward selection and sequential backward selection methods, a classification using a Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network, and a study of grading the severity are performed on these two sets of features. A database consisting of 91 images was used: 71 images for the training step and 20 as the test. A classification error of 0% was obtained. It is concluded that the addition of features undetectable by the human visual inspection improves the categorization of atrophic patterns.

  16. Bloqueio Contínuo do Plexo Braquial em Contexto de Urgência

    OpenAIRE

    Mondim, V; Poeira, R; Pinhal, F; Tomé, I; Casteleira, M

    2011-01-01

    O bloqueio contínuo do plexo braquial constitui uma técnica anestésica potencialmente vantajosa em situações de trauma grave do membro superior e, particularmente, em cirurgia microvascular. Contribui para a reabilitação precoce, recuperação da função do membro e analgesia no pós-operatório.

  17. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor no ombro é uma queixa frequente que ocasiona grande incapacidade funcional no membro acometido, assim como redução na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método terapêutico eficaz e vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado pelos anestesiologistas tanto para anestesia regional quanto para analgesia pós-operatória de cirurgias realizadas nesta articulação, o que justifica a presente revisão, cujo objetivo principal é descrever a técnica aplicada e as indicações clínicas. CONTEÚDO: Apresenta-se a anatomia do nervo supraescapular, desde a sua origem do plexo braquial até os seus ramos terminais, assim como as características gerais e a técnica empregada na execução do bloqueio deste nervo, as principais drogas utilizadas e o volume e as situações em que se faz jus a sua aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um procedimento seguro e extremamente eficaz na terapia da dor no ombro. Também de fácil reprodutibilidade, está sendo muito utilizado por profissionais de várias especialidades médicas. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado

  18. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Kumar Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evolving course; benign nature; excellent response to potassium; and, often leads to diagnostic confusion with other dengue-associated neuromuscular disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe form of muscle involvement and may be life-threatening. Guillain-Barrι syndrome is another frequent neuromuscular dengue-associated complication. Dengue-associated Guillain-Barrι syndrome responds very well to intravenous immunoglobulins. Predominant spinal gray matter involvement has been reported in a patient presenting with areflexic paraparesis. Mononeuropathies often manifest with paralysis of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve dysfunction. Brachial plexopathy, in the form of neuralgic amyotrophy, has been described much more frequently than lumbo-sacral plexopathy. Early recognition of these neuromuscular complications is needed for successful treatment and to prevent further disabilities.

  19. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Jain, Amita; Malhotra, Kiran Preet

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evolving course; benign nature; excellent response to potassium; and, often leads to diagnostic confusion with other dengue-associated neuromuscular disorders. Rhabdomyolysis is the most severe form of muscle involvement and may be life-threatening. Guillain-Barrι syndrome is another frequent neuromuscular dengue-associated complication. Dengue-associated Guillain-Barrι syndrome responds very well to intravenous immunoglobulins. Predominant spinal gray matter involvement has been reported in a patient presenting with areflexic paraparesis. Mononeuropathies often manifest with paralysis of the diaphragm due to phrenic nerve dysfunction. Brachial plexopathy, in the form of neuralgic amyotrophy, has been described much more frequently than lumbo-sacral plexopathy. Early recognition of these neuromuscular complications is needed for successful treatment and to prevent further disabilities. PMID:26238884

  20. Bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som Bloqueos nerviosos guiados por ultrasonido Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Escovedo Helayel; Diogo Brüggemann da Conceição; Getúlio Rodrigues de Oliveira Filho

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As técnicas de bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som são baseadas na visualização direta das estruturas nervosas, da agulha de bloqueio e das estruturas anatômicas adjacentes. Desta maneira, é possível depositar a solução de anestésico local precisamente em torno dos nervos e acompanhar a sua dispersão em tempo real, obtendo-se, assim, um bloqueio mais eficaz, de menor latência, menor dependência de referências anatômicas, menor volume de solução anestésica e mai...

  1. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  2. Dengue-associated neuromuscular complications

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Kumar Garg; Hardeep Singh Malhotra; Amita Jain; Kiran Preet Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is associated with many neurological dysfunctions. Up to 4% of dengue patients may develop neuromuscular complications. Muscle involvement can manifest with myalgias, myositis, rhabdomyolysis and hypokalemic paralysis. Diffuse myalgia is the most characteristic neurological symptom of dengue fever. Dengue-associated myositis can be of varying severity ranging from self-limiting muscle involvement to severe dengue myositis. Dengue-associated hypokalemic paralysis often has a rapidly evo...

  3. Endarterectomia carotídea sob bloqueio loco-regional Carotid endarterectomy under locoregional anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Terezinha Guillaumon; Nara Gelle Oliveira; Lucas Marcelo Dias Freire; Luis Baldini Neto; Aline Meira Martins; Eduardo Faccini Rocha

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Os autores objetivam descrever os resultados nas cirurgias de endarterectomia carotídea, utilizando-se anestesia loco-regional, emprego seletivo de shunt e proteção farmacológica intra-operatória. MÉTODO: Foram estudados doentes submetidos à endarterectomia carotídea sob bloqueio loco-regional, no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), no período de março de 1996 a maio de 2004. Este estudo é composto de 119 endarterectomias (108 doentes), sendo 69 doe...

  4. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect of a......Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor in...... neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  5. The clinical examination for neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Eric N; Kent, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Neuromuscular disease can present even the most astute clinician with a challenging diagnostic dilemma. This article focuses on the neuroanatomy and the historical, physical, and neurologic examination findings observed in many of the neuromuscular disorders affecting dogs and cats. In addition, some common laboratory tests and imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease, including routine radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, are discussed. A brief discussion of sensory nerve disorders is also presented. PMID:11785724

  6. Musculoskeletal complications of neuromuscular disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Sherilyn W; Skinner, Joline

    2008-02-01

    A wide variety of neuromuscular diseases affect children, including central nervous system disorders such as cerebral palsy and spinal cord injury; motor neuron disorders such as spinal muscular atrophy; peripheral nerve disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; neuromuscular junction disorders such as congenital myasthenia gravis; and muscle fiber disorders such as Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Although the origins and clinical syndromes vary significantly, outcomes related to musculoskeletal complications are often shared. The most frequently encountered musculoskeletal complications of neuromuscular disorders in children are scoliosis, bony rotational deformities, and hip dysplasia. Management is often challenging to those who work with children who have neuromuscular disorders. PMID:18194756

  7. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cherian, Ajith; Baheti, Neeraj N.; Iype, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability i...

  8. Diagnostic NGS for Severe Neuromuscular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Dhamija; Chelsea Chambers

    2015-01-01

    Investigators from the University of Western Australia report the diagnostic yield of performing next generation sequencing (NGS; whole exome and targeted capture of 277 neuromuscular genes) in a heterogenous cohort of patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD) presenting at or before birth.

  9. Common complications of pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalsky, Andrew J; Dalal, Pritha B

    2015-02-01

    Children with pediatric neuromuscular disorders experience common complications, primarily due to immobility and weakness. Musculoskeletal complications include hip dysplasia with associated hip subluxation or dislocation, neuromuscular scoliosis, and osteoporosis and resulting fractures. Constipation, gastroesophageal reflux, and obesity and malnutrition are commonly experienced gastrointestinal complications. Disordered sleep also is frequently observed, which affects both patients and caregivers. PMID:25479776

  10. Diagnostic NGS for Severe Neuromuscular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhamija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the University of Western Australia report the diagnostic yield of performing next generation sequencing (NGS; whole exome and targeted capture of 277 neuromuscular genes in a heterogenous cohort of patients with neuromuscular disorders (NMD presenting at or before birth.

  11. Bloqueio simpático esquerdo por videotoracoscopia no tratamento da cardiomiopatia dilatada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M. Pêgo-Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O nível da atividade nervosa simpática é um dos mais importantes determinantes prognósticos em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca. OBJETIVO: O propósito dessa investigação foi realizar um estudo de viabilidade do emprego do bloqueio simpático esquerdo por toracoscopia em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC para avaliar a segurança e os efeitos imediatos. MÉTODOS: Quinze pacientes com cardiomiopatia dilatada e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE 65 bpm, a despeito do uso adequado de beta-bloqueadores ou intolerantes a eles, forma selecionados. Dez pacientes foram submetidos à clipagem do espaço inter-espinhal em nível de T3-T4 e da porção inferior dos gânglios estrelados esquerdos através de videotoracocopia, enquanto outros cinco pacientes foram randomizados para um grupo controle. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes operados apresentou qualquer evento cardiovascular adverso relacionado ao procedimento cirúrgico no período perioperatório. Dois pacientes do grupo cirúrgico morreram devido a tromboembolismo pulmonar ou infarto do miocárdio nos 6 meses de seguimento inicial, enquanto três pacientes do grupo controle apresentaram progressão da IC e morreram ou desenvolveram choque cardiogênico no mesmo período. Nos pacientes tratados, houve melhora na qualidade de vida, nível de atividade física e FEVE (de 25 ± 9% para 32 ± 8%, p=0,024 aos 6 meses de seguimento, enquanto esses parâmetros não se alteraram nos pacientes do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: O bloqueio simpático esquerdo via toracoscopia é factível e parece ser seguro em pacientes com IC grave. Esse estudo inicial sugere que esse procedimento pode ser uma abordagem alternativa eficaz para o bloqueio simpático no tratamento de cardiomiopatias dilatadas.

  12. Neuromuscular Highlights-AAN 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Zahid; Saperstein, David; Jackson, Carolyn; Newman, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Summary of Neuromuscular Presentations at the 57 Annual AAN 2005 meeting in Miami Florida on topics of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Diabetic Neuropathy, Charco Marie Tooth disease (CMT), Comparison of injected steroids versus Surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome, Rituximab in Anti-MAG associated polyneuropathy, Cannabis based medicine (CBM) in the treatment of neuropathic pain, utility of skin biopsy with intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in sensory complaints, comparing sympathetic skin responses (SSRs) and skin biopsy in diagnosing small fiber sensory neuropathy, Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) clinical and electrophysiologic predictors, affect of limb warming in mild ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormalities, Tamoxifen affect in ALS, open label study of 3,4 DAP, Pyridostigmine and Ephedrine in fast channel syndrome, Mexilitine as an antimyotonia treatment in myotonic dystrophy (DM1), frontal lobe impairment evaluation in DM1 and DM2 patients and phenotype-genotype correlation in patients with dysferlinopathy. PMID:19078809

  13. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular block in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Safiya I; Bellagali, Vijayalaxmi P

    2010-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation has been performed during the administration of Propofol anaesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. In the study, we have assessed tracheal intubating conditions and haemodynamic responses in children aged 4 to12 years by using combination of either Fentanyl and Propofol; or Propofol and a neuromuscular blocker, suxamethonium. Intubating conditions were assessed on a 1-4 scale based on ease of laryngoscopy, position of vocal cords, degree of coughing and jaw relaxatio...

  14. Pelvic fixation for neuromuscular scoliosis deformity correction

    OpenAIRE

    Dayer, Romain; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Saran, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic fixation is most frequently indicated in the pediatric population for the treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis with significant pelvic obliquity. Neuromuscular scoliosis surgery is associated with a high risk of complications, and this is further increased by extension of fusion to the sacrum. Numerous techniques have been described for pelvic fixation associated with a long spine fusion each with its own set of specific benefits and risks. This article reviews the contemporary surgica...

  15. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Skeletal Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Lam, Amy; Griffin, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Lack of neural innervation due to neurological damage renders muscle unable to produce force. Use of electrical stimulation is a medium in which investigators have tried to find a way to restore movement and the ability to perform activities of daily living. Different methods of applying electrical current to modify neuromuscular activity are electrical stimulation (ES), neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and functional electrical ...

  16. Bloqueio do nervo frênico após realização de bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via interescalênica: relato de caso A bloqueo del nervio frénico después de la realización de bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica: relato de caso Phrenic nerve block after interscalene brachial plexus block: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Henrique Cangiani; Luis Augusto Edwards Rezende; Armando Giancoli Neto

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bloqueio do nervo frênico é um evento adverso do bloqueio do plexo braquial; entretanto, na sua maioria, sem repercussões clínicas importantes. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso em que ocorreu bloqueio do nervo frênico, com comprometimento ventilatório, em paciente com insuficiência renal crônica submetido a instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa, sob bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via perivascular interescalênica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo...

  17. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  18. Splicing therapy for neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Andrew G L; Wood, Matthew J A

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are two of the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases in humans. Both conditions are fatal and no clinically available treatments are able to significantly alter disease course in either case. However, by manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing using antisense oligonucleotides, defective transcripts from the DMD gene and from the SMN2 gene in SMA can be modified to once again produce protein and restore function. A large number of in vitro and in vivo studies have validated the applicability of this approach and an increasing number of preliminary clinical trials have either been completed or are under way. Several different oligonucleotide chemistries can be used for this purpose and various strategies are being developed to facilitate increased delivery efficiency and prolonged therapeutic effect. As these novel therapeutic compounds start to enter the clinical arena, attention must also be drawn to the question of how best to facilitate the clinical development of such personalised genetic therapies and how best to implement their provision. PMID:23631896

  19. Employment profiles in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, W M; Abresch, R T; Koch, T R; Brewer, M L; Bowden, R K; Wanlass, R L

    1997-01-01

    Consumer and rehabilitation provider factors that might limit employment opportunities for 154 individuals with six slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (NMD) were investigated. The NMDs were spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN), Becker's muscular dystrophy (BMD), facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD), and limb-girdle syndrome (LGS). Forty percent were employed in the competitive labor market at the time of the study, 50% had been employed in the past, and 10% had never been employed. The major consumer barrier to employment was education. Other important factors were type of occupation, intellectual capacity, psychosocial adjustment, and the belief by most individuals that their physical disability was the only or major barrier to obtaining a job. Psychological characteristics were associated with level of unemployment. However, physical impairment and disability were not associated with level of unemployment. There also were differences among the types of NMDs. Compared with the SMA, HMSN, BMD, and FSHD groups, the MMD and LGS groups had significantly higher levels of unemployment, lower educational levels, and fewer employed professional, management, and technical workers. Nonphysical impairment factors such as a low percentage of college graduates, impaired intellectual function in some individuals, and poor psychological adjustment were correlated with higher unemployment levels in the MMD group. Unemployment in the LGS group was correlated with a failure to complete high school. Major provider barriers to employment were the low level of referrals to Department of Rehabilitation by physicians and the low percentage of acceptance into the State Department of Rehabilitation. The low rate of acceptance was primarily attributable to the low number of referrals compounded by a lack of counselor experience with individuals with NMD. Both consumer and provider barriers may

  20. Protein defects in neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vainzof M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscular dystrophies are a heterogeneous group of genetically determined progressive disorders of the muscle with a primary or predominant involvement of the pelvic or shoulder girdle musculature. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from severe congenital forms with rapid progression to milder forms with later onset and a slower course. In recent years, several proteins from the sarcolemmal muscle membrane (dystrophin, sarcoglycans, dysferlin, caveolin-3, from the extracellular matrix (alpha2-laminin, collagen VI, from the sarcomere (telethonin, myotilin, titin, nebulin, from the muscle cytosol (calpain 3, TRIM32, from the nucleus (emerin, lamin A/C, survival motor neuron protein, and from the glycosylation pathway (fukutin, fukutin-related protein have been identified. Mutations in their respective genes are responsible for different forms of neuromuscular diseases. Protein analysis using Western blotting or immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies is of the utmost importance for the differential diagnosis and elucidation of the physiopathology of each genetic disorder involved. Recent molecular studies have shown clinical inter- and intra-familial variability in several genetic disorders highlighting the importance of other factors in determining phenotypic expression and the role of possible modifying genes and protein interactions. Developmental studies can help elucidate the mechanism of normal muscle formation and thus muscle regeneration. In the last fifteen years, our research has focused on muscle protein expression, localization and possible interactions in patients affected by different forms of muscular dystrophies. The main objective of this review is to summarize the most recent findings in the field and our own contribution.

  1. Tracheal intubation without neuromuscular block in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiya I Shaikh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation has been performed during the administration of Propofol anaesthesia without neuromuscular blockade. In the study, we have assessed tracheal intubating conditions and haemodynamic responses in children aged 4 to12 years by using combination of either Fentanyl and Propofol; or Propofol and a neuromuscular blocker, suxamethonium. Intubating conditions were assessed on a 1-4 scale based on ease of laryngoscopy, position of vocal cords, degree of coughing and jaw relaxation. Tracheal intubation was successful in 95% of patients receiving Fentanyl-Propofol and 100% of patients receiving Propofol-suxamethonium. Fentanyl-Propofol provided better haemodynamic stability than Propofol-suxamethonium. We conclude that Propofol-Fentanyl combination could be a useful alternative technique for tracheal intubation when neuromuscular blocking drugs are contraindicated or need to be avoided.

  2. Research highlights of partial neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the latest progression on neuromuscular disorders for clinicians, this review screened and systemized the papers on neuromuscular disorders which were collected by PubMed from January 2013 to February 2014. This review also introduced the clinical diagnosis and treatment hightlights on glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ (GSD Ⅱ, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The important references will be useful for clinicians. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.004

  3. Bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical, em paciente com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Conceição Diogo Brüggemann da; Helayel Pablo Escovedo; Cecato Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) têm risco aumentado de complicações pós-operatórias, sobretudo quando submetidos à anestesia geral. O bloqueio do plexo braquial representa uma alternativa para estes pacientes em intervenções cirúrgicas de membros superiores. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso de bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical em paciente com DPOC com fratura de cotovelo. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do...

  4. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar com neuroestimulador: verificação da latência e da eficácia

    OpenAIRE

    Itagyba Martins Miranda Chaves; Leandro Fellet Miranda Chaves; Clodoaldo Lopes Dias

    2001-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar, embora bastante difundido por ter menor incidência de complicações, apresenta três inconvenientes que limitam seu uso: índice de falhas, latência longa e restrição a cirurgias de antebraço e mão. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o tempo de latência e a eficácia do bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar empregando-se um estimulador de nervo. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo, aberto, prospectivo, 38 pacientes, estado ...

  5. Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  6. Neuromuscular hamartoma arising in the brachial plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, P.H.; Chen, C.; Yeh, L.R.; Pan, H.B. [Department of Radiology, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); Ho, J.T.; Hsu, S.S. [Department of Neurosurgery, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaosiung (Taiwan); Lin, S.L. [Department of Pathology, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, 386 Ta-Chung First Rd, 813, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2004-03-01

    We report a case brachial plexus neuromuscular hamartoma (choristoma) in a 28-year-old man who complained of numbness of the left hand and forearm for several years. MRI revealed a circumscribed, rounded mass in the left brachial plexus. The patient is well 2 years after surgery, with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  7. Pregnancy and Childbirth with Neuromuscular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get a little bit Teamwork makes the difference weaker during Coordination and communication Having a neuromuscular disease can pose special anesthesia-related risks. the pregnancy and, unfortu- among the pregnant woman, her neurologist and a team experienced — local anesthesia. ( ...

  8. Neuromuscular function in different stages of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Tobias; Gilmore, Kevin J; Rice, Charles L

    2016-08-01

    This study applied the screening tool developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) on seniors aged over 65years and concurrently tested various laboratory-based indices of neuromuscular function. Twenty-four healthy and independent living older adults (9 men, 15 women) with a mean age of 79.1±5.8years participated. Based on gait speed, handgrip strength and muscle mass all subjects were categorized into one of the three conceptual sarcopenia stages (pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia, severe sarcopenia). Maximal strength of dorsiflexors in the left leg was measured and voluntary activation was assessed by the interpolated twitch technique. In addition, isometric evoked contractile properties were recorded. Skeletal muscle mass was assessed by ultrasound from nine sites. There were roughly equal number of subjects in each sarcopenic category, and age was not different among the 3 groups. There were no differences in handgrip strength and skeletal muscle mass index among the 3 groups. Gait speed was significantly slower (psarcopenia group, and 51% slower (p=0.03) compared with the pre-sarcopenia group, but when normalized to peak torques there were no statistical differences. The laboratory tests found neuromuscular differences among the 3 groups which generally supported the classification scheme and helped to illustrate some key factors that could explain differences in functional capacities. These initial findings support the assumption that this categorization is relevant for identifying older adults with different neuromuscular properties. However, further studies are needed to provide more insight into the specific neuromuscular changes in the three sarcopenia stages, and how these changes relate to functional capacity. Such studies could ultimately contribute to identifying optimal interventions to improve neuromuscular functioning. PMID:27108183

  9. Neuromuscular blockade in children Bloqueadores neuromusculares em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fernando Lourenço de Almeida

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs have been widely used to control patients who need to be immobilized for some kind of medical intervention, such as an invasive procedure or synchronism with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this monograph is to review the pharmacology of the NMBAs, to compare the main differences between the neuromuscular junction in neonates, infants, toddlers and adults, and moreover to discuss their indications in critically ill pediatric patients. Continuous improvement of knowledge about NMBAs pharmacology, adverse effects, and the many other remaining unanswered questions about neuromuscular junction and neuromuscular blockade in children is essential for the correct use of these drugs. Therefore, the indication of these agents in pediatrics is determined with extreme judiciousness. Computorized (Medline 1990-2000 and active search of articles were the mechanisms used in this review.Os bloqueadores neuromusculares têm sido amplamente utilizados para controlar pacientes que necessitem imobilidade para algum tipo de intervenção médica, desde a realização de procedimentos invasivos até a obtenção de sincronismo com a ventilação mecânica. O objetivo básico desta monografia é revisar a farmacologia dos principais bloqueadores neuromusculares, analisar as diferenças existentes na junção neuromuscular de neonatos, lactentes, pré-escolares e adultos, além de discutir suas indicações em pacientes criticamente enfermos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica. Revisão computadorizada da literatura (Medline 1990-2000 associado a busca ativa de artigos compuseram o mecanismo de busca dos dados desta revisão.

  10. Desarrollo neuromuscular en la atrofia muscular espinal

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernàndez, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration and loss of spinal cord motor neurons leading to denervation and muscular atrophy. It is caused by defects in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 gene (SMN1) and it is classified by age of onset and motor milestones into three main types which strongly correlate with the copy number of its homologous gene, SMN2. SMN2 expresses markedly less full‐length protein than SMN1, provoking disease manifestations...

  11. Neuromuscular Impairment Following Backpack Load Carriage

    OpenAIRE

    Blacker, Sam D.; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Bilzon, James L.J.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h −1 during level walking with no load [LW], and...

  12. Splicing therapy for neuromuscular disease ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew G. L. Douglas; Wood, Matthew J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are two of the most common inherited neuromuscular diseases in humans. Both conditions are fatal and no clinically available treatments are able to significantly alter disease course in either case. However, by manipulation of pre-mRNA splicing using antisense oligonucleotides, defective transcripts from the DMD gene and from the SMN2 gene in SMA can be modified to once again produce protein and restore function. A large numb...

  13. The emerging diversity of neuromuscular junction disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, J

    2007-01-01

    Research advances over the last 30 years have shown that key transmembrane proteins at the neuromuscular junction are vulnerable to antibody-mediated autoimmune attack These targets are acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) and muscle specific kinase (MuSK) in myasthenia gravis, voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), and voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) in neuromyotonia. In parallel with these immunological advances, mutations identified in g...

  14. Acute neuromuscular responses to car racing

    OpenAIRE

    Backman, Jani

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine racing car drivers’ acute neuromuscular responses to race driving. The secondary purpose was to compare the cardiovascular loading of driving to that of maximal rowing action. Methods: The subjects of the present cross-sectional study (n = 9) were international level karting drivers. The study was performed in two parts; the laboratory tests and driving test. All subjects took part to the laboratory tests and five of the subjects per...

  15. Bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som Bloqueos nerviosos guiados por ultrasonido Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Escovedo Helayel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As técnicas de bloqueios nervosos guiados por ultra-som são baseadas na visualização direta das estruturas nervosas, da agulha de bloqueio e das estruturas anatômicas adjacentes. Desta maneira, é possível depositar a solução de anestésico local precisamente em torno dos nervos e acompanhar a sua dispersão em tempo real, obtendo-se, assim, um bloqueio mais eficaz, de menor latência, menor dependência de referências anatômicas, menor volume de solução anestésica e maior segurança. CONTEÚDO: O artigo revisa os aspectos relativos aos mecanismos físicos para formação de imagens, a anatomia ultra-sonográfica do neuroeixo e dos plexos braquial e lombossacral, os equipamentos e materiais empregados nos bloqueios, os ajustes do aparelho de ultra-som para melhorar as imagens, os planos de visualização das agulhas de bloqueio e as técnicas e o treinamento em bloqueios guiados por ultra-som. CONCLUSÕES: Os passos para se obter sucesso em anestesia regional incluem a identificação exata da posição dos nervos, a localização precisa da agulha, sem lesões nas estruturas adjacentes e, finalmente, a injeção cuidadosa de anestésico local junto aos nervos. Embora a neuroestimulação forneça grande auxílio na identificação dos nervos, esta não consegue, isoladamente, preencher todas essas exigências. Por isso, acredita-se que os bloqueios guiados por ultra-som serão a técnica de eleição para anestesia regional num futuro não muito distante.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las técnicas de bloqueos nerviosos guiados por ultrasonido se basan en la visualización directa de las estructuras nerviosas, de la aguja de bloqueo y de las estructuras anatómicas adyacentes. De esa manera, se puede depositar la solución de anestésico local precisamente en torno de los nervios y acompañar su dispersión en tiempo real, obteniéndose así, un bloqueo más eficaz, de menor latencia, menor dependencia de

  16. Influence of intense neuromuscular blockade on surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Donatsky, Anders Meller; Jensen, Bente Rona;

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular block on surgical conditions with a subjective rating scale, force needed to close the fascia, incidences of abdominal contractions while suctioning the lungs, width of the wound diastase and operating time as outcome parameters. RESULTS: In all six pigs no abdominal contractions occurred while...... neuromuscular block suctioning the lungs elicited brief periods of abdominal EMG activity. No difference was found in the force needed to close the fascia when comparing no neuromuscular block with intense neuromuscular block. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in the width of the diastase...... influence the force needed to close the fascia....

  17. Urgencias en patología neuromuscular Emergencies in neuromuscular pathology

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ayuso; I. Jericó

    2008-01-01

    La debilidad muscular aguda (DMA) es el síntoma predominante de las urgencias neuromusculares, especialmente si afecta a la musculatura respiratoria u orofaríngea. La DMA es un síndrome plurietiológico y con distintos niveles lesionales en la unidad motora. Dentro del amplio grupo de enfermedades neuromusculares, las que con mayor frecuencia provocan DMA e insuficiencia respiratoria son el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) y la miastenia gravis (MG). El SGB constituye la causa más frecuente de...

  18. O uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil El uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares en Brasil Neuromuscular blockers in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Simões de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Dados estatísticos referentes ao uso de bloqueadores neuromusculares no Brasil são desconhecidos. Este trabalho se propõe a análise estatística desse tópico. MÉTODO: Foram compiladas 831 respostas de um questionário preenchido em parte por anestesiologistas presentes ao 48º Congresso Brasileiro de Anestesiologia em Recife, 2001 e em parte via Internet, por anestesiologistas cujos endereços eletrônicos constam na página da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (www....

  19. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmanjit Singh Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.

  20. Neuromuscular Exercise Post Partial Medial Meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of a 12-week, home-based, physiotherapist-guided neuromuscular exercise program on the knee adduction moment (an indicator of mediolateral knee load distribution) in people with a medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the past 3-12 months. METHODS...... or a control group with no exercise. The exercise program included eight individual sessions with one of seven physiotherapists in private clinics, together with home exercises. Primary outcomes were the peak external knee adduction moment during normal pace walking and during a one-leg sit-to-stand. Secondary...

  1. Recent achievements in restorative neurology: Progressive neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 27 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Computed Tomography of Muscles in Neuromuscular Disease; Mapping the Genes for Muscular Dystrophy; Trophic Factors and Motor Neuron Development; Size of Motor Units and Firing Rate in Muscular Dystrophy; Restorative Possibilities in Relation to the Pathology of Progressive Neuromuscular Disease; and An Approach to the Pathogenesis of some Congenital Myopathies

  2. Stress in Families of Children With Neuromuscular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1979-01-01

    This study compared parents of children with neuromuscular diseases to parents of children with psychiatric diagnoses, using the Questionnaire on Resources and Stress. The groups showed different patterns of stress relating to child care. Within the neuromuscular group, parental stress increased with the severity of the child's illness.…

  3. Motoneuron and sensory neuron plasticity to varying neuromuscular activity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Roy, Roland R.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Edgerton, V. Reggie

    2002-01-01

    The size and phenotypic properties of the neural and muscular elements of the neuromuscular unit are matched under normal conditions. When subjected to chronic decreases or increases in neuromuscular activity, however, the adaptations in these properties are much more limited in the neural compared with the muscular elements.

  4. Nova técnica de bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães New technique of brachial plexus block in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Futema; Denise Tabacchi Fantoni; José Otávio Costa Auler Junior; Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi; Andrea Acaui; Angelo João Stopiglia

    1999-01-01

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a viabilidade e a eficácia de uma nova técnica para o bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães. Para tanto, foram utilizados 11 cães, machos e fêmeas, idade e peso variáveis e mestiços. Os animais foram pré-tratados com acepromazina e a indução da anestesia foi realizada com propofol. Posteriormente, os animais foram submetidos ao bloqueio do plexo braquial que constou da associação da técnica de múltiplas injeções com o emprego do estimulador de nervos e ...

  5. Neuromuscular disruption with ultrashort electrical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrei; Kolb, Juergen F.; Joshi, Ravindra P.; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Dayton, Thomas; Comeaux, James; Ashmore, John; Beason, Charles

    2006-05-01

    Experimental studies on single cells have shown that application of pulsed voltages, with submicrosecond pulse duration and an electric field on the order of 10 kV/cm, causes sudden alterations in the intracellular free calcium concentration, followed by immobilization of the cell. In order to examine electrical stimulation and incapacitation with such ultrashort pulses, experiments on anesthetized rats have been performed. The effect of single, 450 nanosecond monopolar pulses have been compared with that of single pulses with multi-microsecond duration (TASER pulses). Two conditions were explored: 1. the ability to elicit a muscle twitch, and, 2. the ability to suppress voluntary movement by using nanosecond pulses. The second condition is relevant for neuromuscular incapacitation. The preliminary results indicate that for stimulation microsecond pulses are advantageous over nanosecond pulses, whereas for incapacitation, the opposite seems to apply. The stimulation effects seem to scale with electrical charge, whereas the disruption effects don't follow a simple scaling law. The increase in intensity (time of incapacitation) for a given pulse duration, is increasing with electrical energy, but is more efficient for nanosecond than for microsecond pulses. This indicates different cellular mechanisms for incapacitation, most likely subcellular processes, which have been shown to become increasingly important when the pulse duration is shortened into the nanosecond range. If further studies can confirm these initial results, consequences of reduced pulse duration are a reduction in weight and volume of the pulse delivery system, and likely, because of the lower required energy for neuromuscular incapacitation, reduced safety risks.

  6. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Ajith; Baheti, Neeraj N; Iype, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS). SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation. PMID:23661960

  7. Neuromuscular dressing effects: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero PA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinesio taping is a technique that was created in 1979 by Doctor Kenzo Kase I’m looking through it that could generate a new therapeutic option to control pain, improve athletic performance and reduce the impact of musculoskeletal disorders. From the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, this technique as a therapeutic alternative PTO and is composed of health professionals in the field of sport and physical rehabilitation.Objetive: This article aims to identify theoretical approaches on the bandage neuromuscular. Material and methods: held today, for which conducted a literature search of databases such as como Proquest, Ovid, Cochraine, PEDro, Journal of Orthopedic and Sports Physical, Sciencedirect, Pubmed y Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud (Lilacs.The paper proposes a scheme of contextualization of the current landscape of the use and effects of kinesio taping in the management of different pathologies of the musculo-skeletal system in sports. Conclusion: it is concluded that currently many health professionals, and take the neuromuscular bandage a good therapeutic option in the management of diseases affecting the human body is investigated and every day more about the subject, which makes these new therapeutic methods to acquire a scientific value and transcends knowledge.

  8. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  9. Neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattjes, Mike P. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, De Boelelaan 1117, HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kley, Rudolf A. [Klinken Bergmannsheil, Ruhr-University, Department of Neurology, Neuromuscular Centre Ruhrgebiet, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Dirk [University Hospital of Basel, Department of Neurology, Basel (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Basel, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    Driven by increasing numbers of newly identified genetic defects and new insights into the field of inherited muscle diseases, neuromuscular imaging in general and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular are increasingly being used to characterise the severity and pattern of muscle involvement. Although muscle biopsy is still the gold standard for the establishment of the definitive diagnosis, muscular imaging is an important diagnostic tool for the detection and quantification of dystrophic changes during the clinical workup of patients with hereditary muscle diseases. MRI is frequently used to describe muscle involvement patterns, which aids in narrowing of the differential diagnosis and distinguishing between dystrophic and non-dystrophic diseases. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of muscle imaging for the detection of specific congenital myopathies, mainly for the identification of the underlying genetic defect in core and centronuclear myopathies. Muscle imaging demonstrates characteristic patterns, which can be helpful for the differentiation of individual limb girdle muscular dystrophies. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive overview of current methods and applications as well as future perspectives in the field of neuromuscular imaging in inherited muscle diseases. We also provide diagnostic algorithms that might guide us through the differential diagnosis in hereditary myopathies. (orig.)

  10. Endarterectomia carotídea sob bloqueio loco-regional Carotid endarterectomy under locoregional anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Terezinha Guillaumon

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os autores objetivam descrever os resultados nas cirurgias de endarterectomia carotídea, utilizando-se anestesia loco-regional, emprego seletivo de shunt e proteção farmacológica intra-operatória. MÉTODO: Foram estudados doentes submetidos à endarterectomia carotídea sob bloqueio loco-regional, no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, no período de março de 1996 a maio de 2004. Este estudo é composto de 119 endarterectomias (108 doentes, sendo 69 doentes (63,8% do sexo masculino e 39 (36,2% do sexo feminino. A idade média foi de 63 anos, variando entre 43 e 83 anos. A indicação da operação foi estenose sintomática em 60 doentes (55,5% e assintomática em 48 (44,5%. Foi realizada avaliação, por imagem, pelo eco-Doppler colorido e arteriografia. RESULTADOS: Foram excluídos do trabalho cinco doentes nos quais foi necessária a conversão para a anestesia geral por intolerância à colocação do clampe carotídeo. Dos 103 doentes submetidos a 114 endarterectomias, utilizamos um shunt em quatro cirurgias (3,5%, em função da intolerância do paciente à colocação do clampe carotídeo durante o ato cirúrgico. Utilizou-se remendo em 19 (16,6% cirurgias. A mortalidade no período pós-operatório imediato ocorreu em três doentes (2,6%, todos em decorrência de acidente vascular cerebral. Um doente (0,87% apresentou acidente vascular isquêmico menor, e um (0,87% doente apresentou síndrome de hiperperfusão, que evoluiu com acidente vascular cerebral hemorrágico. Esse doente foi submetido à drenagem do hematoma cerebral, com recuperação total do déficit neurológico. No pós-operatório tardio, houve reestenose ou oclusão em quatro doentes (5,3%. CONCLUSÃO: A endarterectomia carotídea pode ser realizada com segurança no doente em vigília, utilizando-se o shunt seletivamente, com a utilização de fármaco-proteção cerebral. O bom resultado obtido e a baixa morbimortalidade

  11. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmerling Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and immediate re-establishment of normal neuromuscular transmission at the end of surgery. Postoperative residual muscle paralysis is one of the major hurdles for immediate or early extubation after cardiac surgery. Nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs for cardiac surgery should therefore be easy to titrate, of rapid onset and short duration of action with a pathway of elimination independent from hepatic or renal dysfunction, and should equally not affect haemodynamic stability. The difference between repetitive bolus application and continuous infusion is outlined in this review, with the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of vecuronium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium. Kinemyography and acceleromyography are the most important currently used neuromuscular monitoring methods. Whereas monitoring at the adductor pollicis muscle is appropriate at the end of surgery, monitoring of the corrugator supercilii muscle better reflects neuromuscular blockade at more central, profound muscles, such as the diaphragm, larynx, or thoraco-abdominal muscles. In conclusion, cisatracurium or rocuronium is recommended for neuromuscular blockade in modern cardiac surgery.

  12. Activation of fast skeletal muscle troponin as a potential therapeutic approach for treating neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Alan J.; Hartman, James J.; Hinken, Aaron C; Muci, Alexander R; Kawas, Raja; Driscoll, Lena; Godinez, Guillermo; Lee, Kenneth H; Marquez, David; Browne, William F; Chen, Michael M.; Clarke, David; Collibee, Scott E; Garard, Marc; Hansen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Limited neuromuscular input results in muscle weakness in neuromuscular disease either because of a reduction in the density of muscle innervation, the rate of neuromuscular junction activation or the efficiency of synaptic transmission 1 . We developed a small molecule fast skeletal troponin activator, CK-2017357, as a means to increase muscle strength by amplifying the response of muscle when neuromuscular input is diminished secondary to a neuromuscular disease. Binding selectively to the ...

  13. Neuromuscular synaptogenesis: coordinating partners with multiple functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabid, Houssam; Perez-Gonzalez, Anna P; Robitaille, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The formation of highly efficient and reliable synapses at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) relies on dynamic molecular interactions. Studies of the development and maturation of the NMJ have focused on events that are dependent on synaptic activity and that require the coordinated actions of nerve- and muscle-derived molecules with different targets and effects. More recently, perisynaptic Schwann cells--the glial cells at NMJs--have become an important focus of research. These glia concomitantly contribute to pre- and postsynaptic maturation while undergoing maturation themselves. Thus, an intricate 'danse à trois’'regulates the maturation of the NMJ to form a highly efficient communication unit, in which fine glial processes lie in close proximity to a highly concentrated population of postsynaptic receptors and perfectly aligned presynaptic release sites. PMID:25493308

  14. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia

    OpenAIRE

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-01-01

    É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso) deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural;...

  15. Computed tomography of muscles in neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137 patients with neuromuscular diseases were studied by CT scan. Four levels were chosen: mid-calf, mid-thigh, pelvic girdle, and spinal muscles. The scans were compared with normal control scans taken from the same sites. The patients were divided into those with myogenic diseases and those with neurogenic diseases. Of the 102 patients with myogenic changes, 17 had X-linked dystrophy, 13 had facio-scapulo-humeral dystrophy, 22 had limb girdle dystrophy, 19 had myotonic dystrophy, 14 had inflammatory muscle diseases, and 17 had miscellaneous muscular diseases. Of the 35 patients with neurogenic changes, 8 had amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), 16 had chronic spinal amyotrophies, 9 had peripheral neuropathies, and 2 had Friedreich's disease. The analysis of muscles changes (volume, outline, density) was established on the following muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus, soleus, gastrocnemius mediale, gastrocnemius laterale, quadriceps, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, sartorius, adductor, gracilis, gluteus, spine extensors, and psoas

  16. Prevalence of complications in neuromuscular scoliosis surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Shallu; Wu, Chunsen; Andersen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our objectives were primarily to review the published literature on complications in neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) surgery and secondarily, by means of a meta-analysis, to determine the overall pooled rates (PR) of various complications associated with NMS surgery. METHODS: PubMed and...... Embase databases were searched for studies reporting the outcomes and complications of NMS surgery, published from 1997 to May 2011. We focused on NMS as defined by the Scoliosis Research Society's classification. We measured the pooled estimate of the overall complication rates (PR) using a random...... have moderate to high variability. The studies were heterogeneous in methodology and outcome types, which are plausible explanations for the variability; sensitivity analysis with respect to age at surgery, sample size, publication year and diagnosis could also partly explain this variability. In...

  17. Neuromuscular impairment following backpack load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Sam D; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Bilzon, James L J; Willems, Mark E T

    2013-01-01

    Load Carriage using backpacks is an occupational task and can be a recreational pursuit. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for changes in neuromuscular function of the m. quadriceps femoris following load carriage. The physiological responses of 10 male participants to voluntary and electrically stimulated isometric contractions were measured before and immediately after two hours of treadmill walking at 6.5 km•h(-1) during level walking with no load [LW], and level walking with load carriage (25 kg backpack) [LC]. Maximal voluntary contraction force decreased by 15 ± 11 % following LC (p=0.006), with no change following LW (p=0.292). Voluntary activation decreased after LW and LC (p=0.033) with no difference between conditions (p=0.405). Doublet contraction time decreased after both LW and LC (p=0.002), with no difference between conditions (p=0.232). There were no other changes in electrically invoked doublet parameters in either condition. The 20:50 Hz ratio did not change following LW (p=0.864) but decreased from 0.88 ± 0.04 to 0.84 ± 0.04 after LC (p=0.011) indicating reduced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation contraction coupling. In conclusion, two hours of load carriage carrying a 25 kg back pack caused neuromuscular impairment through a decrease in voluntary activation (i.e. central drive) and fatigue or damage to the peripheral muscle, including impairment of the excitation contraction coupling process. This may reduce physical performance and increase the risk of musculoskeletal injury. PMID:24146709

  18. Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation in neuromuscular scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Andrea; Solarino, G; De Giorgi, S; Mori, C M; Moretti, L; De Giorgi, G

    2011-05-01

    The study design is retrospective. The aim is to describe our experience about the treatment of patients with neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Neuromuscular scoliosis are difficult deformities to treat. A careful assessment and an understanding of the primary disease and its prognosis are essential for planning treatment which is aimed at maximizing function. These patients may have pelvic obliquity, dislocation of the hip, limited balance or ability to sit, back pain, and, in some cases, a serious decrease in pulmonary function. Spinal deformity is difficult to control with a brace, and it may progress even after skeletal maturity has been reached. Surgery is the main stay of treatment for selected patients. The goals of surgery are to correct the deformity producing a balanced spine with a level pelvis and a solid spinal fusion to prevent or delay secondary respiratory complications. The instrumented spinal fusion (ISF) with second-generation instrumentation (e.g., Luque-Galveston and unit rod constructs), are until 1990s considered the gold standard surgical technique for neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). Still in 2008 Tsirikos et al. said that "the Unit rod instrumentation is a common standard technique and the primary instrumentation system for the treatment of pediatric patients with cerebral palsy and neuromuscular scoliosis because it is simple to use, it is considerably less expensive than most other systems, and can achieve good deformity correction with a low loss of correction, as well as a low prevalence of associated complications and a low reoperation rate." In spite of the Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) surgical technique, used since the beginning of the mid 1980s, being already considered the highest level achieved in correction of scoliosis by a posterior approach, Teli et al., in 2006, said that reports are lacking on the results of third-generation instrumentation for the treatment of NMS. Patients with neuromuscular

  19. QUALIDADE DE LEITE PRODUZIDO POR RAÇAS BOVINAS NO MUNICÍPIO DE ITUVERAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amalia Brunini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available : This study aims to evaluate the quality of raw milk produced by the cattle breeds Holstein, Girolando, Gir and Brown Swiss, in Ituverava city, São Paulo state. There were collected five milk samples of each cattle breed, which were analyzed for the following parameters: total solids, solids nonfat, fat, protein, casein, lactose, acidity, pH, and the minerals calcium, potassium and phosphorus. The results obtained in this study, based on total solids, solids non fat, protein, casein, lactose, acidity, pH, and minerals (calcium, potassium and phosphorus indicate that the raw milk samples are evaluated in the standards established by the legislation. Considering the fat and protein, it can be concluded that milk produced by animals of the bovine breeds Gir and Brown Swiss is best suited to supply the agribusiness industry that manufactures dairy. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a qualidade do leite cru produzido por bovinos das raças: Holandês, Girolando, Gir e Pardo-Suíço, no município de Ituverava/SP. Foram coletadas, de cada raça bovina, cinco amostras de leite, que foram analisadas quanto aos parâmetros sólidos totais, extrato seco desengordurado, gordura, proteína, caseína, lactose, acidez, pH e os minerais cálcio (Ca, potássio (K e fósforo (P. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo, com base nos teores de sólidos totais, extrato seco desengordurado, proteína, caseína, lactose, acidez, pH e minerais (cálcio, potássio e fósforo indicam que as amostras de leite cru aqui avaliadas estão em conformidade com os padrões estabelecidos pela legislação. Ao se considerar os teores de gordura e proteína, pode se concluir que o leite produzido por animais das raças bovina gir e pardo suíço é o mais adequado ao abastecimento da agroindústria que fabrica derivados de leite.

  20. Genetics of Pediatric-Onset Motor Neuron and Neuromuscular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy; Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease; Muscular Dystrophy; Spinal Muscular Atrophy With Respiratory Distress 1; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Motor Neuron Disease; Neuromuscular Disease; Peroneal Muscular Atrophy; Fragile X Syndrome

  1. [Neuromuscular relaxation and CCMDP. The Zilgrei and Feldenkrais methods 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, F; Maiorana, C; Faccin, C

    1989-10-31

    The Authors show two neuromuscular release methods employed in the treatment of cranio-cervico-mandibular syndrome; these methods work at the place of origin of the pathology resolving the symptoms in different districts of the body. PMID:2701432

  2. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmerling Thomas; Russo Gianluca; Bracco David

    2008-01-01

    There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary) sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and i...

  3. Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway Mutations Cause Neuromuscular Transmission Defect

    OpenAIRE

    Senderek, Jan; Müller, Juliane S.; Dusl, Marina; Strom, Tim M.; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Diepolder, Irmgard; Laval, Steven H.; Maxwell, Susan; Cossins, Judy; Krause, Sabine; Muelas, Nuria; Vilchez, Juan J.; Colomer, Jaume; Mallebrera, Cecilia Jimenez; Nascimento, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are synapses that transmit impulses from motor neurons to skeletal muscle fibers leading to muscle contraction. Study of hereditary disorders of neuromuscular transmission, termed congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS), has helped elucidate fundamental processes influencing development and function of the nerve-muscle synapse. Using genetic linkage, we find 18 different biallelic mutations in the gene encoding glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1)...

  4. Monitoring of neuromuscular function in the clinical setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, D; Brull, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will review the basics of neurostimulation in the perioperative period. Following a brief overview of neuromuscular physiology, the mechanism of action of depolarizing and non-depolarizing relaxants will be discussed. The principles of neurostimulation will then be applied clinically when different patterns of stimulation (single twitch, train-of-four, post-tetanic twitch count, double burst) are described. Clinical assessment of neuromuscular function will then be compared with bo...

  5. Influence of Fatigue in Neuromuscular Control of Spinal Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Granata, Kevin P.; Slota, Greg P.; Wilson, Sara E.

    2004-01-01

    Lifting-induced fatigue may influence neuromuscular control of spinal stability. Stability is primarily controlled by muscle recruitment, active muscle stiffness, and reflex response. Fatigue has been observed to affect each of these neuromuscular parameters and may therefore affect spinal stability. A biomechanical model of spinal stability was implemented to evaluate the effects of fatigue on spinal stability. The model included a 6-degree-of-freedom representation of the spine controlled b...

  6. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Rüdiger eRudolf; Muzamil Majid Khan; Siegfried eLabeit; Deschenes, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and postsynaptic origin. Consequently, neuromuscular junctions are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarco...

  7. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U

    2008-03-01

    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  8. Nova técnica de bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães New technique of brachial plexus block in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Futema

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a viabilidade e a eficácia de uma nova técnica para o bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães. Para tanto, foram utilizados 11 cães, machos e fêmeas, idade e peso variáveis e mestiços. Os animais foram pré-tratados com acepromazina e a indução da anestesia foi realizada com propofol. Posteriormente, os animais foram submetidos ao bloqueio do plexo braquial que constou da associação da técnica de múltiplas injeções com o emprego do estimulador de nervos e a técnica da palpação arterial como ponto de referência para a localização dos nervos. Utilizou-se como anestésico local, a bupivacaína com vasoconstritor administrado na dose total de 4mg/kg a 0,375% . O volume total foi dividido em 4 partes iguais, administradas na velocidade de 30 segundos cada, com o objetivo de se atingir a maior quantidade de nervos. O tempo necessário para realização da técnica foi de 11,30 ± 4,54 minutos; o período de latência para o bloqueio motor foi de 9,70 ± 5,52 minutos e para o bloqueio sensitivo foi de 26,20 ± 8,86 min. , sendo a duração da analgesia de 11:00 ± 0:45 horas. Em 90% dos animais, o bloqueio foi efetivo, constatado através da anestesia de todo membro torácico distal à articulação escápulo-umeral. A única complicação observada foi a hipotensão arterial desenvolvida em um animal. Mediante os resultados obtidos, pode-se pressupor que as cirurgias envolvendo o membro torácico distal à articulação escápulo-umeral poderão ser utilizadas com auxílio desta nova técnica do bloqueio do plexo braquial, bem como na analgesia pós-operatória de longa duração.The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability and efficacy of a new technique of brachial plexus block in dogs. Eleven mongrel dogs of different ages and weight, both male and female were used. Animals were pre-medicated with acepromazine and induction of anesthesia was performed with propofol. The brachial

  9. Neuromuscular Fatigue During 200 M Breaststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Conceição

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: i to analyze activation patterns of four upper limb muscles (duration of the active and non-active phase in each lap of 200m breaststroke, ii quantify neuromuscular fatigue, with kinematics and physiologic assessment. Surface electromyogram was collected for the biceps brachii, deltoid anterior, pectoralis major and triceps brachii of nine male swimmers performing a maximal 200m breaststroke trial. Swimming speed, SL, SR, SI decreased from the 1st to the 3rd lap. SR increased on the 4th lap (35.91 ± 2.99 stroke·min-1. Peak blood lactate was 13.02 ± 1.72 mmol·l-1 three minutes after the maximal trial. The EMG average rectified value (ARV increased at the end of the race for all selected muscles, but the deltoid anterior and pectoralis major in the 1st lap and for biceps brachii, deltoid anterior and triceps brachii in the 4th lap. The mean frequency of the power spectral density (MNF decreased at the 4th lap for all muscles. These findings suggest the occurrence of fatigue at the beginning of the 2nd lap in the 200m breaststroke trial, characterized by changes in kinematic parameters and selective changes in upper limb muscle action. There was a trend towards a non-linear fatigue state.

  10. Determinação do volume mínimo efetivo de bupivacaína 0,5% para bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar guiado por ultrassom

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Henrique Cunha Ferraro; Alexandre Takeda; Luiz Fernando dos Reis Falcão; André Hosoi Rezende; Eduardo Jun Sadatsune; Maria Angela Tardelli

    2014-01-01

    Justificativa e objetivo: o uso do ultrassom para acompanhar o correto posicionamento da agulha e a dispersão do anestésico local permitiu a redução do volume de anestésico local necessário para o bloqueio de nervos periféricos. Existem poucos trabalhos sobre o volume mínimo efetivo de anestésico local para o bloqueio do plexo braquial via axilar (BPVA). Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar o volume mínimo efetivo (VE90) de bupivacaína 0,5% comadrenalina (1:200.000) para o ...

  11. Eficácia analgésica pós-operatória de diferentes volumes e massas de ropivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Salome de Morais; Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel; Fabiano Soares Carneiro; Flavio Lago; Yerkes Pereira Silva

    2012-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior tem sua eficácia para cirurgias de ombro demonstrada por diferentes autores. Entretanto, não há um consenso sobre a massa e o volume ideal de anestésico local a ser empregado. O objetivo deste estudo é com parar diferentes volumes e massas de ropivacaína no bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior em cirurgias artroscópicas de ombro. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes com idade > 18 anos, estado físico ASA I e II, escalad...

  12. A dissincronia mecânica é semelhante em diferentes padrões do bloqueio de ramo esquerdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos Barretto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O bloqueio do ramo esquerdo (BRE e a presença de disfunção sistólica são as principais indicações de terapia de ressincronização cardíaca (TRC. A dissincronia ventricular mecânica pela ecocardiografia pode ajudar a identificar pacientes responsivos à TRC. O BRE pode mostrar diferentes padrões em sua morfologia. OBJETIVO: Comparar a prevalência de dissincronia mecânica em diferentes padrões de BRE em pacientes com disfunção sistólica esquerda. MÉTODOS: Analisaram-se 48 pacientes com fração de ejeção (FE 150 ms. RESULTADOS: Eram 24 homens, com idade 60 ± 11 anos e FEVE de 29 ± 7%. Trinta e dois apresentavam QRS > 150 ms, e 22, ECG eixo entre -30º e +90º. A dissincronia interventricular foi identificada em 73% dos pacientes e a intraventricular em valores entre 37-98%. Portadores de QRS > 150 ms apresentaram maiores dimensões do átrio e ventrículo esquerdos, e menor FE (p < 0,05, e o desvio esquerdo do eixo associou-se a pior função diastólica e maior diâmetro atrial. A presença de dissincronia mecânica interventricular e intraventricular (10 métodos foi semelhante entre os diferentes padrões de BRE (p = ns. CONCLUSÃO: Nos dois diferentes padrões eletrocardiográficos de BRE analisados, não foram observadas diferenças em relação à presença de dissincronia mecânica.

