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Sample records for bloom-forming lyngbya species

  1. Effects of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209 on inter-specific competition between two species of marine bloom-forming microalgae.

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    Xinxin Zhang

    Full Text Available Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209, a new kind of persistent organic pollutants, was selected to investigate its influence on population growth and inter-specific competition between two species of marine bloom-forming microalgae, Heterosigma akashiwo and Karenia mikimotoi. (1BDE-209 showed acute toxic effects on both microalgae and H. akashiwo was more sensitive from view of 96 h-EC50 and the ultrastructure variation. (2The microalgal population growth patterns in mono-culture were density-dependent and the growth of both species in the normal co-culture was significantly depressed by competition (P<0.05 with different initial biomass ratios. BDE-209 exposure significantly changed the growth. (3 Lotka-Volterra competition model was used to simulate the interaction between the microalgae. BDE-209 exposure broke the competitive balance to make competition gradually shift in favor of H. akashiwo. Results suggested BDE-209 did have toxic effects on either microalgal growth or the inter-specific competition, which was quite different from previous reports. Further exploration of the mechanism is needed.

  2. Pharmacology and toxicology of pahayokolide A, a bioactive metabolite from a freshwater species of Lyngbya isolated from the Florida Everglades

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, John P.; Gantar, Miroslav; Gawley, Robert E.; Wang, Minglei; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2004-01-01

    The genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, Lyngbya, has been found to be a rich source of bioactive metabolites. However, identification of such compounds from Lyngbya has largely focused on a few marine representatives. Here, we report on the pharmacology and toxicology of pahayokolide A from a freshwater isolate, Lyngbya sp. strain 15−2, from the Florida Everglades. Specifically, we investigated inhibition of microbial representatives and mammalian cell lines, as well as toxicity of the compou...

  3. Bisebromoamide, an extract from Lyngbya species, induces apoptosis through ERK and mTOR inhibitions in renal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains an incurable disease, and newer anticancer drugs are needed. Bisebromoamide, a novel cytotoxic peptide, was isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya species at our laboratory in 2009. This compound specifically inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK in platelet-derived growth factor-activated normal rat kidney cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and elucidate the potential mechanism of Bisebromoamide actions on human RCC cells. Two renal cancer cell lines, 769-P and 786-O, were used. The effects of Bisebromoamide were analyzed employing assays for water-soluble Tetrazolium-1 salts. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometric TUNEL analysis. Cell-cycle distributions were analyzed by flow cytometry using BrdU/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Kinases of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and Raf/MEK/ERK pathway were analyzed by Western blotting. After Bisebromoamide treatment for 48 and 72 h, cell viability was significantly decreased in both cell lines at 1 and 10 μmol/L. After treatment with 1 μmol/L Bisebromoamide for 72 h, apoptosis and the increased percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase were observed in both cell lines. Bisebromoamide inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in both cell lines tested. Similar effects were demonstrated for phosphorylation of mTOR and p70 S6. Bisebromoamide is a promising potential agent against RCC due to its ability to inhibit both the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways

  4. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-04-01

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms.

  5. Dereplication of phorbol bioactives: Lyngbya majuscula and Croton cuneatus

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    Beutler, J.A.; Alvarado, A.B.; Schaufelberger, D.E.; Andrews, P.; McCloud, T.G. (Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Lyngbya majuscula and Croton cuneatus were used as prototypes for the dereplication of phorbol ester receptor binding activity using a combination of hplc-uv and online phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor binding and batch fractionation over either Si gel or diolbonded Si gel. Debromoaplysiatoxin was responsible for the bioactivity of Lyngbya, whereas a complex of potent phorbol esters was detected in C. cuneatus.

  6. Bloom forming and toxic phytoplankton in transitional and coastal waters of Cantabria region coast (Southeastern Bay of Biscay, Spain).

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    Seoane, Sergio; Puente, Araceli; Guinda, Xabier; Juanes, Jose Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Phytoplankton monitoring has extended to practically all the regions of the European coast due to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. In this way, the study of phytoplankton taxonomic composition and dynamic is being performed in many areas poorly studied or not studied before. During the last years, a monitoring programme has been carried out at the coast of Cantabria region (SE Bay of Biscay); the presence of some potentially toxic and bloom forming species (>7.5 × 10⁵ cells per litre) has been observed. Diatoms and cryptophytes are the main blooming taxa in this region in the majority of the estuaries and in some of the coastal sites. All estuaries and coastal stations showed at least one potentially toxic species, being the dinoflagellates the group with the highest number of taxa observed. The potentially toxic species found in highest concentrations were the genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Chrysochromulina. PMID:23017945

  7. UVB radiation as a potential selective factor favoring microcystin producing bloom forming Cyanobacteria.

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    Yi Ding

    Full Text Available Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280-320 nm radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m(2 in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905, the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years' continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe. Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers.

  8. Structures of Pahayokolides A and B, Two Cyclic Peptides from a Lyngbya sp

    OpenAIRE

    An, Tianying; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh; Wang, Minglei; Liu, Li; Lay, Jackson O.; Liyanage, Rohana; Berry, John; Gantar, Miroslav; Marks, Vered; Gawley, Robert E.; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2007-01-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of two cyclic peptides, pahayokolides A (1) and B (2), is described. Structural features determined for these compounds include a pendant N-acetyl-N-methyl leucine, both E- and Z-dehydrobutyrines, a homophenylalanine, and an unusual polyhydroxy amino acid that is most likely of mixed polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthase origin. These peptides were purified from a new species of cyanobacteria of the genus Lyngbya, which was isolated from a p...

  9. Integrating phylogeny, geographic niche partitioning, and secondary metabolite synthesis in bloom-forming Planktothrix

    OpenAIRE

    Kurmayer, Rainer; Blom, Judith F.; Deng, Li; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Toxic freshwater cyanobacteria form harmful algal blooms that can cause acute toxicity to humans and livestock. Globally distributed, bloom-forming cyanobacteria Planktothrix either retain or lose the mcy gene cluster (encoding the synthesis of the secondary metabolite hepatotoxin microcystin or MC), resulting in a variable spatial/temporal distribution of (non)toxic genotypes. Despite their importance to human well-being, such genotype diversity is not being mapped at scales relevant to natu...

  10. Strong Endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta.

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    Felix Bast

    Full Text Available Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent.

  11. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Genetic Basis for Geosmin Production by the Water Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium, Anabaena ucrainica

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    Zhongjie Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Geosmin is a common, musty-smelling sesquiterpene, principally produced by cyanobacteria. Anabaena ucrainica (Schhorb. Watanabe, a water bloom-forming cyanobacterium, is the geosmin producer responsible for odor problems in Dianchi and Erhai lakes in China. In this study, the geosmin synthase gene (geo of A. ucrainica and its flanking regions were identified and cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and genome walking. The geo gene was found to be located in a transcription unit with two cyclic nucleotide-binding protein genes (cnb. The two cnb genes were highly similar and were predicted members of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP receptor protein/fumarate nitrate reductase regulator (Crp–Fnr family. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses implied that the evolution of the geosmin genes involved a horizontal gene transfer process in cyanobacteria. These genes showed a close relationship to 2-methylisoborneol genes in origin and evolution.

  13. Interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa.

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    Huang, Xiaolong; Tu, Yenan; Song, Chaofeng; Li, Tiancui; Lin, Juan; Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Jiantong; Wu, Chenxi

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria can co-exist in eutrophic waters with chemicals or other substances derived from personal care products discharged in wastewater. In this work, we investigate the interactions between the antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) and the bloom-forming cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa. M. aeruginosa was very sensitive to TCS with the 96h lowest observed effect concentration of 1.0 and 10μg/L for inhibition of growth and photosynthetic activity, respectively. Exposure to TCS at environmentally relevant levels (0.1-2.0μg/L) also affected the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the generation of reduced glutathione (GSH), while microcystin production was not affected. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination showed the destruction of M. aeruginosa cell ultrastructure during TCS exposure. TCS however, can be biotransformed by M. aeruginosa with methylation as a major biotransformation pathway. Furthermore, the presence of M. aeruginosa in solution promoted the photodegradation of TCS. Overall, our results demonstrate that M. aeruginosa plays an important role in the dissipation of TCS in aquatic environments but high residual TCS can exert toxic effects on M. aeruginosa. PMID:26800489

  14. Bioactivity effect of two macrophyte extracts on growth performance of two bloom-forming cyanophytes

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    M.G. Ghobrial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is a biological phenomenon by which an organism produces one or more biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and can have beneficial (positive allelopathy or detrimental (negative allelopathy effects on the target organisms. The current research aims at using selected brackish water adapted submerged aquatic macrophytes allelopathy to combat bloom-forming cyanophytes, in laboratory bioassay experiments. Dry matters of macrophytes were extracted in solvents and the initial cyanophytes inoculum, derived from unialgal culture media, was used. Therefore, aqueous extracts with 50% and 100% acetone and ethanol solvents of two freshwater macrophytes; Potamogeton pectinatus and Ceratophyllum demersum were used to test their growth performance exhibited on two bloom-forming cyanophytes, Microcystis aeruginosa and Oscillatoria tenuis. The results revealed insignificant difference between the overall total average growth performance at treatment with 50% and 100% Ceratophyllum acetone extracts expressed by optical density (OD as well as chlorophyll a (chl a. Results showed, also, stimulation of M. aeruginosa growth. The highest growth increase in 100 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% acetone extract had a percentage rate (R of 94.66. On the contrary, treatment with ethanol extract recorded the highest inhibitory effect, thus in 1.5 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% Ceratophyllum ethanol extract R recorded −87.54, sustaining LC50 value of 1.12 μl/100 ml. The highest stimulating effect in 105 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% Ceratophyllum acetone extracts against O. tenuis was; R, 169.4. The highest inhibition in 1500 μl/100 ml treatment with 50% Ceratophyllum ethanol extracts against O. tenuis was; R −74.32, with LC50 0.830 μl/100 ml. While, the highest inhibition by 50% and 100% Potamogeton acetone or ethanol extracts against M. aeruginosa was

  15. Competition of bloom-forming marine phytoplankton at low nutrient concentrations.

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    Hu, Hanhua; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Competition of three bloom-forming marine phytoplankton (diatom Skeletonema costatum, and dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum and Alexandrium tamarense) was studied through a series of multispecies cultures with different nitrate (NaNO3) and phosphate (NaH2PO4) levels and excess silicate to interpret red tide algae succession. S. costatum outgrew the other two dinoflagellates in nitrate and phosphate replete cultures with 10 micromol/L Na2SiO3. Under nitrate limited (8.82 micromol/L NaNO3) conditions, the growth of S. costatum was also dominant when phosphate concentrations were from 3.6 to 108 micromol/L. Cell density of the two dinoflagellates only increased slightly, to less than 400 and 600 cells/mL, respectively. Cell density of S. costatum decreased with time before day 12, and then increased to 4000 cells/mL (1.5 mg/L dry biomass) at NaNO3 concentrations between 88.2 and 882 micromol/L with limited phosphate (0.36 micromol/L NaH2PO4) levels. In addition, P. minimum grew well with a maximal cell density of 1690-2100 cells/mL (0.5-0.6 mg/L dry biomass). Although S. costatum initially grew fast, its cell density decreased quickly with time later in the growth phase and the two dinoflagellates were dominant under the nitrate-limited and high nitrate conditions with limited phosphate. These results indicated that the diatom was a poor competitor compared to the two dinoflagellates under limited phosphate; however, it grew well under limited nitrate when growth of the dinoflagellates was near detection limits. PMID:21793409

  16. Competition of bloom-forming marine phytoplankton at low nutrient concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanhua Hu; Jun Zhang; Weidong Chen

    2011-01-01

    Competition of three bloom-forming marine phytoplankton (diatom Skeletonema costatum, and dinoflagellates Prorocentrum minimum and Alexandrium tamarense) was studied through a series of multispecies cultures with different nitrate (NaNO3) and phosphate (NaH2PO4) levels and excess silicate to interpret red tide algae succession. S. costatum outgrew the other two dinoflagellates in nitrate and phosphate replete cultures with 10 μmol/L Na2SiO3. Under nitrate limited (8.82 μ mol/L NaNO3) conditions, the growth of S. costatum was also dominant when phosphate concentrations were from 3.6 to 108 μmol/L. Cell density of the two dinoflagellates only increased slighfly, to less than 400 and 600 cells/mL, respectively. Cell density of S. costatum decreased with time before day 12, and then increased to 4000 cells/mL (1.5 mg/L dry biomass) at NaNO3 concentrations between 88.2 and 882 μmol/L with limited phosphate (0.36 μmol/L NaH2PO4) levels. In addition, P. minimum grew well with a maximal cell density of 1690-2100 cells/mL (0.5-0.6 mg/L dry biomass). Although S. costatum initially grew fast, its cell density decreased quickly with time later in the growth phase and the two dinoflagellates were dominant under the nitrate-limited and high nitrate conditions with limited phosphate. These results indicated that the diatom was a poor competitor compared to the two dinoflagellates under limited phosphate; however, it grew well under limited nitrate when growth of the dinoflagellates was near detection limits.

  17. Comparison of Quantitative PCR and Droplet Digital PCR Multiplex Assays for Two Genera of Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis and Microcystis.

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    Te, Shu Harn; Chen, Enid Yingru; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-08-01

    The increasing occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, often linked to deteriorated water quality and adverse public health effects, has become a worldwide concern in recent decades. The use of molecular techniques such as real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become increasingly popular in the detection and monitoring of harmful cyanobacterial species. Multiplex qPCR assays that quantify several toxigenic cyanobacterial species have been established previously; however, there is no molecular assay that detects several bloom-forming species simultaneously. Microcystis and Cylindrospermopsis are the two most commonly found genera and are known to be able to produce microcystin and cylindrospermopsin hepatotoxins. In this study, we designed primers and probes which enable quantification of these genera based on the RNA polymerase C1 gene for Cylindrospermopsis species and the c-phycocyanin beta subunit-like gene for Microcystis species. Duplex assays were developed for two molecular techniques-qPCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). After optimization, both qPCR and ddPCR assays have high linearity and quantitative correlations for standards. Comparisons of the two techniques showed that qPCR has higher sensitivity, a wider linear dynamic range, and shorter analysis time and that it was more cost-effective, making it a suitable method for initial screening. However, the ddPCR approach has lower variability and was able to handle the PCR inhibition and competitive effects found in duplex assays, thus providing more precise and accurate analysis for bloom samples. PMID:26025892

  18. Genomic insights into the physiology and ecology of the marine filamentous cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Adam C; Monroe, Emily A.; Podell, Sheila; Wolfgang R Hess; Klages, Sven; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Niessen, Sherry; Hoover, Heather; Rothmann, Michael; Lasken, Roger S.; Yates, John R.; Reinhardt, Richard; Kube, Michael; Burkart, Michael D.; Allen, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria of the genus Lyngbya are important contributors to coral reef ecosystems, occasionally forming dominant cover and impacting the health of many other co-occurring organisms. Moreover, they are extraordinarily rich sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, with 35% of all reported cyanobacterial natural products deriving from this single pantropical genus. However, the true natural product potential and life strategies of Lyngbya strains are poorly understood because...

  19. Influence of elevated CO2 concentrations on cell division and nitrogen fixation rates in the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena

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    U. Riebesell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The surface ocean currently absorbs about one-fourth of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere from human activities. As this CO2 dissolves in seawater, it reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid, increasing ocean acidity and shifting the partitioning of inorganic carbon species towards increased CO2 at the expense of CO32− concentrations. While the decrease in [CO32−] and/or increase in [H+] has been found to adversely affect many calcifying organisms, some photosynthetic organisms appear to benefit from increasing [CO2]. Among these is the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium, a predominant diazotroph (nitrogen-fixing in large parts of the oligotrophic oceans, which responded with increased carbon and nitrogen fixation at elevated pCO2. With the mechanism underlying this CO2 stimulation still unknown, the question arises whether this is a common response of diazotrophic cyanobacteria. In this study we therefore investigate the physiological response of Nodularia spumigena, a heterocystous bloom-forming diazotroph of the Baltic Sea, to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. N. spumigena reacted to seawater acidification/carbonation with reduced cell division rates and nitrogen fixation rates, accompanied by significant changes in carbon and phosphorus quota and elemental composition of the formed biomass. Possible explanations for the contrasting physiological responses of Nodularia compared to Trichodesmium may be found in the different ecological strategies of non-heterocystous (Trichodesmium and heterocystous (Nodularia cyanobacteria.

  20. Synergistic algicidal effect and mechanism of two diketopiperazines produced by Chryseobacterium sp. strain GLY-1106 on the harmful bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa

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    Guo, Xingliang; Liu, Xianglong; Pan, Jianliang; Yang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    A potent algicidal bacterium isolated from Lake Taihu, Chryseobacterium sp. strain GLY-1106, produces two algicidal compounds: 1106-A (cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu)) and 1106-B (cyclo(Pro-Leu)). Both diketopiperazines showed strong algicidal activities against Microcystis aeruginosa, the dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterium in Lake Taihu. Interestingly, these two algicidal compounds functioned synergistically. Compared with individual treatment, combined treatment with cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) and cyclo(Pro-Leu) significantly enhanced algicidal activity, accelerated the increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in M. aeruginosa, and further decreased the activities of antioxidases, effective quantum yield and maximal electron transport rate of M. aeruginosa. The results also showed that the algicidal characteristics of cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) are distinct from those of cyclo(Pro-Leu). Cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) mainly interrupted the flux of electron transport in the cyanobacterial photosynthetic system, whereas cyclo(Pro-Leu) mainly inhibited the activity of cyanobacterial intracellular antioxidases. A possible algicidal mechanism for the synergism between cyclo(4-OH-Pro-Leu) and cyclo(Pro-Leu) is proposed, which is in accordance with their distinct algicidal characteristics in individual and combined treatment. These findings suggest that synergism between algicidal compounds might be used as an effective strategy for the future control of Microcystis blooms.

  1. A putative gene cluster from a Lyngbya wollei bloom that encodes paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis.

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    Troco K Mihali

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin and its analogs cause the paralytic shellfish-poisoning syndrome, adversely affecting human health and coastal shellfish industries worldwide. Here we report the isolation, sequencing, annotation, and predicted pathway of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei. The gene cluster spans 36 kb and encodes enzymes for the biosynthesis and export of the toxins. The Lyngbya wollei saxitoxin gene cluster differs from previously identified saxitoxin clusters as it contains genes that are unique to this cluster, whereby the carbamoyltransferase is truncated and replaced by an acyltransferase, explaining the unique toxin profile presented by Lyngbya wollei. These findings will enable the creation of toxin probes, for water monitoring purposes, as well as proof-of-concept for the combinatorial biosynthesis of these natural occurring alkaloids for the production of novel, biologically active compounds.

  2. Comparative genomics reveals diversified CRISPR-Cas systems of globally distributed Microcystis aeruginosa, a freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium

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    Chen eYang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the most common and dominant bloom-forming cyanobacteria in freshwater lakes around the world. Microcystis cells can produce toxic secondary metabolites, such as microcystins, which are harmful to human health. Two M. aeruginosa strains were isolated from two highly eutrophic lakes in China and their genomes were sequenced. Comparative genomic analysis was performed with the 12 other available M. aeruginosa genomes and closely related unicellular cyanobacterium. Each genome of M. aeruginosa containing at least one clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR locus and total 71 loci were identified, suggesting it is ubiquitous in M. aeruginosa genomes. In addition to the previously reported subtype I-D cas gene sets, three CAS subtypes I-A, III-A and III-B were identified and characterized in this study. Seven types of CRISPR direct repeat have close association with CAS subtype, confirming that different and specific secondary structures of CRISPR repeats are important for the recognition, binding and process of corresponding cas gene sets. Homology search of the CRISPR spacer sequences provides a history of not only resistance to bacteriophages and plasmids known to be associated with M. aeruginosa, but also the ability to target much more exogenous genetic material in the natural environment. These adaptive and heritable defense mechanisms play a vital role in keeping genomic stability and self-maintenance by restriction of horizontal gene transfer. Maintaining genomic stability and modulating genomic plasticity are both important evolutionary strategies for M. aeruginosa in adaptation and survival in various habitats.

  3. Debromoaplysiatoxin in Lyngbya-dominated mats on manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in the Florida King's Bay ecosystem.

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    Harr, Kendal E; Szabo, Nancy J; Cichra, Mary; Phlips, Edward J

    2008-08-01

    Proliferation of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium, Lyngbya, in Florida lakes and rivers has raised concerns about ecosystem and human health. Debromoaplysiatoxin (DAT) was measured in concentrations up to 6.31 microg/g wet weight lyngbyatoxin A equivalents (WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from natural substrates. DAT was also detected (up to 1.19 microg/g WWLAE) in Lyngbya-dominated mats collected from manatee dorsa. Ulcerative dermatitis found on manatees is associated with, but has not been proven to be caused by DAT. PMID:18585400

  4. Isotopic discrimination and kinetic parameters of RubisCO from the marine bloom-forming diatom, Skeletonema costatum.

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    Boller, A J; Thomas, P J; Cavanaugh, C M; Scott, K M

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan, bloom-forming diatom, Skeletonema costatum, is a prominent primary producer in coastal oceans, fixing CO2 with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) that is phylogenetically distinct from terrestrial plant RubisCO. RubisCOs are subdivided into groups based on sequence similarity of their large subunits (IA-ID, II, and III). ID is present in several major oceanic primary producers, including diatoms such as S. costatum, coccolithophores, and some dinoflagellates, and differs substantially in amino acid sequence from the well-studied IB enzymes present in most cyanobacteria and in green algae and plants. Despite this sequence divergence, and differences in isotopic discrimination apparent in other RubisCO enzymes, stable carbon isotope compositions of diatoms and other marine phytoplankton are generally interpreted assuming enzymatic isotopic discrimination similar to spinach RubisCO (IB). To interpret phytoplankton δ(13) C values, S. costatum RubisCO was characterized via sequence analysis, and measurement of its KCO2 and Vmax , and degree of isotopic discrimination. The sequence of this enzyme placed it among other diatom ID RubisCOs. Michaelis-Menten parameters were similar to other ID enzymes (KCO2 = 48.9 ± 2.8 μm; Vmax = 165.1 ± 6.3 nmol min(-1 ) mg(-1) ). However, isotopic discrimination (ε = [(12) k/(13) k - 1] × 1000) was low (18.5‰; 17.0-19.9, 95% CI) when compared to IA and IB RubisCOs (22-29‰), though not as low as ID from coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi (11.1‰). Variability in ε-values among RubisCOs from primary producers is likely reflected in δ(13) C values of oceanic biomass. Currently, δ(13) C variability is ascribed to physical or chemical factors (e.g. illumination, nutrient availability) and physiological responses to these factors (e.g. carbon-concentrating mechanisms). Estimating the importance of these factors from δ(13) C measurements requires an accurate ε-value, and a mass

  5. Induction of bioactive compound composition from marine microalgae (Lyngbya sp.) by using different stress condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul Farhana Rosly; Rabeah Adawiyah Abdul Razak; Palaniselvam Kuppusamy; Mashitah M. Yusoff; Natanamurugaraj Govindan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To the effect of salinity stress on the production of microalgae (Lyngbya sp.) and chlorophyll pigments in the growth medium.Methods:Stress was investigated by using green algae strains Lyngbya sp. in response to change bioactive compounds without any modification of cell growth and biomass production rate. The different stress conditions like 10%-40% were analyzed.Results:During the stress condition, various biochemical and microbiological assays were monitored. The photochemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS studies. The studies expressed that 30% higher salinity stress was suitable for high phytochemical production rate including chlorophyll content.Conclusions:Our study indicates the wide range of salinity stress to enhance the growth on microalgae culture and enhance the production of major secondary metabolites.

  6. Temporal pattern in the bloom-forming macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa in seagrass beds, Swan Lake lagoon, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We conducted an annual survey of bloom-forming macroalgae in a lagoon. • C. linum biomass reached 1712 ± 780 g DW m−2 at the northern part of the lagoon. • Macroalgae δ15N values indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the blooms. • High nutrient concentrations near the river mouth supported the blooms. • C. linum blooms induced the loss of seagrasses and benthic filter feeders. - Abstract: Seagrasses that are distributed over a large area of the Swan Lake, Weihai, China, support a productive ecosystem. In recent years, however, frequent macroalgal blooms have changed the ecosystem structure and threatened the seagrasses. To understand the bloom-forming macroalgae we conducted a yearly field survey of Swan Lake. Results indicated that the macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum and Ulva pertusa both exhibited a much higher productivity and attained a greater maximum biomass (of 1712 ± 780 g DW m−2 and 1511 ± 555 g DW m−2, respectively) than was the case for the seagrasses. The mean annual atomic ratios of C/N, C/P and N/P in C. linum were 14.31 ± 4.45, 402.82 ± 130.25, and 28.12 ± 2.08, respectively. The δ15N values (11.09 ± 0.91‰ for C. linum; 9.27 ± 2.83‰ for U. pertusa) indicated a land-based source of N enrichment to the macroalgal blooms. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lagoon, particularly near the river mouth, supported the blooms

  7. Potential effects of UV radiation on photosynthetic structures of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii CYRF-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pessoa Noyma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms. While of enormous ecological importance, they have also been linked to human and animal illnesses around the world as a consequence of toxin production by some species. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, a filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium, has attracted considerable attention due to its potential toxicity and ecophysiological adaptability. We investigated whether C. raciborskii could be affected by ultraviolet (UV radiation. Non-axenic cultures of C. raciborskii were exposed to three UV treatments (UVA, UVB or UVA + UVB over a 6 h period, during which cell concentration, viability and ultrastructure were analyzed. UVA and UVA + UVB treatments showed significant negative effects on cell concentration (decreases of 56.4% and 64.3%, respectively. This decrease was directly associated with cell death as revealed by a cell viability fluorescent probe. Over 90% of UVA + UVB- and UVA-treated cells died. UVB did not alter cell concentration, but reduced cell viability in almost 50% of organisms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed a drastic loss of thylakoids, membranes in which cyanobacteria photosystems are localized, after all treatments. Moreover, other photosynthetic- and metabolic-related structures, such as accessory pigments and polyphosphate granules, were damaged. Quantitative TEM analyses revealed a 95.8 % reduction in cell area occupied by thylakoids after UVA treatment, and reduction of 77.6 % and 81.3 % after UVB and UVA + UVB treatments, respectively. Results demonstrated clear alterations in viability and photosynthetic structures of C. raciborskii induced by various UV radiation fractions. This study facilitates our understanding of the subcellular organization of this cyanobacterium species, identifies specific intracellular targets of UVA and UVB radiation and reinforces the importance of UV radiation as an environmental stressor.

  8. Modulation of host ROS metabolism is essential for viral infection of a bloom-forming coccolithophore in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheyn, Uri; Rosenwasser, Shilo; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Porat, Ziv; Vardi, Assaf

    2016-07-01

    The cosmopolitan coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is a unicellular eukaryotic alga responsible for vast blooms in the ocean. These blooms have immense impact on large biogeochemical cycles and are terminated by a specific large double-stranded DNA E. huxleyi virus (EhV, Phycodnaviridae). EhV infection is accompanied by induction of hallmarks of programmed cell death and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we characterized alterations in ROS metabolism and explored its role during infection. Transcriptomic analysis of ROS-related genes predicted an increase in glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 production during infection. In accordance, using biochemical assays and specific fluorescent probes we demonstrated the overproduction of GSH during lytic infection. We also showed that H2O2 production, rather than superoxide, is the predominant ROS during the onset of the lytic phase of infection. Using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and multispectral imaging flow cytometry, we showed that the profound co-production of H2O2 and GSH occurred in the same subpopulation of cells but at different subcellular localization. Positively stained cells for GSH and H2O2 were highly infected compared with negatively stained cells. Inhibition of ROS production by application of a peroxidase inhibitor or an H2O2 scavenger inhibited host cell death and reduced viral production. We conclude that viral infection induced remodeling of the host antioxidant network that is essential for a successful viral replication cycle. This study provides insight into viral replication strategy and suggests the use of specific cellular markers to identify and quantify the extent of active viral infection during E. huxleyi blooms in the ocean. PMID:26784355

  9. Genome sequence and characterization of a virus (HaRNAV) related to picorna-like viruses that infects the marine toxic bloom-forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterosigma akashiwo (Rhaphidophyceae) is a unicellular, flagellated, bloom-forming, toxic alga of ecological and economic importance. Here, we report the results of sequencing and analyzing the genome of an 8.6-kb single-stranded RNA virus (HaRNAV-SOG263) that infects H. akashiwo. Our results show that HaRNAV is related to picorna-like viruses, but does not belong within any currently defined virus family. This is based on the genome organization and sequence comparisons of putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), helicase, and capsid protein sequences. The genome sequence predicts a single open reading frame (orf) encoding a polyprotein that contains conserved picorna-like protein domains, with putative nonstructural protein domains present in the N-terminus and the structural proteins in the C-terminus of the polyprotein. We have analyzed and compared the virus structural proteins from infectious and noninfectious particles. In this way, we identified structural protein cleavage sites as well as protein processing events that are presumably important for maturation of virus particles. The combination of genome structure and sequence relationships to other viruses suggests that HaRNAV is the first member of a proposed new virus family (Marnaviridae), related to picorna-like viruses

  10. Biochemical Studies of the Lagunamides, Potent Cytotoxic Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    OpenAIRE

    David Tai Leong; Lik Tong Tan; Ashootosh Tripathi; Wanru Fang

    2012-01-01

    Lagunamides A (1) and B (2) are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported to possess exquisite antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. The present study presents preliminary findings on the selectivity of lag...

  11. Powerful Fermentative Hydrogen Evolution of Photosynthate in the Cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii BL J Mediated by a Bidirectional Hydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita eKothari; Prathap eParmeswaran; Ferran eGarcia-Pichel

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered good models for biohydrogen production because they are relatively simple organisms with a demonstrable ability to generate H2 under certain physiological conditions. However, most produce only little H2, revert readily to H2 consumption, and suffer from hydrogenase sensitivity to O2. Strains of the cyanobacteria Lyngbya aestuarii and Microcoleus chthonoplastes obtained from marine intertidal cyanobacterial mats were recently found to display much better H2 produc...

  12. Powerful fermentative hydrogen evolution of photosynthate in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii BL J mediated by a bidirectional hydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Ankita; Parameswaran, Prathap; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered good models for biohydrogen production because they are relatively simple organisms with a demonstrable ability to generate H2 under certain physiological conditions. However, most produce only little H2, revert readily to H2 consumption, and suffer from hydrogenase sensitivity to O2. Strains of the cyanobacteria Lyngbya aestuarii and Microcoleus chthonoplastes obtained from marine intertidal cyanobacterial mats were recently found to display much better H2 produc...

  13. Cyanobacteria, Lyngbya aestuarii and Aphanothece bullosa as antifungal and antileishmanial drug resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maheep Kumar; Manoj Kumar Tripathi; Akanksha Srivastava; Jalaj Kumar Gour; Rakesh Kumar Singh; Ragini Tilak; Ravi Kumar Asthana

    2013-01-01

    To investigate two cyanobacteria isolated from different origins i.e. Lyngbya aestuarii(L. aestuarii) from brackish water and Aphanothece bullosa (A. bullosa) from fresh water paddy fields for antifungal and antileishmanila activity taking Candida albicans and Leishmaniadonovain as targets. Methods: Biomass of L. aestuarii and A. bullosa were harvested after 40 and 60 d respectively and lyophilized twice in methanol (100%) and redissolved in methanol (5%) for bioassay. Antifungal bioassay was done by agar well diffusion method while antileishmanial, by counting cell numbers and flageller motility observation of promastigotes and amastigotes fromL. donovani . Fluconazole and 5% methanol were used as control. Results: Both the cyanobacteria were found to be potent source of antifungal activity keeping fluconazole as positive control, however, methanolic crude extract (15 mg/mL) of A. bullosa was found more potent (larger inhibition zone) over that of methanolic crude extract of L. aestuarii. Similarly antileishmanial activity of crude extract (24.0 mg/mL) of A. bullosa was superior over that of methanolic crude extract of L. aestuarii (25.6 mg/mL). Conclusions: Antifungal and antileishmanial drugs are still limited in the market. Screening of microbes possessing antifungal and antileishmanial activity drug is of prime importance. Cyanobacteria are little explored in this context because most of the drugs in human therapy are derived from microorganisms, mainly bacterial, fungal and actinomycetes. Thus in the present study two cyanobacterial strains from different origins showed potent source of antifungal and antileishmanial biomolecules.

  14. Isolation and Purification of Heterotetrameric Catalase from a Desiccation Tolerant Cyanobacterium Lyngbya arboricola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor, Shivali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerant cyanobacterium Lyngbya arboricola, isolated from bark surfaces of Mangifera indica, possessed up to four stable isoforms of catalase in addition to other antioxidative enzymes, for several years under a dry state. Purification of the two most persistent isoforms of catalase (Cat has been undertaken by employing acetone precipitation, ethanol: chloroform treatment, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. The two isoforms of catalase remained almost unchanged on varying matric and osmotic hydration levels of mats of the cyanobacterium. The purification procedures resulted in a 1.3 % yield of purified single isoform (0.22 mg mL-1 protein with 709 Units mg-1 specific activity and a purity index of 0.83. Five millimolar of dithiothreitol (DTT was observed to be pertinent in maintaining the optimum redox state of the enzyme. The purification procedures additionally facilitated the simultaneous elimination and procurement of phycoerythrins (PE and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA. Each purified isoform gave a single band (~45kDa upon SDS-PAGE and denaturing urea isoelectric focusing (IEF depicted the presence of 2 subunits each of CatA and CatB. The monoisotopic mass and pI value of CatA and CatB as revealed by LC-MS analysis and internal amino acid sequencing was 78.96, 5.89 and 80.77, 5.92, respectively, showing resemblance with CatA of Erysiphe graminis subs. hordei and CatB of Ajellomyces capsulata. The heterotetrameric monofunctional catalase (~320 kDa, due to its stability in the form of resistance to ethanol: chloroform, its thermoalkaliphilic nature and the presence of innumerable hydrophobic amino acid residues (~40%, thus exhibited its potential for biotechnological applications.

  15. Comparative genomic analyses of the cyanobacterium, Lyngbya aestuarii BL J, a powerful hydrogen producer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnkitaKothari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii is an important contributor to marine intertidal microbial mats system worldwide. The recent isolate L. aestuarii BL J, is an unusually powerful hydrogen producer. Here we report a morphological, ultrastructural and genomic characterization of this strain to set the basis for future systems studies and applications of this organism. The filaments contain circa 17 μm wide trichomes, composed of stacked disk-like short cells (2 μm long, encased in a prominent, laminated exopolysaccharide sheath. Cellular division occurs by transversal centripetal growth of cross-walls, where several rounds of division proceed simultaneously. Filament division occurs by cell self-immolation of one or groups of cells (necridial cells at the breakage point. Short, sheath-less, motile filaments (hormogonia are also formed. Morphologically and phylogenetically L. aestuarii belongs to a clade of important cyanobacteria that include members of the marine Trichodesmiun and Hydrocoleum genera, as well as terrestrial Microcoleus vaginatus strains, and alkalyphilic strains of Arthrospira. A draft genome of strain BL J was compared to those of other cyanobacteria in order to ascertain some of its ecological constraints and biotechnological potential. The genome had an average GC content of 41.1 %. Of the 6.87 Mb sequenced, 6.44 Mb was present as large contigs (>10,000 bp. It contained 6515 putative protein-encoding genes, of which, 43 % encode proteins of known functional role, 26 % corresponded to proteins with domain or family assignments, 19.6 % encode conserved hypothetical proteins, and 11.3 % encode apparently unique hypothetical proteins. The strain’s genome reveals its adaptations to a life of exposure to intense solar radiation and desiccation. It likely employs the storage compounds, glycogen and cyanophycin but no polyhydroxyalkanoates, and can produce the osmolytes, trehalose and glycine

  16. Powerful Fermentative Hydrogen Evolution of Photosynthate in the Cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii BL J Mediated by a Bidirectional Hydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita eKothari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are considered good models for biohydrogen production because they are relatively simple organisms with a demonstrable ability to generate H2 under certain physiological conditions. However, most produce only little H2, revert readily to H2 consumption, and suffer from hydrogenase sensitivity to O2. Strains of the cyanobacteria Lyngbya aestuarii and Microcoleus chthonoplastes obtained from marine intertidal cyanobacterial mats were recently found to display much better H2 production potential. Because of their ecological origin in environments that become quickly anoxic in the dark, we hypothesized that this differential ability may have evolved to serve a role in the fermentation of the photosynthate. Here we show that, when forced to ferment internal substrate, these cyanobacteria display desirable characteristics of physiological H2 production. Among them, the strain L. aestuarii BL J had the fastest specific rates and attained the highest H2 concentrations during fermentation of photosynthate, which proceeded via a mixed-acid fermentation pathway to yield acetate, ethanol, lactate, H2, CO2 and pyruvate. Contrary to expectations, the H2 yield per mole of glucose was only average compared to that of other cyanobacteria. Thermodynamic analyses point to the use of electron donors more electronegative than NAD(PH in Lyngbya hydrogenases as the basis for its strong H2 production ability. In any event, the high specific rates and H2 concentrations coupled with the lack of reversibility of the enzyme, at the expense of internal, photosynthetically generated reductants, makes L. aestuarii BL J and/or its enzymes, a potentially feasible platform for large-scale H2 production.