  13. Lumbopelvic flexibility modulates neuromuscular responses during trunk flexion-extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Zuriaga, Daniel; Artacho-Pérez, Carla; Biviá-Roig, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Various stimuli such as the flexibility of lumbopelvic structures influence the neuromuscular responses of the trunk musculature, leading to different load sharing strategies and reflex muscle responses from the afferents of lumbopelvic mechanoreceptors. This link between flexibility and neuromuscular response has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lumbopelvic flexibility and neuromuscular responses of the erector spinae, hamstring and abdominal muscles during trunk flexion-extension. Lumbopelvic movement patterns were measured in 29 healthy women, who were separated into two groups according to their flexibility during trunk flexion-extension. The electromyographic responses of erector spinae, rectus abdominis and biceps femoris were also recorded. Subjects with greater lumbar flexibility had significantly less pelvic flexibility and vice versa. Subjects with greater pelvic flexibility had a higher rate of relaxation and lower levels of hamstring activation during maximal trunk flexion. The neuromuscular response patterns of the hamstrings seem partially modulated by pelvic flexibility. Not so with the lumbar erector spinae and lumbar flexibility, despite the assertions of some previous studies. The results of this study improve our knowledge of the relationships between trunk joint flexibility and neuromuscular responses, a relationship which may play a role in low back pain. PMID:27155332

  14. Using mouse cranial muscles to investigate neuromuscular pathology in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, L M; Gillingwater, T H; Parson, S H

    2010-11-01

    Neuromuscular pathology is a classic hallmark of many diseases such as muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy. It is also a feature of many congenital and acquired myopathies and neuropathies such as diabetic neuropathy and toxin-exposure. The availability of experimentally accessible nerve-muscle preparations from rodent models in which pathological events can be studied in nerve and muscle, as well as at the neuromuscular junction, is therefore of fundamental importance for investigating neuromuscular disease. The group of small cranial muscles, which move the ear in the mouse provide ideal experimental preparations for the study of neuromuscular disease in vivo, but information regarding their anatomical and functional characteristics is currently lacking. Here, we provide a detailed description of the levator auris longus, auricularis superior, abductor auris longus and interscutularis muscles. In addition, we briefly review their differential fibre type and developmental characteristics, which can be exploited to aid our understanding of neuromuscular vulnerability and to provide preferable alternatives to more traditional muscle preparations such as gastrocnemius, soleus and diaphragm. PMID:20637618

  15. Steroidal Ammonium Compounds as New Neuromuscular Blocking Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhigang; Hu, Hao; Tang, Jiazhi; Liu, Zhiying; Yang, Yue; Qiu, Guofu; Xiao, Yuling; Liu, Peng; Hu, Xianming; Zhou, Xiaoju; Hong, Xuechuan

    2016-05-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents are widely used as an anesthesia auxiliary in surgery, which induce relaxation of skeletal muscles by blocking signal transmission at the neuromuscular junction. Many neuromuscular blocking agents s were developed over the past decades, but none of them fully meets the needs of the clinic by various reasons. In this study, a series of quaternary ammonium steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents were synthesized and evaluated on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragms for their bioactivities. The initial separation of mono- and bis-quaternary ammonium compounds turned out to be very challenging on regular silica gel chromatography. Therefore, a facile purification method, in which the silica gel was pretreated with methanolic sodium bromide solution, was finally achieved. Compounds 3g (0.36 μm) and 4g (0.37 μm) exhibited excellent neuromuscular blocking activities, which were about sixfold to sevenfold higher in potency than that of rocuronium (2.50 μm). In addition, other bis-quaternized compounds also showed good potencies close to that of rocuronium. Furthermore, the preliminary structure-activity relationship of this series was also elucidated. Benzyl group was found to be a promising quaternary group in this series. PMID:26684806

  16. Bloqueio seletivo dos nervos supraescapular e axilar promove analgesia satisfatória e menor grau de bloqueio motor: comparação com o bloqueio interescalênico El bloqueo selectivo de los nervios supraescapular y axilar promueve una analgesia satisfactoria y un menor grado de bloqueo motor: comparación con el bloqueo interescalénico Selective suprascapular and axillary nerve block provides adequate analgesia and minimal motor block: comparison with interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Falcão Pitombo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: Cirurgias artroscópicas do ombro cursam com intensa dor pós-operatória. Diversas técnicas analgésicas têm sido preconizadas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o bloqueio dos nervos supraescapular e axilar nas cirurgias artroscópicas de ombro com a abordagem interescalênica do plexo braquial. MÉTODO: Sessenta e oito pacientes foram alocados em dois grupos de 34, de acordo com a técnica utilizada: grupo interescalênico (GI e grupo seletivo (GS, sendo ambas as abordagens realizadas com neuroestimulador. No GI, após resposta motora adequada foram injetados 30 mL de levopubivacaína em excesso enantiomérico de 50% a 0,33% com adrenalina 1:200.000. No GS, após resposta motora do nervo supraescapular e axilar, foram injetados 15 mL da mesma substância em cada nervo. Em seguida, realizada anestesia geral. Variáveis avaliadas: tempo para realização dos bloqueios, analgesia, consumo de opioide, bloqueio motor, estabilidade cardiocirculatória, satisfação e aceitabilidade pelo paciente. RESULTADOS: Tempo para execução do bloqueio interescalênico foi significativamente menor que para realização do bloqueio seletivo. Analgesia foi significativamente maior no pós-operatório imediato no GI e no pós-operatório tardio no GS. Consumo de morfina foi significativamente maior na primeira hora no GS. Bloqueio motor foi significativamente menor no GS. Estabilidade cardiocirculatória, satisfação e aceitabilidade da técnica pelo paciente não diferiram entre os grupos. Ocorreu uma falha no GI e duas no GS. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas são seguras, eficazes com mesmo grau de satisfação e aceitabilidade. O bloqueio seletivo de ambos os nervos apresentou analgesia satisfatória, com a vantagem de proporcionar bloqueio motor restrito ao ombro.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Las cirugías artroscópicas del hombro cursan con un intenso dolor postoperatorio. Diversas técnicas analgésicas han sido preconizadas

  17. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P; Li, M K; Woo, T; de Bie, J; Maktabi, M; Lee, J; Kwo, J; Pino, R; Sabouri, A S; McGovern, F; Stæhr Rye, Anne Kathrine; Eikermann, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. METHODS: Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed...... residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission, defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio <0.9, using TOF-Watch® SX. Key secondary endpoint was time between reversal agent administration and operating room discharge-readiness; analysed with analysis of covariance. RESULTS: Of 154 patients randomized, 150...... evidence of partial paralysis. Time between reversal agent administration and operating room discharge-readiness was shorter for sugammadex vs usual care (14.7 vs 18.6 min respectively; P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: After abdominal surgery, sugammadex reversal eliminated residual neuromuscular blockade in the PACU...

  18. Outcome measures in neuromuscular disease: is the world still flat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Michael P; Van den Bergh, Peter Y K

    2015-09-01

    Valid, responsive, and meaningful outcome measures for the measurement of the impairment, activity limitations, and quality of life in patients with neuromuscular disease are crucial to identify the natural history of disease and benefits of therapy in clinical practice and trials. Although understanding of many aspects of neuromuscular diseases has advanced dramatically, the development of outcome measures has received less attention. The scales developed from Rasch theory by the PeriNomS Group represent the biggest significant shift in thought in neuromuscular outcome measures for decades. There remain problems with many of them, and further developments are required. However, incorporating them into our outcome sets for daily use and in clinical trials will lead to the more efficient capture of meaningful change and will result in better assessment of individuals and groups of patients in both clinical trials and neurological practice. PMID:26114965

  19. Agenesia de cava superior associada a bloqueio atrioventricular de 3º grau Agenesis of the right superior vena cava associated with total heart block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Ventura Couto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A persistência de veia cava superior esquerda com ausência da veia cava superior é uma anomalia rara, principalmente quando associada a bloqueio atrioventricular de 3º grau. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente, na qual durante implante de marca-passo definitivo, para a correção de bloqueio atrioventricular total, foi detectada presença de veia cava superior esquerda com suspeição de ausência de veia cava superior, o que levou ao emprego de técnica diferenciada para fixação do eletrodo ventricular. Para confirmação da provável agenesia, foram realizados diversos exames complementares de imagem, demonstrando-se a dificuldade no diagnóstico da síndrome aqui descrita.The superior left vena cava with the absent superior vena cava is a rare abnormality, especially when associated with total heart block. We report a case of a patient in which the presence of superior left vena cava and the absence of the superior vena cava was detected during the implantation of a pacemaker for the correction of a total heart block, which led us to use a different technique for the fixation of the ventricular electrode. To confirm the supposed absence, several image exams were made showing the difficulty on the diagnosis of the described syndrome.

  20. Urgencias en patología neuromuscular Emergencies in neuromuscular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ayuso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La debilidad muscular aguda (DMA es el síntoma predominante de las urgencias neuromusculares, especialmente si afecta a la musculatura respiratoria u orofaríngea. La DMA es un síndrome plurietiológico y con distintos niveles lesionales en la unidad motora. Dentro del amplio grupo de enfermedades neuromusculares, las que con mayor frecuencia provocan DMA e insuficiencia respiratoria son el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB y la miastenia gravis (MG. El SGB constituye la causa más frecuente de parálisis flácida aguda; puede ocasionar fallo respiratorio en un tercio de los casos precisando ventilación mecánica. El diagnóstico preciso de este síndrome permitirá iniciar tratamiento inmunomodulador, que ha demostrado que modifica el curso de la enfermedad. Además, la valoración clínica de los pacientes y el conocimiento de sencillos tests neurofisiológicos y de función respiratoria guiarán la decisión de ventilación mecánica evitando la intubación de urgencia. La urgencia más frecuente que ocasiona la MG es la crisis miasténica, definida por el deterioro en la función bulbar con insuficiencia respiratoria aguda y riesgo de parada respiratoria. Ocurre en un 15-20% de pacientes miasténicos y puede desencadenarse por múltiples factores. Además del diagnóstico preciso de la crisis es importante la supresión de los factores desencadenantes y medidas de soporte ventilatorio. Entre las medidas farmacológicas son la plasmaféresis y las inmunoglobulinas intravenosas los instrumentos más útiles en la actualidad; estos tratamientos no sustituyen la vigilancia intensiva y el reconocimiento de los signos inminentes de fallo respiratorio que implican soporte ventilatorio invasivo o no invasivo.Acute muscle weakness (AMW is the predominant symptom of neuromuscular emergencies, especially if it affects the respiratory or oropharyngeal musculature . AMW is a multi-etiological syndrome, with different lesion levels in the motor unit

  1. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia Neuromuscular abnormalities in disuse, cachexia and ageing

    OpenAIRE

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-01-01

    É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso) deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural;...

  2. Neuromuscular disorders in acute leukemia and lymphoma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Politova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms of neuromuscular complications, their clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options arepresented. The material is presented according to the level of nervous system damage, with inclusion of different clinical entities. Authors revieweda wide range of disease – disease of the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and plexus, neuromuscular junction and muscle – as a result of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Systemic effects of drugs on peripheral nervous system, various departments of which can be simultaneously involved in the pathological process, were also highlighted.

  3. Neuromuscular exercise as treatment of degenerative knee disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Roos, Ewa M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is recommended as first-line treatment of degenerative knee disease. Our hypothesis is that neuromuscular exercise is feasible and at least as effective as tradionally used strength or aerobic training, but aims to more closely target the sensorimotor deficiencies and functional...... instability associated with the degenerative knee disease than traditionally used training methods.SUMMARY FOR TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGECurrent data suggests that the effect from neuromuscular exercise on pain and function is comparable to the effects seen from other forms of exercise....

  4. Bloqueio dos nervos femoral e isquiático guiados por ultrassom em paciente anticoagulado: case reports Bloqueo de los nervios femoral e isquiático guiados por ultrasonido en paciente anticoagulado Ultrasound-guided femoral and sciatic nerve blocks in an anticoagulated patient: relato de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Henrique Cunha Ferraro; Maria Angela Tardelli; Américo Masafuni Yamashita; José Daniel Braz Cardone; Juliana Midori Kishi

    2010-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O uso de ultrassom para guiar a punção em bloqueios de nervos periféricos tem-se tornado cada vez mais frequente. Com a menor probabilidade de promover lesões vasculares, o ultrassom torna-se uma ferramenta interessante na realização de bloqueios periféricos, especialmente nos pacientes em uso de anticoagulantes ou com distúrbios da coagulação. O objetivo foi relatar dois casos em que se realizaram os bloqueios isquiático e femoral guiados por ultrassom em pacientes...

  5. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural; em geral são afetadas preferencialmente fibras II, que podem assumir forma angular. Existe um processo contínuo intrínseco de envelhecimento de nervos e músculos, com desnervação e reinervação lenta e progressiva; o número de unidades motoras se reduz após 60 anos, sem ocorrência de atividade elétrica desnervatória; a quantidade de acetilcolina liberada nos neurônios terminais e a capacidade máxima de utilização de oxigênio estão diminuídas; a redução da capacidade oxidativa mitocondrial pode explicar o aumento de fibras I, mantendo-se o equilíbrio energético. Após poucas semanas de caquexia as fibras musculares podem ter o diâmetro reduzido em 30%, essa redução ocorre em ordem decrescente nos músculos dos membros inferiores, superiores e tronco; existe atrofia II preferencial com fibras angulares ocasionais, redução de RNA/síntese proteica, mantendo-se DNA normal.

  6. Bloqueio peridural caudal: técnica anestésica de uso exclusivo em crianças? É possível sua realização em adultos? Qual o papel do ultrassom nesse contexto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Esquenazi Najman

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio peridural caudal é a mais popular entre todas as técnicas de anestesia regional em crianças. Com o avanço da idade, apenas a relativa dificuldade em localizar o hiato sacral limita seu uso. Entretanto, em adultos a técnica vem sendo largamente utilizada para controle de dor crônica com o auxílio da fluoroscopia. Assim, a habilidade em localizar o hiato e definir as variações anatômicas é o principal fator determinante do sucesso e segurança na execução do bloqueio peridural pela via caudal. Nesse contexto, o ultrassom vem ganhando espaço como guia para a realização do bloqueio caudal. O objetivo desta revisão foi elucidar o papel do ultrassom na anestesia caudal, além de demonstrar que o bloqueio caudal, muito utilizado em crianças, também é útil e pode ser usado em adultos. CONTEÚDO: Uma revisão literária sobre a anatomia da região sacral e da técnica anestésica necessária para a realização adequada do bloqueio caudal foi promovida. Além disso, artigos recentes sobre estudos realizados com bloqueios peridurais caudais guiados por ultrassom tanto em crianças quanto em adultos também foram incluídos. CONCLUSÕES: O ultrassom, apesar de suas limitações, pode ser útil como ferramenta adjuvante no posicionamento da agulha no espaço caudal. Permite a fácil identificação da anatomia sacral, além de visualização da injeção, em tempo real. Sua natureza portátil, não invasiva e livre de exposição à radiação faz dele uma tecnologia atrativa na sala operatória, principalmente na emergência de casos difíceis. Entretanto, como seu uso em bloqueios centrais do neuroeixo ainda é muito primitivo, é necessário que mais pesquisas sejam feitas para se consagre como técnica de rotina na prática anestésica.

  7. Determinação do volume mínimo efetivo de bupivacaína 0,5% para bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar guiado por ultrassom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Henrique Cunha Ferraro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Justificativa e objetivo: o uso do ultrassom para acompanhar o correto posicionamento da agulha e a dispersão do anestésico local permitiu a redução do volume de anestésico local necessário para o bloqueio de nervos periféricos. Existem poucos trabalhos sobre o volume mínimo efetivo de anestésico local para o bloqueio do plexo braquial via axilar (BPVA. Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar o volume mínimo efetivo (VE90 de bupivacaína 0,5% comadrenalina (1:200.000 para o BPVA guiado por ultrassom. Método: o método up-and-down proposto por Massey e Dixon foi usado para o cálculo do volume mínimo efetivo. A dose inicial foi de 5 ml por nervo (radial, mediano, ulnar e musculocutâneo. No caso de falha do bloqueio, o volume era aumentado em 0,5 mL por nervo. O sucesso do bloqueio resultava na diminuição do volume em 0,5 mL por nervo para o paciente subsequente. O sucesso do bloqueio foi definido como bloqueio da função motora ≤ 2 segundo a escala de Bromage modificada, ausência de sensibilidade térmica e de resposta ao pinprick. Foi definido como critério para término do estudo a obtenção de cinco casos de falha seguidos de casos de sucesso. Resultados: foram incluídos 19 pacientes no estudo. O volume mínimo efetivo (VE90 de bupi-vacaína 0,5% com 1:200.000 de adrenalina foi de 1,56 ml (IC 95% 0,99-3,5 por nervo. Conclusão: este trabalho corrobora alguns estudos que mostram que é possível obter anestesia cirúrgica com baixos volumes de anestésico local para bloqueios de nervo periférico guiados por ultrassom.

  8. Bloqueio completo do ramo esquerdo esforço-induzido: prevalência e prognóstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Stein

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: O bloqueio completo do ramo esquerdo esforço-induzido (BCRE E-I é um achado infrequente ao teste de exercício e sua prevalência e significado prognóstico não são claros. OBJETIVO: Avaliar de forma longitudinal a prevalência e o significado prognóstico do BCRE E-I em homens americanos veteranos de guerra. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos 9.623 pacientes que realizaram ergometria em esteira (TE entre 1987 e 2007. Os desfechos foram comparados entre aqueles com TE NL, os com BCRE E-I e os que apresentaram Dep ST anormal. A mortalidade e a causa das mortes foram identificadas de forma cega para os resultados do TE. RESULTADOS: Nesta coorte prospectiva, 6922 indivíduos apresentaram TE NL (57,2 ± 11,4 anos, 1.739 apresentaram Dep ST anormal (62,7 ± 9,8 anos e 38 casos de BCRE E-I foram identificados (65,2 ± 11,9 anos. A prevalência do BCRE E-I foi 0,38%. Após 8,8 anos, ocorreram 1.699 mortes por todas as causas e 610 mortes cardiovasculares (CV. Doença arterial coronária e insuficiência cardíaca foram mais prevalentes nos pacientes com BCRE E-I. Pacientes com BCRE E-I tiveram razão de azar de 2,37 (p = 0,002 para mortalidade por todas as causas, mas a mesma não foi significativa quando ajustada para idade ou quando a mortalidade cardiovascular foi o desfecho avaliado. CONCLUSÃO: BCRE E-I é um achado raro. Indivíduos com BCRE E-I apresentam maior mortalidade por todas as causas quando comparados aqueles com TE NL. No entanto, tal fato é explicado por esses pacientes serem significativamente mais velhos e por apresentarem mais enfermidades cardiovasculares associadas.

  9. Get Ready to Wnt: Prepatterning in Neuromuscular Junction Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Wen C.; Mei, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in muscle fibers prior to innervation by motor neurons is thought to be involved in neuromuscular junction formation. Jing et al. now report in Neuron that this prepatterning of AChRs, via a novel MuSK-dependent Wnt pathway, may guide motor axons to the central region of muscle fibers for synapse formation in zebrafish.

  10. Exercise Therapy in Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy and Other Neuromuscular Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia Rebecka; Vissing, John

    2016-01-01

    with muscle wasting due to neuromuscular conditions, however, a common belief has been that physical activity could accelerate degeneration of the diseased muscle and a careful approach to training has therefore been suggested. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about physical training...

  11. Neuromuscular function during stair descent in meniscectomized patients and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M; Aagaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in knee range of motion (ROM), movement speed, ground reaction forces (GRF) profile, neuromuscular activity, and muscle coactivation during the transition between stair descent and level walking in meniscectomized patients at high risk of knee...

  12. Drug Development and Challenges for Neuromuscular Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouelhi, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Drug development process faces many challenges, including those encountered in clinical trials for neuromuscular diseases. Drug development is a lengthy and highly costly process. Out of 10 compounds entering first study in man (phase 1), only one compound reaches the market after an average of 14 years with a cost of $2.7 billion. Nevertheless, according to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services, prescription drugs constituted only 9 % of each health care dollar spent in USA in 2013. Examples of challenges encountered in neuromuscular clinical trials include lack of validated patient-reported outcome tools, blinding issues, and the use of placebo in addition to lack of health authority guidance for orphan diseases. Patient enrollment challenge is the leading cause of missed clinical trial deadlines observed in about 80 % of clinical trials, resulting in delayed availability of potentially life-saving therapies. Another specific challenge introduced by recent technology is the use of social media and risk of bias. Sharing personal experiences while in the study could easily introduce bias among patients that would interfere with accurate interpretation of collected data. To minimize this risk, recent neuromuscular studies incorporate as an inclusion criterion the patient's agreement not to share any of study experiences through social media with other patients during the study conduct. Consideration of these challenges will allow timely response to the high unmet medical needs for many neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26691331

  13. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Babakova; O. M. Pozdnyakov

    2015-01-01

    Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ). The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  14. Neuromuscular activity and knee kinematics in adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L.;

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the neuromuscular control of the knee during stair descent among female adolescents with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and to report its association with self-reported clinical status assessed by the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)....

  15. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger eRudolf

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and postsynaptic origin. Consequently, neuromuscular junctions are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and dystrophy, neuromuscular junctions morphologically deteriorate and exhibit altered characteristics of primary signaling molecules, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and agrin. Since a remarkable reversibility of these changes can be observed by exercise, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic deterioration upon aging and dystrophy and how synapses are reset by the aforementioned treatments. Here, we review the literature that describes the phenomena observed at the neuromuscular junction in sarcopenic and dystrophic muscle as well as to how these alterations can be reversed and to what extent. In a second part, the current information about molecular machineries underlying these processes is reported.

  16. Diagnostic value of CT scanning in neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of myopathies has become easier since the CT technique is available. In this article the possibilities of CT for diagnostic procedures of neuromuscular diseases are pointed out. Density measurements increase differentiation of atrophy or hypertrophy of muscles as well as other pathological changes. (orig.)

  17. Efectos del vendaje neuromuscular sobre la flexibilidad del raquis lumbar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Labrador-Cerrato

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El vendaje neuromuscular es una técnica que produce una estimulación muy selectiva sobre la piel a través de la aplicación de unas vendas elásticas especiales con el fin de lograr cambios propioceptivos, aumento o inhibición del tono muscular y mitigación de algias, entre otros. Objetivos: Comprobar si la aplicación del vendaje neuromuscular permite aumentar la flexión del raquis lumbar comparándola con otras técnicas de vendaje placebo (esparadrapo rígido convencional; Omniplaste®-E; observar la concordancia entre la prueba sit-and-reach y el test de Schober en la valoración de la ganancia de flexión lumbar. Material y métodos: Estudio piloto experimental a triple ciego. Se distribuyeron aleatoriamente 45 sujetos sanos de 20-55 años en tres grupos: 1 esparadrapo convencional; 2 Omniplaste®-E; 3 vendaje neuromuscular. En todos los participantes se evaluó la flexión del raquis lumbar mediante la prueba sit-and-reach y el test de Schober antes y después de la intervención siguiendo el mismo protocolo. Resultados: Considerado un intervalo de confianza del 95% y grado de significación estadística p<0,05 en todos los casos, se obtuvo un incremento estadísticamente significativo de la flexión lumbar en todos los grupos según la prueba sit-and-reach, que fue mayor en el grupo del vendaje neuromuscular (1,5 cm de mediana; p=0,011. Según el test de Schober, solamente el vendaje neuromuscular se mostró eficiente (p<0,001, incrementándose el valor basal en un 6,25% (1 cm de mediana. Conclusiones: La aplicación del vendaje neuromuscular sobre la columna lumbar mejora la flexión lumbar respecto a técnicas placebo a partir de los resultados obtenidos mediante el test de Schober, así como una mayor flexión global del tronco que estas técnicas según la prueba sit-and-reach. El test de Schober parece ser más fiable y preciso que la prueba sit-and-reach para estudios de este tipo.

  18. Hematoma neuroaxial após bloqueio peridural. É possível prevenir ou detectar? Relato de dois casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza

    2011-04-01

    ós-operatória nos pacientes submetidos aos bloqueios de neuroeixo, podem contribuir para a prevenção de sequelas neurológicas graves.

  19. Ablação com radiofreqüência do flutter atrial tipo I. Importância do bloqueio bidirecional do istmo entre a veia cava inferior e o anel da valva tricúspide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scanavacca Mauricio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a importância clínica da determinação eletrofisiológica da presença de bloqueio bidirecional na condução pelo istmo localizado entre a veia cava inferior e o anel da valva tricúspide (VCI - AT, após a ablação do flutter atrial tipo I (FL com radiofreqüência (RF. MÉTODOS: Quarenta pacientes consecutivos (idade média 51±11 anos com FL foram submetidos a ablação do istmo VCI-AT com RF. Em 30 pacientes (GI, o sucesso foi avaliado pela interrupção e não reindução do FL com estimulação atrial programada. Nos últimos 10 pacientes foi avaliada também a condução bidirecional pelo istmo, com cateteres posicionados na sua entrada e saída e em cada lado da linha de bloqueio. O bloqueio foi considerado bidirecional quando ocorrido nos dois sentidos e unidirecional quando ocorrido em um só sentido. RESULTADOS: Vinte e seis (86% pacientes do GI e 10 (100% do GII tiveram sucesso imediato (p= 0,5558. Durante o seguimento, 7 (30% de 23 pacientes do GI e 3 (30% de 9 do GII tiveram recorrência de FL (p= NS. Os três pacientes do GII que apresentaram recorrência tinham bloqueio unidirecional, enquanto os seis casos sem recorrência tinham bloqueio bidirecional (p=0,012. CONCLUSÃO: A demonstração de bloqueio bidirecional no istmo VCI-AT, obtida imediatamente após a ablação do FL com RF, relaciona-se a menor índice de recorrência clínica, devendo ser o critério preferencial para término do procedimento.

  20. Early appearance and possible roles of non-neuromuscular cholinesterases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eFalugi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The biological function of the cholinesterase (ChE enzymes is well known and has been studied since the beginning of the XXth century; in particular, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, E.C. 3.1.1.7 is an enzyme playing a key role in the modulation of neuromuscular impulse transmission. However, in the past decades, there has been increasing interest concerning its role in regulating non-neuromuscular cell-to-cell interactions mediated by intracellular ion concentration changes, like the ones occurring during gamete interaction and embryonic development. An understanding of the mechanisms of the cholinergic regulation of these events can help us foresee the possible impact on environmental and human health, including gamete efficiency and possible teratogenic effects on different models, and help elucidate the extent to which exposure to ChE inhibitors may affect human health.

  1. Theory of multichannel magnetic stimulation: toward functional neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, J; Ravazzani, P; Grandori, F; Ilmoniemi, R J

    1999-06-01

    Human excitable cells can be stimulated noninvasively with externally applied time-varying electromagnetic fields. The stimulation can be achieved either by directly driving current into the tissue (electrical stimulation) or by means of electro-magnetic induction (magnetic stimulation). While the electrical stimulation of the peripheral neuromuscular system has many beneficial applications, peripheral magnetic stimulation has so far only a few. This paper analyzes theoretically the use of multiple magnetic stimulation coils to better control the excitation and also to eventually mimic electrical stimulation. Multiple coils allow electronic spatial adjustment of the shape and location of the stimulus without moving the coils. The new properties may enable unforeseen uses for peripheral magnetic stimulation, e.g., in rehabilitation of patients with neuromuscular impairment. PMID:10356871

  2. Atividade fitorreguladora de jasmonatos produzidos por Botryosphaeria rhodina Phytoregulatory activity of jasmonates produced by Botryosphaeria rhodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any MP Linares

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O ácido jasmônico e seus derivados jasmonatos são reguladores vegetais endógenos produzidos por várias espécies vegetais, que atuam no mecanismo de defesa das plantas e agem como sinalizadores de estresse. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o potencial fitorregulador de um fermentado, obtido pela fermentação do fungo filamentoso Botryosphaeria rhodina, contendo jasmonatos, comparado à ação do ácido jasmônico (AJ usado como padrão. Sementes selecionadas de Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta e Physalis angulata (camapú foram plantadas em terra contendo fertilizantes orgânicos e minerais. Plantas após 37 dias de germinação foram tratadas via pulverização foliar com duas diferentes concentrações de AJ (25,0 e 50,0 mg L-1 e com fermentado contendo jasmonatos (correspondendo a 50 mg L-1 de AJ e como controle foi utilizado água. Os experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, em blocos casualizados, com três repetições de cinco plantas por tratamentos, com os tratamentos dispostos em fatorial de 4x1 (1 controle; 2 doses de AJ e 1 dose do filtrado. A avaliação das plantas foi realizada 80 dias após a aplicação de AJ e o fermentado. Plantas controle de Capsicum produziram 6,4 frutos/planta enquanto que plantas tratadas com 25,0 e 50,0 mg L-1 de AJ produziram 7,2 frutos/planta e 9,2 frutos/planta, respectivamente e plantas tratadas com o fermentado produziram 11,7 frutos/planta. Adicionalmente, plantas controle de Physalis produziram 10,5 botões/planta e quando tratadas com 25,0 e 50,0 mg L-1 de AJ produziram 15,5 e 16,0 botões/planta, respectivamente. Plantas tratadas com o fermentado dobraram a produção de botões/planta (23,0 quando comparados ao controle. Resultados obtidos validam o potencial fitorregulador do AJ e do fermentado contendo jasmonatos, comprovado pelo aumento na produção de frutos e botões florais pelas espécies vegetais testadas, evidenciando assim o potencial de uso deste

  3. Anormalidades neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia Neuromuscular abnormalities in disuse, cachexia and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available É feita revisão de literatura sobre as principais alterações do sistema neuromuscular no desuso, senilidade e caquexia no ser humano e em modelos animais. A diminuição do diâmetro das fibras musculares após período de inatividade/imobilidade (desuso deve-se à perda de miofibrilas periféricas não ocorrendo formação de core-targetóides ou diminuição da atividade da miofosforilase, próprias da desnervação; mantêm-se a liberação espontânea de acetilcolina e fatores tróficos na junção mio-neural; em geral são afetadas preferencialmente fibras II, que podem assumir forma angular. Existe um processo contínuo intrínseco de envelhecimento de nervos e músculos, com desnervação e reinervação lenta e progressiva; o número de unidades motoras se reduz após 60 anos, sem ocorrência de atividade elétrica desnervatória; a quantidade de acetilcolina liberada nos neurônios terminais e a capacidade máxima de utilização de oxigênio estão diminuídas; a redução da capacidade oxidativa mitocondrial pode explicar o aumento de fibras I, mantendo-se o equilíbrio energético. Após poucas semanas de caquexia as fibras musculares podem ter o diâmetro reduzido em 30%, essa redução ocorre em ordem decrescente nos músculos dos membros inferiores, superiores e tronco; existe atrofia II preferencial com fibras angulares ocasionais, redução de RNA/síntese proteica, mantendo-se DNA normal.Cachexia, ageing and disuse and their effects on the human and animals neuromuscular system are reviewed. Disuse induces reduction of muscle fibers (mainly II diameter with peripheral myofibrils lost; there is no core-targetoid or even reduction on myophosphorilase activity, both typical of denervation; the acetylcholine spontaneous release and trophic factors on myoneural junction are maintained; muscle fibers could change to angular shape. Ageing affects nerve and muscle by a continuous and progressive process of denervation and reinner

  4. Cardiac involvement in children with neuro-muscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Arkhipova

    2015-01-01

    Many inherited neuromuscular disorders include cardiac involvement as a typical clinical feature. Among the most common of them is the group of muscular dystrophies. Dilated cardiomyopathy, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillations, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and sudden cardiac death are well known pathological findings in Duchenne muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy type I and 2, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies and different types of limb-gir...

  5. Acetylcholinesterase Clustering at the Neuromuscular Junction Involves Perlecan and Dystroglycan

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, H. Benjamin; Xie, Hongbo; Rossi, Susanna G.; Rotundo, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Formation of the synaptic basal lamina at vertebrate neuromuscular junction involves the accumulation of numerous specialized extracellular matrix molecules including a specific form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the collagenic-tailed form. The mechanisms responsible for its localization at sites of nerve– muscle contact are not well understood. To understand synaptic AChE localization, we synthesized a fluorescent conjugate of fasciculin 2, a snake α-neurotoxin that tightly binds to the ca...

  6. Ultrastructural muscle and neuro-muscular junction alterations in polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Babakova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural analysis of 7 biopsies from m.palmaris longus and m.deltoideus in patients with confirmed polymyositis revealed alterationand degeneration of muscle fibers and anomalies of neuro-muscular junction (NMJ. The NMJ abnormalities and following denervation ofmuscle fibers in polymyositis start with subsynaptic damages. The occurance of regeneration features in muscle fibers at any stage is characteristic for PM.

  7. Computed tomography of skeletal muscles in neuromuscular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S.O.; Kuether, G.

    1985-06-01

    CT-documentation of skeletal muscular lesions caused by neuromuscular diseases implies an essential contribution to conventional techniques in the macroscopic field. Size, distribution and degree of lesions as well as compensatory mechanisms are proved thereby. We report about the different effects on muscle appearance referring to 106 patients of our own experience in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, poliomyelitis, polyradiculitis, polyneuropathy as well as peripheral traumatic nerve lesions.

  8. Progress in therapeutic antisense applications for neuromuscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are a frequent cause of chronic disability in man. They often result from mutations in single genes and are thus, in principle, well suited for gene therapy. However, the tissues involved (muscle and the central nervous system) are post-mitotic, which poses a challenge for most viral vectors. In some cases, alternative approaches may use small molecules, for example, antisense oligonucleotides (AONs). These do not deliver a new gene, but rather modulate existing gene p...

  9. LRP4 Is Critical for Neuromuscular Junction Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Bowman, Andrew; Shen, Chengyong; Li, Lei(Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing, 102617, People's Republic of China); Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critic...

  10. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia Gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by auto-antibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Antibodie...

  11. Degeneration of Neuromuscular Junction in Age and Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Labeit, Siegfried; Deschenes, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and post-synaptic origin. Consequently, NMJs are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and d...

  12. Neuromuscular control and rehabilitation of the unstable ankle

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, You-jou

    2015-01-01

    Lateral ankle sprain is a common orthopedic injury with a very high recurrence rate in athletes. After decades of research, it is still unclear what contributes to the high recurrence rate of ankle sprain, and what is the most effective intervention to reduce the incident of initial and recurrent injuries. In addition, clinicians often implement balance training as part of the rehabilitation protocol in hopes of enhancing the neuromuscular control and proprioception of the ankle joint. Howeve...

  13. Fatty replacement of lower paraspinal muscles: normal and neuromuscular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, H.; Gadoth, N.; Heifetz, H.

    1983-11-01

    The physiologic replacement of the lower paraspinal muscles by fat was evaluated in 157 patients undergoing computed tomography for reasons unrelated to abnormalities of the locomotor system. Five patients with neuromuscular disorders were similarly evaluated. The changes were graded according to severity at three spinal levels: lower thoracic-upper lumbar, midlumbar, and lumbosacral. The results were analyzed in relation to age and gender. It was found that fatty replacement of paraspinal muscles is a normal age-progressive phenomenon most prominent in females. It progresses down the spine, being most advanced in the lumbosacral region. The severest changes in the five patients with neuromuscular disorders (three with poliomyelitis and two with progressive muscular dystrophy) consisted of complete muscle group replacement by fat. In postpoliomyelitis atrophy, the distribution was typically asymmetric and sometimes lacked clinical correlation. In muscular dystrophy, fatty replacement was symmetric, showing relative sparing of the psoas and multifidus muscles. In patients with neuromuscular diseases, computed tomography of muscles may be helpful in planning a better rehabilitation regimen.

  14. Neuromuscular conditions for physicians - what you need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura; Phillips, Margaret

    2016-06-01

    The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and the British Society of Rehabilitation Medicine co-hosted a meeting entitled 'Neuromuscular conditions for physicians - what you need to know' at the RCP on 30 November 2015. There was a series of talks, ranging from in-depth genetic and molecular descriptions of pathology to multidisciplinary management of chronic neuromuscular conditions, which stimulated lively debate and discussion. Some overarching themes emerged from the day, most notably: i) the changing expectations and survival rates in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which are transforming this disorder into an adult as much as a paediatric condition; ii) the need for integrated management and good communication -between services - whether primary, secondary and tertiary care, medical teams and intensivists, or the multiple teams involved in providing treatment to neuromuscular patients; and iii) in line with the above, the essential need for streamlining care such that patients can avoid spending most of their time attending outpatient appointments, and instead concentrate on living full lives and exploring educational, occupational, leisure and social opportunities. PMID:27251916

  15. [Molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of neuromuscular junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Osamu; Yamanashi, Yuji

    2011-07-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. The contraction of skeletal muscle is controlled by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which is released from the motor nerve terminal. To achieve efficient neuromuscular transmission, acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) must be densely clustered on the muscle membrane of the NMJ. Failure of AChR clustering is associated with disorders of neuromuscular transmission such as congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) and myasthenia gravis (MG). Motoneuronal agrin and muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) are known to play essential roles in the formation and maintenance of NMJs in the central region of each muscle. However, it had been unclear how agrin activates MuSK. Recent studies have elucidated the roles of several key molecules, including the cytoplasmic adaptor protein Dok-7 and LDL receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4), in agrin-induced MuSK activation. Moreover, new evidence indicates that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates postsynaptic differentiation. In this review, we summarize the latest developments in molecular mechanisms underlying NMJ formation in vertebrates. PMID:21747134

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years imaging procedures became also important in the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases. We examined more than 150 patients with different neuromuscular diseases with MRI. Conventional diagnostic procedures like EMG, muscle biopsy can not be replaced by imaging procedures. MRI gives the chance to get additional diagnostic informations. It is possible to determine exact distribution and intensity of pathological changes in the muscle. Inflammatory muscle diseases can be differrentiated by T1/T2 values from atrophic/dystrophic diseases. The resolving power is very high and allows the exact detection of affected areas even in a single muscle. This can help to reduce false negative muscle biopsies. This is very useful in children and young adults. MRI can be used for the early detection of genetic myopathies and neuropathies. MRI allows to examine all muscles, including the heart, bone artefacts are absent. Heart muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases can directly be shown by this method without any risk for the patient. In addition P-spectroscopy can be done for better understanding of pathogenesis, especially if the exact distribution of pathological changes is known. (author)

  17. Altered neuromuscular control mechanisms of the trapezius muscle in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Stefan J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background fibromyalgia is a relatively common condition with widespread pain and pressure allodynia, but unknown aetiology. For decades, the association between motor control strategies and chronic pain has been a topic for debate. One long held functional neuromuscular control mechanism is differential activation between regions within a single muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in neuromuscular control, i.e. differential activation, between myalgic trapezius in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Methods 27 fibromyalgia patients and 30 healthy controls performed 3 minutes bilateral shoulder elevations with different loads (0-4 Kg with a high-density surface electromyographical (EMG grid placed above the upper trapezius. Differential activation was quantified by the power spectral median frequency of the difference in EMG amplitude between the cranial and caudal parts of the upper trapezius. The average duration of the differential activation was described by the inverse of the median frequency of the differential activations. Results the median frequency of the differential activations was significantly lower, and the average duration of the differential activations significantly longer in fibromyalgia compared with controls at the two lowest load levels (0-1 Kg (p Conclusion these findings illustrate a different neuromuscular control between fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls during a low load functional task, either sustaining or resulting from the chronic painful condition. The findings may have clinical relevance for rehabilitation strategies for fibromyalgia.

  18. Defective membrane remodeling in neuromuscular diseases: insights from animal models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda S Cowling

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1 a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2 tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches.

  19. Adiposity, physical activity and neuromuscular performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, Eero A; Väistö, Juuso; Lintu, Niina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Brage, Soren; Westgate, Kate; Ekelund, Ulf; Lampinen, Eeva-Kaarina; Sääkslahti, Arja; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the associations of body fat percentage (BF%), objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and different types of physical activity assessed by a questionnaire with neuromuscular performance. The participants were 404 children aged 6-8 years. BF% was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and physical activity by combined heart rate and movement sensing and a questionnaire. The results of 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run, hand grip strength, standing long jump, sit-up, modified flamingo balance, box-and-block and sit-and-reach tests were used as measures of neuromuscular performance. Children who had a combination of higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity had the poorest performance in 50-m shuttle run, 15-m sprint run and standing long jump tests. Higher BF% was associated with slower 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times, shorter distance jumped in standing long jump test, fewer sit-ups, more errors in balance test and less cubes moved in box-and-block test. Higher levels of physical activity and particularly MVPA assessed objectively by combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor were related to shorter 50-m shuttle run and 15-m sprint times. In conclusion, higher BF% and lower levels of physical activity and particularly the combination of these two factors were associated with worse neuromuscular performance. PMID:26734777

  20. BLOQUEIO DO ÓXIDO NÍTRICO COM L-NAME COMPROMETE A MICROCIRCULAÇÃO HEPÁTICA DURANTE ENDOTOXINEMIA Blockade of NO with L-NAME jeopardize hepatic microcirculation during endotoxemia

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Otavio Corso; Yngvar Gundersen; Martina Dörger; Per Lilleaasen; Ansgar Aasen; Konrad Messmer

    1999-01-01

    O bloqueio da produção do óxido nítrico durante endotoxinemia permanece controvertido. Visando avaliar o efeito do bloqueio do óxido nítrico na microcirculação hepática, ratos Sprague-Dawley machos receberam LPS e depois de 2h foram tratados com L-NAME (10 mg/kg, n=6) ou solução salina (NS, n=7). A perfusão sinusoidal foi avaliada pela microscopia intravital, sangue foi colhido das veias hepáticas para determinação do equilíbrio ácido-básico, e a bile produzida durante todo o experimento foi ...

  1. Bloqueio do nervo isquiático por abordagem posterior simplificada no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral: estudo com diferentes volumes de lidocaína a 1%

    OpenAIRE

    Neuber Martins Fonseca; Beatriz Lemos Mandim; Roberto Araújo Ruzi; Fabiana Rosa Tavares

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo isquiático por via subglútea foi descrito com sucesso em estudo anterior, sendo mais uma opção entre as várias abordagens possíveis. O nervo isquiático torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo, permitindo seu acesso com fácil localização, pouco desconforto e baixo risco de punção acidental de grandes vasos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o bloqueio do nervo isquiático por esta abordagem simplificada com diferentes volu...

  2. Bloqueio do plexo lombar no compartimento do psoas para analgesia pós-operatória em cirurgias ortopédicas Lumbar plexus blockage on psoas compartment for postoperative analgesia after orthopaedic surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: O plexo lombar foi localizado entre os músculos quadrado lombar e psoas maior. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da injeção única de bupivacaína 0,25% através do bloqueio do compartimento do psoas na analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes de cirurgias ortopédicas. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes receberam bloqueio do plexo lombar no compartimento do psoas através da localização com estimulador de nervos e injeção de bupivacaína a 0,25%. Avaliou-se a analgesia e a intensidade...

  3. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína (S75-R25) e ropivacaína para avaliar a segurança cardiovascular em bloqueio do plexo braquial

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Hamaji; Marcelo Rosa Rezende; Rames Mattar Jr; Joaquim Edson Vieira; José Otávio Costa Auler Jr

    2013-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bupivacaína é o fármaco de escolha para anestesia regional por causa da eficácia, longa duração e do bloqueio motor menos intenso. Bupivacaína (S75-R25) é uma mistura de isômeros ópticos que contém 75% de levobupivacaína (S-) e 25% de dextrobupivacaína (R+) e foi criada por uma companhia farmacêutica brasileira. Este estudo comparou a eficácia e segurança de bupivacaína S75-R25 com vasoconstritor e ropivacaína para o sistema cardiovascular em bloqueio do plexo braqu...

  4. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Fernández; Albano Carrera; Ramon Durán; Ramon de la Rosa; Alonso Alonso

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is c...

  5. The effect of cognitive fatigue on prefrontal cortex correlates of neuromuscular fatigue in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Shortz, Ashley E.; Pickens, Adam; Zheng, Qi; Mehta, Ranjana K.

    2015-01-01

    Background As the population of adults aged 65 and above is rapidly growing, it is crucial to identify physical and cognitive limitations pertaining to daily living. Cognitive fatigue has shown to adversely impact neuromuscular function in younger adults, however its impact on neuromuscular fatigue, and associated brain function changes, in older adults is not well understood. The aim of the study was to examine the impact of cognitive fatigue on neuromuscular fatigue and associated prefronta...

  6. Effects of neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure admitted to ward

    OpenAIRE

    de Araújo Carlos José Soares; Gonçalves Fernanda Souza; Bittencourt Hugo Souza; dos Santos Noélia Gonçalves; Junior Sérgio Vitor Mecca; Neves Júlio Leal Bandeira; Fernandes André Maurício Souza; Junior Roque Aras; dos Reis FranciscoJoséFariasBorges; Guimarães Armênio Costa; Junior ErenaldodeSouzaRodrigues; Carvalho Vitor Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrostimulation has become a promising issue in cardiovascular rehabilitation. However there are few articles published in the literature regarding neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure during hospital stay. Methods This is a randomized controlled pilot trial that aimed to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrostimulation in the walked distance by the six-minute walking test in 30 patients admitted to ward for heart failu...

  7. PICU EXTUBATION FAILURE: THE ROLE OF NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Billan MD,

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuromuscular disorders (diseases of the motor unit, can cause respiratory problems such as impaired cough reflex, chest deformity, recurrent pneumonia and acute respiratory failure; these are the worst most common complications of these diseases and the leading cause of death in such patients (1, 2. Their management hence, very often, entails admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU (3,4 and during this phase, endotracheal intubation is almost always necessary, to maintain the patency of airways and to apply Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV. However, endotracheal intubation is always temporary, and its success or failure depends on the timely decision of its termination to restore the normal respiration or to avoid the risk of recurring respiratory failure (5, 6. We designed this study to evaluate the role of neuromuscular disorders in causing extubation failure as compared to that of other risk factors.Materials & MethodsIn an analytical cross-sectional study, the risk factors of reintubation and duration of mechanical ventilation in two groups of 30 patients each, was compared, the first successful extubation and the second with extubation failure.ResultsNeuromuscular disorders (including Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Guillain- Barre' Syndrome, Congenital Myopathies and Muscular Dystrophies were the main underlying diseases in extubation-failure group (P= 0.0002. Hypercapnia (PaCO2>50mmHg was shown to be the most common cause of both the first intubation (P=0.001 and reintubation (P=0.004 in the group of patients who failed extubation. The mean duration of intubation and mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with neuromuscular disorders who had extubation failure (P= 0.01.ConclusionThis study showed that, as underlying problems, neuromuscular disorders are the most common causes of prolonged intubation which defeat weaning from the ventilator and result in reintubation by inducing hypercapnia. Therefore the weaning

  8. Estudo radiológico da dispersão de diferentes volumes de anestésico local no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior Estudio radiológico de la dispersión de diferentes volúmenes de anestésico local en el bloqueo de plexo braquial por vía posterior Radiological evaluation of the spread of different local anesthetic volumes during posterior brachial plexus block

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel; Carlos Henrique Viana de Castro; Yerkes Pereira Silva; Flávio de Oliveira França; Flávio Lago

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dispersão do anestésico local no bloqueio interescalênico foi bem estudada, porém no bloqueio pela via posterior são poucos os estudos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dispersão de diferentes volumes de anestésico local nesta técnica através de exame radiológico contrastado. MÉTODO: Dezesseis pacientes submetidos a bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior, 15 foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de cinco: Grupo 1: volume de 20 mL; Grupo 2: v...

  9. Estudo comparativo entre clonidina associada à bupivacaína e bupivacaína isolada em bloqueio de plexo cervical para endarterectomia de carótida Estudio comparativo entre la clonidina asociada a la bupivacaína y la bupivacaína aislada en bloqueo de plexo cervical para endarterectomía de carótida A comparative study between bupivacaine and clonidine associated with bupivacaine in cervical plexus block for carotid endarterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Pinto Neto; Adriana Machado Issy; Rioko Kimiko Sakata

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio de plexo cervical permite avaliação neurológica durante a endarterctomia, além de manter analgesia pós-operatória. A clonidina é agonista alfa2 com efeito analgésico em diferentes bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito analgésico da clonidina com bupivacaína em relação à bupivacaína isolada em bloqueio de plexo cervical. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes de forma aleatória e duplamente-encoberta divididos em dois grupos: G1 recebeu 1,...

  10. Análise retrospectiva de fatores de risco e preditores de complicações intraoperatórias dos bloqueios do neuroeixo realizados na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-UNESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dias Fernandes Pereira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As alterações cardiovasculares associadas aos bloqueios do neuroeixo apresentam interesse pela frequência com que ocorrem e porque algumas delas podem ser consideradas efeitos fisiológicos desencadeados pelo bloqueio do sistema nervoso simpático. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as complicações cardiovasculares intraoperatórias e os fatores preditores associados aos bloqueios do neuroeixo em pacientes com idades > 18 anos submetidos a procedimentos não obstétricos, em um período de 18 anos, em hospital universitário de atendimento terciário-HCFMB-UNESP. MÉTODO: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva das seguintes complicações: hipertensão arterial, hipotensão arterial, bradicardia sinusal e taquicardia sinusal. Tais complicações foram correlacionadas com técnica anestésica, estado físico (ASA, idade, sexo e comorbidades pré-operatórias. Para a análise estatística, foram utilizadas o teste de Tukey para comparações entre proporções e regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 32.554 pacientes submetidos a bloqueios do neuroeixo e houve 4.109 citações de hipotensão arterial, 1.107 de bradicardia sinusal, 601 de taquicardia sinusal e 466 de hipertensão arterial no período intraoperatório. Hipotensão foi mais frequente nos pacientes submetidos à anestesia subaracnoidea contínua (29,4%, OR = 2,39, com idades > 61 anos e do sexo feminino (OR = 1,27. CONCLUSÕES: Hipotensão e bradicardia intraoperatórias foram complicações mais frequentes, sendo que a hipotensão arterial esteve relacionada à técnica anestésica (ASC, faixa etária elevada e sexo feminino. Taquicardia e hipertensão arterial podem não ter sido diretamente relacionadas aos bloqueios do neuroeixo.

  11. Bloqueio do nervo isquiático por abordagem posterior simplificada no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral: estudo com diferentes volumes de lidocaína a 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Neuber Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do nervo isquiático por via subglútea foi descrito com sucesso em estudo anterior, sendo mais uma opção entre as várias abordagens possíveis. O nervo isquiático torna-se superficial na borda inferior do músculo glúteo máximo, permitindo seu acesso com fácil localização, pouco desconforto e baixo risco de punção acidental de grandes vasos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o bloqueio do nervo isquiático por esta abordagem simplificada com diferentes volumes de lidocaína a 1%. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes com intervenções cirúrgicas na perna ou no pé distribuídos em dois grupos. Após monitorização, eles foram posicionados em decúbito ventral e realizado bloqueio no ponto médio do sulco glúteo-femoral, com auxílio de neuroestimulador e agulha de 5 cm eletricamente isolada, utilizando 300 mg (G1 ou 200 mg (G2 de lidocaína a 1% sem adrenalina. RESULTADOS: Obteve-se anestesia adequada em todos os casos com o volume e a concentração usados. O tempo de execução do bloqueio foi de 8,6 ? 5,7 min (G1 e 5,6 ? 5,7 min (G2. A latência foi de 5,98 ? 1,4 min (G1 e 6,7 ? 2,9 min (G2. A duração sensitiva e motora do bloqueio foi de 243 ? 37 min e 152 ? 30 min (G1 e 235 ? 39 min e 149 ? 59 min (G2, respectivamente. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os grupos estudados. CONCLUSÕES: Essa abordagem é eficaz e de fácil execução, podendo a dose total de anestésico ser reduzida sem comprometimento da qualidade.

  12. Estudo comparativo entre bupivacaína (S75-R25 e ropivacaína para avaliar a segurança cardiovascular em bloqueio do plexo braquial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Hamaji

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bupivacaína é o fármaco de escolha para anestesia regional por causa da eficácia, longa duração e do bloqueio motor menos intenso. Bupivacaína (S75-R25 é uma mistura de isômeros ópticos que contém 75% de levobupivacaína (S- e 25% de dextrobupivacaína (R+ e foi criada por uma companhia farmacêutica brasileira. Este estudo comparou a eficácia e segurança de bupivacaína S75-R25 com vasoconstritor e ropivacaína para o sistema cardiovascular em bloqueio do plexo braquial. MÉTODOS: Pacientes foram randomizados para receber bloqueio do plexo braquial com bupivacaína S75-R25 (Grupo B com epinefrina 1:200.000 ou ropivacaína (Grupo R, ambos os fármacos a 0,50%, em 30 mL ECG contínuo (Holter foi registrado durante todo o procedimento, bem como a escala de força de Lovett, além de monitoramento (frequência cardíaca, oximetria de pulso e pressão arterial não invasiva. A incidência de eventos adversos foi comparada com os testes do qui-quadrado ou exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e quatro pacientes foram estudados. Não houve diferença significativa em relação à idade, peso, altura, gênero e tempo cirúrgico. Não houve diferença entre arritmias supraventriculares antes ou depois do bloqueio do plexo braquial, independentemente do anestésico local escolhido. A perda de sensibilidade foi mais rápida no Grupo B (23,1 ± 11,7 min em comparação com o Grupo R (26,8 ± 11,5 min, embora não significativa (p = 0,205, teste t de Student. Houve uma redução da frequência cardíaca, observada durante a monitoração contínua de 24 horas (Holter. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou eficácia semelhante entre bupivacaína S75-R25 e ropivacaína para bloqueio do plexo braquial, com incidências semelhantes de arritmias supraventriculares.

  13. A dexmedetomidina para sedação, por via venosa, não interfere com a duração dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor da raquianestesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Edno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia locorregional é uma prática freqüente e de grande aplicabilidade em Anestesiologia. Contudo, o paciente pode tornar-se ansioso, fazendo-se necessária a sedação. Os agentes benzodiazepínicos, opióides e o propofol são amplamente utilizados com este objetivo. Os agonistas alfa2-adrenérgicos possuem propriedades hipnóticas e sedativas e são uma alternativa no arsenal terapêutico, conferindo estabilidade hemodinâmica e mínima depressão respiratória. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a segurança e a interferência do uso da dexmedetomidina ou do midazolam, por via venosa, na duração dos bloqueios motor e sensitivo em raquianestesia. MÉTODO: Foram estudadas 35 pacientes adultas, do sexo feminino, estado físico ASA I e II, submetidas à raquianestesia com bupivacaína a 0,5% hiperbárica (15 mg, para cirurgia ginecológica eletiva, distribuídas de modo aleatório em dois grupos: grupo M (n = 17 - sedação com midazolam em infusão contínua a 0,25 µg.kg-1.min-1 e grupo D (n = 18 - sedação com dexmedetomidina em infusão contínua a 0,5 µg.kg-1.min-1. A velocidade de infusão foi ajustada para manter o valor de BIS entre 60 e 80. Foram analisados os valores de PAS, PAD, FC, SpO2, BIS, extensão e duração dos bloqueios sensitivo motor (escala de Bromage. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos quanto à idade, peso, nível de bloqueio sensitivo, variação na pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e na duração dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor. CONCLUSÕES: A dexmedetomidina utilizada em sedação, por via venosa, não interferiu nos parâmetros hemodinâmicos, duração ou extensão dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor na raquianestesia, representando boa opção para sedação durante anestesia locorregional.

  14. Resultados do tratamento das fraturas do terço proximal do úmero com placas de bloqueio Results of treatment of proximal humerus fractures using locking plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cará Monteiro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação dos resultados do tratamento das fraturas do terço proximal do úmero com placa de bloqueio proximal. MÉTODOS: No período de novembro de 2003 a janeiro de 2008, os autores realizaram 34 osteossínteses em 33 pacientes com fratura do úmero proximal, sendo 17 fraturas tipo II de Neer, 13 do tipo III e quatro do tipo IV. A média de idade foi de 57 anos (33 a 86, sendo 14 pacientes do sexo masculino e 19 do sexo feminino. Todos os pacientes foram operados na fase aguda da fratura, até uma semana após o trauma. Os pacientes foram tratados com redução aberta e fixação interna utilizando placas de bloqueio. A técnica utilizada, o implante, o tempo de imobilização e protocolo de reabilitação foram os mesmos para todos os pacientes. O seguimento médio foi de 24 meses (8 a 60 meses. RESULTADOS: A avaliação funcional foi realizada através do escore da Universidade da Califórnia em Los Angeles (UCLA. Foram obtidos 31 (91,2% excelentes e bons resultados, e 3(8,8% maus resultados. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos ser eficaz este método de fixação interna para fraturas do terço proximal do úmero.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical results after proximal humerus fracture fixation using blocked plates and screws. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from November 2003 to January 2008, the authors treated 33 patients with 34 fractures of the proximal humerus. The mean age was 57 years old (33 to 86 years, 14 males and 19 females. All patients were operated in the acute phase, within the first week after the trauma. The patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using locking plates. The surgical technique, implants, period of immobilization and rehabilitation protocol were the same for all the patients. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 24 months (8 to 60 months. The functional evaluation was based in the UCLA score. Good and excellent results were present in 31 (91.2% of the patients and 3 (8.8% of

  15. Analgesia pós-operatória para procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos de quadril e fêmur: comparação entre bloqueio do compartimento do psoas e bloqueio perivascular inguinal Analgesia postoperatoria para procedimientos quirúrgicos ortopédicos de cadera y fémur: comparación entre bloqueo del compartimiento del psoas y bloqueo perivascular inguinal Postoperative analgesia for orthopedic surgeries of the hip and femur: a comparison between psoas compartment and inguinal paravascular blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni; Lúcia Beato; Carolina Beato; José Antônio Cordeiro

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Este estudo avaliou a eficácia da injeção única de bupivacaína a 0,25% no compartimento do psoas ou perivascular inguinal por meio do estimulador de nervos periféricos para analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos a intervenções cirúrgicas ortopédicas. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes receberam bloqueio do plexo lombar através do compartimento do psoas e foram comparados com 100 pacientes que receberam bloqueio do plexo lombar via perivascular inguinal, identificados p...

  16. Clinical use of creatine in neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    Many of the neuromuscular (e.g., muscular dystrophy) and neurometabolic (e.g., mitochondrial cytopathies) disorders share similar final common pathways of cellular dysfunction that may be favorably influenced by creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation. Studies using the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy have found evidence of enhanced mitochondrial function, reduced intra-cellular calcium and improved performance with CrM supplementation. Clinical trials in patients with Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy have shown improved function, fat-free mass, and some evidence of improved bone health with CrM supplementation. In contrast, the improvements in function in myotonic dystrophy and inherited neuropathies (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth) have not been significant. Some studies in patients with mitochondrial cytopathies have shown improved muscle endurance and body composition, yet other studies did not find significant improvements in patients with mitochondrial cytopathy. Lower-dose CrM supplementation in patients with McArdle's disease (myophosphorylase deficiency) improved exercise capacity, yet higher doses actually showed some indication of worsened function. Based upon known cellular pathologies, there are potential benefits from CrM supplementation in patients with steroid myopathy, inflammatory myopathy, myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Larger randomized control trials (RCT) using homogeneous patient groups and objective and clinically relevant outcome variables are needed to determine whether creatine supplementation will be of therapeutic benefit to patients with neuromuscular or neurometabolic disorders. Given the relatively low prevalence of some of the neuromuscular and neurometabolic disorders, it will be necessary to use surrogate markers of potential clinical efficacy including markers of oxidative stress, cellular energy charge, and gene expression patterns. PMID:18652078

  17. Neuromuscular Responses to Simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Fights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa da Silva Bruno Victor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the neuromuscular performance responses following successive Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ fights. Twenty-three BJJ athletes (age: 26.3 ± 6.3 years; body mass: 79.4 ± 9.7 kg; body height: 1.80 ± 0.1 m undertook 3 simulated BJJ fights (10 min duration each separated by 15 min of rest. Neuromuscular performance was measured by the bench press throw (BPT and vertical counter movement jump (VCMJ tests, assessed before the 1st fight (Pre and after the last one (Post. Blood lactate (LA was measured at Pre, 1 min Post, and 15 min Post fights. Paired t-tests were employed in order to compare the BPT and VCMJ results. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests were utilized to compare LA responses. The results revealed a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VCMJ performance (40.8 ± 5.5 cm Pre vs. 42.0 ± 5.8 cm Post, but no significant changes in the BPT (814 ± 167 W Pre vs. 835 ± 213 W Post were observed. LA concentration increased significantly (p < 0.05 at Post, both in the 1st min and the 15th min of recovery. We concluded that successive simulated BJJ fights demanded considerable anaerobic contribution of ATP supply, reinforcing the high-intensity intermittent nature of the sport. Nevertheless, no negative impact on acute neuromuscular performance (power was observed.

  18. Nerve excitability testing and its clinical application to neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kaji, Ryuji

    2006-09-01

    Non-invasive nerve excitability testing measures the membrane polarization, ion channel function and paranodal/internodal condition of peripheral nerves. This technique has been recently used for various neuromuscular disorders, such as pure motor conduction block in multifocal motor neuropathy, conduction block in carpal tunnel syndrome and Na(+) channel function disorders in diabetic neuropathy, to shed light on their pathophysiology. Here, we review the basics of ion channel functions and membrane properties that influence nerve excitability, the basic principles of nerve excitability testing and the reported findings in various disorders. PMID:16631406

  19. Cardiac involvement in children with neuro-muscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Arkhipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many inherited neuromuscular disorders include cardiac involvement as a typical clinical feature. Among the most common of them is the group of muscular dystrophies. Dilated cardiomyopathy, ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillations, atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and sudden cardiac death are well known pathological findings in Duchenne muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy type I and 2, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophies and different types of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies and other disorders. Detection of cardiac pathology in patients with different muscular dystrophies is possible with ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, which are recommended for screening and early cardioprotective treatment.

  20. Assembly and regulation of acetylcholinesterase at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Rotundo, R. L.; Ruiz, C.A.; Marrero, E.; Kimbell, L. M.; Rossi, S.G.; Rosenberry, T.; Darr, A; Tsoulfas, P.

    2008-01-01

    The collagen-tailed form of acetylcholinesterase (ColQ-AChE) is the major if not unique form of the enzyme associated with the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This enzyme form consists of catalytic and non-catalytic subunits encoded by separate genes, assembled as three enzymatic tetramers attached to the three-stranded collagen-like tail (ColQ). This synaptic form of the enzyme is tightly attached to the basal lamina associated with the glycosaminoglycan perlecan. Fasciculin-2 is a snake toxin...

  1. Resúmenes de los trabajos sobre las Enfermedades Neuromusculares

    OpenAIRE

    Congreso Nacional de Neurología

    2010-01-01

    Las enfermedades neuromusculares constituyen un conjunto de afectaciones que afectan las neuronas motoras periférica, las vías motoras eferentes o los efectores (músculos esqueléticos). Sus manifestaciones clínicas son muy variadas y dependen de la causa y de los niveles de afectación. En este acápite se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de trabajos relacionados con el síndrome de Guillain Barre, polineuropatía diabética, Atrofia Muscular Espinal, Distrofia miotónica y otros todos presentados en...

  2. Optimising abdominal space with deep neuromuscular blockade in gynaecologic laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Matias Vested; Gätke, M R; Springborg, H H;

    2015-01-01

    neuromuscular blockade (NMB) would enlarge surgical space, measured as the distance from the sacral promontory to the trocar in patients undergoing gynaecologic laparoscopy. METHODS: Fourteen patients were randomised in an assessor-blinded crossover design. The distance from the sacral promontory to the trocar...... resulted in significantly better ratings of surgical conditions during suturing of the fascia (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney U-test). CONCLUSION: Deep NMB enlarged surgical space measured as the distance from the sacral promontory to the trocar. The enlargement, however, was minor and the clinical significance is...

  3. MRI in neuromuscular disorders; MRT bei neuromuskulaeren Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischmann, Arne [Klinik St. Anna, Luzern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Fischer, Dirk [Kantonsspital Bruderholz (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostics of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases with the aid of computerized tomography is treated. Computerized tomography of skeletal muscles give no information which is pathognomonic for particular diseases. But the technique can be used in the following aspects: to choose a muscle for a biopsy; when it is not possible to examine the function of a muscle, a CT scan can visualize morphological deviations; in the differentiation of muscle hypertrophy and pseudo-hypertrophy. For some cases as Becker-type muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and Kugelberg-Welander type spinal muscular atrophy computerized tomography gives characteristic images. 10 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Plantar flexor neuromuscular adjustments following match-play football in hot and cool conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girard, O; Nybo, Lars; Mohr, Magni;

    2015-01-01

    We assessed neuromuscular fatigue and recovery of the plantar flexors after playing football with or without severe heat stress. Neuromuscular characteristics of the plantar flexors were assessed in 17 male players at baseline and ∼30 min, 24, and 48 h after two 90-min football matches in temperate...

  6. Pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents : Good Clinical Research Practice (GCRP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viby-Mogensen, J; Ostergaard, D; Donati, F; Fisher, D; Hunter, J; Kampmann, JP; Kopman, A; Proost, JH; Rasmussen, SN; Skovgaard, LT; Varin, F; Wright, PMC

    2000-01-01

    In September 1997, an international consensus conference on standardization of studies of neuromuscular blocking agents was held in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on the conference, a set of guidelines fur good clinical research practice (GCRT) in pharmacokinetic studies of neuromuscular blocking agents

  7. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Steib, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular traini

  8. The Wnt and BMP Families of Signaling Morphogens at the Vertebrate Neuromuscular Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Henríquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuromuscular junction has been extensively employed in order to identify crucial determinants of synaptogenesis. At the vertebrate neuromuscular synapse, extracellular matrix and signaling proteins play stimulatory and inhibitory roles on the assembly of functional synapses. Studies in invertebrate species have revealed crucial functions of early morphogens during the assembly and maturation of the neuromuscular junction. Here, we discuss growing evidence addressing the function of Wnt and Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathways at the vertebrate neuromuscular synapse. We focus on the emerging role of Wnt proteins as positive and negative regulators of postsynaptic differentiation. We also address the possible involvement of BMP pathways on motor neuron behavior for the assembly and/or regeneration of the neuromuscular junction.

  9. A neuromuscular monitoring system based on a personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D A; Hull, M

    1992-07-01

    We have developed a computerized neuromuscular monitoring system (NMMS) using commercially available subsystems, i.e., computer equipment, clinical nerve stimulator, force transducer, and strip-chart recorder. This NMMS was developed for acquisition and analysis of data for research and teaching purposes. Computer analysis of the muscle response to stimulation allows graphic and numeric presentation of the twitch response and calculated ratios. Since the system can store and recall data, research data can be accessed for analysis and graphic presentation. An IBM PC/AT computer is used as the central controller and data processor. The computer controls timing of the nerve stimulator output, initiates data acquisition, and adjusts the paper speed of the strip chart recorder. The data processing functions include establishing control response values (when no neuromuscular blockade is present), displaying force versus time and calculated data graphically and numerically, and storing these data for further analysis. The general purpose nature of the computer and strip chart recording equipment allow modification of the system primarily by changes in software. For example, new patterns of nerve stimulation, such as the posttetanic count, can be programmed into the computer system along with appropriate data display and analysis routines. The NMMS has functioned well in the operating room environment. We have had no episodes of electrocautery interference with the computer functions. The automated features have enhanced the utility of the NMMS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1322977

  10. Circuit modeling of the electrical impedance: I. Neuromuscular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifrequency electrical impedance myography (MFEIM) in the 3–300 kHz range was applied to 68 subjects representing 19 different neuromuscular diseases, and the impedances analyzed using the 5-element circuit model. Depending on severity, the ‘cellular’ parameters r2, r3, 1/c1 and 1/c2 were found to be as much as 10- to 20-fold larger than for normal subjects (taking age and girth into account), but in almost every case the extracellular fluid parameter r1 was at most only marginally affected. Strong correlations are found between r2 and 1/c1, but in the case of ALS that breaks down when c1 (representing the muscle fiber membrane capacitance) falls below half the normal value. Also, c2 (tentatively associated with intracellular organelle membranes) was found to be the most sensitive to disease progress in ALS, about three times more so than the 50 kHz phase, already suggested for use in clinical drug testing. We conclude that following parameters obtained using the combined MFEIM/5-element circuit analysis scheme offer a reliable, non-invasive and objective way of characterizing muscle in neuromuscular disease or during clinical drug testing. (paper)

  11. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Jennifer; Beeson, David J; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2010-08-01

    Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by autoantibodies targeting postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors. Antibodies to muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) are detected in a variable proportion of the remainder. Treatment is symptomatic and immunomodulatory. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is caused by antibodies to presynaptic calcium channels, and approximately 50% of cases are paraneoplastic, most often related to small cell carcinoma of the lung. Botulism is an acquired disorder caused by neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, impairing acetylcholine release into the synaptic cleft. In addition, several rare congenital myasthenic syndromes have been identified, caused by inherited defects in presynaptic, synaptic basal lamina and postsynaptic proteins necessary for neuromuscular transmission. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. PMID:20547629

  12. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via interescalênica: efeitos sobre a função pulmonar Bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía interescalénica: efectos sobre la función pulmonar Interscalene brachial plexus block: effects on pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hortense; Marcelo Vaz Perez; Jose Luis Gomes do Amaral; Ana Cristina Martins de Vasconcelos Oshiro; Heloisa Baccaro Rossetti

    2010-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A via interescalênica é um dos acessos mais comumente utilizados no bloqueio do plexo braquial. Todavia, tem-se demonstrado associação dessa técnica com o bloqueio do nervo frênico ipsilateral. A disfunção diafragmática daí resultante provoca alterações na mecânica pulmonar, potencialmente deletérias em pacientes com limitação da reserva ventilatória. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a repercussão do bloqueio interescalênico sobre a função pulmonar por meio da medid...

  13. Arraste via fecal de nutrientes da ingestão produzido por bagaço de mandioca hidrolisado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raupp Dorivaldo da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A ingestão de fibras alimentares pode resultar em arraste de outros nutrientes para as fezes. Bagaço de mandioca produzido por polvilheira foi submetido à hidrólise enzimática para obtenção de um produto mais concentrado em fibra alimentar insolúvel denominado de bagaço de mandioca hidrolisado (BMH. O BMH foi avaliado em ensaios biológicos com ratos Wistar quanto a sua habilidade de arrastar os nutrientes da ingestão para as fezes, tendo como padrão de fibra o farelo de trigo (FT. Acréscimo à dieta base, substituindo igual quantidade de amido, de dose de 5%, 15% ou 25% de BMH promoveu arraste significativo de minerais (globalidade ou proteína; dose de 15% ou 25% promoveu arraste significativo de lipídeo; e, dose de 25% promoveu arraste significativo de carboidrato digestível. Dose de 25% de FT produziu arraste significativo de minerais (globalidade, proteína ou carboidrato digestível, mas, o lipídeo não foi arrastado. BMH produziu efeito mais pronunciado que FT em arrastar minerais (globalidade ou proteína para a dose de 5% ou 15%; no entanto, para a dose alta, de 25%, as fontes produziram efeitos semelhantes em arrastar a proteína, mas o FT promoveu maior arraste de minerais (globalidade. Não houve diferença entre fontes, BMH e FT, em arrastar lipídeo ou carboidrato digestível para as fezes. Na dose alta (25% o BMH promoveu efeitos, no máximo, semelhantes ao FT, em arrastar para as fezes os nutrientes da ingestão; assim, é recomendado como fonte alternativa de fibra alimentar insolúvel para a formulação de alimentos funcionais-digestivos.

  14. A feedback inclusive neuromuscular training program alters frontal plane kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greska, Eric K; Cortes, Nelson; Van Lunen, Bonnie L; Oñate, James A

    2012-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) neuromuscular training programs have demonstrated beneficial effects in reducing ACL injuries, yet further evaluation of their effects on biomechanical measures across a sports team season is required to elucidate the specific factors that are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 10-week off-season neuromuscular training program on lower extremity kinematics. Twelve Division I female soccer players (age: 19.2 ± 0.8 years, height: 1.67 ± 0.1 m, weight: 60.2 ± 6.5 kg) performed unanticipated dynamic trials of a running stop-jump task pretraining and posttraining. Data collection was performed using an 8-camera Vicon system (Los Angeles, CA, USA) and 2 Bertec (Columbus, OH, USA) force plates. The 10-week training program consisted of resistance training 2 times per week and field training, consisting of plyometric, agility, and speed drills, 2 times per week. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to assess the differences between pretraining and posttraining kinetics and kinematics of the hip, knee, and ankle at initial contact (IC), peak knee flexion (PKF), and peak stance. Repeated measures ANOVAs were also used to assess isometric strength differences pretraining and posttraining. The alpha level was set at 0.05 a priori. The training program demonstrated significant increases in left hip extension, left and right hip flexion, and right hip adduction isometric strength. At IC, knee abduction angle moved from an abducted to an adducted position (-1.48 ± 3.65° to 1.46 ± 3.86°, p = 0.007), and hip abduction angle increased (-6.05 ± 4.63° to -10.34 ± 6.83°, p = 0.007). Hip abduction angle at PKF increased (-2.23 ± 3.40° to 6.01 ± 3.82°, p = 0.002). The maximum knee extension moment achieved at peak stance increased from pretraining to posttraining (2.02 ± 0.32 to 2.38 ± 0.75 N·m·kg⁻¹, p = 0.027). The neuromuscular training program demonstrated a potential

  15. Bloqueio do plexo lombar no compartimento do psoas para analgesia pós-operatória em cirurgias ortopédicas Lumbar plexus blockage on psoas compartment for postoperative analgesia after orthopaedic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O plexo lombar foi localizado entre os músculos quadrado lombar e psoas maior. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da injeção única de bupivacaína 0,25% através do bloqueio do compartimento do psoas na analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes de cirurgias ortopédicas. MÉTODO: Quarenta pacientes receberam bloqueio do plexo lombar no compartimento do psoas através da localização com estimulador de nervos e injeção de bupivacaína a 0,25%. Avaliou-se a analgesia e a intensidade da dor às 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 e 24 horas após o término da cirurgia, assim como opióides de resgate. RESULTADOS: Os nervos ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, cutâneo femoral lateral, femoral e obturatório foram bloqueados em 90% dos pacientes. O bloqueio reduziu o regaste de opióides administrados, sendo que 52,5% dos pacientes não necessitaram de complementação analgésica, com duração de 24 horas. Não foram observados sinais e sintomas clínicos da toxicidade da bupivacaína, nem seqüelas associadas com o bloqueio dos nervos. CONCLUSÕES: Este estudo mostra que a injeção no espaço do compartimento do psoas é fácil de realizar com efetivo bloqueio dos cinco nervos. O bloqueio do plexo lombar no compartimento do psoas pode ser recomendado para o uso na analgesia pós-operatória após cirurgias ortopédicas.OBJECTIVES: The lumbar plexus is located between the quadratus lumborum and the psoas major muscles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single 0.25% bupivacaine injection through the psoas compartment blockage in postoperative analgesia of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. METHODS: 40 patients received lumbar plexus blockage at the psoas compartment through nerve stimulator and a 0.25% bupivacaine 40-ml injection. Analgesia and pain severity were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours after surgery, similarly to rescue opioids. RESULTS: The ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral cutaneous of the

  16. Zebrafish calls for reinterpretation for the roles of P/Q calcium channels in neuromuscular transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Hua WEN; Linhoff, Michael W.; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Nelson, Nathan R.; Stensland, Donald; Dallman, Julia; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A long-held tenet of neuromuscular transmission is that calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release is mediated by N-type calcium channels in frog but P/Q-type channels in mammals. The N-type assignment in frog is based principally on pharmacological sensitivity to ω-conotoxin GVIA. Our studies show that zebrafish neuromuscular transmission is also sensitive to ω-conotoxin GVIA. However, positional cloning of a mutant line with compromised neuromuscular function identified a mutation in a P/Q-...

  17. Raquianestesia total após bloqueio do plexo lombar por via posterior: relato de caso Raquianestesia total después del bloqueo del plexo lumbar por vía posterior: relato de caso Total spinal block after posterior lumbar plexus blockade: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte; Renato Ângelo Saraiva

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo lombar pode ser bastante útil em procedimentos cirúrgicos do quadril, da coxa e do joelho, mas exige prática do anestesiologista tendo em vista suas potenciais complicações. O presente relato tem por objetivo apresentar um caso de raquianestesia total após bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior e discutir o provável mecanismo fisiopatológico. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 34 anos, 97 kg, estado físico ASA I, programado para art...

  18. Estudo comparativo dos bloqueios intercostal e interpleural para analgesia pós-operatória em colecistectomias abertas Estudio comparativo de los bloqueos intercostal e interpleural para analgesia pós-operatoria en colecistectomias abiertas Comparative study of intercostal and interpleural block for post-cholecystectomy analgesia

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Mauro Vieira; Taylor Brandão Schnaider; Antonio Carlos Aguiar Brandão; João Pires Campos Neto

    2003-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A analgesia no pós-operatório é desejada pelos pacientes e tem sido praticada pela maioria dos anestesiologistas. Além dos opióides, os anestésicos locais têm sido utilizados nos bloqueios periféricos e centrais para se obter a analgesia pós-operatória. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de bloqueio dos nervos intercostais para analgesia pós-operatória em colecistectomias abertas. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes foram submetidos a colecistectomias abertas...

  19. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via supraclavicular: estudo clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína e levobupivacaína Bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía supraclavicular: estudio clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína y levobupivacaína Supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a comparative clinical study between bupivacaine and levobupivacaine

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo Pinotti Pedro; Lígia Andrade Silva Telles Mathias; Judymara Lauzi Gozzani; Flavia Salles de Souza Pinotti Pedro; José Carlos Rittes

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio de plexo braquial é técnica anestésica utilizada para procedimentos em membros superiores. O plexo braquial é território potencial para absorção de anestésicos locais. Estudos dos estereoisômeros da bupivacaína vêm demonstrando menor potencial de toxicidade da fração levógira (levobupivacaína) sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Porém, é discutida a eficácia anestésica (bloqueio sensitivo e motor) da levobupivacaína em anestesia do neuroeixo. Este estudo visa...

  20. Bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical, em paciente com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica: relato de caso Bloqueo del plexo braquial, por vía infraclavicular vertical, en paciente con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica: relato de caso Infraclavicular vertical brachial plexus blockade in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Diogo Brüggemann da Conceição; Pablo Escovedo Helayel; Fernanda Cecato

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC) têm risco aumentado de complicações pós-operatórias, sobretudo quando submetidos à anestesia geral. O bloqueio do plexo braquial representa uma alternativa para estes pacientes em intervenções cirúrgicas de membros superiores. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso de bloqueio do plexo braquial, por via infraclavicular vertical em paciente com DPOC com fratura de cotovelo. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do...

  1. Bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior com uso de neuroestimulador e ropivacaína a 0,5% Bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía posterior con el uso de neuroestimulador y ropivacaína a 0,5% Posterior brachial plexus block with nerve stimulator and 0.5% ropivacaine

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Beato; Gustavo Camocardi; Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Existem várias maneiras de abordar o plexo braquial dependendo da experiência do anestesiologista e da região a ser operada. O bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior pode representar uma alternativa para cirurgias de ombro, clavícula e úmero proximal. O objetivo deste estudo foi mostrar os resultados observados em pacientes submetidos a bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior com uso de neuroestimulador e ropivacaína a 0,5%. MÉTODO: Vinte e dois pacient...

  2. Presynaptic elements involved in the maintenance of the neuromuscular junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Alterations in the neuromuscular junction were observed in rats preceding loss of muscle mass. In view of the possibility that these alterations involve changes in the secretion of myotrophic agents by presynaptic motor neurons, an investigation was undertaken to characterize a neuronall factor which is thought to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of cholinergic synapses. This factor, which is secreted into the incubation medium by NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells, induces the aggregation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on primary cultures of rat hindlimb myotubes. Previous attempts to purify this factor failed. Extensive washing of the NG108-15 cells with hepes-buffered salt solution followed by short (4 hour) collection times resulted in the collection of incubation medium containing maximal aggregation activity with as little as 5 ug secreted protein per ml of fresh medium. A three-fold increase in specific activity was obtained after anion exchange chromatography.

  3. Active zone stability:insights from fly neuromuscular junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Tian; Chunlai Wu

    2015-01-01

    The presynaptic active zone is a dynamic structure that orchestrates regulated release of neurotrans-mitters. Developmental and aging processes, and changes in neuronal network activity can all modulate the number, size and composition of active zone and thereby synaptic efifcacy. However, very little is known about the mechanism that controls the structural stability of active zone. By study-ing a model synapse, theDrosophila neuromuscular junction, our recent work shed light on how two scaffolding proteins at the active zone regulate active zone stability by promoting a localized dephos-phorylation event at the nerve terminal. Here we discuss the major insights from our ifndings and their implications for future research.

  4. Resúmenes de los trabajos sobre las Enfermedades Neuromusculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congreso Nacional de Neurología

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades neuromusculares constituyen un conjunto de afectaciones que afectan las neuronas motoras periférica, las vías motoras eferentes o los efectores (músculos esqueléticos. Sus manifestaciones clínicas son muy variadas y dependen de la causa y de los niveles de afectación. En este acápite se pueden encontrar los resúmenes de trabajos relacionados con el síndrome de Guillain Barre, polineuropatía diabética, Atrofia Muscular Espinal, Distrofia miotónica y otros todos presentados en el salón que abordó estas enfermedades.

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation on neuromuscular junctions in mouse tongues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage to neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in mouse tongues was studied using local x-irradiation of the tongues with the rest of the body shielded. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no significant morphological changes in fine structures and organelles of the NMJs given 4Gy. A dose of 8Gy produced degenerative morphological changes associated with axon terminal sprouting as early as 2 and 7 days following irradiation. Subsequently, 1-11 weeks later, severe degenerative changes were observed. The number of mitochondria was significantly decreased with increased occurrence of degenerative membranal features. The number of synaptic footplates without terminals or with multiple small terminals within one groove increased gradually with time. Most changes persisted for at least 3 months after irradiation. However, the myofibres, blood vessels and interstitial cells appeared unaffected throughout the period follow-up. (author)

  6. Eficácia analgésica pós-operatória de diferentes volumes e massas de ropivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Salome de Morais

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior tem sua eficácia para cirurgias de ombro demonstrada por diferentes autores. Entretanto, não há um consenso sobre a massa e o volume ideal de anestésico local a ser empregado. O objetivo deste estudo é com parar diferentes volumes e massas de ropivacaína no bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior em cirurgias artroscópicas de ombro. MÉTODO: Sessenta pacientes com idade > 18 anos, estado físico ASA I e II, escalados para cirurgias artroscópicas de ombro unilateral foram alocados aleatoriamente em três grupos: A (10 mL a 0,5%, B (20 mL a 0,5%, C (5 mL a 1%. O bloqueio foi realizado com agulha 22G de 100 mm conectada ao neuroestimulador, em um ponto 3 cm lateral ao ponto médio do interespaço de C6 e C7, sendo injetada a solução correspondente a cada grupo. A dor pós-operatória foi avaliada na SRPA e nas primeiras 24 horas do pós-operatório. Os grupos foram comparados quanto ao tempo para primeira queixa de dor, à pontuação na ENV e ao consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os três grupos em relação a idade, peso e altura. Não houve diferença no tempo até a primeira queixa de dor, ENV superior a três e consumo de morfina no pós-operatório entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo concluiu que 5 mL de ropivacaína 1% promoveu eficácia analgésica similar a 10 mL ou 20 mL de ropivacaína 0,5% no bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via posterior com o uso do neuroestimulador

  7. Prevalência de paralisia diafragmática após bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior com ropivacaína a 0,2%

    OpenAIRE

    Cruvinel Marcos Guilherme Cunha; Castro Carlos Henrique Viana de; Silva Yerkes Pereira; Bessa Júnior Roberto Cardoso; França Flávio de Oliveira; Lago Flávio

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via interescalênica descrita por Winnie é uma das técnicas mais eficazes para promover analgesia pós-operatória de intervenções cirúrgicas no ombro. Uma de suas conseqüências é a paralisia diafragmática. Esta paralisia pode levar, em pacientes com algum grau de disfunção pulmonar prévia, à insuficiência respiratória. A abordagem do plexo braquial por via posterior tem conquistado espaço. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prev...

  8. Bloqueio do nervo femoral: avaliação da analgesia pós-operatória na operação de reconstrução artroscópica do ligamento cruzado anterior

    OpenAIRE

    Úrsula Bueno do Prado Guirro; Elizabeth Milla Tambara; Fernanda Reinaldi Munhoz

    2013-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A operação de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho (RLCA) pode ter pós-operatório doloroso. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar se o emprego do bloqueio do nervo femoral (BNF) associado à raquianestesia melhoraria o tratamento da dor pós-operatória na RLCA; os objetivos secundários foram avaliar solicitação do tramadol e eventos adversos. MÉTODO: 53 pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente nos grupos A e B. No Grupo A, 26 receberam raquiane...

  9. LRP4 is critical for neuromuscular junction maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Bowman, Andrew; Shen, Chengyong; Li, Lei; Xiong, Wen-cheng; Mei, Lin

    2014-10-15

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse between motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, and is critical for control of muscle contraction. Its formation requires neuronal agrin that acts by binding to LRP4 to stimulate MuSK. Mutations have been identified in agrin, MuSK, and LRP4 in patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome, and patients with myasthenia gravis develop antibodies against agrin, LRP4, and MuSK. However, it remains unclear whether the agrin signaling pathway is critical for NMJ maintenance because null mutation of any of the three genes is perinatal lethal. In this study, we generated imKO mice, a mutant strain whose LRP4 gene can be deleted in muscles by doxycycline (Dox) treatment. Ablation of the LRP4 gene in adult muscle enabled studies of its role in NMJ maintenance. We demonstrate that Dox treatment of P30 mice reduced muscle strength and compound muscle action potentials. AChR clusters became fragmented with diminished junctional folds and synaptic vesicles. The amplitude and frequency of miniature endplate potentials were reduced, indicating impaired neuromuscular transmission and providing cellular mechanisms of adult LRP4 deficiency. We showed that LRP4 ablation led to the loss of synaptic agrin and the 90 kDa fragments, which occurred ahead of other prejunctional and postjunctional components, suggesting that LRP4 may regulate the stability of synaptic agrin. These observations demonstrate that LRP4 is essential for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the NMJ and that loss of muscle LRP4 in adulthood alone is sufficient to cause myasthenic symptoms. PMID:25319686

  10. [Genetic defects and disorders at the neuromuscular junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Kinji

    2011-07-01

    Genetic defects in molecules expressed at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) cause congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs), which are characterized by muscle weakness, abnormal fatigability, amyotrophy, and minor facial anomalies. Muscle weakness mostly develops under 2 years but is also sometimes seen in adults. Mutations identified to date include (i) muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunits, (ii) rapsyn that anchors and clusters AChRs at the neuromuscular junction, (iii) agrin that is released from the nerve terminal and induces AChR clustering by stimulating the downstream LRP4/MuSK/Dok-7/rapsyn/AChR pathway, (iv) muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4 to rapsyn/AChR, (v) Dok-7 that transmits the AChR-clustering signal from agrin/LRP4/MuSK to rapsyn/AChR, (vi) skeletal muscle sodium channel type 1.4 (Nav1.4) that spreads the depolarization potential from the endplate throughout muscle fibers, (vii) collagen Q that anchors acetylcholinesterase to the synaptic basal lamina, and (viii) choline acetyltransferase that resynthesizes acetylcholine from recycled choline at the nerve terminal. In addition, mutations in the heparin sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, which binds to many molecules including collagen Q and dystroglycan, causes Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Interestingly, mutations in LRP4 cause Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome but not CMS. AChR, MuSK, and LRP4 are also targets of auto-antibodies in myasthenia gravis. In addition, molecules at the NMJ are targets of many other disease states AChRs are blocked by the snake toxin alpha-bungarotoxin and the plant poison curare. The presynaptic SNARE complex is attacked by botulinum toxin. Acetylcholinesterase is inhibited by the nerve gas sarin and by organophosphate pesticides. This review focuses on the molecular bases underlying defects of AChR, rapsyn, Nav1.4, collagen Q, and choline acetyltransferase. PMID:21747136

  11. Neuromuscular paralysis induced in insect larvae by the proteinic venom of a parasitic wasp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sláma, Karel

    New York: Nova Science Publishers, 2012 - (Berhardt, L.), s. 195-212 ISBN 978-1-62100-889-7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : neuromuscular paralysis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Caracterização físico-química e perfil lipídico de queijos produzidos com leite ovino

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Gustavo de Pellegrini; Ana Paula Gusso; Daniela Buzatti Cassanego; Paula Mattanna; Neila Silvia Pereira dos Santos Richards

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar os queijos Pecorino Toscano, Feta e Labneh produzidos com leite ovino quanto aos aspectos físico-químicos e perfil lipídico. Foram adquiridos e analisados queijos tipo Pecorino Toscano Fresco, com 90, 180 e 270 dias de maturação, Feta e Labneh elaborados com leite de ovelha, comercializados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As análises realizadas foram: pH, acidez titulável, proteína, gordura, umidade, cinzas e perfil de ácidos graxos. O maio...

  13. Nitrato e nitrito em leite produzido em sistemas convencional e orgânico Nitrate and nitrite in milk produced by conventional and organic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joice S. dos Santos; Lígia Beck; Melissa Walter; Marines Sobczak; Clair J. Olivo; Ijoni Costabeber; Tatiana Emanuelli

    2005-01-01

    Nitratos e nitritos podem estar presentes naturalmente em diversos alimentos, entre eles o leite. Devido a sua toxicidade, são estabelecidos limites para a presença destes compostos nos alimentos. Assim, investigou-se os níveis de nitratos e nitritos em amostras de leite in natura, produzido por vacas submetidas aos sistemas de manejo convencional e orgânico. As amostras foram coletadas em propriedades da Região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os teores médios de nitrato e ...

  14. Cardiac, pulmonary and neuromuscular effects of clenbuterol and terbutaline compared with placebo.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitsett, T L; Manion, C V; Wilson, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    1 Cardiac, neuromuscular (tremor) and pulmonary effects of multiple single oral doses of clenbuterol (40, 60 and 80 micrograms) and terbutaline (2.5 and 5 mg) were compared with placebo in thirteen patients with reversible obstructive airways disease. 2 The percent change in the bronchodilator and neuromuscular effects of clenbuterol and terbutaline were greater than that of the cardiac activity. 3 Both drugs decreased T wave amplitude and occasionally caused J point ST segment depression. Th...

  15. Reduced gap junctional coupling leads to uncorrelated motor neuron firing and precocious neuromuscular synapse elimination

    OpenAIRE

    Personius, Kirkwood E.; Chang, Qiang; Mentis, George Z.; O'Donovan, Michael J.; Rita J Balice-Gordon

    2007-01-01

    During late embryonic and early postnatal life, neuromuscular junctions undergo synapse elimination that is modulated by patterns of motor neuron activity. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced spinal neuron gap junctional coupling decreases temporally correlated motor neuron activity that, in turn, modulates neuromuscular synapse elimination, by using mutant mice lacking connexin 40 (Cx40), a developmentally regulated gap junction protein expressed in motor and other spinal neurons. In C...

  16. Modulating Neuromuscular Junction Density Changes in Botulinum Toxin–Treated Orbicularis Oculi Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Andrew R; Berbos, Zachary; Zaldivar, Renzo A.; Anderson, Brian C.; Semmer, Mollie; Lee, Michael S.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    While botulinum toxin injections are effective in reducing muscle spasms in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm patients, they have a relatively short duration of action due to formation of new functional neuromuscular junctions. Co-injection of botulinum toxin–treated eyelids with corticotrophin-releasing factor or antibody to insulin growth factor–receptor prevented neuromuscular junction increases. The long-term goal is to increase the duration of effectiveness of botulinum toxin and reduce...

  17. Upper airway neuromuscular compensation during sleep is defective in obstructive sleep apnea

    OpenAIRE

    McGinley, Brian M.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Smith, Philip L; Patil, Susheel P.

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is the result of repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. Recent evidence indicates that alterations in upper airway anatomy and disturbances in neuromuscular control both play a role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. We hypothesized that subjects without sleep apnea are more capable of mounting vigorous neuromuscular responses to upper airway obstruction than subjects with sleep apnea. To address this hypothesis we lowered nasal pressu...

  18. Premature awakening and underuse of neuromuscular monitoring in a registry of patients with butyrylcholinesterase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, J L; Nielsen, C V; Palmqvist, D F; Gätke, M R

    , neuromuscular monitoring, and postoperative respiratory complications, defined as arterial oxygen desaturation <90%, assisted ventilation, reintubation of the trachea, and pulmonary aspiration. Patients were classified as prematurely awakened if anaesthesia had been terminated while the patient was still...... paralysed. RESULTS: We included 123 patients. Neuromuscular monitoring was applied before awakening in 48 (39%) patients. A nerve stimulator was never used or only after attempted awakening in the remaining 75 (61%) patients. Premature awakening occurred in 75 (100%) and 14 (29%) of the unmonitored and...

  19. Physical complications in anorexia nervosa. Haematological and neuromuscular changes in 12 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloway, R; Shur, E; Obrecht, R; Russell, G F

    1988-07-01

    Of twelve patients consecutively admitted to the Maudsley Hospital Eating Disorders Unit, four had neuromuscular abnormality, eight haematological abnormality, and four no abnormality. All those having neuromuscular signs had concomitant haematological dysfunction. Vomiting, and food restriction with vegetarianism, appeared more likely to lead to complications than either food restriction alone or laxative abuse. The physical status of severely underweight patients admitted for refeeding needs to be carefully monitored. PMID:3224253

  20. Neuromuscular activation strategies of voluntary andelectrically elicited muscle fatigue: Underlying mechanisms and clinicalimplications

    OpenAIRE

    Doix, Aude-Clémence

    2013-01-01

    The clinical care of muscle fatigue with exercise therapies aim at quality of life improvement and usually involve unilateral exercises or neuromuscular electrical stimulation to compensate impaired muscle function in both healthy and health-compromised people. The overall objective of this thesis was to study the effect of neuromuscular activation strategies during muscle fatigue, endurance and muscle performance after unilateral fatiguing voluntary and electrically evoked contractions (NMES...

  1. Update on the approach of respiratory therapy in patients with neuromuscular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Priscilla Barreto Paula; Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facury Lasmar; Maria Teresa Mohallem Fonseca; Marina Belisário Carvalhais; Maria da Glória Rodrigues Machado

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of physiotherapy in approaching neuromuscular disease (NMD), with emphasis on preventive and therapeutic aspects of respiratory therapy. Methods: A nonsystematic literature review covering the past twenty years, using the databases MEDLINE and LILACS through the following descriptors: neuromuscular diseases, physical therapy, vital capacity and respiratory failure. Results: The studies reviewed show the need to establish a routine periodic evaluation of respirato...

  2. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    OpenAIRE

    O'Driscoll Jeremiah; Kerin Fearghal; Delahunt Eamonn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joi...

  3. Neuromuscular training and the risk of leg injuries in female floorball players: cluster randomised controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Pasanen, Kati; Parkkari, Jari; Pasanen, Matti; Hiilloskorpi, Hannele; Mäkinen, Tanja; Järvinen, Markku; Kannus, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme is effective in preventing non-contact leg injuries in female floorball players. Design Cluster randomised controlled study. Setting 28 top level female floorball teams in Finland. Participants 457 players (mean age 24 years)—256 (14 teams) in the intervention group and 201 (14 teams) in the control group—followedup for one league season (six months). Intervention A neuromuscular training programme to enhance players’ motor s...

  4. Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops alcatraz snake venom in chick biventer cervicis preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Delkia Seabra; Aparecido de Abreu, Valdemir; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Leite, Gildo B; Alice da Cruz-Höfling, Maria; Travaglia-Cardoso, Silvia R; Hyslop, Stephen; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa

    2012-02-01

    Venom (10-100 μg/ml) from Bothrops alcatraz, a pitviper from the Alcatrazes Archipelago off the coast of southeastern Brazil, caused progressive, irreversible neuromuscular blockade in chick isolated biventer cervicis preparations. The venom also inhibited contractures to exogenous ACh (110 μM) and KCl (20 mM), caused myofiber damage and increased creatine kinase release. Commercial bothropic antivenom raised against mainland Bothrops species neutralized the neuromuscular activity, depending on the venom concentration. PMID:22155137

  5. Can hyperbaric oxygen be used to prevent deep infections in neuro-muscular scoliosis surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Inanmaz, Mustafa Erkan; Kose, Kamil Cagri; Isik, Cengiz; Atmaca, Halil; Basar, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of postoperative wound infection in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis surgery is significantly higher than that in patients with other spinal surgery. Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as a supplement to treat postsurgical infections. Our aim was to determine beneficiary effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment in terms of prevention of postoperative deep infection in this specific group of patients in a retrospective study. Methods Forty two neuromuscular scoliosis ...

  6. Development of a Neuromuscular Junction Model on Surfaces Modified by Plasma Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    E. Zuñiga-Aguilar; R. Godínez; O. Ramírez-Fernández; Morales, J.; R. Olayo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to implement a biological model of neuromuscular junctions to study the mechanisms involved in intra and inter cellular processes using cell co-cultures. To optimize growth and development of the neuromuscular junction, cells were seeded on plasma polymerized pyrrole which has proven suitable for other types of cell cultures. The cell lines used were motor neuron NG108-15 and skeletal muscle C2C12. Cells were evaluated according to their morphology and elect...

  7. Effect of the neuromuscular activation of knee extensors on vertical jump by using electrostimulation method

    OpenAIRE

    Bílý, Jiří; Cacek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is one of the methods of strength development during which there is no voluntary muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the neuromuscular activation of knee extensors on vertical jump by using electrostimulation method. Ten healthy trained male students in sports-sciences, aged 21-25 years, perform Sargent jump test. They perform two kinds of jump - squat jump and drop jump (42 cm heigh bench) immediately after electr...

  8. Identification of an intracellular postsynaptic antigen at the frog neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    A layer of amorphous, electron-dense material is situated at the cytoplasmic surface of the postsynaptic membrane of vertebrate neuromuscular synapses. The function of this structure is not clear, but its location suggests that it may have an important role in the formation and/or maintenance of the synapse. This paper demonstrates that a monoclonal antibody raised against antigens from Torpedo electric organ binds to an intracellular, postsynaptic protein at the frog neuromuscular synapse. I...

  9. The Immediate Effect of Lumbar Spine Patterns of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation in Young Amateur Baseball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Takasumi; Naito, Daiki; Koiso, Yuta

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in baseball pitching velocity, the functional reach test (FR) and the simple reaction times (SRT) in young amateur baseball players after lumbar spine patterns of neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 11 young amateur baseball players. An NJF intervention and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) intervention were performed. The interventions were performed one after the other wi...

  10. Pellets de trigo e soja produzidos por extrusão Wheat and soybean pellets produced by extrusion-cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Huei Wang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A mistura de trigo e soja representa uma importante fonte calórico-protéica com proteínas de boa qualidade. Apesar disso, a utilização da soja como ingrediente tem sido limitada pelo seu sabor de feijão cru (beany flavor, o qual é melhorado pelo processo de extrusão. Foram estudados os efeitos de umidade da mistura, Temperatura de Barril (TB e Velocidade de Rotação de Parafuso (VRP, Nº 5 do extrusor no Índice de Expansão (IE, no Índice de Solubilidade em Água (ISA e nas características sensoriais de pellets produzidos com mistura de trigo e soja (90:10, objetivando a otimização deste processo para a obtenção de pellets fritos com melhores qualidades sensoriais. A farinha mista crua foi extrusada em 2 umidades (32 e 35%, 4 TB (60 a 90 °C e 4 VRP (60 a 150 rpm, totalizando 32 tratamentos. O pellet frito, preparado com a farinha mista com 32% de umidade e extrusada em 60 rpm a 80 °C, apresentou o maior IE e as melhores qualidades sensoriais (aparência, sabor e textura, sendo preferido pela equipe de provadores não treinados, tanto com sabor de bacon como com sabor de queijo.The mixture of wheat with soybean represents an important calorie-protein source with good protein quality. In spite of this, the use of soybeans as an ingredient has been limited by their beany flavor, which is improved by the extrusion process. Effects of mixture moisture, Barrel Temperature (BT and Screw-Speed (SS, Nº 5 on Expansion Index (EI, Water Solubility Index (WSI and sensory characteristics of pellets produced with a wheat-soybean (90:10 mixture were studied, in order to optimize this process for obtaining fried pellets with better sensory qualities. Raw mixed flour was extruded at two moisture contents (32 and 35%, four BT (60 to 90 °C and four SS (60 to 150 rpm, totalizing 32 treatments. The fried pellets, prepared with the mixed flour with 32% moisture and extruded at 60 rpm and 80 °C, presented the greatest EI and the best sensory

  11. Efeito do estradiol e da progesterona no desenvolvimento e na qualidade de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N Reis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento e a qualidade de embriões bovinos, cocultivados com células epiteliais do oviduto bovino (CEOBs expostas ou não ao estradiol e à progesterona. Os ovócitos foram maturados in vitro por 24h e, então, fertilizados utilizando-se sêmen congelado, em estufa de CO2 a 5% e 38,5ºC. As CEOBs foram cultivadas em TCM-199 com ou sem estradiol (E2 (24 horas, nas mesmas condições da maturação e fertilização in vitro (MIV e FIV, e, em seguida, adicionadas aos diferentes grupos em CR2 com ou sem progesterona (P4 (G1=P4+E2; (G2=E2; (G3=P4 e (G4=controle. Após 18h da FIV, as células foram cultivadas nos diferentes sistemas. Nenhuma diferença (P>0,05 foi observada nas taxas de clivagem entre G1, G2 e G4 (53,5%; 56,3%; 51,7% e nos padrões de blastocistos (BLs (29,3%; 31,2%, 28,7%. Índices menores (P<0,05 foram obtidos no G3 para ambas as variáveis (34,5%; 16,4%. G1 e G2 apresentaram taxas de eclosão maiores (P<0,05 que os outros grupos (23,3%; 23,2%, sendo G4 (19,3% diferente de G3 (16,1%. Em G1, G2 e G3, o número de células nos BLs aumentou 125,9; 128,4 e 123,6, respectivamente (P<0,05, em relação ao G4 (112,5. Conclui-se que o tratamento das CEOBs com o E2, nas primeiras 24 horas de cultivo, pode ser usado isoladamente ou em combinação com a progesterona, a fim de melhorar a qualidade de embriões bovinos produzidos in vitro

  12. Routine and specialized laboratory testing for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, G Diane

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases can be challenging. The first step is recognition that the disease involves the neuromuscular system (muscle, neuromuscular junction, peripheral nerve, and ventral horn cells of the spinal cord). Many neuromuscular diseases share clinical signs and cannot be distinguished based on clinical examination. Routine laboratory screening, including a CBC, biochemical profile, and urinalysis, can identify some of the most common systemic abnormalities that cause muscle weakness and myalgia, such as hypo- and hyperglycemia, electrolyte disorders, or thyroid abnormalities, and may suggest a specific diagnosis, such as diabetes mellitus, hypo- or hyperadrenocorticism, renal failure, or hypothyroidism. Increased creatine kinase activity, increased cardiac troponin I concentration, and myoglobinuria are useful in detecting skeletal and cardiac muscle damage. Identification of acetylcholine receptor antibodies is diagnostic for acquired myasthenia gravis. For primary muscle or peripheral nerve diseases, tissue biopsy is the most direct way to determine specific pathology, correctly classify the disease, and determine the course of additional laboratory testing. For example, inflammatory, necrotizing, dystrophic, metabolic, or congenital myopathies require different laboratory testing procedures for further characterization. Many neuromuscular diseases are inherited or breed-associated, and DNA-based tests may already be established or may be feasible to develop after the disorder has been accurately characterized. This review focuses on both routine and specialized laboratory testing necessary to reach a definitive diagnosis and determine an accurate prognosis for neuromuscular diseases. PMID:20726955

  13. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  14. Evaluation of neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea using chin surface electromyography of polysomnography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Guo-ping; YE Jing-ying; HAN De-min; WANG Xiao-yi; ZHANG Yu-huan; LI Yan-ru

    2013-01-01

    Background It is believed that defects in upper airway neuromuscular control play a role in sleep apnea pathogenesis.Currently,there is no simple and non-invasive method for evaluating neuromuscular activity for the purpose of screening in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.This study was designed to assess the validity of chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography in evaluating the neuromuscular activity of obstructive sleep apnea subjects and probe the neuromuscular contribution in the pathogenesis of the condition.Methods The chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography during normal breathing and obstructive apnea were quantified in 36 male patients with obstructive sleep apnea.The change of chin surface electromyography from normal breathing to obstructive apnea was expressed as the percent compensated electromyography value,where the percent compensated electromyography value =(normal breath surface electromyography-apnea surface electromyography)/normal breath surface electromyography,and the percent compensated electromyography values among subjects were compared.The relationship between sleep apnea related parameters and the percent compensated electromyography value was examined.Results The percent compensated electromyography value of the subjects varied from 1% to 90% and had a significant positive correlation with apnea hypopnea index (R2=0.382,P <0.001).Conclusions Recording and analyzing chin surface electromyography by routine polysomnography is a valid way of screening the neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.The neuromuscular contribution is different among subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

  15. Controle da dor pós-operatória da artroplastia total do joelho: é necessário associar o bloqueio do nervo isquiático ao bloqueio do nervo femoral? Control del dolor postoperatorio de la artroplastia total de la rodilla: ¿es necesario asociar el bloqueo del nervio isquiático al bloqueo del nervio femoral? Control of postoperative pain following total knee arthroplasty: is it necessary to associate sciatic nerve block to femoral nerve block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso H. Zugliani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A artroplastia total do joelho (ATJ promove grande trauma tecidual, produzindo intensa dor no pós-operatório. A analgesia pós-operatória de boa qualidade é fundamental, devendo-se considerar que a mobilização articular precoce é um importante aspecto para obtenção de bons resultados. Há controvérsias na literatura sobre a eficácia do bloqueio isolado do nervo femoral. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a analgesia pós-operatória com a associação do bloqueio dos nervos isquiático e femoral. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 17 pacientes submetidos à ATJ sob raquianestesia, divididos em dois grupos: A e B. No Grupo A (n = 9 foi realizado bloqueio do nervo femoral e no Grupo B (n = 8, bloqueio dos nervos femoral e isquiático. Os bloqueios foram realizados no pós-operatório imediato utilizando-se 20 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5% em cada um. A dor foi aferida nas primeiras 24 horas pela Escala Analógica Visual e escala verbal. Foi observado o tempo decorrido entre os bloqueios e a primeira queixa de dor (M1. RESULTADOS: A mediana do tempo de analgesia (M1 no Grupo A foi de 110 min. e no Grupo B de 1.285 min. (p = 0,0001. Não foram observadas complicações atribuíveis às técnicas utilizadas. CONCLUSÃO: O bloqueio do nervo isquiático, quando associado ao bloqueio do nervo femoral, nas condições deste estudo, melhorou de maneira significativa a qualidade da analgesia pós-operatória da ATJ.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La artroplastia total de la rodilla (ATR promueve gran trauma del tejido produciendo un intenso dolor en el postoperatorio. La analgesia de postoperatorio de buena calidad es fundamental, debiendo considerar que la movilización articular precoz es un importante aspecto para la obtención de buenos resultados. Existen controversias en la literatura sobre la eficacia del bloqueo aislado del nervio femoral. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la analgesia en postoperatorio con la asociaci

  16. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marine Garguilo; Michèle Lejaille; Isabelle Vaugier; David Orlikowski; Nicolas Terzi; Frédéric Lofaso; Hélène Prigent

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and wi...