  17. Powerful fermentative hydrogen evolution of photosynthate in the cyanobacterium Lyngbya aestuarii BL J mediated by a bidirectional hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ankita; Parameswaran, Prathap; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered good models for biohydrogen production because they are relatively simple organisms with a demonstrable ability to generate H2 under certain physiological conditions. However, most produce only little H2, revert readily to H2 consumption, and suffer from hydrogenase sensitivity to O2. Strains of the cyanobacteria Lyngbya aestuarii and Microcoleus chthonoplastes obtained from marine intertidal cyanobacterial mats were recently found to display much better H2 production potential. Because of their ecological origin in environments that become quickly anoxic in the dark, we hypothesized that this differential ability may have evolved to serve a role in the fermentation of the photosynthate. Here we show that, when forced to ferment internal substrate, these cyanobacteria display desirable characteristics of physiological H2 production. Among them, the strain L. aestuarii BL J had the fastest specific rates and attained the highest H2 concentrations during fermentation of photosynthate, which proceeded via a mixed acid fermentation pathway to yield acetate, ethanol, lactate, H2, CO2, and pyruvate. Contrary to expectations, the H2 yield per mole of glucose was only average compared to that of other cyanobacteria. Thermodynamic analyses point to the use of electron donors more electronegative than NAD(P)H in Lyngbya hydrogenases as the basis for its strong H2 production ability. In any event, the high specific rates and H2 concentrations coupled with the lack of reversibility of the enzyme, at the expense of internal, photosynthetically generated reductants, makes L. aestuarii BL J and/or its enzymes, a potentially feasible platform for large-scale H2 production. PMID:25540642

  18. A stable and functional single peptide phycoerythrin (15.45 kDa) from Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Joshi, Meghna; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-03-01

    A functional and stable truncated-phycoerythrin (T-PE) was found as a result of spontaneous in vitro truncation. Truncation was noticed to occur during storage of purified native-phycoerythrin (N-PE) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. SDS and native-PAGE analysis revealed the truncation of N-PE, containing α (19.0 kDa)--and β (21.5 kDa)--subunits to the only single peptide of ∼15.45 kDa (T-PE). The peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and MS/MS analysis indicated that T-PE is the part of α-subunit of N-PE. UV-visible absorption peak of N-PE was found to split into two peaks (540 and 565 nm) after truncation, suggesting the alterations in its folded state. The emission spectra of both N-PE and T-PE show the emission band centered at 581 nm (upon excitation at 559 nm) suggested the maintenance of fluorescence even after significant truncation. Urea-induced denaturation and Gibbs-free energy (ΔGD°) calculations suggested that the folding and structural stability of T-PE was almost similar to that of N-PE. Presented bunch of evidences revealed the truncation in N-PE without perturbing its folding, structural stability and functionality (fluorescence), and thereby suggested its applicability in fluorescence based biomedical techniques where smaller fluorescence molecules are more preferable. PMID:25485942

  19. Biochemical Studies of the Lagunamides, Potent Cytotoxic Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tai Leong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lagunamides A (1 and B (2 are potent cytotoxic cyclic depsipeptides isolated from the filamentous marine cyanobacterium, Lyngbya majuscula, from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. These compounds are structurally related to the aurilide-class of molecules, which have been reported to possess exquisite antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. The present study presents preliminary findings on the selectivity of lagunamides against various cancer cell lines as well as their mechanism of action by studying their effects on programmed cell death or apoptosis. Lagunamide A exhibited a selective growth inhibitory activity against a panel of cancer cell lines, including P388, A549, PC3, HCT8, and SK-OV3 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 nM to 6.4 nM. Morphological studies showed blebbing at the surface of cancer cells as well as cell shrinkage accompanied by loss of contact with the substratum and neighboring cells. Biochemical studies using HCT8 and MCF7 cancer cells suggested that the cytotoxic effect of 1 and 2 might act via induction of mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. Data presented in this study warrants further investigation on the mode of action and underscores the importance of the lagunamides as potential anticancer agents.

  20. Effects of PAR and UV Radiation on the Structural and Functional Integrity of Phycocyanin, Phycoerythrin and Allophycocyanin Isolated from the Marine Cyanobacterium Lyngbya sp. A09DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-01-01

    An in vitro analysis of the effects of photosynthetically active and ultraviolet radiations was executed to assess the photostability of biologically relevant pigments phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE) and allophycocyanin (APC) isolated from Lyngbya sp. A09DM. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiances significantly affected the integrity of PC, PE and APC; however, PAR showed least effect. UV radiation affected the bilin chromophores covalently attached to phycobiliproteins (PBPs). Almost complete elimination of the chromophore bands associated with α- and β-subunit of PE and APC occurred after 4 h of UV-B exposure. After 5 h of UV-B exposure, the content of PC, PE and APC decreased by 51.65%, 96.8% and 96.53%, respectively. Contrary to PAR and UV-A radiation, a severe decrease in fluorescence of all PBPs was observed under UV-B irradiation. The fluorescence activity of extracted PBP was gradually inhibited immediately after 15-30 min of UV-B exposure. In comparison to the PC, the fluorescence properties of PE and APC were severely lost under UV-B radiation. Moreover, the present study indicates that UV-B radiation can damage the structural and functional integrity of phycobiliproteins leading to the loss of their ecological and biological functions. PMID:25763657

  1. Affinity and Efficacy of Copper Following an Algicide Exposure: Application of the Critical Burden Concept for Lyngbya wollei Control in Lay Lake, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, West M.; Willis, Ben E.; Horton, C. Todd

    2015-04-01

    Accurate predictions of nuisance algae responses to algicide exposures are needed to guide management decisions. Copper sorption and responses of Lyngbya wollei (Farlow ex Gomont) Speziale and Dyck were measured in the laboratory and two areas in Lay Lake (AL, USA) to treatments of Captain® XTR (SePRO Corporation; chelated copper algicide) and a sequential treatment of GreenClean® Liquid (BioSafe Systems, LLC; peroxygen algicide) combined with Hydrothol® 191 (United Phosphorus, Inc.; endothall algicide) followed by Captain XTR. Measured filament viability in laboratory exposures predicted Captain XTR alone could control L. wollei in Lay Lake, with 2 mg Cu/g algae EC75. This produced a targeted field treatment of 9.7 kg Cu/ha which was divided into three applications of 0.3 mg Cu/L as Captain XTR in the treatment areas. Laboratory and field experiments indicated treatments of Captain XTR alone and the combination treatment resulted in comparable copper sorption and responses of L. wollei. Copper adsorbed greater to L. wollei in laboratory experiments than in the treated areas of Lay Lake with comparable exposures (2 mg Cu/g L. wollei). However, responses and infused copper were similar and correlated in laboratory experiments and treated areas of Lay Lake indicating infused copper is critical for governing toxicity. Laboratory exposures as mg Cu/g algae accurately predicted the necessary algicide exposure required to attain the critical burden of infused copper and elicit desired responses of L. wollei in treated areas of Lay Lake.

  2. Taxonomic notes on bloom forming cyanobacterial Genus Woronichinia from China%水华蓝藻类群乌龙藻属(Woronichinia)的分类学讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞功亮; 吴忠兴; 邵继海; 朱梦灵; 谭文华; 李仁辉

    2011-01-01

    About eleven taxa in the genus Woronichinia(Cyanophyta) have been reported worldwide as yet. However, only two species were found in China, and the taxonomic information about this genus in China was unclear. Based on field samples and the isolated strains from Chinese lakes, the present study described morphological characters for both the woronichinia genus and type species Woronichinia naegeliana. The comparison among Woronichinia and its related genera Microcystis and Coelosphaerium was also conducted.%目前,世界报道乌龙藻属有11个种类,中国报道2种,但属种特征的描述比较模糊,尤其是其模式种仍被归在其他属.根据采自国内的野外藻类样品和分离纯化培养的藻株,对中国分布的乌龙藻属及其模式种赖格乌龙藻(Woronichi-nia naegeliana(Unger)Elenkin,1933)的形态特征进行了观察和描述,并对它们的分类学进行了讨论,还将乌龙藻与相似属种微囊藻、腔球藻进行了形态学比较.

  3. Viability of dried filaments, survivability and reproduction under water stress, and survivability following heat and UV exposure in Lyngbya martensiana, Oscillatoria agardhii, Nostoc calcicola, Hormidium fluitans, Spirogyra sp. and Vaucheria geminata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to determine how long and to what extent Lyngbya martensiana, Oscillatoria agardhii, Nostoc calcicola, Hormidium fluitans and Vaucheria geminata tolerate dry storage at different temperatures, UV-light radiation and water stress imposed by growing them on media with a high agar content and/or in NaCl-containing liquid media. Dried vegetative filaments of Spirogyra sp., Vaucheria geminata and Nostoc calcicola died within 0,5, 1 and 4 h, respectively; those of Hormidium fluitans, Oscillatoria agardhii and Lyngbya martensiana retained viability for 3, 5 and 10 d, respectively. L. martensiana and O. agardhii tolerated 0.8 mol/L NaCl. The resistance to desiccation in L. martensiana and O. agardhii exhibited similar dependence as that to frost, to heat and UV light. The water stress imposed on growing algae either on high-agar solid media or in NaCl-containing liquid media reduced hormogonium formation in L. martensiana and O. agardhii; hetero-cyst and akinete formation in N. calcicola and fragmentation in H. fluitans. In all studied algae the stress reduced at various levels the survival of vegetative parts. Generally, algal body form and composition rather than habitats seem to decide primarily the level of resistance against various stress conditions

  4. Competing phytoplankton undermines allelopathy of a bloom-forming dinoflagellate

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Emily K; Myers, Tracey L; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Biotic interactions in the plankton can be both complex and dynamic. Competition among phytoplankton is often chemically mediated, but no studies have considered whether allelopathic compounds are modified by biotic interactions. Here, we show that compounds exuded during Karenia brevis blooms were allelopathic to the cosmopolitan diatom Skeletonema costatum, but that bloom allelopathy varied dramatically among collections and years. We investigated several possible causes of this variability...

  5. Effect of Alexandrium tamarense on three bloom-forming algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Xie, Jin; Yang, Weidong; Li, Hongye; Liu, Jiesheng

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the allelopathic properties of Alexandrium tamarense (Laboar) Balech on the growth of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada in a laboratory experiment. We examined the growth of A. tamarense, C. marina, P. donghaiense and H. Akashiwo in co-cultures and the effect of filtrates from A. tamarense cultures in various growth phases, on the three harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming algae. In co-cultures with A. tamarense, both C. marina and H. akashiwo were dramatically suppressed at high cell densities; in contrast, the growth of P. donghaiense varied in different inoculative ratios of A. tamarense and P. donghaiense. When the ratio was 1:1 ( P. donghaiense: A. tamarense), growth of P. donghaiense was inhibited considerably, while the growth of P. donghaiense was almost the same as that of the control when the ratio was 9:1. The growth difference of P. donghaiense, C. marina and H. akashiwo when co-cultured with A. tamarense indicated that the allelopathic effect may be one of the important factors in algal competition and phytoplankton succession involving A. tamarense. In addition, the filtrate from A. tamarense culture had negative impacts on these three HAB algae, and such inhibition varied with different growth phases of A. tamarense in parallel with reported values of PSP toxin content in Alexandrium cells. This implied that PSP toxin was possibly involved in allelopathy of A. tamarense. However, the rapid decomposition and inactivation of PSP toxin above pH 7 weakened this possibility. Further studies on the allelochemicals responsible for the allelopathy of A. tamarense need to be carried out in future.

  6. Comparative phycoremediation of sewage water by various species of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study sewage water treatment efficiency of Chlorella vulgaris, Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum And mixed algae culture (Microspora sp., Navicula sp., Lyngbya sp.,Cladophora sp.,Spirogyra sp. and Rhizoclonium sp.) was compared. Sampled wastewater was analyzed for various parameters (i.e., COD, BOD, TS, TSS, TDS, TC, FC, TKN, TP, NO/sub 3/-N, PO/sub 4/,SO/sub 4/and Cl-) and concentrations of all these parameters in the untreated water were above the permissible limits of National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan (2000). Various algal species were used to treat sewage water by varying pond size, treatment duration, seasonal variation and growth rate of algae to arrive at the optimum outcome. Maximum percent reductions of various parameters, attained with C. vulgaris, were: chemical oxygen demand (98.3%), biochemical oxygen demand (98.7%), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (93.1%), total phosphorus (98.0%), nitrate (98.3%), phosphate (98.6%), chloride (94.2%), total coliforms (99.0%), faecal coliforms (99.0%) and total dissolved solids (98.2%) while maximum reduction in total suspended solids (92.0%) was obtained with a mixed algae culture and maximum increase in biomass by R. hieroglyphicum (0.75 g L/sup -1/day/sup -1/). Reduction in the concentration of pollutants in sewage water was to such a low level that it can be thrown in water bodies without any further treatment. (author)

  7. The isolation and characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Microcystis aeruginosa, a prominent toxic water bloom forming cyanobacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahová, L.; Adamovský, O.; Kubala, Lukáš; Šindlerová, Lenka; Zounková, R.; Blaha, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 76, DEC (2013), s. 187-196. ISSN 0041-0101 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-27695P Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : CYLINDROSPERMOPSIS-RACIBORSKII * ESCHERICHIA-COLI * DANIO-RERIO Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2013

  8. Intraspecific Variation in Growth and Morphology of the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alan E.; Wilson, Whitney A.; Hay, Mark E.

    2006-01-01

    In the laboratory, we documented large variation in the morphology, toxicity, and maximum population growth rates for 32 Microcystis aeruginosa strains isolated from 12 lakes. Growth rates and mean colony sizes varied significantly across strains and were positively correlated. However, growth rates were unrelated to toxin production.

  9. Compensatory growth of the bloom-forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense induced by nitrogen stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghui Zhu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the phenomenon of compensatory growth has been documented in someanimals and higher plants, little information is available on its manifestation in marinemicroalgae. We have conducted the first study on the compensatory growth of the red tide causative dinoflagellate Prorocentrumdonghaiense after its recovery from different nitrogen concentrations.The results showed that NaNO3 concentrations of 0 and 7.5 mg l-1 significantly reduced thegrowth of P. donghaiense, as compared to 37.5 and 75 mg l-1. When the microalgal cells were returned to 75 mg l-1, they exhibited subsequent compensatory growth. The most significant compensatory growth was found in those cells previously experiencing 0 mg dm3, followed by 7.5 mg dm3, indicating thatcompensatory growth depended on the extent of nitrogen stress they had been subjected to. Our results suggest thatcompensatory growth can be induced in the marine microalga P. donghaiense after its recovery from nitrogen fluctuation, and that this should be taken into consideration in the prevalence of P. donghaiense blooms in coastal waters.

  10. Ocean Acidification Accelerates the Growth of Two Bloom-Forming Macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Craig S.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    While there is growing interest in understanding how marine life will respond to future ocean acidification, many coastal ecosystems currently experience intense acidification in response to upwelling, eutrophication, or riverine discharge. Such acidification can be inhibitory to calcifying animals, but less is known regarding how non-calcifying macroalgae may respond to elevated CO2. Here, we report on experiments performed during summer through fall with North Atlantic populations of Gracilaria and Ulva that were grown in situ within a mesotrophic estuary (Shinnecock Bay, NY, USA) or exposed to normal and elevated, but environmentally realistic, levels of pCO2 and/or nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). In nearly all experiments, the growth rates of Gracilaria were significantly increased by an average of 70% beyond in situ and control conditions when exposed to elevated levels of pCO2 (p0.05). The δ13C content of both Gracilaria and Ulva decreased two-to-three fold when grown under elevated pCO2 (pacidification, a process that will intensify in the coming decades. PMID:27176637

  11. Structural and functional diversity of bacterial communities of bloom-forming freshwater cyanobacterial phycosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Louati, Imen

    2015-01-01

    Potentially toxic cyanobacteria blooms often occur in eutrophic aquatic ecosystems. While many studies have been published on their ecology and toxicity, few have investigated the interactions between cyanobacteria and their associated chimiotrophic bacteria within the phycosphere. This latter is the subject of this thesis. Using both natural ecosystems and laboratory approaches, we show that the structure and composition of bacterial communities (BC) associated with cyanobacteria are differe...

  12. Ocean Acidification Accelerates the Growth of Two Bloom-Forming Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Craig S; Gobler, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    While there is growing interest in understanding how marine life will respond to future ocean acidification, many coastal ecosystems currently experience intense acidification in response to upwelling, eutrophication, or riverine discharge. Such acidification can be inhibitory to calcifying animals, but less is known regarding how non-calcifying macroalgae may respond to elevated CO2. Here, we report on experiments performed during summer through fall with North Atlantic populations of Gracilaria and Ulva that were grown in situ within a mesotrophic estuary (Shinnecock Bay, NY, USA) or exposed to normal and elevated, but environmentally realistic, levels of pCO2 and/or nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus). In nearly all experiments, the growth rates of Gracilaria were significantly increased by an average of 70% beyond in situ and control conditions when exposed to elevated levels of pCO2 (p0.05). The δ13C content of both Gracilaria and Ulva decreased two-to-three fold when grown under elevated pCO2 (pphotosynthesis of these algae was limited by their inorganic carbon supply. Given that eutrophication can yield elevated levels of pCO2, this study suggests that the overgrowth of macroalgae in eutrophic estuaries can be directly promoted by acidification, a process that will intensify in the coming decades. PMID:27176637

  13. Allelopathy as an emergent, exploitable public good in the bloom-forming microalga Prymnesium parvum

    OpenAIRE

    Driscoll, William W.; Espinosa, Noelle J.; Eldakar, Omar T.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2013-01-01

    Many microbes cooperatively secrete extracellular products that favorably modify their environment. Consistent with social evolution theory, structured habitats play a role in maintaining these traits in microbial model systems, by localizing the benefits and separating strains that invest in these products from ‘cheater’ strains that benefit without paying the cost. It is thus surprising that many unicellular, well-mixed microalgal populations invest in extracellular toxins that confer ecolo...

  14. Effects of Bloom-Forming Algae on Fouling of Integrated Membrane Systems in Seawater Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, David Allen

    2009-01-01

    Combining low- and high-pressure membranes into an integrated membrane system is an effective treatment strategy for seawater desalination. Low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes remove particulate material, colloids, and high-molecular-weight organics leaving a relatively foulant-free salt solution for treatment by…

  15. Diversity of Marine Cyanobacteria from Three Mangrove Environment in Tamil Nadu Coast, South East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Silambarasan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine cyanobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere soil samples, of the three mangroves viz Parangipettai, Ariyankuppam and Mudasal odai mangroves south east coast of India. As many as 39 Cyanobacteria, belonging to 12 families were identified in which Oscillatoriaceae alone contributed (11. The species such as Oscillatoria cortiana, Oscillatoria salina, Oscillatoria tenuis, Oscillatoria formosa, Lyngbya major, Lyngbya confervoides, Lyngbya majuscule, Lyngbya mesotricha, Phormidium stagnina, Plectonema terebrans and Plectonema putuale and minimum in Synechococcaceae recorded only one species the species such as Synechococcus elongatus. Among the species Synechocystis salina, Oscillatoria salina, Phormidium ambiguum, Phormidium tenue, Spirulina major distributed all the mangroves.

  16. Species composition and abundance of dinoflagellates from the coastal waters of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Munir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the community structure, seasonal dynamics of dinoflagellates population with environmental conditions in the nutrient-rich and polluted coastal waters off, Karachi. Methods: Sampling sites were located from Karachi harbour (Station A and Mouth of Manora Channel (Station B. Total 180 replicate samples were collected at 1-m depth through Niskin bottle sampler (1.7 L and fixed with 2% lugol’s preservative then examined under light inverted microscopy, scanning electron and epiflourescence microscope. Results: The environmental conditions, such as temperature [(20–27 °C], salinity [(35–40 psu], chlorophyll a [(1–103 µg/L], pH (6.03–8.13 and dissolve oxygen [(0.7–5.5 mg/L] were recorded from both stations. A total of 96 species were identified into potential harmful toxic/ non-toxic bloom forming species and cysts producer. Total dinoflagellate cells between two coastal sites were much concentrated at the adjacent area of mouth of Manora Channel compare to harbor site. The dinoflagellate cell concentration ranging from 20 to ~55000 cells/L and the maximum values observed in two season, (~55000 cells/L in autumn and (~ 3000 cells/L in winter season. Gyrodinium sp. was the predominant taxa with the maximum abundance (48166 cells/L observed in autumn season following by Scrippsiella trochoidea (1200 cells/L, Alexandrium ostenfeldii (3000 cells/L in winter season, and Ceratium furca (640 cells/L, Protoperidinium steinii (780 cells/L, Ceratium fusus (906 cells/L, Pyrophacus steinii (840 cells/L, Gonyaulax spinifera (666 cells/L, Alexandrium tamarense (520 cells/L and Dinophysis caudata (393 cells/L in summer and spring season. Statistically, abundance of dinoflagellates correlated significant to chlorophyll a with chlorophyll a and temperature but inverse relation to salinity and pH observed from both sites. Conclusions: The present study reports on the prevalence and significance of harmful algae bloom forming taxa in

  17. Species composition and abundance of dinoflagellates from the coastal waters of Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonia Munir; Tahira Naz; Zaib-un-nisa Burhan; Pirzada JamalAhmed Siddiqui; Steve Larry Morton

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the community structure, seasonal dynamics of dinoflagellates population with environmental conditions in the nutrient-rich and polluted coastal waters off, Karachi. Methods: Sampling sites were located from Karachi harbour (Station A) and Mouth of Manora Channel (Station B). Total 180 replicate samples were collected at 1-m depth through Niskin bottle sampler (1.7 L) and fixed with 2% lugol’s preservative then examined under light inverted microscopy, scanning electron and epiflourescence microscope. Results: The environmental conditions, such as temperature [(20–27) °C], salinity [(35–40) psu], chlorophyll a [(1–103) µg/L], pH (6.03–8.13) and dissolve oxygen [(0.7–5.5) mg/L] were recorded from both stations. A total of 96 species were identified into potential harmful toxic/ non-toxic bloom forming species and cysts producer. Total dinoflagellate cells between two coastal sites were much concentrated at the adjacent area of mouth of Manora Channel compare to harbor site. The dinoflagellate cell concentration ranging from 20 to ~55000 cells/L and the maximum values observed in two season, (~55000 cells/L) in autumn and (~ 3000 cells/L) in winter season. Gyrodinium sp. was the predominant taxa with the maximum abundance (48166 cells/L) observed in autumn season following by Scrippsiella trochoidea (1200 cells/L), Alexandrium ostenfeldii (3000 cells/L) in winter season, and Ceratium furca (640 cells/L), Protoperidinium steinii (780 cells/L), Ceratium fusus (906 cells/L), Pyrophacus steinii (840 cells/L), Gonyaulax spinifera (666 cells/L), Alexandrium tamarense (520 cells/L) and Dinophysis caudata (393 cells/L) in summer and spring season. Statistically, abundance of dinoflagellates correlated significant to chlorophyll a with chlorophyll a and temperature but inverse relation to salinity and pH observed from both sites. Conclusions: The present study reports on the prevalence and significance of harmful algae bloom forming taxa in

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rates of different species from a coral reef community after a nutrient pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Haan, Joost; Huisman, Jef; Brocke, Hannah J.; Goehlich, Henry; Latijnhouwers, Kelly R. W.; van Heeringen, Seth; Honcoop, Saskia A. S.; Bleyenberg, Tanja E.; Schouten, Stefan; Cerli, Chiara; Hoitinga, Leo; Vermeij, Mark J. A.; Visser, Petra M.

    2016-06-01

    Terrestrial runoff after heavy rainfall can increase nutrient concentrations in waters overlying coral reefs that otherwise experience low nutrient levels. Field measurements during a runoff event showed a sharp increase in nitrate (75-fold), phosphate (31-fold) and ammonium concentrations (3-fold) in waters overlying a fringing reef at the island of Curaçao (Southern Caribbean). To understand how benthic reef organisms make use of such nutrient pulses, we determined ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake rates for one abundant coral species, turf algae, six macroalgal and two benthic cyanobacterial species in a series of laboratory experiments. Nutrient uptake rates differed among benthic functional groups. The filamentous macroalga Cladophora spp., turf algae and the benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula had the highest uptake rates per unit biomass, whereas the coral Madracis mirabilis had the lowest. Combining nutrient uptake rates with the standing biomass of each functional group on the reef, we estimated that the ammonium and phosphate delivered during runoff events is mostly taken up by turf algae and the two macroalgae Lobophora variegata and Dictyota pulchella. Our results support the often proposed, but rarely tested, assumption that turf algae and opportunistic macroalgae primarily benefit from episodic inputs of nutrients to coral reefs.

  19. FIVE RED TIDE SPECIES IN GENUS PROROCENTRUM INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTION OF PROROCENTRUM DONGHAIENSE LU SP. NOV. FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new planktonic dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov., is described in the present paper. The water sample was collected from the Changjiang Estuary, the East China Sea. The species identification is based on shape, size, surface micro-morphology, ornamentation of thecal plates and the architecture of the periflagellar area and the intercalary bands as seen by light and scanning electron microscope. Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov. is compared with other prorocentrum species with respect to morphological characteristics and bloom behavior. It is not known whether Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov produces phycotoxins like some other Prorocentrum species. Four other red tide species in the family Prorocentraceae (Dinophyceae), namely P. balticum, P. minimum, P.micans, P. triestinum, were examined and identified by light and scanning electron microscope. They have been recorded as bloom-forming species. Some aggregates of Prorocentrum are observed at the end of blooms. An event of strong discoloration caused by P. donghaiense could be detected by satellite sensor in the East China Sea in the late spring of 1995.

  20. FIVE RED TIDE SPECIES IN GENUS PROROCENTRUM INCLUDING THE DESCRIPTION OF PROROCENTRUM DONGHAIENSE LU SP. NOV. FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆斗定; JeanetteGoebel

    2001-01-01

    A new planktonic dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum donghaiense I_a sp. nov., is described in the present paper. The water sample was collected from the Changjiang Estuary, the East China Sea. The species identification is based on shape, size, surface micro-morphology, ornamentation of thecal plates and the architecture of the pel'iflagellar area and the intercalary bands as seen by fight and scanning electron microscope. Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov. is compared with other prorocentrum species with respect to morphological characteristics and bloom behavior. It is not known whether Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu sp. nov produces phycotoxins like some other Prorocentrum species. Four other red tide species in the family Prorocentraceae (Dinophyceae), namely P. balticum, P. minimum, P.micans, P. triestinum, were examined and identified by light and scanning electron microscope. They have been recorded as bloom-forming species. Some aggregates of Prorocentrum are observed at the end of blooms. An event of strong discoloration caused by P. donghaiense could be detected by satellite sensor in the East China Sea in the late spring, of 1995.

  1. Study in biosorption of lead, cadmium, nickel and zink to algae; Untersuchung der Biosorption von Blei, Cadmium, Nickel und Zink an Algen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimmek, S.; Stan, H.J. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Lebensmittelchemie

    1999-07-01

    In a screening test, 25 algae have so far been examined for their ability to adsorb the four heavy metals Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn. The chlorophycea species Chlorella salina and the cynaophycea species Lyngbya taylorii proved the most efficient algae in the screening. The potential of algae as heavy metal adsorbers is shown by the example of Lyngbya taylorii. (orig.) [German] In einem Screeningverfahren wurden bisher 25 Algen auf ihre Faehigkeit, die vier Schwermetalle (Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn) zu adsorbieren, untersucht. Die Chlorophycee Chlorella salina und die Cyanophycee Lyngbya taylorii erwiesen sich als die leistungsfaehigsten Algen im Screening. Das Potential der Algen als Schwermetalladsorber wird am Beispiel von Lyngbya taylorii gezeigt. (orig.)

  2. Draft Genome Assembly of the Bloom-Forming Cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena Strain CENA596 in Shrimp Production Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popin, Rafael Vicentini; Rigonato, Janaina; Abreu, Vinicius Augusto Carvalho; Andreote, Ana Paula Dini; Silveira, Savênia Bonoto; Odebrecht, Clarisse; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome assembly of the brackish cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena strain CENA596 isolated from a shrimp production pond in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The draft genome consists of 291 contigs with a total size of 5,189,679 bp. Secondary metabolite annotations resulted in several predicted gene clusters, including those responsible for encoding the hepatotoxin nodularin. PMID:27284148

  3. Expression profiling of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Nodularia CCY9414 under light and oxidative stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Matthias; Möke, Fred; Bauwe, Hermann; Hess, Wolfgang R; Hagemann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Massive blooms of toxic cyanobacteria frequently occur in the central Baltic Sea during the summer. In the surface scum, cyanobacterial cells are exposed to high light (HL) intensity, high oxygen partial pressure and other stresses. To mimic these conditions, cultures of Nodularia spumigena CCY9414, which is a strain isolated from a cyanobacterial summer bloom in the Baltic Sea, were incubated at a HL intensity of 1200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) or a combination of HL and increased oxygen partial pressure. Using differential RNA sequencing, we compared the global primary transcriptomes of control and stressed cells. The combination of oxidative and light stresses induced the expression of twofold more genes compared with HL stress alone. In addition to the induction of known stress-responsive genes, such as psbA, ocp and sodB, Nodularia cells activated the expression of genes coding for many previously unknown light- and oxidative stress-related proteins. In addition, the expression of non-protein-coding RNAs was found to be stimulated by these stresses. Among them was an antisense RNA to the phycocyanin-encoding mRNA cpcBAC and the trans-encoded regulator of photosystem I, PsrR1. The large genome capacity allowed Nodularia to harbor more copies of stress-relevant genes such as psbA and small chlorophyll-binding protein genes, combined with the coordinated induction of these and many additional genes for stress acclimation. Our data provide a first insight on how N. spumigena became adapted to conditions relevant for a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. PMID:25689027

  4. Invasive species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  5. Nitrogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, J. E.; Brasseur, G.; Coffey, M. T.; Fischer, H.; Gille, J.; Jones, R.; Louisnard, N.; McCormick, M. P.; Noxon, J.; Owens, A. J.

    Total odd nitrogen, NO(y), may be defined as the sum of all active nitrogen species that interchange photochemically with one another on a time scale of the order of weeks or less. As noted, NO + NO2 reactions dominate the processes controlling the ozone balance in the contemporary stratosphere. The observational data from non-satellite platforms are reviewed. The growth in available satellite data in the past four years is considered. Some of the most important scientific issues are discussed, taking into account new results from atmospheric models (mainly 2-D). The model results are compared with the observational data.

  6. X-ray crystallographic studies on C-phycocyanins from cyanobacteria from different habitats: marine and freshwater

    OpenAIRE

    Satyanarayana, L.; Suresh, C. G.; Patel, Anamika; Mishra, Sandhya; Ghosh, Pushpito Kumar

    2005-01-01

    The protein C-phycocyanin, involved in photosynthesis, has been purified from three cyanobacterial species: Spirulina, Phormidium and Lyngbya. These three proteins have been crystallized and characterized using X-ray crystallography.

  7. Modulation of ecdysal cyst and toxin dynamics of two Alexandrium (Dinophyceae species under small-scale turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Berdalet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Some dinoflagellate species have shown different physiological responses to certain turbulent conditions. Here we investigate how two levels of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates (ε = 0.4 and 27 cm² s−3 affect the PSP toxins and ecdysal cyst dynamics of two bloom forming species, Alexandrium minutum and A. catenella. The most striking responses were observed at the high ε generated by an orbital shaker. In the cultures of the two species shaken for more than 4 days, the cellular GTX(1+4 toxin contents were significantly lower than in the still control cultures. In A. minutum this trend was also observed in the C(1+2 toxin content. For the two species, inhibition of ecdysal cyst production occurred during the period of exposure of the cultures to stirring (4 or more days at any time during their growth curve. Recovery of cyst abundances was always observed when turbulence stopped. When shaking persisted for more than 4 days, the net growth rate significantly decreased in A. minutum (from 0.25±0.01 day−1 to 0.19±0.02 day−1 and the final cell numbers were lower (ca. 55.4% than in the still control cultures. In A. catenella, the net growth rate was not markedly modified by turbulence although under long exposure to shaking, the cultures entered earlier in the stationary phase and the final cell numbers were significantly lower (ca. 23% than in the control flasks. The described responses were not observed in the experiments performed at the low turbulence intensities with an orbital grid system, where the population development was favoured. In those conditions, cells appeared to escape from the zone of the influence of the grids and concentrated in calmer thin layers either at the top or at the bottom of the containers. This ecophysiological study provides new evidences about the sensitivity to high levels of small-scale turbulence by two life cycle related processes, toxin production and encystment, in dinoflagellates. This can

  8. New Insights into the Parasitoid Parvilucifera sinerae Life Cycle: The Development and Kinetics of Infection of a Bloom-forming Dinoflagellate Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacid, Elisabet; Reñé, Albert; Garcés, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Parvilucifera sinerae is a parasitoid of dinoflagellates, the major phytoplankton group responsible for harmful algal bloom events. Here we provide a detailed description of both the life cycle of P. sinerae, based on optical, confocal, and transmission electron microscopy observations, and its infection kinetics and dynamics. P. sinerae completes its life cycle in 3-4 days. The zoospore encounters and penetrates the host cell within 24h after its addition to the host culture. Inside the host, the parasitoid develops a trophocyte, which constitutes the longest stage of its life cycle. The trophocyte replicates and divides by schizogony to form hundreds of new zoospores contained within a sporangium. Under laboratory conditions, P. sinerae has a short generation time, a high rate of asexual reproduction, and is highly prevalent (up to 80%) in the Alexandrium minutum population. Prevalence was shown to depend on both the parasitoid inoculum size and host density, which increase the encounter probability rate. The parasitoid infection parameters described in this study are the first reported for the genus Parvilucifera. They show that P. sinerae is well-adapted to its dinoflagellate hosts and may be an important factor in the termination of A. minutum blooms in the natural environment. PMID:26605683

  9. Polyphasic evaluation of Limnoraphis robusta, a water–bloom forming cyanobacterium from Lake Atitlán, Guatemala, with a description of Limnoraphis gen. nov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, Jiří; Zapomělová, Eliška; Šmarda, J.; Kopecký, Jiří; Rejmánková, E.; Woodhouse, J.; Neilan, B. A.; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 39-52. ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/1501; GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Lake Atitlán * Limnoraphis * taxonomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.627, year: 2013

  10. Species selection on variability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, E. A.; Gould, S J

    1993-01-01

    Most analyses of species selection require emergent, as opposed to aggregate, characters at the species level. This "emergent character" approach tends to focus on the search for adaptations at the species level. Such an approach seems to banish the most potent evolutionary property of populations--variability itself--from arguments about species selection (for variation is an aggregate character). We wish, instead, to extend the legitimate domain of species selection to aggregate characters....

  11. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  12. The Earth's Vanishing Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    USA Today, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Elaborates on the problem of expanding human activity to the world's plant and animal species. Concludes that preserving an individual species is largely a waste of time and effort and that the best way to protect the most species of plants and animals is to save their environments over large tracts of land. (DB)

  13. Species diversity modulates predation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kratina, P.; Vos, M.; Anholt, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    Predation occurs in a context defined by both prey and non-prey species. At present it is largely unknown how species diversity in general, and species that are not included in a predator's diet in particular, modify predator–prey interactions.Therefore we studied how both the density and diversity

  14. Aquatic invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  15. Detection of cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author)

  16. Culture-Independent Study of the Late-Stage of a Bloom of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata: Preliminary Findings Suggest Genetic Differences at the Sub-Species Level and Allow ITS2 Structure Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Ramos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Available genomic data for the toxic, bloom-forming, benthic Ostreopsis spp. are traditionally obtained from isolates rather than from individuals originally present in environmental samples. Samples from the final phase of the first reported Ostreopsis bloom in European North Atlantic waters (Algarve, south coast of Portugal were studied and characterized, using a culture-independent approach. In the first instance, a microscopy-based analysis revealed the intricate complexity of the samples. Then, we evaluated the adequacy of commonly used molecular tools (i.e., primers and nuclear ribosomal markers for the study of Ostreopsis diversity in natural samples. A PCR-based methodology previously developed to identify/detect common Ostreopsis species was tested, including one new combination of existing PCR primers. Two sets of environmental rRNA sequences were obtained, one of them (1052 bp with the newly tested primer set. These latter sequences encompass both the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rRNA gene, leading us to an accurate identification of ITS2. In turn, this allowed us to predict and show for the first time the ITS2 secondary structure of Ostreopsis. With 92 bp in length and a two-helix structure, the ITS2 of this genus revealed to be unique among the dinoflagellates. Both the PCR approach as the phylogenetic analyses allowed to place the Ostreopsis cells observed in the samples within the O. cf. ovata phylospecies’ complex, discarding the presence of O. cf. siamensis. The (phylogenetic results point out a certain level of nucleotide sequence divergence, but were inconclusive in relation to a possible geographic origin of the O. cf. ovata population from the Algarve’s bloom.