  17. Analgesia pós-operatória em cirurgia ortopédica: estudo comparativo entre o bloqueio do plexo lombar por via perivascular inguinal (3 em 1) com ropivacaína e a analgesia subaracnóidea com morfina Analgesia pós-operatoria en cirugía ortopédica: estudio comparativo entre el bloqueo del plexo lombar por vía perivascular inguinal (3 en 1) con ropivacaína y la analgesia subaracnóidea con morfina Postoperative analgesia following orthopedic surgery: a study comparing perivascular lumbar plexus inguinal block with ropivacaine (3 in 1) and spinal anesthesia with morphine

    OpenAIRE

    Neuber Martins Fonseca; Roberto Araújo Ruzi; Fernando Xavier Ferreira; Fabrício Martins Arruda

    2003-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo lombar pelo acesso perivascular inguinal, chamado de bloqueio 3 em 1, tem sido utilizado para analgesia pós-operatória. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a analgesia pós-operatória do bloqueio 3 em 1 a da morfina subaracnóidea em pacientes submetidos a cirurgias ortopédicas em membro inferior (MI). MÉTODO: Foram estudados 40 pacientes escalados para cirurgia ortopédica de MI, de ambos os sexos, estado físico ASA I e II, com idades entre 15 e 7...

  18. Caracterização de biopolímeros produzidos por Beijerinckia sp. 7070 em diferentes tempos de cultivo Characterization of biopolymers produced by Beijerinckia sp 7070 at different culture times

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Dellinghausen Borges; Ângela Nunes Moreira; Angelita da Silveira Moreira; Del Pino, Francisco A. B.; Claire Tondo Vendruscolo

    2004-01-01

    Biopolímeros são polissacarídeos microbianos. O biopolímero produzido por Beijerinckia sp. 7070 possui comportamento pseudoplástico e apresenta alta viscosidade em baixas velocidades de deformação, conferindo ao polímero excelentes características de suspensão. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar o biopolímero produzido por Beijerinckia sp. 7070 em diferentes tempos de cultivo, quanto à produção total, produção de polímeros de fibra longa e curta, produtividade, viscosidade e composiçã...

  19. Bloqueio "3 em 1" por via anterior: bloqueio parcial, completo ou superdimensionado? Correlação entre anatomia, clínica e radio imagens Bloqueo "3 en 1" por vía anterior: bloqueo parcial, completo o superdimensionado? Correlación entre anatomía, clínica y radio imágenes Anterior "3-in-1" blockade: partial, total or overdimensioned block? Correlation between anatomy, clinic and radio images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Geier

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O clássico bloqueio "3 em 1" por via anterior tem suscitado divergências quanto ao envolvimento anestésico de seus três nervos participantes, o femoral, o cutâneo lateral da coxa e o obturador. O objetivo deste estudo é verificar o desfecho do bloqueio "3 em 1" por via anterior, através das técnicas: injeção única (G1, cateteres curtos (G2 e cateteres longos (G3. Os bloqueios "3 em 1", clinicamente identificados como completos ou superdimensionados foram, adicionalmente, investigados por meio de rádio imagem. MÉTODO: A identificação do espaço subfascial ilíaco nos bloqueios "3 em 1" com injeção única ou com cateteres foi feita pela perda de resistência ao ar. Em vários eventos dolorosos, o volume anestésico administrado variou entre 30 e 40 ml e a introdução cranial dos cateteres foi até 18 cm no espaço subfascial ilíaco. Quando a pesquisa clínica apontava envolvimento do nervo obturador ou de outro nervo adicional ao bloqueio "3 em 1", complementava-se a investigação com estudo radiográfico e tomodensiométrico com o propósito de estabelecer correspondência com a anatomia pélvica. RESULTADOS: O envolvimento dos nervos fêmoro cutâneo lateral e obturador não foram constantes, ao contrário do nervo femoral. No estudo, nenhum bloqueio "3 em 1" completo com injeção única (G1 se manifestou, e sim um bloqueio "2 em 1", com a participação eventual do ramo femoral do nervo genitofemoral (bloqueio "2,5 em 1". Contudo, quando foram utilizados cateteres curtos (G2, obteve-se bloqueio "3 em 1" em apenas um paciente, ao passo que com cateteres longos (G3 introduzidos no sentido cefálico até 18 cm no espaço subfascial ilíaco, três bloqueios "3 em 1" superdimensionados foram registrados, pelo envolvimento adicional dos nervos fibular comum em dois pacientes e o nervo tibial em um paciente. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar da pequena amostra, com injeção única (G1, sempre se obteve um bloqueio "2

  20. Neuromuscular disorders: genes, genetic counseling and therapeutic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, Mayana; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Vainzof, Mariz

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMD) are a heterogeneous group of genetic conditions, with autosomal dominant, recessive, or X-linked inheritance. They are characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. Here, we are presenting our major contributions to the field during the past 30 years. We have mapped and identified several novel genes responsible for NMD. Genotype-phenotype correlations studies enhanced our comprehension on the effect of gene mutations on related proteins and their impact on clinical findings. The search for modifier factors allowed the identification of a novel "protective"; variant which may have important implication on therapeutic developments. Molecular diagnosis was introduced in the 1980s and new technologies have been incorporated since then. Next generation sequencing greatly improved our capacity to identify disease-causing mutations with important benefits for research and prevention through genetic counseling of patients' families. Stem cells researches, from and for patients, have been used as tools to study human genetic diseases mechanisms and for therapies development. The clinical effect of preclinical trials in mice and canine models for muscular dystrophies are under investigation. Finally, the integration of our researches and genetic services with our post-graduation program resulted in a significant output of new geneticists, spreading out this expertise to our large country. PMID:27575431

  1. Neuromuscular physiology of Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma (Cestoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C S; Mettrick, D F

    1984-12-01

    The physiology of the neuromuscular systems in Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma was studied in vitro using intact, adult worm and strips of worm body wall. Intact worms were insensitive to ionic changes in the in vitro buffering system. However, strips of body wall containing longitudinal muscles were extremely sensitive to ionic manipulation. In intact worms tension generated in the strobila had two components; small brief tension peaks up to 500 mg amplitude are superimposed on larger, longer peaks of up to 1200 mg amplitude. Removal of the scolex and neck region either failed to show significant changes in tension, or showed a reduction in amplitude but not of frequency. Muscle contraction of both H. diminuta and H. microstoma were qualitatively similar. In split-worm preparations the concentration of Ca2+ in the bathing solution significantly affected both spontaneous and evoked contractions in H. diminuta and H. microstoma; the addition of CaCl2 greatly reduced the amplitude and frequency of the contractions. The chloride salts of cobalt, barium, cadmium and manganese elicited prolonged contractions of the longitudinal musculature of both H. diminuta and H. microstoma. While CoCl2 was the most effective in stimulating muscle contraction, the magnitude of the response varied with the concentration of Ca2+ in the bath. The results indicate that peripheral inhibition is extremely important in cestode motor control and that extracellular calcium ions may regulate the peripheral inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:6440096

  2. An examination of neuromuscular and metabolic fatigue thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the relationships among the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT), the power outputs associated with the gas exchange threshold (PGET) and the respiratory compensation point (PRCP), and critical power (CP) to identify possible physiological mechanisms underlying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. Ten participants (mean ± SD age: 20 ± 1 years) performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test to determine the PWCFT, PGET, and PRCP. CP was determined from the 3 min all-out test. The PWCFT (197 ± 55 W), PRCP (212 ± 50 W), and CP (208 ± 63 W) were significantly greater than the PGET (168 ± 40 W), but there were no significant differences among the PWCFT, PRCP, and CP. All thresholds were significantly inter-4 (r = 0.794–0.958). The 17% greater estimates for the PWCFT than PGET were likely related to differences in the physiological mechanisms that underlie these fatigue thresholds, while the non-significant difference and high correlation between the PWCFT and the PRCP suggested that hyperkalemia may underlie both thresholds. Furthermore, it is possible that the 5% lower estimate of the PWCFT than CP could more accurately reflect the demarcation of the heavy from severe exercise intensity domains. (paper)

  3. Nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersanini, Chiara; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Lofaso, Frédéric; Aubertin, Guillaume; Beydon, Nicole; Mayer, Michèle; Maincent, Kim; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify daytime predictors of nocturnal gas exchange anomalies in children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and normal daytime gas exchange. Lung function tests, respiratory muscle evaluation and nocturnal gas exchange were obtained as part of routine evaluation. We included 52 consecutive children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 20), spinal muscular atrophy (n = 10) and other NMD (n = 22). 20 patients had nocturnal hypoxaemia, defined as minimal arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2))) carbon dioxide tension (P(tc,CO(2))) >50 mmHg for ≥ 2% of night time. Forced vital capacity and helium functional residual capacity correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.01, respectively). Daytime pH correlated negatively with maximal nocturnal P(tc,CO(2)) (p=0.005) and daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a,CO(2))) correlated with the percentage of time with a P(tc,CO(2)) >50 mmHg (p = 0.02). Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.02). Daytime P(a,CO(2)) was a weak predictor of nocturnal hypercapnia (sensitivity 80%; specificity 57%). Daytime lung function and respiratory muscle parameters correlate poorly with nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with NMD and normal daytime gas exchange, which necessitates more systematic sleep studies in these children. PMID:22135279

  4. Neuromuscular adjustments of the quadriceps muscle after repeated cycling sprints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Girard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the supraspinal processes of fatigue of the quadriceps muscle in response to repeated cycling sprints. METHODS: Twelve active individuals performed 10 × 6-s "all-out" sprints on a cycle ergometer (recovery = 30 s, followed 6 min later by 5 × 6-s sprints (recovery = 30 s. Transcranial magnetic and electrical femoral nerve stimulations during brief (5-s and sustained (30-s isometric contractions of the knee extensors were performed before and 3 min post-exercise. RESULTS: Maximal strength of the knee extensors decreased during brief and sustained contractions (~11% and 9%, respectively; P0.05. While cortical voluntary activation declined (P 40% reduced (P<0.001 following exercise. CONCLUSION: The capacity of the motor cortex to optimally drive the knee extensors following a repeated-sprint test was shown in sustained, but not brief, maximal isometric contractions. Additionally, peripheral factors were largely involved in the exercise-induced impairment in neuromuscular function, while corticospinal excitability was well-preserved.

  5. Synaptic dynamics at the neuromuscular junction: mechanisms and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Essen, D C; Gordon, H; Soha, J M; Fraser, S E

    1990-01-01

    During development, the neuromuscular junction passes through a stage of extensive polyinnervation followed by a period of wholesale synapse elimination. In this report we discuss mechanisms and interactions that could mediate many of the key aspects of these important developmental events. Our emphasis is on (1) establishing an overall conceptual framework within which the role of many distinct cellular interactions and molecular factors can be evaluated, and (2) generating computer simulations that systematically test the adequacy of different models in accounting for a wide range of biological data. Our analysis indicates that several relatively simple mechanisms are each capable of explaining a variety of experimental observations. On the other hand, no one mechanism can account for the full spectrum of experimental results. Thus, it is important to consider models that are based on interactions among multiple mechanisms. A potentially powerful combination is one based on (1) a scaffold within the basal lamina or in the postsynaptic membrane which is induced by nerve terminals and which serves to stabilize terminals by a positive feedback mechanism; (2) a sprouting factor whose release by muscle fibers is down-regulated by activity and perhaps other factors; and (3) an intrinsic tendency of motor neurons to withdraw some connections while allowing others to grow. PMID:2181065

  6. Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous. PMID:26023790

  7. [Cellular therapy and gene therapy: perspectives in neuromuscular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardeau, M

    1993-10-01

    Identification of the gene coding for the protein (dystrophin) which is lacking or abnormal in Duchenne or Becker type human muscular dystrophies was a decisive turning point in neuro-muscular pathology. Since that time, a considerable number of gene abnormalities have been identified or at least localized. The severity of these diseases, their steady evolution and the absence of any efficient drug therapy, have lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches based on restoring the genetic capacities of the muscle cell. There are two possibilities for therapy. The first is based on the transfer of myogenic cells derived from the 'satellite' cells normally present at the periphery of muscle fibers. The results obtained from a murine model of Duchenne dystrophy ('mdx' mouse) were very promising. However, the results from application of the same techniques to the canine model (GRMDX) or to affected children are, at the present time, disappointing. A number of biological questions remain to be solved before this technique can be more extensively applied to humans. The second possibility is based on gene transfer, through a viral vector. The adenovirus is presently a possible vector. The first experimental results, on 'mdx' mice, are again very encouraging. Extension of these studies to the canine model is a necessary prerequisite for any human application. It should be noted that these two approaches are complementary. Their future applications may depend on the diffuse or selective nature of the skeletal muscle atrophy, and on whether cardiac and respiratory muscles are involved. PMID:8290312

  8. Neurologic and neuromuscular functional disorders of the pharynx and esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurologic swallowing disorders are an increasing diagnostic problem in our overaged population. Undiagnosed chronic aspiration pneumonia is the cause of death in 20-40% of all inhabitants of nursing homes. In neurologic diseases of the pharynx, the physiologic interaction of pharyngeal contraction, closure of the pharynx, and esophageal motility are frequently disturbed. This may be due to cortical, bulbar, or cerebellar brain damage of ischemic or traumatic origin. Furthermore diseases or peripheral nerves, muscles, and synapses cause disturbances. The most life-threatening complication of these disturbances is tracheal aspiration, which requires an iso-osmolar contrast medium for imaging studies that cause no or minimal pulmonary problems. Utilizing fast dynamic documentation we can analyze the swallowing act in 35 images within the passage time of 0.7 s. This requires digital frame sequences from 15-50 images/s, which can be provided by DSI or videofluoroscopy. Neurologic and neuromuscular patterns are demonstrated with and without tracheal aspiration. The differentiation of aspiration in a so-called pre-, intra-, and postdeglutitive form is possible. We distinguish four grades of severity of aspiration, which is also of great clinical impact for the differential rehabilitation therapy. The efficiency of the rehabilitation protocol can be assessed by the dynamic swallowing studies. (orig.)

  9. Degeneration of neuromuscular junction in age and dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Rüdiger; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Labeit, Siegfried; Deschenes, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Functional denervation is a hallmark of aging sarcopenia as well as of muscular dystrophy. It is thought to be a major factor reducing skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the case of sarcopenia. Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) serve as the interface between the nervous and skeletal muscular systems, and thus they may receive pathophysiological input of both pre- and post-synaptic origin. Consequently, NMJs are good indicators of motor health on a systemic level. Indeed, upon sarcopenia and dystrophy, NMJs morphologically deteriorate and exhibit altered characteristics of primary signaling molecules, such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and agrin. Since a remarkable reversibility of these changes can be observed by exercise, there is significant interest in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic deterioration upon aging and dystrophy and how synapses are reset by the aforementioned treatments. Here, we review the literature that describes the phenomena observed at the NMJ in sarcopenic and dystrophic muscle as well as to how these alterations can be reversed and to what extent. In a second part, the current information about molecular machineries underlying these processes is reported. PMID:24904412

  10. Verifax: Biometric instruments measuring neuromuscular disorders/performance impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.; Shrairman, Ruth; Landau, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    VeriFax, founded in 1990 by Dr. Ruth Shrairman and Mr. Alex Landau, began operations with the aim of developing a biometric tool for the verification of signatures from a distance. In the course of developing this VeriFax Autograph technology, two other related applications for the technologies under development at VeriFax became apparent. The first application was in the use of biometric measurements as clinical monitoring tools for physicians investigating neuromuscular diseases (embodied in VeriFax's Neuroskill technology). The second application was to evaluate persons with critical skills (e.g., airline pilots, bus drivers) for physical and mental performance impairments caused by stress, physiological disorders, alcohol, drug abuse, etc. (represented by VeriFax's Impairoscope prototype instrument). This last application raised the possibility of using a space-qualified Impairoscope variant to evaluate astronaut performance with respect to the impacts of stress, fatigue, excessive workload, build-up of toxic chemicals within the space habitat, etc. The three applications of VeriFax's patented technology are accomplished by application-specific modifications of the customized VeriFax software. Strong commercial market potentials exist for all three VeriFax technology applications, and market progress will be presented in more detail below.

  11. Using factor analysis to identify neuromuscular synergies during treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, L. A.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Zhang, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscientists are often interested in grouping variables to facilitate understanding of a particular phenomenon. Factor analysis is a powerful statistical technique that groups variables into conceptually meaningful clusters, but remains underutilized by neuroscience researchers presumably due to its complicated concepts and procedures. This paper illustrates an application of factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of whole-body muscle activation during treadmill walking. Ten male subjects walked on a treadmill (6.4 km/h) for 20 s during which surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from the left side sternocleidomastoid, neck extensors, erector spinae, and right side biceps femoris, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius. Factor analysis revealed 65% of the variance of seven muscles sampled aligned with two orthogonal factors, labeled 'transition control' and 'loading'. These two factors describe coordinated patterns of muscular activity across body segments that would not be evident by evaluating individual muscle patterns. The results show that factor analysis can be effectively used to explore relationships among muscle patterns across all body segments to increase understanding of the complex coordination necessary for smooth and efficient locomotion. We encourage neuroscientists to consider using factor analysis to identify coordinated patterns of neuromuscular activation that would be obscured using more traditional EMG analyses.

  12. RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL TO COMPARE THE INCIDENCE OF RESIDUAL NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK FOLLOWING PANCURONIUM AND ATRACURIUM USING TRAIN OF FOUR RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several clinical studies have reported that significant number of patients receiving non depolarizing muscle relaxants during general anesthesia show postoperative residual neuromuscular block when assessed by neuromuscular monitor in the recovery room. The degree of residual neuromuscular block produced by non-depolarizing muscle relaxants can be evaluated by clinical tests as well as by neuromuscular monitoring y neuromuscular monitor in the recovery room. A randomized double blind clinical trial to determine and compare the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular block in patients receiving pancuronium and atracurium applying Train of Four ratio using Train of Four- Guard neuromuscular monitor. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular block following pancuronium and atracurium using Train of Four Ratio in the recovery room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Comparative randomized study done using 100 patients of age between 15-60 years belonging to either sex, ASA grade 1 and 2 with GROUP ‘P’ – Pancuronium was employed as the muscle relaxant, GROUP ‘A’ – Atracurium was employed as the muscle relaxant. Statistical analysis done using student “t” test. RESULTS: The mean duration required to attain Train of Four Ratio of 0.80 in patients with initial Train of four ratio <0.80 in group ‘P’ was 9.65±5.4413 min and in group ‘A’ was 2.8± 1.4832 min. CONCLUSION: 1. Our study concludes that the incidence of residual neuromuscular block in patients receiving pancuronium and atracurium were 40% and 10% respectively. Thus residual neuromuscular block can be a significant problem in recovery room, during the postoperative period. 2. The use of intermediate acting non depolarizing muscle relaxant like atracurium lowers the incidence of residual neuromuscular block but does not eliminate it.

  13. A Dutch guideline for the treatment of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titarsolej PJ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with neuromuscular disorders with a progressive muscle weakness such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy frequently develop a progressive scoliosis. A severe scoliosis compromises respiratory function and makes sitting more difficult. Spinal surgery is considered the primary treatment option for correcting severe scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. Surgery in this population requires a multidisciplinary approach, careful planning, dedicated surgical procedures, and specialized after care. Methods The guideline is based on scientific evidence and expert opinions. A multidisciplinary working group representing experts from all relevant specialties performed the research. A literature search was conducted to collect scientific evidence in answer to specific questions posed by the working group. Literature was classified according to the level of evidence. Results For most aspects of the treatment scientific evidence is scarce and only low level cohort studies were found. Nevertheless, a high degree of consensus was reached about the management of patients with scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders. This was translated into a set of recommendations, which are now officially accepted as a general guideline in the Netherlands. Conclusion In order to optimize the treatment for scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders a Dutch guideline has been composed. This evidence-based, multidisciplinary guideline addresses conservative treatment, the preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative care of scoliosis in neuromuscular disorders.

  14. Effects of neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure admitted to ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Araújo Carlos José Soares

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuromuscular electrostimulation has become a promising issue in cardiovascular rehabilitation. However there are few articles published in the literature regarding neuromuscular electrostimulation in patients with heart failure during hospital stay. Methods This is a randomized controlled pilot trial that aimed to investigate the effect of neuromuscular electrostimulation in the walked distance by the six-minute walking test in 30 patients admitted to ward for heart failure treatment in a tertiary cardiology hospital. Patients in the intervention group performed a conventional rehabilitation and neuromuscular electrostimulation. Patients underwent 60 minutes of electrostimulation (wave frequency was 20 Hz, pulse duration of 20 us two times a day for consecutive days until hospital discharge. Results The walked distance in the six-minute walking test improved 75% in the electrostimulation group (from 379.7 ± 43.5 to 372.9 ± 46.9 meters to controls and from 372.9 ± 62.4 to 500 ± 68 meters to electrostimulation, p Conclusion The neuromuscular electrostimulation group showed greater improvement in the walked distance in the six-minute walking test in patients admitted to ward for compensation of heart failure.

  15. Regulation and restoration of motoneuronal synaptic transmission during neuromuscular regeneration in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M B; Szabo-Maas, T M; Poyer, J C; Zoran, M J

    2011-08-01

    Regeneration of motor systems involves reestablishment of central control networks, reinnervation of muscle targets by motoneurons, and reconnection of neuromodulatory circuits. Still, how these processes are integrated as motor function is restored during regeneration remains ill defined. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying motoneuronal regeneration of neuromuscular synapses related to feeding movements in the pulmonate snail Helisoma trivolvis. Neurons B19 and B110, although activated during different phases of the feeding pattern, innervate similar sets of muscles. However, the percentage of muscle fibers innervated, the efficacy of excitatory junction potentials, and the strength of muscle contractions were different for each cell's specific connections. After peripheral nerve crush, a sequence of transient electrical and chemical connections formed centrally within the buccal ganglia. Neuromuscular synapse regeneration involved a three-phase process: the emergence of spontaneous synaptic transmission (P1), the acquisition of evoked potentials of weak efficacy (P2), and the establishment of functional reinnervation (P3). Differential synaptic efficacy at muscle contacts was recapitulated in cell culture. Differences in motoneuronal presynaptic properties (i.e., quantal content) were the basis of disparate neuromuscular synapse function, suggesting a role for retrograde target influences. We propose a homeostatic model of molluscan motor system regeneration. This model has three restoration events: (1) transient central synaptogenesis during axonal outgrowth, (2) intermotoneuronal inhibitory synaptogenesis during initial neuromuscular synapse formation, and (3) target-dependent regulation of neuromuscular junction formation. PMID:21876114

  16. Nitrato e nitrito em leite produzido em sistemas convencional e orgânico Nitrate and nitrite in milk produced by conventional and organic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice S. dos Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitratos e nitritos podem estar presentes naturalmente em diversos alimentos, entre eles o leite. Devido a sua toxicidade, são estabelecidos limites para a presença destes compostos nos alimentos. Assim, investigou-se os níveis de nitratos e nitritos em amostras de leite in natura, produzido por vacas submetidas aos sistemas de manejo convencional e orgânico. As amostras foram coletadas em propriedades da Região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os teores médios de nitrato e nitrito encontrados nas amostras (n=45 foram de 6,65±0,84mg/L e 1,76±0,17mg/L, respectivamente. O leite produzido no sistema orgânico apresentou 7,08mg/L de nitrato e 1,61mg/L de nitrito, enquanto o produzido no sistema convencional apresentou 6,36 e 1,87mg/L, respectivamente. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os teores de nitrato e nitrito encontrados nas amostras de leite em função do sistema de produção avaliado, época de coleta, turno de ordenha ou local de origem, isto é, propriedade produtora.Nitrates and nitrites can be naturally found in many foods, including milk. Due to their toxicity there is a maximum level allowed for these compounds in foods. In the present study, nitrate and nitrite levels were evaluated in raw milk samples produced in conventional and organic systems. Samples were collected from farms of the Depressão Central of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The average levels of nitrate and nitrite in samples (n=45 were 6.65±0.84mg/L and 1.76±0.17mg/L, respectively. Milk produced in the organic system exhibited 7.08mg/L nitrate and 1.61mg/L nitrite, while milk produced in the conventional system exhibited 6.36 and 1.87mg/L, respectively. Nitrate and nitrite levels in raw milk were not affected by the production system, the period of collection, milking shift or the site of production (farm.

  17. Efeitos neuromusculares e cardiovasculares do pipecurônio: estudo comparativo entre diferentes doses Efectos neuromusculares y cardiovasculares del pipecuronio: estudio comparativo entre diferentes dosis Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of pipecuronium: a comparative study between different dose

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga; Leandro Yoshioka; Franklin Sarmento da Silva Braga; Gloria Maria Braga Potério; José Aristeu F Frias; Rita de Cássia Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O pipecurônio é um bloqueador neuromuscular não-despolarizante, com propriedades similares as do pancurônio, mas desprovido de efeitos cardiovasculares. Foram avaliados os efeitos neuromusculares, as condições de intubação traqueal e as repercussões hemodinâmicas de duas diferentes doses de pipecurônio. MÉTODO: Pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a dose de pipecurônio: Grupo I (0,04 mg.kg-1) e Grupo II (0,05 mg.kg-1). A medicação pré-anestésica...

  18. Bonfils Fiberscope: Intubating Conditions and Hemodynamic Changes without Neuromuscular Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atabak Najafi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To compare intubating conditions and hemodynamic changes between Bonfils Intubation Fiberscope and Macintosh laryngoscopy without administering neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial,80 male and female patients, scheduled for elective surgery, aged 15 to 60 years, ASA class II or I, non-obese, non smokers, without anticipated difficult intubation; were randomly allocated into two groups of 40: Bonfils and Macintosh. Following adequate hydration and preoxygenation, midazolam 0.03 mg.kg-1 was administered, followed by intravenous alfentanil 20 µg.kg-1, lidocaine 1.0 mg.kg-1, and propofol 2 mg.kg-1 sequentially. Trachea was then intubated using Bonfils Intubation Fiberscope in the Bonfils group and conventional Macintosh laryngoscopy in the Macintosh group. Intubating condition, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, pulse oximetry, and success rate were measured. RESULTS: Clinically acceptable intubating condition scores did not differ significantly between the groups (P=0.465. Compared to the baseline values, heart rate rose significantly after intubation only in the Macintosh group (P<0.001. Although mean arterial blood pressure increased immediately after intubation in the Macintosh group (P=0.022, its post-intubation values were significantly less than baseline in both groups (P<0.001. Intubation time took much longer in the Bonfils group (40 s than the Macintosh group (11 s, P<0.001. In the absence of NMBDs, Bonfils Intubation Fiberscope compares well with Macintosh laryngoscopy in terms of success rate and intubating conditions, but with less mechanical stress and hemodynamic compromise and longer intubation time.

  19. Lower Limb Neuromuscular Asymmetry in Volleyball and Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.

  20. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by the selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex: a dose-finding and safety study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorgenfrei, Iben F; Norrild, Kathrine; Larsen, Per Bo;

    2006-01-01

    Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block.......Sugammadex (Org 25969) forms a complex with steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents, thereby reversing neuromuscular block. This study investigated the dose-response relation, safety, and pharmacokinetics of sugammadex to reverse rocuronium-induced block....

  1. Sympathetic innervation controls homeostasis of neuromuscular junctions in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muzamil Majid; Lustrino, Danilo; Silveira, Willian A; Wild, Franziska; Straka, Tatjana; Issop, Yasmin; O'Connor, Emily; Cox, Dan; Reischl, Markus; Marquardt, Till; Labeit, Dittmar; Labeit, Siegfried; Benoit, Evelyne; Molgó, Jordi; Lochmüller, Hanns; Witzemann, Veit; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C C; Pozzan, Tullio; Rudolf, Rüdiger

    2016-01-19

    The distribution and function of sympathetic innervation in skeletal muscle have largely remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that sympathetic neurons make close contact with neuromuscular junctions and form a network in skeletal muscle that may functionally couple different targets including blood vessels, motor neurons, and muscle fibers. Direct stimulation of sympathetic neurons led to activation of muscle postsynaptic β2-adrenoreceptor (ADRB2), cAMP production, and import of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PPARGC1A) into myonuclei. Electrophysiological and morphological deficits of neuromuscular junctions upon sympathectomy and in myasthenic mice were rescued by sympathicomimetic treatment. In conclusion, this study identifies the neuromuscular junction as a target of the sympathetic nervous system and shows that sympathetic input is crucial for synapse maintenance and function. PMID:26733679

  2. Update on the approach of respiratory therapy in patients with neuromuscular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Barreto Paula

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the role of physiotherapy in approaching neuromuscular disease (NMD, with emphasis on preventive and therapeutic aspects of respiratory therapy. Methods: A nonsystematic literature review covering the past twenty years, using the databases MEDLINE and LILACS through the following descriptors: neuromuscular diseases, physical therapy, vital capacity and respiratory failure. Results: The studies reviewed show the need to establish a routine periodic evaluation of respiratory function in order to introduce physical therapy measures relevant to each stage of the disease. The monitoring should include pulmonary function tests and specific techniques of chest physiotherapy, in order to avoid complications such as respiratory failure. Conclusion: The introduction of regular monitoring and preventive physiotherapy measures have helped to increase survival and improve quality of life of patients with neuromuscular diseases.

  3. Analgesia, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade during targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Richard R; Gagnon, David J; May, Teresa; Seder, David B; Fraser, Gilles L

    2015-12-01

    The approach to sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade during targeted temperature management (TTM) remains largely unstudied, forcing clinicians to adapt previous research from other patient environments. During TTM, very little data guide drug selection, doses, and specific therapeutic goals. Sedation should be deep enough to prevent awareness during neuromuscular blockade, but titration is complex as metabolism and clearance are delayed for almost all drugs during hypothermia. Deeper sedation is associated with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and ventilator therapy, increased delirium and infection, and delayed wakening which can confound early critical neurological assessments, potentially resulting in erroneous prognostication and inappropriate withdrawal of life support. We review the potential therapeutic goals for sedation, analgesia, and neuromuscular blockade during TTM; the adverse events associated with that treatment; data suggesting that TTM and organ dysfunction impair drug metabolism; and controversies and potential benefits of specific monitoring. We also highlight the areas needing better research to guide our therapy. PMID:26670815

  4. Análise da qualidade do composto produzido na unidade de tratamento mecânico e biológico da GESAMB

    OpenAIRE

    Barradas, Helena Isabel Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    O objectivo deste trabalho consiste na análise preliminar da qualidade do composto produzido na fase de testes da unidade de TMB da GESAMB. Efectuaram-se recolhas ao composto já maturado (a matéria orgânica foi degradada) e realizaram-se análises laboratoriais às propriedades físico-químicas. Os resultados obtidos revelam que a compostagem ainda não é totalmente eficiente, pois o composto ainda não se encontra estabilizado (a matéria orgânica ainda é susceptível à degradação) apesar de ...

  5. Qualidade de mamão 'Formosa' produzido no RN e armazenado sob atmosfera passiva Quality of 'Formosa' papaya produced at RN and storage under passive atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Lidiane de Oliveira Fernandes; Edna Maria Mendes Aroucha; Pahlevi Augusto de Souza; Aline Ellen Duarte de Sousa; Patrícia Liane de Oliveira Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da cera de carnaúba (Primax Wax) e filme plástico de polietileno de baixa densidade "X-tend" sobre a vida útil pós-colheita de mamão 'Formosa' (Tainung 1) produzido em Baraúna - RN. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Pós-colheita da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA). Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 3 x 6 com 3 repetições de três frutos por parcela, constituindo na combinação de 3 tipos de atmosferas (cera, filme de po...

  6. Análise físico-química e sensorial de doce de leite produzido sem adição de sacarose

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Patrícia Milagres; Geruza Dias; Mirella Araújo Magalhães; Mateus Ottomar Silva; Afonso Mota Ramos

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo foi avaliar doces de leite produzidos sem adição de açúcar. Realizaram-se três formulações: doce com adição de açúcar (A), com edulcorante sucralose (B) e doce com ciclamato, sacarina e sorbitol (C). Nos doces B e C utilizou-se a carragena. Realizaram-se análises físico-quimicas, microbiológicas, exigidas pela legislação vigente, e análise sensorial. Nas análises de acidez não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras. O teor de gordura, a atividade de água e textura das amos...

  7. Biopolímero produzido a partir da cana-de-áçucar para cicatrização cutânea

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho Maria Cristina de Oliveira Cardoso; Carrazoni Patrícia Gallindo; Monteiro Vanda Lúcia da Cunha; Melo Francisco de Assis Dutra; Mota Rinaldo Aparecido; Tenório Filho Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Um polissacarídeo extracelular foi produzido por via microbiológica, através da bactéria ZSP isolada no Laboratório de Microbiologia Industrial da Estação Experimental de Cana-de-Açúcar do Carpina/UFRPE, apresentando excepcional capacidade de processo. Os principais monossacarídeos presentes na fração solúvel foram glicose (87,6%), xilose (8,6%), manose (0,8%), ribose (1,7%), galactose (0,1%), arabinose (0,4%) e o ácido glucurônico (0,8%). Devido ao alto índice de traumatismos que acomete os ...

  8. ANÁLISE SENSORIAL E MICROBIOLÓGICA DE KEFIR ARTESANAL PRODUZIDO A PARTIR DE LEITE DE CABRA E DE LEITE DE VACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O kefir vem sendo considerado como um alimento funcional, produzido através da fermentação lática e alcoólica do leite por bactérias e leveduras, possuindo consistência semelhante à de um iogurte, mas de valor nutricional e terapêutico muito maior. É originário das montanhas dos Cáucaso e da Ásia Central tendo sido consumido por milhares de anos pela população das montanhas que relacionam seu uso diário com a longevidade e saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um kefir a base de leite de vaca e outro a base de leite de cabra e avaliar suas características microbiológicas e a aceitabilidade de cada um dos produtos.

  9. The effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint motor control during sidecutting in female elite soccer and handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette K; Bencke, Jesper; Andersen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    and 8 female elite team handball players aged 26 +/- 3 years at the start of the study. INTERVENTION: The subjects participated in a specific neuromuscular training program previously shown to reduce non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: Neuromuscular activity at the knee joint, joint angles at the hip and...

  10. Neuromuscular factors related to success in Olympic wrestling FACTORES NEUROMUSCULARES RELACIONADOS CON EL RENDIMIENTO EN LUCHA OLÍMPICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Borrego

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study was undertaken to determine the relationship between maximum dynamic and isometric strength and success in male and female Olympic wrestling. Thirty-five female and thirty-seven male wrestlers were assigned into 4 groups according to their gender and competitive level: men elite (♂ ET, n = 18 and amateur (AT ♂, n = 19 and female elite (♀ ET n = 13 and amateur (AT ♀, n = 22. All subjects underwent assessments of body composition, countermovement jump, maximum dynamic strength test in full squat and bench press exercises and maximum isometric strength test of grip and hip extension. All the neuromuscular markers studied showed significantly higher values in the two elite groups compared to their respective amateur groups results, except the jump height between ♀ET y ♀AT, where no significant differences were detected. The present results suggest that the higher maximum isometric and dynamic strength values, explained in part by the differences in lean mass, will give elite wrestlers a clear advantage during the most frequently used techniques in Olympic wrestling. Key  Words: bench press; squat; maximum dynamic strength; maximum isometric strength; combat.ResumenEste estudio se llevó a cabo para determinar la relación entre la fuerza dinámica e isométrica máxima con el éxito en Lucha Olímpica masculina y femenina. Treinta cinco mujeres y treinta y siete varones luchadores fueron divididos en 4 grupos de acuerdo a su género y nivel competitivo: hombres élite (♂ET, n = 18 y amateur (♂AT, n = 19 y mujeres élite (♀ET, n = 13 y amateur (♀AT, n = 22. Todos los sujetos fueron sometidos a valoraciones de la composición corporal, salto con contramovimiento, test de fuerza dinámica máxima en los ejercicios de sentadilla completa y press banca así como test de fuerza isométrica máxima de agarre y de extensión de cadera. Todas las variables neuromusculares estudiadas presentaron valores

  11. Propriedades físicas de painéis aglomerados de madeira produzidos com adição de película de polipropileno biorientado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenn B. de Macedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, as últimas décadas foram marcadas pela crescente produção de paineis de madeira seguida pelo aumento do consumo nacional; isto descreve o quão promissora é a área devido à sua grande potencialidade quanto ao desenvolvimento de novos produtos e tecnologias; como exemplo disto existe a possibilidade de mistura entre materiais lignocelulósicos e os diversos resíduos produzidos pela sociedade. Entre tais resíduos o plástico é o que apresenta maior abundância nos descartes domésticos. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho objetivou determinar propriedades físicas de paineis aglomerados homogêneos confeccionados com partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus sp e Pinus sp e de embalagens de película de polipropileno biorientado tendo, como adesivo, a resina poliuretana à base de óleo de mamona. Foram avaliadas as propriedades: inchamento em espessura e absorção de água, com corpo de prova com e sem impermeabilização, e massa específica. Concluiu-se que, dos fatores investigados, apenas o uso do impermeabilizante foi significativo. De acordo com a ANSI A208.1 (ANS, 1999 os paineis produzidos são classificados como de alta massa específica (H. Relativamente ao inchamento em espessura por 2 h, os paineis atenderam ao exigido pela NBR 14810 (ABNT, 2013 para espessura de 8 a 13 mm.

  12. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Driscoll Jeremiah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.

  13. Effect of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function: A Case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Driscoll, Jeremiah

    2011-06-09

    Abstract Background Ankle joint sprain and the subsequent development of chronic ankle instability (CAI) are commonly encountered by clinicians involved in the treatment and rehabilitation of musculoskeletal injuries. It has recently been advocated that ankle joint post-sprain rehabilitation protocols should incorporate dynamic neuromuscular training to enhance ankle joint sensorimotor capabilities. To date no studies have reported on the effects of dynamic neuromuscular training on ankle joint positioning during landing from a jump, which has been reported as one of the primary injury mechanisms for ankle joint sprain. This case report details the effects of a 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme on ankle joint function in an athlete with CAI. Methods The athlete took part in a progressive 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme which incorporated postural stability, strengthening, plyometric, and speed\\/agility drills. The outcome measures chosen to assess for interventional efficacy were: 1 Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) scores, 2 Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) reach distances, 3 ankle joint plantar flexion during drop landing and drop vertical jumping, and 4 ground reaction forces (GRFs) during walking. Results CAIT and SEBT scores improved following participation in the programme. The angle of ankle joint plantar flexion decreased at the point of initial contact during the drop landing and drop vertical jumping tasks, indicating that the ankle joint was in a less vulnerable position upon landing following participation in the programme. Furthermore, GRFs were reduced whilst walking post-intervention. Conclusions The 6-week dynamic neuromuscular training programme improved parameters of ankle joint sensorimotor control in an athlete with CAI. Further research is now required in a larger cohort of subjects to determine the effects of neuromuscular training on ankle joint injury risk factors.

  14. Propiocepción y control neuromuscular en el fútblo infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Zarza, Cristían

    2014-01-01

    En el fútbol profesional la escasa utilización de la pierna no hábil hace que muchas situaciones de juego no se resuelvan eficazmente, además de predisponer a la aparición de lesiones. El presente estudio se concentró en determinar la influencia del entrenamiento propioceptivo y del control neuromuscular en las cualidades físicas y técnicas del miembro no hábil. Objetivo: Indagar el nivel propioceptivo y de control neuromuscular del miembro inferior no hábil en chicos que re...

  15. Valoració i entrenament del control neuromuscular per a la millora del rendiment esportiu

    OpenAIRE

    Fort Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara

    2010-01-01

    El control neuromuscular ha estat descrit com un important factor per a l'èxit en el rendiment esportiu. De la mateixa manera, també s'ha identificat com a clau en la prevenció i readaptació de les lesions esportives. El principal objectiu d'aquesta tesi doctoral és avaluar l'eficàcia de diferents tipus d'entrenament neuromuscular en esportistes.S'ha utilitzat una mostra de 81 esportistes sans entre els diferents estudis que s'hi presenten. Les diferents avaluacions realitzades han registrat ...

  16. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Mobility Support of Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Winfried

    2015-08-24

    The stimulator for neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly is not very complicated, but for application within "MOBIL" we have some additional demands to fulfill. First we have specific safety issues for this user group. A powerful compliance management system is crucial not only to guide daily application, but for creating hard data for the scientific outcome. We also need to assure easy handling of the stimulator, because the subjects are generally not able to cope with too difficult and complex motor skills. So, we developed five generations of stimulators and optimizing solutions after field tests. We are already planning the sixth generation with wireless control of the stimulation units by the central main handheld control unit. In a prototype, we have implemented a newly available high capacity memory, a breakthrough in "compliance data storage" as they offer the necessary high storage capacity and fast data handling for an affordable prize. The circuit also contains a 3D accelerometer sensor which acts as a further important safety features: if the control unit drops, this event is detected automatically by the sensor and activates an emergency switch-off that disables the stimulation to avoid associated risks. Further, we have implemented a hardware emergence shutdown and other safety measures. Finally, in the last example muscle torque measurements are referenced with compliance data. In the study normalized maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and maximum stimulation induced contraction (MSC) were assessed in regular check-ups along the training period. With additional consideration of adjusted stimulation intensity for training out of the compliance data records we are able to estimate the induced contraction strength, which turned out to amount in average 11% of MVC. This value may seem on a first sight rather low, and ought to be considered in relation to the results at the end of the training period. Therefore the

  17. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic dysfunction in patients with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chi-Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX is a rare lipid-storage disease. Neuromuscular abnormality and autonomic system (ANS dysfuction in CTX are rarely examined in large-scale studies in the literature. We studied the peripheral nervous system, myopathology, and autonomic system of four CTX patients and performed a literature review of the reported CTX patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods Four biochemically and genetically confirmed CTX patients, belonging to two families, were included for study and all received nerve conduction study (NCS, muscle biopsy for histopathologic and ultrastructural study, skin biopsy for intraepidermal nerve fiber (INEF density measurement, autonomic testings including sympathetic skin response, R-R interval variation and head-up tilt test using an automated tilt table to record the changes of blood pressure and heart rate in different postures. The Q-Sweat test was also applied for the detection of sweat amount and onset time of response. The clinical characteristics, study methods and results of 13 studies of peripheral neuropathy in CTX patients in the literature were also recorded for analysis. Results The results of NCS study showed axonal sensory-motor polyneuropathy in three CTX cases and mixed axonal and demyelinating sensor-motor polyneuropathy in one. The myopathological and histopathologic studies revealed mild denervation characteristics, but the ultrastructural study revealed changes of mitochondria and the membranous system, and increased amounts of glycogen, lipofuscin and lipid deposition. The ANS study revealed different degrees of abnormalities in the applied tests and the INEF density measurement showed small fiber neuropathy in three of the four CTX patients. The literature review of peripheral neuropathy in CTX revealed different types of peripheral neuropathy, of which axonal peripheral neuropathy was the most common. Conclusions Peripheral neuropathy, especially the

  18. Simulação de bloqueios periféricos guiados por ultra-som: curva de aprendizado dos residentes de anestesiologia do CET-SMA/HSL Simulacro de bloqueos periféricos guiados por ultrasonido: curva de aprendizaje de los residentes de anestesiología del CET-SMA/HSL Simulation of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block: learning curve of CET-SMA/HSL anesthesiology residents

    OpenAIRE

    Marilia Bonifácio Baranauskas; Clarita Bandeira Margarido; Cláudia Panossian; Enis Donizetti Silva; Murilo Awada Campanella; Pedro Paulo Kimachi

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A técnica de ultra-som tem sido cada vez mais utilizada para a realização de bloqueios de nervos periféricos. Existem poucos relatos na literatura que analisam a curva de aprendizado da técnica de ultra-som. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a curva de aprendizado dos residentes de Anestesiologia do CET-SMA/HSL em bloqueios periféricos guiados por ultra-som por meio de modelo experimental de gelatina. MÉTODO: Foi desenvolvido modelo experimental com cuba preenchida d...

  19. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K. P.; H S Meena; Negi, P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P

  20. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  1. Postoperative effects of neuromuscular exercise prior to hip or knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    supervised neuromuscular exercise prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee did not confer additional benefits 3 months postoperatively compared with TJA alone. However, the intervention group experienced a statistically significant short-term benefit in ADL and pain, suggesting an earlier...

  2. Neurophysiological Strategies for the Diagnosis of Disorders of the Neuromuscular Junction in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The disorders of the neuromuscular junction seen in children, the congenital myasthenic syndromes and autoimmune myasthenia gravis, are very rare. Their clinical symptoms and signs may be variable, most notably in the neonate and infant. They should enter the differential diagnosis of many different clinical presentations, such as "floppy infant"…

  3. Monozygous twins with neuromuscular transmission defects at opposite sides of the motor endplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punga, A R; Nygren, I; Askmark, H; Stålberg, E V

    2009-03-01

    Disorders affecting the postsynaptic side of the neuromuscular junction include autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) as well as some of the congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an acquired autoimmune neuromuscular disorder in which autoantibodies are directed against the presynaptic calcium channels. Here we describe two monozygous twin brothers: case 1 was diagnosed with an indeterminate form of acquired postsynaptic neuromuscular junction defect at age 32 and case 2 with LEMS at age 47. Case 1 presented clinically with mild generalized myasthenic weakness, neurophysiological examination revealed disturbed neuromuscular transmission along with probable myositis and serum analysis regarding antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor and muscle-specific tyrosine kinase was negative. Case 2 presented with proximal muscle fatigue accompanied by areflexia at rest and antibodies against the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels were present. Neurophysiologically, case 2 had reduced baseline compound motor action potential amplitudes on neurography, decrement on low-frequency repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) and pathological increment on high frequency RNS. To our knowledge this is the first case report of its kind and adds an intriguing contrast to the more common diagnosis of CMS in monozygous twins. PMID:18684214

  4. Slide-based ergometer rowing: Effects on force production and neuromuscular activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Alkjaer, T; Kanstrup, I-L;

    2013-01-01

    Force production profile and neuromuscular activity during slide-based and stationary ergometer rowing at standardized submaximal power output were compared in 14 male and 8 female National Team rowers. Surface electromyography (EMG) was obtained in selected thoracic and leg muscles along with...

  5. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System, a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS. In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  6. A survey of the current use of neuromuscular blocking drugs among the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelazeem Eldawlatly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This survey aimed to assess the extent of practice of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMB in 2012. Methods: We distributed an electronic survey among 577 members of the Triple-M Middle Eastern Yahoo anesthesia group, enquiring about their practice in the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Questions concerned the routine "first choice" use of NMB, choice for tracheal intubation, the use of neuromuscular monitoring (NMT, type of NMB used in difficult airway, frequency of using suxamethonium, cisatracurium, rocuronium and sugammadex, observed side effects of rocuronium, residual curarization, and the reversal of residual curarization of rocuronium. Results: A total of 71 responses from 22 Middle Eastern institutions were collected. Most of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists were using cisatracurium and rocuronium frequently for tracheal intubation (39% and 35%, respectively. From the respondents, 2/3 were using suxamethonium for tracheal intubation in difficult airway, 1/3 were using rocuronium routinely and 17% have observed hypersensitivity reactions to rocuronium, 54% reported residual curarization from rocuronium, 78% were routinely using neostigmine to reverse the rocuronium, 21% used sugammadex occasionally, and 35% were using NMT routinely during the use of NMB. Conclusions: We believe that more could be done to increase the awareness of the Middle Eastern anesthesiologists about the high incidence of PROC (>20% and the need for routine monitoring of neuromuscular function. This could be accomplished with by developing formal training programs and providing official guidelines.

  7. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  8. Neuromuscular control of scapula muscles during a voluntary task in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C M; Søgaard, Karen; Chreiteh, S S; Holtermann, Andreas; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2013-01-01

    Imbalance of neuromuscular activity in the scapula stabilizers in subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SIS) is described in restricted tasks and specific populations. Our aim was to compare the scapular muscle activity during a voluntary movement task in a general population with and w...

  9. Jornalismo em segunda tela. Webjornal produzido com dispositivos móveis em redação virtual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanei Ramos Barcellos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo inicialmente aborda o uso de dispositivos móveis pessoais, portáteis, interativos e multimídias nas várias etapas da produção, distribuição e consumo de produtos e conteúdos jornalísticos. Discute a possibilidade de o trabalho jornalístico ser feito totalmente no ciberespaço de forma remota. Também propõe o uso dos termos “redação virtual” e “jornalismo em segunda tela” amparado pela narrativa transmidiática. Num segundo momento, o trabalho relata a experiência de produção, formatação e distribuição de conteúdos jornalísticos multimídia em segunda tela, usando dispositivos móveis e em redação virtual. O objetivo é produzir matérias direcionada a mídias que sejam mais adequadas à cada notícia, tendo um telejornal de grande audiência como primeira tela. A transmissão paralela ao Jornal Nacional, da Rede Globo de Televisão, levantou antecipadamente suas pautas e produziu matérias sobre os mesmos temas, mas com foco local. Esse jornal, o #Tela2, foi produzido por alunos do curso de Jornalismo da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUCPR. O artigo expõe também o processo de criação e de planejamento, e detalha todas as etapas da produção realizada pelos alunos, acompanhadas de avaliações críticas. As turmas mesclaram-se e dividiram-se em equipes para desempenhar diferentes tarefas: conselho editorial, rádio-escuta, redes sociais, reportagem de televisão, reportagem de rádio, reportagem de jornal (texto e foto, reportagem com texto coletivo em tempo real. Também foram designadas equipes para a realização de três entradas ao vivo: câmera fixa para televisão, matéria de televisão ao vivo (câmara viva e entrevista de rádio. Os resultados apontam que a experimentação foi satisfatória ao demonstrar ser possível realizar jornalismo integralmente em redações virtuais, usando apenas dispositivos móveis comuns na atualidade em todas as etapas do fazer jornal

  10. Caracterização físico-química e perfil lipídico de queijos produzidos com leite ovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo de Pellegrini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar os queijos Pecorino Toscano, Feta e Labneh produzidos com leite ovino quanto aos aspectos físico-químicos e perfil lipídico. Foram adquiridos e analisados queijos tipo Pecorino Toscano Fresco, com 90, 180 e 270 dias de maturação, Feta e Labneh elaborados com leite de ovelha, comercializados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As análises realizadas foram: pH, acidez titulável, proteína, gordura, umidade, cinzas e perfil de ácidos graxos. O maior pH ocorreu nos queijos tipo Pecorino Toscano com 180 dias de maturação e Feta. Em relação à acidez titulável estes apresentaram comportamento contrário ao do pH. Os valores de proteína oscilaram entre 15,98 e 28,29% m/m, sendo os maiores valores para os queijos com maior tempo de maturação. A gordura apresentou variação idêntica à proteína, onde os queijos tipo Pecorino Toscano com 180 e 270 dias de maturação apresentaram maior valor. Os valores de umidade apresentaram-se inversos ao tempo de maturação, sendo que os queijos com 270, 180 e 90 dias de maturação apresentaram valores de 25,14, 25,95 e 30,26% m/m respectivamente. As cinzas também se demonstraram maiores para os queijos maturados. Em relação ao perfil lipídico, foram identificados 23 ácidos graxos, ocorrendo diferença significativa na maioria dos resultados, inclusive no somatório dos ácidos graxos saturados, monoinsaturados, poliinsaturados e na relação entre insaturados e saturados. Portanto, devido à escassez de informações sobre a composição de queijos produzidos com leite ovino, outras pesquisas devem ser realizadas para caracterizar de forma consistente estes produtos.

  11. Conservação pos-colheita e caracterização de frutos de physalis (Physalis angulata L.) produzidos na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba - Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Bolzan, Renata Padilha

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Frutos de Physalis angulata L. produzidos na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba - Paraná, foram caracterizados quanto às características químicas e físicas e a capacidade antioxidante e seu desempenho quanto a diferentes condições de armazenamento e embalagens. Quanto a caracterização física e química dos frutos de Physalis angulata L. produzidos na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba - Paraná, os resultados encontrados foram: peso médio de 2,16 g e diâmetro de 1,06 cm, relação SS/AT de 18...

  12. Analgesia para a sutura artroscópica do manguito rotador: estudo comparativo entre o bloqueio interescalênico do plexo braquial e o bloqueio da bursa subacromial contínuo Management of pain after the rotator cuff arthroscopic suture: comparative study among the interescalenic blockade and the continuous intrabursal infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Almeida

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível de dor pós-operatória de pacientes submetidos à sutura artroscópica da lesão do manguito rotador (MR que receberam protocolos diferentes de analgesia pós-operatória. Demonstrar a relação entre dor e o sexo do paciente, a dimensão da lesão suturada e a utilização da capsulotomia interna. Verificar a prevalência dos efeitos colaterais. MÉTODO: Foram analisados três grupos de pacientes operados entre 1º de junho de 2004 e 31 de maio de 2007. O grupo I foi composto pelos pacientes que receberam bloqueio interescalênico com ropivacaína a 0,75%. No grupo II, o mesmo bloqueio foi acrescido de 150µg de clonidina. No grupo III foi administrado um bolus de 30ml de ropivacaína a 0,75% para infiltração dos portais artroscópicos e diretamente no espaço subacromial, seguido de infusão contínua de ropivacaína a 0,2% em bomba de infusão. Os pacientes foram submetidos à medição da escala analógica visual (EAV com 24 horas após o procedimento. As variáveis estudadas foram: EAV, sexo, tamanho da lesão, necessidade de capsulotomia interna e prevalência dos efeitos colaterais. O estudo avaliou 196 pacientes, dos quais foram excluídos 51, totalizando n = 145 pacientes. O total de pacientes no grupo I foi de 65; no grupo II, de 19; e no grupo III, de 61. RESULTADOS: O índice da EAV médio encontrado no grupo I foi de 3,88 ± 1,737 (3; no grupo II, de 3,8 ± 1,6 (3; e no grupo III, de 1,95 ± 1,6 (2. Houve diferença significativa ao comparar os grupos I e III (p OBJECTIVE: To compare the level of postoperative pain in patients submitted to arthroscopic suture of a rotator cuff lesion who had different analgesia protocols. To demonstrate the relationship between pain and the gender of the patient, the dimension of the lesion sutured, and the use of internal capsulotomy. To check the prevalence of side effects. METHODS: Three groups of patients operated on between June 01, 2004 and May 31, 2007 were

  13. Comparação entre bloqueios peridural e paravertebral torácicos contínuos para analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos a toracotomias: revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto de Pontes Jardim Júnior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Toracotomia é um procedimento associado à dor pós-operatória de forte intensidade. O bloqueio peridural (BPD é considerado o padrão-ouro para o seu controle. O bloqueio paravertebral (BPV é uma opção para o controle da dor pós-operatória. O objetivo deste estudo foi fazer metanálises focadas nas comparações entre as analgesias com bloqueio peridural torácico ou paravertebral contínuos quanto à eficácia relativa no controle da dor pós-toracotomia e à incidência de efeitos adversos. MÉTODOS: O estudo seguiu o protocolo Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. Foram analisados desfechos, primário (dor pós-operatória em repouso, e secundários (retenção urinária, náuseas e vômitos e hipotensão arterial. A diferença média ponderada foi estimada para as variáveis contínuas e as razões de chances para as variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos oito estudos prospectivos controlados de alocação aleatória. As metanálises não demonstraram diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as duas técnicas quanto ao desfecho da dor pós-operatória em repouso nos momentos 4h, 8h, 12h, 16h, 20h, 24h, 36h e 48h. A incidência de retenção urinária foi maior no grupo submetido ao BPD (RC = 7,19; IC95 = 1,87-27,7. A ocorrência de hipotensão foi maior no grupo submetido ao BPD (RC = 10,28; IC95 = 2,95-35,77. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação ao desfecho náuseas/vômitos (RC=3,00; IC95=0,49-18,45. CONCLUSÃO: Não se observaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes quanto ao alívio da dor pós-toracotomia quando comparados os tratamentos BPD e BPV. O tratamento BPV mostrou menor incidência de efeitos colaterais com redução na frequência de retenção urinária e hipotensão.

  14. Invasive home mechanical ventilation, mainly focused on neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börger, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and background: Invasive home mechanical ventilation is used for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency. This elaborate and technology-dependent ventilation is carried out via an artificial airway (tracheal cannula to the trachea. Exact numbers about the incidence of home mechanical ventilation are not available. Patients with neuromuscular diseases represent a large portion of it. Research questions: Specific research questions are formulated and answered concerning the dimensions of medicine/nursing, economics, social, ethical and legal aspects. Beyond the technical aspect of the invasive home, mechanical ventilation, medical questions also deal with the patient’s symptoms and clinical signs as well as the frequency of complications. Economic questions pertain to the composition of costs and the differences to other ways of homecare concerning costs and quality of care. Questions regarding social aspects consider the health-related quality of life of patients and caregivers. Additionally, the ethical aspects connected to the decision of home mechanical ventilation are viewed. Finally, legal aspects of financing invasive home mechanical ventilation are discussed. Methods: Based on a systematic literature search in 2008 in a total of 31 relevant databases current literature is viewed and selected by means of fixed criteria. Randomized controlled studies, systematic reviews and HTA reports (health technology assessment, clinical studies with patient numbers above ten, health-economic evaluations, primary studies with particular cost analyses and quality-of-life studies related to the research questions are included in the analysis. Results and discussion: Invasive mechanical ventilation may improve symptoms of hypoventilation, as the analysis of the literature shows. An increase in life expectancy is likely, but for ethical reasons it is not confirmed by premium-quality studies. Complications (e. g. pneumonia are rare

  15. Caracterização de blocos cerâmicos acústicos produzidos com incorporação de lodo de lavanderia têxtil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Morais de Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Características físicas (absorção de água, mecânicas (resistência à compressão, de toxicidade e de superfície (microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram avaliadas em blocos cerâmicos acústicos, fabricados por meio do processo de solidificação/estabilização (S/E, a partir da incorporação de lodo proveniente de estação de tratamento de efluentes têxteis. Os blocos cerâmicos acústicos foram produzidos com incorporação de 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 e 35% de lodo têxtil na massa de argila, bem como o bloco controle. Os resultados indicaram a porcentagem de 20% de lodo como o limite para fornecer material com características de acordo com os padrões estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. O processo de S/E foi eficiente no aproveitamento/tratamento do lodo têxtil, uma vez que permitiu a imobilização dos poluentes na massa de argila, os quais não foram lixiviados, tampouco solubilizados.

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DO QUEIJO MINAS FRESCAL PRODUZIDO POR LATICÍNIOS DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Conceição Custódio Apolinário

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a presença de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, Salmonella spp., estafilococos coagulase positiva e Listeria monocytogenes em queijos Minas Frescal, produzidos por diferentes indústrias da região da Zona da Mata Mineira fiscalizadas por Serviços de Inspeção Federal, Estadual ou Municipal, num total de 31 amostras de queijos Minas Frescal. Foram encontradas 77,4% das amostras com contagens superiores ao preconizado pela legislação para coliformes totais, 54,8% para coliformes termotolerantes, 16,12% para estafilococos coagulase positiva e 9,6% para Listeria monocytogenes. Nenhuma das amostras apresentou contaminação por Salmonella spp. Diante disso, 80,6% das amostras analisadas encontravam-se imprópria para o consumo, por apresentar contagem de pelo menos um dos microrganismos analisados fora dos limites especificados pela legislação. Conclui-se que os queijos Minas Frescais não apresentam qualidade microbiológica satisfatória, o que compromete a segurança do alimento para o consumidor.

  17. Tratamiento farmacológico de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Pharmacological treatment neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ortiz Leyba

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de fármacos para tratamiento de las alteraciones neuromusculares que se presentan en el enfermo ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos es prácticamente inexistente. El empleo de inmunoglobulinas por vía venosa para el tratamiento de la polineuropatía del paciente crítico (PPC no aporta ninguna evidencia para su uso. Más importancia tiene el tratamiento profiláctico, como es el caso de la administración de una perfusión de insulina para prevenir la hiperglucemias que seasocian a un mayor desarrollo de la PPC. Nuevos datos inducen a pensar que el mecanismo protector de esta perfusión, normalizando los niveles de glucosa se hacen modulando una disfunción endotelial y a unos menores niveles de dimetilarginina asimétrica (ADMA. Con respecto a la miopatía del paciente crítico o a los cuadros de bloqueo neuromuscular prolongado, el tratamiento consiste en evitar el empleo de diversos fármacos que se sabe se asocian al desarrollo de estas entidades como son los corticoides, los relajantes musculares y los aminoglucósidos. Por lo que respecta a la parálisis aguda flácida -infección por el virus del oeste del nilo se han comunicado casos anecdóticos de mejoría con el empleo de corticoides o de interferón, pero su tratamiento rutinario queda aún por establecer.The use of drugs for treating neuromuscular impairments that present in the patient admitted to the Intensive Care Unit is virtually inexistent. The use of intravenous immunoglobulins for managing polyneuropathy of the critically ill patient (PCIP is supported by no evidence. More important is prophylactic therapy, as is the administration of insulin perfusion to prevent hyperglycemia that is associated to increased development of PCIP. New data suggest that the protective mechanism of this perfusion, which normalizes glucose levels, is achieved through the modulation of endothelial dysfunction and lowering levels of asymmetrical di-methyl arginine (ADMA. As

  18. Tratamiento farmacológico de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Pharmacological treatment neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    C. Ortiz Leyba

    2006-01-01

    El empleo de fármacos para tratamiento de las alteraciones neuromusculares que se presentan en el enfermo ingresado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos es prácticamente inexistente. El empleo de inmunoglobulinas por vía venosa para el tratamiento de la polineuropatía del paciente crítico (PPC) no aporta ninguna evidencia para su uso. Más importancia tiene el tratamiento profiláctico, como es el caso de la administración de una perfusión de insulina para prevenir la hiperglucemias que seasoci...

  19. Pre-operative quadriceps femoris neuromuscular electrical stimulation in total knee arthroplasty : a clinical and molecular analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Walls, Raymond John

    2009-01-01

    Patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) have asymmetrical muscle weakness due to neuromuscular activation deficits and muscle atrophy. Quadriceps muscle (QFM) strength declines after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with associated functional impairment. The ultimate purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on quadriceps muscle strength and functional recovery after TKA. Patients undergoing TKA for advanced knee OA we...

  20. Plyometric type neuromuscular exercise is a treatment to postural control deficits of volleyball players: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The effects of exercise protocols on postural control changes have been supported, but the influence of a common and specific type neuromuscular exercise such as plyometric on postural control is not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of plyometric type neuromuscular exercise on balance or postural control performance of young male volleyball players. Method: Ten professional young male volleyball players participated in this study and performed p...

  1. Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Noyes, Frank R.; Sue D. Barber-Westin

    2015-01-01

    While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions) was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 yea...

  2. Effects of Compliance on Trunk and Hip Integrative Neuromuscular Training on Hip Abductor Strength in Female Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Dai; Myer, Gregory D; Bush, Heather M.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Sugimoto, D, Myer, GD, Bush, HM, and Hewett, TE. Effects of compliance on trunk and hip integrative neuromuscular training on hip abductor strength in female athletes. Recent studies demonstrate the link between reduced hip abductor strength and increased risk for knee injury such as patellofemoral pain syndrome in women athletes. Meta-analytic reports indicate that the efficacy of integrative neuromuscular training (INT) is associated with compliance to the prescribed programming. Thus, the ...

  3. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Maris Nápolis; Simone Dal Corso; José Alberto Neder; Carla Malaguti; Ana Cristina Oliveira Gimenes; Luiz Eduardo Nery

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients). However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and...

  4. The Effect of Short-Time Pre-Season Intensive, Neuromuscular Training on Postural Stability on Elite Football Players

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Małgorzata; Łoboda, Natalia; Śmigielski, Robert; Popieluch, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Adequate neuromuscular training is proven to be of enormous importance in the prevention of injuries. It enhances the ability to use somatosensory information, which improves postural capabilities, reduces injury ratios and improves player’s sport performance. We hypothesized that a short-time (3 week) intensive neuromuscular training would significantly improve postural balance of professional football players. We also hypothesized that the non-dominant leg of football players wo...

  5. Bloqueio do nervo femoral: avaliação da analgesia pós-operatória na operação de reconstrução artroscópica do ligamento cruzado anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Úrsula Bueno do Prado Guirro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A operação de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior do joelho (RLCA pode ter pós-operatório doloroso. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar se o emprego do bloqueio do nervo femoral (BNF associado à raquianestesia melhoraria o tratamento da dor pós-operatória na RLCA; os objetivos secundários foram avaliar solicitação do tramadol e eventos adversos. MÉTODO: 53 pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente nos grupos A e B. No Grupo A, 26 receberam raquianestesia e no Grupo B, 27 receberam raquianestesia e BNF. Todos receberam analgesia multimodal e poderiam solicitar analgésico de resgate a qualquer momento. As avaliações ocorreram em 6, 12 e 24 horas. RESULTADOS: Os grupos não apresentaram diferenças quanto às variáveis demográficas e clínico-cirúrgicas. A intensidade da dor não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. Escores médios de dor foram mais elevados 12 horas no Grupo A e não houve variação no Grupo B; 55,6% relataram dor moderada no Grupo A e 53,8% dor leve no Grupo B. Não houve diferença na solicitação de tramadol. Os eventos adversos não foram graves: 80,8% dos pacientes do Grupo B apresentaram bloqueio motor da coxa e dois caíram. CONCLUSÕES: A analgesia foi mais efetiva com a associação de raquianestesia e BNF, que permitiu melhor controle da dor pós-operatória na avaliação em 12 horas após a anestesia. Não houve diferença na solicitação do tramadol. Os eventos adversos apresentados pelos pacientes neste estudo não foram graves, porém deve-se estar atento à paralisia motora e à possibilidade de queda dos pacientes quando o BNF for feito.

  6. Avaliação comparativa entre o besilato de atracúrio e o cloreto de alcurônio sobre a frequência cardíaca e a ventilometria de cães anestesiados com halotano Comparative evaluation between atracurium besylate and alcuronium chloride on heart rate and ventilometry of the dogs anesthetized with halothane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre da Silva Polydoro

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cães provenientes da rotina anestésico-cirúrgica do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, foram divididos em 2 grupos, I e II. e submetidos ao bloqueio neuromuscular com besilato de atracúrio 0,5mg/kg IV ou cloreto de alcurônio 0,1mg/kg IV consecutivamente. Foram monitorados a ventilometria, a freqüência cardíaca e o tempo de bloqueio neuromuscular dos animais que receberam besilato de atracúrio, submetidos à reversão espontânea, enquanto que a reversão do bloqueio produzido com cloreto de alcurônio foi realizada aos 60 minutos após instalação deste pela administração de neostigmina precedida de sulfato de atropina. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram diminuição do volume corrente pulmonar para ambos os grupos à partir da reversão do bloqueio, com diminuição significativa para o grupo que recebeu cloreto de alcurônio até vinte minutos após reversão e diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos aos 20 minutos após reversão. Houve diminuição nos valores de frequência cardíaca à partir dos 10 minutos após indução anestésica até 30 minutos decorridos do bloqueio para ambos os grupos, com significando estatística no grupo que recebeu besilato de atracúrio. O tempo médio de bloqueio com besilato de atracúrio foi de 49,07 ± 12,67 minutos.Twenty dogs for the surgical-anaesthetic routine of the Veterinary Hospital of Federal University of Santa Maria - Brazil were divided in two groups, I and II, and submitted to neuromuscular block with atracurium besylate 0.5mg/kg (I or alcuronium chloride 0.1mg/kg (II. Ventilometry. heart rate and the time for reversion of the blockage were evaluated in group I. Reversal of relaxation in group II was carried with neostigmine preceded by atropine. The results demonstrated a reduction in tidal volume for both groups in the reversion of the blockage, with statistical significance between the groups 20 minutes

  7. Bloqueio do nervo frênico após realização de bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via interescalênica: relato de caso A bloqueo del nervio frénico después de la realización de bloqueo del plexo braquial por la vía interescalénica: relato de caso Phrenic nerve block after interscalene brachial plexus block: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Cangiani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Bloqueio do nervo frênico é um evento adverso do bloqueio do plexo braquial; entretanto, na sua maioria, sem repercussões clínicas importantes. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso em que ocorreu bloqueio do nervo frênico, com comprometimento ventilatório, em paciente com insuficiência renal crônica submetido a instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa, sob bloqueio do plexo braquial pela via perivascular interescalênica. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 50 anos, tabagista, portador de insuficiência renal crônica em regime de hemodiálise, hipertensão arterial, hepatite C, diabetes mellitus, doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica, a ser submetido à instalação de fístula arteriovenosa extensa no membro superior direito sob bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via interescalênica. O plexo braquial foi localizado com utilização do estimulador de nervo periférico. Foram injetados 35 mL de uma solução de anestésico local, constituída de uma mistura de lidocaína a 2% com epinefrina a 1:200.000 e ropivacaína a 0,75% em partes iguais. Ao final da injeção o paciente apresentava-se lúcido, porém com dispnéia e predomínio de incursão respiratória intercostal ipsilateral ao bloqueio. Não havia murmúrio vesicular na base do hemitórax direito. A SpO2 manteve-se em 95%, com cateter nasal de oxigênio. Não foi necessária instalação de métodos de auxílio ventilatório invasivo. Radiografia do tórax revelou que o hemidiafragma direito ocupava o 5° espaço intercostal. O quadro clínico foi revertido em três horas. CONCLUSÕES: O caso mostrou que houve paralisia total do nervo frênico com sintomas respiratórios. Apesar de não ter sido necessária terapêutica invasiva para o tratamento, fica o alerta para a restrição da indicação da técnica nesses casos.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del nervio frénico es un evento adverso del bloqueo del plexo braquial, sin

  8. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P; Andersen, L L; Sipilä, S; Rosted, A; Jakobsen, A K; Duus, B; Kjaer, M

    2007-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for the age-related decline in muscle strength and neural function, but the effect of long-term disuse in the elderly is largely unexplored. The present study examined the effect of unilateral long-term limb disuse on maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction (MVC), lean...... quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men...... data demonstrate that disuse leads to a marked loss of muscle strength and muscle mass in elderly individuals. Furthermore, the data indicate that neuromuscular activation and contractile RFD are more affected by long-term disuse than maximal muscle strength, which may increase the future risk for...

  9. Split-dose atropine versus glycopyrrolate with neostigmine for reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetterslev, J; Jarnvig, I; Jørgensen, L N;

    1991-01-01

    The effects of a split-dose of atropine sulphate versus a single dose of glycopyrrolate given with neostigmine for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade were studied in 55 patients undergoing gynaecological surgery. The patients were randomized to receive either a single dose of......, whereas none occurred in the glycopyrrolate group (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that a split-dose of atropine has similar chronotropic effects to a single dose of glycopyrrolate for the reversal of gallamine-induced neuromuscular blockade. However, the finding of a higher incidence of cardiac...... arrhythmias in the atropine group suggests that this reversal regime should be reserved for patients without cardiac disease....

  10. Enhancement of neuromuscular activity by natural specimens and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps Sinensis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05 enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency.

  11. Acceleromyography and mechanomyography for establishing potency of neuromuscular blocking agents: a randomized-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Viby-Mogensen, J; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acceleromyography (AMG) is increasingly being used in neuromuscular research, including in studies establishing the potency of neuromuscular blocking and reversal agents. However, AMG is insufficiently validated for use interchangeably with the gold standard, mechanomyography (MMG) for...... this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare AMG and MMG for establishing dose-response relationship and potency, using rocuronium as an example. METHODS: We included 40 adult patients in this randomized-controlled single-dose response study. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol......-response relationships were determined for both recording methods using log (dose) against probit (maximum block). The obtained slopes of the regression lines, ED(50), ED(95) and the maximum block were compared. RESULTS: The ED(50) and ED(95) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for AMG were 185 microg/kg(167-205 microg...

  12. [Neuromuscular dynamic scapular winging: Clinical, electromyographic and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christelle; Guérini, Henri; Roren, Alexandra; Zauderer, Jennifer; Vuillemin, Valérie; Seror, Paul; Ouaknine, Michaël; Palazzo, Clémence; Bourdet, Christopher; Pluot, Étienne; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Drapé, Jean-Luc; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine

    2015-12-01

    Dyskinesia of the scapula is a clinical diagnosis and includes all disorders affecting scapula positioning and movement whatever its etiology. Scapular winging is a subtype of scapular dyskinesia due to a dynamic prominence of the medial border of the scapula (DSW) secondary to neuromuscular imbalance in the scapulothoracic stabilizer muscles. The two most common causes of DSW are microtraumatic or idiopathic lesions of the long thoracic nerve (that innerves the serratus anterior) or the accessory nerve (that innerves the trapezius). Diagnosis of DSW is clinical and electromyographic. Use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be of interest to distinguish lesion secondary to a long thoracic nerve from accessory nerve and to rule out scapular dyskinesia related to other shoulder disorders. Causal neuromuscular lesion diagnosis in DSW is challenging. Clinical examinations, combined with scapular MRI, could help to their specific diagnosis, determining their stage, ruling out differential diagnosis and thus give raise to more targeted treatment. PMID:26433832

  13. MHCI promotes developmental synapse elimination and aging-related synapse loss at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetruashvily, Mazell M; McDonald, Marin A; Frietze, Karla K; Boulanger, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    Synapse elimination at the developing neuromuscular junction (NMJ) sculpts motor circuits, and synapse loss at the aging NMJ drives motor impairments that are a major cause of loss of independence in the elderly. Here we provide evidence that at the NMJ, both developmental synapse elimination and aging-related synapse loss are promoted by specific immune proteins, members of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI). MHCI is expressed at the developing NMJ, and three different methods of reducing MHCI function all disrupt synapse elimination during the second postnatal week, leaving some muscle fibers multiply-innervated, despite otherwise outwardly normal synapse formation and maturation. Conversely, overexpressing MHCI modestly accelerates developmental synapse elimination. MHCI levels at the NMJ rise with aging, and reducing MHCI levels ameliorates muscle denervation in aged mice. These findings identify an unexpected role for MHCI in the elimination of neuromuscular synapses during development, and indicate that reducing MHCI levels can preserve youthful innervation of aging muscle. PMID:26802986

  14. Neuromechanical evidence of improved neuromuscular control around knee joint in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Gizzi, Leonardo; Bellotti, Pasquale; Felici, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to verify that skilled volleyball players present specific adaptations in both neuromuscular control and movement biomechanics, showing an improved neuromuscular control around the knee joint than in non-jumper athletes. Seven male volleyball players and seven male non-jumper athletes were recruited for this study. The following tests were performed in a random order: single countermovement jump (CMJ), single squat jump. At the end of the series, subjects performed a repetitive CMJ test. Electromyographic signals were recorded from vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles on both sides. Ground reaction forces and moments were measured with a force plate. Volleyball athletes performed better in all tests and were more resistant to fatigue than non-jumper athletes. Furthermore, volleyball athletes showed a reduced co-activation of knee flexor/extensor muscles. The present results seem to stand for a neural adaptation of the motor control scheme to training. PMID:19826834

  15. EFFECT OF NEUROMUSCULAR REEDUCATION IN BILATERAL FACIAL PALSY ON PATIENT WITH GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv Kumar, MPT, PhD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bilateral facial palsy is a rare entity and remains to be a challenging case to diagnose and manage which has the major impact on the physical and social aspect of the affected individual. Objective: The aim of the report is to determine the role of neuromuscular reeducation in restoration of function in person with Guillain Barre Syndrome present with facial diplegia. Case report: We report the case of 23 year male presenting with history of deviation of mouth to the right side, followed by bilateral facial involvement and latter distal symmetrical involvement of bilateral upper and lower limb. The facial diplegia was managed by PNF and Electrical stimulation. Conclusions: Neuromuscular reeducation is an effective intervention for restoration of function after facial diplegia.

  16. Maximum likelihood q-estimator reveals nonextensivity regulated by extracellular potassium in the mammalian neuromuscular junction

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, A J; Santos, D O C; Lima, R F

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the existence of nonextensivity in neuromuscular transmission [Phys. Rev. E 84, 041925 (2011)]. In the present letter, we propose a general criterion based on the q-calculus foundations and nonextensive statistics to estimate the values for both scale factor and q-index using the maximum likelihood q-estimation method (MLqE). We next applied our theoretical findings to electrophysiological recordings from neuromuscular junction (NMJ) where spontaneous miniature end plate potentials (MEPP) were analyzed. These calculations were performed in both normal and high extracellular potassium concentration, [K+]o. This protocol was assumed to test the validity of the q-index in electrophysiological conditions closely resembling physiological stimuli. Surprisingly, the analysis showed a significant difference between the q-index in high and normal [K+]o, where the magnitude of nonextensivity was increased. Our letter provides a general way to obtain the best q-index from the q-Gaussian distrib...

  17. [What are the effects of the aging of the neuromuscular system on postural stability?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattagni, Thomas; Scaglioni, Gil; Cornu, Christophe; Berrut, Gilles; Martin, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Aging is frequently associated with a decreased postural stability, essentially after 60 years, leading to an increased risk of falling. In this article we propose to highlight the influence of the aging of the neuromuscular system on postural stability when standing upright. To maintain balance while standing upright, human needs to control the activity of ankle muscles and particularly the plantar flexors. During the aging process, the performance of these muscles are strongly altered. It is commonly observed large deficits in elderly people with history of falls. Some authors reported an inverse correlation between the amplitude of postural sway and the capacity of force production of ankle muscles suggesting that the assessment of neuromuscular function could be an index of postural stability or even of the falling risk. Finally, enhance the strength of ankle muscles in elderly through physical exercise could be an adequate intervention to improve postural stability and reduce the incidence of falls. PMID:26707554

  18. Long Term Follow-up of Ventilated Patients with Thoracic Restriction and Neuromuscular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Brooks

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long term effects of home mechanical ventilation (HMV on pulmonary function, nighttime gas exchange, daytime arterial blood gases, sleep architecture and functional exercise capacity (6 min walk. Patients with respiratory failure attributable to thoracic restrictive disease (TRD (kyphoscoliosis or neuromuscular disease (NMD were assessed, ventilated, trained and followed in a dedicated unit for the care of patients requiring long term ventilation.

  19. EFFECT OF TRAINING WITH NEUROMUSCULAR ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON ELBOW FLEXION STRENGTH

    OpenAIRE

    Holcomb, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be used to prevent strength loss associated with post-surgical immobilization. Most studies testing the effectiveness of NMES have trained the knee extensors. The purpose of this investigation was to test the effectiveness of NMES when training the elbow flexors. Twenty-four students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: NMES training, isometric training or control. Testing and training were completed using a Biodex™ dynamometer. After ...

  20. Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Lund, Hans; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit;

    Occupational Therapy, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway 3National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, DK E-mail: cmlarsen@health.sdu.dk AIMS: The aims were to understand potential mechanisms for impairment in the neuromuscular function of the scapular stabilisers in a general...... with SIS, however, SIS patients may benefit from biofeedback training. Lastly, these results indicate that very few clinical assessment methods have sufficient clinimetric properties that can be recommended for clinical use....

  1. Sources of innervation of the neuromuscular spindles in sternomastoid and trapezius.

    OpenAIRE

    FitzGerald, M J; Comerford, P T; Tuffery, A R

    1982-01-01

    The sources of innervation of neuromuscular spindles in sternomastoid and trapezius have been investigated in rats and mice, by degeneration experiments. The entire motor supply, both extrafusal and intrafusal, to both muscles, was from the spinal accessory nerve. The sensory supply to the spindles in sternomastoid and rostral trapezius was from cervical spinal nerves, and to those in the caudal trapezius was from thoracic spinal nerves.

  2. Induction of multiple signaling loops by MuSK during neuromuscular synapse formation

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Chris; Leu, Marco; Müller, Ulrich; Brenner, Hans Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction, two motor neuron-derived signals have been implicated in the regulation of synaptogenesis. Neuregulin-1 is thought to induce transcription of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) genes in subsynaptic muscle nuclei by activating ErbB receptors. Neural agrin aggregates AChRs by activating the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK. Here, we show that these two signals act sequentially. Agrin, by activating MuSK, induces the synthesis and aggregation of...

  3. Visualizing the Live Drosophila Glial-neuromuscular Junction with Fluorescent Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, Dee; Gilbert, Mary; Auld, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Our project identified GFP labeled glial structures at the developing larval fly neuromuscular synapse. To look at development of live glial-nerve-muscle synapses, we developed a larval tissue preparation that had features of live intact larvae, but also had good optical properties. This new preparation also allowed for access of perfusates to the synapse. We used fly larvae, immersed them in artificial hemolymph, and relaxed their normal rhythmic body contractions by chilling them. Next we d...

  4. The Synergic Effects of Mirror Therapy and Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Hand Function in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Gi Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for hand function in stroke patients. Method Sixty patients with hemiparesis after stroke were included (41 males and 19 females, average age 63.3 years). Twenty patients had NMES applied and simultaneously underwent mirror therapy. Twenty patients had NMES applied only, and twenty patients underwent mirror therapy only. Each treatment was done five days per week, 30 minutes per day...

  5. The BMP signaling pathway at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction and its links to neurodegenerative diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bayat, Vafa; Jaiswal, Manish; Bellen, Hugo J

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has recently provided new insights into the roles of various proteins in neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), and Huntington’s Disease (HD). Several developmental signaling pathways including WNT, MAPK and BMP/TGF-β signaling play important roles in the formation and growth of the Drosophila NMJ. Studies of the fly homolog...

  6. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (PCordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  7. Changes in Hyolaryngeal Movement and Swallowing Function After Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation in Patients With Dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hoo Young; Hong, Ji Seong; Lee, Kil Chan; Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate immediate changes in hyolaryngeal movement and swallowing function after a cycle of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on both submental and throat regions and submental placement alone in patients with dysphagia. Methods Fifteen patients with dysphagia were recruited. First, videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) was performed before NMES. All patients thereafter received a cycle of NMES by 2 methods of electrode placement: 1) both submental and throat re...

  8. Performances in cerebellar and neuromuscular transmission tests are correlated in migraine with aura

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, A; Sándor, P S; De Pasqua, V; Pierelli, F; Schoenen, J.

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, we described subclinical abnormalities of neuromuscular transmission and cerebellar functions in migraineurs. The aim of this study was to search if these two functions are correlated in the same patient. Thirteen migraineurs [five without aura (MO) and eight with aura (MA)] underwent both stimulation-SFEMG and 3D-movement analysis. Single fiber EMG (SFEMG) results were expressed as the "mean value of consecutive differences" (mean MCD). Precision of arm-reaching movement...

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING FOR BASKET BALL PLAYERS ON PERFORMANCE OF STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava Kumar Bhaskar; Vinod Babu. K *; Sai Kumar. N; Vikas Kadam V

    2013-01-01

    Background and introduction:To determine the effect of neuromuscular training program (NMTP) focused oncore stability and lower extremity strength on performance of star excursion balance test (SEBT) inbasketballplayers.Method:: Pre to post test experimental study design randomisedthirty Basketball players each 15 into NMTPand control group. Players trained together as a team in which NMTP group participated 4 weeks of NMTPtwice a week and Control group followed their regular protocol as guid...

  10. Effects of Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis Training on Static and Dynamic Balance in Indian Female Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Archna Sharma; Megha Arora; Shyamal Koley

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of dynamic neuromuscular analysis on static and dynamic balance of Indian state level female athletes. It was hypothesized that the training protocol would improve both static and dynamic components of the balance, improving dynamic balance more than static. A total of 43 randomly selected state level female basketball players aged 16 -18 years participated in the study. The subjects were further divided into two groups, viz. Dynamic Neurom...

  11. The Effects of Exercise-induced Fatigue on Acetylcholinesterase Expression and Activity at Rat Neuromuscular Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Guo; Hui, Wang; Dan, Chen; Xiao-Qiong, Wu; Jian-Bin, Tong; Chang-Qi, Li; De-Liang, Lei; Wei-Jun, Cai; Zhi-Yuan, Li; Xue-Gang, Luo

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase is the enzyme that terminates neurotransmission by hydrolyzing the acetylcholine released by the motoneurons at the neuromuscular junctions. Although acetylcholinesterase has been studied for almost a century, the underlying relationship between exercise-induced fatigue and acetylcholinesterase activity at the synaptic cleft is not clear. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the expression and activity of acetylcholinesterase ...

  12. Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers

    OpenAIRE

    R. Castillo-Lozano

    2015-01-01

    Background: The versatility of military physical therapist practice enables them not only to diagnose knee injuries but also to provide a wide range of definitive care and rehabilitation, reducing the need for costly evacuation. The aim this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers and describe the main predictors and determinants in each intervention. Methods: A systematic search ...

  13. Attenuation of age-related changes in mouse neuromuscular synapses by caloric restriction and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, G; Tapia, J; Kang, H; Clemenson, G.D.; Gage, F.H.; Lichtman, Jeff; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    The cellular basis of age-related behavioral decline remains obscure but alterations in synapses are likely candidates. Accordingly, the beneficial effects on neural function of caloric restriction and exercise, which are among the most effective anti-aging treatments known, might also be mediated by synapses. As a starting point in testing these ideas, we studied the skeletal neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a large, accessible peripheral synapse. Comparison of NMJs in young adult and aged mice...

  14. Transcription Factors in Muscle Atrophy Caused by Blocked Neuromuscular Transmission and Muscle Unloading In Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nordquist, Jenny; Höglund, Anna-Stina; Norman, Holly; Tang, Xiaorui; Dworkin, Barry; Larsson, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The muscle wasting associated with long-term intensive care unit (ICU) treatment has a negative effect on muscle function resulting in prolonged periods of rehabilitation and a decreased quality of life. To identify mechanisms behind this form of muscle wasting, we have used a rat model designed to mimic the conditions in an ICU. Rats were pharmacologically paralyzed with a postsynaptic blocker of neuromuscular transmission, and mechanically ventilated for one to two weeks, thereby unloading ...

  15. The Effects on the Pulmonary Function of Normal Adults Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Respiration Pattern Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, KyoChul; Cho, Misuk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) respiration exercise increases the pulmonary function of normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight normal adults in their 20s were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=14) or control group (n=14). Over the course of four weeks, the experimental group participated in PNF respiration pattern exercises for 30 minutes three times per week. Subjects were assessed pre-test ...

  16. Haemodynamic performance of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during recovery from total hip arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Barry J.; Breathnach, Oisin; Condon, Finbarr; Masterson, Eric; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients post total hip arthroplasty (THA) remain at high risk of developing Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) during the recovery period following surgery despite the availability of effective pharmacological and mechanical prophylactic methods. The use of calf muscle neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during the hospitalised recovery period on this patient group may be effective at preventing DVT. However, the haemodynamic effectiveness and comfort characteristics of NMES in po...

  17. Microcurrent Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation Facilitates Regeneration of Injured Skeletal Muscle in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiya, Hiroto; Ogura, Yuji; Ohno, Yoshitaka; Goto, Ayumi; Nakamura, Ayane; Ohashi, Kazuya; Uematsu, Daiki; Aoki, Haruhito; Musha, Haruki; Goto, Katsumasa

    2015-01-01

    Conservative therapies, mainly resting care for the damaged muscle, are generally used as a treatment for skeletal muscle injuries (such as muscle fragmentation). Several past studies reported that microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) facilitates a repair of injured soft tissues and shortens the recovery period. However, the effects of MENS on the regeneration in injured skeletal muscle are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of MENS on t...

  18. Single leg jumping neuromuscular control is improved following whole body, long-axis rotational training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Burden, Robert; Krupp, Ryan; Caborn, David N M

    2011-04-01

    Improved lower extremity neuromuscular control during sports may decrease injury risk. This prospective study evaluated progressive resistance, whole body, long-axis rotational training on the Ground Force 360 device. Our hypothesis was that device training would improve lower extremity neuromuscular control based on previous reports of kinematic, ground reaction force (GRF) or electromyographic (EMG) evidence of safer or more efficient dynamic knee stability during jumping. Thirty-six healthy subjects were randomly assigned to either training (Group 1) or control (Group 2) groups. Using a pre-test, post-test study design data were collected from three SLVJ trials. Unpaired t-tests with adjustments for multiple comparisons were used to evaluate group mean change differences (P≤0.05/25≤0.002). During propulsion Group 1 standardized EMG amplitude mean change differences for gluteus maximus (-21.8% vs. +17.4%), gluteus medius (-28.6% vs. +15.0%), rectus femoris (-27.1% vs. +11.2%), vastus medialis (-20.2% vs. +9.1%), and medial hamstrings (-38.3% vs. +30.3%) differed from Group 2. During landing Group 1 standardized EMG amplitude mean change differences for gluteus maximus (-32.9% vs. +11.1%) and rectus femoris (-33.3% vs. +29.0%) also differed from Group 2. Group 1 peak propulsion vertical GRF (+0.24N/kg vs. -0.46N/kg) and landing GRF stabilization timing (-0.68 vs. +0.05s) mean change differences differed from Group 2. Group 1 mean hip (-16.3 vs. +7.8°/s) and knee (-21.4 vs. +18.5°/s) flexion velocity mean change differences also differed from Group 2. Improved lower extremity neuromuscular efficiency, increased peak propulsive vertical GRF, decreased mean hip and knee flexion velocities during landing, and earlier landing stabilization timing in the training group suggests improved lower extremity neuromuscular control. PMID:21123083

  19. Surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps strengthening pre and post total knee replacement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Total knee replacement has been demonstrated to be one of the most successful procedures in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However quadriceps weakness and reductions in function are commonly reported following surgery. Recently Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) has been used as an adjunct to traditional strengthening programmes. This review considers the effectiveness of NMES as a means of increasing quadriceps strength in patients before and after total knee replacement.

  20. Human neuromuscular structure and function in old age: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Geoffrey A.; Dalton, Brian H.; Rice, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Natural adult aging is associated with many functional impairments of the human neuromuscular system. One of the more observable alterations is the loss of contractile muscle mass, termed sarcopenia. The loss of muscle mass occurs primarily due to a progressive loss of viable motor units, and accompanying atrophy of remaining muscle fibers. Not only does the loss of muscle mass contribute to impaired function in old age, but alterations in fiber type and myosin heavy chain isoform expression ...

  1. The Role of MuSK in Synapse Formation and Neuromuscular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Burden, Steven J.; Yumoto, Norihiro; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) is essential for each step in neuromuscular synapse formation. Before innervation, MuSK initiates postsynaptic differentiation, priming the muscle for synapse formation. Approaching motor axons recognize the primed, or prepatterned, region of muscle, causing motor axons to stop growing and differentiate into specialized nerve terminals. MuSK controls presynaptic differentiation by causing the clustering of Lrp4, which functions as a direct retrograde signal for p...

  2. GA-Binding Protein Is Dispensable for Neuromuscular Synapse Formation and Synapse-Specific Gene Expression▿

    OpenAIRE

    Jaworski, Alexander; Smith, Cynthia L.; Burden, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    The mRNAs encoding postsynaptic components at the neuromuscular junction are concentrated in the synaptic region of muscle fibers. Accumulation of these RNAs in the synaptic region is mediated, at least in part, by selective transcription of the corresponding genes in synaptic myofiber nuclei. The transcriptional mechanisms that are responsible for synapse-specific gene expression are largely unknown, but an Ets site in the promoter regions of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit genes and o...

  3. Comparison of Apical Axial Derotation between Adolescent Idiopathic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis with Pedicle Screw Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Hitesh N.; Suh, Seung-Woo; Srinivasalu, S.; Mehta, Satyen; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare outcomes of apical derotation with pedicle screws in idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). Overview of Literature No information about apical derotation in NMS with pedicle screws is available. Methods We performed deformity correcting surgery using pedicle screw constructs on 12 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients (mean age 14.1 years) and 16 NMS patients (mean age 16.5 years). Preoperative, postoperative, and final fo...

  4. Bone density and neuromuscular function in older competitive athletes depend on running distance

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, Ulf; Belavy, Daniel; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Kusy, Krzysztof; Lexy, H; Rawer, R; Rittweger, Jörn; Winwood, Keith; Zielinski, Jacek; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Summary Individuals who are involved in explosive sport types, such as 100-m sprints and long jump, have greater bone density, leg muscle size, jumping height and grip strength than individuals involved in long-distance running. Introduction The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between different types of physical activity with bone, lean mass and neuromuscular performance in older individuals. Methods We examined short- (n050), middle- (n019) and lo...

  5. Neuromuscular adaptations in football athletes with prior history of hamstring strain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Areia, Carlos Morgado

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamstring strain injuries (HSI) are one of the most common injuries in a wide variety of running-sports, resulting in a considerable loss of competition and training time. One of the most problematic consequences regarding HSI is the recurrence rate and its non-decrease over the past decades, despite increasing evidence. Recent studies also found several maladaptations post-HSI probably due to neuromuscular inhibition and it has been proposed that these adaptations post-injury may...

  6. Prolonged mental exertion does not alter neuromuscular function of the knee extensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that prolonged mental exertion i) reduces maximal muscle activation and ii) increases the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. Methods: Neuromuscular function of the knee extensor muscles was assessed in 10 male subjects in two different conditions: i) before and after prolonged mental exertion leading to mental fatigue; ii) before and after an easy cognitive task (control). Both cognitive tasks lasted 90...

  7. The effects of band exercise using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on muscular strength in lower extremity

    OpenAIRE

    Rhyu, Hyun-seung; Kim, Su-Hyun; Park, Hye-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a six-week elastic band exercise program using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) can increase isotonic strength of abductor muscles in the lower extremity. Twenty-eight healthy students from S university were divided into an experimental group and control group. Each group was participated in pre and post-measurement in isotonic strength using an isotonic analyzer, En-treeM. Experimental group performed elastic band exercise using...

  8. Neuromuscular induced phonation in a human ex vivo perfused larynx preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Berke, Gerald; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Scott Howard, Nelson; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Considering differences in laryngeal anatomy, degree of control, and range of voice qualities between animals and humans, investigations of the neuromuscular process of voice control are better conducted using a living human larynx in which parametric stimulation of individual laryngeal muscles is possible. Due to difficulties in access and monitoring of laryngeal muscle activities, such investigations are impossible in living human subject experiments. This study reports the recent success i...

  9. Recovery from mivacurium-induced neuromuscular blockade is not affected by anticonvulsant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellish, W S; Thalji, Z; Brundidge, P K; Tempelhoff, R

    1996-01-01

    Long-term chronic anticonvulsant therapy produces a resistance to the effects of all nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents studied to date. Since the metabolism of mivacurium is unique among the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, the effect of anticonvulsants on its recovery parameters was examined. Forty-five patients were separated into three groups based on the number of chronic anticonvulsant medications the subjects were taking: subjects in group 1, the control group, took no anticonvulsant medication; group 2 subjects took one medication; and group 3 subjects took two medications. Mivacurium, 0.15 mg/kg i.v., was administered after induction of general anesthesia with thiopental sodium, 4-6 mg/kg, and fentanyl 2-4 micrograms/kg i.v. Maintenance anesthesia consisted of N2O in O2. 0.2-0.3% end-tidal isoflurane, and a fentanyl infusion. The evoked compound electromyograph (ECEMG) of the adductor pollicis-brevis muscle was measured for time of onset, T-1 (time at which ECEMG signal reaches 5, 25, 50, and 75% of baseline), TR (TOF ratio), and recovery index. T-1 at 25% was 18.2 +/- 1.8, 20.7 +/- 1.9, and 21.5 +/- 1.4 min for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with TR at 25% being 23.7 +/- 2.3, 26.9 +/- 2.4, and 27.3 +/- 2.3 min. No significant differences were noted in neuromuscular recovery between groups at any time point. These results fail to demonstrate the resistance to the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade of mivacurium that has been observed with other nondepolarizing agents. PMID:8719185

  10. Nonmuscle Myosin II helps regulate synaptic vesicle mobility at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Xinping

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanistic details of the vesicle transport process from the cell body to the nerve terminal are well described, the mechanisms underlying vesicle traffic within nerve terminal boutons is relatively unknown. The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated but exactly how actin or actin-binding proteins participate in vesicle movement is not clear. Results In the present study we have identified Nonmuscle Myosin II as a candidate molecule important for synaptic vesicle traffic within Drosophila larval neuromuscular boutons. Nonmuscle Myosin II was found to be localized at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction; genetics and pharmacology combined with the time-lapse imaging technique FRAP were used to reveal a contribution of Nonmuscle Myosin II to synaptic vesicle movement. FRAP analysis showed that vesicle dynamics were highly dependent on the expression level of Nonmuscle Myosin II. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that Nonmuscle Myosin II is present presynaptically, is important for synaptic vesicle mobility and suggests a role for Nonmuscle Myosin II in shuttling vesicles at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. This work begins to reveal the process by which synaptic vesicles traverse within the bouton.

  11. Minimally Invasive Scoliosis Surgery: A Novel Technique in Patients with Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Sarwahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive surgery (MIS has been described in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS and adult scoliosis. The advantages of this approach include less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, earlier mobilization, less tissue disruption, and relatively less pain. However, despite these significant benefits, MIS approach has not been reported in neuromuscular scoliosis patients. This is possibly due to concerns with longer surgery time, which is further increased due to more levels fused and instrumented, challenges of pelvic fixation, size and number of incisions, and prolonged anesthesia. We modified the MIS approach utilized in our AIS patients to be implemented in our neuromuscular patients. Our technique allows easy passage of contoured rods, placement of pedicle screws without image guidance, partial/complete facet resection, and all standard reduction maneuvers. Operative time needed to complete this surgery is comparable to the standard procedure and the majority of our patients have been extubated at the end of procedure, spending 1 day in the PICU and 5-6 days in the hospital. We feel that MIS is not only a feasible but also a superior option in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Long-term results are unavailable; however, short-term results have shown multiple benefits of this approach and fewer limitations.

  12. Studies on neuromuscular blockade by boldine in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J J; Cheng, Y W; Fu, W M

    1998-02-01

    The effects of boldine [(S)-2,9-dihydroxyl-1,10-dimethoxy-aporphine], a major alkaloid in the leaves and bark of Boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.), on neuromuscular transmission were studied using a muscle phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparation. Boldine at concentrations lower than 200 microM preferentially inhibited, after an initial period of twitch augmentation, the nerve-evoked twitches of the mouse diaphragm and left the muscle-evoked twitches unaffected. The twitch inhibition could be restored by neostigmine or washout with Krebs solution. The twitches evoked indirectly and directly were both augmented initially, suggesting that the twitch augmentation induced by boldine was myogenic. Boldine inhibited the acetylcholine-induced contraction of denervated diaphragm dose-dependently with an IC50 value of 13.5 microM. At 50 microM, boldine specifically inhibited the amplitude of the miniature end plate potential. In addition, boldine was similar to d-tubocurarine in its action to reverse the neuromuscular blocking action of alpha-bungarotoxin. These results showed that the neuromuscular blockade by boldine on isolated mouse phrenic-nerve diaphragm might be due to its direct interaction with the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. PMID:9541284

  13. Sugammadex reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in a patient with ataxia-telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 17-year-old adolescent with ataxia-telangiectasia was scheduled to have laparoscopic colectomy for a resection of colon cancer. He had symptoms and signs of dyspnea, generalized dystonia, dysmetria, ataxia, and telangiectasia on the orbit. General anesthesia was performed, and rocuronium 30 mg was administered for muscle relaxation. Deep neuromuscular block (post-tetanic count: 0-8) was maintained for 95 minutes without additional rocuronium. On completion of surgery, sugammadex 80 mg was injected and train-of-four ratio was 0.93 at 210 seconds after administration. The tracheal tube was removed 5 min after the end of surgery. He recovered full spontaneous respiration and voluntary movements within 1 minute after extubation. After the surgery, he transferred to the intensive care unit and discharged 14 days after the surgery without any concrete problem. The reversal of rocuronium induced neuromuscular block by sugammadex was fast, complete, and recovered to the initial preoperative level of neuromuscular function in this patient. (author)

  14. Treatment of neuromuscular scoliosis with posterior-only pedicle screw fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Harry M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether posterior-only approach using pedicle screws in neuromuscular scoliosis population adequately addresses the correction of scoliosis and maintains the correction over time. Methods Between 2003 and 2006, 26 consecutive patients (7 cerebral palsy, 10 Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 5 spinal muscular atrophy and 4 others with neuromuscular scoliosis underwent posterior pedicle screw fixation for the deformity. Preoperative, immediate postoperative and final follow-up Cobb's angle and pelvic obliquity were analyzed on radiographs. The average age of the patients was 17.5 years (range, 8–44 years and the average follow-up was 25 months (18–52 months. Results Average Cobb's angle was 78.53° before surgery, 30.70° after surgery (60.9% correction, and 33.06° at final follow-up (57.9% correction showing significant correction (p Conclusion Results indicate that in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis, acceptable amounts of curve correction can be achieved and maintained with posterior-only pedicle screw instrumentation without anterior release procedure.

  15. The pharmacological effect of Bothrops neuwiedii pauloensis (jararaca-pintada snake venom on avian neuromuscular transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Borja-Oliveira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The neuromuscular effects of Bothrops neuwiedii pauloensis (jararaca-pintada venom were studied on isolated chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparations. Venom concentrations of 5-50 µg/ml produced an initial inhibition and a secondary increase of indirectly evoked twitches followed by a progressive concentration-dependent and irreversible neuromuscular blockade. At venom concentrations of 1-20 µg/ml, the responses to 13.4 mM KCl were inhibited whereas those to 110 µM acetylcholine alone and cumulative concentrations of 1 µM to 10 mM were unaffected. At venom concentrations higher than 50 µg/ml, there was pronounced muscle contracture with inhibition of the responses to acetylcholine, KCl and direct stimulation. At 20-24ºC, the venom (50 µg/ml produced only partial neuromuscular blockade (30.7 ± 8.0%, N = 3 after 120 min and the initial inhibition and the secondary increase of the twitch responses caused by the venom were prolonged and pronounced and the response to KCl was unchanged. These results indicate that B.n. pauloensis venom is neurotoxic, acting primarily at presynaptic sites, and that enzyme activity may be involved in this pharmacological action.

  16. Reversal of prolonged rocuronium neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in an obstetric patient with transverse myelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weekes, G

    2010-07-01

    A 38-year-old wheelchair-bound primigravida with transverse myelitis presented at 38 weeks of gestation for elective caesarean section. Transverse myelitis, which is characterised by bilateral inflammation of the spinal cord and myelin destruction, is associated with myopathy, autonomic dysreflexia and pulmonary aspiration. Regional anaesthesia was contraindicated in this case as the patient had undergone two previous lumbar spinal fusion procedures. Rocuronium 1.2 mg\\/kg was used to facilitate rapid intubating conditions. The caesarean section proceeded uneventfully, but even after administration of neostigmine the patient exhibited prolonged neuromuscular blockade. After 3 h and 15 min sugammadex was obtained to reverse neuromuscular blockade; the drug was not stocked in our hospital. Sugammadex 4 mg\\/kg resulted in complete reversal of blockade after 2 min. We believe that myopathy associated with transverse myelitis led to the prolonged duration of action of rocuronium. Sugammadex is a relatively new drug with few reported side effects. In this case it was used to reverse neuromuscular blockade and prevented prolonged postoperative ventilatory support.

  17. Reversal of prolonged rocuronium neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in an obstetric patient with transverse myelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weekes, G

    2012-02-01

    A 38-year-old wheelchair-bound primigravida with transverse myelitis presented at 38 weeks of gestation for elective caesarean section. Transverse myelitis, which is characterised by bilateral inflammation of the spinal cord and myelin destruction, is associated with myopathy, autonomic dysreflexia and pulmonary aspiration. Regional anaesthesia was contraindicated in this case as the patient had undergone two previous lumbar spinal fusion procedures. Rocuronium 1.2 mg\\/kg was used to facilitate rapid intubating conditions. The caesarean section proceeded uneventfully, but even after administration of neostigmine the patient exhibited prolonged neuromuscular blockade. After 3 h and 15 min sugammadex was obtained to reverse neuromuscular blockade; the drug was not stocked in our hospital. Sugammadex 4 mg\\/kg resulted in complete reversal of blockade after 2 min. We believe that myopathy associated with transverse myelitis led to the prolonged duration of action of rocuronium. Sugammadex is a relatively new drug with few reported side effects. In this case it was used to reverse neuromuscular blockade and prevented prolonged postoperative ventilatory support.