  17. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  18. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  19. Species ID Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Up to 10 individuals of a fin fish, shark, and crustacean species are collected and morphologically identified by Southeast Fisheries Science Center. Water-soluble...

  20. How reticulated are species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, James; Besansky, Nora; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree-like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and reticulation can thereby affect all parts of the tree of life, not just the recent species at the tips. Our understanding of adaptive evolution, speciation, phylogenetics, and comparative biology must adapt to these mostly recent findings. Introgression has important practical implications as well, not least for the management of genetically modified organisms in pest and disease control. PMID:26709836

  1. USGS invasive species solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  2. Communication on invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Like any other environmental problem, control of invasive species needs to be based on awareness of the implications by the public and by private enterprise. Active, informed public support is a major factor for success in managing a pest crisis; regulations and coercive measures alone do not succeed. Which raises the question of what to communicate, and how. There may be conflicts of interest where alien species are concerned because some of them are a source of income, pleasure or even a st...

  3. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 103272 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LPNTSEVLDQEYLKNADFWTKDALKDRFRTCNKAYQYLQKTYGFKFKPSWDKVLEAFNTGGKRESITLEKEVESLKQTVNLQQQQINKLEQQNTLLEAKLNEVLRLVNSANFQNRKE ... ..._18886 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MPNILETLQDESRFDKINKSINKVNQGVENLSDIAENLADQTVDAVESGMRFGYAYAQVEAGEKQSSNSDEYIDVEVASL

  4. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 78536 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4516 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MSFTQPSQPQPHSSLISFSDGWFILPRRVFPHHTDYAGIVWHGTYMTWMEELRVEGLHWLGVNYSDLVAMGCDLPVVELKVRYHLSVKMGMTILIKGQPLPIKGVRMVWDYQIVSEDHQQLYVSGQVTLVPLSRETGKIMRRLPPLLQDAIAQIQG ...

  5. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 37541 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GIIMCDPEWKVKIGVEIFIFIHHPNEDFSDLLMRWRLTQVCLDQGYEWVMPHHYSHIYSQEAEKIYPLFVLFSETPERIKRGLQGANLPFVIPALDTTVDPSDYQSIDELDEFDLEHHPEWKSWGDINSDQ ... ...00405 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MPVQQSHYETLLAEYSNAEAAIALLKQHRTYLEMIPSMRRPDESLITIPLPIVRLRDGVSYTGKSGVSITPGQAMCLPCDL

  6. Theoretical ecology without species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    The sequencing-driven revolution in microbial ecology demonstrated that discrete ``species'' are an inadequate description of the vast majority of life on our planet. Developing a novel theoretical language that, unlike classical ecology, would not require postulating the existence of species, is a challenge of tremendous medical and environmental significance, and an exciting direction for theoretical physics. Here, it is proposed that community dynamics can be described in a naturally hierarchical way in terms of population fluctuation eigenmodes. The approach is applied to a simple model of division of labor in a multi-species community. In one regime, effective species with a core and accessory genome are shown to naturally appear as emergent concepts. However, the same model allows a transition into a regime where the species formalism becomes inadequate, but the eigenmode description remains well-defined. Treating a community as a black box that expresses enzymes in response to resources reveals mathematically exact parallels between a community and a single coherent organism with its own fitness function. This coherence is a generic consequence of division of labor, requires no cooperative interactions, and can be expected to be widespread in microbial ecosystems. Harvard Center of Mathematical Sciences and Applications;John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  7. Concepts of keystone species and species importance in ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discussed the keystone species concept and introduced the typical characteristics of keystone species and their identification in communities or ecosystems. Based on the research of the keystone species, the concept of species importance (SI) was first advanced in this paper. The species importance can be simply understood as the important value of species in the ecosystem, which consists of three indexes: species structural important value (SIV), functional important value (FIV) and dynamical important value (DIV). With the indexes, the evaluation was also made on species importance of arbor trees in the Three-Hardwood forests (Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, and Phellodendron amurense) ecosystem.

  8. Genomic definition of species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  9. Lignans from Arnica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas J; Stausberg, Sabine; Raison, Jeanette Von; Berner, Matthias; Willuhn, Günter

    2006-05-10

    From four Arnica species (A. angustifolia Vahl ssp. attenuata (Greene) Maguire, A. lonchophylla Greene ssp. lonchophylla Maguire (flowerheads), A. chamissonis Less. ssp. foliosa (Nutt.) Maguire, A. montana L. (roots and rhizomes)) a total of twelve lignans of the furofuran-, dibenzylbutyrolactone- and dibenzylbutyrolactol-type were isolated. No report on lignans as constituents of Arnica species exists so far. Besides the known pinoresinol, epipinoresinol, phillygenin, matairesinol, nortrachelogenin and nortracheloside, six dibenzylbutyrolactol derivatives with different stereochemistry and substitution at C-9 were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectral analysis. PMID:16644542

  10. The functional biogeography of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, D.W.; Dalsgaard, B.; Svenning, J.-C.; Rahbek, C.; Fjeldså, J.; Sutherland, W.J.; Olesen, Jens M.

    2013-01-01

    between species traits and large-scale species distribution patterns in archipelagos, we use a network approach to classify birds as one of four biogeographical species roles: peripherals, connectors, module hubs, and network hubs. These roles are based upon the position of species within the modular...... distributions at the local community level. We finally discuss how our biogeographical species roles may correspond to the stages of the taxon cycle and other prominent theories of species assembly. © 2013 The Authors....

  11. Coevolution of Symbiotic Species

    OpenAIRE

    Leok, Boon Tiong Melvin

    1996-01-01

    This paper will consider the coevolution of species which are symbiotic in their interaction. In particular, we shall analyse the interaction of squirrels and oak trees, and develop a mathematical framework for determining the coevolutionary equilibrium for consumption and production patterns.

  12. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  13. Hydrolysate of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue: An algal growth promoter and enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rahulkumar; Paliwal, Chetan; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Pancha, Imran; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Satpati, Gour Gopal; Pal, Ruma; Ghosh, Arup; Mishra, Sandhya

    2016-05-01

    The present study demonstrates the utilization of the algal hydrolysate (AH) prepared from lipid extracted residual harmful bloom-forming cyanobacteria Lyngbya majuscula biomass, as a growth supplement for the cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. BG-11 replacements with AH in different proportions significantly affects the cell count, dry cell weight (DCW), biomass productivity (BP) and pigments concentration. Among all, 25% AH substitution in BG11 media was found to be optimum which enhanced DCW, BP and pigments content by 39.13%, 40.81% and 129.47%, respectively, compared to control. The lipid content (31.95%) was also significantly higher in the 25% AH replacement. The volumetric productivity of neutral lipids (ideal for biodiesel) and total protein content of the cells significantly increased in all AH substitutions. Thus, lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue (LMBR) hydrolysate can be a potential growth stimulating supplement for oleaginous microalgae C. vulgaris. PMID:26890794

  14. Trichoderma species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chu-long; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Seventeen species of Trichoderma, isolated from soil or tree bark from China are identified based on morphological and physiological characters, and from their phylogenetic position inferred from parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cluster (ITS1 and 2) and partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) . There were T. citrinoviride, T. longibrachiatum, T. sinensis in section Longibrachiatum, T. atroviride, T.koningii, T. viride, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, T. erinaceum in section Trichoderma, T.harzianum (H.lixii) , T. inhamatum, T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. strictipile , T. spirale ,T. virens, H. nigrovirens (Trichoderma sp.) in section Pachybasium. Among them four species:T. asperellum , T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. spirale were reported firstly in China. In addition, two suspected new taxa (Trichoderma spp.) in Trichoderma section were proposed:Trichoderma sp. 1 (ZAUT261, 4, 4A, 15A, 2C), Trichoderma sp. 2 (2B, 5, 7A, 7B, 9A).Trichoderma sp. 1 was similar to T. hamatum , but the temperature optimum for mycelial growth was lower than that of T. hamatum and the species tended to form hemisphaerical pustule with Telatively larger conidia (average length 4.6 μm × 2.8 μm). Trichoderma sp. 2 was distinguished morphologically from related species T. strigosum, T. pubescens, T. erinaceum, T. hamatum and Trichoderma sp. 1 in pustules on CMD without fertile or sterile conidiophore elongation and distinctive phialide shape, the conidiophore branches similar to T. koningii, but the conidia similar to T. viride, subglobose, conspicuously tuberculate.

  15. Zoological species medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Marisa Isabel da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Externship report done in order to describe and inform about the activities followed during six months externship at three zoological institutions in the United States of America. These externships were performed in order to conclude the sixth and last year of the integrated master in veterinary medicine of the University of Evora, with the main goal of obtaining more knowledge and experience in this area of the veterinary field. From the more varied number of species, to the m...

  16. Cross-species infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R A

    2003-01-01

    Animals have always been a major source of human infectious disease. Some infections like rabies are recognized as primary zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission, whereas others like measles become independently sustained within the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its morbillivirus progenitor in ruminants. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Recent epidemic diseases of animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic caused by human immunodeficiency virus. Some retroviruses move into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they may oscillate between being an avirulent inherited Mendelian trait in one species and an infectious pathogen in another. Cross-species viral and other infections are reviewed historically with respect to the evolution of virulence and the concern about iatrogenic enhancement of cross-species transfer by medical procedures akin to xenotransplantation. PMID:12934941

  17. Bounding species distribution models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].

  18. Aeromonas species in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isonhood, Jamie H; Drake, Maryanne

    2002-03-01

    Aeromonas species have been recognized as potential or emerging foodborne pathogens for more than 20 years. Aeromonads are estuarine bacteria and are ubiquitous in fresh water, fish and shellfish, meats, and fresh vegetables. Actual sourced foodborne outbreaks are few, but epidemiological evidence suggests that the bacterium can cause self-limiting diarrhea, with children being the most susceptible population. Most aeromonads are psychrotrophic and can grow in foods during cold storage. Aeromonads are not resistant to food processing regimes and are readily killed by heat treatment. A host of virulence factors are present, but the exact role of each in human disease has not been fully elucidated. PMID:11899061

  19. Flavonoids in Sophora Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Motohashi, Noboru

    Sophora species of Leguminosae are abundantly present in the natural kingdom. Today, among Sophora plants, the flavonoids of the plant phenols occupy a remarkable position. For a very long time flavonoids have been used as natural pigments and dyes. Some of the colorful anthocyanins of the glucosides are used for color and flavor in foodstuffs. Therefore, these flavonoids are beneficial to daily human life. Herein we concentrate on flavonoids in Sophora plants, and the relationship between their chemical structures and nutraceutical effect. For this purpose, soy-based infant formulas, osteoporosis, antitumor activity, antimicrobial activity, anti-HIV activity, radical generation and O2 - scavenging activity, and enzyme inhibitory activity have been described.

  20. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    , an extensive monitoring program has been conducted in the North Eastern Greenland National Park, the Zackenberg Basic. The objective of the program is to provide long time series of data on the natural innate oscillations and plasticity of a High Arctic ecosystem. With offset in the data provided through...... and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking...

  1. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  2. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  3. Approaches for Characterising Myxozoan Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Atkinson, S.D.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Whipps, C. M.; Bartholomew, J.L.

    Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015 - (Okamura, B.; Gruhl, A.; Bartholomew, J.), s. 111-123 ISBN 978-3-319-14752-9 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Genotype * Cryptic species * Species complex * Morphology * Molecular markers * SSU Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  4. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  5. Insular species swarm goes underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Enghoff, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894, C. julesvernei and C. oromii, are described from the subterranean ecosystem of Madeira Island, Portugal. Species are illustrated with photographs and diagrammatic drawings. The new species belong to the Cylindroiulus madeirae-group, an in...

  6. Invasive species and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  7. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community about the…

  8. Electrosmog and species conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the widespread use of wireless telephone networks around the world, authorities and researchers have paid little attention to the potential harmful effects of mobile phone radiation on wildlife. This paper briefly reviews the available scientific information on this topic and recommends further studies and specific lines of research to confirm or refute the experimental results to date. Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe for the environment, particularly, threatened species. - Highlights: • Studies have shown effects in both animals and plants. • Two thirds of the studies reported ecological effects. • There is little research in this area and further research is needed. • The technology must be safe. • Controls should be introduced to mitigate the possible effects

  9. Electrosmog and species conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmori, Alfonso, E-mail: abalmorimartinez@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Despite the widespread use of wireless telephone networks around the world, authorities and researchers have paid little attention to the potential harmful effects of mobile phone radiation on wildlife. This paper briefly reviews the available scientific information on this topic and recommends further studies and specific lines of research to confirm or refute the experimental results to date. Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe for the environment, particularly, threatened species. - Highlights: • Studies have shown effects in both animals and plants. • Two thirds of the studies reported ecological effects. • There is little research in this area and further research is needed. • The technology must be safe. • Controls should be introduced to mitigate the possible effects.

  10. Hebeloma species associated with Cistus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Ursula; Beker, Henry J; Vila, Jordi; Vesterholt, Jan; Llimona, Xavier; Gadjieva, Rena

    2009-01-01

    The genus Hebeloma has a number of species highly specific to Cistus and others that occur with several host genera. This paper discusses the species of Hebeloma that appear to be ectomycorrhizal with Cistus, judging from their occurrence when Cistus is the only available host. The previously unknown species H. plesiocistum spec. nov. is described. We also provide a key to the known Hebeloma associates of Cistus. Molecular analyses based on ITS sequence data further illustrate the distinctness of the newly described species and difficulties in the species delimitation with view to H. erumpens. Specific associations with Cistus may have evolved more than once within the genus Hebeloma. PMID:18940258

  11. Eighteen new oleaginous yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Chandra, Idelia; Shi, Sandy; Lin, Ting; German, J Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2016-07-01

    Of 1600 known species of yeasts, about 70 are known to be oleaginous, defined as being able to accumulate over 20 % intracellular lipids. These yeasts have value for fundamental and applied research. A survey of yeasts from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, University of California Davis was performed to identify additional oleaginous species within the Basidiomycota phylum. Fifty-nine strains belonging to 34 species were grown in lipid inducing media, and total cell mass, lipid yield and triacylglycerol profiles were determined. Thirty-two species accumulated at least 20 % lipid and 25 species accumulated over 40 % lipid by dry weight. Eighteen of these species were not previously reported to be oleaginous. Triacylglycerol profiles were suitable for biodiesel production. These results greatly expand the number of known oleaginous yeast species, and reveal the wealth of natural diversity of triacylglycerol profiles within wild-type oleaginous Basidiomycetes. PMID:27072563

  12. Ring species as demonstrations of the continuum of species formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Ricardo José Do Nascimento; Wake, David B.

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-20th century, Ernst Mayr (1942) and Theodosius Dobzhansky (1958) championed the significance of 'circular overlaps' or 'ring species' as the perfect demonstration of the gradual nature of species formation. As an ancestral species expands its range, wrapping around a geographic barrier......, derived taxa within the ring display interactions typical of populations, such as genetic and morphological intergradation, while overlapping taxa at the terminus of the ring behave largely as sympatric, reproductively isolated species. Are ring species extremely rare or are they just difficult to detect...... in this issue of Molecular Ecology by Fuchs et al. (2015), focused on the entire genealogy of a bulbul (Alophoixus) species complex, offers key insights into the evolutionary processes underlying diversification of this Indo-Malayan bird. Their findings fulfil most of the criteria that can be...

  13. Population genetics and cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Does the definition of a species matter for pest management purposes? Taxonomists provide us with tools - usually morphological characters - to identify a group of organisms that we call a species. The implication of this identification is that all of the individuals that fit the provided description are members of the species in question. The taxonomists have considered the range of variation among individuals in defining the species, but this variation is often forgotten when we take the concept of species to the level of management. Just as there is morphological variation among individuals, there is also variation in practically any character we might imagine, which has implications for the short and long term success of our management tactics. The rich literature on insecticide resistance should be a constant reminder of the fact that the pressure on pest survival and reproduction applied by our management approaches frequently leads to evolutionary changes within the pest species. The degree of variation within a particular species is a defining characteristic of that species. This level of variability may have very important implications for successful management, so it is very important to measure variation and, whenever possible, the genetic basis of that variation, in a target species. Population genetic approaches can provide evidence of genetic structure (or lack thereof) among populations of a species. These types of data can be used to discuss the movement of pest populations on a local or global scale. In other cases, we may have a complex of species that share some, but not all, characteristics. Species complexes that share morphological characters (i.e., cannot be easily distinguished) but not biological characters are referred to as sibling or cryptic species

  14. Multi-species integrative biclustering

    OpenAIRE

    Waltman, Peter; Kacmarczyk, Thadeous; Bate, Ashley R.; Kearns, Daniel B.; Reiss, David J.; Eichenberger, Patrick; Bonneau, Richard

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm, multi-species cMonkey, for the simultaneous biclustering of heterogeneous multiple-species data collections and apply the algorithm to a group of bacteria containing Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus anthracis, and Listeria monocytogenes. The algorithm reveals evolutionary insights into the surprisingly high degree of conservation of regulatory modules across these three species and allows data and insights from well-studied organisms to complement the analysis of related ...

  15. Alien plant species in Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Roalsø, Erik Roall

    2012-01-01

    Increased introductions combined with favorable growing conditions may enhance the presence and increase the success of alien plant species in High Arctic settlements. With global warming, the presence and success of alien plants in Polar Regions might expand beyond the confinement of human settlements and cause problems for native species and ecosystems. Presence and abundance of alien and native vascular plant species were recorded, from chosen study sites, in the Svalbard settlements of Ba...

  16. Earthworm species, a searchable database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csuzdi, Cs.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The first earthworm species named was Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus, 1758. Since then, there were some 6000earthworm (Oligochaeta: Megadrili species names described, from which ca. 3000–3500 are valid. In order to help the orientation in such a huge amount of data a web-based database was created. Each record contains the basic data of the species names described; i.e. family, genus, specific epithet, author, year, reference to the original description and optionally the valid combination of the species name and deposition of type specimens. The database is searchable by every field mentioned and the resulted list can be arranged alphabetically.

  17. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  18. Antifungal compounds from Piper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper is a big genus of the plant family Piperaceae, with more than 700 species widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Some species are used in folk medicine as analgesics, antiseptics, insecticides, and antimicrobials or for the treatment of toothache, haemorrhoid...

  19. Chironomids' Relationship with Aeromonas Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects' egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects' endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect's egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  20. Species-fragmented area relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka; Zurita, Gustavo A; Bellocq, M Isabel; Rybicki, Joel

    2013-07-30

    The species-area relationship (SAR) gives a quantitative description of the increasing number of species in a community with increasing area of habitat. In conservation, SARs have been used to predict the number of extinctions when the area of habitat is reduced. Such predictions are most needed for landscapes rather than for individual habitat fragments, but SAR-based predictions of extinctions for landscapes with highly fragmented habitat are likely to be biased because SAR assumes contiguous habitat. In reality, habitat loss is typically accompanied by habitat fragmentation. To quantify the effect of fragmentation in addition to the effect of habitat loss on the number of species, we extend the power-law SAR to the species-fragmented area relationship. This model unites the single-species metapopulation theory with the multispecies SAR for communities. We demonstrate with a realistic simulation model and with empirical data for forest-inhabiting subtropical birds that the species-fragmented area relationship gives a far superior prediction than SAR of the number of species in fragmented landscapes. The results demonstrate that for communities of species that are not well adapted to live in fragmented landscapes, the conventional SAR underestimates the number of extinctions for landscapes in which little habitat remains and it is highly fragmented. PMID:23858440

  1. Humans as a Hyperkeystone Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Paine, Robert T

    2016-08-01

    Ecologists have identified numerous keystone species, defined as organisms that have outsized ecological impacts relative to their biomass. Here we identify human beings as a higher-order or 'hyperkeystone' species that drives complex interaction chains by affecting other keystone actors across different habitats. Strong indirect effects and a global reach further characterize these interactions and amplify the impacts of human activities on diverse ecosystems, from oceans to forests. We require better understanding of hyperkeystone interaction chains most urgently, especially for marine species and terrestrial large carnivores, which experience relatively higher exploitation rates than other species. This requires innovative approaches that integrate the study of human behavior with food-web theory, and which might provide surprising new insights into the complex ecology of our own species. PMID:27312777

  2. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  3. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. PMID:27370313

  4. Trichoderma species collected from Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doostmorad Zafari

    2004-01-01

    @@ In order to identify Trichoderma species isolated from Iran, Trichoderma selective media and malt extract agar (MEA) were used to isolate Trichoderma species from the soil samples. All the cultures were purified on 2% water agar by hyphal tip method prior to morphological examination.Morphological observations were carried out on the cultures grown on 2% MEA and oat meal agar at 20℃ under ambient laboratory conditions. Macroscopic features of colony and microscopic features of conidiophore, phialid and conidium including position of phialids on conidiophore and shape and size of phialids and conidia were studied and recorded 3-5 days after inoculation. Out of 36 tested isolates, using morphological features and molecular data obtained from ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S regions fourteen species were identified as follow: T. atroviride, T. ghanense, T. spirale, T. erinaceum, T. citrinoviride, T. saturnisporum,T. longibrachiatum , T. hamatum , T. harzianum, T. inhamatum , T. tomentosum , T.virens, T. asperellum, T. koningii. Among the species T. harzianum and T. virens isolates were the most frequent species. In addition of the mentioned species two Tichoderma sp. were collected from walnut rhizospher that they are not fit to any described species so far. Although one of them are T. brevicumpactum introduced informally.

  5. Molecular Typing of Nocardia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Saeed Eshraghi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of clinically significant Nocardia species is essential for the definitive diagnosis, predict antimicrobial susceptibility, epidemiological purposes, and for an effective treatment. Conventional identification of Nocardia species in routine medical laboratories which is based on phenotypic (cellular morphology, colonial characteristics, biochemical and enzymatic profiles, and chemotaxonomic characteristics is often laborious, and time-consuming. The procedure requires expertise, and newer species can be difficult to differentiate with accuracy from other related species. Alternative methods of identification, such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and molecular biology techniques allow a better characterization of species. The taxonomy of the genus Nocardia has been dramatically been revised during the last decade and more than 30 valid human clinical significance species of Nocardia have been reported. The use of molecular approaches, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or PCR restriction endonuclease analysis has been the focus of recent investigations to distinguish the isolates of Nocardia from other actinomycetes genera. The methods have revolutionized the characterization of the Nocardiae by providing rapid, sensitive, and accurate identification procedures. The present review describes the currently known medically important pathogenic species of Nocardia.

  6. Evidence for bacterial chemotaxis to cyanobacteria from a radioassay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngbya birgei and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae elicited a significant chemotactic attraction of Aeromonas hydrophila compared with controls lacking cyanobacteria. There was a positive exponential relationship between biomass (chlorophyll a) of L. birgei and A. flos-aquae and chemotactic attraction of A. hydrophila. The assay equipment was simple and reliable and could be used to study bacterial chemotaxis in other species in situ

  7. Biodiversity conservation including uncharismatic species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Joaquin

    2007-01-01

    (Chapron 2006; Schwartz 2006), and the main threats to biodiversity (including invasive species) (Bawa 2006). I suggest, however, that these articles do not really deal with biodiversity. Rather, they all focus on a few obviously charismatic groups (mammals, birds, some plants, fishes, human culture......). Mammals and birds have traditionally been proposed as umbrella or flagship species (‘‘species that needs such large tracts of habitat that saving it will automatically save many other species’’––Simberloff 1998), to identify areas suitable as nature reserves (Kerr 1997; Sergio et al. 2005)....

  8. 凡纳滨对虾半集约化养殖池塘浮游微藻优势种变动规律及其对养殖环境的影响%Change of dominant species of planktonic microalgae in Litopenaeus vannamei' s semi -intensive culture ponds and its impact on the culture environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭聪聪; 李卓佳; 曹煜成; 刘孝竹; 胡晓娟

    2011-01-01

    Investigations on the microalgae community were conducted in Litopenaeus vannamei' s semi-intensive culture ponds.The variation about dominant species of microalgae in shrimp ponds were identified ,moreover,their relationships with culture environment and culture efficiency were analysised.The results showed that a total of 16 dominant species of microalgae were identified.The dominant species in initial phase were Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Nitzschia closteriu and Peridinium pusillum; the ones in the mid-phase were Cyclotella operculata, Lyngbya gardnari, Oscillatoria chlorine, K.microscopica Nygaard, C.kessleri, Cylindrospermum muscicola , C.kuetzingiana, O.salina, Chroococcus cohaerens and O.willei; the ones in the final phase were O.neglecta, O.angustissima and C.pyrenoidosa.Microalgae in initial phase were rare and low density,but Dinophyta occupied the dominant position in pond 2 and pond 4,which caused the low survival rate of their shrimp.The succession of Microalgae in the mid-phase was more frequent by weather interference.But due to undesirable algae in pond 1 and pond 2 ,their resistance to severe weather was weaker than the one in pond 3 and pond 4.In the final phase,the dominant species'number reduced and their dominance was prominent,and Oscillatoria bloom well,but the shrimp in pond 1 fell sick.The result showed that the algae composed by excellent dominant species could play a positive role in stabilizing the environment,and effectively resisted the interference by the weather interference,eventually.The shrimp grow health and culture efficiency was good.However,the algae composed by the undesirable microalgae could bring stress to the shrimp growth,increased the risk of culture, and reduced the culture efficiency.%研究了凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)滩涂土池半集约化养殖池塘浮游微藻优势种的变动规律,并结合养殖环境质量进行了分析.共检出微藻优势种16种,养殖前期优势

  9. The occurrence of a bloom-forming green alga .i.Pleodorina indica./i. (Volvocales) in the downstream reach of the River Malše (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znachor, Petr; Jezberová, Jitka

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 541, č. 1 (2005), s. 221-228. ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Grant ostatní: EU(XE) EVK2-1999-00213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : green algae * Pleodorina indica * water bloom Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.978, year: 2005

  10. Achromobacter species in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C R; Pressler, T; Ridderberg, W;

    2013-01-01

    Achromobacter species leads to chronic infection in an increasing number of CF patients. We report 2 cases of Achromobacter ruhlandii cross-infection between patients after well-described indirect contact....

  11. Phase Two Protected Species Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40...

  12. Phase One Protected Species Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nonmarket valuation research has produced economic value estimates for a variety of threatened, endangered, and rare species around the world. Although over 40...

  13. Evolution of mutualism between species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent theoretical work on mutualism, the interaction between species populations that is mutually beneficial, is reviewed. Several ecological facts that should be addressed in the construction of dynamic models for mutualism are examined. Basic terminology is clarified. (PSB)

  14. Chironomids’ Relationship with Aeromonas Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviad, Sivan; Halpern, Malka

    2016-01-01

    Chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae), also known as non-biting midges, are one of the most abundant groups of insects in aquatic habitats. They undergo a complete metamorphosis of four life stages of which three are aquatic (egg, larva, and pupa), and the adult emerges into the air. Chironomids serve as a natural reservoir of Aeromonas and Vibrio cholerae species. Here, we review existing knowledge about the mutual relations between Aeromonas species and chironomids. Using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we found that the prevalence of Aeromonas species in the insects’ egg masses and larvae was 1.6 and 3.3% of the insects’ endogenous microbiota, respectively. Aeromonas abundance per egg mass remained stable during a 6-month period of bacterial monitoring. Different Aeromonas species were isolated and some demonstrated the ability to degrade the insect’s egg masses and to prevent eggs hatching. Chitinase was identified as the enzyme responsible for the egg mass degradation. Different Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids demonstrated the potential to protect their host from toxic metals. Aeromonas is a causative agent of fish infections. Fish are frequently recorded as feeding on chironomids. Thus, fish might be infected with Aeromonas species via chironomid consumption. Aeromonas strains are also responsible for causing gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans. Different virulence genes were identified in Aeromonas species isolated from chironomids. Chironomids may infest drinking water reservoirs, hence be the source of pathogenic Aeromonas strains in drinking water. Chironomids and Aeromonas species have a complicated mutual relationship. PMID:27242751

  15. Species Egalitarianism and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Tiili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general anthropocentric view of the human species affects the environment and is a major contributing factor in the environmental crisis we are currently facing. A species egalitarian society would have positive effects on the crisis, and particularly in regards to short term goals of decreasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Additionally it would increase the quality of life and alleviate the suffering of countless beings, nonhuman animals and humans alike.

  16. Species Egalitarianism and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Tiili

    2014-01-01

    A general anthropocentric view of the human species affects the environment and is a major contributing factor in the environmental crisis we are currently facing. A species egalitarian society would have positive effects on the crisis, and particularly in regards to short term goals of decreasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Additionally it would increase the quality of life and alleviate the suffering of countless beings, nonhuman animals and humans alike.

  17. Brachiaria species affecting soil nitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Adalton Mazetti Fernandes; Gabriel José Massoni de Andrade; Emerson de Freitas Cordova de Souza; Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2011-01-01

    Nitrification can lead to substantial losses of the applied N through nitrate leaching and N2O emission. The regulation of nitrification may be a strategy to improve fertilizer N recovery and increase its agronomic efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibiting capacity of nitrification in soil by Brachiaria species. The greenhouse experiment was conducted using pots with 10 dm³ of a Red Latosol sample. The treatments consisted of the cultivation of three forage specie...

  18. Collective behaviour across animal species

    OpenAIRE

    DeLellis, P.; G. Polverino; Ustuner, G.; Abaid, N.; Macri, S.; Bollt, E. M.; M. Porfiri

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, whe...

  19. Approaching invasive species in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Kull, Christian A.; Jacques Tassin; Carrière, Stéphanie M.

    2014-01-01

    While a number of plants, animals, and insects in Madagascar have been called 'invasive', the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both negative and positive effects on landscapes, on native biodiversity, and on livelihoods. Examples include the prickly pear (raketa), the silver wattle (mimosa), and, recently, the ...

  20. Collective behaviour across animal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  1. Interference competition and species coexistence.

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2002-01-01

    Interference competition is ubiquitous in nature. Yet its effects on resource exploitation remain largely unexplored for species that compete for dynamic resources. Here, I present a model of exploitative and interference competition with explicit resource dynamics. The model incorporates both biotic and abiotic resources. It considers interference competition both in the classical sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, and interferen...

  2. Coffee species and varietal identification

    OpenAIRE

    Tornincasa, Patrizia; Furlan, Michela; Pallavicini, Alberto; Graziosi, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    There are serious economical reasons to pretend warranties in coffee species and varieties authenticity. Arabica adulteration with Robusta coffees, intentional or not, is carried out at different steps of the coffee chain, from plantation to beverage. We present a method based on a real-time PCR technique to perform: a) a qualitative analysis to evaluate the presence/ absence of a species in a sample; b) a quantitative analysis to amplify Robusta samples only, making possibl...

  3. Survey protocol for invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Menza, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This protocol was developed by the Biogeography Branch of NOAA’s Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment to support invasive species research by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The protocol’s objective is to detect Carijoa riisei and Hypnea musciformis in deepwater habitats using visual surveys by technical divers. Note: This protocol is designed to detect the presence or absence of invasive species. A distinct protocol is required to collect information on abundance ...

  4. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M; Wiinberg, Bo; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Currently available assay methods and reagents are not optimized for evaluating avian hemostasis; therefore, assessing avian coagulopathies is challenging. Recently, thromboelastography (TEG), which measures the viscoelastic properties of blood, has been used clinically in mammalian species to diagnose and characterize hemostatic disorders. To evaluate TEG in healthy individuals of 6 avian species, we modified existing mammalian TEG protocols to allow analysis of citrated, avian whole-blood samples collected from scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) (n = 13), American flamingos ( Phoenicopterus ruber ) (n = 13), helmeted Guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) (n = 12), Amazon parrots (Amazona species) (n = 9), Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) (n = 6), and domestic chickens (n = 16). Activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and fibrinogen were measured as a means of comparison. Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest reaction time. Species differed significantly in reaction time (P = .007), clotting rate (P < .001), rate of clot formation (α angle; P < .001), and maximum amplitude (P < .001) values, indicating that species-specific reference intervals are necessary. Based on these results, TEG with specific reference intervals could prove useful in evaluating avian hemostatic disorders. PMID:26771317

  5. Olfactory sensitivity in mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermannová, M; Pinc, L; Jebavý, L

    2016-07-18

    Olfaction enables most mammalian species to detect and discriminate vast numbers of chemical structures called odorants and pheromones. The perception of such chemical compounds is mediated via two major olfactory systems, the main olfactory system and the vomeronasal system, as well as minor systems, such as the septal organ and the Grueneberg ganglion. Distinct differences exist not only among species but also among individuals in terms of their olfactory sensitivity; however, little is known about the mechanisms that determine these differences. In research on the olfactory sensitivity of mammals, scientists thus depend in most cases on behavioral testing. In this article, we reviewed scientific studies performed on various mammalian species using different methodologies and target chemical substances. Human and non-human primates as well as rodents and dogs are the most frequently studied species. Olfactory threshold studies on other species do not exist with the exception of domestic pigs. Olfactory testing performed on seals, elephants, and bats focused more on discriminative abilities than on sensitivity. An overview of olfactory sensitivity studies as well as olfactory detection ability in most studied mammalian species is presented here, focusing on comparable olfactory detection thresholds. The basics of olfactory perception and olfactory sensitivity factors are also described. PMID:27070753

  6. Malassezia Species and Pityriasis Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulin Rodoplu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human diseases ranging from pityriasis versicolor to seborrhoeic dermatitis. In addition, since the 1980s, they have been reported as causing opportunistic systemic infections. The taxonomy of Malassezia spp. has recently been modified to include 13 obligatorily lipophilic species, plus one non-obligatorily lipophilic species, which only rarely colonizes human hosts and currently the genus consist 14 species as M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. yamatoensis, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. Fastidious growth requirements of Malassezia yeasts defied the initial attempts to culture these organisms and their true identification and the relationship between different species only became apparent with the application of modern molecular techniques. The causative fungus is seen especially in such seborrheic areas as the scalp, face, trunk and upper back. Under the influence of various exogenous or endogenous predisposing factors, these yeasts change from the blastospore form to the mycelial form and become pathogenic. Diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor which is caused by Malassezia species is generally easy and lies on the basis of its clinical appearance and can be confirmed by mycological examination. The diagnosisis is mainly based on direct examination with potassium hydroxide (KOH and demonstration that represents pseudohyphae and blastoconidia as the typical %u201Cspaghetti and meatballs%u201D pattern. Characteristic features of the genus Malassezia include a distinctive morphology and an affinity for lipids in culture. Culture is necessary to recover the infecting strain, especially for epidemiologic purposes and also to test its antifungal susceptibility

  7. Approaching invasive species in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Kull

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While a number of plants, animals, and insects in Madagascar have been called ’invasive’, the topic of invasive species has until recently received less attention here than in other island contexts. Some species, often alien to Madagascar and introduced by humans, have expanded their range rapidly and have had both negative and positive effects on landscapes, on native biodiversity, and on livelihoods. Examples include the prickly pear (raketa, the silver wattle (mimosa, and, recently, the Asian common toad (radaka boka. Building on a conceptual approach to ’invasive species’, this paper emphasizes the importance of inclusive and deliberative site- and population - specific management of invasive species. It analyses three separate concepts commonly used in definitions of invasion: the origin, behaviour, and effects of particular species. It places these concepts in their broader social and ecological context, with particular attention to local perspectives on invasive species. We illustrate these concepts with Malagasy examples and data. The examples demonstrate that while invasions can have dramatic consequences, there can be multiple, often competing, interests as well as site - specific biophysical, environmental, and cultural considerations that need to be taken into account when designing policy and management interventions. We conclude with a number of lessons learned.