  18. Evaluation of skeletal muscular involvement in neuromuscular disorders with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent as well as severity of pathologic changes of skeletal muscles were analyzed with thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy (WBS) in 29 cases of various types of neuromuscular diseases (18 cases of myogenic and 11 cases of neurogenic muscular diseases) and 14 cases of normal controls. After intravenous injection of 2 mCi of thallium-201 chloride, WBS was performed for 15 minutes using a gamma camera with twin-opposed large rectangular detectors. Counts at brachia, forearms, thighs, and calves were assessed after reconstruction of the scintigram of the whole body by taking the geometric mean of the anterior and posterior data. WBS showed uniform tracer activities in the 4 extremities in 12 cases among 14 controls. Laterality in distribution of counts of both legs and arms was noted in the remaining 2 controls. WBS revealed decrease of perfusion in the extremities with muscular atrophy and/or weakness in neuromuscular diseases. The overall diagnostic accuracy of WBS for evaluation of skeletal muscle involvement was 75 to 80 % except for the bilateral brachia for which it decreased to 65 %. All of the three cases of muscular dystrophy with pseudohypertrophy of the calves or thighs showed unequivocal decrease of perfusion of those regions in WBS. In conclusion, thallium-201 WBS was considered to be a useful clinical means in evaluating the extent and severity of muscular involvement of various types of neuromuscular disorders. (author)

  19. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses during water aerobics exercise performed with and without equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, S S; Cadore, E L; Alberton, C L; Silva, E M; Kanitz, A C; Tartaruga, M P; Kruel, L F M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses to water aerobics exercise performed with and without equipment. 15 women performed stationary jogging combined with elbow flexion/extension without equipment, with water-drag forces equipment and with water-floating equipment, at 2 submaximal cadences and at maximal cadence. Heart rate, oxygen uptake and electromyographic signal from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, biceps femoris and rectus femoris were collected during the exercise. The heart rate and oxygen uptake showed significantly higher values during the execution of the water aerobics exercise with either equipment compared to the execution without equipment. In addition, significant difference was found between submaximal cadences. For neuromuscular responses, no significant differences were found between the submaximal cadences for all muscles analyzed; however, significant differences were found between these submaximal cadences and the maximal cadence. Similarly, the results showed no significant differences between the execution of the exercise with or without equipment, except in the muscle activation of triceps brachii and biceps femoris, which was higher when using water-floating and water-drag forces equipment, respectively. In conclusion, the water aerobics exercise presented higher cardiorespiratory responses with equipment and also increased the cadence of execution. Nevertheless, neuromuscular responses were higher only at maximal cadence. PMID:22052026

  20. Bracing superior to neuromuscular training for the prevention of self-reported recurrent ankle sprains: a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Kasper W.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2014-01-01

    Background Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury with a high rate of recurrence and associated costs. Recent studies have emphasised the effectiveness of both neuromuscular training and bracing for the secondary prevention of ankle sprains. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of combined bracing and neuromuscular training, or bracing alone, against the use of neuromuscular training on recurrences of ankle sprain after usual care. Methods 384 athletes, aged 18–70, who had sustain...

  1. Caffeine ingestion reverses the circadian rhythm effects on neuromuscular performance in highly resistance-trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Mora-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate whether caffeine ingestion counteracts the morning reduction in neuromuscular performance associated with the circadian rhythm pattern. METHODS: Twelve highly resistance-trained men underwent a battery of neuromuscular tests under three different conditions; i morning (10:00 a.m. with caffeine ingestion (i.e., 3 mg kg(-1; AM(CAFF trial; ii morning (10:00 a.m. with placebo ingestion (AM(PLAC trial; and iii afternoon (18:00 p.m. with placebo ingestion (PM(PLAC trial. A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled experimental design was used, with all subjects serving as their own controls. The neuromuscular test battery consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity during free-weight full-squat (SQ and bench press (BP exercises against loads that elicit maximum strength (75% 1RM load and muscle power adaptations (1 m s(-1 load. Isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC(LEG and isometric electrically evoked strength of the right knee (EVOK(LEG were measured to identify caffeine's action mechanisms. Steroid hormone levels (serum testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone were evaluated at the beginning of each trial (PRE. In addition, plasma norepinephrine (NE and epinephrine were measured PRE and at the end of each trial following a standardized intense (85% 1RM 6 repetitions bout of SQ (POST. RESULTS: In the PM(PLAC trial, dynamic muscle strength and power output were significantly enhanced compared with AM(PLAC treatment (3.0%-7.5%; p≤0.05. During AM(CAFF trial, muscle strength and power output increased above AM(PLAC levels (4.6%-5.7%; p≤0.05 except for BP velocity with 1 m s(-1 load (p = 0.06. During AM(CAFF, EVOK(LEG and NE (a surrogate of maximal muscle sympathetic nerve activation were increased above AM(PLAC trial (14.6% and 96.8% respectively; p≤0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that caffeine ingestion reverses the morning neuromuscular declines in highly resistance

  2. Propriedades emulsificantes e estabilidade do biossurfactante produzido por Bacillus subtilis em manipueira Studies of emulsifying properties and stability of the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis in cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fábio Cavalcante Barros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao elevado poder tensoativo, baixa toxidez e biodegradabilidade, os lipopeptídios produzidos por bactérias do gênero Bacillus estão entre os biossurfactantes mais conhecidos e estudados. Estes compostos são apontados como potenciais insumos para diversos setores industriais, inclusive o de alimentos. Para que seja possível sua aplicação industrial, no entanto, é necessário que estes compostos apresentem estabilidade e manutenção de suas propriedades em condições extremas, que estão freqüentemente associadas a esses processos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a estabilidade do biossurfactante produzido pela linhagem LB5a de Bacillus subtilis, cultivado em manipueira (resíduo da industrialização da mandioca em um processo piloto. Os estudos de estabilidade foram realizados em função da variação de temperatura, pH e concentração salina. Foram realizadas avaliações da sua capacidade emulsificante em misturas de água com hidrocarbonetos e óleos vegetais, bem como a estabilidade das emulsões formadas. Os resultados mostraram que o biossurfactante foi estável à temperatura de 100 °C por 140 minutos e a 121 °C por até 60 minutos, à concentração de 2,5 a 20% de NaCl e na faixa de pH de 6 a 10. Em relação ao índice de emulsão com 24 horas (IE24, o biossurfactante mostrou elevados valores para diversos hidrocarbonetos cíclicos e alifáticos, além de óleos vegetais com diferentes perfis de ácidos graxos. Todos os resultados obtidos demonstraram a importância do biossurfactante para potenciais aplicações em diversos ramos industriais.Due to the high surface activity, low toxicity, and biodegradability lipopeptides produced by bacteria of the genus Bacillus are among the best biosurfactants known and studied. These compounds are mentioned as potential inputs for various industrial sectors. However, to allow their implementation in industrial processes, it is necessary stability under extreme

  3. Qualidade de processamento de tubérculos de batata produzidos sob diferentes disponibilidades de nitrogênio Potato processing quality of tubers grown under different nitrogen availabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Ruffo de Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o teor de matéria seca e a coloração de chips de batata da cultivar Asterix produzidos sob cinco níveis de nitrogênio. O plantio foi feito em 02/09/2003, na UFSM, em sacolas com 4,4dm³ de substrato comercial. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por cinco soluções nutritivas com doses de N de 5,0 (T1, 8,3 (T2, 11,3 (T3, 14,3 (T4 e 16,3mmol L-1 (T5. Os tubérculos foram colhidos em 17/12/2003, aos 104 dias após o plantio, e após 15 dias na temperatura de 20°C foram determinados o teor de matéria seca e a coloração dos chips. O teor de matéria seca dos tubérculos aumentou da primeira até a terceira dose, decrescendo a seguir segundo um modelo polinomial. Os valores foram de 19,5; 20,5; 20,8; 18,6 e 18,4g 100g-1 nas doses de T1 a T5, respectivamente. Somente os tubérculos produzidos com as doses T2 e T3 atingiriam o teor mínimo de matéria seca preconizado pela literatura, que é de 20g 100g-1. Não houve relação entre a coloração dos chips e as doses de N fornecidas. Concluiu-se que o N pode reduzir o teor de matéria seca dos tubérculos e que critérios específicos de manejo da adubação nitrogenada devem ser observados para a produção de tubérculos destinados ao processamento industrial.The goal of the work was to determine dry matter content and chip color of potato tubers, cultivar Asterix, grown under five N levels. Tubers were planted in bags with 4.4dm-3 of a commercial substrate, on September 2nd, 2003, at UFSM, RS, Brazil. Treatments consisted of five nutrient solutions with N concentrations of 5.0 (T1, 8.3 (T2, 11.3 (T3, 14.3 (T4 and 6.3mmol L-1 (T5. Tubers were harvested on December 17th, 2003, at 104 days after planting. Tubers were stored during 15 days before determinations of dry matter and chip color. Dry matter content increased in tubers from T1 to T3 and decreased thereafter, following a polynomial model. Dry matter content was 19.5; 20.5; 20.8; 18.6 and 18.4g 100g

  4. Estudo qualiquantitativo do biogás produzido por substratos em biodigestores tipo batelada Qualiquantitatve study of biogas produced by substrates in batch biodigestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. Galbiatti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Departamento de Engenharia Rural da FCAV/UNESP, SP, Brasil, com o objetivo de se estudar, qualiquantitativamente, o biogás produzido por 5 substratos que, após utilizados na digestão anaeróbia, foram caracterizados como: 1 - Esterco de aves de corte com cama de capim napier (EACN; 2 - Esterco de aves de corte com cama de capim napier triturado (EACNT; 3 - Esterco suíno (ES; 4 - Esterco bovino (EB e 5 - Esterco de bovino misturado com 50% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (EB50C. Dos dados levantados concluiu-se que: o substrato EACN e o ES produziram volumes maiores e menores de biogás, respectivamente, comparados com os demais; a mistura de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar no substrato EB prejudica a produção acumulada de biogás e sua qualidade; a partir dos 57 dias após o enchimento dos biodigestores todos os substratos já produziam biogás com teor de metano superior a 48%, com exceção do substrato ES; o substrato triturado (EACNT não apresentou características muito distintas do substrato não triturado (EACN; a qualidade do biogás na fase de produção máxima é semelhante para todos os substratos estudados; o biogás que mostrou maior valor de metano na sua composição foi o produzido com EB, superior em até 17,7% à produção do EACNT.Aiming to study the biogas produced by 5 substrates from both quality and quantity point of view, this research was conducted at the Rural Engineering Department of FCAV/UNESP - Brazil, State of São Paulo. The substractes that were used in the anaerobic digestion were characterized as: 1 - Slaughter fowls' manure with napier grass bed (MFNG; 2 - Slaughter fowls' manure with triturate napier grass bed (MFNGT; 3 - Suine manure (SM; 4 - Bovine manure (BM and 5 - Bovine manure mixed with 50% of sugarcane bagasse (BM50S. From the data colIected it was concluded that: the substract (MFNG and the substract containing SM produced higher and lower volumes of biogas

  5. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629

  6. Benzo(apireno em óleos de milho produzidos e comercializados no Brasil Benzo(apyrene in corn oils produced and commercialized in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecilia de F. TOLEDO

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Óleos de milho de diferentes marcas, produzidos e comercializados no Brasil, foram analisados quanto à presença de benzo(apireno (B(aP. A metodologia utilizada envolveu extração com ciclohexano, purificação em coluna de silica gel e determinação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de fluorescência. Todas amostras analisadas mostraram-se contaminadas por B(aP e os níveis determinados variaram entre as diferentes marcas analisadas e entre diferentes lotes de mesma marca, dentro da faixa de 0,85 a 25,17 µg/kg. Entre 49 amostras analisadas no período de dois anos, apenas uma apresentou nível de contaminação por B(aP abaixo do limite referencial de 1 µg/kg.Corn oils from different brands produced and commercialized in Brazil, were analysed for benzo(apyrene B(aP. The methodology involved extraction with cyclohexane, clean-up on silica gel and determination by high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector All samples analysed showed contamination by B(aP and the levels found varied widely among brands and within different batches of the same brand, in the range of 0.85 to 25.17 µg/kg. One out 49 samples analysed in the period of 2 years presented an amount of B(aP below the referencial limit of 1 µg/kg.

  7. Bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior para analgesia pós-operatória em artroplastia total do quadril: estudo comparativo entre Bupivacaína a 0,5% com Epinefrina e Ropivacaína a 0,5% Bloqueo del plexo lumbar por la vía posterior para analgesia postoperatoria en artroplastia total de la cadera: estudio comparativo entre Bupivacaína a 0,5% con Epinefrina y Ropivacaína a 0,5% Posterior lumbar plexus block in postoperative analgesia for total hip arthroplasty: a comparative study between 0.5% Bupivacaine with Epinephrine and 0.5% Ropivacaine

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte; Franklin Cespedes Paes; Maria do Carmo Barreto de C. Fernandes; Renato Ângelo Saraiva

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior promove analgesia pós-operatória efetiva na artroplastia total do quadril. Ropivacaína e bupivacaína não apresentaram qualquer diferença na eficácia analgésica em diferentes bloqueios de nervos periféricos. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a eficácia da analgesia pós-operatória resultante da administração em dose única da bupivacaína a 0,5% ou da ropivacaína a 0,5% no bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior na ar...

  8. Manejo de longo prazo em crianças com transtornos neuromusculares Long-term management of children with neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen-Matthias Strehle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A distrofia muscular de Duchenne é o tipo mais comum de miopatia genética. Contudo, existe um grande número de doenças neuromusculares hereditárias que são individualmente muito raras e sobre as quais não há muita informação clínica disponível. Este artigo de revisão baseia-se na experiência do autor em uma clínica pediátrica para tratamento de doenças musculares e apresenta orientação prática e planos terapêuticos para os problemas frequentemente encontrados. FONTES DE DADOS: O banco de dados da MEDLINE foi pesquisado com o objetivo de localizar artigos recentes e relevantes para o manejo de crianças com miopatias e neuropatias hereditárias. Uma coorte de 200 pacientes foi avaliada através de análise estatística descritiva. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A distrofia muscular de Duchenne representou quase metade dos diagnósticos, seguida da atrofia muscular espinhal (12%, da distrofia muscular de Becker e da distrofia miotônica (7% cada. Dezesseis pacientes (9% apresentaram miopatia de origem desconhecida. CONCLUSÕES: Assim como ocorre com outras doenças crônicas, esses pacientes devem passar por acompanhamento periódico realizado por profissionais de saúde desde cedo para aumentar sua expectativa de vida e melhorar sua qualidade de vida. É útil para os médicos adotarem uma abordagem estruturada ao atender crianças com transtornos neuromusculares e monitorar todos os sistemas de órgãos afetados.OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the commonest genetic myopathy but there exist a large number of inherited neuromuscular diseases which individually are very rare and where clinical information is not widely available. This review is based on the author's experience in a pediatric muscle clinic and provides practical guidance and treatment plans for frequently encountered problems. SOURCES: A MEDLINE search was conducted to retrieve recent articles relevant to the management of children with

  9. Consecuencias clínicas de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Clinical consequences of neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mesejo; E. Pérez-Sancho; Moreno, E.

    2006-01-01

    La patología neuromuscular en el paciente crítico se desarrolla en dos contextos: enfermedades neurológicas primarias que requieren su ingreso en Medicina Intensiva por necesitar vigilancia estricta o ventilación mecánica y manifestaciones del sistema nervioso periférico secundarias a enfermedades sistémicas críticas. En el primer grupo son las más frecuentes el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré y la Miastenia Gravis y en el segundo la Polineuropatía y la Miopatía del paciente crítico. El patrón clí...

  10. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination. PMID:25663251

  11. What Is the Evidence for Harm of Neuromuscular Blockade and Corticosteroid Use in the Intensive Care Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annane, Djillali

    2016-02-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents and corticosteroids are widely used in medicine and in particular in the intensive care unit (ICU). Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to ease tracheal intubation, to optimize mechanical ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory disorders such as status asthmaticus and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), to prevent shivering during therapeutic hypothermia, and also in patients with elevated intracranial pressure. In the ICU, patients with sepsis, ARDS, community-acquired pneumonia, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, severe asthma, or trauma may receive corticosteroids. It is not rare that ICU patients receive concomitantly neuromuscular blocking drugs and corticosteroids. Among the various serious adverse reactions to these drugs, secondary infection and ICU-acquired weakness may place a burden to the health-care system by resulting in substantial cost and long-term morbidity. Both superinfections and ICU-acquired paresis are more likely when high doses of fluorinated corticosteroids are combined with prolonged treatment with a long-acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker. Modern ICU practices favor lower dose of corticosteroids and very short course of short-acting curare for the management of sepsis or ARDS. Recent trials provided no evidence for increased risk of secondary infections or critical illness neuromyopathy in patients with sepsis or ARDS with the use of corticosteroids or neuromuscular blockers. PMID:26820274

  12. Analgesia pós-operatória para procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos de quadril e fêmur: comparação entre bloqueio do compartimento do psoas e bloqueio perivascular inguinal Analgesia postoperatoria para procedimientos quirúrgicos ortopédicos de cadera y fémur: comparación entre bloqueo del compartimiento del psoas y bloqueo perivascular inguinal Postoperative analgesia for orthopedic surgeries of the hip and femur: a comparison between psoas compartment and inguinal paravascular blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Este estudo avaliou a eficácia da injeção única de bupivacaína a 0,25% no compartimento do psoas ou perivascular inguinal por meio do estimulador de nervos periféricos para analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos a intervenções cirúrgicas ortopédicas. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes receberam bloqueio do plexo lombar através do compartimento do psoas e foram comparados com 100 pacientes que receberam bloqueio do plexo lombar via perivascular inguinal, identificados pelo estimulador de nervos periféricos com a injeção de 40 mL bupivacaína a 0,25% sem epinefrina. A analgesia nos nervos ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, cutâneo femoral lateral, femoral e obturatório foi avaliada 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 e 24 horas após o final da intervenção cirúrgica. A intensidade da dor foi também avaliada no mesmo período. A quantidade de opióides administrada no pós-operatório foi anotada. Em cinco pacientes de cada grupo, estudo radiográfico com contraste não-iônico foi realizado para avaliar a dispersão da solução anestésica. RESULTADOS: Os nervos ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, cutâneo femoral lateral, femoral e obturatório foram bloqueados em 92% dos pacientes no compartimento do psoas versus 62% no bloqueio perivascular inguinal. O bloqueio do plexo lombar reduziu a necessidade de opióides e 42% dos pacientes submetidos ao bloqueio do compartimento do psoas e 36% dos pacientes no bloqueio inguinal não necessitaram de analgésico adicional no pós-operatório. A duração da analgesia foi em torno de 21 horas com bloqueio do compartimento do psoas e 15 horas com bloqueio perivascular inguinal. CONCLUSÕES: O bloqueio do compartimento do psoas e perivascular inguinal é uma excelente técnica para analgesia pós-operatória em intervenções cirúrgicas ortopédicas reduzindo a necessidade de opióides. Este estudo mostrou que a injeção no compartimento do psoas foi mais fácil e mais efetiva no bloqueio

  13. Bloqueio extraconal para facectomia com implante de lente intra-ocular: influência do fentanil associado ao anestésico local na qualidade do bloqueio e na analgesia pós-operatória Bloqueo extraconal para facectomia con implantación de lente intra-ocular: influencia del fentanil asociado al anestésico local en la calidad del bloqueo y en la analgesia pos-operatoria Extraconal block for cataract extraction surgery with implantation of intraocular lens: contribution of fentanyl associated to local anesthetics for quality of block and postoperative analgesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Espada Lahoz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia locorregional para cirurgias oftalmológicas oferece vantagens, como: mínimas alterações fisiológicas, anestesia completa, bloqueio dos reflexos oculares, pequena incidência de náuseas e vômitos, menor tempo de recuperação e analgesia pós-operatória. A preocupação constante com a qualidade do bloqueio, assim como da abordagem da analgesia pós-operatória deve ficar sob a responsabilidade do anestesiologista. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se o fentanil contribui na qualidade do bloqueio extraconal e na analgesia pós-operatória de facectomias com implante de lente intra-ocular. MÉTODO: Estudou-se a associação do fentanil e bupivacaína a 0,75% na qualidade do bloqueio ocular e na analgesia pós-operatória em 164 pacientes submetidos a facectomia com implante de lente intra-ocular (técnica extracapsular, de ambos os sexos com homogeneidade de parâmetros antropométricos, olho operado, classificação do estado físico (ASA e índice de risco cardíaco de Goldman. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos (82 pacientes em cada grupo por sorteio de forma aleatória, com e sem fentanil. Avaliou-se a qualidade do bloqueio por: aparecimento da dor no per-operatório, manutenção de movimentação das pálpebras ou do globo ocular, persistência do reflexo de Bell, número de bloqueios realizados para a obtenção de condições cirúrgicas e avaliação do bloqueio pelo cirurgião. A analgesia pós-operatória foi avaliada pela necessidade de complementação analgésica pelo paciente. RESULTADOS: Fentanil associado à solução anestésica no bloqueio extraconal aumentou significativamente o bloqueio do músculo reto medial (com fentanil - 17,1%, sem fentanil - 32,9% e diminuiu o consumo de analgésicos no período pós-operatório (uso de analgésicos com fentanil - 20,7%, não uso de analgésicos com fentanil - 41,5%. CONCLUSÕES: Nas condições deste estudo o fentanil

  14. The effects of Duvernoy's gland secretion from the xenodontine colubrid Philodryas olfersii on striated muscle and the neuromuscular junction: partial characterization of a neuromuscular fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Franceschi, J; Hyslop, S; Cogo, J C; Andrade, A L; Assakura, M; Cruz-Höfling, M A; Rodrigues-Simioni, L

    1996-04-01

    The effect of Philodryas olfersii Duvernoy's secretion was studied in vivo in mice and chicks as well as in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm and the chick biventer cervicis preparations. The whole secretion (20-40 micrograms/ml) increased the creatine kinase (CK) levels in mice but had no effect on the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. In the chick, the secretion caused head drop and paresia as well as irreversible blockade of the twitch-tension evoked by indirect stimulation in the chick biventer cervicis preparation (50% paralysis in 34.5 +/- 2.7 min, n = 4). The secretion also caused muscle contracture (30% of the maximal twitch-tension generated) after a latency of nearly 9 min. Following fractionation on a Superose 12 FPLC column, the neuromuscular activity was recovered in the high mol. wt fraction (Peak I). At a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml in the chick biventer cervicis preparation, Peak I caused 50% paralysis within 18.5 +/- 3.0 min (n = 4), and evoked a strong contracture (70% of the maximal twitch-tension generated). The contractile responses of the chick preparation to ACh and KCL were partially blocked (90%) by the whole secretion and totally blocked by Peak I. CK release was increased by the whole secretion but not by Peak I. The whole secretion also produced various degrees of muscle cell lysis and extensive widening of the intercellular spaces. The latter showed a loosely arranged membranous network. In general, Peak I caused only minor morphological alterations compared with the whole secretion, although these were still significantly different from those observed in the control preparations. The changes principally involved hypercontraction of the muscle fibers. Based on the above results, we conclude that Peak I contains the factor(s) responsible for the in vitro effects on neuromuscular transmission, whereas the direct myotoxic effect is apparently caused by at least one other component of the Duvernoy's secretion. PMID:8735245

  15. A dehydrorotenoid produced by callus tissue culture and wild plant roots of Boerhaavia coccinea Um desidro-rotenóide produzido por cultura de calos e por raízes de plantas silvestres de Boerhaavia coccinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdan Silva Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calli cultures were established from leaves and stem of B. coccinea plantlet produced in vitro and analysed for isoflavonoid content. The quantification of 6,9,11-trihydroxy-6a,12a-dehydrorotenoid isolated from the roots of Boerhaavia coccinea P. Miller collected from its natural environment, and the same metabolite produced in callus tissue culture of the same plant are described in this paper. The rotinary quantitative HPLC analysis indicated that callus culture produced the same isoflavonoid compound found in the roots of intact wild growing plant. The amount of the secondary metabolite produced in vitro was 955.35 µg/g of dry cell weight, 2.5 times more than the highest amount concentration produced by the wild growing plant in its natural environment.Cultura de calos foram estabelecidos de folhas e galhos finos de plântula de B. coccinea produzida in vitro e analisada para isoflavonóide. A quantificação do 6,9,11-triidroxi-6a,12a-desidro-rotenóide isolado das raízes de B. coccinea P Miller, coletada em seu habitat natural, e do mesmo rotenóide produzido na cultura de células estão descritos neste artigo. A análise rotineira em CLAE mostrou que a cultura de calos produziu o mesmo isoflavonóide encontrado nas raízes da planta do campo. A quantidade do metabólito secundário produzido in vitro foi de 955.35 µg/g de massa seca de callus, atingindo uma concentração de 2,5 vezes maior do que a quantidade do metabólito produzido pela planta em seu meio ambiente natural.

  16. Comparação das técnicas transarterial e de estimulação de múltiplos nervos para bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar usando lidocaína com epinefrina Comparación de las técnicas transarterial y de estimulación de múltiples nervios para bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía axilar usando lidocaína con epinefrina Comparison of transarterial and multiple nerve stimulation techniques for axillary block using lidocaine with epinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni; Lúcia Beato; José Antônio Cordeiro

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A técnica transarterial com grandes doses de anestésico local resulta em alta efetividade para o bloqueio axilar do plexo braquial. A técnica utilizando múltiplos estímulos exige mais tempo e maior experiência. Este estudo prospectivo compara a latência e o índice de sucesso do bloqueio do plexo braquial usando duas técnicas de localização: transarterial ou múltipla estimulação dos nervos. MÉTODO: A lidocaína com epinefrina, 800 mg, foi usada inicialmente para o blo...

  17. Estudo comparativo da eficácia analgésica pós-operatória de 20, 30 ou 40 mL de ropivacaína no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior Estudio comparativo de la eficacia analgésica postoperatoria de 20, 30 o 40 mL de ropivacaína en el bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía posterior A comparative study on the postoperative analgesic efficacy of 20, 30, or 40 mL of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel; Carlos Henrique Viana de Castro; Yerkes Pereira Silva; Gustavo Prosperi Bicalho; Flávio de Oliveira França; Flávio Lago

    2007-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As intervenções cirúrgicas por via artroscópica no ombro estão relacionadas com a dor pós-operatória de grande intensidade. Dentre as técnicas de analgesia, o bloqueio do plexo braquial é a que oferece os melhores resultados. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar qual volume de anestésico local no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior propicia analgesia pós-operatória para essas operações de maneira mais eficiente. MÉTODO: Noventa pacientes submetidos a blo...

  18. Estudo comparativo da eficácia analgésica pós-operatória de 20 mL de ropivacaína a 0,5, 0,75 ou 1% no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior Estudio comparativo de la eficacia analgésica postoperatoria de 20 mL de ropivacaina a 0,5, 0,75 ó 1% en el bloqueo de plexo braquial por la vía posterior Comparative study for the postoperative analgesic efficacy of 20 mL at 0.5, 0.75, and 1% ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel; Carlos Henrique Viana de Castro; Yerkes Pereira Silva; Bruno Salomé Morais; Flávio de Oliveira França; Flávio Lago

    2008-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As intervenções cirúrgicas por via artroscópica no ombro estão relacionadas com a dor pós-operatória de grande intensidade. Dentre as técnicas de analgesia, o bloqueio do plexo braquial é a que oferece os melhores resultados. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar qual concentração de anestésico local no bloqueio de plexo braquial pela via posterior propicia analgesia pós-operatória mais prolongada para essas operações. MÉTODO: Noventa pacientes submetidos ao bloque...

  19. Representações sociais da homeopatia: uma revisão de estudos produzidos no Estado do Espírito Santo Social representations of homeopathy: a revision of studies produced in Espírito Santo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Túlio Alberto Martins de Figueiredo; Vera Lúcia Taqueti Machado

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo buscou colocar em revista as investigações sobre as representações da homeopatia no cenário capixaba. Trata-se da análise de seis trabalhos até então produzidos nesse recorte, explorando tais representações entre os profissionais de saúde (gestores, médicos, cirurgiões-dentistas, farmacêuticos e enfermeiros) e a comunidade. No tocante à comunidade, um estudo reportou-se à sociedade em geral e outro a usuários. Ambos, no entanto, representaram a homeopatia com a idéia de tratamento...

  20. The punctum fixum-punctum mobile model: a neuromuscular principle for efficient movement generation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Laßberg

    Full Text Available According to the "punctum fixum-punctum mobile model" that was introduced in prior studies, for generation of the most effective intentional acceleration of a body part the intersegmental neuromuscular onset succession has to spread successively from the rotation axis (punctum fixum toward the body part that shall be accelerated (punctum mobile. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this principle is, indeed, fundamental for any kind of efficient rotational accelerations in general, independent of the kind of movements, type of rotational axis, the current body position, or movement direction. Neuromuscular onset succession was captured by surface electromyography of relevant muscles of the anterior and posterior muscle chain in 16 high-level gymnasts during intentional accelerating movement phases while performing 18 different gymnastics elements (in various body positions to forward and backward, performed on high bar, parallel bars, rings and trampoline, as well as during non-sport specific pivot movements around the longitudinal axis. The succession patterns to generate the acceleration phases during these movements were described and statistically evaluated based on the onset time difference between the muscles of the corresponding muscle chain. In all the analyzed movement phases, the results clearly support the hypothesized succession pattern from punctum fixum to punctum mobile. This principle was further underlined by the finding that the succession patterns do change their direction running through the body when the rotational axis (punctum fixum has been changed (e.g., high bar or rings [hands] vs. floor or trampoline [feet]. The findings improve our understanding of intersegmental neuromuscular coordination patterns to generate intentional movements most efficiently. This could help to develop more specific methods to facilitate such patterns in particular contexts, thus allowing for shorter motor learning

  1. Neuromuscular function and fatigue resistance of the plantar flexors following short-term cycling endurance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBehrens

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies on the effect of short-term endurance training on the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors have shown that the H-reflex elicited at rest and during weak voluntary contractions was increased following the training regime. However, these studies did not test H-reflex modulation during isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC and did not incorporate a control group in their study design to compare the results of the endurance training group to individuals without the endurance training stimulus. Therefore, this randomized controlled study was directed to investigate the neuromuscular function of the plantar flexors at rest and during iMVC before and after eight weeks of cycling endurance training. Twenty-two young adults were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. During neuromuscular testing, rate of torque development, isometric maximum voluntary torque and muscle activation were measured. Triceps surae muscle activation and tibialis anterior muscle co-activation were assessed by normalized root mean square of the EMG signal during the initial phase of contraction (0-100, 100-200 ms and isometric maximum voluntary contraction of the plantar flexors. Furthermore, evoked spinal reflex responses of the soleus muscle (H-reflex evoked at rest and during iMVC, V-wave, peak twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve at rest and fatigue resistance were evaluated. The results indicate that the endurance training did not lead to a significant change in any variable of interest. Data of the present study conflict with the outcome of previously published studies that have found an increase in H-reflex excitability after endurance training. However, these studies had not included a control group in their study design as was the case here. It is concluded that short-term cycling endurance training does not necessarily enhance H-reflex responses and fatigue

  2. Assessment of ventilatory neuromuscular drive in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R.A. Bittencourt

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The presence of abnormalities of the respiratory center in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients and their correlation with polysomnographic data are still a matter of controversy. Moderately obese, sleep-deprived OSA patients presenting daytime hypersomnolence, with normocapnia and no clinical or spirometric evidence of pulmonary disease, were selected. We assessed the ventilatory control and correlated it with polysomnographic data. Ventilatory neuromuscular drive was evaluated in these patients by measuring the ventilatory response (VE, the inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1 and the ventilatory pattern (VT/TI, TI/TTOT at rest and during submaximal exercise, breathing room air. These analyses were also performed after inhalation of a hypercapnic mixture of CO2 (DP.1/DPETCO2, DVE/DPETCO2. Average rest and exercise ventilatory response (VE: 12.2 and 32.6 l/min, respectively, inspiratory occlusion pressure (P.1: 1.5 and 4.7 cmH2O, respectively, and ventilatory pattern (VT/TI: 0.42 and 1.09 l/s; TI/TTOT: 0.47 and 0.46 l/s, respectively were within the normal range. In response to hypercapnia, the values of ventilatory response (DVE/DPETCO2: 1.51 l min-1 mmHg-1 and inspiratory occlusion pressure (DP.1/DPETCO2: 0.22 cmH2O were normal or slightly reduced in the normocapnic OSA patients. No association or correlation between ventilatory neuromuscular drive and ventilatory pattern, hypersomnolence score and polysomnographic data was found; however a significant positive correlation was observed between P.1 and weight. Our results indicate the existence of a group of normocapnic OSA patients who have a normal awake neuromuscular ventilatory drive at rest or during exercise that is partially influenced by obesity

  3. Evaluation of the neuromuscular compartments in the peroneus longus muscle through electrical stimulation and accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Mendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscles are innervated exclusively by a nerve branch and possess definite actions. However, mammalian skeletal muscles, such as the trapezius, the medial gastrocnemius, and the peroneus longus, are compartmentalized. In the peroneus longus muscle, multiple motor points, which innervate individual neuromuscular compartments (NMC, the superior (S-NMC, anteroinferior (AI-NMC, and posteroinferior (PI-NMC, have been described. The contribution of each neuromuscular compartment to the final action of the muscle is fundamental for the rehabilitation of patients afflicted by neurological and muscle dysfunctions. Interventions are often based on electrical principles that take advantage of the physiological characteristics of muscles and nerves to generate therapeutic effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of stimulating the different neuromuscular compartments (NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle on the motor threshold (MT and acceleration of the foot. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 37 subjects. The three NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle were stimulated, and the acceleration of the foot and the motor threshold of each NMC were evaluated. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections of two intra-subjects factors was performed. RESULTS: The stimulation of the different NMCs did not result in any differences in MT (F=2.635, P=0.079. There were significant differences between the axes of acceleration caused by the stimulation of the different NMCs (F=56,233; P=0.000. The stimulation of the posteroinferior compartment resulted in the greatest acceleration in the X-axis (mean 0.614; standard deviation 0.253. CONCLUSIONS: The posteroinferior compartment primarily contributes to the eversion movement of the foot. NMCs have specific functional roles that contribute to the actions of the muscles to which they belong.

  4. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cloak, Andrew Lane, Matthew Wyon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute whole body vibration (WBV is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22 in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16 in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27 compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players.

  5. Neuromuscular Fatigue and Physiological Responses After Five Dynamic Squat Exercise Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Westphal-Martinez, Marc P; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; de Paula Simola, Rauno A; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Raeder, C, Wiewelhove, T, Westphal-Martinez, MP, Fernandez-Fernandez, J, de Paula Simola, RÁ, Kellmann, M, Meyer, T, Pfeiffer, M, and Ferrauti, A. Neuromuscular fatigue and physiological responses after five dynamic squat exercise protocols. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 953-965, 2016-This aimed to analyze neuromuscular, physiological and perceptual responses to a single bout of 5 different dynamic squat exercise protocols. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 15 male resistance-trained athletes (mean ± SD; age: 23.1 ± 1.9 years, body mass: 77.4 ± 8.0 kg) completed traditional multiple sets (MS: 4 × 6, 85% 1 repetition maximum [RM]), drop sets (DS: 1 × 6, 85% 1RM + 3 drop sets), eccentric overload (EO: 4 × 6, 70% 1RM concentric, 100% 1RM eccentric), flywheel YoYo squat (FW: 4 × 6, all-out), and a plyometric jump protocol (PJ: 4 × 15, all-out). Blood lactate (La), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), counter movement jump height (CMJ), multiple rebound jump (MRJ) performance, maximal voluntary isometric contraction force, serum creatine kinase (CK) and delayed onset muscle soreness were measured. Immediately post exercise, La was significantly (p effect with peak values 24 hours post exercise was observed in CK serum concentrations (p < 0.001), but there was no time × protocol interaction. In conclusion, (a) metabolic and perceptual demands were higher in FW and EO compared with MS, DS and PJ, (b) neuromuscular fatigue was consistent up to 48 hours post exercise in all protocols, and PMID:26349042

  6. Bloqueio bilateral do nervo pudendo para hemorroidectomia em paciente acondroplásico: relato de caso Bloqueo bilateral del nervio pudendo para hemorroidectomía en paciente acondroplásico: relato de caso Bilateral blockade of the pudend nerve to hemorrhoidectomy in achondroplasic patient: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Salomé de Morais; Marcos Guilherme Cunha Cruvinel; Yerkes Pereira Silva; Dener Augusto Diniz; Carlos Henrique Viana de Castro

    2006-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O nanismo acondroplásico ou acondroplasia é a forma mais comum de nanismo e ocorre na maioria dos casos por alteração genética espontânea. A anestesia desses pacientes apresenta várias particularidades. O objetivo do presente relato foi descrever um caso de paciente acondroplásico, com história prévia de intervenção cirúrgica da coluna para descompressão medular, submetido a hemorroidectomia através de bloqueio bilateral dos nervos pudendos. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente...

  7. Bases anatômicas para o bloqueio anestésico do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular Bases anatómicas para el bloqueo anestésico del plexo braquial por vía infraclavicular Anatomical basis for infraclavicular brachial plexus block

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos Buarque Gusmão; Jacqueline Silva Brito Lima; José Carlos Prates

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Procuramos demonstrar neste estudo a presença constante da fossa infraclavicular, com a finalidade de sua utilização como via de acesso para o bloqueio anestésico do plexo braquial por via infraclavicular. Visando solucionar o ponto onde os fascículos do plexo braquial podem ser localizados no interior da fossa, propusemos medidas a partir da face anterior da clavícula e do ângulo formado pelo encontro do músculo deltóide com a clavícula (ângulo deltoclavicular). A ...

  8. Efeitos neuromusculares e cardiovasculares do pipecurônio: estudo comparativo entre diferentes doses Efectos neuromusculares y cardiovasculares del pipecuronio: estudio comparativo entre diferentes dosis Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of pipecuronium: a comparative study between different dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima de Assunção Braga

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O pipecurônio é um bloqueador neuromuscular não-despolarizante, com propriedades similares as do pancurônio, mas desprovido de efeitos cardiovasculares. Foram avaliados os efeitos neuromusculares, as condições de intubação traqueal e as repercussões hemodinâmicas de duas diferentes doses de pipecurônio. MÉTODO: Pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a dose de pipecurônio: Grupo I (0,04 mg.kg-1 e Grupo II (0,05 mg.kg-1. A medicação pré-anestésica consistiu em midazolam (0,1 mg.kg-1 por via muscular, 30 minutos antes da operação. A indução anestésica foi obtida com propofol (2,5 mg.kg-1 precedido de fentanil (5 µg.kg-1 e pipecurônio nas doses de 0,04 e 0,05 mg.kg-1 para os Grupos I e II, respectivamente. Os pacientes foram ventilados com O2 a 100% sob máscara até a redução de 75% da amplitude da resposta a estímulo isolado (1 Hz, quando foram realizadas a laringoscopia e intubação traqueal. O isoflurano (0,5 a 1% em mistura de O2 e N(20 a 50% para a manutenção da anestesia, foi introduzido logo após a intubação traqueal. Os pacientes foram ventilados mecanicamente para manter P ET CO2 entre 32 e 36 mmHg. A farmacodinâmica do pipecurônio foi avaliada por aceleromiografia. RESULTADOS: Os tempos médios e desvios-padrão para o início de ação, duração clínica (T1(25% e índice de recuperação (T1(25-75% foram: Grupo I (122,10 ± 4,18 s, 49,63 ± 9,54 min e 48,21 ± 6,72 min e Grupo II (95,78 ± 8,91 s, 64,84 ± 13,13 min e 48,52 ± 4,95 min. O início de ação, a duração clínica e as condições de intubação traqueal foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: O pipecurônio na dose 0,05 mg.kg-1 pode ser usado em procedimentos de longa duração, nos quais é desejável evitar alterações cardiocirculatórias.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El pipecuronio es un bloqueador neuromuscular no despolarizador, con propiedades similares a las

  9. Contribución del soporte nutricional al tratamiento de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico Contribution of nutritional support to treatment neuromuscular impairments of critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Montejo González

    2006-01-01

    Las alteraciones neuromusculares que tienen lugar en el paciente crítico han sido atribuidas a factores como la situación séptica, la liberación de mediadores inflamatorioso el empleo de fármacos que afectan desfavorablemente a la función neuro-muscular. El papel de factores metabólicos y nutricionales en el desarrollo de esta patología ha recibido poca atención. En la actualidad, el empleo de protocolos de control intensivo de la glucemia podría tener gran interés en la prevención de las alt...

  10. Neuromuscular exercise improves functional performance in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard;

    to an eight-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX-TJR) intervention or care-as-usual (verbal and written preoperative information). Intervention was supervised and offered twice a week with each session lasting one hour. The program is considered feasible and safe in this patient group and previously described...... with a leg extension press (Nottingham Power Rig, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK) and a seated knee extension machine (Oemmebi, Moglia, Italy) adapted with a linear encoder (MuscleLab Power, Ergotest Technology, Langesund, Norway), respectively. Results. On average the intervention group attended 13...

  11. L- and DL-carnitine induce tetanic fade in rat neuromuscular preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes G.; Bazotte R.B.; Curi R.; Alves-Do-Prado W.

    2003-01-01

    Carnitine, a structurally choline-like metabolite, has been used to increase athletic performance, although its effects on neuromuscular transmission have not been investigated. It is present in skeletal muscle and its plasma levels are about 30 to 90 µM. Using rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations indirectly and directly stimulated with high rate pulses, D-carnitine (30 and 60 µM), L-carnitine (60 µM) and DL-carnitine (60 µM) were shown to induce tetanic fade (D-carnitine = 19.7 ± 3.1%, N...

  12. Growth differentiation factor 6 as a putative risk factor in neuromuscular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle G DuVal

    Full Text Available Mutation of Glass bottom boat, the Drosophila homologue of the bone morphogenetic protein or growth/differentiation factor (BMP/GDF family of genes in vertebrates, has been shown to disrupt development of neuromuscular junctions (NMJ. Here we tested whether this same conclusion can be broadened to vertebrate BMP/GDF genes. This analysis was also extended to consider whether such genes are required for NMJ maintenance in post-larval stages, as this would argue that BMP genes are viable candidates for analysis in progressive neuromuscular disease. Zebrafish mutants harboring homozygous null mutations in the BMP-family gene gdf6a were raised to adulthood and assessed for neuromuscular deficits. Fish lacking gdf6a exhibited decreased endurance (∼ 50%, p = 0.005 compared to wild type, and this deficit progressively worsened with age. These fish also presented with significantly disrupted NMJ morphology (p = 0.009, and a lower abundance of spinal motor neurons (∼ 50%, p<0.001 compared to wild type. Noting the similarity of these symptoms to those of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS model mice and fish, we asked if mutations in gdf6a would enhance the phenotypes observed in the latter, i.e. in zebrafish over-expressing mutant Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1. Amongst younger adult fish only bigenic fish harboring both the SOD1 transgene and gdf6a mutations, but not siblings with other combinations of these gene modifications, displayed significantly reduced endurance (75%, p<0.05 and strength/power (75%, p<0.05, as well as disrupted NMJ morphology (p<0.001 compared to wild type siblings. Bigenic fish also had lower survival rates compared to other genotypes. Thus conclusions regarding a role for BMP ligands in effecting NMJ can be extended to vertebrates, supporting conservation of mechanisms relevant to neuromuscular degenerative diseases. These conclusions synergize with past findings to argue for further analysis of GDF6 and other BMP genes as

  13. Preventing Ischial Pressure Ulcers: III. Clinical Pilot Study of Chronic Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton M. Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: BIONs™ (BIOnic Neurons are injectable, wireless microstimulators that make chronic BION Active Seating (BAS possible for pressure ulcer prevention (PUP. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES produces skeletal motion and activates trophic factors, counteracting three major etiological mechanisms leading to pressure ulcers (PUs: immobility, soft-tissue atrophy, and ischemia. Companion papers I and II reviewed prior experience with NMES for PUP, and analyzed the biomechanical considerations, respectively. This paper presents a treatment strategy derived from this analysis, and the clinical results of the first three cases.

  14. MuSK is required for anchoring acetylcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Cartaud, Annie; Strochlic, Laure; Guerra, Manuel; Blanchard, Benoît; Lambergeon, Monique; Krejci, Eric; Cartaud, Jean; Legay, Claire

    2004-01-01

    At the neuromuscular junction, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is mainly present as asymmetric forms in which tetramers of catalytic subunits are associated to a specific collagen, collagen Q (ColQ). The accumulation of the enzyme in the synaptic basal lamina strictly relies on ColQ. This has been shown to be mediated by interaction between ColQ and perlecan, which itself binds dystroglycan. Here, using transfected mutants of ColQ in a ColQ-deficient muscle cell line or COS-7 cells, we report tha...

  15. Effect of exercise therapy on neuromuscular activity and knee strength in female adolescents with patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S.; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Jens L.; Roos, Ewa M.; Rasmussen, Sten; Madeleine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    random subsample of 57 female adolescents was included and tested at baseline and after 3months. Neuromuscular control of the knee was quantified as the complexity of surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis during stair descent. Secondary outcomes were complexity of knee...... during stair descent than those receiving patient education alone. This suggest that exercise therapy has an effect not only on self-reported outcome measures but also on objective measures of thigh muscle function in female adolescents with patellofemoral pain....

  16. Vendaje Neuromuscular y su aplicación en la mejora del rendimiento muscular

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Rodríguez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    El Vendaje Neuro-Muscular (VNM) es una técnica que utiliza vendajes blandos muy elásticos, por sus efectos, entre otros, sobre la fisiología de los músculos vendados. En el mundo del deporte esta técnica es usada con finalidad preventiva, terapéutica en fase aguda, y favorecedora de la recuperación en la fase post-lesión. Diversos autores han encontrado resultados contradictorios en cuanto a su posible utilidad en el aumento del rendimiento deportivo (Tieh-Cheng et al.2008; Li-Chun Yu et al. ...

  17. Neuromuscular and Blood Lactate Responses to Squat Power Training with Different Rest Intervals Between Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Martorelli, André; Bottaro, Martim; Vieira, Amilton; Rocha-Júnior, Valdinar; Cadore, Eduardo; Prestes, Jonato; Wagner, Dale; Martorelli, Saulo

    2015-01-01

    Studies investigating the effect of rest interval length (RI) between sets on neuromuscular performance and metabolic response during power training are scarce. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare maximal power output, muscular activity and blood lactate concentration following 1, 2 or 3 minutes RI between sets during a squat power training protocol. Twelve resistance-trained men (22.7 ± 3.2 years; 1.79 ± 0.08 cm; 81.8 ± 11.3 kg) performed 6 sets of 6 repetitions of squat exer...

  18. [Changes in the ultrastructure of neuromuscular synapses in rats under the effects of space flight factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdniakov, O M; Babakova, L L; Demorzhi, M S; Il'ina-Kakueva, E I

    1988-06-01

    The influence of a 7-day space flight on board the biosputnik "Kosmos-1669" on the neuro-muscular synapses (NMS) of soleus, gastrocnemius and diaphragm muscles distinct in their functions has been studied. The synapse restructuring on the basis of destructive- regenerative process has been discovered. It is manifested to a great extent in the soleus muscle, to a lesser extent in the gastrocnemius muscle and the least of all in the diaphragm muscle. The changes observed in synapses may be caused by the attenuation of their function in weightlessness. PMID:3390600

  19. Combining heat stress and moderate hypoxia reduces cycling time to exhaustion without modifying neuromuscular fatigue characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the isolated and combined effects of heat [temperate (22 °C/30 % rH) vs. hot (35 °C/40 % rH)] and hypoxia [sea level (FiO2 0.21) vs. moderate altitude (FiO2 0.15)] on exercise capacity and neuromuscular fatigue characteristics. Methods Eleven physically active subjects cycled to exhaustion at constant workload (66 % of the power output associated with their maximal oxygen uptake in temperate conditions) in four different environmental conditions [temperate/sea ...

  20. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Methods Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001). The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001). Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an

  1. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis - treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, E; Roos, Ewa M.; Ageberg, E;

    2013-01-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters.......To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters....

  2. CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS E SENSORIAS DO TOMATE (Lycopersicon esculentum PRODUZIDO POR CULTIVO ORGÂNICO EM COMPARAÇÃO AO CONVENCIONAL*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. BORGUINI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    A pesquisa descreve as características físicoquímicas e sensoriais do tomate orgânico em comparação ao convencional. Amostras de tomate cultivares Carmem e Débora produzidos por cultivo orgânico e convencional foram avaliadas fisicamente, considerando-se a textura e cor, e quimicamente com relação ao pH, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável. As amostras foram também avaliadas sensorialmente quanto ao aroma, sabor, cor e aspecto geral. Os frutos de tomate cultivar Débora e Carmem não apresentaram diferenças com relação à tonalidade de vermelho dos frutos provenientes do cultivo orgânico quando comparado ao convencional. Quanto à textura, os resultados se mostraram similares, entre o lote orgânico (8,85 N x 105 e convencional (8,47 N x 105 do cultivar Carmem. Para o cultivar Débora foram observados valores de 10,28 N x 105 e 9,38 N x 105 para o cultivo orgânico e convencional, respectivamente. Quanto aos valores de pH, sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, foram observadas diferenças entre os dois tipos de cultivo. A análise sensorial dos frutos, revelou diferenças significativas (p<0,05 entre os cultivos orgânico e convencional apenas para os atributos de sabor e aspecto geral. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tomate; análise sensorial; alimentos orgânicos.

  3. Estimativas das propriedades de compostos LVL produzidos com paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke por meio de stress wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodolfo Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as propriedades físicas e mecânicas de compósitos LVL produzidos com a madeira de paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke, por meio de Stress Wave Timer. Os compósitos foram confeccionados em laboratório, dos quais foram retiradas amostras, que foram inicialmente destinadas à realização dos ensaios não destrutivos. Todas as amostras, com dimensões de 2,2 × 2,2 × 40 cm, foram ensaiadas, não destrutivamente, com a propagação de ondas nos sentidos flatwise e edgewise. Em sequência, as mesmas amostras foram destinadas à confecção de subamostras, para realização dos ensaios destrutivos, físicos (absorção de água, inchamento em espessura e inchamento residual e mecânicos (resistência e rigidez à flexão estática flatwise; resistência e rigidez à flexão estática edgewise; resistência à compressão paralela e resistência ao cisalhamento paralelo e perpendicular. A velocidade de propagação das ondas (V0 e o módulo de elasticidade dinâmico (Emd, obtidos com o auxílio do Stress Wave, foram utilizados para elaboração de modelos de predição das propriedades avaliadas. Os resultados indicaram que o Stress Wave Timer apresenta resultados satisfatórios para predição das propriedades mecânicas de compósitos LVL. Com relação às propriedades físicas, embora tenham sido verificados modelos com ajustes significativos, constatou-se limitação dessa ferramenta para predição desses parâmetros. Contudo, considerando ambas as propriedades, físicas e mecânicas, os melhores ajustes foram observados em amostras ensaiadas com a propagação de ondas no sentido edgewise e com o uso da variável independente Emd.

  4. Análise físico-química e sensorial de doce de leite produzido sem adição de sacarose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patrícia Milagres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar doces de leite produzidos sem adição de açúcar. Realizaram-se três formulações: doce com adição de açúcar (A, com edulcorante sucralose (B e doce com ciclamato, sacarina e sorbitol (C. Nos doces B e C utilizou-se a carragena. Realizaram-se análises físico-quimicas, microbiológicas, exigidas pela legislação vigente, e análise sensorial. Nas análises de acidez não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras. O teor de gordura, a atividade de água e textura das amostras não diferiram entre os doces B e C, e esses diferiram estatisticamente do A. Nas análises de pH houve diferença significativa entre os doces. O teor de sólidos solúveis do doce A apresentou 63 °Brix, e os doces B e C, 26 °Brix. Na aceitação, observou-se diferença significativa para todos os atributos avaliados. Para sabor, o doce A foi mais aceito que os doces B e C, e o doce B mais que o C. Para atributo de textura sensorial e impressão global, o doce A foi mais aceito que os doces B e C, e esses apresentaram a mesma aceitação. Na análise de textura instrumental, os doces B e C não obtiveram a mesma força de resistência à penetração que o doce A. Todas as análises microbiológicas dos doces A, B e C apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação vigente. Doce de leite com sucralose (B mostrou-se uma boa alternativa para substituição do doce de leite com sacarose (A, uma vez que obteve boa aceitação para o atributo sabor.

  5. Efeitos de farelo alimentar fibroso produzido a partir da linhaça em indivíduos com constipação intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Lopes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com o bem estar e a melhora da qualidade de vida tem levado as pessoas a consumirem alimentos mais saudáveis os chamados alimentos funcionais, no qual se destaca os que contêm fibra alimentar. Devido às propriedades fibrosas que a linhaça constitui, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficácia da ingestão de um farelo alimentar rico em fibras, em indivíduos sedentários e não sedentários com constipação intestinal. O presente estudo apresentou caráter laboratorial e experimental com abordagem quantitativa utilizando-se o método da estatística descritiva. O farelo foi produzido à base da semente de linhaça, com adição de outros ingredientes fibrosos, foi embalado e rotulado, e em seguida distribuído para o consumo. De acordo com os dados obtidos, na análise da composição nutricional do farelo fibroso evidenciou-se um teor apreciável de fibra alimentar. Para a avaliação das características organolépticas do farelo foi observado uma maior aprovação para o sabor, textura e aroma. Quanto à avaliação da função intestinal dos indivíduos após consumir o farelo fibroso foi observado uma melhora significativa em todas as características observadas antes de consumir o farelo, sendo relatado um aumento no número das evacuações. Em relação aos indivíduos sedentários e não sedentários observou-se que independente da prática ou não de atividade física o mesmo foi bastante eficaz em ambos os casos, não sendo relatado nenhum tipo de reação adversa. Diante dos dados concluímos que o farelo fibroso foi bastante eficaz na melhora da constipação intestinal na maioria dos casos estudados.