  8. Freakish patterns – species and species concepts in apomicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Apomict groups keep challenging taxonomists, in classifi cations as well as in more fundamental question about the nature
    of apomictic species. Th e latter question is not just an academic one, because the outcome infl uences practical decisions
    on biodiversity and conservation. A historical

  9. Notes on Edibility of Tricholoma Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Allı; İsmail Şen

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tricholoma (Fr.) Staude is important in terms of hosting edible and poisonous species. Therefore, in this study, edible and poisonous Tricholoma species are evaluated, edible and valuable species are introduced. Also, poisoning syndromes are examined and discussed.

  10. Would species richness estimators change the observed species area relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hortal, Joaquín; Gabriel, Rosalina; Homem, Nídia

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate whether the description of the species area relationship (SAR) can be improved by using richness estimates instead of observed richness values. To do this, we use three independent datasets gathered with standardized survey methods from the native laurisilva forest of the Azorean archipelago, encompassing different distributional extent and biological groups: soil epigean arthropods at eight forest fragments in Terceira Island, canopy arthropods inhabiting Juniperus brevifolia at 16 forest fragments of six different islands, and bryophytes of seven forest fragments from Terceira and Pico islands. Species richness values were estimated for each forest fragment using seven non-parametric estimators (ACE, ICE, Chao1, Chao2, Jackknife1, Jackknife2 and Bootstrap; five in the case of bryophytes). These estimates were fitted to classical log-log species-area curves and the intercept, slope and goodness of fit of these curves were compared with those obtained from the observed species richness values to determine if significant differences appear in these parameters. We hypothesized that the intercepts would be higher in the estimated data sets compared with the observed data, as estimated richness values are typically higher than observed values. We found partial support for the hypothesis - intercepts of the SAR obtained from estimated richness values were significantly higher in the case of epigean arthropods and bryophyte datasets. In contrast, the slope and goodness of fit obtained with estimated values were not significantly different from those obtained from observed species richness in all groups, although a few small differences appeared. We conclude that, although little is gained using these estimators if data come from standardized surveys, their estimations could be used to analyze macroecological relationships with non-standardized observed data, provided that survey incompleteness and/or unevenness are also taken into account.

  11. Alien species on the coasts of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. CINAR; Bilecenoglu, M; Ozturk, B.; T. KATAGAN; V. AYSEL

    2012-01-01

    The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species), followed by Crustacea (51), fishes (43) and phytobenthos (39). The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marma...

  12. Alien species recorded in the United Arab Emirates: an initial list of terrestrial and freshwater species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritpal Soorae

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is documented on the alien terrestrial and freshwater species in the United Arab Emirates. To address this, an assessment of terrestrial and freshwater alien species was conducted using various techniques such as a questionnaire, fieldwork data, networking with relevant people, and a detailed literature review. The results of the initial assessment show that there are 146 alien species recorded in the following seven major taxonomic groups: invertebrates 49 species, freshwater fish five species, amphibian one species, reptiles six species, birds 71 species, mammals six species and plants eight species. To inform decision makers a full list of the 146 species identified in this assessment is presented. 

  13. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  14. Quaternary alkaloids of tinospora species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisset, N G; Nwaiwu, J

    1983-08-01

    The occurrence of quaternary alkaloids in TINOSPORA (and PARABAENA) species (Menispermaceae) has been studied. The main components were generally the protoberberine bases berberine and palmatine, with jatrorrhizine an occasional minor constituent, and the aporphine base magnoflorine. Choline was also often present. Only magnoflorine was detected in the PARABAENA material examined. PMID:17404996

  15. Influenza vaccines for avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in Southeast Asia, in 2003, a multi-national epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity an...

  16. Thromboelastography in Selected Avian Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strindberg, Sophie; Nielsen, Tenna W; Ribeiro, Ângela M;

    2015-01-01

    . Regardless of the mode of activation, clot formation in the species studied was markedly delayed compared with mammals. Because of prolonged reaction time (14.7-52.7 minutes) with kaolin and diluted tissue factor, undiluted human tissue factor was used in all avian samples because it provided the shortest...

  17. Human infections with Sarcocystis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Ronald; Esposito, Douglas H; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed. PMID:25715644

  18. Methylated DNA in Borrelia species.

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, C A; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    The DNA of Borrelia species was examined for the presence of methylated GATC sequences. The relapsing-fever Borrelia sp., B. coriaceae, and only 3 of 22 strains of B. burgdorferi contained adenine methylation systems. B. anserina lacked an adenine methylation system. Fundamental differences in DNA methylation exist among members of the genus Borrelia.

  19. Primary species in irradiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the simple formula of water and the few stable products of radiolysis, the radiation chemistry of water is complex. This is a review of the species which exist between the moment of dose deposition and 10-7s later. 43 refs

  20. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit 10022-01, issued on May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26715) authorizes the...-net or set-net. Animals may be weighed, measured, photographed, skin biopsied, flipper and passive... by hand/dip net, flipper and PIT tagged, measured, weighed, photographed, and temporarily...

  1. Nickel Homeostasis in Helicobacter Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Stoof (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGastric Helicobacter species are adapted to colonize the acidic environment of the stomach. Colonization with H pylori is life long if untreated, and can lead to gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and eventually to gastric cancer. Although H pylori is sensitive to many antibiotics in vitro,

  2. Optimal Conservation of Migratory Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tara G.; Chadès, Iadine; Arcese, Peter; Marra, Peter P.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Background Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea–regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity) bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of migratory

  3. Synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group with new Japanese Oxyethira species (Trichoptera, Hydroptilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A brief synopsis of the Oxyethira flavicornis species group is produced by the examination of type materials. Diagrammatic drawings with similar style were prepared for all the known and for the new species. Short description of genus Oxyethira, subgenus Oxyethira, species group of Oxyethira flavicornis are presented together with the description of five species clusters: O. datra new species cluster, O. ecornuta new species cluster, O. flavicornis new species cluster, O. hiroshima new species cluster, O. tiunovae new species cluster. Five new species are described from the O. flavicornis species group: O chitosea sp. n., O. hena sp. n., O. hiroshima sp. n., O. kakida sp. n., O. mekunna sp. n. One new species is described from the Oxyethira grisea species group: Oxyethira ozea sp. n. and two new species from the Oxyethira ramosa species group: Oxyethira miea sp. n., Oxyethira okinawa sp. n.

  4. Modeling species-abundance relationships in multi-species collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, S.; Yin, Z.; Ren, H.; Guo, Q.

    2003-01-01

    Species-abundance relationship is one of the most fundamental aspects of community ecology. Since Motomura first developed the geometric series model to describe the feature of community structure, ecologists have developed many other models to fit the species-abundance data in communities. These models can be classified into empirical and theoretical ones, including (1) statistical models, i.e., negative binomial distribution (and its extension), log-series distribution (and its extension), geometric distribution, lognormal distribution, Poisson-lognormal distribution, (2) niche models, i.e., geometric series, broken stick, overlapping niche, particulate niche, random assortment, dominance pre-emption, dominance decay, random fraction, weighted random fraction, composite niche, Zipf or Zipf-Mandelbrot model, and (3) dynamic models describing community dynamics and restrictive function of environment on community. These models have different characteristics and fit species-abundance data in various communities or collections. Among them, log-series distribution, lognormal distribution, geometric series, and broken stick model have been most widely used.

  5. Allelopathy of plant species of pharmaceutical importance to cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Sobrinho Maranho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify possible allelopathic effects of leaf aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Pilocarpus pennatifolius Lem., Cyperus rotundus L., Morus rubra L., Casearia sylvestris Sw., and Plectranthus barbatus Andr. on the germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa L., Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, B. oleracea L. cv. italica, B. pekinenses L., B. campestris L., Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, and Eruca sativa L. To obtain the aqueous extracts, leaves previously dried at a 1g.10mL-1 concentration were used, diluted in six solutions (10, 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% and compared to control, distilled water, with five replications of 10 seeds for all vegetable species. The aqueous extracts of all species showed allelopathic potential for germination of seeds, the germination speed index, and the initial growth of shoots and roots of vegetable crops. The aqueous extracts of C. rotundus and P. barbatus promoted lower and higher allelopathic effects, respectively, and the vegetal structure mostly affected by the extracts was the primary root. The results indicate the existence of allelopathic potential in the species tested, so there’s a need for adopting care procedures when cultivating vegetables with them.

  6. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  7. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    OpenAIRE

    Thidarat Noiraksar; Piyawan Srivilas; Jarunan Pratoomyot

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp.) five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp.) and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus) and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synech...

  8. ICRAF Species Switchboard. Version 1.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; Ordonez, J.; Smith, E.;

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  9. X-ray crystallographic studies on C-phycocyanins from cyanobacteria from different habitats: marine and freshwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protein C-phycocyanin, involved in photosynthesis, has been purified from three cyanobacterial species: Spirulina, Phormidium and Lyngbya. These three proteins have been crystallized and characterized using X-ray crystallography. C-phycocyanins from three cyanobacterial cultures of freshwater and marine habitat, Spirulina, Phormidium and Lyngbya spp., were purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Blue-coloured crystals in different crystal forms, monoclinic and hexagonal, were obtained for the three species. The crystals took 1–12 weeks to grow to full size using polyethylene glycols of different molecular weights as precipitants. The amino-acid sequences of these proteins show high similarity to other known C-phycocyanins from related organisms; however, the C-phycocyanins reported here showed different biochemical and biophysical properties, i.e. molecular weight, stability etc. The X-ray diffraction data were collected at resolutions of 3.0 Å for the monoclinic and 3.2 and 3.6 Å for the hexagonal forms. The unit-cell parameters corresponding to the monoclinic space group P21 are a = 107.33, b = 115.64, c = 183.26 Å, β = 90.03° for Spirulina sp. C-phycocyanin and are similar for crystals of Phormidium and Lyngbya spp. C-phycocyanins. Crystals belonging to the hexagonal space group P63, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 154.97, c = 40.35 Å and a = b = 151.96, c = 39.06 Å, were also obtained for the C-phycocyanins from Spirulina and Lyngbya spp., respectively. The estimated solvent content is around 50% for the monoclinic crystals of all three species assuming the presence of two hexamers per asymmetric unit. The solvent content is 66.5 and 64.1% for the hexagonal crystals of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina and Lyngbya spp. assuming the presence of one αβ monomer per asymmetric unit

  10. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  11. Molecular diagnosis of Trypanosome species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various parameters for handling samples, extracting nucleic acid and protocols for use of PCR to diagnose trypanosomes have been examined. The use of a commercial kit (Nucleon BACC 2, Amersham) was superior to other extraction methods. After comparisons, a touchdown thermocycling protocol was the procedure used. PCR testing protocols were successfully implemented using Kin primers that bind to an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) situated between the 18S and the 5.8S ribosomal subunit genes on nuclear DNA. Their sensitivity was lower than that of satellite DNA primers, particularly for T.vivax. A Kin primer-based PCR could detect and distinguish between a number of Trypanosome species in blood samples. The use of an ITS1 binding primer was 3-5 x cheaper than using classical species-specific primers since the number of PCR reactions per sample is reduced to one. (author)

  12. Species extinction: Frequency and biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Briggs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Documented extinctions, that have taken place among surrogate taxa during the past 500 years, provide useful information about the extent of recent faunal extinctions and their geographic locations. Species extinctions among terrestrial vertebrates (birds and mammals and invertebrates (insects and molluscs have generally taken place in space-restricted habitats, primarily oceanic islands. An extinction pathway leads from the high diversity tropics to less diverse, peripheral habitats that function as extinction traps. The pace along the extinction pathway is gradual and its function is similar to a pathway which has been observed in the marine environment. Overall, the low incidence of recent extinctions appears to be a continuation of the minimal rates that were characteristic of the Pleistocene epoch. Thousands of species, represented by small populations on the pathways to extinction, can still be rescued if there is sufficient interest in doing so.

  13. Secondary Metabolites from Rubiaceae Species

    OpenAIRE

    Daiane Martins; Cecilia Veronica Nunez

    2015-01-01

    This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psych...

  14. Influenza vaccines for avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2009-01-01

    Beginning in Southeast Asia in 2003, a multinational epizootic outbreak of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) was identified in commercial poultry and wild bird species. This lineage, originally identified in Southern China in 1996 and then Hong Kong in 1997, caused severe morbidity and mortality in many bird species, was responsible for considerable economic losses via trade restrictions, and crossed species barriers (including its recovery from human cases). To date, these H5N1 HPAI viruses have been isolated in European, Middle Eastern, and African countries, and are considered endemic in many areas where regulatory control and different production sectors face substantial hurdles in controlling the spread of this disease. While control of avian influenza (AI) virus infections in wild bird populations may not be feasible at this point, control and eradiation of AI from commercial, semicommercial, zoo, pet, and village/backyard birds will be critical to preventing events that could lead to the emergence of epizootic influenza virus. Efficacious vaccines can help reduce disease, viral shedding, and transmission to susceptible cohorts. However, only when vaccines are used in a comprehensive program including biosecurity, education, culling, diagnostics and surveillance can control and eradication be considered achievable goals. In humans, protection against influenza is provided by vaccines that are chosen based on molecular, epidemiologic, and antigenic data. In poultry and other birds, AI vaccines are produced against a specific hemagglutinin subtype of AI, and use is decided by government and state agricultural authorities based on risk and economic considerations, including the potential for trade restrictions. In the current H5N1 HPAI epizootic, vaccines have been used in a variety of avian species as a part of an overall control program to aid in disease management and control. PMID:19768403

  15. Insecticide resistence of bumblebee species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zarevúcka, Marie

    Rijeka: InTech, 2013 - (Chamy, R.; Rosenkranz, F.), s. 207-228 ISBN 978-953-51-1154-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446; GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bumblebee * insecticide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodegradation-life-of-science/insecticide-resistence-of-bumblebee-species

  16. Sample Size Dependent Species Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Walker, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the fundamental problem of measuring species diversity, this paper introduces the concept of a cluster structure to define an exchangeable cluster probability function that governs the joint distribution of a random count and its exchangeable random partitions. A cluster structure, naturally arising from a completely random measure mixed Poisson process, allows the probability distribution of the random partitions of a subset of a sample to be dependent on the sample size, a dist...

  17. Species extinction: Frequency and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Briggs

    2015-01-01

    Documented extinctions, that have taken place among surrogate taxa during the past 500 years, provide useful information about the extent of recent faunal extinctions and their geographic locations. Species extinctions among terrestrial vertebrates (birds and mammals) and invertebrates (insects and molluscs) have generally taken place in space-restricted habitats, primarily oceanic islands. An extinction pathway leads from the high diversity tropics to less diverse, peripheral habitats that f...

  18. The evolution of manufacturing SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, James Scott; Rose-Anderssen, Christen; Ridgway, Keith; Böttinger, Fabian; Michen, Marcus; Agyapong-Kodua, Kwabena; Brencsics, Ivan; Nemeth, Istvan; Krain, Roland

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to develop hierarchical and cladistic classifications of manufacturing system evolution, incorporating evolving and interacting product, process and production system features. The objectives then are to systematically organise manufacturing systems and their characteristics in classifications Forty-six candidate species of manufacturing systems have been identified and organised in a 4th generation hierarchical classification with 14 'genera', 6 'families' 3 'orders' and 1...

  19. Metals in Mediterranean aquatic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Study on metals in Mediterranean fish and fishery products. • Data collected for several contaminants in wild and farmed species of commercial interest. • Samples compliance with EU regulatory limits. • Identification of Mediterranean Sea areas showing background concentrations. • An interpretation of the chemical pollution issue of Marine Framework Strategy Directive. - Abstract: Metals such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), have been determined in species of Mediterranean marine organisms collected from areas supposed to be at background contamination levels. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) approach was adopted for the determination of all the metals. Arsenic, Cd and Pb determined in the 42 samples, do not exceed the pertinent maximum level except a sample of hake. In wild fish, the concentration range for Cr, Ni, V and Cu was, respectively: 0.07–0.09, 87.6–124, 0.022–0.075 and 0.79–1.74 μg/g fresh weight (fw). The farmed fish samples show concentration levels below the wild fish ones, except for Cr which range at the same levels. Cadmium and Pb show a high sample number under the quantification limit. The elements do not bio-magnify among the species considered and appear to show low variations in relation to organisms’ position in the food chain and at sampling sites

  20. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI; ALKA KARWA

    2010-01-01

    Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species)...

  1. Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions for ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study derived Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSD), representing a cumulative stressor-response distribution based on single-species sensitivity data, for ozone exposure on natural vegetation. SSDs were constructed for three species groups, i.e. trees, annual grassland and perennial grassland species, using species-specific exposure–response data. The SSDs were applied in two ways. First, critical levels were calculated for each species group and compared to current critical levels for ozone exposure. Second, spatially explicit estimates of the potentially affected fraction of plant species in Northwestern Europe were calculated, based on ambient ozone concentrations. We found that the SSD-based critical levels were lower than for the current critical levels for ozone exposure, with conventional critical levels for ozone relating to 8–20% affected plant species. Our study shows that the SSD concept can be successfully applied to both derive critical ozone levels and estimate the potentially affected species fraction of plant communities along specific ozone gradients. -- Highlights: ► Plant Species Sensitivity Distributions were derived for ozone exposure. ► Annual grassland species, as a species assemblage, tend to be most sensitive to ozone. ► Conventional critical levels for ozone relate to 8–20% affected plant species. ► The affected fraction of plant species for current ozone exposure in Northwestern Europe is estimated. -- Species Sensitivity Distributions offer opportunities in ozone risk assessment to both derive critical levels and estimate the affected fraction of a plant community

  2. The Invasive Species Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnase, John; Most, Neal; Gill, Roger; Ma, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) provides computational support for the generic work processes found in many regional-scale ecosystem modeling applications. Decision support tools built using ISFS allow a user to load point occurrence field sample data for a plant species of interest and quickly generate habitat suitability maps for geographic regions of management concern, such as a national park, monument, forest, or refuge. This type of decision product helps resource managers plan invasive species protection, monitoring, and control strategies for the lands they manage. Until now, scientists and resource managers have lacked the data-assembly and computing capabilities to produce these maps quickly and cost efficiently. ISFS focuses on regional-scale habitat suitability modeling for invasive terrestrial plants. ISFS s component architecture emphasizes simplicity and adaptability. Its core services can be easily adapted to produce model-based decision support tools tailored to particular parks, monuments, forests, refuges, and related management units. ISFS can be used to build standalone run-time tools that require no connection to the Internet, as well as fully Internet-based decision support applications. ISFS provides the core data structures, operating system interfaces, network interfaces, and inter-component constraints comprising the canonical workflow for habitat suitability modeling. The predictors, analysis methods, and geographic extents involved in any particular model run are elements of the user space and arbitrarily configurable by the user. ISFS provides small, lightweight, readily hardened core components of general utility. These components can be adapted to unanticipated uses, are tailorable, and require at most a loosely coupled, nonproprietary connection to the Web. Users can invoke capabilities from a command line; programmers can integrate ISFS's core components into more complex systems and services. Taken together, these

  3. Clinical hematology of rodent species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-09-01

    Pet rodents, such as rats, guinea pigs, and chinchillas, differ from more traditional companion animal species in many aspects of their hematologic parameters. Animals within this order have much diversity in size, anatomy, methods of restraint, and blood collection technique. Appropriate sample collection is often the most challenging aspect of the diagnostic protocol, and inappropriate restraint may cause a stress response that interferes with blood test results. For many of these patients, sedation is required and can also affect results as well. In most cases, however, obtaining a standard database is necessary and very possible when providing medical care for this popular group of pets. PMID:18675732

  4. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Gomes; Roberto da Silva; Alcides Serzedello

    1998-01-01

    Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of a...

  5. Placentation in different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tarrade, Anne

    2016-06-01

    The placenta is a complex, transient organ associated with viviparity, which is located at the interface of the dam and fetus during pregnancy. It is formed after attachment, or implantation, of the blastocyst on the uterine lining and derives from complex cellular and molecular interactions between uterine and embryonic tissues. In mammals, there are many forms of placentation but this organ has the same function in all species: it is responsible for orchestrating materno-fetal exchanges, together with endocrine and immunological functions. PMID:27155775

  6. Renal biomarkers in domestic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokamp, Jessica A; Nabity, Mary B

    2016-03-01

    Current conventional tests of kidney damage and function in blood (serum creatinine and urea nitrogen) and urine (urine protein creatinine ratio and urine specific gravity) are widely used for diagnosis and monitoring of kidney disease. However, they all have important limitations, and additional markers of glomerular filtration rate and glomerular and tubular damage are desirable, particularly for earlier detection of renal disease when therapy is most effective. Additionally, urinary markers of kidney damage and function may help localize damage to the affected portion of the kidney. In general, the presence of high- and intermediate-molecular weight proteins in the urine are indicative of glomerular damage, while low-molecular weight proteins and enzymes in the urine suggest tubular damage due to decreased reabsorption of proteins, direct tubular damage, or both. This review aims to discuss many of these new blood and urinary biomarkers in domestic veterinary species, focusing primarily on dogs and cats, how they may be used for diagnosis of renal disease, and their limitations. Additionally, a brief discussion of serum creatinine is presented, highlighting its limitations and important considerations for its improved interpretation in domestic species based on past literature and recent studies. PMID:26918420

  7. Using digital flow cytometry to assess the degradation of three cyanobacteria species after oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wert, Eric C; Dong, Mei Mei; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2013-07-01

    Depending on drinking water treatment conditions, oxidation processes may result in the degradation of cyanobacteria cells causing the release of toxic metabolites (microcystin), odorous metabolites (MIB, geosmin), or disinfection byproduct precursors. In this study, a digital flow cytometer (FlowCAM(®)) in combination with chlorophyll-a analysis was used to evaluate the ability of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine to damage or lyse cyanobacteria cells added to Colorado River water. Microcystis aeruginosa (MA), Oscillatoria sp. (OSC) and Lyngbya sp. (LYN) were selected for the study due to their occurrence in surface water supplies, metabolite production, and morphology. Results showed that cell damage was observed without complete lysis or fragmentation of the cell membrane under many of the conditions tested. During ozone and chlorine experiments, the unicellular MA was more susceptible to oxidation than the filamentous OSC and LYN. Rate constants were developed based on the loss of chlorophyll-a and oxidant exposure, which showed the oxidants degraded MA, OSC, and LYN according to the order of ozone > chlorine ~ chlorine dioxide > chloramine. Digital and binary images taken by the digital flow cytometer provided qualitative insight regarding cell damage. When applying this information, drinking water utilities can better understand the risk of cell damage or lysis during oxidation processes. PMID:23726712

  8. Anaho Island: Mammalian species richness report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study assessed the mammalian species richness on Anaho Island using live trapping between July 18th and July 23rd 2005. The last mammalian species richness...

  9. Tualatin River - Invasive Species Management with Volunteers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This grant has a strong focus on invasive species outreach and education with a supporting focus on active field management of native/invasive species. With more...

  10. New species of Labisia (Myrsinaceae) From Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-01-01

    SUNARNO, BAMBANG. 2002. New  species of Labisia  (Myrsinaceae) From Sumatra. Reinwardtia 12(1): 121– 124. ⎯ Three new species L. posthumusiana, L. steenisiana and L. sumatrensis are  described. 

  11. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A.Mehr-Movahed; J. Nikkhah

    1987-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  12. SIS - Species and Stock Administrative Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Species and Stock Administrative data set within the Species Information System (SIS) defines entities within the database that serve as the basis for recording...

  13. Genome size differences in Hyalella cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilino, Roland; Dionne, Kaven; Nozais, Christian; Dufresne, France; Belzile, Claude

    2012-02-01

    The Hyalella azteca (Saussure) complex includes numerous amphipod cryptic species in freshwater habitats in America as revealed by DNA barcoding surveys. Two ecomorphs (small and large) have evolved numerous times in this complex. Few phenotypic criteria have been found to differentiate between the numerous species of this complex. The present study aims to explore genome size differences between some species of the H. azteca complex co-occurring in a Canadian boreal lake using flow cytometry. Nuclear DNA content was estimated for 50 individuals belonging to six COI haplotypes corresponding to four provisional species of the H. azteca complex. Species from the large ecomorph had C-values significantly larger than species from the small ecomorph, whereas slight differences were found among species of the small ecomorph. These differences in genome sizes might be linked to ecological and physiological differences among species of the H. azteca complex. PMID:22263854

  14. Calcifying species sensitivity distributions for ocean acidification

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo Ligia B.; De Schryver, An M.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 atmospheric levels lead to increasing ocean acidification, thereby enhancing calcium carbonate dissolution of calcifying species. We gathered peer-reviewed experimental data on the effects of acidified seawater on calcifying species growth, reproduction, and survival. The data were used to derive species-specific median effective concentrations, i.e., pH50, and pH10, via logistic regression. Subsequently, we developed species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) to assess the poten...

  15. New insights into the species problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historical opinions of the "species problem" are briefly reviewed, and four salient stages are recognized according to origin of species concepts. We propose that species is the unit preserving superior gene assembly and is maintained by specific mechanisms. Based on characteristics of plant evolution, we assume that understanding plant species may include three stages, i.e. morphological recognition stage, multidisciplinary verification stage, and illuminating mechanisms preserving superior gene assembly.

  16. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.

  17. Endangered Species & Biodiversity: A Classroom Project & Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Brook

    2012-01-01

    Students discover the factors contributing to species losses worldwide by conducting a project about endangered species as a component of a larger classroom theme of biodiversity. Groups conduct research using online endangered- species databases and present results to the class using PowerPoint. Students will improve computer research abilities…

  18. The transformer species of the Ukrainian Polissya

    OpenAIRE

    Protopopova Vira V.; Shevera Myroslav V.; Orlov Oleksandr O.; Panchenko Sergiy M.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation results of the transformer species participation (Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray, Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Robinia pseudoacacia L.) in different plant communities of the Ukrainian Polissya (Forest zone of Ukraine) are presented. All the abovementioned species are strong edificators in the region that can significantly change important species composition parameters of communities ...

  19. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L J; de Boer, R F; Roelfsema, J H; Friesema, I H M; Kortbeek, L M; Wagenaar, J A; Bonten, M J M; Kusters, J G

    2013-01-01

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were no

  20. Brachyspira Species and Gastroenteritis in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Westerman, L.J.; de Boer, R. F.; Roelfsema, J H; Friesema, I H M; Kortbeek, L. M.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.M.; Kusters, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Brachyspira species have been implicated as a potential cause of gastroenteritis in humans; this is, however, controversial. In 733 gastroenteritis cases and 464 controls, we found 29 samples positive for Brachyspira species (2.3% of cases and 2.6% of controls; P = 0.77). Brachyspira species were not associated with gastroenteritis in humans.

  1. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting (via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to...

  2. Options in dealing with marine alien species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt-Heerschap, van H.M.L.; Sneekes, A.C.; Foekema, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive species can have strong impact on the local ecosystem, not only substantial impact on the local ecosystem, but also on economy and human health. This review on marine alien species outlines aspects of prevention, eradication and control strategies. When managing invasive species, prevention

  3. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March...

  4. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  5. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  6. Notes on Edibility of Tricholoma Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Allı

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tricholoma (Fr. Staude is important in terms of hosting edible and poisonous species. Therefore, in this study, edible and poisonous Tricholoma species are evaluated, edible and valuable species are introduced. Also, poisoning syndromes are examined and discussed.

  7. Fundamental equations for species-area theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Xubin

    2013-01-01

    Species-area theory is an important concept in ecology. However, debates still surround the species-area relationship (SAR) or endemics-area relationship (EAR) and their relations to expected extinction rates. In this paper, I introduce the concept of overlap-area relationship (OAR) to link SAR and EAR. Two fundamental equations are derived from the relationship between the area and species number in a limited whole area A: 1) the sum of species number in area a and species number, here defin...

  8. Ecological impacts of non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Non-native species are considered one of the greatest threats to freshwater biodiversity worldwide (Drake et al. 1989; Allen and Flecker 1993; Dudgeon et al. 2005). Some of the first hypotheses proposed to explain global patterns of amphibian declines included the effects of non-native species (Barinaga 1990; Blaustein and Wake 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991). Evidence for the impact of non-native species on amphibians stems (1) from correlative research that relates the distribution or abundance of a species to that of a putative non-native species, and (2) from experimental tests of the effects of a non-native species on survival, growth, development or behaviour of a target species (Kats and Ferrer 2003). Over the past two decades, research on the effects of non-native species on amphibians has mostly focused on introduced aquatic predators, particularly fish. Recent research has shifted to more complex ecological relationships such as influences of sub-lethal stressors (e.g. contaminants) on the effects of non-native species (Linder et al. 2003; Sih et al. 2004), non-native species as vectors of disease (Daszak et al. 2004; Garner et al. 2006), hybridization between non-natives and native congeners (Riley et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2004), and the alteration of food-webs by non-native species (Nystrom et al. 2001). Other research has examined the interaction of non-native species in terms of facilitation (i.e. one non-native enabling another to become established or spread) or the synergistic effects of multiple non-native species on native amphibians, the so-called invasional meltdown hypothesis (Simerloff and Von Holle 1999). Although there is evidence that some non-native species may interact (Ricciardi 2001), there has yet to be convincing evidence that such interactions have led to an accelerated increase in the number of non-native species and cumulative impacts are still uncertain (Simberloff 2006). Applied research on the control, eradication, and

  9. Species Conservation and Management: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcakaya, H.R.; Burgman, M.A.; Kindvall, O.; Wood, C.C.; Sjogren-Gulve, P.; Hatfield, J.S.; McCarthy, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This edited volume is a collection of population and metapopulation models for a wide variety of species, including plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Each chapter of the book describes the application of RAMAS GIS 4.0 to one species, with the aim of demonstrating how various life history characteristics of the species are incorporated into the model, and how the results of the model has been or can be used in conservation and management of the species. The book comes with a CD that includes a demo version of the program, and the data files for each species.

  10. Alien species on the coasts of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. CINAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The compilation of data on alien species reported from the Turkish coasts yielded a total of 263 species belonging to 11 systematic groups, of which Mollusca had the highest number of species (85 species, followed by Crustacea (51, fishes (43 and phytobenthos (39. The Black Sea is represented by a total of 20 alien species, the Sea of Marmara by 48 species, the Aegean Sea by 98 species and the Levantine Sea by 202 species. The majority of aliens found in the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara were transported via shipping, whereas the Levantine coast is extensively subjected to Lessepsian migration. Benthic habitats (soft and hard substrata comprise 76% of the total alien species and the pelagic environment is inhabited by thirty-nine species. Almost 50% of aliens collected from the Turkish coasts were found only at 0-10 m depth. Eight species occur at depths deeper than 100 m. The impacts of aliens on the benthic and pelagic ecosystems are presented.

  11. Locally rare species influence grassland ecosystem multifunctionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliveres, Santiago; Manning, Peter; Prati, Daniel; Gossner, Martin M; Alt, Fabian; Arndt, Hartmut; Baumgartner, Vanessa; Binkenstein, Julia; Birkhofer, Klaus; Blaser, Stefan; Blüthgen, Nico; Boch, Steffen; Böhm, Stefan; Börschig, Carmen; Buscot, Francois; Diekötter, Tim; Heinze, Johannes; Hölzel, Norbert; Jung, Kirsten; Klaus, Valentin H; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleinebecker, Till; Klemmer, Sandra; Krauss, Jochen; Lange, Markus; Morris, E Kathryn; Müller, Jörg; Oelmann, Yvonne; Overmann, Jörg; Pašalić, Esther; Renner, Swen C; Rillig, Matthias C; Schaefer, H Martin; Schloter, Michael; Schmitt, Barbara; Schöning, Ingo; Schrumpf, Marion; Sikorski, Johannes; Socher, Stephanie A; Solly, Emily F; Sonnemann, Ilja; Sorkau, Elisabeth; Steckel, Juliane; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stempfhuber, Barbara; Tschapka, Marco; Türke, Manfred; Venter, Paul; Weiner, Christiane N; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Werner, Michael; Westphal, Catrin; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Wolters, Volkmar; Wubet, Tesfaye; Wurst, Susanne; Fischer, Markus; Allan, Eric

    2016-05-19

    Species diversity promotes the delivery of multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality). However, the relative functional importance of rare and common species in driving the biodiversity-multifunctionality relationship remains unknown. We studied the relationship between the diversity of rare and common species (according to their local abundances and across nine different trophic groups), and multifunctionality indices derived from 14 ecosystem functions on 150 grasslands across a land-use intensity (LUI) gradient. The diversity of above- and below-ground rare species had opposite effects, with rare above-ground species being associated with high levels of multifunctionality, probably because their effects on different functions did not trade off against each other. Conversely, common species were only related to average, not high, levels of multifunctionality, and their functional effects declined with LUI. Apart from the community-level effects of diversity, we found significant positive associations between the abundance of individual species and multifunctionality in 6% of the species tested. Species-specific functional effects were best predicted by their response to LUI: species that declined in abundance with land use intensification were those associated with higher levels of multifunctionality. Our results highlight the importance of rare species for ecosystem multifunctionality and help guiding future conservation priorities. PMID:27114572

  12. Genomic definition of species. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1993-03-01

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.

  13. Microbial species delineation using whole genome sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrpides, Nikos; Mukherjee, Supratim; Ivanova, Natalia; Mavrommatics, Kostas; Pati, Amrita; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos

    2014-10-20

    Species assignments in prokaryotes use a manual, poly-phasic approach utilizing both phenotypic traits and sequence information of phylogenetic marker genes. With thousands of genomes being sequenced every year, an automated, uniform and scalable approach exploiting the rich genomic information in whole genome sequences is desired, at least for the initial assignment of species to an organism. We have evaluated pairwise genome-wide Average Nucleotide Identity (gANI) values and alignment fractions (AFs) for nearly 13,000 genomes using our fast implementation of the computation, identifying robust and widely applicable hard cut-offs for species assignments based on AF and gANI. Using these cutoffs, we generated stable species-level clusters of organisms, which enabled the identification of several species mis-assignments and facilitated the assignment of species for organisms without species definitions.

  14. Petal anatomy of four Justicia (Acanthaceae) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Noraini, T.; Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2013-11-01

    Comparative anatomical study on flower petals was studied in four selected Justicia species from Peninsular Malaysia, i.e. J. comata (L.) Lam., J. carnea Lindl. J. betonica Linn. and J. procumbens L with the objective to provide useful data for species identification and differentiation within the genus of Justicia. Methods used in this study are mechanical scrapping on the leaf surfaces and observation under light microscope. Finding in this study has shown that all species are sharing similar type of anticlinal walls pattern, which is sinuous pattern. Two or more type of trichomes is present in all species studied and this character can be used to differentiate Justicia species. Simple multicellular trichomes are found to be present in all species studied. Justicia betonica can be isolated from other species by the existence of cyclo-paracytic stomata on the petal surfaces.

  15. Species concepts and biodiversity in Trichoderma and Hypocrea: from aggregate species to species clusters?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DRUZHININA Irina; KUBICEK Christian P.

    2005-01-01

    Trichoderma/Hypocrea is a genus of soil-borne or wood-decaying fungi containing members important to mankind as producers of industrial enzymes and biocontrol agents against plant pathogens, but also as opportunistic pathogens of immunocompromised humans. Species identification, while essential in view of the controversial properties of taxa ofthis genus, has been problematic by traditional methods. Here we will present a critical survey of the various identification methods in use. In addition,we will present an update on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the 88 taxa (which occur as 14 holomorphs, 49 teleomorphs and 25 anamorphs in nature) of Trichoderma/Hypocrea that have been confirmed by a combination of morphological, physiological and genetic approaches.

  16. Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Cristina; Eisenhut, Michael; Krausse, Rea; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Pellati, Donatella; Armanini, Decio; Bielenberg, Jens

    2008-02-01

    Historical sources for the use of Glycyrrhiza species include ancient manuscripts from China, India and Greece. They all mention its use for symptoms of viral respiratory tract infections and hepatitis. Randomized controlled trials confirmed that the Glycyrrhiza glabra derived compound glycyrrhizin and its derivatives reduced hepatocellular damage in chronic hepatitis B and C. In hepatitis C virus-induced cirrhosis the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was reduced. Animal studies demonstrated a reduction of mortality and viral activity in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and influenza A virus pneumonia. In vitro studies revealed antiviral activity against HIV-1, SARS related coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, arboviruses, vaccinia virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. Mechanisms for antiviral activity of Glycyrrhiza spp. include reduced transport to the membrane and sialylation of hepatitis B virus surface antigen, reduction of membrane fluidity leading to inhibition of fusion of the viral membrane of HIV-1 with the cell, induction of interferon gamma in T-cells, inhibition of phosphorylating enzymes in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and reduction of viral latency. Future research needs to explore the potency of compounds derived from licorice in prevention and treatment of influenza A virus pneumonia and as an adjuvant treatment in patients infected with HIV resistant to antiretroviral drugs. PMID:17886224

  17. Secondary Metabolites from Rubiaceae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psychotria, Hedyotis, Ophiorrhiza and Morinda. The occurrence and distribution of iridoids, alkaloids and anthraquinones point out their chemotaxonomic correlation among tribes and subfamilies. From an evolutionary point of view, Rubioideae is the most ancient subfamily, followed by Ixoroideae and finally Cinchonoideae. The chemical biosynthetic pathway, which is not so specific in Rubioideae, can explain this and large amounts of both iridoids and indole alkaloids are produced. In Ixoroideae, the most active biosysthetic pathway is the one that produces iridoids; while in Cinchonoideae, it produces indole alkaloids together with other alkaloids. The chemical biosynthetic pathway now supports this botanical conclusion.