  6. A Markov computer simulation model of the economics of neuromuscular blockade in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow John L

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in the intensive care unit (ICU is clinically challenging and costly. Neuromuscular blocking agents may facilitate mechanical ventilation and improve oxygenation, but may result in prolonged recovery of neuromuscular function and acute quadriplegic myopathy syndrome (AQMS. The goal of this study was to address a hypothetical question via computer modeling: Would a reduction in intubation time of 6 hours and/or a reduction in the incidence of AQMS from 25% to 21%, provide enough benefit to justify a drug with an additional expenditure of $267 (the difference in acquisition cost between a generic and brand name neuromuscular blocker? Methods The base case was a 55 year-old man in the ICU with ARDS who receives neuromuscular blockade for 3.5 days. A Markov model was designed with hypothetical patients in 1 of 6 mutually exclusive health states: ICU-intubated, ICU-extubated, hospital ward, long-term care, home, or death, over a period of 6 months. The net monetary benefit was computed. Results Our computer simulation modeling predicted the mean cost for ARDS patients receiving standard care for 6 months to be $62,238 (5% – 95% percentiles $42,259 – $83,766, with an overall 6-month mortality of 39%. Assuming a ceiling ratio of $35,000, even if a drug (that cost $267 more hypothetically reduced AQMS from 25% to 21% and decreased intubation time by 6 hours, the net monetary benefit would only equal $137. Conclusion ARDS patients receiving a neuromuscular blocker have a high mortality, and unpredictable outcome, which results in large variability in costs per case. If a patient dies, there is no benefit to any drug that reduces ventilation time or AQMS incidence. A prospective, randomized pharmacoeconomic study of neuromuscular blockers in the ICU to asses AQMS or intubation times is impractical because of the highly variable clinical course of patients with ARDS.

  7. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with better preserved fat-free mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maris Nápolis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation increases exercise tolerance in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. However, it is conceivable that its benefits are more prominent in patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function and structure. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation in COPD patients with better-preserved peripheral muscle function. Design: Prospective and cross-over study. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients were randomly assigned to either home-based, high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation or sham stimulation for six weeks. The training intensity was adjusted according to each subject's tolerance. Fat-free mass, isometric strength, six-minute walking distance and time to exercise intolerance (Tlim were assessed. RESULTS: Thirteen (46.4% patients responded to high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation; that is, they had a post/pre Δ Tlim >10% after stimulation (unimproved after sham stimulation. Responders had a higher baseline fat-free mass and six-minute walking distance than their seventeen (53.6% non-responding counterparts. Responders trained at higher stimulation intensities; their mean amplitude of stimulation during training was significantly related to their fat-free mass (r = 0.65; p<0.01. Logistic regression revealed that fat-free mass was the single independent predictor of Tlim improvement (odds ratio [95% CI] = 1.15 [1.04-1.26]; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation improved the exercise capacity of COPD patients with better-preserved fat-free mass because they tolerated higher training stimulus levels. These data suggest that early training with high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation before tissue wasting begins might enhance exercise tolerance in patients with less advanced COPD.

  8. A randomized, dose-response study of sugammadex given for the reversal of deep rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade under sevoflurane anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaldestin, Philippe; Kuizenga, Karel; Saldien, Vera;

    2010-01-01

    Sugammadex is the first of a new class of selective muscle relaxant binding drugs developed for the rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium and vecuronium. Many studies have demonstrated a dose-response relationship with sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular...... blockade in patients induced and maintained under propofol anesthesia. However, sevoflurane anesthesia, unlike propofol, can prolong the effect of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) such as rocuronium and vecuronium.......Sugammadex is the first of a new class of selective muscle relaxant binding drugs developed for the rapid and complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium and vecuronium. Many studies have demonstrated a dose-response relationship with sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular...

  9. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary interventions to reduce oxidative stress in a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient leads to marked gains in function: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, David; Shivapour, Ezzatolah T; Wahls, Terry L; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna D; Shields, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been used to aid musculoskeletal recovery. Excessive oxidative stress and excitoxicity are implicated in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A 52-year-old white female with SPMS had been scooter- and cane-dependent for 4 years. She requested and received a trial of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Two months after initiating NMES the patient adopted several nutritional interventions to lower oxidative stress and excito-toxicity. During the first 2 months of neuromuscular electrical stimulation, the therapist observed modest gait improvements. Following the addition of nutritional interventions, more rapids gains in strength and endurance, including muscle groups not receiving neuromuscular electrical stimulation were observed by both the therapist and the patient. After 8 months of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (6 months of nutritional intervention) the patient's function had improved sufficiently that she no longer used a scooter or cane and rode her bicycle routinely 8 miles, including hills. PMID:19918474

  10. Increased rate of force development and neuromuscular activity after high-load resistance training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Andersen, Jesper L.; Eidemak, Inge;

    2013-01-01

    development was tested using the Good Strength dynamometer chair. Muscle strength and neuromuscular function in the m. Vastus lateralis was estimated using electromyography in a one repetition maximum test during dynamic knee extension and during a 20s isometric knee extension with 50% of the one repetition......AimThe aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-load resistance training on the rate of force development and neuromuscular function in patients undergoing dialysis. MethodsTwenty-nine patients were tested before and after 16 weeks of resistance training. The rate of force...

  11. No effect on performance tests from a neuromuscular warm-up programme in youth female football: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Hanna; Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present randomised controlled trial was to study the effect of a neuromuscular warm-up programme on performance tests in youth female football. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanFour youth female football teams with players aged 12-16 years were randomised into an intervention group and control group. The intervention was a 15-min neuromuscular warm-up programme carried out twice a week during the 11-week study period. Baseline and follow-up measurements of p...

  12. Delayed effect of Kinesio Taping on neuromuscular performance, balance, and lower limb function in healthy individuals: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Caio A. A. Lins; Daniel T. Borges; Liane B. Macedo; Karinna S. A. Costa; Jamilson S. Brasileiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Kinesio Taping (KT) is an elastic bandage that aims to improve neuromuscular performance, although there is no consensus as to its benefits. Objective To analyze the immediate and delayed effects of KT on the neuromuscular performance of the femoral quadriceps, on balance, and lower limb function in healthy subjects. Method This is a randomized controlled trial. Thirty-six women with a mean age of 22.2±3.6 years and BMI of 22.5±2.3 Kg/m2 were divided into three groups: ...

  13. Neuromuscular exercise prior to joint arthroplasty in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villadsen, Allan

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease affecting the whole joint and peri-articular structures like the muscles. The hallmark of OA is cartilage loss. The main symptoms are pain and decreased physical function leading to a reduced quality of life. OA ranks eight in leading causes of disability worldwide and it generates a heavy economic burden for society. The prevalence of OA increases with age and 10-18% aged above 60 years are affected. Currently there is no cure for OA and the various treatment modalities aim at addressing symptoms, i.e. reducing pain, improving physical function and preventing further progression of the disease. Exercise has proven to be a viable treatment option with regard to reducing pain and improving physical function in patients with mild to moderate knee OA and is today regarded a cornerstone in the treatment. The documentation is less clear for hip OA. Patients with severe OA of the hip or knee are treated with total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Although, in general, it is a very successful procedure, there are still challenges to overcome in this patient group, as approximately 10% of those having hip arthroplasty and 20% of those having knee arthroplasty have persistent symptoms. The evidence on the efficacy of exercise prior to TJA is sparse. It is based on insufficiently powered trials and with interventions of questionable validity. Two recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses reach conflicting conclusions and highlight the need for high quality trials with sufficient sample sizes. In this dissertation, I wanted to evaluate the effects of an individualised neuromuscular exercise programme (NEMEX-TJR) when administered prior to joint arthroplasty in patients with severe OA of the hip or knee joint. This intervention was previously found to be feasible with regard to pain level during exercise and it was possible to progress the training level in this patient group. The main question asked was: Does the addition of

  14. Analgesia pós-operatória em correção cirúrgica de pé torto congênito: comparação entre bloqueio nervoso periférico e bloqueio peridural caudal Analgesia postoperatoria en corrección quirúrgica de pie jorobado congénito: comparación entre bloqueo nervioso periférico y bloqueo epidural caudal Postoperative analgesia for the surgical correction of congenital clubfoot: comparison between peripheral nerve block and caudal epidural block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Rossi Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O procedimento de correção de pé torto congênito (PTC cursa com dor pós-operatória intensa. A técnica mais utilizada em crianças é a peridural caudal associada à anestesia geral. Tem como limitação a curta duração da analgesia pós-operatória. Os bloqueios de nervos periféricos têm sido apontados como procedimentos com baixa incidência de complicações e tempo prolongado de analgesia. O objetivo do estudo foi comparar o tempo de analgesia dos bloqueios nervosos periféricos e bloqueio caudal e o consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas após a correção de PTC em crianças. MÉTODO: Estudo randômico, encoberto, em crianças submetidas à intervenção cirúrgica para liberação póstero-medial de PTC, alocadas em 4 grupos conforme a técnica anestésica: Caudal (ACa; Bloqueios isquiático e femoral (IF; Bloqueios isquiático e safeno (IS; Bloqueio isquiático e anestesia local (IL, associados à anestesia geral. Nas primeiras 24 horas os pacientes receberam dipirona e paracetamol via oral e foram avaliados por anestesiologista que desconhecia a técnica empregada. Conforme escores da escala CHIPPS (Children's and infants postoperative pain scale era administrada morfina via oral (0,19 mg.kg-1 por dia. RESULTADOS: Foram estudadas 118 crianças distribuídas nos grupos ACa (30, IF (32, IS (28 IL (28. O tempo médio entre o bloqueio e a primeira dose de morfina foi 6,16 horas no grupo ACa, 7,05 horas no IF, 7,58 horas no IS e 8,18 horas no IL. O consumo de morfina foi 0,3 mg.kg-1 por dia nos quatro grupos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÕES: Os bloqueios nervosos periféricos não promoveram maior tempo de analgesia, tampouco redução no consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas em crianças submetidas à correção de PTC quando comparados ao bloqueio peridural caudal.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El procedimiento de corrección de pie jorobado congénito (PJC, debuta

  15. L- and DL-carnitine induce tetanic fade in rat neuromuscular preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lopes

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine, a structurally choline-like metabolite, has been used to increase athletic performance, although its effects on neuromuscular transmission have not been investigated. It is present in skeletal muscle and its plasma levels are about 30 to 90 µM. Using rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparations indirectly and directly stimulated with high rate pulses, D-carnitine (30 and 60 µM, L-carnitine (60 µM and DL-carnitine (60 µM were shown to induce tetanic fade (D-carnitine = 19.7 ± 3.1%, N = 6; L-carnitine = 16.6 ± 2.4%, N = 6; DL-carnitine = 14.9 ± 2.1%, N = 6 without any reduction of maximal tetanic tension. D-carnitine induced tetanic fade in neuromuscular preparations previously paralyzed with d-tubocurarine and directly stimulated. The effect was greater than that obtained by indirect muscle stimulation. Furthermore, previous addition of atropine (20 to 80 µM to the bath did not reduce carnitine isomer-induced tetanic fade. In contrast to D-carnitine, the tetanic fade induced by L- and DL-carnitine was antagonized by choline (60 µM. The combined effect of carnitine isomers and hemicholinium-3 (0.01 nM was similar to the effect of hemicholinium-3 alone. The data suggest that L- and DL-carnitine-induced tetanic fade seems to depend on their transport into the motor nerve terminal.

  16. Isometric quadriceps strength determines sailing performance and neuromuscular fatigue during an upwind sailing emulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Jan G; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the physiological responses to upwind sailing on a laser emulation ergometer and analyses the components of the physical profile that determine the physiological responses related to sailing level. Ten male high-level laser sailors performed an upwind sailing test, incremental cycling test and quadriceps strength test. During the upwind sailing test, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and lactate concentration were measured, combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and electromyography (EMG) registration of the M. Vastus lateralis. Repeated measures ANOVA showed for the cardio-respiratory, metabolic and muscles responses (mean power frequency [MPF], root mean square [RMS], deoxy[Hb+Mb]) during the upwind sailing test an initial significant increase followed by a stabilisation, despite a constant increase in RPE. Stepwise regression analysis showed that better sailing level was for 46.5% predicted by lower MPF decrease. Lower MPF decrease was for 57.8% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. In conclusion, this study indicates that higher sailing level was mainly determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during the upwind sailing test (as indicated by MPF decrease). Additionally, the level of neuromuscular fatigue was mainly determined by higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength stressing the importance of resistance training in the planning of training. PMID:26323461

  17. Antagonism by hemoglobin of effects induced by L-arginine in neuromuscular preparations from rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Ambiel

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO-synthase is present in diaphragm, phrenic nerve and vascular smooth muscle. It has been shown that the NO precursor L-arginine (L-Arg at the presynaptic level increases the amplitude of muscular contraction (AMC and induces tetanic fade when the muscle is indirectly stimulated at low and high frequencies, respectively. However, the precursor in muscle reduces AMC and maximal tetanic fade when the preparations are stimulated directly. In the present study the importance of NO synthesized in different tissues for the L-Arg-induced neuromuscular effects was investigated. Hemoglobin (50 nM did not produce any neuromuscular effect, but antagonized the increase in AMC and tetanic fade induced by L-Arg (9.4 mM in rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. D-Arg (9.4 mM did not produce any effect when preparations were stimulated indirectly at low or high frequency. Hemoglobin did not inhibit the decrease of AMC or the reduction in maximal tetanic tension induced by L-Arg in preparations previously paralyzed with d-tubocurarine and directly stimulated. Since only the presynaptic effects induced by L-Arg were antagonized by hemoglobin, the present results suggest that NO synthesized in muscle acts on nerve and skeletal muscle. Nevertheless, NO produced in nerve and vascular smooth muscle does not seem to act on skeletal muscle.

  18. Translational regulation of acetylcholinesterase by the RNA-binding protein Pumilio-2 at the neuromuscular synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Emilio; Rossi, Susana G; Darr, Andrew; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Rotundo, Richard L

    2011-10-21

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is highly expressed at sites of nerve-muscle contact where it is regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation is incomplete, but they appear to involve both translational and post-translational events as well. Here, we show that Pumilio-2 (PUM2), an RNA binding translational repressor, is highly localized at the neuromuscular junction where AChE mRNA concentrates. Immunoprecipitation of muscle cell extracts with a PUM2 specific antibody precipitated AChE mRNA, suggesting that PUM2 binds to the AChE transcripts in a complex. Gel shift assays using a bacterially expressed PUM2 RNA binding domain showed specific binding using wild type AChE 3'-UTR RNA segment that was abrogated by mutation of the consensus recognition site. Transfecting skeletal muscle cells with shRNAs specific for PUM2 up-regulated AChE expression, whereas overexpression of PUM2 decreased AChE activity. We conclude that PUM2 binds to AChE mRNA and regulates AChE expression translationally at the neuromuscular synapse. Finally, we found that PUM2 is regulated by the motor nerve suggesting a trans-synaptic mechanism for locally regulating translation of specific proteins involved in modulating synaptic transmission, analogous to CNS synapses. PMID:21865157

  19. Translational Regulation of Acetylcholinesterase by the RNA-binding Protein Pumilio-2 at the Neuromuscular Synapse*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Emilio; Rossi, Susana G.; Darr, Andrew; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Rotundo, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is highly expressed at sites of nerve-muscle contact where it is regulated at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation is incomplete, but they appear to involve both translational and post-translational events as well. Here, we show that Pumilio-2 (PUM2), an RNA binding translational repressor, is highly localized at the neuromuscular junction where AChE mRNA concentrates. Immunoprecipitation of muscle cell extracts with a PUM2 specific antibody precipitated AChE mRNA, suggesting that PUM2 binds to the AChE transcripts in a complex. Gel shift assays using a bacterially expressed PUM2 RNA binding domain showed specific binding using wild type AChE 3′-UTR RNA segment that was abrogated by mutation of the consensus recognition site. Transfecting skeletal muscle cells with shRNAs specific for PUM2 up-regulated AChE expression, whereas overexpression of PUM2 decreased AChE activity. We conclude that PUM2 binds to AChE mRNA and regulates AChE expression translationally at the neuromuscular synapse. Finally, we found that PUM2 is regulated by the motor nerve suggesting a trans-synaptic mechanism for locally regulating translation of specific proteins involved in modulating synaptic transmission, analogous to CNS synapses. PMID:21865157

  20. Bayesian analysis of the kinetics of quantal transmitter secretion at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Anatoly; Khuzakhmetova, Venera; Samigullin, Dmitry; Skorinkin, Andrey; Kovyazina, Irina; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2015-10-01

    The timing of transmitter release from nerve endings is considered nowadays as one of the factors determining the plasticity and efficacy of synaptic transmission. In the neuromuscular junction, the moments of release of individual acetylcholine quanta are related to the synaptic delays of uniquantal endplate currents recorded under conditions of lowered extracellular calcium. Using Bayesian modelling, we performed a statistical analysis of synaptic delays in mouse neuromuscular junction with different patterns of rhythmic nerve stimulation and when the entry of calcium ions into the nerve terminal was modified. We have obtained a statistical model of the release timing which is represented as the summation of two independent statistical distributions. The first of these is the exponentially modified Gaussian distribution. The mixture of normal and exponential components in this distribution can be interpreted as a two-stage mechanism of early and late periods of phasic synchronous secretion. The parameters of this distribution depend on both the stimulation frequency of the motor nerve and the calcium ions' entry conditions. The second distribution was modelled as quasi-uniform, with parameters independent of nerve stimulation frequency and calcium entry. Two different probability density functions for the distribution of synaptic delays suggest at least two independent processes controlling the time course of secretion, one of them potentially involving two stages. The relative contribution of these processes to the total number of mediator quanta released depends differently on the motor nerve stimulation pattern and on calcium ion entry into nerve endings. PMID:26129670

  1. Enteric neuromuscular junctions: comparison of ultrastructural features in different phylogenetic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasy, K; Benedeczky, I; Fekete, E; Tóth, L; Gábriel, R

    1988-04-01

    The enteric neuromuscular junctions of snail (Helix pomatia), locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides), cockroach (Periplaneta americana), carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca) were studied by means of different light and electron microscopic methods. The nitroblue tetrazolium staining revealed that the myenteric plexuses of the above species are composed of nerve cells, a network of varicose nerves and nerve bundles. Instead of highly organized ganglia, single neurons or small groups of 2-4 cells are characteristic of the invertebrates and fish studied. Catecholaminergic fluorescence induced by glyoxylic acid was detected in the muscular layer of the entire alimentary tract in snail and the hindgut of tench. Fluorescent nerves and perikarya were frequent in the snail gut, while only nerves and no perikarya were found in tench. A close contact between enteric muscles and nerves is the most common form of enteric neuromuscular junction in both the smooth (i.e. the molluscan and fish gut) and the striated (i.e. the insect gut) musculature. The striated musculature (i.e. the insect gut, the oesophagus of carp, and the oesophagus, stomach and the midgut of tench) also receives a synaptic input. Cytochemical evidence is provided of the cholinergic character of fish motor endplates. The ultrastructural appearance and vesicle population of certain nerve terminals suggest a universal role of aminergic and peptidergic control in gut motility. PMID:3393275

  2. Estimating neuromuscular stimulation within the human torso with Taser (registered) stimulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Hongyu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Webster, John G [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Designers of electromuscular incapacitation devices need to know efficacy. Which areas of nerve and muscle are stimulated and are these areas adequate to cause incapacitation? This paper focuses on efficacy, which used a torso-sized finite element model with a mesh of about 5 mm. To estimate the neuromuscular regions stimulated by the Taser (registered) X26, calculations of electric current density and field strength values with 1 A inserted into the torso using the Utah 3D mesh were made. Field-times-duration values for given Taser stimulation were calculated. Then the region where the motor nerve was stimulated by the Taser was estimated by using a field-times-duration threshold from Reilly (1998 Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology (New York: Springer)). Neuromuscular stimulation occurred up to about 19 cm away from the darts and included the spinal cord. The current density at the heart for dart separation less than 10 cm was smaller than for larger dart separation. Users of finite element computer models will find information for torso models and their creation, meshing and operation.

  3. Estimating neuromuscular stimulation within the human torso with Taser (registered) stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Designers of electromuscular incapacitation devices need to know efficacy. Which areas of nerve and muscle are stimulated and are these areas adequate to cause incapacitation? This paper focuses on efficacy, which used a torso-sized finite element model with a mesh of about 5 mm. To estimate the neuromuscular regions stimulated by the Taser (registered) X26, calculations of electric current density and field strength values with 1 A inserted into the torso using the Utah 3D mesh were made. Field-times-duration values for given Taser stimulation were calculated. Then the region where the motor nerve was stimulated by the Taser was estimated by using a field-times-duration threshold from Reilly (1998 Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology (New York: Springer)). Neuromuscular stimulation occurred up to about 19 cm away from the darts and included the spinal cord. The current density at the heart for dart separation less than 10 cm was smaller than for larger dart separation. Users of finite element computer models will find information for torso models and their creation, meshing and operation

  4. Estimating neuromuscular stimulation within the human torso with Taser® stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyu; Webster, John G.

    2007-11-01

    Designers of electromuscular incapacitation devices need to know efficacy. Which areas of nerve and muscle are stimulated and are these areas adequate to cause incapacitation? This paper focuses on efficacy, which used a torso-sized finite element model with a mesh of about 5 mm. To estimate the neuromuscular regions stimulated by the Taser® X26, calculations of electric current density and field strength values with 1 A inserted into the torso using the Utah 3D mesh were made. Field-times-duration values for given Taser stimulation were calculated. Then the region where the motor nerve was stimulated by the Taser was estimated by using a field-times-duration threshold from Reilly (1998 Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology (New York: Springer)). Neuromuscular stimulation occurred up to about 19 cm away from the darts and included the spinal cord. The current density at the heart for dart separation less than 10 cm was smaller than for larger dart separation. Users of finite element computer models will find information for torso models and their creation, meshing and operation.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRAINING FOR BASKET BALL PLAYERS ON PERFORMANCE OF STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava Kumar Bhaskar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and introduction:To determine the effect of neuromuscular training program (NMTP focused oncore stability and lower extremity strength on performance of star excursion balance test (SEBT inbasketballplayers.Method:: Pre to post test experimental study design randomisedthirty Basketball players each 15 into NMTPand control group. Players trained together as a team in which NMTP group participated 4 weeks of NMTPtwice a week and Control group followed their regular protocol as guided by their coach.Results:When means of post intervention compared using Independent‘t’between NMTP and Control groupthere is no statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-Lateral directionreach distance of star Excursion test but there is a statistically significant difference in means of anterior, posterior-medial and posterior-Lateral direction reach distance when analyzed within in groups using Paired‘t’test andWilcoxon signed rank test.Conclusion:Neuromuscular Training program found to be effective for Basketball Players on Performance ofStar Excursion Balance Test and this improvement can significantly predict the prevention of injury.

  6. Effects of Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis Training on Static and Dynamic Balance in Indian Female Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archna Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of dynamic neuromuscular analysis on static and dynamic balance of Indian state level female athletes. It was hypothesized that the training protocol would improve both static and dynamic components of the balance, improving dynamic balance more than static. A total of 43 randomly selected state level female basketball players aged 16 -18 years participated in the study. The subjects were further divided into two groups, viz. Dynamic Neuromuscular Analysis (DNA group (n=23 and control group (n = 20. Pre and post static balance was tested to all the subjects by Stork Balance Test (SBT and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS, and dynamic balance was measured by Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. DNA intervention of 90 minutes was given for 6 weeks while the control group followed traditional training. Results showed a significant improvement both in static and dynamic balance (p<0.001. It might be concluded that 6 week DNA training designed for the prevention of ACL injuries could also improve both static and dynamic balance in Indian female basketball players.

  7. Electromyographic stages of denervation/reinnervation process in neuromuscular diseases: need for revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Nikitin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of motor unit potentials (MUPs parameters registered by needle EMG electrodes is the key for understanding changes of the motor units in different neuromuscular disorders. The classification of MUPs changes known as electromyographic stages (EMGS of the denervation/reinnervation process (DRP is based on the analysis of myogenic, synaptic neurogenic and neuronal disorders. Current article focuses on pathogenesis of typical and atypical MUPs of low duration, decreased and increased amplitude, additionally muscle biopsy data and neurophysiological assessment of muscle fiber density, and мacro-EMG. The absence of primary neurogenic disturbances in inflammatory and non-inflammatory muscle diseases, as well as in neuro-muscular junction disorders, confirmed by single fiber EMG and мacro-EMG makes it impossible to discuss the concept of EMG stages in patients with these levels of pathology. The EMG stages concept can be applied for peripheral nerve and motor neuron disturbances only, reflecting the volume but not the efficiency of reinnervation.

  8. Respiratory motor training and neuromuscular plasticity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovechkin, Alexander V; Sayenko, Dimitry G; Ovechkina, Elena N; Aslan, Sevda C; Pitts, Teresa; Folz, Rodney J

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of a full-scale investigation of the neurophysiological mechanisms of COPD-induced respiratory neuromuscular control deficits. Characterization of respiratory single- and multi-muscle activation patterns using surface electromyography (sEMG) were assessed along with functional measures at baseline and following 21±2 (mean±SD) sessions of respiratory motor training (RMT) performed during a one-month period in four patients with GOLD stage II or III COPD. Pre-training, the individuals with COPD showed significantly increased (p<0.05) overall respiratory muscle activity and disorganized multi-muscle activation patterns in association with lowered spirometrical measures and decreased fast- and slow-twitch fiber activity as compared to healthy controls (N=4). Following RMT, functional and respiratory sEMG activation outcomes during quite breathing and forced expiratory efforts were improved suggesting that functional improvements, induced by task-specific RMT, are evidence respiratory neuromuscular networks re-organization. PMID:27137413

  9. Distinct neural and neuromuscular strategies underlie independent evolution of simplified advertisement calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Elizabeth C; Kelley, Darcy B

    2013-04-01

    Independent or convergent evolution can underlie phenotypic similarity of derived behavioural characters. Determining the underlying neural and neuromuscular mechanisms sheds light on how these characters arose. One example of evolutionarily derived characters is a temporally simple advertisement call of male African clawed frogs (Xenopus) that arose at least twice independently from a more complex ancestral pattern. How did simplification occur in the vocal circuit? To distinguish shared from divergent mechanisms, we examined activity from the calling brain and vocal organ (larynx) in two species that independently evolved simplified calls. We find that each species uses distinct neural and neuromuscular strategies to produce the simplified calls. Isolated Xenopus borealis brains produce fictive vocal patterns that match temporal patterns of actual male calls; the larynx converts nerve activity faithfully into muscle contractions and single clicks. In contrast, fictive patterns from isolated Xenopus boumbaensis brains are short bursts of nerve activity; the isolated larynx requires stimulus bursts to produce a single click of sound. Thus, unlike X. borealis, the output of the X. boumbaensis hindbrain vocal pattern generator is an ancestral burst-type pattern, transformed by the larynx into single clicks. Temporally simple advertisement calls in genetically distant species of Xenopus have thus arisen independently via reconfigurations of central and peripheral vocal neuroeffectors. PMID:23407829

  10. Neuromuscular Junction Protection for the Potential Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Krakora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neuromuscular disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs, leading to muscular atrophy and eventual respiratory failure. ALS research has primarily focused on mechanisms regarding MN cell death; however, degenerative processes in the skeletal muscle, particularly involving neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, are observed in the early stages of and throughout disease progression. According to the “dying-back” hypothesis, NMJ degeneration may not only precede, but actively cause upper and lower MN loss. The importance of NMJ pathology has relatively received little attention in ALS, possibly because compensatory mechanisms mask NMJ loss for prolonged periods. Many mechanisms explaining NMJ degeneration have been proposed such as the disruption of anterograde/retrograde axonal transport, irregular cellular metabolism, and changes in muscle gene and protein expression. Neurotrophic factors, which are known to have neuroprotective and regenerative properties, have been intensely investigated for their therapeutic potential in both the preclinical and clinical setting. Additional research should focus on the potential of preserving NMJs in order to delay or prevent disease progression

  11. Neuromuscular Fatigue Is Not Different between Constant and Variable Frequency Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaiordanidou, Maria; Billot, Maxime; Varray, Alain; Martin, Alain

    2014-01-01

    This study compared fatigue development of the triceps surae induced by two electrical stimulation protocols composed of constant and variable frequency trains (CFTs, VFTs, 450 trains, 30 Hz, 167 ms ON, 500 ms OFF and 146 ms ON, 500 ms OFF respectively). For the VFTs protocol a doublet (100 Hz) was used at the beginning of each train. The intensity used evoked 30% of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and was defined using CFTs. Neuromuscular tests were performed before and after each protocol. Changes in excitation-contraction coupling were assessed by analysing the M-wave [at rest (Mmax) and during MVC (Msup)] and associated peak twitch (Pt). H-reflex [at rest (Hmax) and during MVC (Hsup)] and the motor evoked potential (MEP) during MVC were studied to assess spinal and corticospinal excitability of the soleus muscle. MVC decrease was similar between the protocols (−8%, P<0.05). Mmax, Msup and Pt decreased after both protocols (P<0.01). Hmax/Mmax was decreased (P<0.05), whereas Hsup/Msup and MEP/Msup remained unchanged after both protocols. The results indicate that CFTs and VFTs gave rise to equivalent neuromuscular fatigue. This fatigue resulted from alterations taking place at the muscular level. The finding that cortical and spinal excitability remained unchanged during MVC indicates that spinal and/or supraspinal mechanisms were activated to compensate for the loss of spinal excitability at rest. PMID:24392155

  12. Multiscale entropy-based approach to automated surface EMG classification of neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istenic, Rok; Kaplanis, Prodromos A; Pattichis, Constantinos S; Zazula, Damjan

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a novel method for an automatic classification of subjects to those with or without neuromuscular disorders. This method is based on multiscale entropy of recorded surface electromyograms (sEMGs) and support vector classification. The method was evaluated on a single-channel experimental sEMGs recorded from biceps brachii muscle of nine healthy subjects, nine subjects with muscular and nine subjects with neuronal disorders, at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction force. Leave-one-out cross-validation was performed, deploying binary (healthy/patient) and three-class classification (healthy/myopathic/neuropathic). In the case of binary classification, subjects were distinguished with 81.5% accuracy (77.8% sensitivity at 83.3% specificity). At three-class classification, the accuracy decreased to 70.4% (myopathies were recognized with a sensitivity of 55.6% at specificity 88.9%, neuropathies with a sensitivity of 66.7% at specificity 83.3%). The proposed method is suitable for fast and non-invasive discrimination of healthy and neuromuscular patient groups, but it fails to recognize the type of pathology. PMID:20490940

  13. Potential interests and limits of magnetic and electrical stimulation techniques to assess neuromuscular fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, G Y; Bachasson, D; Temesi, J; Wuyam, B; Féasson, L; Vergès, S; Lévy, P

    2012-12-01

    Neuromuscular function can change under different conditions such as ageing, training/detraining, long-term spaceflight, environmental conditions (e.g. hypoxia, hyperthermia), disease, therapy/retraining programs and also with the appearance of fatigue. Neuromuscular fatigue can be defined as any decrease in maximal voluntary strength or power. There is no standardized method to induce fatigue and various protocols involving different contraction patterns (such as sustained or intermittent submaximal isometric or dynamic contractions on isokinetic or custom chairs) have been used. Probably due to lack of motivation/cooperation, results of fatigue resistance protocols are more variable in patients than in healthy subjects. Magnetic and electrical stimulation techniques allow non-invasive assessment of central and peripheral origins of fatigue. They also allow investigation of different types of muscle fatigue when combining various types of stimulation with force/surface EMG measurements. Since maximal electrical stimuli may be uncomfortable or even sometimes painful, several alternative methods have been recently proposed: submaximal muscle stimulation, low/high-frequency paired pulses instead of tetanic stimuli and the use of magnetic stimulation at the peripheral level. PMID:23182636

  14. Effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Castillo-Lozano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The versatility of military physical therapist practice enables them not only to diagnose knee injuries but also to provide a wide range of definitive care and rehabilitation, reducing the need for costly evacuation. The aim this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES in the functional knee rehabilitation in soldiers and describe the main predictors and determinants in each intervention. Methods: A systematic search of the literature about NMES in physiotherapy was performed using the following electronic databases: Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro and CINAHL. The search strategy was: "neuromuscular electrical stimulation" and "physical therapy" and "strengthening" and "knee". Inclusion criteria were: original articles published and peer reviewed between 2004-2015, focusing on physiotherapy interventions by NMES on subjects older than 18 years. A total resulting from 46 studies was included in the study. Results: The results show the evidence on the effectiveness of NMES therapeutic/preventive purposes in the muscular system; and the importance of physical therapy in the army. Conclusion: As a method of functional knee rehabilitation, NMES proves effective in achieving the therapeutic/preventive objectives in soldiers. Level of Evidence: II. Systematic review of randomized clinical trials with homogeneity.

  15. Consecuencias clínicas de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Clinical consequences of neuromuscular impairments in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesejo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available La patología neuromuscular en el paciente crítico se desarrolla en dos contextos: enfermedades neurológicas primarias que requieren su ingreso en Medicina Intensiva por necesitar vigilancia estricta o ventilación mecánica y manifestaciones del sistema nervioso periférico secundarias a enfermedades sistémicas críticas. En el primer grupo son las más frecuentes el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré y la Miastenia Gravis y en el segundo la Polineuropatía y la Miopatía del paciente crítico. El patrón clínico común más frecuente consiste en el desarrollo de un cuadro de acusada debilidad y cuadriparesia cuya manifestación más típica es la necesidad de respiración asistida o la dificultad/imposibilidad para su retirada. Se consideran factores desencadenantes el fracaso multiorgánico y la sepsis en la polineuropatía y los esteroides y bloqueantes neuromusculares en la miopatía, actuando como coadyuvantes en ambos casos la malnutrición, particularmente la hipoalbimunemia, y la hiperglucemia. Considerando que la afectación neuropática y miopática coexisten con frecuencia, se ha acuñado el término polineuromiopatía del paciente crítico. Tanto el Síndrome de Guillain-Barré como la polineuropatía del paciente crítico se localizan a nivel del nervio periférico, por lo que debe efectuarse un diagnóstico diferencial entre ambos. La forma de presentación es diferente ya que el primero es una patología aguda que motiva su ingreso en UCI, mientras que la polineuropatía se adquiere durante la hospitalización. En el primero es frecuente la afectación del sistema nervioso autónomo y la disociación albúmino-citológica en el LCR, lo que no se da en la polineuropatía. Los estudios electrofisiológicos muestran signos de desmelinización con disminución de la velocidad de conducción y normalidad en la amplitud de potenciales motores en el Síndrome de Guillain- Barré frente a velocidad de conducción normal y amplitud reducida

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DAS CONDIÇÕES HIGIÊNICO-SANITÁRIAS DE QUEIJOS MINAS FRESCAL PRODUZIDOS COM LEITE CRU, LEITE PASTEURIZADO E DEQUEIJO TEMPERADO EM ALGUNS MUNICÍPIOS DA REGIÃO DO TRIÂNGULO MINEIRO

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Hitomi Okura; José Moacir

    2010-01-01

    No presente trabalho, 30 queijos produzidos com leite pasteurizado com Inspeção Federal (com SIF), 50 queijos produzidos com leite cru sem Inspeção Federal (sem SIF) e 31 queijos temperados com especiarias. A presença de coliformes a 45º C acima dos valores permitidos pela legislação em 33%, 72% e 39%, respectivamente, sendo identificados vários gêneros pertencentes à família Enterobacteriaceae como 77,5% de E. coli, 12,5% de Proteus, 4,3% de Providencia e 5,7% de Enterobacter. Das amostras d...

  17. Avaliação de potenciais fragmentados em presença de bloqueio de ramo direito sem alterações estruturais miocárdicas ventriculares. Estudo pelo eletrocardiograma de alta resolução no domínio da freqüência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginefra Paulo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Em ausência de alterações estruturais miocárdicas (AEM, avaliar se o bloqueio de ramo direito (BRD gera potenciais fragmentados (PF e turbulência espectral (TE no eletrocardiograma de alta resolução (ECGAR. MÉTODOS: Doze crianças com comunicação inter-atrial (CIA e bloqueio incompleto do ramo direito (BIRD sem AEM (Grupo I, foram comparadas com 17 crianças com tetralogia de Fallot (TF operada, BCRD e AEM, 5 com extra sístoles ventriculares e 2 com taquicardia ventricular sustentada (Grupo II. Todas fizeram ECGAR nos domínios do tempo (DT e da freqüência (DF, com cinco variáveis analisadas. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do grupo I tiveram as variáveis normais apesar do BIRD. No grupo II, 4 das cinco variáveis foram anormais, sugerindo a presença de PF e TE atribuíveis a AEM inerentes à malformação e ao ato cirúrgico. CONCLUSÃO: Na CIA o BIRD não complicado de AEM não gera PF e TE, não constituindo fator de risco para taquicardia ventricular sustentada.

  18. Bupivacaine 0,25% versus ropivacaine 0,25% in brachial plexus block in dogs of beagle breedBupivacaína 0,25% versus ropivacaína 0,25% no bloqueio do plexo braquial em cães da raça beagle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ignácio Wakoff

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus block (BPB is a regional anesthesia technique which enables the attainment of surgical procedures distal scapulohumeral articulation. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.25% without vasoconstrictor in BPB guided by electrical stimulation in dogs. Thirteen male and female beagle dogs underwent a BPB using bupivacaine and ropivacaine 0.25% (4mg/kg, both alone and in different times. The anesthesic block was performed in the right forelimb and as control group the block proceeded in the left forelimb using a solution of sodium chloride 0.9% in volume corresponding to the drug in the contralateral limb. The block was performed after the localization of the radial nerve with the aid of eletrical stimulation, which was infiltrated half the volume of anesthetic calculated and subsequently the remaining solution was administered on the median nerve. We evaluated sensitive and motor latencies and sensitive and motor block total time by clamping technique. In the present study, a technique for electrical stimulation was effective in 100% of animals. Bupivacaine had lower motor latency period, however, the sensitive latency between the two groups showed no statistically significant differences. In the block total time, bupivacaine obtained time significantly higher. Clinical signs characteristic of Horner’s syndrome were present in 15% of animals treated with bupivacaine. Furthermore, two animals presented signs of cardiotoxicity in bupivacaine group. The use of bupivacaine (4mg/kg without vasoconstrictor in dogs brachial plexus block provided longer analgesia and motor blockade, however, ropivacaine at the same dose and concentration was found to be free of deleterious effects associated of cardiovascular instability, hemodynamic and respiratory. O bloqueio do plexo braquial (BPB é uma técnica de anestesia regional que possibilita a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos distais a articula

  19. Referral of patients with neuromuscular disease to occupational therapy, physical therapy and speech therapy: usual practice versus multidisciplinary advice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cup, E.H.C.; Pieterse, A.J.; Knuijt, S.; Hendricks, H.T.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Wilt, G.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare the volume of occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT) and speech therapy (ST) as currently received by patients with neuromuscular diseases with the volume of OT, PT and ST recommended by a multidisciplinary team. METHOD: The use of OT, PT and ST was studied retrospective

  20. ALS as a distal axonopathy : molecular mechanisms affecting neuromuscular junction stability in the presymptomatic stages of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moloney, Elizabeth B; de Winter, Fred; Verhaagen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is being redefined as a distal axonopathy, in that many molecular changes influencing motor neuron degeneration occur at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) at very early stages of the disease prior to symptom onset. A huge variety of genetic and environmental causes

  1. A METHOD FOR STUDYING THE PHARMACODYNAMIC PROFILE OF NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-AGENTS ON VOCAL CORD MOVEMENTS IN ANESTHETIZED CATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBROM, RHG; HOUWERTJES, MC; AGOSTON, S

    1991-01-01

    1 A new in vivo experimental method is described whereby the neuromuscular blocking effects of muscle relaxants can be investigated on the intrinsic laryngeal muscles of anaesthetized cats. The peripheral tibialis anterior muscle preparation is employed in the same animal to compare the blocking eff

  2. Effects of preoperative neuromuscular electrical stimulation on quadriceps strength and functional recovery in total knee arthroplasty. A pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walls, Raymond J

    2010-01-01

    Supervised preoperative muscle strengthening programmes (prehabilitation) can improve recovery after total joint arthroplasty but are considered resource intensive. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been shown to improve quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM) strength and clinical function in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) however it has not been previously investigated as a prehabilitation modality.

  3. Employment status of patients with neuromuscular diseases in relation to personal factors, fatigue and health status : A secondary analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minis, Marie-Antoinette; Kalkman, Joke; Akkermans, Reinier; Engels, Josephine; Huijbregts, Peter; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Oostendorp, Rob; Engelen, Baziel

    2010-01-01

    To determine the number of employed people in a group of patients with neuromuscular diseases and in 3 separate subgroups (facioscapulo-humeral dystrophy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and myotonic dystrophy) to investigate any differences in employment status between the patient groups,

  4. Employment status of patients with neuromuscular diseases in relation to personal factors, fatigue and health status: a secondary analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minis, M.A.; Kalkman, J.S.; Akkermans, R.P.; Engels, J.A.; Huijbregts, P.A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of employed people in a group of patients with neuromuscular diseases and in 3 separate subgroups (facioscapulo-humeral dystrophy, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and myotonic dystrophy) to investigate any differences in employment status between the patie

  5. Utrophin abundance is reduced at neuromuscular junctions of patients with both inherited and acquired acetylcholine receptor deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, CR; Young, C; Wood, SJ; Bewick, GS; Anderson, LVB; Baxter, P; Fawcett, PRW; Roberts, M; Jacobson, L; Kuks, J; Vincent, A; NewsomDavis, J

    1997-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a heterogenous group of conditions in which muscle weakness resulting from impaired neuromuscular transmission is often present from infancy. One form of congenital myasthenic syndrome is due to a reduction of the number of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at the n

  6. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Background Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Methods Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. Results NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. Conclusion The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388 PMID:26938617

  7. Reducing knee and anterior cruciate ligament injuries among female athletes: a systematic review of neuromuscular training interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that neuromuscular training not only decreases the potential biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury, but also decreases knee and, specifically, ACL injury incidence in female athletes. Five of the six interventions in this systematic review demonstrated significant effects on overall knee or ACL injury rates. It appears that plyometric power, biomechanics and technique, strength, balance, and core stability training can induce neuromuscular changes and potential injury prevention effects in female athletes. However, it is unknown which of these components is most effective or whether the effects are combinatorial. Future research should assess the relative efficacy of these interventions alone and in combination to achieve the optimal effect in the most efficient manner possible. Selective combination of neuromuscular training components may provide additive effects, further reducing the risk of ACL injuries in female athletes. Additional research directions include the assessment of relative injury risk using mass neuromuscular screening, the development of more specific injury prevention protocols targeted toward high-risk athletes, and the determination of when these interventions should be implemented. It may be that prepubertal or early pubertal female athletes may have the potential to achieve optimal biomechanical changes and the greatest chance of injury-free sports participation throughout their careers. PMID:15742602

  8. Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block by sugammadex is independent of renal perfusion in anesthetized cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staals, L.M.; Boer, H.D. de; Egmond, J. van; Hope, F.; Pol, F.M. van de; Bom, A.H.; Driessen, J.J.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sugammadex is a selective relaxant binding agent designed to encapsulate the aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking agent rocuronium, thereby reversing its effect. Both sugammadex and the sugammadex-rocuronium complex are eliminated by the kidneys. This study investigated the effect of sugam

  9. Proactive and reactive neuromuscular control in subjects with chronic ankle instability: evidence from a pilot study on landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, O.; Vanwanseele, B.; Thijsen, J.R.; Helsen, W.F.; Staes, F.F.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    To understand why subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have frequent sprains, one must study the preparation/reactions of these subjects to situations related to ankle inversion in real life. In the present pilot study, we examined whether subjects with CAI altered their neuromuscular contr

  10. Evaluation of two regional anesthetic methods on the front limb of dogs using hyperbaric bupivacaine Avaliação de dois métodos de bloqueios anestésicos regionais no membro anterior em cães usando bupivacaína hiperbárica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Guerino Macedo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of bupivacaine 0.5 and 0.25% in intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA and brachial plexus block (BPB, respectively, on anesthesia, motor block and cardiovascular parameters in dogs. METHODS: Fourteen healthy adult dogs averaging 10 kilograms (kg of body weight. Animals were randomly assigned to receive one of the two treatments IVRA (n=7 or BPB (n=7. All the animals were sedated with acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg intramuscular. To execute the BPB was used an electrical nerve stimulation. Anesthesia, motor block, sedation, cardiovascular and respiratory effects were measured as effect of the treatment. RESULTS: BPA showed superior efficiency and duration of anesthesia (BPB - 456 ± 94 minutes vs IVRA - 138 ± 44 as well as motor block. There only physiologic parameter which change were the systolic pressure in BPB and respiratory rate for both treatments. CONCLUSION: In dogs the 0.25 % hyperbaric bupivacaine in BPB produces a front limb anesthesia about three times more than the 0.5 % in IVRA, with ptosis of the limb blocked and little interference in the cardiovascular system but with decrease in respiratory rate.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos da bupivacaína 0,5 e 0,25 % na anestesia regional endovenosa (IVRA e no bloqueio do plexo braquial (BPB respectivamente, na anestesia, bloqueio motor e parâmetros cardiovasculares em cães. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 14 cães sadios adultos pesando em média 10 kilos. Animais foram aleatoriamente designados a um de dois tratamentos IVRA (n = 7 ou BPB (n = 7. Todos os animais foram sedados com acepromazina (0,1 mg/kg intramuscular. Para realizar o BPB foi usado um estimulador elétrico nervoso. Anestesia, bloqueio motor, sedação, efeitos cardiovascular e respiratório foram mensurados como efeitos dos respectivos bloqueios. RESULTADOS: O bloqueio BPB demonstrou eficiência superior e maior duração da anestesia (BPB - 456 ± 94 minutos vs IVRA - 138 ± 44 minutos bem como maior

  11. Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About SRS العَرَبِية 中文 فارسی français deutsche Ελληνικά Italiano 日本語 한국어 português español Türkçe Member Login Become ... SRS Türkçe español português 한국어 日本語 Ελληνικά deutsche Italiano français فارسی 中文 العَرَبِية Patients and Families Find ...

  12. Atividade alelopática do filtrado de cultura produzido por Fusarium solani Allelopathic activity of culture filtrate produced by Fusarium solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas se constituem no principal problema a impor limitação à exploração da agropecuária nas áreas tropicais. Entretanto, o controle químico dessas plantas tem gerado insatisfações de ordem social, quer porque contaminam as fontes de recursos naturais ou por comprometerem a qualidade dos alimentos da dieta dos animais, em geral, e dos humanos, em particular. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática do filtrado de cultura produzido pelo fungo Fusarium solani f. sp. pipers. Foram avaliados os efeitos das toxinas, nas concentrações de 1,0 e 4,0%, sobre a germinação de sementes e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Os resultados mostraram presença de atividade alelopática inibitória, com variações de acordo com a concentração e a planta receptora. A intensidade dos efeitos inibitórios induzidos pelo extrato esteve positivamente associada à concentração, com efeitos mais intensos verificados a 4,0%. Independentemente da concentração e do bioensaio, a espécie malícia se mostrou mais sensível aos efeitos do filtrado da cultura. O desenvolvimento da radícula foi o fator da planta mais intensamente inibido. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial de utilização da toxina produzida pelo fungo, como fonte alternativa no controle de plantas daninhas, o que justifica estudos mais avançados.Weeds are a major problem limiting agriculture and cattle raising activities in the tropics. Current chemical control measures have raised environmental concerns due to their potential of contaminating natural resources and compromising the quality of animal feed. The objective of this paper was to identify and characterize the potential allelopathic activity of Fusarium solani f. sp. pipers culture filtrate. The effects of the toxin were analyzed at 1% and 4% concentration, on seed

  13. Qualidade de mamão 'Formosa' produzido no RN e armazenado sob atmosfera passiva Quality of 'Formosa' papaya produced at RN and storage under passive atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lidiane de Oliveira Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da cera de carnaúba (Primax Wax e filme plástico de polietileno de baixa densidade "X-tend" sobre a vida útil pós-colheita de mamão 'Formosa' (Tainung 1 produzido em Baraúna - RN. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Pós-colheita da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA. Utilizou-se um esquema fatorial 3 x 6 com 3 repetições de três frutos por parcela, constituindo na combinação de 3 tipos de atmosferas (cera, filme de polietileno e controle com 6 tempos de armazenamento (0; 7; 14; 21; 28; 35. Os frutos dos distintos tratamentos foram armazenados em câmaras frias a 10 ± 2 ºC e UR 90 ± 5%, analisados em intervalos de sete dias. As características avaliadas foram: aparência externa, perda de massa, firmeza da polpa, sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável e vitamina C. Constatou-se ser o filme plástico o mais eficiente em manter a qualidade externa e reduzir a perda de massa dos frutos. A cera de carnaúba, na concentração utilizada, mostrou eficiência relativa na conservação de mamão quando comparada ao filme plástico. A vida útil pós-colheita dos frutos mantidos sob atmosfera modificada foi de 35 dias e do controle apenas 28 dias.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of carnauba wax (Primax Wax and low-density polyethylene film "X-tend" on shelf life of 'Formosa' papaya fruits produced in Baraúna, RN. The experiment was carried out in the Postharvest Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA. A 3 x 6 factorial scheme with three replications of three fruits per plot in a completely randomized design was used. The treatments consisted of the combination of three types of atmosphere (wax, polyethylene film and control with six storage times (0; 7; 14; 21; 28 and 35. The fruits of these treatments were stored in cold chamber at 10 ± 2 ºC and RH 90 ± 5%, and analyzed in 7 days intervals. The evaluated traits were

  14. Viabilidade do inoculante turfoso produzido com bactérias associativas e molibdênio Viability of peat inoculum produced with associative bacteria and molybdenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomão Lima Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os veículos de inoculação de bactérias diazotróficas, o turfoso é considerado o mais utilizado no Brasil. A turfa possibilita a viabilidade de um grande número de células, protegendo-as também das adversidades do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade do inoculante turfoso desenvolvido com bactérias diazotróficas associativas e molibdênio. As bactérias BR11417 (Herbaspirillum seropedicae e BR11340 (Burkholderia sp., foram multiplicadas por um período de 24 horas e uma alíquota de 10 mL com 10(8 cel. mL-1 foi transferida para sacos de polipropileno contendo 35 g de turfa. Foram adicionadas duas doses e duas fontes de molibdênio: 1,12 e 2,25 g de molibdato de sódio e de amônio, respectivamente. Como controle, foi utilizado o inoculante sem molibdênio. A legislação brasileira, por meio da lei n° 86955, especifica que os inoculantes comerciais à base de micro-organismos fixadores de nitrogênio apresentem concentrações mínimas de 10(8 células viáveis por grama do produto no momento do uso e que a viabilidade das células seja mantida por um período mínimo de seis meses. Este estudo mostrou que sem a adição do molibdênio ao inoculante, as bactérias sobreviveram com um número de células viáveis em torno de 10(8 células g-1 de inoculante, por um período de até 110 dias. Com a adição do molibdênio, o inoculante manteve-se viável por um período de 180 dias. A aplicação do molibdênio contribui para o aumento da viabilidade do inoculante turfoso produzido com as estirpes BR11417 e BR11340.Among the vehicles in use for diazotroph inoculation, peat is considered the most-widely used in Brazil. Peat makes possible the viability of a large number of cells, at the same time protecting them from adversities found in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the viability of peat inoculum developed with diazotroph bacteria and molybdenum. The bacteria BR11417 (Herbaspirillum

  15. Bloqueio do plexo braquial por via supraclavicular: estudo clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína e levobupivacaína Bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía supraclavicular: estudio clínico comparativo entre bupivacaína y levobupivacaína Supraclavicular brachial plexus block: a comparative clinical study between bupivacaine and levobupivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Pinotti Pedro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio de plexo braquial é técnica anestésica utilizada para procedimentos em membros superiores. O plexo braquial é território potencial para absorção de anestésicos locais. Estudos dos estereoisômeros da bupivacaína vêm demonstrando menor potencial de toxicidade da fração levógira (levobupivacaína sobre o sistema cardiovascular. Porém, é discutida a eficácia anestésica (bloqueio sensitivo e motor da levobupivacaína em anestesia do neuroeixo. Este estudo visa demonstrar a eficácia anestésica da levobupivacaína, comparandoa com a bupivacaína racêmica em bloqueio de plexo braquial, via perivascular subclávia. MÉTODO: Cinquenta pacientes adultos de ambos os sexos, ASA I e II, foram submetidos à anestesia de plexo braquial via perivascular subclávia para procedimentos ortopédicos de membros superiores, com auxílio de neuroestimulador. Foram divididos de modo aleatório em dois grupos: G BUPI - bupivacaína racêmica e G LEVO - levobupivacaína, num volume de 30 mL a 0,5%. O bloqueio sensitivo foi avaliado pelo método de "picada de agulha" nos metâmeros de C5 a C8; e o bloqueio motor, nos intervalos em minutos 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 ou até instalação do bloqueio em movimentos dos dedos, mão, antebraço e braço. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos quanto à latência, incidência de falhas e grau do bloqueio motor, bem como incidência de falhas do bloqueio sensitivo, mas verificou-se diferença estatística da latência do bloqueio sensitivo em todos os metâmeros analisados. Não houve efeitos adversos inerentes à aplicação do anestésico local. CONCLUSÕES: A levobupivacaína demonstrou eficácia anestésica em bloqueio de plexo braquial, equiparável à solução racêmica usualmente empregada.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo de plexo braquial es la técnica anestésica utilizada para procedimientos en miembros superiores. El plexo

  16. Estudio electrofisiológico de la funcion neuromuscular en una poblacion intoxicada con plomo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Genovese

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Un grupo de 12 pacientes con cifras elevadas de plombemia y disminuidas de ALA D fueron estudiados electrofisiológicamente. Se efectuaron las siguientes determinaciones: amplitud de potencial evocado muscular; latencia distal motora; velocidad de conducción motora en los nervios mediano, ciático poplíteo externo y radial; velocidad de conducción sensitiva y amplitud del potencial evocado sensitivo de nervio en el mediano; exploración electromiográfica convencional; estudio de la transmisión neuromuscular, mediante estimulación repetitiva del nervio ciático popliteo externo a diversas frecuencias, con registro de la amplitud del potencial en músculo tibial anterior. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con controles. Se buscaron correlaciones entre las determinaciones bioquímicas y los diferentes hallazgos electrofisiológicos que a su vez se correlacionaron entre si y también con el tiempo de evolución de la intoxicación. Los hallazgos pusieron de manifiesto la presencia de neuropatía axonal junto a moderada desmielinización. La exploración de la transmisión neuromuscular mostró ocasional decremento o incremento de la amplitud del potencial muscular evocado, hechos que suponen cierta participación de la unión neuromuscular. Se halló correlación solamente entre disminución de ALA D y la disminución de las amplitudes del potencial sensitivo del mediano y el evocado muscular del mismo nervio y con la disminución de la VCM del nervio radial. Una débil relación se observó entre el tiempo de exposición y la disminución de la VCS del nervio mediano y VCM del radial. Las determinaciones bioquímicas y el tiempo de exposición transcurridos no probaron ser parámetros sensibles para determinar el grado de afectación del sistema nervioso periférico. El conjunto do hallazgos sugiere que el desarrollo de la neuropatía puede estar ligado a factores individuales de predisposición al daño nervioso.