  18. Secondary metabolites from Rubiaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Daiane; Nunez, Cecilia Veronica

    2015-01-01

    This study describes some characteristics of the Rubiaceae family pertaining to the occurrence and distribution of secondary metabolites in the main genera of this family. It reports the review of phytochemical studies addressing all species of Rubiaceae, published between 1990 and 2014. Iridoids, anthraquinones, triterpenes, indole alkaloids as well as other varying alkaloid subclasses, have shown to be the most common. These compounds have been mostly isolated from the genera Uncaria, Psychotria, Hedyotis, Ophiorrhiza and Morinda. The occurrence and distribution of iridoids, alkaloids and anthraquinones point out their chemotaxonomic correlation among tribes and subfamilies. From an evolutionary point of view, Rubioideae is the most ancient subfamily, followed by Ixoroideae and finally Cinchonoideae. The chemical biosynthetic pathway, which is not so specific in Rubioideae, can explain this and large amounts of both iridoids and indole alkaloids are produced. In Ixoroideae, the most active biosysthetic pathway is the one that produces iridoids; while in Cinchonoideae, it produces indole alkaloids together with other alkaloids. The chemical biosynthetic pathway now supports this botanical conclusion. PMID:26205062

  19. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. PMID:25236413

  20. From gene trees to species trees II: Species tree inference in the deep coalescence model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Louxin

    2010-01-01

    When gene copies are sampled from various species, the resulting gene tree might disagree with the containing species tree. The primary causes of gene tree and species tree discord include lineage sorting, horizontal gene transfer, and gene duplication and loss. Each of these events yields a different parsimony criterion for inferring the (containing) species tree from gene trees. With lineage sorting, species tree inference is to find the tree minimizing extra gene lineages that had to coexi...

  1. Which Models Are Appropriate for Six Subtropical Forests: Species-Area and Species-Abundance Models

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Guang Wei; Lin Li; Zhen Cheng Chen; Ju Yu Lian; Guo Jun Lin; Zhong Liang Huang; Zuo Yun Yin

    2014-01-01

    The species-area relationship is one of the most important topic in the study of species diversity, conservation biology and landscape ecology. The species-area relationship curves describe the increase of species number with increasing area, and have been modeled by various equations. In this paper, we used detailed data from six 1-ha subtropical forest communities to fit three species-area relationship models. The coefficient of determination and F ratio of ANOVA showed all the three models...

  2. A Theory of Flagship Species Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flagship species approach is an enduring strategy in conservation. Academic discussion on flagship species has focussed on two dimensions: on what basis should they be selected and how have they been put to use. Here we consider a third dimension, namely the manner in which flagship species act and have the capacity to galvanise and influence conservation outcomes. Drawing on concepts from the social sciences, viz. affordance, framing, and actor-networks; we discuss examples of flagship species to propose a theory of flagship species action. In brief, our theory posits that a flagship species is one with traits that afford the assembly of relatively coherent networks of associations with ideational elements located in pre-existing cultural framings. These associations give rise to opportunities to align with deep cultural frames, contemporary cultural phenomena and political economy such that when a conservation action is introduced, forms of agency cause the species and human publics to change. The species becomes re-framed (or reinvigorated as a cultural asset speaking for a wider nature, publics and political agendas. Further our theory posits that species with traits that enrol in idea networks incorporating human fears, will have limited flagship capacity. This is because the ability of the representations produced to align with frames incorporating collective aspirations is constrained. In terms of applied conservation practice, our theory suggests that: a key criteria for selecting potential flagship species is presence in existing cultural frames, that effective deployment of flagship species requires an understanding of the species′ cultural associations, and a species ability to galvanise action may be limited to certain times and places. Furthermore, once deployed conservation interests will never have full control over the flagship species: it may act in uncertain and unexpected ways.

  3. The taxonomy of the Tarentola mauritanica species complex (Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae): Bayesian species delimitation supports six candidate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Catarina; Harris, David James; Carranza, Salvador; Machado, Luís; Perera, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The lack of morphological diagnosable characters typical of cryptic species, poses a particular problem to taxonomists. This is especially true when taxa are closely related, sharing considerable amounts of ancestral polymorphism. Phylogenetic studies on the Moorish gecko species-complex, Tarentola mauritanica, uncovered extremely high levels of mtDNA diversity with six identified clades, including one from the Canary Islands identified as T. angustimentalis. Because of the conserved morphology of this species and its paraphyletic status with respect to T. angustimentalis, it was suggested that T. mauritanica is a cryptic species complex. Nevertheless, none of the nuclear loci used were reciprocally monophyletic regarding the mitochondrial lineages due to retention of ancestral polymorphism. In this study, we added three new intron markers to the already available dataset and used additional tools, namely phylogenetic gene trees, species tree and species limits within a Bayesian coalescent framework to confirm the support of the main lineages. Bayesian clustering analysis supports all six mtDNA lineages as independent groups, despite showing signs of ancestral polymorphism or possibly gene flow between the Maghreb/South Iberia and Central Morocco clades. The species tree recovered two major groups; one clustering taxa from Europe and Northern Maghreb and another one encompassing the lineages from Central/Southern Morocco, Central Morocco and Canary Islands, indicating that the ancestor of T. angustimentalis came from the Central/Southern Morocco region. Finally, Bayesian coalescent species delimitation analysis supports all six mitochondrial clades as "unconfirmed candidate species", pending morphological data to define them. PMID:26391222

  4. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  5. Self-localized states in species competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulau, Pavel V.; Gomila, DamiÃ; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio

    2014-03-01

    We study the conditions under which species interaction, as described by continuous versions of the competitive Lotka-Volterra model (namely the nonlocal Kolmogorov-Fisher model, and its differential approximation), can support the existence of localized states, i.e., patches of species with enhanced population surrounded in niche space by species at smaller densities. These states would arise from species interaction, and not by any preferred niche location or better fitness. In contrast to previous works we include only quadratic nonlinearities, so that the localized patches appear on a background of homogeneously distributed species coexistence, instead of on top of the no-species empty state. For the differential model we find and describe in detail the stable localized states. For the full nonlocal model, however, competitive interactions alone do not allow the conditions for the observation of self-localized states, and we show how the inclusion of additional facilitative interactions leads to the appearance of them.

  6. Radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

  7. Choosing the right species in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    When designing animal studies, investigators must choose a species that is appropriate for the research. In this paper, the author examines various criteria that can be used to guide this selection. He discusses the concepts of phylogenetic group and sentience and finds them not to be useful in the selection of appropriate species in biomedical research. He identifies other criteria that are more useful as justifications for species selection, including susceptibility to a targeted disease process, tendency to engage in a targeted behavior, suitable size for the experimental techniques to be used, presence of a large body of data relevant to the study, species specificity (the species itself is the target of the research), intergenerational interval, similarity to humans, contractual specification and existing guidelines. He proposes that investigators should use these justifications, and perhaps others, to choose the most scientifically appropriate species for animal studies. PMID:26091133

  8. The Species Problem in Myxomycetes Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Laura M; Stephenson, Steven L

    2016-08-01

    Species identification in the myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds or myxogastrids) poses particular challenges to researchers as a result of their morphological plasticity and frequent alteration between sexual and asexual life strategies. Traditionally, myxomycete morphology has been used as the primary method of species delimitation. However, with the increasing availability of genetic information, traditional myxomycete taxonomy is being increasingly challenged, and new hypotheses continue to emerge. Due to conflicts that sometimes occur between traditional and more modern species concepts that are based largely on molecular data, there is a pressing need to revisit the discussion surrounding the species concept used for myxomycetes. Biological diversity is being increasingly studied with molecular methods and data accumulates at ever-faster rates, making resolution of this matter urgent. In this review, currently used and potentially useful species concepts (biological, morphological, phylogenetic and ecological) are reviewed, and an integrated approach to resolve the myxomycete species problem is discussed. PMID:27351595

  9. Diversity of invasive species in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingrou Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A list of invasive alien species (IAS is essential for initiating an analysis of the biological and ecological traits of such species and for improving our understanding of patterns of biological invasions. An inventory of IAS in Shanghai was prepared through a literature survey. A total of 212 IAS belonging to 63 orders and 87 families were recorded. Of these, 65% were plants, 29% were animals, and the rest were microorganisms. Dominant groups could be distinguished in both plant and animal groups. Species originating from the Americas made up 51% of the total, while 52% of plant species were introduced intentionally and 82% of animal species unintentionally. Of the invasive plants, 93% are distributed in highly disturbed habitats with rich resources, whereas 76% of invasive animals occur in storehouses and farmlands. The present information on diversity and ecological features of IAS is crucial for designing management strategies against the negative impacts of such species in Shanghai.

  10. Competition between species of small mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interspecific competition has often been inferred from its results. In evolutionary time it has been responsible for patterns of regularity in the structure of mammalian communities, and in the morphological and ecological characteristics of the constituent species. In contemporary time it gives rise to reciprocal (complementary) numbers and distributions of two or more species. These inferences are strengthened by recent experimental demonstrations of competition between species of North American rodents. Recent observations and experiments are reviewed. The most thoroughly studied competitors are two species of microtine rodents, Microtus pennsylvanicus and Clethrionomys gapperi. Species which compete for space have been studied experimentally more often than have food competitors. Overt aggression is frequently implicated, but its importance in nature in relation to other means of interaction (e.g. through vocal or scent communication) is not known. The definitive study of competition for food between mammal species has yet to be performed

  11. The local introduction of strongly interacting species and the loss of geographic variation in species and species interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkman, Craig W; Siepielski, Adam M; Parchman, Thomas L

    2008-01-01

    Species introductions into nearby communities may seem innocuous, however, these introductions, like long-distance introductions (e.g. trans- and intercontinental), can cause extinctions and alter the evolutionary trajectories of remaining community members. These 'local introductions' can also more cryptically homogenize formerly distinct populations within a species. We focus on several characteristics and the potential consequences of local introductions. First, local introductions are commonly successful because the species being introduced is compatible with existing abiotic and biotic conditions; many nearby communities differ because of historical factors and the absence of certain species is simply the result of barriers to dispersal. Moreover, the species with which they interact most strongly (e.g. prey) may have, for example, lost defences making the establishment even more likely. The loss or absence of defences is especially likely when the absent species is a strongly interacting species, which we argue often includes mammals in terrestrial communities. Second, the effects of the introduction may be difficult to detect because the community is likely to converge onto nearby communities that naturally have the introduced species (hence the perceived innocuousness). This homogenization of formerly distinct populations eliminates the geographic diversity of species interactions and the geographic potential for speciation, and reduces regional species diversity. We illustrate these ideas by focusing on the introduction of tree squirrels into formerly squirrel-less forest patches. Such introductions have eliminated incipient species of crossbills (Loxia spp.) co-evolving in arms races with conifers and will likely have considerable impacts on community structure and ecosystem processes. PMID:18173508

  12. MIXED-SPECIES PLASMODIUM INFECTIONS OF HUMANS

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, F. Ellis; Bossert, William H.

    1997-01-01

    We analyzed point-prevalence data from 35 recent studies of human populations in which Plasmodium falciparum and one other Plasmodium species were the reported causes of malaria infections. For the P. falciparum–Plasmodium vivax pair, higher overall prevalence in a human population is associated with fewer mixed-species infections than expected on the basis of the product of individual species prevalences. This is not true for P. falciparum–Plasmodium malariae.

  13. Niche modelling of salt marsh plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study sought to extend the niche model of Spartina anglica to other salt marsh species, and to include tidal submergence in the models. The method used and preliminary data analysis are described. Tidal level and submergence niche models are examined, and niche width, niche overlap and species interaction are considered. Tidal level models and submergence niche models are compared for the 5 most common species. (UK)

  14. The transformer species of the Ukrainian Polissya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protopopova Vira V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the transformer species participation (Echinocystis lobata (Michx. Torr. & A. Gray, Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden., Impatiens glandulifera Royle, I. parviflora DC., Reynoutria japonica Houtt., Robinia pseudoacacia L. in different plant communities of the Ukrainian Polissya (Forest zone of Ukraine are presented. All the abovementioned species are strong edificators in the region that can significantly change important species composition parameters of communities and character of landscape.

  15. Induced-Innovation and Invasive Species Management

    OpenAIRE

    C.S. Kim; Schaible, Glenn D.; Lewandrowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Public policy for managing invasive species has largely focused on preventive measures prior to detection (stage 1) and on the use of chemical/mechanical or biological control measures after the establishment and dispersion of the invasive species (stage 2). Optimal management policy depends both on the initial stock of the invasive species and on the costs associated with conventional control measures. However, little attention has focused on how an induced technology such as Bt corn and Bt ...

  16. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi...

  17. Species Differences Take Shape at Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Miclaus, Teodora; Scavenius, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    Cells recognize the biomolecular corona around a nanoparticle, but the biological identity of the complex may be considerably different among various species. This study explores the importance of protein corona composition for nanoparticle recognition by coelomocytes of the earthworm Eisenia fet...... of species-specific formation of biomolecular coronas, and this suggests that the use of representative species may need careful consideration in assessing the risks associated with nanoparticles....

  18. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks drive species interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Salazar, Emmanuel; del Carmen Vargas-Lagunas, María; Kolter, Roberto; Encarnación, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In the biosphere, many species live in close proximity and can thus interact in many different ways. Such interactions are dynamic and fall along a continuum between antagonism and cooperation. Because interspecies interactions are the key to understanding biological communities, it is important to know how species interactions arise and evolve. Here, we show that the feedback between ecological and evolutionary processes has a fundamental role in the emergence and dynamics of species interac...

  19. Population Genomics and the Bacterial Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, Margaret A.; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacterial evolution has been elevated to such a degree that many bacteriologists now question the very existence of bacterial species. If gene transfer is as rampant as comparative genomic studies have suggested, how could bacterial species survive such genomic fluidity? And yet, most bacteriologists recognize, and name, as species, clusters of bacterial isolates that share complex phenotypic properties. The Core Genome Hypo...

  20. Recombination rate variation in closely related species

    OpenAIRE

    Smukowski, C S; Noor, M A F

    2011-01-01

    Despite their importance to successful meiosis and various evolutionary processes, meiotic recombination rates sometimes vary within species or between closely related species. For example, humans and chimpanzees share virtually no recombination hotspot locations in the surveyed portion of the genomes. However, conservation of recombination rates between closely related species has also been documented, raising an apparent contradiction. Here, we evaluate how and why conflicting patterns of r...

  1. Linking global turnover of species and environments

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Lauren B.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of species turnover are central to the geography of biodiversity and resulting challenges for conservation, but at broad scales remain relatively little understood. Here, we take a first spatially-explicitly and global perspective to link the spatial turnover of species and environments. We compare how major groups of vertebrate ectotherms (amphibians) and endotherms (birds) respond to spatial environmental gradients. We find that high levels of species turnover occur regardless of e...

  2. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Magurran, A.E; Henderson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in l...

  3. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, M.J.; Claus, S.; Dekeyzer, S; Vandepitte, L.; Ó Tuama, É.; Lear, D.; Tyler-Walters, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of...

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Trigonella Species

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhee Shyam Dangi; Dasharath Oulkar; Prashant Dhakephalkar; Sanjay Kumar Singh; Kaushik Banerjee; Dattatray Naik; Shubhada Tamhankar; Suryaprakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    The genus Trigonella includes many medicinal and aromatic plant species used in traditional as well as veterinary medicines for different diseases, alone or in combination with other remedies. The crude methanol extracts of 15 Trigonella species were assayed for antimicrobial activity against four medicinally important multidrug resistant clinical isolates, five plant pathogenic bacteria and five fungi.Three species showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the test bac...

  5. Chemosymbiotic species from the Gulf of Cadiz

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, C. F.; A. Hilário; M. R. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Previous work in the mud volcanoes from the Gulf of Cadiz (South Iberian Margin) revealed a high number of chemosymbiotic species, namely bivalves and siboglinid polychaetes. In this study we give an overview of the distribution and life styles of these species in the Gulf of Cadiz, determine the role of autotrophic symbionts in the nutrition of selected species using stable isotope analyses (δ13C, δ15N and δ34S) and investigate the intra-specific variation of isotope signat...

  6. Protecting Endangered Species in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, Jason F.; Tschirhart, John

    2001-05-01

    Protecting Endangered Species in the United States is a collection of original papers by economists, biologists and political scientists with a common theme--protecting species at risk while safeguarding social order is a policy challenge that entangles biology, politics, and economics. The volume begins by assessing the biological needs that define the endangered species problem. The authors then explore the political realities that delimit the debate--who pays the costs and receives the benefits, and how interest groups affect species protection. The book addresses the economic choices that must be confronted for effective protection strategies including incentive schemes to promote preservation on public and private land.

  7. National Institute of Invasive Species Science (NIISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org) is a consortium of governmental and nongovernmental partners, led by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), whose aim is to provide reliable information and advanced decision support tools for documenting, understanding, predicting, assessing, and addressing the threat of invasive species in the United States. The Institute coordinates the National Aeronautical and Space Administrationa??s (NASAa??s) Invasive Species National Application activities for the Department of the Interior and has al lead role in developing NASA-derived remote sensing and landscape-scale predictive modeling capabilities for the invasive species communitya?|

  8. Fort Collins Science Center: Invasive Species Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Invasive, non-native species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like "biological wildfires," they can quickly spread, and they affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become the greatest environmental challenge of the 21st century in terms of economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated impact in the U.S. of over $138 billion per year. Managers of Department of the Interior and other public and private lands and waters rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) provides research and technical assistance relating to invasive species management concerns, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, FORT scientists are developing the Invasive Species Information Node of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), a comprehensive, Web-accessible database of invasive plant and animal species and disease agents. From these data, and in partnership with Colorado State University, the National Aeronautic Space Administration (NASA), and others, FORT scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species behavior for more effective management. FORT is also the administrative home of the National Institute of Invasive Species Science, a growing consortium of partnerships between government and private organizations established by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its many cooperators. The Institute was formed to develop cooperative approaches for invasive species science that meet the urgent needs of land managers and the public. Its mission is to work with others to coordinate data and research from many sources to predict and reduce the effects of harmful nonnative plants, animals, and

  9. Asymptotic Regime in N Random Interacting Species

    CERN Document Server

    Fiasconaro, A; Valenti, D

    2005-01-01

    The asymptotic regime of a complex ecosystem with N random interacting species and in the presence of an external multiplicative noise is analyzed. We find the role of the external noise on the long time probability distribution of the i_th density species, the extinction of species and the local field acting on the i_th population. We analyze in detail the transient dynamics of this field and the cavity field, which is the field acting on the i_th species when this is absent. We find that the presence or the absence of some population give different asymptotic distributions of these fields.

  10. Drug delivery systems in domestic animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Oudot, Emilie J M; Baird, Alan W

    2010-01-01

    Delivery of biologically active agents to animals is often perceived to be the poor relation of human drug delivery. Yet this field has a long and successful history of species-specific device and formulation development, ranging from simple approaches and devices used in production animals to more sophisticated formulations and approaches for a wide range of species. While several technologies using biodegradable polymers have been successfully marketed in a range of veterinary and human products, the transfer of delivery technologies has not been similarly applied across species. This may be due to a combination of specific technical requirements for use of devices in different species, inter-species pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physiological differences, and distinct market drivers for drug classes used in companion and food-producing animals. This chapter reviews selected commercialised and research-based parenteral and non-parenteral veterinary drug delivery technologies in selected domestic species. Emphasis is also placed on the impact of endogenous drug transporters on drug distribution characteristics in different species. In vitro models used to investigate carrier-dependent transport are reviewed. Species-specific expression of transporters in several tissues can account for inter-animal or inter-species pharmacokinetic variability, lack of predictability of drug efficacy, and potential drug-drug interactions. PMID:20204584

  11. Antifungal activity of some Cuban Zanthoxylum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez-Hurtado, R; Garrido-Garrido, G; Prieto-González, S; Iznaga, Y; González, L; Molina-Torres, J; Curini, M; Epifano, F; Marcotullio, M C

    2003-06-01

    Ethanolic extracts of the trunk bark of Zanthoxylum fagara, Z. elephantiasis and Z. martinicense showed activity against different species of fungi. No antibacterial activity was detected. PMID:12781811

  12. Use of species-specific PCR for the identification of 10 sea cucumber species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zeng, Ling

    2014-11-01

    We developed a species-specific PCR method to identify species among dehydrated products of 10 sea cucumber species. Ten reverse species-specific primers designed from the 16S rRNA gene, in combination with one forward universal primer, generated PCR fragments of ca. 270 bp length for each species. The specificity of the PCR assay was tested with DNA of samples of 21 sea cucumber species. Amplification was observed in specific species only. The species-specific PCR method we developed was successfully applied to authenticate species of commercial products of dehydrated sea cucumber, and was proven to be a useful, rapid, and low-cost technique to identify the origin of the sea cucumber product.

  13. Relating species abundance distributions to species-area curves in two Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on both theoretical and empirical studies there is evidence that different species abundance distributions underlie different species-area relationships. Here I show that Australian and Californian shrubland communities (at the scale from 1 to 1000 m2) exhibit different species-area relationships and different species abundance patterns. The species-area relationship in Australian heathlands best fits an exponential model and species abundance (based on both density and cover) follows a narrow log normal distribution. In contrast, the species-area relationship in Californian shrublands is best fit with the power model and, although species abundance appears to fit a log normal distribution, the distribution is much broader than in Australian heathlands. I hypothesize that the primary driver of these differences is the abundance of small-stature annual species in California and the lack of annuals in Australian heathlands. Species-area is best fit by an exponential model in Australian heathlands because the bulk of the species are common and thus the species-area curves initially rise rapidly between 1 and 100 m2. Annuals in Californian shrublands generate very broad species abundance distributions with many uncommon or rare species. The power function is a better model in these communities because richness increases slowly from 1 to 100 m2 but more rapidly between 100 and 1000 m2 due to the abundance of rare or uncommon species that are more likely to be encountered at coarser spatial scales. The implications of this study are that both the exponential and power function models are legitimate representations of species-area relationships in different plant communities. Also, structural differences in community organization, arising from different species abundance distributions, may lead to different species-area curves, and this may be tied to patterns of life form distribution.

  14. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  15. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy,...

  16. Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.A.M.P.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Penicillium citrinum and related species have been examined using a combination of partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequence data, extrolite patterns and phenotypic characters. It is concluded that seven species belong to the series Citrina. Penicillium sizovae and Penicillium steckii are...

  17. Southern African species of Mentha L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of Mentha L. occurring in Southern Africa are reviewed and a key is provided to two indigenous and one naturalized species.  M. wissii Launert is reduced to M. longifolia (L. Huds. subsp. wissii (Launert Codd.

  18. Xanthomendoza borealis - a bipolar lichen species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LIndblom, Louise; Søchting, Ulrik

    It has been uncertain whether the two xanthorioid taxa known as Xanthoria mawsonii and Xanthomen-doza borealis truly are distinct species or if they should best be treated as one species. They are morphologically very similar, but inhabit two disjunct geographical areas, that is, circumpolar on t...

  19. Three New Species of the Genus Ochroconis

    OpenAIRE

    Samerpitak, K.; Gerrits van den Ende, A. H. G.; Menken, S.B.J.; Hoog, de, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ochroconis bacilliformis, O. phaeophora and O. robusta, three novel species of the melanized genus Ochroconis (Sympoventuriaceae, Venturiales), are described, illustrated and distinguished phenotypically and molecularly from previously described species in the genus Ochroconis. Their potential significance for infection of cold-blooded vertebrates is discussed.

  20. Cytotoxic constituents of Alectra and Striga species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Rasmussen, Lars S.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Pierce, Simon; Press, M. C.; Scholes, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    Decimation of cereal growth and yields by hemiparasitic Striga species cannot be accounted for entirely by the removal of host-plant resources. The production of toxic compounds by the parasite has been suggested. An investigation of three species of the economically important Striga and the rela...

  1. SERI Aquatic Species Program: 1983 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    During 1983 research was carried out under three tasks: biological, engineering, and analysis. Biological research was aimed at screening for promising species of microalgae, macroalgae, and emergent plants that could be cultivated for energy products. Promising species were studied further to improve yields.

  2. Metabolite production by differnt Ulocladium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Hollensted, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Ulocladium, which is phylogenetically related to Alternaria, contains species that are food spoilers and plant pathogens, but also species that have potential as enzyme producers and bio-control agents. Ulocladium spp. are often found on dead vegetation, in soil, air and dust, but also on food and...

  3. New species of Labisia (Myrsinaceae From Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang - Sunarno

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SUNARNO, BAMBANG. 2002. New  species of Labisia  (Myrsinaceae From Sumatra. Reinwardtia 12(1: 121– 124. ⎯ Three new species L. posthumusiana, L. steenisiana and L. sumatrensis are  described. 

  4. ENDANGERED SPECIES SENSITIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service share a common responsibility for the protection of our nation's aquatic species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. The EPA, under the Federal Insectici...

  5. 76 FR 30955 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  6. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  7. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  8. 75 FR 29359 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive...

  9. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Fractionation of radionuclide species in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment may be present in different physico-chemical forms (i.e., radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, degree of complexation, etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time-dependent transformation processes such as mobilisation of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews available fractionation techniques which can be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes

  11. Fusarium Species Isolated from Forest Soil Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Azaman, R. S.; Latiffah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 46 isolates of Fusarium were isolated from six forest soil samples in Muka Head, Teluk Bahang, Pulau Pinang. Two Fusarium species were identified from the soil samples namely, F. solani (93.5%) and F. oxysporum (6.5%). The present study showed that the diversity and occurrences of Fusarium species in forest soil was low compared to cultivated soils.

  12. Multiple bacterial species reside in chronic wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Karlsmark, Tonny; Jørgensen, Bo; Klein, Bjarke M; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    species present were identified. More than one bacterial species were detected in all the ulcers. The most common bacteria found were Staphylococcus aureus (found in 93.5% of the ulcers), Enterococcus faecalis (71.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (52.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (45.7%), Proteus...

  13. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mehr-Movahed

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  14. Lichtheimia species exhibit differences in virulence potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker U Schwartze

    Full Text Available Although the number of mucormycosis cases has increased during the last decades, little is known about the pathogenic potential of most mucoralean fungi. Lichtheimia species represent the second and third most common cause of mucormycosis in Europe and worldwide, respectively. To date only three of the five species of the genus have been found to be involved in mucormycosis, namely L. corymbifera, L. ramosa and L. ornata. However, it is not clear whether the clinical situation reflects differences in virulence between the species of Lichtheimia or whether other factors are responsible. In this study the virulence of 46 strains of all five species of Lichtheimia was investigated in chicken embryos. Additionally, strains of the closest-related genus Dichotomocladium were tested. Full virulence was restricted to the clinically relevant species while all strains of L. hyalospora, L. sphaerocystis and Dichotomocladium species were attenuated. Although virulence differences were present in the clinically relevant species, no connection between origin (environmental vs clinical or phylogenetic position within the species was observed. Physiological studies revealed no clear connection of stress resistance and carbon source utilization with the virulence of the strains. Slower growth at 37°C might explain low virulence of L. hyalospora, L. spaherocystis and Dichotomocladium; however, similarly slow growing strains of L. ornata were fully virulent. Thus, additional factors or a complex interplay of factors determines the virulence of strains. Our data suggest that the clinical situation in fact reflects different virulence potentials in the Lichtheimiaceae.

  15. A new species of Penicillium, P. scabrosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of Penicillium, P. scabrosum, was found repeatedly in soil samples from temperate regions of the world, especially northern Europe and Canada. It occurs in high frequencies in wheat and barley field soils together with P. janczewskii Zaleski. The species has also been found on fleshy f

  16. Ten new species of Afrotropical Pterophoridae (Lepidoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Gielis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Ten new Afrotropical species of Pterophoridae are described: Agdistis linnaei spec. nov., Agdistis bouyeri spec. nov., Ochyrotica bjoernstadti spec. nov., Platyptilia aarviki spec. nov., Stenoptilia kiitulo spec. nov., Exelastis caroli spec. nov., Eucapperia continentalis spec. nov., Buckleria vanderwolfi spec. nov., Pselnophorus meruensis spec. nov., and Hellinsia emmelinoida spec. nov. The species are illustrated in colour, and their genitalia in line drawings.

  17. Taking species abundance distributions beyond individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morlon, Helene; White, Ethan P.; Etienne, Rampal S.; Green, Jessica L.; Ostling, Annette; Alonso, David; Enquist, Brian J.; He, Fangliang; Hurlbert, Allen; Magurran, Anne E.; Maurer, Brian A.; McGill, Brian J.; Olff, Han; Storch, David; Zillio, Tommaso; Chave, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    The species abundance distribution (SAD) is one of the few universal patterns in ecology. Research on this fundamental distribution has primarily focused on the study of numerical counts, irrespective of the traits of individuals. Here we show that considering a set of Generalized Species Abundance

  18. COMPUTATIONAL RESOURCES FOR BIOFUEL FEEDSTOCK SPECIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buell, Carol Robin [Michigan State University; Childs, Kevin L [Michigan State University

    2013-05-07

    While current production of ethanol as a biofuel relies on starch and sugar inputs, it is anticipated that sustainable production of ethanol for biofuel use will utilize lignocellulosic feedstocks. Candidate plant species to be used for lignocellulosic ethanol production include a large number of species within the Grass, Pine and Birch plant families. For these biofuel feedstock species, there are variable amounts of genome sequence resources available, ranging from complete genome sequences (e.g. sorghum, poplar) to transcriptome data sets (e.g. switchgrass, pine). These data sets are not only dispersed in location but also disparate in content. It will be essential to leverage and improve these genomic data sets for the improvement of biofuel feedstock production. The objectives of this project were to provide computational tools and resources for data-mining genome sequence/annotation and large-scale functional genomic datasets available for biofuel feedstock species. We have created a Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource that provides a web-based portal or clearing house for genomic data for plant species relevant to biofuel feedstock production. Sequence data from a total of 54 plant species are included in the Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource including model plant species that permit leveraging of knowledge across taxa to biofuel feedstock species.We have generated additional computational analyses of these data, including uniform annotation, to facilitate genomic approaches to improved biofuel feedstock production. These data have been centralized in the publicly available Bioenergy Feedstock Genomics Resource (http://bfgr.plantbiology.msu.edu/).

  19. Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lynette K.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of "Endangered Species: Real Life in Two Dimensions" is to create awareness about a critical environmental issue. There is a special urgency to this project because large numbers of animal species are currently endangered or on the brink of extinction. In addition to being enlightened about this important topic through research, students…

  20. Historical species losses in bumblebee evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Fabien L; Hines, Heather M

    2015-03-01

    Investigating how species coped with past environmental changes informs how modern species might face human-induced global changes, notably via the study of historical extinction, a dominant feature that has shaped current biodiversity patterns. The genus Bombus, which comprises 250 mostly cold-adapted species, is an iconic insect group sensitive to current global changes. Through a combination of habitat loss, pathogens and climate change, bumblebees have experienced major population declines, and several species are threatened with extinction. Using a time-calibrated tree of Bombus, we analyse their diversification dynamics and test hypotheses about the role of extinction during major environmental changes in their evolutionary history. These analyses support a history of fluctuating species dynamics with two periods of historical species loss in bumblebees. Dating estimates gauge that one of these events started after the middle Miocene climatic optimum and one during the early Pliocene. Both periods are coincident with global climate change that may have extirpated Bombus species. Interestingly, bumblebees experienced high diversification rates during the Plio-Pleistocene glaciations. We also found evidence for a major species loss in the past one million years that may be continuing today. PMID:25762572

  1. Ribonuclease Production by Aspergillus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gomes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribonuclease production by Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus and A. fischeri in semi-synthetic medium, after 24-144 hours at 30ºC under shaking, was studied. After cultivation, the medium was separated from micelia by filtration and the resultant solution was used as enzymatic extract. The highest amount of biomass and RNase was obtained after 96 hours of cultivation. The enzymes produced by three species presented similar characteristics, with optimum temperature at 55ºC and two peaks of activity at pH 4.5 and 7.0. A. flavipes RNases were more sensitive to temperature: 50% of the initial activity was lost after 1 hour at 70ºC. After this heat treatment, RNase of A. sulphureus lost 30% of this activity and that of A. fischeri only 16%. The nucleotides released by enzimatic hydrolysis of RNA were separated by ion exchange chromatography in a AG-1X8-formiate column and identified by paper chromatography. This procedure indicated that the raw enzymatic extract of Aspergillus flavipes is able to hydrolyze RNA, releasing 3'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 4.5 and 3' and 5'-nucleotides monophosphate at pH 7.0 and 8.5. This result suggests that this strain produces two different types of RNase, one acidic and other alcaline, with different specificities.A produção de ribonucleases extracelulares pelos fungos Aspergillus flavipes, A. sulphureus e A. fischeri foi estudada em meio semi-sintético por períodos de 24 a 144 horas, em "shaker" a 30ºC. Após o cultivo, o meio foi separado da massa micelial por filtração, sendo o filtrado utilizado como solução enzimática bruta. As três espécies produziram maior quantidade de biomassa e ribonuclease após 96 horas de cultivo. O estudo das RNases como extrato enzimático bruto demonstrou que existe grande similaridade entre as enzimas das três espécies, com temperaturas ótimas de 55ºC e dois picos de atividade a pH 4,5 e a pH 7,0. A RNAse produzida pelo fungo A. flavipes demonstrou ser mais

  2. ALIEN SPECIES: THEIR ROLE IN AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AND RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alien species (also referred to as exotic, invasive, introduced, or normative species) have been implicated as causal agents in population declines of many amphibian species. Herein, we evaluate the relative contributions of alien species and other factors in adversely affecting ...

  3. 75 FR 53708 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  4. 77 FR 71818 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  5. 78 FR 57650 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  6. 78 FR 16703 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  7. 76 FR 50751 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  8. 76 FR 20004 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  9. 76 FR 14424 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  10. 78 FR 55287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  11. 77 FR 37700 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with ] endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows...

  12. 76 FR 70160 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  13. 76 FR 33337 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  14. 75 FR 20857 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  15. 75 FR 66123 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  16. 75 FR 69699 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  17. 75 FR 79387 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  18. 75 FR 23287 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  19. 78 FR 37840 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  20. 78 FR 27249 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  1. 77 FR 51042 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  2. 76 FR 6490 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  3. 78 FR 9727 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal permit allows such...

  4. 78 FR 9724 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 31 nonfederal invasive species experts...

  5. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 274866 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9860 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MTSSDSVESWDFDRARRSLRQAMIRYSHKRRQRQNPPELQATLKTQLDILAESLDKLDQGLIRIAVFGLVSRGKSAVLNALLGEHIL...HLEGRSLLALNALVQAREAEKQIAHQTIKLQQTEAEALIWQFTKYKAIAIAINPIAIIDVLATTISDLILIRSLARLYGLPITNYEASQLLRTILLSAGGMILAEWGSGAIL...QTGPLNGVTQWPRSVRWTVPSRYDHQQDSIPVELIDTPGLDEVGGQVRGEMAREVTRQADLILFVVSGDLTRTEYEGLCELRRSTKPLIVVFNKVDLYTDTEQ...QAIYFNLQRLTTPDALNFDFDDLNWDAPTEPLKVGETAKTDSSLLEVVRVAAEPATVQVRVEWPDGRVTSEWESPPPQIDELKSAIVNIL

  6. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 293852 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein H Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MKTEFKAKFLQHVAKRKKEGGFTLIELLVVIIIIGILSAIALPSFLNQANKAKESEAKQYLSAINKGQQAAYTEFGQFNTDIN...ALGVGIKTETENYKYECAVGKAAVSCTAKAEDGAPLRDYLGHVYLVYVNDAESTSRSILCQAKGPDKDLGIFQLGSINAKNSDPTCEKANPKMEDV ...

  7. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 452377 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 06_28566 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MGLSCLMNQMINAFPSPTRLTGLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQIINVFGFCIKLTGLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQIINAFPSPT...RLTGLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQIINAFPSPTRLTSLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQIINVFGFCIKLTSLMHPTDNLMSLSCLINPTECSKYKLKLNQIILNKLLYIF ...

  8. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 452378 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 06_28576 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MGLSCLMNQIINAFPSPTRLTGLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQIINAFPSPTRLTGLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQIINAFPSPT...RLTGLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQMINAFPSPTRLTGLMHPTERLMGLSCLMNQIINAFPSPTRLTGLMHPTDLLTPK ...

  9. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 313049 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _10797 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MVPTASPQQIITTFSLAFFLEIVTNSLILPVQAHSIPSVPMDPLFPVQSVDFPLATTIVQADQQQTPRSQLSQTEWNNFT...PPSRGTPGRREGAGTRGRCPGGVTALIPTSTLGRTALEKPTIYYYIPTSLETVLVKFELLDEEDDTLYEKTLEMKDTKAGVIGLDLSEYEDAPTLEVNKNYHWYLTIR...CEPDTFDPSGDIVINGWINRVALSPTQLQTLESEQPSERLDFYAEEALWYETVSTLAQLRLSNPEDTTLQQRWTELLNSVGLGDIAPQPLISSELIQSTVEE ...

  10. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 415905 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11537 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MNSTQKLPRWFYLALAFPLLFLNAWFLLLLFKYLQPVPGIVLTASLIAFLLEYPIVFLEQRGVPRGFAITGVILLALVFLGFLIFVLSPLVFQQLIE...LPGEWSEQIQLTIQQSFRGYYSGQAILALILSIALSFAFLIFQIPFWLLFGFGIGSLSLIPFGGTFAVLVISTLLALHNVFLGLKVLAIALI...IGQINENVIAPRLIGGITGLNPALVIVSLLAGVKIAGVLGLLLAVPTASLVKKIADNIRGLEEIEQSSSLEKIESF ... ...FVNRLPAWIEEGRKQLDTLDEQTILQYLPMDISDLTAQISGQLSRTLKSLTAEIIDLTLNTINSALNLIVTVVLTILLVLNGEKLWDGLISW

  11. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 320320 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6_11577 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MLLELLLKNKKLKKLPWLLQLSLAHGATLGTSAQFADEFAEVETYCTFIGYSRSGHSLVAALLDAHPHIVMAHELRAVK...YVNYGFGRNALYYLLFQMTKVRGHSWMRGGGYTYNVPGQWQGSFEKIRVIGDKHGEFTVCTLADNPKLLKKLRDVVKVPVRFIHVVRNPFDNIATMALRKAKQNSLDI

  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 322681 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6_21337 Lyngbya sp. PCC 8106 MKFTNNFSLGLIVLTFACSFLLNKDSLGNAQNVNPSGRFLVNIQSGKCIDVSGAPGRATGSKLQLWDCELSGLNPDNNSPSDQ...RWMITNDGFIKNTLSGKCIDVAGAPGTENGSPLQLWDCELSGRNRDNGSPTDQIWTITSDGFIMNRLSQKCIDVAGAPGQENSSALLLWDCELSGRNQDNGSSTDQIWRLE ...

  13. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Karwa A, Rai MK. 2010. Hitherto unreported Agaricus species of Central India. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 141-145. Melghat forest region from Central India was surveyed for occurrence of medicinal and culinary mushrooms during the years 2005-2008. Out of total 153 species, ten species of Agaricus were recorded from different localities. Of these, seven species namely Agaricus bitorquis, A. subrufescens, A. augustus, A. placomyces, A. essettei, A. basioanolosus and Agaricus sp. nov (a new species are being reported for the first time from the region. The commercial button mushroom Agaricus bisporus lacks good breeding characters due to its bisporic nature. These wild cousins of the button mushroom can definitely prove to be a good source of genetic manipulations to the existing strains and also to develop new strains with improved characters.

  14. Invasive species unchecked by climate - response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burrows, Michael T.; Schoeman, David S.; Duarte, Carlos M.;

    2012-01-01

    Hulme points out that observed rates of range expansion by invasive alien species are higher than the median speed of isotherm movement over the past 50 years, which in turn has outpaced the rates of climate-associated range changes of marine and terrestrial species. This is not surprising, given...... the many ecological and anthropogenic processes that combine to facilitate the translocation of invasive species and the subsequent expansion of their populations. Successful alien species have been observed to rapidly expand their ranges until some limit, typically climate-imposed, is reached. Comparisons...... of climate-change-induced range shifts between native and alien species are meaningful only after the initial invasive spread has reached a stable range boundary. A focus on regions with high velocities of climate change, and on regions such as the tropics where novel thermal niches are being created, should...

  15. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  16. A new species of Brevipalpus Donnadieu (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) and key to the Egyptian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Alaa M; Fawzy, Magdy M

    2014-01-01

    A new species, Brevipalpus noranae sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is described and illustrated from females collected on Malus domestica Borkh and Citrus aurantium L. A key to the species of the genus Brevipalpus present in Egypt is provided. PMID:24869810

  17. Abundance of common species, not species richness, drives delivery of a real-world ecosystem service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Rachael; Fox, Jeremy W; Williams, Neal M; Reilly, James R; Cariveau, Daniel P

    2015-07-01

    Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning experiments have established that species richness and composition are both important determinants of ecosystem function in an experimental context. Determining whether this result holds for real-world ecosystem services has remained elusive, however, largely due to the lack of analytical methods appropriate for large-scale, associational data. Here, we use a novel analytical approach, the Price equation, to partition the contribution to ecosystem services made by species richness, composition and abundance in four large-scale data sets on crop pollination by native bees. We found that abundance fluctuations of dominant species drove ecosystem service delivery, whereas richness changes were relatively unimportant because they primarily involved rare species that contributed little to function. Thus, the mechanism behind our results was the skewed species-abundance distribution. Our finding that a few common species, not species richness, drive ecosystem service delivery could have broad generality given the ubiquity of skewed species-abundance distributions in nature. PMID:25959973

  18. Fish species diversity, and the biology and ecology of common fish species in Lake Albert

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Lake Albert contributes about 10% to the national fish production. It supports a multi-species fishery based on endemic species. To local fishermen, Lake Albert is a lifeline providing food and income.

  19. Persistent toxic substances in Mediterranean aquatic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniero, Roberto; Abate, Vittorio; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Davoli, Enrico; De Felip, Elena; De Filippis, Stefania P; Dellatte, Elena; De Luca, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena; Ferri, Fabiola; Fochi, Igor; Rita Fulgenzi, Anna; Iacovella, Nicola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Lucchetti, Dario; Melotti, Paolo; Moret, Ivo; Piazza, Rossano; Roncarati, Alessandra; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Zambon, Stefano; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Fish and fishery products may represent one of the main sources of dietary exposure to persistent toxic substances (PTSs) such as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls; polybromodiphenyl ethers; organochlorine pesticides; perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate; and inorganic mercury and methyl mercury. In this study, PTS contamination of Mediterranean fish and crustaceans caught in Italian coastal waters was investigated in order to increase the representativeness of the occurrence database for wild species. The objectives were to verify the suitability of regulatory limits for PTSs, identify background concentrations values, if any, and examine the possible sources of variability when assessing the chemical body burdens of aquatic species. Twelve wild species of commercial interest and two farmed fish species were chosen. Excluding methyl mercury, chemical concentrations found in wild species fell generally towards the low ends of the concentration ranges found in Europe according to EFSA database and were quite lower than the tolerable maximum levels established in the European Union; farmed fish always showed contamination levels quite lower than those detected in wild species. The data obtained for wild species seemed to confirm the absence of local sources of contamination in the chosen sampling areas; however, species contamination could exceed regulatory levels even in the absence of specific local sources of contamination as a result of the position in the food web and natural variability in species' lifestyle. A species-specific approach to the management of contamination in aquatic organisms is therefore suggested as an alternative to a general approach based only on contaminant body burden. A chemical-specific analysis performed according to organism position in the food chain strengthened the need to develop this approach. PMID:25020099

  20. Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine tre...

  1. Eukaryotic microbes, species recognition and the geographic limits of species: examples from the kingdom Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, John W; Turner, Elizabeth; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Dettman, Jeremy R; JACOBSON, DAVID

    2006-01-01

    The claim that eukaryotic micro-organisms have global geographic ranges, constituting a significant departure from the situation with macro-organisms, has been supported by studies of morphological species from protistan kingdoms. Here, we examine this claim by reviewing examples from another kingdom of eukaryotic microbes, the Fungi. We show that inferred geographic range of a fungal species depends upon the method of species recognition. While some fungal species defined by morphology show ...

  2. Neosilba (Tephritoidea: Lonchaeidae) species reared from coffee in Brazil, with description of a new species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neosilba species are believed to be secondary invaders of fruit, so, little attention has been paid to its presence in coffee fruits. In this article we present a key to Neosilba species present in coffee fruits and describe a new species that is considered a primary invader. We hope this will help researchers working with coffee fruits to better quantify the economic importance of Neosilba species associated with coffee fruits. (author)

  3. Spatial factor analysis: a new tool for estimating joint species distributions and correlations in species range

    OpenAIRE

    Thorson, James T.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Shelton, Andrew O.; See, Kevin E.; Skaug, Hans J.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    1. Predicting and explaining the distribution and density of species is one of the oldest concerns in ecology. Species distributions can be estimated using geostatistical methods, which estimate a latent spatial variable explaining observed variation in densities, but geostatistical methods may be imprecise for species with low densities or few observations. Additionally, simple geostatistical methods fail to account for correlations in distribution among species and generally estimate such c...

  4. Review of the world species of Exoryza (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae), with description of five new species

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Triana, Jose L.; Whitfield, James B.; Smith, M. Alex; Dapkey, Tanya; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    The world species of the genus Exoryza (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) are revised. Ten species are recognized, including five new, authored by Fernandez-Triana: mariabustosae, richardashleyi, ritaashleyae, rosamatarritae and yeimycedenoae. The species Dolichogenidea oryzae Walker, 1994 is considered as related to Exoryza – although is not formally transferred to that genus. A dichotomous key to all species, descriptions and illustrations are provided. The only region where the genu...

  5. Neosilba (Tephritoidea: Lonchaeidae) species reared from coffee in Brazil, with description of a new species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striki, Pedro Carlos; Prado, Angelo Pires do, E-mail: apprado@unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2006-07-01

    Neosilba species are believed to be secondary invaders of fruit, so, little attention has been paid to its presence in coffee fruits. In this article we present a key to Neosilba species present in coffee fruits and describe a new species that is considered a primary invader. We hope this will help researchers working with coffee fruits to better quantify the economic importance of Neosilba species associated with coffee fruits. (author)

  6. Why the entropy of spacetime is independent of species of particles -- the species problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Zhu; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The Hawking radiation emits all species of particles, but the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is independent of the number of the species of particles. This is the so-called species problem -- a puzzling problem for a long time. In this paper, we suggest a solution to this problem.

  7. Random processes and geographic species richness patterns : why so few species in the north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, F; Bokma, J; Monkkonen, M

    2001-01-01

    In response to the suggestion that the latitudinal gradient in species richness is the result of stochastic processes of species distributions, we created a computer simulation program that enabled us to study random species distributions over irregularly shaped areas. Our model could not explain la

  8. How to assess species richness along single environmental gradients? Implications of potential versus realized species distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying relationships between species richness and single environmental factors is challenging as species richness typically depends on multiple environmental factors. Recently, various methods have been proposed to tackle this challenge. Using a dataset comprising field observations of grassland vegetation and measured pH values, we compared three methods for deriving species richness response curves. One of the methods estimates species richness close to the maximum species richness observed at the sites, whereas the other two provide estimates of the potential species richness along the environmental gradient. Our response curves suggest that potential species richness of grasslands is slightly more sensitive to acidification than realized plant species richness. However, differences in corresponding environmental quality standards (EQS) for acidification were small compared to intrinsic spatial differences in natural soil pH, indicating that natural background values are more important to consider in the derivation of EQS for pH than methodological differences between the three approaches. - Highlights: • We compared three methods to derive species richness response curves from field data. • The methods quantified species richness of grasslands in relation to soil pH. • Potential species richness appeared most sensitive to acidification. • Differences in corresponding environmental quality standards for were small. • Background pH is more important in deriving the standards than the choice in method. - We compared three methods to derive field-based species sensitivity distributions (f-SSDs) from presence-absence data

  9. Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Rafael P; Zuanon, Jansen; Villéger, Sébastien; Williams, Stephen E; Baraloto, Christopher; Fortunel, Claire; Mendonça, Fernando P; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-13

    There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to become extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare, and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here, we investigated the consequences of local and regional extinctions on the functional structure of species assemblages. We used three extensive datasets (stream fish from the Brazilian Amazon, rainforest trees from French Guiana, and birds from the Australian Wet Tropics) and built an integrative measure of species rarity versus commonness, combining local abundance, geographical range, and habitat breadth. Using different scenarios of species loss, we found a disproportionate impact of rare species extinction for the three groups, with significant reductions in levels of functional richness, specialization, and originality of assemblages, which may severely undermine the integrity of ecological processes. The whole breadth of functional abilities within species assemblages, which is disproportionately supported by rare species, is certainly critical in maintaining ecosystems particularly under the ongoing rapid environmental transitions. PMID:27053754

  10. Which Models Are Appropriate for Six Subtropical Forests: Species-Area and Species-Abundance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi Guang; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhen Cheng; Lian, Ju Yu; Lin, Guo Jun; Huang, Zhong Liang; Yin, Zuo Yun

    2014-01-01

    The species-area relationship is one of the most important topic in the study of species diversity, conservation biology and landscape ecology. The species-area relationship curves describe the increase of species number with increasing area, and have been modeled by various equations. In this paper, we used detailed data from six 1-ha subtropical forest communities to fit three species-area relationship models. The coefficient of determination and F ratio of ANOVA showed all the three models fitted well to the species-area relationship data in the subtropical communities, with the logarithm model performing better than the other two models. We also used the three species-abundance distributions, namely the lognormal, logcauchy and logseries model, to fit them to the species-abundance data of six communities. In this case, the logcauchy model had the better fit based on the coefficient of determination. Our research reveals that the rare species always exist in the six communities, corroborating the neutral theory of Hubbell. Furthermore, we explained why all species-abundance figures appeared to be left-side truncated. This was due to subtropical forests have high diversity, and their large species number includes many rare species. PMID:24755956

  11. 78 FR 12273 - Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... potential impacts on protected and non- target species and essential fish habitat (EFH) are expected to be... ecological impacts on swordfish, non- target species, ESA-protected species, essential fish habitat, and... small-scale handgear vessel owners that fish in the Atlantic Ocean, including the Gulf of Mexico and...

  12. Conservation status of Chinese species: (2) Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Wang, Sung

    2007-06-01

    A total of 2441 invertebrate species were evaluated using the IUCN Red List Criteria and Regional Guidelines. Approximately 30 experts were involved in this project, which covered a wide range of species, including jellyfish, corals, planarians, snails, mollusks, bivalves, decapods, benthic crustaceans, arachnids (spiders, scorpions), butterflies, moths, beetles, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea stars, acorn worms and lancelets. In general, invertebrate species in China were found to be severely threatened, with 0.9% being critically endangered, 13.44% endangered and 20.63% vulnerable. All species of hermatypic corals and planarians are threatened. More than 80% of evaluated species face serious threat due to habitat destruction by coral collection, logging, non-woody vegetation collection, timber plantations, non-timber plantations, extraction and/or livestock. Other threats are intrinsic factors, harvesting by humans, alien invasive species and pollution. The main intrinsic factors contributing to the high levels of threat are limited dispersal and restricted range. No conservation measures have been taken for 70% of the threatened invertebrates evaluated. Existing conservation measures include: strengthening of national and international legislation (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), increasing public awareness, studying population trends/monitoring, and establishment of protected areas. The major conservation measure employed is strengthening of policies. Relative to the situation worldwide (2006 IUCN Red List), there is little information available about invertebrate extinctions in China. PMID:21396022

  13. How variation between individuals affects species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Simon P; Schreiber, Sebastian J; Levine, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Although the effects of variation between individuals within species are traditionally ignored in studies of species coexistence, the magnitude of intraspecific variation in nature is forcing ecologists to reconsider. Compelling intuitive arguments suggest that individual variation may provide a previously unrecognised route to diversity maintenance by blurring species-level competitive differences or substituting for species-level niche differences. These arguments, which are motivating a large body of empirical work, have rarely been evaluated with quantitative theory. Here we incorporate intraspecific variation into a common model of competition and identify three pathways by which this variation affects coexistence: (1) changes in competitive dynamics because of nonlinear averaging, (2) changes in species' mean interaction strengths because of variation in underlying traits (also via nonlinear averaging) and (3) effects on stochastic demography. As a consequence of the first two mechanisms, we find that intraspecific variation in competitive ability increases the dominance of superior competitors, and intraspecific niche variation reduces species-level niche differentiation, both of which make coexistence more difficult. In addition, individual variation can exacerbate the effects of demographic stochasticity, and this further destabilises coexistence. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for emerging empirical interests in the effects of intraspecific variation on species diversity. PMID:27250037

  14. Pushing the pace of tree species migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli D Lazarus

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale.

  15. Recent advances in probabilistic species pool delineations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Nikolaus Karger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A species pool is the set of species that could potentially colonize and establish within a community. It has been a commonly used concept in biogeography since the early days of MacArthur and Wilson’s work on Island Biogeography. Despite their simple and appealing definition, an operational application of species pools is bundled with a multitude of problems, which have often resulted in arbitrary decisions and workarounds when defining species pools. Two recently published papers address the operational problems of species pool delineations, and show ways of delineating them in a probabilistic fashion. In both papers, species pools were delineated using a process-based, mechanistical approach, which opens the door for a multitude of new applications in biogeography. Such applications include detecting the hidden signature of biotic interactions, disentangling the geographical structure of community assembly processes, and incorporating a temporal extent into species pools. Although similar in their conclusions, both ‘probabilistic approaches’ differ in their implementation and definitions. Here I give a brief overview of the differences and similarities of both approaches, and identify the challenges and advantages in their application.

  16. Genetic variability in three Amazon parrot species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, I F; Del Lama, M A; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    Parrots of the genus Amazona are among the most threatened species of the Order Pscittaciformes. This work describes allozyme polymorphisms in three Amazon parrot species--the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva), the Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica), and the Festive Amazon (Amazona festiva) -, and provides useful data for the evaluation of their genetic variability. We electrophoretically analyzed blood samples from 68 wild-caught individuals, maintained in captivity in three Brazilian zoos. Eight of the ten studied enzyme loci exhibited polymorphism. Glucosephosphate isomerase (Gpi) proved to be a diagnostic locus for the identification of these Amazon species. The expected average heterozygosity of the Blue-fronted Amazon (0.060) differed significantly from the expected heterozygosities of the Orange-winged Amazon and the Festive Amazon (0.040 and 0.039, respectively). This result was discussed as a consequence of hybridization between two geographic A. aestiva subspecies, and alternatively as a particular trait of this species. Genetic variability of the Blue-fronted Amazon compared to birds in general is not low on a species-wide level, despite the fact that this parrot is one of the most illegally traded species. Allozyme analysis proved to be an useful tool in monitoring the genetic variation within the genus Amazona and can be applied in the management program of other threatened species of this genus. PMID:18278355

  17. Morphological Research on Indigenous Sambucus Species Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea TAMAS

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollen grains have a definite shape, size, colour, structure for each species, genus and family and these characters are useful for systematical botany. The pollen has nutritive properties due to its content: proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones and minerals. In the Romanian flora vegetate three species of Sambucus, but only S. nigra L. (elder or black elder supplies a vegetal medical product, Sambuci flos or elder flowers, whereas the others species S. ebulus L. (dwarf elder and S. racemosa L. (mountain elder or red elder are considered adulterations. The pollen of Sambucus species were already studied using optical microscopy (Tarnavschi et al., but the images are in one single layout, therefore the structure details cannot be easily notice. In this context the pollen grains of the three species already mentioned above were studied by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results demonstrated that this pollen have a small-middle size, oblat-sphaeroidal-prolat shape, threecolpat and the exine adornments are of reticulate type, haemitectate with sticks in the meshs of polygonale net. The flavonoids content is lower than in others species (0.146-0.564 %. The SEM analyse of Sambucus pollen allow a reliable identification of the genus but less for the species.

  18. Species richness, area and climate correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Aim Species richness-area theory predicts that more species should be found if one samples a larger area. To avoid biases from comparing species richness in areas of very different sizes, area is often controlled by counting the numbers of co-occupying species in near-equal area grid cells....... The assumption is that variation in grid cell size accrued from working in a three-dimensional world is negligible. Here we provide a first test of this idea. We measure the surface area of c. 50 × 50 km and c. 220 × 220 km grid cells across western Europe. We then ask how variation in the area of grid cells...... affects: (1) the selection of climate variables entering a species richness model; and (2) the accuracy of models in predicting species richness in unsampled grid cells. Location Western Europe. Methods Models are developed for European plant, breeding bird, mammal and herptile species richness using...

  19. Extinction risks of Amazonian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Silman, Miles R

    2009-07-28

    Estimates of the number, and preferably the identity, of species that will be threatened by land-use change and habitat loss are an invaluable tool for setting conservation priorities. Here, we use collections data and ecoregion maps to generate spatially explicit distributions for more than 40,000 vascular plant species from the Amazon basin (representing more than 80% of the estimated Amazonian plant diversity). Using the distribution maps, we then estimate the rates of habitat loss and associated extinction probabilities due to land-use changes as modeled under 2 disturbance scenarios. We predict that by 2050, human land-use practices will have reduced the habitat available to Amazonian plant species by approximately 12-24%, resulting in 5-9% of species becoming "committed to extinction," significantly fewer than other recent estimates. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the primary determinant of habitat loss and extinction risk is not the size of a species' range, but rather its location. The resulting extinction risk estimates are a valuable conservation tool because they indicate not only the total percentage of Amazonian plant species threatened with extinction but also the degree to which individual species and habitats will be affected by current and future land-use changes. PMID:19617552

  20. Economics of Harmful Invasive Species: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marbuah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to review theoretical and empirical findings in economics with respect to the challenging question of how to manage invasive species. The review revealed a relatively large body of literature on the assessment of damage costs of invasive species; single species and groups of species at different geographical scales. However, the estimated damage costs show large variation, from less than 1 million USD to costs corresponding to 12% of gross domestic product, depending on the methods employed, geographical scale, and scope with respect to inclusion of different species. Decisions regarding optimal management strategies, when to act in the invasion chain and which policy to choose, have received much less attention in earlier years, but have been subject to increasing research during the last decade. More difficult, but also more relevant policy issues have been raised, which concern the targeting in time and space of strategies under conditions of uncertainty. In particular, the weighting of costs and benefits from early detection and mitigation against the uncertain avoidance of damage with later control, when the precision in targeting species is typically greater is identified as a key challenge. The role of improved monitoring for detecting species and their spread and damage has been emphasized, but questions remain on how to achieve this in practice. This is in contrast to the relatively large body of literature on policies for mitigating dispersal by trade, which is regarded as one of the most important vectors for the spread of invasive species. On the other hand, the literature on how to mitigate established species, by control or adaptation, is much more scant. Studies evaluating causes for success or failure of policies against invasive in practice are in principal non-existing.

  1. Interpretation of the biological species concept from interspecific hybridization of two Helicoverpa species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChenZhu

    2007-01-01

    The biological species concept defines species in terms of interbreeding. Interbreeding between species is prevented by reproductive isolation mechanisms. Based on our results of interspecific hybridization between Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, reproductive isolation mechanisms of the two species are analyzed. A combination of prezygotic factors (absent sex attraction and physical incompatibility of the genitalia) and postzygotic factors (female absence and partial sterility in F1 hybrids) causes reproductive isolation of the two species. In addition, the role of interspecific hybridization in speciation is discussed.

  2. A virtual species set for robust and reproducible species distribution modelling tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X; Bastin, Lucy; Foody, Giles M; Rocchini, Duccio

    2016-06-01

    Predicting species potential and future distribution has become a relevant tool in biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this data article we present the suitability map of a virtual species generated based on two bioclimatic variables, and a dataset containing more than 700,000 random observations at the extent of Europe. The dataset includes spatial attributes such as: distance to roads, protected areas, country codes, and the habitat suitability of two spatially clustered species (grassland and forest species) and a wide-spread species. PMID:27014734

  3. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013

  4. Species distributions, land values, and efficient conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando; Camm; Polasky; Solow

    1998-03-27

    Efforts at species conservation in the United States have tended to be opportunistic and uncoordinated. Recently, however, ecologists and economists have begun to develop more systematic approaches. Here, the problem of efficiently allocating scarce conservation resources in the selection of sites for biological reserves is addressed. With the use of county-level data on land prices and the incidence of endangered species, it is shown that accounting for heterogeneity in land prices results in a substantial increase in efficiency in terms of either the cost of achieving a fixed coverage of species or the coverage attained from a fixed budget. PMID:9516117

  5. Species Diversity Enhances Predator Growth Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Olson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Predators can be important top-down regulators of community structure and are known to have both positive and negative effects on species diversity. However, little is known about the reciprocal effects of species diversity on predators. Across a set of 80 lakes in Connecticut, USA, we found a strong positive correlation between prey species diversity (using the Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index and growth rates of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides. This correlation was strongest for small predators and decreased with body size. Although the underlying mechanisms are not known, the correlation is not driven by total fish abundance, predator abundance, or productivity.

  6. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao;

    2007-01-01

    sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web at...... http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT and...

  7. Recovery of imperiled species under the Endangered Species Act: The need for a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J.M.; Goble, D.D.; Wiens, J.A.; Wilcove, D.S.; Bean, M.; Male, T.

    2005-01-01

    The recovery (delisting) of a threatened or endangered species is often accompanied by the expectation that conservation management of the species will no longer be necessary. However, the magnitude and pace of human impacts on the environment make it unlikely that substantial progress will be made in delisting many species unless the definition of "recovery" includes some form of active management. Preventing delisted species from again being at risk of extinction may require continuing, species-specific management actions. We characterize such species as "conservation-reliant", and suggest that viewing "recovery" as a continuum of states rather than as a simple "recovered/not recovered" dichotomy may enhance our ability to manage such species within the framework of the Endangered Species Act. With ongoing loss of habitat, disruption of natural disturbance regimes, and the increasing impacts of non-native invasive species, it is probable that the number of conservation-reliant species will increase. We propose the development of "recovery management agreements", with legally and biologically defensible contracts that would provide for continu-ing conservation management following delisting. The use of such formalized agreements will facilitate shared management responsibilities between federal wildlife agencies and other federal agencies, and with state, local, and tribal governments, as well as with private entities that have demonstrated the capability to meet the needs of conservation-reliant species. ?? The Ecological Society of America.

  8. Species-specific mitochondrial gene rearrangements in biting midges and vector species identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y; Yanase, T; Tsuda, T; Noda, H

    2009-03-01

    Partial mitochondrial gene sequences of 16 Culicoides species were determined to elucidate phylogenetic relations among species and to develop a molecular identification method for important virus vector species. In addition, the analysis found mitochondrial gene rearrangement in several species. Sequences of the mitochondrial genome region, cox1-trnL2-cox2 (1940-3785 bp) of 16 Culicoides and additional sequences were determined in some species, including whole mitochondrial genome sequences of Culicoides arakawae. Nine species showed common organization in this region, with three genes cox1-trnL2-cox2 and a small or no intergenic region (0-30 bp) between them. The other seven species showed translocation of tRNA and protein-coding genes and/or insertion of AT-rich non-coding sequences (65-1846 bp) between the genes. The varied gene rearrangements among species within a genus is very rare for mitochondrial genome organization. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of cox1+cox2 suggest a few clades among Japanese Culicoides species. No relationships between phylogenetic closeness and mitochondrial gene rearrangements were observed. Sequence data were used to establish a polymerase chain reaction tool to distinguish three important vector species from other Culicoides species, for which classification during larval stages is not advanced and identification is difficult. PMID:19239613

  9. Increasing evidence for the important role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Damare, V.S.

    habitat in the sea (see Raghukumar 2002). Some of the most common habitats are decaying mangrove leaves, decomposing algae and faecal pellets of marine invertebrates. Studies on the ecology of these organisms progressed rapidly since the 1990s... known (Raghukumar et al. 1995, Yokochi et al. 2001). Labyrinthula Cienk. has also been found to parasitize species of the green alga Chaetomorpha Kuetzing and the cyanobacterium Lyngbya Agardh Ex Gomont (Raghukumar 1986, Raghukumar 1987). Although...

  10. Species-diagnostic and species-specific DNA sequences evenly distributed throughout pine and spruce chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehes-Smith, Melanie; Michael, Paul; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2010-10-01

    Genome organization in the family Pinaceae is complex and largely unknown. The main purpose of the present study was to develop and physically map species-diagnostic and species-specific molecular markers in pine and spruce. Five RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and one ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) species-diagnostic or species-specific markers for Picea mariana, Picea rubens, Pinus strobus, or Pinus monticola were identified, cloned, and sequenced. In situ hybridization of these sequences to spruce and pine chromosomes showed the sequences to be present in high copy number and evenly distributed throughout the genome. The analysis of centromeric and telomeric regions revealed the absence of significant clustering of species-diagnostic and species-specific sequences in all the chromosomes of the four species studied. Both RAPD and ISSR markers showed similar patterns. PMID:20962883

  11. Population dynamics of Trichoderma species in the rhizosphere of tobacco and four species form China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ze-fen; ZHANG Ke-qin

    2004-01-01

    @@ To study the effect of tobacco growth on Trichoderma population, we investigated the occurrence of Trichoderma species in the rhizosphere of tobacco plant during the period from transplanting (June) to harvesting (October) and measured relative environmental factors. Eleven species of Trichoderma were isolated, among which T. harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. atroviride, T.longibrachiatum, T. virens, T. koningii were identified, other four species Ty1, Ty2, Ty3, Ty4are new species. Of the species which occurred at high frequencies, T. harzianum and T. hamatum were most abundant in the July and T. viride in the August. The occurrence of the above three abundant species correlates significantly with the developmental phase of tobacco and correlates apparently with the soil moisture content, but not with the temperature. For the other eight species,no obvious correlation was found between the above factors and them.

  12. Fingerprinting the Asterid species using subtracted diversity array reveals novel species-specific sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Mantri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asterids is one of the major plant clades comprising of many commercially important medicinal species. One of the major concerns in medicinal plant industry is adulteration/contamination resulting from misidentification of herbal plants. This study reports the construction and validation of a microarray capable of fingerprinting medicinally important species from the Asterids clade. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled genomic DNA of 104 non-asterid angiosperm and non-angiosperm species was subtracted from pooled genomic DNA of 67 asterid species. Subsequently, 283 subtracted DNA fragments were used to construct an Asterid-specific array. The validation of Asterid-specific array revealed a high (99.5% subtraction efficiency. Twenty-five Asterid species (mostly medicinal representing 20 families and 9 orders within the clade were hybridized onto the array to reveal its level of species discrimination. All these species could be successfully differentiated using their hybridization patterns. A number of species-specific probes were identified for commercially important species like tea, coffee, dandelion, yarrow, motherwort, Japanese honeysuckle, valerian, wild celery, and yerba mate. Thirty-seven polymorphic probes were characterized by sequencing. A large number of probes were novel species-specific probes whilst some of them were from chloroplast region including genes like atpB, rpoB, and ndh that have extensively been used for fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subtracted Diversity Array technique is highly efficient in fingerprinting species with little or no genomic information. The Asterid-specific array could fingerprint all 25 species assessed including three species that were not used in constructing the array. This study validates the use of chloroplast genes for bar-coding (fingerprinting plant species. In addition, this method allowed detection of several new loci that can be

  13. Functional Diversification within a Predatory Species Flock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burress, Edward D.; Duarte, Alejandro; Serra, Wilson S.; Loueiro, Marcelo; Gangloff, Michael M.; Siefferman, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Ecological speciation is well-known from adaptive radiations in cichlid fishes inhabiting lentic ecosystems throughout the African rift valley and Central America. Here, we investigate the ecological and morphological diversification of a recently discovered lotic predatory Neotropical cichlid species flock in subtropical South America. We document morphological and functional diversification using geometric morphometrics, stable C and N isotopes, stomach contents and character evolution. This species flock displays species-specific diets and skull and pharyngeal jaw morphology. Moreover, this lineage appears to have independently evolved away from piscivory multiple times and derived forms are highly specialized morphologically and functionally relative to ancestral states. Ecological speciation played a fundamental role in this radiation and our data reveal novel conditions of ecological speciation including a species flock that evolved: 1) in a piscivorous lineage, 2) under lotic conditions and 3) with pronounced morphological novelties, including hypertrophied lips that appear to have evolved rapidly. PMID:24278349

  14. Camas - Invasive Species Management with Refuge Volunteers

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the past Camas NWR has focused on mapping and treating only Russian knapweed and swainsonpea. We have other species present in lower numbers and quite possibly...

  15. How many species have mass M?

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, Aaron; Redner, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    Within large taxonomic assemblages, the number of species with adult body mass M is characterized by a broad but asymmetric distribution, with the largest mass being orders of magnitude larger than the typical mass. This canonical shape can be explained by cladogenetic diffusion that is bounded below by a hard limit on viable species mass and above by extinction risks that increase weakly with mass. Here we introduce and analytically solve a simplified cladogenetic diffusion model. When appropriately parameterized, the diffusion-reaction equation predicts mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species. Under this model, we show that a specific tradeoff between the strength of within-lineage drift toward larger masses (Cope's rule) and the increased risk of extinction from increased mass is necessary to produce realistic mass distributions for both taxa. We then make several predictions about the evolution of avian specie...

  16. Detection of Campylobacter species using monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin R.; Lee, Alice; Stanker, Larry H.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of species specific monoclonal antibodies were raised to Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter lari. The isotypes, and cross-reactivity profiles of each monoclonal antibody against an extensive panel of micro- organisms, were determined.

  17. Predictions For New, Exotic Actinide Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach. New, simple chemical species can be predicted by studying isoelectronic series using ab initio quantum chemistry. We currently use in most cases relativistic pseudopotentials and handle the electron correlation using density functional theory (DFT) or wave-function-based methods, from MP2 to CCSD(T). Typical codes are Gaussian 98, Turbomole or MolCas. For full four-component Dirac-Fock calculations, the DREAMS code of K. G. Dyall has been utilized. For mapping out the possible new species, complete maps of all possibilities are made, whenever possible, and the new species typically occur along the coast-line of the 'island of stability' of already known species

  18. Germplasm characterization of three jabuticaba tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize cultivated genotypes of three jabuticaba species (Plinia cauliflora, P. trunciflora, and P. jaboticaba. Phenology and fruit growth, as well as leaf, flower and fruit traits were evaluated. Variability in all traits was observed among genotypes of the three jabuticaba species. The trait peduncle size is indicated for differentiation of the three species under study. The leaf and fruit sizes of the genotypes P. trunciflora 3, P. trunciflora 4, P. trunciflora 5 and P. jaboticaba 1 differ from those described in the literature for these species, indicating the formation of ecotypes. Jabuticaba fruit skin contains high anthocyanin and flavonoid concentrations, with potential use in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  19. On the Origins of a Vibrio species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Wassenaar, Gertrude Maria; Hallin, Peter Fischer;

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-two genome sequences of various Vibrionaceae members are compared, with emphasis on what makes V. cholerae unique. As few as 1,000 gene families are conserved across all the Vibrionaceae genomes analysed; this fraction roughly doubles for gene families conserved within the species V....... cholerae. Of these, approximately 200 gene families that cluster on various locations of the genome are not found in other sequenced Vibrionaceae; these are possibly unique to the V. cholerae species. By comparing gene family content of the analysed genomes, the relatedness to a particular species is...... identified for two unspeciated genomes. Conversely, two genomes presumably belonging to the same species have suspiciously dissimilar gene family content. We are able to identify a number of genes that are conserved in, and unique to, V. cholerae. Some of these genes may be crucial to the niche adaptation of...

  20. Late Cretaceous Limea (Pseudolimea) species of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dhondt, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    Four Limea (Pseudolimea) species [L. (Ps.) composita. L. (Ps.) granulata, L. (Ps.) denticulata, L. (Ps.) geinitzi] which occur frequently in Late Cretaceous strata of Europe, are redescribed. Attention is given to their origin, ecology and palaeobiogeographical distribution.

  1. Alabama's many endangered aquatic species are unprotected

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on the vulnerability of watercress darter and other fish species in Alabama after a significant fish kill in Roebuck Spring pond in 2008.