  17. Cross-disease comparison of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy reveals conservation of selective vulnerability but differential neuromuscular junction pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comley, Laura H; Nijssen, Jik; Frost-Nylen, Johanna; Hedlund, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Neuromuscular junctions are primary pathological targets in the lethal motor neuron diseases spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Synaptic pathology and denervation of target muscle fibers has been reported prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms in mouse models of both diseases, suggesting that neuromuscular junctions are highly vulnerable from the very early stages, and are a key target for therapeutic intervention. Here we examined neuromuscular pathology longitudinally in three clinically relevant muscle groups in mouse models of ALS and SMA in order to assess their relative vulnerabilities. We show for the first time that neuromuscular junctions of the extraocular muscles (responsible for the control of eye movement) were resistant to degeneration in endstage SMA mice, as well as in late symptomatic ALS mice. Tongue muscle neuromuscular junctions were also spared in both animal models. Conversely, neuromuscular junctions of the lumbrical muscles of the hind-paw were vulnerable in both SMA and ALS, with a loss of neuronal innervation and shrinkage of motor endplates in both diseases. Thus, the pattern of selective vulnerability was conserved across these two models of motor neuron disease. However, the first evidence of neuromuscular pathology occurred at different timepoints of disease progression, with much earlier evidence of presynaptic involvement in ALS, progressing to changes on the postsynaptic side. Conversely, in SMA changes appeared concomitantly at the neuromuscular junction, suggesting that mechanisms of neuromuscular disruption are distinct in these diseases. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1424-1442, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26502195

  18. Physiological and Neuromuscular Response to a Simulated Sprint-Distance Triathlon: Effect of Age Differences and Ability Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, José C; González-Fernández, Francisco T; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-04-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, González-Fernández, FT, Párraga-Montilla, JA, Muñoz-Jiménez, M, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. Physiological and neuromuscular response to a simulated sprint-distance triathlon: effect of age differences and ability level. J Strength Cond Res 30(4): 1077-1084, 2016-This study aimed to describe the acute impact of a simulated sprint-distance triathlon at physiological and neuromuscular levels and to determine whether age and athletic performance influenced the response in triathletes. Nineteen triathletes performed a sprint-distance triathlon under simulated conditions. Cardiovascular response was monitored during the race. Rate of perceived exertion along with muscular performance parameters (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], and handgrip strength test [HS]) were tested at pre- and posttest and during every transition, while a 20-m sprint test (S20m) was performed before and after the race. Blood lactate was recorded postrace. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the neuromuscular response-in terms of CMJ, SJ, and HS-was unchanged (p ≥ 0.05), while S20m performance was impaired at posttest (p cluster analyses (k-means) were performed by grouping according to athletic performance and age. Between-group comparison showed no significant differences in the impact of the race at either the physiological or the neuromuscular level. The results showed that muscular performance parameters were not impaired throughout the race despite high levels of fatigue reported. However, despite maintaining initial levels of muscle force after the race, the fatigue-induced changes in S20m were significant, which could reinforce the need to train sprint ability in endurance athletes. Finally, despite the differences in ability level or in age, the acute physiological and neuromuscular responses to a simulated sprint-distance triathlon were similar. PMID:26340472

  19. Contribución del soporte nutricional al tratamiento de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico Contribution of nutritional support to treatment neuromuscular impairments of critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Montejo González

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Las alteraciones neuromusculares que tienen lugar en el paciente crítico han sido atribuidas a factores como la situación séptica, la liberación de mediadores inflamatorioso el empleo de fármacos que afectan desfavorablemente a la función neuro-muscular. El papel de factores metabólicos y nutricionales en el desarrollo de esta patología ha recibido poca atención. En la actualidad, el empleo de protocolos de control intensivo de la glucemia podría tener gran interés en la prevención de las alteraciones neuro-musculares de los pacientes críticos. Los mecanismos exactos de la implicación de la hiperglucemia en esta patología son, todavía, desconocidos, aunque la evidencia de los datos procedentes de la investigación es importante. La miopatía caquectizante (atrofia muscular tiene lugar de manera habitual como consecuencia de los cambios obligados por la respuesta metabólica al estrés. El efecto del aporte de nutrientes sobre la ganancia de masa muscular es muy limitado, por lo que deben estudiarse otras acciones dirigidas a recuperar, de manera más rápida, la masa muscular perdida. Deben evitarse pautas agresivas de renutrición con objeto de prevenir el síndrome de realimentación y el consiguiente mayor deterioro de la función muscular. El aporte de substratos específicos, como la glutamina, podría tener un efecto beneficioso en la recuperación de las alteraciones neuro-musculares del paciente crítico. No obstante, no existen aún datos para justificar su empleo si el único objetivo es la recuperación de la función neuro-muscular.Neuromuscular impairments occurring in the critically ill patient have been attributed to factors such as sepsis, release of inflammatory mediators, or the use of drugs unfavorably affecting neuromuscular function. The role of metabolic and nutritional factors in the development of this condition has received little attention. Currently, the use of protocols of intensive glycemia monitoring

  20. Kismet positively regulates glutamate receptor localization and synaptic transmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa Ghosh

    Full Text Available The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ is a glutamatergic synapse that is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian glutamatergic synapses. These synapses can, as a result of changes in activity, alter the strength of their connections via processes that require chromatin remodeling and changes in gene expression. The chromodomain helicase DNA binding (CHD protein, Kismet (Kis, is expressed in both motor neuron nuclei and postsynaptic muscle nuclei of the Drosophila larvae. Here, we show that Kis is important for motor neuron synaptic morphology, the localization and clustering of postsynaptic glutamate receptors, larval motor behavior, and synaptic transmission. Our data suggest that Kis is part of the machinery that modulates the development and function of the NMJ. Kis is the homolog to human CHD7, which is mutated in CHARGE syndrome. Thus, our data suggest novel avenues of investigation for synaptic defects associated with CHARGE syndrome.

  1. Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie

    2014-01-01

    voluntary arm movement task and 2) selective activation tasks during sessions with and without on-line biofeedback, in a general population consisting of 16 SIS patients and 15 controls (No-SIS). Furthermore, 3) a systematic review was conducted of all available clinical scapular assessment methods and......Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Holtermann A3, Lund H1,2, Søgaard K1 1University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, DK 2Institute of...... patient sample with SIS, and to assess the clinimetric properties of clinical assessment methods of scapular kinematics as important aspects for optimising effect measures of treatment in order to improve clinical guidelines in this area. METHODS: Scapular muscle activity was examined, 1) during a...

  2. Reliability of a Test Battery Designed for Quickly and Safely Assessing Diverse Indices of Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason, R.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Lawrence, Emily L.; Sinka, Joseph; Guilliams, Mark E.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight affects nearly every physiological system. Spaceflight-induced alterations in physiological function translate to decrements in functional performance. Purpose: To develop a test battery for quickly and safely assessing diverse indices of neuromuscular performance. I. Quickly: Battery of tests can be completed in approx.30-40 min. II. Safely: a) No eccentric muscle actions or impact forces. b) Tests present little challenge to postural stability. III. Diverse indices: a) Strength: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) b) Central activation: Very good reliability (ICC = 0.87) c) Power: Excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) d) Endurance: Total work has excellent reliability (ICC = 0.99) e) Force steadiness: Poor reliability (ICC = 0.20 - 0.60) National

  3. [Mechanism of the development of neuromuscular disorders in Itsenko-Cushing disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, B V; Lahutina, T S; Deianova, A F

    1982-01-01

    The results of electromyographic studies indicate that the affection of the neuromuscular system is seen in all the patients with Icenko-Cushing's disease. Changes in different indices of the electromyogram (EMG), i.e. denervation activity, a character of the summary EMG alteration, mean duration of the motor unit action potentials (MUAP), the number of polyphase action potentials, their amplitude and the MUAP synchronization in different spheres indicate a neurogenic character of this affection. It was shown that both denervation and reinnervation processes are more pronounced in the foot muscles than in the hand ones. The denervation process is seemed to be primarily developed in the foot muscles, followed by the hand musculature injury. Therefore, the changes in several EMG parameters may be seen during several stages of the disease in some muscles and not to be observed in the others. PMID:7156070

  4. Neuromuscular adaptations to 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjær, Tine; Meyland, Jacob; Raffalt, Peter C;

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training in well-trained athletes on jumping performance and underlying changes in biomechanics and neuromuscular adaptations. Nine well-trained athletes at high national competition level within sprinting and jumping disciplines...... participated in the study. The training was supervised and augmented feedback on performance was used to ensure maximal training intensity. The drop jumps were performed with minimal contact time and maximal jumping height. Assessment of performance during training showed effects of motor learning. Before and...... soleus V-wave increased significantly at 45 msec after touchdown. This may indicate an increased drive to the α-motor neuron pool following training. Muscle strength parameters were unaffected by the training. The results demonstrate that 4 weeks of intensive drop jump training can improve jumping...

  5. Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation to Drive Neural Plasticity and Functional Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C.; Gallego, J.A.; Miller, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient’s voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to matched the details of the patient’s voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. PMID:25827275

  6. Neuromuscular block after intra-arterially injected acetylcholine. 1. Introduction, methods, and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonali, P; Gambi, D

    1973-04-01

    The neuromuscular depolarizing block induced by intra-arterially injected ACh was studied to determine the variability in the same subject and in different subjects without disorders at the motor end-plate. Amplitude of action potentials of the opponens pollicis muscle evoked by intermittent repetitive supramaximal stimulation of the median nerve at the wrist were recorded for one hour from the beginning of ACh injection. The features of prompt and late depression stages after the injection were analysed statistically. Re-testing of the same subjects after a while shows that, in spite of all efforts to maintain the same experimental conditions, variations do occur in late depression. Time course and duration are particularly affected, while the degree of depression is altered but slightly. The presence of such variations limits this test to evaluation of the influence of other factors only within their already established statistical limits. PMID:4350703

  7. Feasibility of neuromuscular training in patients with severe hip or knee OA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Link, Anne; Roos, Ewa M

    2010-01-01

    knee injuries, to older patients with severe hip or knee OA. We hypothesized that the training program was feasible, determined as: 1) at most acceptable self-reported pain following training; 2) decreased or unchanged pain during the training period; 3) few joint specific adverse events related to...... training, and 4) achieved progression of training level during the training period. METHODS: Seventy-six patients, between 60 and 77 years, with severe hip (n = 38, 55% women) or knee OA (n = 38, 61% women) underwent an individualized, goal-based neuromuscular training program (NEMEX-TJR) in groups for a...... were: not attending or ceasing training because of increased pain/problems in the index joint related to training, and self-reported pain > 5 after training. The level of difficulty of training was registered. RESULTS: Patients with severe OA of the hip or knee reported safe pain (median 2 cm) after...

  8. Immediate Efficacy of Neuromuscular Exercise in Patients with Severe Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders;

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. The secondary outcomes were the HOOS/KOOS subscales Pain, Symptoms, Sport and Recreation, and Joint-related Quality of Life. Exploratory outcomes were functional performance measures and lower limb......OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about the effects of exercise in severe and endstage osteoarthritis (OA) is limited. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a neuromuscular exercise program in patients with clinically severe hip or knee OA. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial...... muscle power. RESULTS: Included were 165 patients, 56% female, average age 67 years (SD ± 8), and a body mass index of 30 (SD ± 5), who were scheduled for primary hip or knee replacement. The postintervention difference between mean changes in ADL was 7.2 points (95% CI 3.5 to 10.9, p = 0.0002) in favor...

  9. The neuro-muscular system in fresh-water furcocercaria from Belarus. I Schistosomatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Chrisanfova, Galina G; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-01-01

    The neuro-muscular system (NMS) in cercariae of the family Schistosomatidae from Belarus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The specimens of Bilharziella polonica were compared with Trichobilharzia szidati and Trichobilharzia franki. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT-immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR in sensory receptors and nerves were investigated. No indications of structural differences in the musculature, the 5-HT-IR, FMRF-IR neuronal elements and the general distribution of sensory receptors were noticed between cercariae of Trichobilharzia spp. The number of 5-HT-IR neurons in the cercarial bodies is 16. In cercaria B. polonica, the tail musculature is weaker than in Trichobilharzia spp. A detailed schematic picture of the NMS in the tail of Trichobilharzia spp. cercaria is given. The function of NMS elements in the tail is discussed. PMID:21614541

  10. The neuro-muscular system in continuously swimming cercariae from Belarus. I Xiphidiocercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg O; Akimova, Ludmila N; Terenina, Nadezhda B; Gustafsson, Margaretha K S

    2012-11-01

    The neuromuscular system (NMS) in cercariae of Neoastiotrema trituri, Plagiorchis elegans, Omphalometra flexuosa, Skrjabinoeces similis and Prosthogonimus ovatus was studied with immunocytochemical methods and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The patterns of F-actin in the musculature, 5-HT immunoreactive (IR), FMRFamide-IR neuronal elements and α-tubulin-IR sensory receptors were investigated, and they were found to be rather similar in all the cercariae studied. Four species have seven paired 5-HT-IR neurons in the body, and P. elegans has eight. N. trituri has three 5-HT-IR neurons in each brain ganglion, while the other species have four. A high degree of conformity in the structure of the NMS was observed, probably reflecting the close phylogenetic relationship and the similar strategy of host finding. PMID:22868890

  11. Neuromuscular Risk Factors for Knee and Ankle Ligament Injuries in Male Youth Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S

    2016-08-01

    Injuries reported in male youth soccer players most commonly occur in the lower extremities, and include a high proportion of ligament sprains at the ankle and knee with a lower proportion of overuse injuries. There is currently a paucity of available literature that examines age- and sex-specific injury risk factors for such injuries within youth soccer players. Epidemiological data have reported movements that lead to non-contact ligament injury include running, twisting and turning, over-reaching and landing. Altered neuromuscular control during these actions has been suggested as a key mechanism in females and adult populations; however, data available in male soccer players is sparse. The focus of this article is to review the available literature and elucidate prevalent risk factors pertaining to male youth soccer players which may contribute to their relative risk of injury. PMID:26856339

  12. Pharmacotherapy to protect the neuromuscular junction after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Steven B; Krajacic, Predrag; Sawamoto, Keigo; Bunya, Naofumi; Loro, Emanuele; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, affecting an estimated three million people annually. Much of the morbidity is directly related to muscle weakness, which develops 1-4 days after poisoning. This muscle weakness, termed the intermediate syndrome (IMS), leads to respiratory, bulbar, and proximal limb weakness and frequently necessitates the use of mechanical ventilation. While not entirely understood, the IMS is most likely due to persistently elevated acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Thus, the NMJ is potentially a target-rich area for the development of new therapies for acute OP poisoning. In this manuscript, we discuss what is known about the IMS and studies investigating the use of nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists to prevent or mitigate NMJ dysfunction after acute OP poisoning. PMID:27258847

  13. Effects of intensive physical rehabilitation on neuromuscular adaptations in adults with poststroke hemiparesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R;

    2011-01-01

    outpatients with hemiparesis after stroke participated in 12 weeks of intensive physical rehabilitation comprising unilateral high-intensity strength training with near-maximal loads (4-12 repetition maximum) and body weight supported treadmill training. At baseline and 12-week follow-up, the patients went...... changes were observed in the nonparetic control leg. Gait performance increased 52-68%. In conclusion, intensive physical rehabilitation after stroke leads to clinically relevant neuromuscular improvements, leading to increased voluntary strength during a wide range of contraction modes and velocities......Hemiparesis-disability and muscle weakness of 1 side of the body-is a common consequence of stroke. High-intensity strength training may be beneficial to regain function, but strength coaches in the field of rehabilitation need evidence-based guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate...

  14. Cholinergic neuromuscular junctions in Brachionus calyciflorus and Lecane quadridentata (Rotifera:Monogononta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ignacio Alejandro Prez-Legaspi; Alma Lilin Guerrero-Barrera; Ivn Jos Galvn-Mendoza; Jos Luis Quintanar; Roberto Rico-Martnez

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To identify the presence of joint muscular and cholinergic systems in two freshwater rotifer species, Brachionus calyciflorus and Lecane quadridentata. Methods: The muscle actin fibers were stained with phalloidin-linked fluorescent dye, and acetylcholine was detected with Amplex Red Acetylcholine/Acetylcholinesterase Assay Kit, and then confocal scanning laser microscopy was used. Results:The musculature of Brachionus calyciflorus showed a pattern similar to other species of the same genus, while that of Lecane quadridentata was different from other rotifer genera described previously. The cholinergic system was determined by co-localization of both muscles and acetylcholine labels in the whole rotifer, suggesting the presence of neuromuscular junctions. Conclusions: The distribution pattern of muscular and acetylcholine systems showed considerable differences between the two species that might be related to different adaptations to particular ecological niches. The confirmation of a cholinergic system in rotifers contributes to the development of potential neuro-pharmacological and toxicological studies using rotifers as model organism.

  15. The Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ: aging at the crossroad between nerves and muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eGonzalez-Freire

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength and a decline in neurophysiological functions. Age-related neuromuscular junction (NMJ plays a key role in musculoskeletal impairment that occurs with aging. However, whether changes in the NMJ precede or follow the decline of muscle mass and strength remains unresolved. Many factors such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation, changes in the innervation of muscle fibers and mechanical properties of the motor units probably perform an important role in NMJ degeneration and muscle mass and strength decline in late life. This review addresses the primary events that might lead to NMJ dysfunction with aging, including studies on biomarkers, signaling pathways and animal models. Interventions such as caloric restriction (CR and exercise may positively affect the NMJ through this mechanism and attenuate the age-related progressive impairment in motor function.

  16. Neuromuscular, hormonal, and metabolic responses to different plyometric training volumes in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Pinheiro, Eraldo; Izquierdo, Mikel; Correa, Cleiton S; Radaelli, Régis; Martins, Jocelito B; Lhullier, Francisco L R; Laitano, Orlando; Cardoso, Marcelo; Pinto, Ronei S

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different volumes of plyometric exercise (i.e., 100, 200, or 300 hurdle jumps) on acute strength and jump performance and on the acute hormonal and lactate responses in rugby players. Eleven young male elite rugby players (age, 23.5 ± 0.9 years; height, 173 ± 4.8 cm) volunteered for the study. Maximal isometric peak torque (PT), maximal rate of force development (RFD), squat jump (SJ), and drop jump (DJ) performance were assessed before and 5 minutes, 8 hours, and 24 hours after 100, 200, or 300 jumps. In addition, total testosterone (TT), cortisol (COR), and lactate were measured before and after the 3 different plyometric exercise volumes. There were significant decreases in the PT (p plyometric exercise volumes (100, 200, and 300 jumps) resulted in similar neuromuscular, metabolic, and hormonal responses. PMID:23442289

  17. Effect of Dex medetomidine on Neuromuscular Blockade in Patients Undergoing Complex Major Abdominal or Pelvic Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dex medetomidine is a highly selective α2 agonist with anesthetic, analgesic and sympatholytic properties. Its neuromuscular effects in humans are unknown. This study evaluates the effect of dex medetomidine on neuromuscular block and hemodynamics during thiopental/ isoflurane anesthesia for patients with complex abdominal or pelvic surgery. Patients and methods: During thiopental/isoflurane anesthesia, the rocuronium infusion rate was adjusted in 20 complex surgery patients to maintain a stable first response (T1) in the train of four sequence of 50% ± 3 of the pre-rocuronium value. Dex medetomidine was then administered by infusion pump, targeting a plasma dex medetomidine concentration of 0.6 ng/dL for 45 min. The evoked mechanical responses of the adductor pollicis responses (T1 response and T4/T1 ratio), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured during the dex medetomidine infusion using repeated measures analysis of variance. Plasma levels ranged from 0.73 to 1.38 ng/mL. Results: T1 values decreased during the infusion from 55(ρ2 to 38±9 ((ρ< 0.05). T4/Tl values did not change during the infusion. Dex medetomidine increased SBP (ρ< 0.001) and decreased HR ((ρ< 0.05) (10 min median values) during the infusion compared with values before the infusion. This study demonstrated that dex medetomidine decreased T1, increased SBP and decreased HR during thiopental/isoflurane anesthesia. Conclusion: We conclude that dex medetomidine induced direct vasoconstriction may alter pharmacokinetics of rocuronium, therefore increasing plasma rocuronium concentration. Although these effects were statistically significant, further studies should be held for understanding and characterizing the peripheral vasoconstrictive effects of a2 agonists that allow better management and determination of drug dosing regimens

  18. An electromyographic-based test for estimating neuromuscular fatigue during incremental treadmill running

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of the present study were two fold: (1) to determine if the model used for estimating the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT) from electromyographic (EMG) amplitude data during incremental cycle ergometry could be applied to treadmill running to derive a new neuromuscular fatigue threshold for running, and (2) to compare the running velocities associated with the PWCFT, ventilatory threshold (VT), and respiratory compensation point (RCP). Fifteen college-aged subjects (21.5  ±  1.3 y, 68.7  ±  10.5 kg, 175.9  ±  6.7 cm) performed an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion with bipolar surface EMG signals recorded from the vastus lateralis. There were significant (p < 0.05) mean differences in running velocities between the VT (11.3  ±  1.3 km h−1) and PWCFT (14.0  ±  2.3 km h−1), VT and RCP (14.0  ±  1.8 km h−1), but not the PWCFT and RCP. The findings of the present study indicated that the PWCFT model could be applied to a single continuous, incremental treadmill test to estimate the maximal running velocity that can be maintained prior to the onset of neuromuscular fatigue. In addition, these findings suggested that the PWCFT, like the RCP, may be used to differentiate the heavy from severe domains of exercise intensity. (paper)

  19. Carbohydrate vs protein supplementation for recovery of neuromuscular function following prolonged load carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallowfield Joanne L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effect of carbohydrate and whey protein supplements on recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage. Methods Ten male participants (body mass: 81.5 ± 10.5 kg, age: 28 ± 9 years, O2max: 55.0 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 completed three treadmill walking tests (2 hr, 6.5 km·h-1, carrying a 25 kg backpack consuming 500 ml of either: (1 Placebo (flavoured water [PLA], (2 6.4% Carbohydrate Solution [CHO] or (3 7.0% Whey Protein Solution [PRO]. For three days after load carriage, participants consumed two 500 ml supplement boluses. Muscle performance was measured before and at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after load carriage, during voluntary and electrically stimulated contractions. Results Isometric knee extension force decreased immediately after load carriage with no difference between conditions. During recovery, isometric force returned to pre-exercise values at 48 h for CHO and PRO but at 72 h for PLA. Voluntary activation decreased immediately after load carriage and returned to pre-exercise values at 24 h in all conditions (P = 0.086. During recovery, there were no differences between conditions for the change in isokinetic peak torque. Following reductions immediately after load carriage, knee extensor and flexor peak torque (60°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 72 h. Trunk extensor and flexor peak torque (15°·s-1 recovered to pre-exercise values at 24 h (P = 0.091 and 48 h (P = 0.177, respectively. Conclusion Recovery of neuromuscular function after prolonged load carriage is improved with either carbohydrate or whey protein supplementation for isometric contractions but not for isokinetic contractions.

  20. Impaired Axonal Na(+) Current by Hindlimb Unloading: Implication for Disuse Neuromuscular Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzrai, Chimeglkham; Nodera, Hiroyuki; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Higashi, Saki; Okada, Ryo; Mori, Atsuko; Shimatani, Yoshimitsu; Osaki, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the excitability changes in peripheral motor axons caused by hindlimb unloading (HLU), which is a model of disuse neuromuscular atrophy. HLU was performed in normal 8-week-old male mice by fixing the proximal tail by a clip connected to the top of the animal's cage for 3 weeks. Axonal excitability studies were performed by stimulating the sciatic nerve at the ankle and recording the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the foot. The amplitudes of the motor responses of the unloading group were 51% of the control amplitudes [2.2 ± 1.3 mV (HLU) vs. 4.3 ± 1.2 mV (Control), P = 0.03]. Multiple axonal excitability analysis showed that the unloading group had a smaller strength-duration time constant (SDTC) and late subexcitability (recovery cycle) than the controls [0.075 ± 0.01 (HLU) vs. 0.12 ± 0.01 (Control), P < 0.01; 5.4 ± 1.0 (HLU) vs. 10.0 ± 1.3 % (Control), P = 0.01, respectively]. Three weeks after releasing from HLU, the SDTC became comparable to the control range. Using a modeling study, the observed differences in the waveforms could be explained by reduced persistent Na(+) currents along with parameters related to current leakage. Quantification of RNA of a SCA1A gene coding a voltage-gated Na(+) channel tended to be decreased in the sciatic nerve in HLU. The present study suggested that axonal ion currents are altered in vivo by HLU. It is still undetermined whether the dysfunctional axonal ion currents have any pathogenicity on neuromuscular atrophy or are the results of neural plasticity by atrophy. PMID:26909041

  1. Effects of organophosphate,carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides and their mixtures on neuromuscular junction transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeFS; XiaoC

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of organophosphorus (OP),carbamate (Carb),pyrehroid (Pyr) insecticides and their mixtures on neuromuscular junction transmission (NMJT),dimethoate(D) and phoxim(P),methomyl(M),and fenvalerate(F) were selected.Rats were intraperitoneally intoxicated by D,P,M,F,D+M,D+F,P+M,or P+F with the dosage of each LD50 respectively.The function of the NMJT was assessed with the mean consecutive differences (MCD) of the latencies of single fiber action potentials detected by stimulation single fiber electromyography(SSFEMG) at the stimulus frequency of 20 Hz.The SSFEMG was also applied to detect the function of NMJT in 40 patients with OPs and their mixtures poisoning in this study.The results showed that (1)the myasthenia occurred only in rats with OPs and their mixtures poisoning,but not in F,M intoxicated rats.The increase of MCD shown by SSFEMG and induced by OP and their mixtures indicating a post-synaptic block was well correlated with the occurrence of myasthenia both in rats and patients(P<0.001);(2)the increase of MCD in rats of OP poisoning was significant in comparison with the control and F,M intoxicated rats;but was not significantly different from those in rats intoxicated by OP mixtures;(3)the MCDs were significantly increased in IMS patients of both acute OP poisoning and OP mixtures poisoning,but showing no significant difference between the two groups of patients.It is concluded that OP is the only responsible agent for the dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission induced by single OP and OP mixture insecticides which could be sensitively detected by SSFEMG.

  2. Estimulação elétrica neuromuscular em cães com atrofia muscular induzida Neuromuscular electric stimulation in dogs with induced muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pelizzari

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Empregou-se a estimulação elétrica neuromuscular (EENM de baixa freqüência no músculo quadríceps femoral de cães com atrofia induzida e avaliou-se a ocorrência de ganho de massa nessa musculatura. Foram utilizados oito cães com pesos entre 15 e 30kg, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos denominados de I ou controle e II ou tratado. A articulação femorotibiopatelar esquerda foi imobilizada por 30 dias pelo método de transfixação percutânea tipo II, com retirada de aparelho de imobilização após esse período. Decorridas 48 horas da remoção, foi realizada a EENM nos cães do grupo II, cinco vezes por semana, com intervalo de 24 horas cada sessão, pelo período de 60 dias. Foram avaliadas a circunferência da coxa, a goniometria do joelho, a análise clínica da marcha, as enzimas creatina-quinase (CK e aspartato-amino-transferase (AST e a morfometria das fibras musculares em cortes transversais do músculo vasto lateral colhido mediante biópsia muscular. A EENM foi empregada no músculo quadríceps femoral na freqüência de 50Hz, duração de pulso de 300 milisegundos e relação de tempo on/off de 1:2. Quanto à morfometria das fibras do músculo vasto lateral, no grupo tratado houve aumento significativo (PLow frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES was used on the femoral quadriceps of dogs with induced muscular atrophy and the occurrence of gain in mass in these muscles was evaluated. Eight dogs from 15 to 30kg were randomly distributed in two groups named I, or control; and II, or treated. For the induction of muscular atrophy, the left femoral-tibial-patellar joint was immobilized for 30 days by percutaneous transfixation type II. After 30 days, the immobilization device was removed. The NMES treatment began 48 hours after the removal of the immobilization device of the dogs of group II, and it was carried out five times per week with an interval of 24 hours between each session, for 60 days. The

  3. Fisiopatología de las alteraciones neuromusculares en el paciente crítico Pathophysiology of neuromuscular impairments in the critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García de Lorenzo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analizar las causas y manifestaciones de la debilidad muscular que desarrollan los pacientes críticos durante su estancia en la UCI y revisar la bibliografía. Desarrollo: A principios de los años 80 se describió en pacientes críticos sépticos una polineuropatía axonal mixta que clínicamente se caracterizaba por una debilidad muscular de intensidad variable que en su vertiente más grave producía tetraplejia y/o dependencia del ventilador. Casi paralelamente se describió la miopatía aguda de los cuidados intensivos en pacientes asmáticos que eran ingresados en la UCI por exacerbación de su enfermedad. Con posterioridad se observó que esta miopatía se presentaba también en pacientes trasplantados, sépticos o quemados. Hay autores que consideran a la miopatía aguda de los cuidados intensivos como la primera causa de debilidad muscular en la UCI. Conclusiones: En este artículo se describen la clínica, etiopatogenia, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la polineuropatía del paciente crítico y de la miopatía aguda de los cuidados intensivos. Los dos cuadros clínicos son diferenciables en muchas ocasiones, siendo de gran ayuda los estudios neurofisiológicos y eventualmente la biopsia muscular. Aunque algunos autores prefieren englobar estas entidades bajo el nombre de polineuromiopatía, proponemos la denominación general de Síndrome Neuromuscular Agudo en el paciente crítico término más descriptivo, que no presupone un mecanismo ni una etiología única.Objective: to analyze the causes and manifestations of muscle weakness that critically ill patients develop during their staying at the ICU, and literature review. Development: in the early 1980s, a mixed axonal polyneuropathy was described in septic critically ill patients, which clinically manifested by muscle weakness of variable severity, leading to quadriplegia and/or ventilator dependency in its most severe presentation. Almost at the same time, an acute

  4. Controle on-line da taxa média de defeitos por item produzido numa produção finita on-line process control of the average number of defects per item in a short run production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Simone de Lima Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe uma abordagem para monitoramento da taxa média de defeitos por item produzido numa produção finita ou encomenda de N itens. A cada ciclo de m itens produzidos, inspecionam-se os últimos r itens. Em cada item inspecionado conta-se o número de defeitos e cada item é classificado como aprovado se o número de defeitos satisfizer o critério do limite de controle. Se todos os r itens forem aprovados, a produção continua, caso contrário interrompe-se a produção à procura de causas especiais. Os itens inspecionados são descartados somente quando há parada no processo. Após a produção de N itens, um lote adicional será produzido para completar a quantia encomendada, mas esses não passarão por inspeção. Será utilizada uma cadeia de Markov finita de estados discretos para determinar as probabilidades de mudança de estado. Elas são utilizadas nas expressões de custo para determinar a estratégia ótima de monitoração, que será obtida através da otimização de três parâmetros: intervalo amostral (m, tamanho da amostra retrospectiva (r e o limite de controle (LC. Os parâmetros serão obtidos através de busca direta, de forma que se minimize a expressão do custo médio por item produzido. Um exemplo numérico ilustra a proposta.This paper proposes an approach for monitoring the average number of non-conformities per items in short-run productions of N items. After every m produced items, the last r items are inspected. For each inspected item, the number of defects is counted; each inspected item is classified as approved if it meets the control limit criterion. If all r inspected items are approved, then the production goes on, otherwise it is stopped for adjustment. The inspected items are all discarded in case of production stoppage. After a production of N items, an additional lot is produced to complete the size ordered, but this additional lot does suffer inspection. A finite discrete state

  5. Conhecimentos produzidos acerca do crack: uma incursão nas dissertações e teses brasileiras Knowledge derived from studies on crack: an incursion into Brazilian dissertations and theses

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Schaurich Rodrigues; Dirce Stein Backes; Hilda Maria Barbosa de Freitas; Claudia Zamberlan; Maria Helena Gelhen; Juliana Silveira Colomé

    2012-01-01

    Trata-se de um estudo do tipo revisão sistemática, com base na modalidade revisão integrativa, que objetivou analisar as características do conhecimento produzido sobre o crack pelos cursos de mestrado e doutorado brasileiros. O corpus de investigação foi composto por 33 trabalhos (18 dissertações e 15 teses), sendo que 51,5% dos estudos pertencem à área das Ciências da Saúde, com destaque para o Programa de Pós-Graduação de Psiquiatria (e Psicologia Médica) que produziu cinco dissertações/te...

  6. Métodos inovadores para a bio-secagem do CDR produzido na linha de processo da unidade de Tratamento Mecânico e Biológico (TMB) – Caso de estudo na VALNOR SA

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Cláudia Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    A presente dissertação foca-se em métodos inovadores para a bio-secagem do Combustível Derivado de Resíduos (CDR) produzido na linha de Tratamento Mecânico de Biológico (TMB), na VALNOR SA. O CDR representa 25 a 35% dos resíduos indiferenciados tratados numa unidade de TMB e que resulta do refugo e rejeitados retirados na linha de triagem mecânica e no processo de afinação do composto orgânico. O CDR pode ser utilizado como combustível alternativo ao combustível fóssil em centrais de co-ge...

  7. Biopolímero produzido a partir da cana-de-áçucar para cicatrização cutânea Sugar cane biopolymer in cutaneous healing

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Oliveira Cardoso Coelho; Patrícia Gallindo Carrazoni; Vanda Lúcia da Cunha Monteiro; Francisco de Assis Dutra Melo; Rinaldo Aparecido Mota; Fernando Tenório Filho

    2002-01-01

    Um polissacarídeo extracelular foi produzido por via microbiológica, através da bactéria ZSP isolada no Laboratório de Microbiologia Industrial da Estação Experimental de Cana-de-Açúcar do Carpina/UFRPE, apresentando excepcional capacidade de processo. Os principais monossacarídeos presentes na fração solúvel foram glicose (87,6%), xilose (8,6%), manose (0,8%), ribose (1,7%), galactose (0,1%), arabinose (0,4%) e o ácido glucurônico (0,8%). Devido ao alto índice de traumatismos que acomete os ...

  8. Caracterização de biopolímeros produzidos por Beijerinckia sp. 7070 em diferentes tempos de cultivo Characterization of biopolymers produced by Beijerinckia sp 7070 at different culture times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dellinghausen Borges

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Biopolímeros são polissacarídeos microbianos. O biopolímero produzido por Beijerinckia sp. 7070 possui comportamento pseudoplástico e apresenta alta viscosidade em baixas velocidades de deformação, conferindo ao polímero excelentes características de suspensão. O objetivo desse trabalho foi caracterizar o biopolímero produzido por Beijerinckia sp. 7070 em diferentes tempos de cultivo, quanto à produção total, produção de polímeros de fibra longa e curta, produtividade, viscosidade e composição química. Os polímeros produzidos em meio YM líquido foram recuperados em diferentes tempos de cultivo, secos e pesados para determinação da produção e produtividade. O tipo de fibra produzido durante o cultivo foi avaliado microscopicamente. Viscosidades aparentes de solução aquosa 1% foram determinadas a 6, 12, 30 e 60rpm, a 25º C, em um viscosímetro Brookfield. A composição do biopolímero foi determinada por cromatografia em camada delgada comparativa. As maiores produções totais encontradas foram em 30 e 72h, a maior produtividade em 48h e a maior viscosidade em 72h. Os polímeros de fibra longa apresentaram uma tendência de tornarem-se mais longos com o tempo. A viscosidade do polímero de fibra longa foi maior que a do de fibra curta. Todos os biopolímeros apresentaram os mesmos componentes (glucose, galactose, fucose e ácido glucurônico mas em concentrações diferentes.Biopolymers are microbial polysaccharides. The biopolymer produced by Beijerinckia sp 7070 has pseudoplastic behaviour and shows high viscosity at low deformation rates, giving to polymer excellent suspension characteristics. The objective of this work was to characterize the biopolymer produced at different culture times by Beijerinckia sp 7070 in relation to total production, production of short and long fiber polymers, productivity, viscosity and chemical composition. The polymers produced in liquid YM medium were recovered at different

  9. Armazenamento sob condições ambiente e aceitabilidade do melão 'F1 Jangada' produzido em sistema hidropônico Storage under atmosphere conditions and acceptability of the melon 'F1 Jangada' croped in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M. Rinaldi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o período de armazenamento pós-colheita e a aceitabilidade pelo consumidor de melão híbrido 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produzido em sistema hidropônico, mantido em condições ambiente (22 ± 2 ºC e umidade relativa de 40 ± 5%. O experimento compreendeu o período de 21-6-2005 a 2-8-2005. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial 5 x 2, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco períodos de armazenamento (0; 7; 21; 28 e 42 dias e dois tipos de substrato (areia e fibra de coco, com três repetições, em que cada repetição consistiu em cinco frutos de meloeiro. Foram avaliados o pH, a acidez titulável, os sólidos solúveis, a perda de massa fresca, a análise sensorial e a decisão de compra dos melões. Foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento sobre os valores de pH dos melões. A acidez titulável dos melões diminuiu significativamente nos primeiros sete dias de armazenamento, em ambos os substratos. Não foram verificados efeitos do tipo de substrato e tempo de armazenamento nos sólidos solúveis dos melões durante o armazenamento. Não houve diferença de perda de massa fresca dos frutos produzidos nos dois substratos, sendo de 7,1 ± 0,2%, durante os 42 dias de armazenamento. O tipo de substrato não interferiu na aparência geral, cor, textura e sabor dos melões. Aos 42 dias de armazenamento, os melões produzidos nos dois tipos de substrato apresentaram-se aceitáveis pelo consumidor. No entanto, os produzidos no substrato com areia apresentaram melhor aceitabilidade e decisão de compra ao longo do armazenamento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the storage period postharvest and acceptability by consumer of hybrid melon 'F1 Jangada' (Cucumis melo L., produced in hydroponic system, stored in atmosphere conditions (22 ± 2 ºC and 40 ± 5% relative humidity. The research was carried from June 21st to August 2nd, 2005. It was

  10. Bloqueio inadvertido do neuroeixo durante artroplastia vertebral: relato de caso Bloqueo no percibido del neuroeje durante la artroplastia vertebral: relato de caso Accidental spinal block during vertebral artroplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Nacur Lorentz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cirurgia de artroplastia vertebral com uso do cimento ósseo tem suas particularidades e complicações. Na maioria das vezes o procedimento é realizado sob anestesia local com sedação, mas algumas vezes é realizado bloqueio subaracnóideo ou peridural com morfina com o intuito de fornecer analgesia pós-operatória. O objetivo deste relato foi discutir as possíveis complicações em cirurgias de artroplastia vertebral. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 76 anos, apresentando fratura patológica em T12, foi admitido para cirurgia de artroplastia vertebral e biopsia óssea. Foi realizada sedação com midazolam e fentanil, o paciente foi colocado em decúbito ventral e o cirurgião infiltrou anestésico local desde a pele até o corpo vertebral de T12 a seguir biopsiou a vértebra e injetou 6 mL de cimento ósseo em T12. Ao final do procedimento o paciente apresentava paralisia dos membros inferiores. CONCLUSÕES: A intervenção cirúrgica na coluna vertebral não é procedimento isento de complicações. Quando se associa bloqueio espinal pode-se retardar o diagnóstico de complicação cirúrgica; além disto corre-se o risco de se imputar à anestesia um problema proveniente do procedimento cirúrgico.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: A cirugía de artroplastia vertebral con uso del cimiento óseo tiene sus particularidades y complicaciones. En la mayoría de las veces el procedimiento se realiza bajo anestesia local con sedación, pero en algunos casos se realiza el bloqueo subaracnoideo o peridural con morfina con el interés de suministrar analgesia postoperatoria. El objetivo de este relato fue el de discutir las posibles complicaciones en cirugías de artroplastia vertebral. RELATO DEL CASO: Paciente del sexo masculino, 76 años, presentando fractura patológica en T12, fue admitido para cirugía de artroplastia vertebral y biopsia ósea. Se realizó sedación con midazolam y fentanil, el paciente fue

  11. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grindstaff, Terry L.; Hammill, Robert R; Tuzson, Ann E.; Hertel, Jay

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the numbers needed to treat (NNT) and relative risk reduction (RRR) associated with neuromuscular training programs aimed at preventing noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in female athletes.

  12. Processing quality of potato tubers produced during autumn and spring and stored at different temperatures Qualidade de processamento de tubérculos de batata produzidos no outono e na primavera e armazenados em diferentes temperaturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio T de Freitas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to access processing quality of potato clones (Solanum tuberosum Asterix, SMINIA793101-3, and Missaukee cultivated during spring and autumn growing seasons and stored at 4, 8, 12, or 25ºC. Clones grown in spring had shorter dormancy than clones grown in autumn. Potato tubers grown in spring and autumn and stored at 4ºC, as well as tubers grown in autumn and stored at 8ºC had no sprouting for six months. Among clones grown in autumn, the longest dormancy period during storage at 12ºC was observed in the clone SMINIA793101-3, and at 25ºC was in the clone Asterix. In potato tubers grown in spring, the longest dormancy period during storage at 8ºC was observed in the clones SMINIA793101-3 and Missaukee, at 12ºC was in the clone SMINIA793101-3, and at 25ºC was in the clones Asterix and Missaukee. Potato tubers grown in spring had higher dry matter, starch content, and respiration rates, and lower reducing sugar, and total polyphenol content. The only exception was the Missaukee that had similar dry matter content in both growing seasons. In general, storage at 4ºC and 8ºC were more effective in reducing respiration rates and maintaining higher dry mater content of potato tubers. Chip darkening, reducing sugars, and total polyphenol content increased during storage of potato tubers. Darker chip color, higher reducing sugars and polyphenol content were obtained during storage at temperatures of 4ºC and 8ºC. These results suggest that the best storage temperature depends on genotype, tuber physiological age, and growing conditions.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a qualidade de processamento dos clones de batata (Solanum tuberosum Asterix, SMINIA793101-3, e Missaukee cultivados durante outono e primavera e armazenados a 4, 8, 12, ou 25ºC. Clones produzidos na primavera tiveram menor período de dormência que clones produzidos no outono. Tubérculos produzidos na primavera e outono e armazenados a 4º

  13. Qualidade dos frutos de tipos de melão,produzidos em ambiente protegido Quality of melon fruit type produced under protected system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Tavares Paduan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pela cultura do melão no Brasil tem aumentado muito nos últimos anos, pelas crescentes exportações e pelo incremento no consumo do mercado interno. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características físicas e químicas, assim como a atividade da pectinametilesterase dos frutos de tipos de melão (Cucumis melo L., produzidos em ambiente protegido, no município de Centenário do Sul-PR. Os tipos estudados foram: Valenciano ('Amarelo-Ouro', Caipira ('Gaúcho Caipira', Net Melon ('Net Galia', Orange ('Orange Melon' e Pele-de-Sapo ('Filipo', com cinco repetições, utilizando seis frutos por repetição em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os frutos do Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo destacaram-se quanto à massa, com valores 2,02 e 2,07 kg, respectivamente, e formatos alongados, enquanto os demais tipos apresentaram formatos arredondados e massa em torno de 1,4 kg. Os melões Pele-de-Sapo apresentaram espessura da polpa de 43,36 mm, estatisticamente superior à dos frutos Valenciano, com 38,98 mm. A menor espessura de polpa, 24,78 cm, e a maior espessura de casca, 9,74 mm, foram encontradas nos frutos do tipo Caipira que diferiu estatisticamente dos outros tipos. Os valores de pH não se apresentaram estatisticamente diferentes e variaram de 6,24 a 6,48. O Net Melon apresentou polpa com 12,3ºBrix e diferiu estatisticamente do Orange, Valenciano e Pele-de-Sapo, com 11;12; 10,34 e 9,94 ºBrix, respectivamente. O Caipira atingiu 5,06ºBrix, e também o menor conteúdo de acidez, 0,10 g de ac. cítrico.100-1 g de suco, o que inviabiliza sua comercialização. A atividade da pectinametilesterase na polpa dos frutos foi muito baixa, inferior a 0,005 PEu x 10(4 mL-1, nos cinco tipos avaliados. Na região norte do Paraná (Vale do Paranapanema, sob condições de cultivo protegido, os melões Pele-de-Sapo, Net Melon, Orange e Valenciano apresentaram boas características físicas e químicas dos frutos, destacando-se o Net Melon

  14. Efeitos dentoesqueléticos produzidos pelo aparelho de Herbst na dentadura mista Dentoskeletal treatment effects produced by the Herbst appliance in the mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rodrigues de Almeida

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo desta pesquisa clínica prospectiva foi avaliar as alterações cefalométricas dentárias e esqueléticas produzidas pelo aparelho de Herbst em jovens com má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão durante a dentadura mista. METODOLOGIA: trinta jovens (15 do gênero masculino e 15 do feminino com idade média inicial de 9 anos e 10 meses foram tratados com o aparelho de Herbst por um período de 12 meses. Para a comparação dos grupos utilizou-se uma amostra controle de 30 jovens (15 do gênero masculino e 15 do feminino Classe II, 1ª divisão, com idade média inicial de 9 anos e 8 meses, que foram mantidos sem tratamento durante 12 meses. Para cada jovem foram utilizadas duas telerradiografias em norma lateral, obtidas ao início e no final do período de acompanhamento. Utilizou-se um método convencional de avaliação cefalométrica e o método proposto por Pancherz. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que os efeitos do aparelho de Herbst produzidos na dentadura mista foram primariamente de natureza dentoalveolar. Os incisivos inferiores foram inclinados para vestibular e os superiores foram retruídos; também houve uma extrusão significante dos molares inferiores, enquanto os superiores sofreram restrição de desenvolvimento no sentido vertical. Não houve diferença significante de restrição do crescimento anterior da maxila entre os dois grupos. No sentido vertical da face, a altura facial ântero-inferior se comportou de forma similar, não demonstrando alteração significante entre os grupos. O tratamento com o aparelho de Herbst produziu um aumento modesto, porém, significante no comprimento da mandíbula comparado ao grupo controle. Este aumento, entretanto, foi de menor magnitude que aquele observado em pacientes adolescentes utilizando o mesmo protocolo de tratamento. A correção do overjet (Herbst ocorreu devido a 22% de alterações esqueléticas e 78% de altera

  15. Quality of raw milk produced in agreste region of Pernambuco, Brazil / Qualidade do leite cru produzido na região do agreste de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros

    2010-04-01

    negativamente na produção e rendimento de derivados. No Estado de Pernambuco, não é diferente. Sendo o segundo maior produtor do Nordeste, Pernambuco tem sua maior produção de leite localizada na Região Agreste do estado, que fica entre a Zona da Mata e o Sertão. A produção de leite no Agreste, cresceu 23% nos últimos dois anos, chegando a 980 mil litros/dia. Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade microbiológica e físico-química do leite cru produzido nesta região, foram coletadas amostras em 53 propriedades rurais, nos municípios de Saloa, Águas Belas, São Bento do Una e Bom Conselho. Enumeraram-se aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais, Escherichia coli e estafilococos em placas de Petrifilm™ especificas (3M do Brasil Ltda.. A detecção de Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella ssp foi realizada utilizando o sistema VIDAS (BioMeriex®. Organofosforados e carbamatos foram pesquisados pela técnica de Cromatografia em Camada Delgada. O teor de gordura, sólidos totais, sólidos não gordurosos, densidade, proteína e lactose foram obtidos por espectroscopia de em analisador ultra-sônico (US. Realizou-se ainda crioscopia, California Mastite Teste (CMT, peroxidase, acidez Dornic e Ring-test para monitoramento da presença de Brucelose nas propriedades. Nas análises microbiológicas, as amostras apresentaram altas contagens de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais, Escherichia coli, psicrotróficos e estafilococos coagulase positiva. A média de aeróbios mesófilos foi de 1,68% X 107, sendo 83% acima de 106. Listeria monocytogenes e Salmonella sp não foram detectadas, 47% das amostras foram positivas para carbamatos, organofosforados ou ambos. No CMT 67,9% das amostras foram positivas, e no Ring test 26,4% das propriedades foram positivas. Assim, apenas 2 (3,77% das amostras estariam dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela IN 51.

  16. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Katherine; Barton Christian; Malliaras Peter; Morrissey Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up...

  17. Repetitive Daily Point of Choice Prompts and Occupational Sit-Stand Transfers, Concentration and Neuromuscular Performance in Office Workers: An RCT

    OpenAIRE

    Lars Donath; Oliver Faude; Yannick Schefer; Ralf Roth; Lukas Zahner

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Prolonged office sitting time adversely affects neuromuscular and cardiovascular health parameters. As a consequence, the present study investigated the effects of prompting the use of height-adjustable working desk (HAWD) on occupational sitting and standing time, neuromuscular outcomes and concentration in office workers. Methods: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) with parallel group design was conducted. Thirty-eight office workers were supplied with HAWDs and r...

  18. Noninvasive Assessment of Neuromuscular Disease in Dogs: Use of the 6‐minute Walk Test to Assess Submaximal Exercise Tolerance in Dogs with Centronuclear Myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda‐Gonzalez, S.; Talarico, L.; Todhunter, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Noninvasive methods of quantitating exercise tolerance in dogs with neuromuscular disease are needed both for clinical and research use. The 6‐minute walk test (6MWT) has been validated as a reliable test of exercise tolerance in dogs with pulmonary and cardiac disease, but not in dogs with neuromuscular disease. Hypothesis/Objectives Distance walked and number of steps taken during 6MWT will differ between Labrador retriever dogs with centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and control (ie, ...

  19. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and dietary interventions to reduce oxidative stress in a secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patient leads to marked gains in function: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, David; Shivapour, Ezzatolah T; Wahls, Terry L.; Dudley-Javoroski, Shauna D; Shields, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been used to aid musculoskeletal recovery. Excessive oxidative stress and excitoxicity are implicated in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. A 52-year-old white female with SPMS had been scooter- and cane-dependent for 4 years. She requested and received a trial of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Two months after initiating NMES the patient adopted several nutritional interventions to lower oxidative stress and excito-toxicity. During the f...

  20. 15-Year Follow-up of Neuromuscular Function in Patients With Unilateral Nonreconstructed Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Initially Treated With Rehabilitation and Activity Modification: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ageberg, Eva; Pettersson, Annika; Fridén, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that neuromuscular function is of importance in the overall outcome after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Hypothesis: Good neuromuscular function can be achieved and maintained over time in subjects with ACL injury treated with rehabilitation and activity modification but without reconstructive surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: One hundred consecutive patients (42 women and 58 men) with acute ACL injury at a nonprofes...