  2. Threatened bird species; 1 : 1 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapacious birds are the most threatened animals of Slovakia. Selected species are significant indicators of the state of the environment. Red kite (Milvus milvus) is the critically endangered species and the last 15 - 20 pairs are breeding in Slovakia now. White-tailed eagle (Haliaetus albicilla) nested in the basin of the Danube River until 1964. It was only after 34 years that two pairs of white-tailed eagle have successfully bred in the floodplain of the Danube River. Short-toed eagle (Circaettus gallicus), only 20-30 pairs are breeding in the eastern part of Slovakia. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the species most threatened by theft of eggs for its use in falconry and in different holdings. Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) - about 30 to 40 pairs is breeding now in Slovakia. Spreading of the bird species is processed based in the data provided by the Group for Protection of Rapacious Birds. (author)

  3. Globalization effects on common plant species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D. M.; Wilson, J.; Murray, B. R.; Phillips, M. L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Graham, J.

    Ed. 2. Waltham : Academic Press Inc, 2013 - (Levin, S.), s. 700-706 ISBN 978-0-12-384719-5. - (vol. 6) Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * trade * species dispersal Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  4. Highly Migratory Species Open Access Vessel Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database identifies the universe of (permitted) vessels participating in open access commercial and recreational Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS)...

  5. Inferring species decline from collection records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Valerio, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The decline of roller dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) in Italy, at national and regional level, was described using a database of both literature and unpublished data, since the late of 19th century. The probability of finding roller species was assessed for each decade of the 20th century...... increased clearly as a consequence of the escalation of entomological surveys. Nevertheless, comparing R species (rollers) with all the scarab dung beetles from the first to the last quarter of the 20th century, the relative frequency of roller records decreased by 31%, while the relative number of occupied...... UTM cells dropped by 23%. Six roller species showed a significant decline in Italy from the first to the second part of the 20th century, and nine in the last 30years. Other two species disappeared from the majority of the northern regions. Finally, the values of all the extinction indexes were...

  6. Metabolomic analysis of three Mollicute species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Vanyushkina

    Full Text Available We present a systematic study of three bacterial species that belong to the class Mollicutes, the smallest and simplest bacteria, Spiroplasma melliferum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Acholeplasma laidlawii. To understand the difference in the basic principles of metabolism regulation and adaptation to environmental conditions in the three species, we analyzed the metabolome of these bacteria. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the proteogenomic annotation data provided by our lab. The results of metabolome, proteome and genome profiling suggest a fundamental difference in the adaptation of the three closely related Mollicute species to stress conditions. As the transaldolase is not annotated in Mollicutes, we propose variants of the pentose phosphate pathway catalyzed by annotated enzymes for three species. For metabolite detection we employed high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We used liquid chromatography method - hydrophilic interaction chromatography with silica column - as it effectively separates highly polar cellular metabolites prior to their detection by mass spectrometer.

  7. Comments on some species in Chironomini

    OpenAIRE

    Henk Vallenduuk

    2013-01-01

    Re-identification of some Chironomus species, Chironomus macani and C. dorsalis. Comments on information in Moller Pillot, 2009. A short discussion on the value of single reared larvae, cytology and DNA.

  8. ESUSA: US endangered species distribution file

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, J.; Calef, C.E.

    1979-10-01

    This report describes a file containing distribution data on endangered species of the United States of Federal concern pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Included for each species are (a) the common name, (b) the scientific name, (c) the family, (d) the group (mammal, bird, etc.), (e) Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) listing and recovery priorities, (f) the Federal legal status, (g) the geographic distribution by counties or islands, (h) Federal Register citations and (i) the sources of the information on distribution of the species. Status types are endangered, threatened, proposed, formally under review, candidate, deleted, and rejected. Distribution is by Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) county code and is of four types: designated critical habitat, present range, potential range, and historic range.

  9. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Species Management 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We initiated management of 3 species of plants that are introduced and invasive at Palmyra Atoll NWR. The work consisted of describing the distributions of these...

  10. Uropodina species from Vietnam (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontschán, J.; Starý, Josef

    -, č. 2807 (2011), s. 1-28. ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Acari * Uropodina * new species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.927, year: 2011

  11. Ten new species of Afrotropical Pterophoridae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Ten new Afrotropical species of Pterophoridae are described: Agdistis linnaei spec. nov., Agdistis bouyeri spec. nov., Ochyrotica bjoernstadti spec. nov., Platyptilia aarviki spec. nov., Stenoptilia kiitulo spec. nov., Exelastis caroli spec. nov., Eucapperia continentalis spec. nov., Buckleria vande

  12. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  13. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  14. Fisheries oceanography of northern pelagic fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsoukali, Stavroula

    People are familiar with marine fish species and the great variety of different species that are available in the market, such as herring, cod and sole. What may not be well known is that every individual fish goes through a long, risky journey during its life before reaching maturity. Most...... of the marine fish species are important prey for larger predators, such as larger fish in the ocean, marine mammals, birds and humans. Every individual female fish can produce many thousands to millions of eggs every year during the spawning season. The eggs (usually less than 2 mm in diameter) that live free...... in the environment, and depending on species, eggs either drift/float in the water or are attached to the bottom close to each other. The larvae that hatch from the eggs grow in size continuously until they reach a certain size and become adults. The first few weeks of its life are the riskiest and most of the eggs...

  15. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database Marine Fishes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database (NAS) information resource is an established central repository for spatially referenced biogeographic accounts of...

  16. Chemotaxis of Azospirillum species to aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-de-Victoria, G.; Lovell, C.R. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Azospirillum sspeciesare free-living nitrogen fixing bacteria commonly found in soils and in association with plant roots, including important agricultural crops. Rhizosphere colonization my Azospirillum species has been shown to stimulate growth of a variety of plant species. Chemotaxis is one of the properties which may contribute to survival, rhizosphere colonization and the initiation of mutualistic interactions by Azospirillum species. This study evaluates the chemotactic responses of three Azospirillum stains to a variety of aromatic compounds:benzoate, catechol, 4-HB, and PCA. Results indicate that the same aromatic substance can elicit different chemotactic responses from different Azospirillum species, and that Azospirillum can detect aromatic substrates at concentrations similar to those they encounter naturally. 36 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  17. Irruption of massive particle species during inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Fedderke, Michael A; Wyman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    All species of (non-conformally-coupled) particles are produced during inflation so long as their mass $M$ is not too much larger than $H$, the expansion rate during inflation. It has been shown that if a particle species that is normally massive ($M\\gg H$) couples to the inflaton field in such a way that its mass vanishes, or at least becomes small ($M < H$), for a particular value of the inflaton field, then not only are such particles produced, but an irruption of that particle species can occur during inflation. In this paper we analyze creation of a massive particle species during inflation in a variety of settings, paying particular attention to models which realize such an irruptive production mechanism.

  18. Species Diversity of Hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Barseghyan, Gayane S.; Wasser, Solomon P

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a species diversity study of the hypogeous Ascomycetes of Israel. The hypogeous Ascomycetes in Israel include members of the families Pyronemataceae, Pezizaceae, and Tuberaceae, which are represented by seven species: Hydnocystis piligera, Terfezia arenaria, T. claveryi, T. oligosperma, Tirmania africana, Tuber asa, and T. nitidum; only T. asa is new to Israeli mycobiota. Synonymy, locations, collection data, general distribution, distribution in Israel, descriptions, a key to id...

  19. The ethics of reviving long extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Ronald

    2014-04-01

    There now appears to be a plausible pathway for reviving species that have been extinct for several decades, centuries, or even millennia. I conducted an ethical analysis of de-extinction of long extinct species. I assessed several possible ethical considerations in favor of pursuing de-extinction: that it is a matter of justice; that it would reestablish lost value; that it would create new value; and that society needs it as a conservation last resort. I also assessed several possible ethical arguments against pursuing de-extinction: that it is unnatural; that it could cause animal suffering; that it could be ecologically problematic or detrimental to human health; and that it is hubristic. There are reasons in favor of reviving long extinct species, and it can be ethically acceptable to do so. However, the reasons in favor of pursuing de-extinction do not have to do with its usefulness in species conservation; rather, they concern the status of revived species as scientific and technological achievements, and it would be ethically problematic to promote de-extinction as a significant conservation strategy, because it does not prevent species extinctions, does not address the causes of extinction, and could be detrimental to some species conservation efforts. Moreover, humanity does not have a responsibility or obligation to pursue de-extinction of long extinct species, and reviving them does not address any urgent problem. Therefore, legitimate ecological, political, animal welfare, legal, or human health concerns associated with a de-extinction (and reintroduction) must be thoroughly addressed for it to be ethically acceptable. PMID:24372907

  20. Radical Scavenging Effects of Different Veronica species

    OpenAIRE

    Ummuhan Şebnem Harput; Yasin Genç; Newaj Khan; İclal Saracoglu

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the excessive production of reactive oxygen species is hazardous for living organisms and damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, lipid and protein. To find new products reducing free radical damage is very important researches in recent pharmaceutical investigations. Considering this information, fourteen Veronica species are decided to research in the view point of their antioxidant capacity and the chemical content. Water extracts of the plants were tested fo...

  1. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species

    OpenAIRE

    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described....

  2. Species Distribution Modeling in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Candela, Leonardo; Castelli, Donatella; Coro, Gianpaolo; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR); Sinibaldi, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Species distribution modeling is a process aiming at computationally predicting the distribution of species in geographic areas on the basis of environmental parameters including climate data. Such a quantitative approach has a lot of potentialities in many areas that include setting up conservation priorities, testing biogeographic hypotheses, assessing the impact of accelerated land use. In order to further promote the diffusion of such an approach it is fundamental to develop a flexible, c...

  3. Comparing heterogeneous distribution maps for marine species

    OpenAIRE

    Coro, Gianpaolo; Pagano, Pasquale (ISTI-CNR); Ellenbroek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Automated comparison of heterogeneous geographical distribution maps detects statistical or punctual differences between these maps. The maps contents are heterogeneous; they can differ in format, resolution and scale. In this paper the comparison is applied to species distributions in geographic areas. We present an automatic procedure to compare distribution maps for marine species. The comparison calculates the similarities at two different granularities, a detailed one that relies on poin...

  4. Explaining species distribution patterns through hierarchical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Gelfand, Alan E.; Silander, John A.; Wu, Shanshan; Latimer, Andrew; Lewis, Paul O; Rebelo, Anthony G; Holder, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Understanding spatial patterns of species diversity and the distributions of individual species is a consuming problem in biogeography and conservation. The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa is a global hotspot of diversity and endemism, and the Protea Atlas Project, with some 60,000 site records across the region, provides an extraordinarily rich data set to analyze biodiversity patterns. Analysis for the region is developed at the spatial scale of one minute grid-ce...

  5. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, R F

    1996-01-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of th...

  6. Rosacea, Reactive Oxygen Species, and Azelaic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Rosacea is a common skin condition thought to be primarily an inflammatory disorder. Neutrophils, in particular, have been implicated in the inflammation associated with rosacea and mediate many of their effects through the release of reactive oxygen species. Recently, the role of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of rosacea has been recognized. Many effective agents for rosacea, including topical azelaic acid and topical metronidazole, have anti-inflammatory properties. in-vitro...

  7. Spatial scaling of species abundance distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Borda-de-Água, Luís; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Pereira, Henrique M

    2012-01-01

    Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Ecography © 2012 Nordic Society Oikos. Species abundance distributions are an essential tool in describing the biodiversity of ecological communities. We now know that their shape changes as a function of the size of area sampled. Here we analyze the scaling properties of species abundance distributions by using the moments of the logarithmically transformed number of individuals. We find that the moments as a function of area size are well fitted by power law...

  8. Spatial patterns of species diversity in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Oindo, B.O.

    2001-01-01

    The most striking feature of Earth is the existence of life and the most striking feature of life is its diversity. Explaining patterns of species diversity is one of the most complex problems in ecology. This is because diversity is usually the outcome of many contributing factors whose relative importance varies with spatial and temporal scales. However, carefully framed questions about species diversity can provide insight into a wide variety of processes on spatial and temporal scales. Th...

  9. Molecular characterization of harmful algal species

    OpenAIRE

    Stacca, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the research activities carried out in this thesis was to give contributions to ecological studies on potentially harmful algal species (HAS) present in Sardinia’s aquatic environments through the application of biomolecular techniques. In Sardinia, as well as globally in the world, the reports of blooms caused by HAS (Harmful Algal Blooms, HABs) have increased in recent decades, requiring specific studies and investigations. The identification of the species invo...

  10. Susceptibility of Shigella species to erythromycin.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenberg, R N; Pearson, R D; Innes, D J; Sauer, K T; Halterman, L D; Guerrant, R L

    1982-01-01

    Two of the most common causes of inflammatory enteritis are Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Shigella species. No single antimicrobial agent is recommended for treatment of both diseases. Erythromycin is used to treat C. fetus subsp. jejuni infections but has not been studied in shigellosis. For this reason, we determined the susceptibility of 22 strains of Shigella to erythromycin and found that Shigella species are susceptible to concentrations of erythromycin which are obtainable in s...

  11. Transvalued species in an African forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, Melissa J; Hardin, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    We combined ethnographic investigations with repeated ecological transect surveys in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve (RDS), Central African Republic, to elucidate consequences of intensifying mixed use of forests. We devised a framework for transvaluation of wildlife species, which means the valuing of species on the basis of their ecological, economic, and symbolic roles in human lives. We measured responses to hunting, tourism, and conservation of two transvalued species in RDS: elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla). Our methods included collecting data on encounter rates and habitat use on line transects. We recorded cross-cultural variation in ideas about and interactions with these species during participant observation of hunting and tourism encounters and ethnographic interviews with hunters, conservation staff, researchers, and tourists. Ecologically, gorillas used human-modified landscapes successfully, and elephants were more vulnerable than gorillas to hunting. Economically, tourism and encounters with elephants and gorillas generated revenues and other benefits for local participants. Symbolically, transvaluation of species seemed to undergird competing institutions of forest management that could prove unsustainable. Nevertheless, transvaluation may also offer alternatives to existing social hierarchies, thereby integrating local and transnational support for conservation measures. The study of transvaluation requires attention to transnational flows of ideas and resources because they influence transspecies interactions. Cross-disciplinary in nature, transvalution of species addresses the political and economic challenges to conservation because it recognizes the varied human communities that shape the survival of wildlife in a given site. Transvaluation of species could foster more socially inclusive management and monitoring approaches attuned to competing economic demands, specific species behaviors, and human

  12. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena; Ivanović M.; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virul...

  13. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Krnjaja Vesna; Lević Jelena T.; Ivanović Mirko; Tomić Zorica P.

    2005-01-01

    In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum) towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulen...

  14. How many named species are valid?

    OpenAIRE

    Alroy, John

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of biodiversity in both living and fossil groups depend on raw counts of currently recognized named species, but many of these names eventually will prove to be synonyms or otherwise invalid. This difficult bias can be resolved with a simple “flux ratio” equation that compares historical rates of invalidation and revalidation. Flux ratio analysis of a taxonomic data set of unrivalled completeness for 4,861 North American fossil mammal species shows that 24–31% of currently accepted ...

  15. New sucking coreids species in Psidium guajava

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Pires; R. M. Nogueira; Silva, C. J.; F. Pelissari; Ferreira, J. A. M.; M. A. Soares

    2013-01-01

    The Coreidae Family is an important insect group because of its higher diversity of species and further to be found in different habitats. The species Hypselonotus fulvus (De Geer, 1773) and Leptogossus zonatus (Dallas, 1952) (Heteroptera: Coreidae) are phytophagous and can cause lots of damage in the agriculture and forestry area. Additionally, they can spread some agents responsible for plant diseases damaging the fruit quality and decreasing the value for market. The aims of this work were...

  16. Overview of the leiognathid species in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying G. Seah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of leiognathid species has changed drastically as a result of revisions carriedout in recent years. During the same period, new species have also been described. In this study, ataxonomic review and update of leiognathid species present in Malaysian waters was carried out.Leiognathid specimens were collected from the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. All specimens wereexamined for their internal and external morphological features and osteological features. Theleiognathids of Malaysia reviewed here comprised at least 22 species. Malaysia thus has one of therichest assemblages of leiognathid species in the world. Equulites laterofenestra (Sparks & Chakrabarty,2007, Leiognathus robustus Sparks & Dunlap, 2004, and Nuchequula mannusella Chakrabarty & Sparks,2007 are new records in Malaysian waters. Some previously described species from Malaysia wereerroneously identified. These include specimens misidentified as Equulites rivulatus (Temminck &Schlegel, 1845, Gazza achlamys Jordan & Starck, 1917, and Nuchequula nuchalis (Temminck &Schlegel, 1845. E. rivulatus and G. achlamys have been recorded in the Western Pacific but thesespecies have not been encountered in Malaysia or in collections held in Malaysia.

  17. Malaria vector species in Colombia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2011-08-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species' geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  18. Competitive coexistence of two Pneumocystis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icenhour, Crystal R; Arnold, Jonathan; Medvedovic, Mario; Cushion, Melanie T

    2006-05-01

    Pneumocystis are fungal pathogens of mammalian lungs that can cause lethal pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. In some mammals, coinfections of genetically distinct Pneumocystis populations have been identified, but the nature of their interaction and its significance are unknown. Two species that infect rats, Pneumocystis carinii and Pneumocystis wakefieldiae, were studied over a 6-year period, representing approximately 700 generations of Pneumocystis. Population densities of each species were analyzed within the framework of the Lotka-Volterra competition model, which revealed the two species were in competition and predicted competitive exclusion of one species. However, stable coexistence was observed in 460 replicate populations. Selected extrinsic factors that might mitigate the extinction were evaluated. Logistic-regression analyses showed that higher relative humidity and higher organism lung burdens were associated with infections comprised of P. carinii alone, while lower temperatures and an increased rat census were associated with the presence of P. wakefieldiae. PCR and immunofluorescent analysis of rat lung tissue showed that both species were present within the same alveoli, excluding habitat heterogeneity as a mechanism of coexistence. These data suggest that P. carinii and P. wakefieldiae were in competitive coexistence, which was influenced in part by extrinsic factors. To our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate interactions of pathogenic fungal species within a mammalian host using ecological models. PMID:15949973

  19. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  20. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Po Po; Prihastuti, Haryudian; Phoulivong, Sitthisack; Taylor, Paul W J; Hyde, Kevin D

    2008-10-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial cultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested. PMID:18837103

  1. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  2. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Berberis Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Mokhber-Dezfuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species, there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation.

  3. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of berberis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber-Dezfuli, Najmeh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Kurepaz-Mahmoodabadi, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    The genus Berberis (Berberidaceae) includes about 500 species worldwide, some of which are widely cultivated in the north-eastern regions of Iran. This genus consists of spiny deciduous evergreen shrubs, characterized by yellow wood and flowers. The cultivation of seedless barberry in South Khorasan goes back to two hundred years ago. Medicinal properties for all parts of these plants have been reported, including: Antimicrobial, antiemetic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, sedative, anti-cholinergic, cholagogic, anti-leishmaniasis, and anti-malaria. The main compounds found in various species of Berberis, are berberine and berbamine. Phytochemical analysis of various species of this genus revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and triterpenes. Although there are some review articles on Berberis vulgaris (as the most applied species), there is no review on the phytochemical and pharmacological activities of other well-known species of the genus Berberis. For this reason, the present review mainly focused on the diverse secondary metabolites of various species of this genus and the considerable pharmacological and biological activities together with a concise story of the botany and cultivation. PMID:24600191

  4. Chilli anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Po Po THAN; Haryudian PRIHASTUTI; Sitthisack PHOULIVONG; Paul W.J. TAYLOR; Kevin D. HYDE

    2008-01-01

    Anthracnose disease is one of the major economic constraints to chilli production worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Accurate taxonomic information is necessary for effective disease control management. In the Colletotrichum patho-system, different Colletotrichum species can be associated with anthracnose of the same host. Little information is known concerning the interactions of the species associated with the chilli anthracnose although several Colletotrichum species have been reported as causal agents of chilli anthracnose disease worldwide. The ambiguous taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species has resulted in inaccurate identification which may cause practical problems in plant breeding and disease management. Although the management and control of anthracnose disease are still being extensively researched, commercial eultivars of Capsicum annuum that are resistant to the pathogens that cause chilli anthracnose have not yet been developed. This paper reviews the causal agents of chilli anthracnose, the disease cycle, conventional methods in identification of the pathogen and molecular approaches that have been used for the identification of Colletotrichum species. Pathogenetic variation and population structure of the causal agents of chilli anthracnose along with the current taxonomic status of Colletotrichum species are discussed. Future developments leading to the disease management strategies are suggested.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Trigonella Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhee Shyam Dangi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Trigonella includes many medicinal and aromatic plant species used in traditional as well as veterinary medicines for different diseases, alone or in combination with other remedies. The crude methanol extracts of 15 Trigonella species were assayed for antimicrobial activity against four medicinally important multidrug resistant clinical isolates, five plant pathogenic bacteria and five fungi.Three species showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity inhibiting all the test bacteria. Acidified ethanolic extract of the most promising species, T. suavissima was purified by column chromatography. Characterization of a partially purified ethyl acetate fraction by LC/ESI/MS showed the presence of 7’4’ dihydroxy flavone and (2E-3-{5-[4-(Ethoxycarbonylphenyl]furan-2-yl}prop-2-enoate Three species showed strong antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium solani. The saponin extract of T. spicata showed a selective activity against A. niger and the sapogenin extract against F. solani. A polyhydroxylated alkaloid was isolated from the sapogenin extract of T. spicata using chromatographic techniques with structural characterization done by LC/ESI/MS, 13C and 1H NMR. The study reveals that Trigonella species are potential sources of natural compounds that may act as antimicrobial agents. It represents the most extensive survey of antimicrobial activity in Trigonella done to date.

  6. How selection structures species abundance distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurran, Anne E.; Henderson, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    How do species divide resources to produce the characteristic species abundance distributions seen in nature? One way to resolve this problem is to examine how the biomass (or capacity) of the spatial guilds that combine to produce an abundance distribution is allocated among species. Here we argue that selection on body size varies across guilds occupying spatially distinct habitats. Using an exceptionally well-characterized estuarine fish community, we show that biomass is concentrated in large bodied species in guilds where habitat structure provides protection from predators, but not in those guilds associated with open habitats and where safety in numbers is a mechanism for reducing predation risk. We further demonstrate that while there is temporal turnover in the abundances and identities of species that comprise these guilds, guild rank order is conserved across our 30-year time series. These results demonstrate that ecological communities are not randomly assembled but can be decomposed into guilds where capacity is predictably allocated among species. PMID:22787020

  7. Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance in clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species by phenotypic D-test. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: Consecutive clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were collected and identified by conventional microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and inducible clindamycin resistance was carried out by performing D-test using CLSI criteria. Methicillin resistance was detected by using Cefoxitin disk as a surrogate marker. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version-17. Results: A total of 667 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus species were obtained during the study period. In these isolates, 177 (26.5%) were Staphylococcus aureus, and 490 (73.5%) were coagulase negative Staphylococci. The total frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among isolates of Staphylococcus species was 120/667 (18%). Frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase negative Staphylococci group and Staphylococcus aureus group were 18.57% and 16.38% respectively. Median age of patients in D-test positive group was 19.5 (1 - 54) years. Conclusion: The frequency of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus species may differ in different hospital setup. Clinical microbiology laboratories should implement testing simple and effective D-test on all Staphylococcus species. D-test positive isolates should be reported clindamycin resistant to decrease treatment failure. (author)

  8. Impacts of Species Misidentification on Species Distribution Modeling with Presence-Only Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Costa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial records of species are commonly misidentified, which can change the predicted distribution of a species obtained from a species distribution model (SDM. Experiments were undertaken to predict the distribution of real and simulated species using MaxEnt and presence-only data “contaminated” with varying rates of misidentification error. Additionally, the difference between the niche of the target and contaminating species was varied. The results show that species misidentification errors may act to contract or expand the predicted distribution of a species while shifting the predicted distribution towards that of the contaminating species. Furthermore the magnitude of the effects was positively related to the ecological distance between the species’ niches and the size of the error rates. Critically, the magnitude of the effects was substantial even when using small error rates, smaller than common average rates reported in the literature, which may go unnoticed while using a standard evaluation method, such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Finally, the effects outlined were shown to impact negatively on practical applications that use SDMs to identify priority areas, commonly selected for various purposes such as management. The results highlight that species misidentification should not be neglected in species distribution modeling.

  9. Genetic introgression and species boundary of two geographically overlapping pine species revealed by molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Defang; Xia, Tao; Yan, Maomao; Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

    2014-01-01

    Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

  10. Genetic introgression and species boundary of two geographically overlapping pine species revealed by molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defang Zhang

    Full Text Available Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids.

  11. Species recognition through wing interference patterns (WIPs in Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae including two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Shevtsova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wing interference patterns (WIPs are shown to be an important tool for species recognition in the genus Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae. This is demonstrated by combining information from two previously published papers, comprising two cases of cryptic species, and by new material including the description of two new species, A. maieri and A. serotinae from North America. The cryptic species were initially separated through their distinct male WIPs. Subsequent analyses of the external morphology uncovered additional morphological differences supporting the original findings through WIPs, and biological data further strengthened the identity of these species. The new species described here also differ in their WIPs but the WIPs are similar in both sexes. Thus they provide a strong link between male and female and demonstrate that WIPs can also be useful for species recognition when the sexes are otherwise difficult to associate. Both new species are from Connecticut, USA, and were reared from Phyllonorycter propinquinella (Braun (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae on black cherry (Prunus serotina; A. maieri has also been reared from Ph. nr crataegella on pin cherry (P. pensylvanica. To facilitate the identification of the new species they are included in a previously published key to North American species of Achrysocharoides. As a supplement to colourful WIPs we also demonstrate that grey scale images of uncoated wings from scanning electron microscopy can be used for visualization of the thickness distribution pattern in wing membranes.

  12. Invasive plant species; 1 : 3 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive plant species are the plants introduced or imported, which spread spontaneously in the territory and penetrate into the original plant associations (they mostly fill in the free niches or they penetrate into the relatively undisturbed sites and push out the original species). These are the plant species, which accommodate in natural or semi-natural ecosystems where they cause their change and threaten the original biodiversity. Some of these introduced species tend to remain in a limited number of localities or they disappear after some time. Other start immediately or later to behave aggressively and enter the original associations. In some case they create monocultures. They are the species, mapping of which is important, not only for knowing them but also for the sake of protection of the original plant associations. Veronica filiformis - species native of Caucasus first spotted in Europe in 1780. In Slovakia it grows above all in north-eastern part of the territory where it spreads along the larger streams. It grows in humid gardens, orchards, rural lawns, goose pastures and not mown fallows below 1,300 m above sea level. Impatiens glandulifera - decorative species native of India. It is grown in gardens since the beginning of the 20th century as the decorative plant, and it progressively spread along the water streams and edges of alluvial forest, it prefers the humid to wet environment and soils rich in nutrients. Echinocystis lobata - climbing plant related to cucumbers and pumpkins, native of the eastern and central parts of the USA. Imported to Europe as decorative plant. It was grown in Slovakia, went wild and spread along the water streams. Mimulus guttatus - native of the western part of the Northern America. Imported to Europe as decorative plant mainly for its conspicuous yellow flowers with red pattern. It occurs abundantly in Slovakia in the southern part of the Slovenske rudohorie Mts. and in the upper part of the Ipel basin. It grows in

  13. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Apurva K Pathak; Sanjay Sharma; Pallavi Shrivastva

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral...

  14. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF MEAT BY ELECTROPHORETIC METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pospiech

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoretic methods can be used to identify meat of various animal species. The protein electrophoresis, especially the IEF of the sarcoplasmic proteins, is a well-established technique for species identification of raw fish and is used in the control of seafood authenticity. However, in the case of the analysis of heat-processed fish, the method is applicable only to those species which possess characteristic patterns of the heat-stable parvalbumins. Heat-denatured fish muscle proteins may be solubilised by urea or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and separated by urea-IEF or SDS-PAGE, respectively. The comparison of these two methods allowed to conclude that, basically, each of them can be used for species identification of heated fishery products. However, extensively washed products may be preferentially analysed by the SDS-PAGE, because most of the parvalbumins are washed out leaving mainly myosins. On the other hand, the IEF method may be preferred for the differentiation of closely related species rich in parvalbumins isoforms. It is evident from the literature data that species-specific protein separations yield proteins of low molecular weight made up of three light chains of myosin (14-23 kDa, troponin (19-30 kDa and parvalbumin (about 12 kDa. Investigations showed that the SDS-PAGE method can be used to identify meats of: cattle, sheep, lambs, goats, red deer and rabbits. The technique allowed researchers to identify the following myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic muscle proteins: myosin and actin, α-actinin, tropomyosin, troponin. SDS-PAGE allowed the identification of myofibrillar proteins taking into account their molecular weights which was not possible with the assistance of the PAGIF because too many protein bands were obtained. It was possible to obtain differences in the separation of proteins characteristic for certain species, e.g. beef, resulting from the presence of sin-gle myofibrillar proteins.

  15. Knowledge Discovery in Endangered Species Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classification of regional territories and countries related to endangered species has been investigated by data mining techniques and graphical modeling using an extensive data set of species. We developed the graphical models (hereafter referred to as ‘ESDI’ using cosine, jaccard similarity, K Mean clustering and cliques in graph modeling for a large number of countries. Environmental variables associated with species records were identified in context of their diversification to integration with our proposed prototype. We have shown that the problem of finding the most coherent clusters is reducible to finding maximum clique. Key findings include the urge to ameliorate communication about the loss and protection of endangered species and their concerned projects. The proposed framework is presented to serves a portal to knowledge discovery. We have concluded that the proposed framework model and its associated data mining similarity measures can be useful for investigating various scientific and management oriented questions related to protection of endangered species with emphasis on collaboration among regional countries. The rationale behind the proposed approach is that the countries which have been grouped into same clique inherit a lot of argues illustrating common reasons of their struggles towards ecological safety with minimization of perils for endangered species. The development and implementation of a regional approach based on this similar grouping address the actions that could offer significant benefits in achieving their goal for ecological policies. Other critical actions at this clique level include fortifying and elevating harmonization of legal frameworks with emphasis on prevention procedural issues; awareness realizations of endangered species issues and its priority. Such actions will eventually lead towards implementation of essential plans fulfilling co-operative expertise and common endeavors.

  16. Spatial factor analysis: a new tool for estimating joint species distributions and correlations in species range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Shelton, Andrew O.;

    2015-01-01

    1. Predicting and explaining the distribution and density of species is one of the oldest concerns in ecology. Species distributions can be estimated using geostatistical methods, which estimate a latent spatial variable explaining observed variation in densities, but geostatistical methods may...... be imprecise for species with low densities or few observations. Additionally, simple geostatistical methods fail to account for correlations in distribution among species and generally estimate such cross-correlations as a post hoc exercise. 2. We therefore present spatial factor analysis (SFA), a spatial...... model for estimating a low-rank approximation to multivariate data, and use it to jointly estimate the distribution of multiple species simultaneously. We also derive an analytic estimate of cross-correlations among species from SFA parameters. 3. As a first example, we show that distributions for 10...

  17. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF THE FISH SPECIES IN KEMER RESERVOIR AND AKCAY STREAM, AYDIN, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz ÖZCAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in Kemer Reservoir and Akcay Stream between December 2004 and June 2006. Fish samples were caught by using gill nets, cast nets and electrofishing. Fifteen species belonging to 6 families were caught during the study. Four species, Acanthobrama mirabilis (47.0, Lepomis gibbosus (18.8, Chondrostoma meandrense (12.8 and Barbus pectoralis (8.6 are dominant fish species in the reservoir.

  18. Antarctic Halacaridae (Acari, new records, these species characteristics and an updated list of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartsch Ilse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Four halacarid species: Agaue agauoides, Agaue parva, Bradyagaue drygalskii, and Halacarus minor have been extracted from bottom samples taken in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, another four, Colobocerasides auster, Halacarus arnaudi, Lohmannella fukushimai, and L. gaussi, from Kapp Norvegia, Atka and Halley Bay, Weddell Sea. Most of these species are widespread around Antarctica and adjacent islands. Diagnostic characters are outlined. An annotated list presents 66 halacarid species reported from south of the Antarctic Polar Front.

  19. Bacterial communities and species-specific associations with the mucus of Brazilian coral species

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Carlos; Tatiana T. Torres; Ottoboni, Laura M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the existence of species-specific associations between Brazilian coral species and bacteria. Pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rDNA was used to analyze the taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with the mucus of four coral species (Madracis decactis, Mussismilia hispida, Palythoa caribaeorum, and Tubastraea coccinea) in two seasons (winter and summer), which were compared with the surrounding water and sediment. The microbial communities found in s...

  20. Scale-dependent effects of habitat area on species interaction networks: invasive species alter relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura Shinji; Taki Hisatomo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The positive relationship between habitat area and species number is considered a fundamental rule in ecology. This relationship predicts that the link number of species interactions increases with habitat area, and structure is related to habitat area. Biological invasions can affect species interactions and area relationships. However, how these relationships change at different spatial scales has remained unexplored. We analysed understory plant–pollinator networks in s...

  1. Key to Species of the Genus Neocheyletiella (Acariformes: Cheyletidae), With Description of a New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, James W; Bochkov, Andre V

    2014-11-01

    A new species of the genus Neocheyletiella Baker, 1949 (Acariformes: Cheyletidae) is described from the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata (Viellot, 1817) (Passeriformes: Estrildidae), from a laboratory colony at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. The setal additions in the ontogeny of the new species, Neocheyletiella parvisetosa Mertins & Bochkov, and the main differential characters of all 17 known species of the genus Neocheyletiella are provided in tabular format. Keys to females and males of Neocheyletiella spp. also are given. PMID:26309296

  2. Indicator species of essential forest tree species in the Burdur district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç; Eser, Yunus; Kuzugüdenll, Emre; Izkan, Kürşad

    2015-01-01

    The forests of Burdur district for long have been subjected to over grazing and individual selection. As a result of this, majority of the forest areas in the district were degraded. In the district, afforestation efforts included majority of forestry implementations. It is well known that selecting suitable species plays an important role for achieving afforestation efforts. In this context, knowing the indicator species among the target species would be used in afforestation efforts, studies on the interrelationships between environmental factors and target species distribution is vital for selecting suitable species for a given area. In this study, Anatolian Black pine (Pinus nigra), Red pine (Pinus brutia), Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani), essential tree species, were considered as target species. The data taken from 100 sample plots in Burdur district was used. Interspecific correlation analysis was performed to determine the positive and negative indicator species among each of the target species. As a result of ICA, 2 positive (Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus), 2 negative (Phillyrea latifolia, Quercus coccifera) for Crimean Juniper, I positive (Juniperus oxycedrus), 3 negative (Onopordium acanthium, Fraxinus ornus, Phillyrea latifolia) for Anatolian black pine, 3 positive (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus coccifer, Crataegus orientalis), 2 negative (Berberis crataegina, Astragalus nanus) for Red pine and 3 positive (Berberis crataegina, Rhamnus oleoides, Astragalus prusianus) 2 negative (Paliurus spina-christi, Quercus cerris) for Taurus cedarwere defined as indicator plant species. In this way, practical information was obtained for selecting the most suitable species, among the target species, for afforestation efforts in Burdur district. PMID:26591889

  3. Modellazione della nicchia ecologica di specie marine = Marine species ecological niche modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Castelli, Donatella; Candela, Leonardo; Coro, Gianpaolo; Pagano, Pasquale; Sinibaldi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    A certain species' niche, i.e. those environmental conditions and resources which permit that species can survive and reproduce, is a basic piece of knowledge for monitoring ocean's populousness from both commercial point of view (to steer fishery activities to defined areas) and from the biological one (to monitor dying species). In the context of the European iMarine project (www.i-marine.eu), the Networked Multimedia Information Systems Laboratory (NeMIS) of the CNR Institute of Informatio...

  4. Characterizing Species at Risk I: Modeling Rare Species Under the Northwest Forest Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan in the Pacific Northwest, United States includes directives for survey and site protection of hundreds of rare species across many taxonomic classes. To help direct survey activities, prioritize sites, and stand conditions for conservation of these species, I developed Bayesian belief network (BBN) models of habitat relationships and multiple stressors predicting presence of 12 rare species, and I present an example of predicting presence and absence of a rare fungus...

  5. Socially-parasitic Myrmica species (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of Himalaya, with the description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Himender; Radchenko, Alexander; Sasi, Sishal

    2016-01-01

    A new socially-parasitic species, Myrmica latra sp. n. is described based on a queen and male from Indian Himalaya. Its queen differs from other species by the distinctly narrower petiole and postpetiole, blunt and non-divergent propodeal spines, and a darker body colour. The taxonomic position of the three known Himalayan socially-parasitic Myrmica species is discussed, and Myrmica ereptrix Bolton 1988 is transferred to the smythiesii species-group. It is supposed that Myrmica nefaria Bharti 2012 is a temporary social parasite, but Myrmica ereptrix and Myrmica latra sp. n. are permanent social parasites, and a key for their identification is provided. PMID:27551216

  6. Seasonal species interactions minimize the impact of species turnover on the likelihood of community persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Rohr, Rudolf P; Fortuna, Miguel A; Selva, Nuria; Bascompte, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Many of the observed species interactions embedded in ecological communities are not permanent, but are characterized by temporal changes that are observed along with abiotic and biotic variations. While work has been done describing and quantifying these changes, little is known about their consequences for species coexistence. Here, we investigate the extent to which changes of species composition impact the likelihood of persistence of the predator-prey community in the highly seasonal Białowieza Primeval Forest (northeast Poland), and the extent to which seasonal changes of species interactions (predator diet) modulate the expected impact. This likelihood is estimated extending recent developments on the study of structural stability in ecological communities. We find that the observed species turnover strongly varies the likelihood of community persistence between summer and winter. Importantly, we demonstrate that the observed seasonal interaction changes minimize the variation in the likelihood of persistence associated with species turnover across the year. We find that these community dynamics can be explained as the coupling of individual species to their environment by minimizing both the variation in persistence conditions and the interaction changes between seasons. Our results provide a homeostatic explanation for seasonal species interactions and suggest that monitoring the association of interactions changes with the level of variation in community dynamics can provide a good indicator of the response of species to environmental pressures. PMID:27220203

  7. Quantitative Species Measurements In Microgravity Combustion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shin-Juh; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Silver, Joel A.; Piltch, Nancy D.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of models and theories to accurately predict and describe the behavior of low gravity flames can only be verified by quantitative measurements. Although video imaging, simple temperature measurements, and velocimetry methods have provided useful information in many cases, there is still a need for quantitative species measurements. Over the past decade, we have been developing high sensitivity optical absorption techniques to permit in situ, non-intrusive, absolute concentration measurements for both major and minor flames species using diode lasers. This work has helped to establish wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) as an important method for species detection within the restrictions of microgravity-based measurements. More recently, in collaboration with Prof. Dahm at the University of Michigan, a new methodology combining computed flame libraries with a single experimental measurement has allowed us to determine the concentration profiles for all species in a flame. This method, termed ITAC (Iterative Temperature with Assumed Chemistry) was demonstrated for a simple laminar nonpremixed methane-air flame at both 1-g and at 0-g in a vortex ring flame. In this paper, we report additional normal and microgravity experiments which further confirm the usefulness of this approach. We also present the development of a new type of laser. This is an external cavity diode laser (ECDL) which has the unique capability of high frequency modulation as well as a very wide tuning range. This will permit the detection of multiple species with one laser while using WMS detection.

  8. Stabilization of reactive species by supramolecular encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Albano; Ballester, Pablo

    2016-03-14

    Molecular containers have attracted the interest of supramolecular chemists since the early beginnings of the field. Cavitands' inner cavities were quickly exploited by Cram and Warmuth to construct covalent containers able to stabilize and assist the characterization of short-lived reactive species such as cyclobutadiene or o-benzyne. Since then, more complex molecular architectures have been prepared able to store and isolate a myriad of fleeting species (i.e. organometallic compounds, cationic species, radical initiators…). In this review we cover selected examples of the stabilization of reactive species by encapsulation in molecular containers from the first reports of covalent containers described by Cram et al. to the most recent examples of containers with self-assembled structure (metal coordination cages and hydrogen bonded capsules). Finally, we briefly review examples reported by Rebek et al. in which elusive reaction intermediates could be detected in the inner cavities of self-folding resorcin[4]arene cavitands by the formation of covalent host-guest complexes. The utilization of encapsulated reactive species in catalysis or synthesis is not covered. PMID:26797259

  9. Networks of spatial genetic variation across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Albaladejo, Rafael G.; Fernández, Laura; Aparicio, Abelardo; Bascompte, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Spatial patterns of genetic variation provide information central to many ecological, evolutionary, and conservation questions. This spatial variability has traditionally been analyzed through summary statistics between pairs of populations, therefore missing the simultaneous influence of all populations. More recently, a network approach has been advocated to overcome these limitations. This network approach has been applied to a few cases limited to a single species at a time. The question remains whether similar patterns of spatial genetic variation and similar functional roles for specific patches are obtained for different species. Here we study the networks of genetic variation of four Mediterranean woody plant species inhabiting the same habitat patches in a highly fragmented forest mosaic in Southern Spain. Three of the four species show a similar pattern of genetic variation with well-defined modules or groups of patches holding genetically similar populations. These modules can be thought of as the long-sought-after, evolutionarily significant units or management units. The importance of each patch for the cohesion of the entire network, though, is quite different across species. This variation creates a tremendous challenge for the prioritization of patches to conserve the genetic variation of multispecies assemblages. PMID:19861546

  10. Exploring similarities among many species distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerman, Scott; Wang, Jingyuan; Osborne, James; Shook, Kimberly; Huang, Jian; Godsoe, William; Simons, Theodore R.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting species presence data and then building models to predict species distribution has been long practiced in the field of ecology for the purpose of improving our understanding of species relationships with each other and with the environment. Due to limitations of computing power as well as limited means of using modeling software on HPC facilities, past species distribution studies have been unable to fully explore diverse data sets. We build a system that can, for the first time to our knowledge, leverage HPC to support effective exploration of species similarities in distribution as well as their dependencies on common environmental conditions. Our system can also compute and reveal uncertainties in the modeling results enabling domain experts to make informed judgments about the data. Our work was motivated by and centered around data collection efforts within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park that date back to the 1940s. Our findings present new research opportunities in ecology and produce actionable field-work items for biodiversity management personnel to include in their planning of daily management activities.

  11. Biological variation in Trichinella species and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolas-Fernández, F

    2003-06-01

    At present, the genus Trichinella comprises seven species of which five have encapsulated muscle larvae (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. britovi, T. nelsoni and T. murrelli) and two do not (T. pseudospiralis and T. papuae) plus three genotypes of non-specific status (T6, T8 and T9). The diagnostic characteristics of these species are based on biological, biochemical and genetic criteria. Of biological significance is variation observed among species and isolates in parameters such as infectivity and immunogenicity. Infectivity of Trichinella species or isolates is determined, among other considerations, by the immune status of the host in response to species- or isolate-specific antigens. Common and particular antigens determine the extent of protective responses against homologous or heterologous challenge. The kinetics of isotype, cytokine and inflammatory responses against T. spiralis infections are isolate-dependent. Trichinella spiralis and T. pseudospiralis induce different dose-dependent T-cell polarizations in the early host response, with T. spiralis initially preferentially promoting Th1-type responses before switching to Th2 and T. pseudospiralis driving Th2-type responses from the outset. PMID:12756064

  12. Invasive species management and research using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Tracy R.; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are powerful tools in the field of invasive species management. GIS can be used to create potential distribution maps for all manner of taxa, including plants, animals, and diseases. GIS also performs well in the early detection and rapid assessment of invasive species. Here, we used GIS applications to investigate species richness and invasion patterns in fish in the United States (US) at the 6-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) level. We also created maps of potential spread of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in the southeastern US at the 8-digit HUC level using regression and environmental envelope techniques. Equipped with this potential map, resource managers can target their field surveys to areas most vulnerable to invasion. Advances in GIS technology, maps, data, and many of these techniques can be found on websites such as the National Institute of Invasive Species Science (www.NIISS.org). Such websites provide a forum for data sharing and analysis that is an invaluable service to the invasive species community.

  13. SPECIES DIVERSITY AND STABILITY OF BIRD COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura M.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available When comparing the suggested stability indicators, we obtained statistically significant correlations for indicators of annual stability of species and total number and standard deviation of the logarithm of the number. Annual Stability Index can be applied with a high degree of reliability as a characteristic of the averaged structure of the community and its pyramid of abundances. The results of correlation analysis confirm our assumptions about the correlation between stability over the years and indices of species diversity and relative uniformity.The final task of the study was to create a mathematical model of stability, where the independent variables are the indices of species diversity. The calculation of these indices allows forecasting birds’ community stability. According to the result of multiple regression for the indicators of diversity and stability of the breeding birds’ community highest correlation coefficients were obtained fro Shannon index and Simpson's dominance Index.Community stability could be determined by its overall species diversity. When considering the stability of community its diversity should be considered as a combination of uniformity of their total number and number of species. The most suitable predictors for the community stability were the nonparametric index of dominance and information-statistical indices, since they considered simultaneously evenness and richness. The community stability is subject of the complexity of its internal communications pattern.

  14. Reconciliation of Gene and Species Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Rusin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper briefly overviews the problem of gene and species trees reconciliation with the focus on defining and algorithmic construction of the evolutionary scenario. Basic ideas are discussed for the aspects of mapping definitions, costs of the mapping and evolutionary scenario, imposing time scales on a scenario, incorporating horizontal gene transfers, binarization and reconciliation of polytomous trees, and construction of species trees and scenarios. The review does not intend to cover the vast diversity of literature published on these subjects. Instead, the authors strived to overview the problem of the evolutionary scenario as a central concept in many areas of evolutionary research. The second part provides detailed mathematical proofs for the solutions of two problems: (i inferring a gene evolution along a species tree accounting for various types of evolutionary events and (ii trees reconciliation into a single species tree when only gene duplications and losses are allowed. All proposed algorithms have a cubic time complexity and are mathematically proved to find exact solutions. Solving algorithms for problem (ii can be naturally extended to incorporate horizontal transfers, other evolutionary events, and time scales on the species tree.

  15. Atomic collisions research with excited atomic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements and calculations of fundamental atomic collision and spectroscopic properties such as collision cross sections, reaction rates, transition probabilities etc. underpin the understanding and operation of many plasma and gas-discharge-based devices and phenomena, for example plasma processing and deposition. In almost all cases the complex series of reactions which sustains the discharge or plasma, or produces the reactive species of interest, has a precursor electron impact excitation, attachment, dissociation or ionisation event. These processes have been extensively studied in a wide range of atomic and molecular species and an impressive data base of collision cross sections and reaction rates now exists. However, most of these measurements are for collisions with stable atomic or molecular species which are initially in their ground electronic state. Relatively little information is available for scattering from excited states or for scattering from unstable molecular radicals. Examples of such species would be metastable excited rare gases, which are often used as buffer gases, or CF2 radicals formed by electron impact dissociation in a CF4 plasma processing discharge. We are interested in developing experimental techniques which will enable the quantitative study of such exotic atomic and molecular species. In this talk I would like to outline one such facility which is being used for studies of collisions with metastable He(23S) atoms

  16. Phytochemical Contents of Five Artemisia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KURSAT

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the fatty acid compositions, vitamin, sterol contents and flavonoid constituents of five Turkish Artemisia species (A. armeniaca, A. incana , A. tournefortiana, A. haussknechtii and A. scoparia were determined by GC and HPLC techniques. The results of the fatty acid analysis showed that Artemisia species possess high saturated fatty acid compositions. On the other hand, the studied Artemisia species were found to have low vitamin and sterol contents. Eight flavononids (catechin, naringin, rutin, myricetin, morin, naringenin, quercetin, kaempferol were determined in the present study. It was found that Artemisia species contained high levels of flavonoids. Morin (45.35 ± 0.65 – 1406.79 ± 4.12 μg/g and naringenin (15.32 ± 0.46 – 191.18 ± 1.22 μg/g were identified in all five species. Naringin (268.13 ± 1.52 – 226.43 ± 1.17 μg/g and kaempferol (21.74 ± 0.65 – 262.19 ± 1.38 μg/g contents were noted in the present study. Present research showed that the studied Artemisia taxa have high saturated fatty acids and also rich flavonoid content.

  17. Species differences in the metabolism of benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The pathways of metabolism of benzene appear to be qualitatively similar in all species studied thus far. However, there are quantitative differences in the fraction of benzene metabolized by the different pathways. These species differences become important for risk assessments based on animal data. Mice have a greater overall capacity to metabolize benzene than rats or primates, based on mass balance studies conducted in vivo using radiolabled benzene. Mice and monkeys metabolize more of the benzene to hydroquinone metabolites than do rats or chimpanzees, especially at low doses. Nonhuman primates metabolize less of the benzene to muconic acid than do rodents or humans. In all species studied, a greater proportion of benzene is converted to hydroquinone and ring-breakage metabolites at low doses than at high doses. This finding should be considered in attempting to extrapolate the toxicity of benzene observed at high doses to predicted toxicity at low doses. Because ring-breakage metabolites and hydroquinone have both been implicated in the toxicity of benzene, the higher formation of those metabolites in the mouse may partially explain why mice are more sensitive to benzene than are rats. Metabolism of benzene in humans, the species of interest, does not exactly mimic that of any animal species studied. More information on the urinary and blood metabolites of occupationally exposed people is required to determine the fractional conversion of benzene to putative toxic metabolites and the degree of variability present in human subjects. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Ito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor genes (AR have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species.

  19. WHITE BLISTER SPECIES (Albuginaceae ON WEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The obligate fungi inside the family Albuginaceae are widespread world wide and cause white rust or white blister disease. Mycopopulation of weeds has been researched within the project „The role of weeds in epidemiology of row-crop diseases“. The aim of this research was to identify white blister species occurring on weeds in Eastern Croatia. Weed plants with disease symptoms characteristic for white blister species have been collected since 2001 on location Slavonia and Baranja country. Determination of white blister species was based on morphological characters of pathogen and the host. Wilsoniana bliti was determined on Amaranthus retroflexus and Amaranthus hybridus leaves. Capsella bursa pastoris is a host for Albugo candida. Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a host for Pustula sp. and Cirsium arvense was found to be host for Pustula spinulosa. Wilsoniana portulaceae was determined on Portulaca oleracea.

  20. Symbiotic two-species contact process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dos Santos, Renato Vieira; Dickman, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    We study a contact process (CP) with two species that interact in a symbiotic manner. In our model, each site of a lattice may be vacant or host individuals of species A and/or B; multiple occupancy by the same species is prohibited. Symbiosis is represented by a reduced death rate μdirected percolation (DP) universality class, but with unusually strong corrections to scaling. A field-theoretic argument supports the conclusion of DP critical behavior. We obtain similar results for a CP with creation at second-neighbor sites and enhanced survival at first neighbors in the form of an annihilation rate that decreases with the number of occupied first neighbors. PMID:23005382

  1. Essential Oil Composition of Three Globularia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crkvenčić, Maja; Dudaš, Slavica; Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Poljuha, Danijela; Pilepić, Kroata Hazler

    2016-02-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Globularia cordifolia L., G. meridionalis (Podp.) O.Schwarz, and G. punctata Lapeyr. was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 33 identified compounds, the most abundant present in all investigated samples were oct-1-en-3-ol (2.9-47.0%), 6-(1,5-dimethylhex-4-enyl)-3-methylcyclohex-2-enone (8.2-40.9%), and fukinanolid (7.4-31.6%). Multivariate statistical analyses (PCA and HCA) of the hitherto studied Globularia volatile compounds confirmed to some extent the assumed phylogenetic relationships of the Globularia species studied, including the close relationship between the morphologically similar species G. cordifolia and G. meridionalis, but also evidenced several discrepancies in the current classification of Globularia species. PMID:26880434

  2. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe;

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation in...... for odor and taste during the qualitative part. The descriptive words should fulfil these criteria: be relevant to the product, discriminate clearly between samples, be nonredundant and have cognitive clarity to the assessors. Criteria fulfilment was reached by evaluating samples spanning a...... representative variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species...

  3. Forms and genesis of species abundance distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans O. Ochiaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Species abundance distribution (SAD is one of the most important metrics in community ecology. SAD curves take a hollow or hyperbolic shape in a histogram plot with many rare species and only a few common species. In general, the shape of SAD is largely log-normally distributed, although the mechanism behind this particular SAD shape still remains elusive. Here, we aim to review four major parametric forms of SAD and three contending mechanisms that could potentially explain this highly skewed form of SAD. The parametric forms reviewed here include log series, negative binomial, lognormal and geometric distributions. The mechanisms reviewed here include the maximum entropy theory of ecology, neutral theory and the theory of proportionate effect.

  4. Recurrent habitat disturbance and species diversity in a multiple-competitive species system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Kyoko; Kawasaki, Kohkichi; Takasu, Fugo; Shigesada, Nanako

    2002-05-21

    To address how species interactions, dispersal and environmental disturbances interplay to affect the spatial distribution and diversity of species, we present a compartment model in which multiple species undergo competitive interaction of Lotka-Volterra type in a patchy environment arranged in a square lattice. Dispersal of species occurs between adjacent patches. Disturbances are periodically imposed on a central part of the environment in a belt-like block or an island-like block of various sizes where each species is killed for a certain time interval and then allowed to recover for the rest of a disturbance cycle. We deal with a case in which the local population dynamics within each patch is analytically determinable and has multiple locally stable equilibrium states in the absence of environmental disturbance. We further assume a trade-off between the reproductive rate of species and its dispersal ability. With these settings, we numerically examine how the spatio-temporal distributions of species are affected by changes in the pattern, size and duration of disturbances. The results demonstrate that: (1) in the undisturbed area, environmental disturbances could generate spatially segregated distributions of species; (2) in the disturbed area, species with higher dispersal abilities quickly invade and preferentially recover their population during the post-disturbance period, being temporarily relieved of competition from other species. These mechanisms collectively lead to increased species diversity in the whole habitat, functioning best when both the size and duration of disturbances are intermediate. In particular, the belt-like disturbance is more effective than the island-like disturbance in sustaining spatial heterogeneity for a wider range of duration of disturbance. PMID:12079366

  5. Separation of the bacterial species, Escherichia coli, from mixed-species microbial communities for transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Diane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of bacterial species interactions in a mixed-species community can be facilitated by transcriptome analysis of one species in the community using cDNA microarray technology. However, current applications of microarrays are mostly limited to single species studies. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to separate one species, Escherichia coli as an example, from mixed-species communities for transcriptome analysis. Results E. coli cells were separated from a dual-species (E. coli and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia community using immuno-magnetic separation (IMS. High recovery rates of E. coli were achieved. The purity of E. coli cells was as high as 95.0% separated from suspended mixtures consisting of 1.1 - 71.3% E. coli, and as high as 96.0% separated from biofilms with 8.1% E. coli cells. Biofilms were pre-dispersed into single-cell suspensions. The reagent RNAlater (Ambion, Austin, TX was used during biofilm dispersion and IMS to preserve the transcriptome of E. coli. A microarray study and quantitative PCR confirmed that very few E. coli genes (only about eight out of 4,289 ORFs exhibited a significant change in expression during dispersion and separation, indicating that transcriptional profiles of E. coli were well preserved. Conclusions A method based on immuno-magnetic separation (IMS and application of RNAlater was developed to separate a bacterial species, E. coli as an example, from mixed-species communities while preserving its transcriptome. The method combined with cDNA microarray analysis should be very useful to study species interactions in mixed-species communities.

  6. Scale-dependent effects of habitat area on species interaction networks: invasive species alter relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiura Shinji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive relationship between habitat area and species number is considered a fundamental rule in ecology. This relationship predicts that the link number of species interactions increases with habitat area, and structure is related to habitat area. Biological invasions can affect species interactions and area relationships. However, how these relationships change at different spatial scales has remained unexplored. We analysed understory plant–pollinator networks in seven temperate forest sites at 20 spatial scales (radius 120–2020 m to clarify scale-associated relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Results The pooled data described interactions between 18 plant (including an exotic and 89 pollinator (including an exotic species. The total number of species and the number of interaction links between plant and pollinator species were negatively correlated with forest area, with the highest correlation coefficient at radii of 1520 and 1620 m, respectively. These results are not concordant with the pattern predicted by species–area relationships. However, when associations with exotic species were excluded, the total number of species and the number of interaction links were positively correlated with forest area (the highest correlation coefficient at a radius of 820 m. The network structure, i.e., connectance and nestedness, was also related to forest area (the highest correlation coefficients at radii of 720–820 m, when associations with exotics were excluded. In the study area, the exotic plant species Alliaria petiolata, which has invaded relatively small forest patches surrounded by agricultural fields, may have supported more native pollinator species than initially expected. Therefore, this invasive plant may have altered the original relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Conclusions Our results demonstrate scale-dependent effects of forest

  7. Discovering the recondite secondary metabolome spectrum of Salinispora species: a study of inter-species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Bose

    Full Text Available Patterns of inter-species secondary metabolite production by bacteria can provide valuable information relating to species ecology and evolution. The complex nature of this chemical diversity has previously been probed via directed analyses of a small number of compounds, identified through targeted assays rather than more comprehensive biochemical profiling approaches such as metabolomics. Insights into ecological and evolutionary relationships within bacterial genera can be derived through comparative analysis of broader secondary metabolite patterns, and this can also eventually assist biodiscovery search strategies for new natural products. Here, we investigated the species-level chemical diversity of the two marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola and Salinispora pacifica, isolated from sponges distributed across the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, via their secondary metabolite profiles using LC-MS-based metabolomics. The chemical profiles of these two species were obtained by UHPLC-QToF-MS based metabolic profiling. The resultant data were interrogated using multivariate data analysis methods to compare their (biochemical profiles. We found a high level of inter-species diversity in strains from these two bacterial species. We also found rifamycins and saliniketals were produced exclusively by S. arenicola species, as the main secondary metabolites differentiating the two species. Furthermore, the discovery of 57 candidate compounds greatly increases the small number of secondary metabolites previously known to be produced by these species. In addition, we report the production of rifamycin O and W, a key group of ansamycin compounds, in S. arenicola for the first time. Species of the marine actinobacteria harbour a much wider spectrum of secondary metabolites than suspected, and this knowledge may prove a rich field for biodiscovery as well as a database for understanding relationships between speciation, evolution and chemical

  8. Assessment of weed species composition and species diversity in some fruit orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Olorunmaiye

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are often perennial crops and therefore can be invaded by weeds at many different times of the year because of their varied life-cycle. Thus a weed survey was conducted in some fruit orchards containing guava/soursop, mango, irvingia and plantain/banana at the National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT Ibadan in 2009 cropping season to determine weed species composition and species diversity. Weeds were sampled from each fruit orchard with a 0.5m × 0.5m wooden quadrat, identified to species level, counted and recorded. Data collected were used to calculate relative frequency, relative density and importance relative value for each species. Result shows that 45 weed species were encountered in all the fruit orchards and mango orchard had the highest species diversity (33 species while the least was recorded in guava/soursop orchard (10 species. All these 10 species had their relative frequencies > 5% out of which Ageratum conyzoides > Panicum maximum > Cyperus esculentus > Chromolaena odorata > Commelina erecta are of ecological importance. Three weed species: Ageratum conyzoides, Centrosema pubescens and Panicum maximum associated with all the fruit orchards in all the locations and T. procumbens was the most abundant and most dominant species in guava/soursop, irvingia and plantain/banana orchards while Echinocloa phyllopogon followed the same trend in mango orchard. These weeds are low-growing plants and regular weeding before seed formation will help to reduce their abundance in these orchards so that they do not interfere with harvesting of these fruits.

  9. Nocardiopsis species: Incidence, ecological roles and adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennur, Tahsin; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita; Javdekar, Vaishali

    2015-05-01

    Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important. They produce a variety of bioactive compounds such as antimicrobial agents, anticancer substances, tumor inducers, toxins and immunomodulators. They also secrete novel extracellular enzymes such as amylases, chitinases, cellulases, β-glucanases, inulinases, xylanases and proteases. Nocardiopsis species are aerobic, Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, catalase-positive actinomycetes with nocardioform substrate mycelia and their aerial mycelia bear long chains of spores. Their DNA possesses high contents of guanine and cytosine. There is a marked variation in properties of the isolates obtained from different ecological niches and their products. An important feature of several species is their halophilic or halotolerant nature. They are associated with a variety of marine and terrestrial biological forms wherein they produce antibiotics and toxins that help their hosts in evading pathogens and predators. Two Nocardiopsis species, namely, N. dassonvillei and N. synnemataformans (among the thirty nine reported ones) are opportunistic human pathogens and cause mycetoma, suppurative infections and abscesses. Nocardiopsis species are present in some plants (as endophytes or surface microflora) and their rhizospheres. Here, they are reported to produce enzymes such as α-amylases and antifungal agents that are effective in warding-off plant pathogens. They are prevalent as free-living entities in terrestrial locales, indoor locations, marine ecosystems and hypersaline habitats on account of their salt-, alkali- and desiccation-resistant behavior. In such natural locations, Nocardiopsis species mainly help in recycling organic compounds. Survival under these diverse conditions is mediated by the production of extracellular enzymes, antibiotics, surfactants, and the accumulation of compatible solutes. The accommodative genomic features of Nocardiopsis species support their existence

  10. Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidar A. Hantosh, Hameeda M. Hassan, Bushra Ahma & Ali Al-fatlawy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills threemillion persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species.In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomologicalsurvey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009.Methods: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces werecollected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated.Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector bornedisease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classificationkey.Results: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46%of the total collected and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected. Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus,An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi and one Culex (Cx. pipiens species were identified. Anophelespulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in oneprovince, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: thefirst from April–June and the other from September–October.Interpretation & conclusion: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distributionand density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquitogenera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification isnot enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq

  11. Genomic divergence in a ring species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Miguel; Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Price, Trevor D; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-07-01

    Ring species provide particularly clear demonstrations of how one species can gradually evolve into two, but are rare in nature. In the greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) species complex, a ring of populations wraps around Tibet. Two reproductively isolated forms co-exist in central Siberia, with a gradient of genetic and phenotypic characteristics through the southern chain of populations connecting them. Previous genetic evidence has proven inconclusive, however, regarding whether species divergence took place in the face of continuous gene flow and whether hybridization between the terminal forms of the ring ever occurred. Here we use genome-wide analyses to show that, although spatial patterns of genetic variation are currently mostly as expected of a ring species, historical breaks in gene flow have existed at more than one location around the ring, and the two Siberian forms have occasionally interbred. Substantial periods of geographical isolation occurred not only in the north but also in the western Himalayas, where there is now an extensive hybrid zone between genetically divergent forms. Limited asymmetric introgression has occurred directly between the Siberian forms, although it has not caused a blending of those forms, suggesting selection against introgressed genes in the novel genetic background. Levels of reproductive isolation and genetic introgression are consistent with levels of phenotypic divergence around the ring, with phenotypic similarity and extensive interbreeding across the southwestern contact zone and strong phenotypic divergence and nearly complete reproductive isolation across the northern contact zone. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that the greenish warbler should be viewed as a rare example of speciation by distance, but demonstrate that the greenish warbler displays a continuum from slightly divergent neighbouring populations to almost fully reproductively isolated species. PMID:24870239

  12. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Spivak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1 chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2 gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3 gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1 combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2 combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species.

  13. Combinatorial Cis-regulation in Saccharomyces Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Aaron T; Stormo, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression requires interactions between the cis-regulatory elements (CREs) controlling gene promoters. We developed a sensitive computational method to identify CRE combinations with conserved spacing that does not require genome alignments. When applied to seven sensu stricto and sensu lato Saccharomyces species, 80% of the predicted interactions displayed some evidence of combinatorial transcriptional behavior in several existing datasets including: (1) chromatin immunoprecipitation data for colocalization of transcription factors, (2) gene expression data for coexpression of predicted regulatory targets, and (3) gene ontology databases for common pathway membership of predicted regulatory targets. We tested several predicted CRE interactions with chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in a wild-type strain and strains in which a predicted cofactor was deleted. Our experiments confirmed that transcription factor (TF) occupancy at the promoters of the CRE combination target genes depends on the predicted cofactor while occupancy of other promoters is independent of the predicted cofactor. Our method has the additional advantage of identifying regulatory differences between species. By analyzing the S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus genomes, we identified differences in combinatorial cis-regulation between the species and showed that the predicted changes in gene regulation explain several of the species-specific differences seen in gene expression datasets. In some instances, the same CRE combinations appear to regulate genes involved in distinct biological processes in the two different species. The results of this research demonstrate that (1) combinatorial cis-regulation can be inferred by multi-genome analysis and (2) combinatorial cis-regulation can explain differences in gene expression between species. PMID:26772747

  14. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of more than 30 species of plants from Egypt screened for sensitivity to ozone, four were found to be suitable for use as bioindicators. - The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O3). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O3 levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O3 than the universally used O3-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O3 injury symptoms faster and at lower O3 concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O3 response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Pnet). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O3. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in O3 tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between gs, restriction of O3 and CO2 influx into the mesophyll tissues, and Pnet. Changes in Pnet seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in gs

  15. Penicillium species present in Uruguayan salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvalisi, Umberto; Lupo, Sandra; Piccini, Juan; Bettucci, Lina

    2012-01-01

    The surface coverage of certain dry fermented sausages such as Italian salami by some species of Penicillium provides their characteristic flavor and other beneficial properties. One of them is the protective effect by means of a uniform film of white mold against undesirable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to identify and to isolate the fungal species present in mature Italian type of salami and to evaluate if it is possible to obtain some of them as starters. In addition, the effects of temperature (14 °C and 25 °C), water activity (a w) (0.90, 0.95 and 0.995) and 2.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) on fungal growth were determined. Similarly, the proteolytic and lipolytic activity and the ability to produce toxic secondary metabolites were evaluated in order to characterize some possible starter strain. All species found belong to the genus Penicillium, including a performing starter as Penicillium nalgiovense and some potentially toxicogenic species. All the strains showed a higher growth rate at 25 °C. The production of extracellular proteases and lipases was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 14 °C with and without sodium chloride. Only Penicillium expansum produced patulin. On the other hand, Penicillium griseofulvum was the only species that produced ciclopiazonic acid but none of the strains produced penicillin. The species present on salami, Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium minioluteum, Penicillium brevicompactum and Penicillium puberulum were unable to produce any of the evaluated toxins. These findings suggest that some fungal isolates from the surface of salami such as P. nalgiovense are potentially useful as starters in sausage manufacture. PMID:22610286

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Gap Analysis Program Species Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GAP species range data show a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found (Morrison...

  17. Variation in biofouling on different species of Indian timbers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Wagh, A.B.

    Biofouling on twenty species of wood exposed in waters of Mormugao Harbour, Goa, India have been presented. Macrofouling biomass varied from species to species. Maximum biomass was recorded on Artocarpus chaplasha (4 kg/m2) and minimum on Hopea...

  18. Potential effects of Lyngbya majuscula blooms on benthic invertebrate diversity and shorebird foraging ecology at Roebuck Bay, Western Australia: preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, S.M.; Storey, A.W.; Pearson, G.; Piersma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment can significantly alter biodiversity, producing shifts in assemblages of primary producers and favouring, for example, cyanobacterium blooms. These variations in the assemblage of primary producers consequently affect the primary consumers that depend on them. However, the conseq

  19. Potential effects of Lyngbya majuscula blooms on benthic invertebrate diversity and shorebird foraging ecology at Roebuck Bay, Western Australia: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella, S.M.; Storey, A. W.; Pearson, G.; Piersma, T

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment can significantly alter biodiversity, producing shifts in assemblages of primary producers and favouring, for example, cyanobacterium blooms. These variations in the assemblage of primary producers consequently affect the primary consumers that depend on them. However, the consequences of these blooms for higher trophic levels are still unclear. Roebuck Bay, in the west Kimberley region is one of the main non-breeding areas for migratory shorebirds in Australia. The bay is...

  20. Potential effects of Lyngbya majuscula blooms on benthic invertebrate diversity and shorebird foraging ecology at Roebuck Bay, Western Australia : preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, S.M.; Storey, A.W.; Pearson, G.; Piersma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient enrichment can significantly alter biodiversity, producing shifts in assemblages of primary producers and favouring, for example, cyanobacterium blooms. These variations in the assemblage of primary producers consequently affect the primary consumers that depend on them. However, the conseq

  1. A new alamellate Hygrocybe species from Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Boertmann, David

    2008-01-01

    The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data.......The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data....

  2. Species, Distributions and Conservation of Acipenseriformes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大明

    2002-01-01

    A list of the world-wide distribution of Acipenseriformes is given including 32 species and subspecies, their distributions, and conservation levels. Most of the species and subspecies of sturgeons are threatened or endangered in at least some of their habitats. Many are nearing extinction. The threat against sturgeons will continue to grow as the world's population increases. Therefore, the problem of conserving sturgeons and replenishing their stock in the entire range has become urgent for scientists of various countries. Materials given here will be useful for solving this difficult but important problem. The problems concerning the Acipenseridae, such as the investigation of resource classification and biological conservation, are also discussed.

  3. Radiation exposure and human species survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information available from scientific sources without vested interests in the use of radiation is examined in the hope of elucidating the probable long-term effects on the human species of widespread radionuclide contamination. Distinguishing between problems of nuclear war, catastrophic accident in a nuclear industry, waste disposal, terrorist action, periodic accident situations and routine so-called normal pollution seems fruitless as these differ only in degree of pollution per time period. If there is indeed a species death process involved, the rate of deterioration will depend on the rate of pollution, but the result will be the same

  4. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  5. A new dimension in documenting new species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkari, Nesrine; Enghoff, Henrik; Metscher, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    We review the state-of-the-art approaches currently applied in myriapod taxonomy, and we describe, for the first time, a new species of millipede (Ommatoiulus avatar n. sp., family Julidae) using high-resolution X-ray microtomography (microCT) as a substantive adjunct to traditional morphological...... examination. We present 3D models of the holotype and paratype specimens and discuss the potential of this non-destructive technique in documenting new species of millipedes and other organisms. The microCT data have been uploaded to an open repository (Dryad) to serve as the first actual millipede cybertypes...

  6. Karyotype analysis of four nemertean species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Haixia; LIU Keke; SUN Shichun

    2009-01-01

    We performed a karyotype analysis on four species from Phylum Nemertea using regenerating somatic cells. Two palaeonemertean species, Cephalothrix hongkongiensis and Cephalothrix sp., had the same chromosome number (2n=28), but different karyotypes (16 m+10 sm+2 st, NF=54 and 22 m+4 sm+2 st, NF=54, respectively). The karyotypes of the two heteronemerteans, Notospermus geniculatus and Ramphogordius sanguineus were 2n=38, 30 m+6 sm+2 sm/st (NF=76/74) and 2n=56, 48 m+4 sm+4 sm/st (NF=112/108), respectively.

  7. A kill curve for Phanerozoic marine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A kill curve for Phanerozoic species is developed from an analysis of the stratigraphic ranges of 17,621 genera, as compiled by Sepkoski. The kill curve shows that a typical species' risk of extinction varies greatly, with most time intervals being characterized by very low risk. The mean extinction rate of 0.25/m.y. is thus a mixture of long periods of negligible extinction and occasional pulses of much higher rate. Because the kill curve is merely a description of the fossil record, it does not speak directly to the causes of extinction. The kill curve may be useful, however, to li inverted question markmit choices of extinction mechanisms.

  8. A framework for spatial risk assessments: Potential impacts of nonindigenous invasive species on native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.R.; Johnson, A.R.; Parris, L.

    2006-01-01

    Many populations of wild animals and plants are declining and face increasing threats from habitat fragmentation and loss as well as exposure to stressors ranging from toxicants to diseases to invasive nonindigenous species. We describe and demonstrate a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment that allows for the incorporation of a broad array of information that may influence the distribution of an invasive species, toxicants, or other stressors, and the incorporation of landscape variables that may influence the spread of a species or substances. The first step in our analyses is to develop species models and quantify spatial overlap between stressor and target organisms. Risk is assessed as the product of spatial overlap and a hazard index based on target species vulnerabilities to the stressor of interest. We illustrate our methods with an example in which the stressor is the ecologically destructive nonindigenous ant, Solenopsis invicta, and the targets are two declining vertebrate species in the state of South Carolina, USA. A risk approach that focuses on landscapes and that is explicitly spatial is of particular relevance as remaining undeveloped lands become increasingly uncommon and isolated and more important in the management and recovery of species and ecological systems. Effective ecosystem management includes the control of multiple stressors, including invasive species with large impacts, understanding where those impacts may be the most severe, and implementing management strategies to reduce impacts. Copyright ?? 2006 by the author(s).

  9. Spectral variability within species and its effects on savanna tree species discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cho, M.A.; Debba, P.; Mathieu, R.; Aardt, van J.; Asner, G.P.; Naidoo, L.; Main, R.; Ramoelo, A.; Majeke, B.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in within-species phenology and structure driven by factors including topography, edaphic properties, and climatic variables present important challenges for species differentiation with remote sensing in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. The objective of this study was to examine

  10. From single-species advice to mixed-species management: taking the next step

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Morten; Reeves, S.A.; Patterson, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    accounts for mixed-fishery effects, but in the short term there is a need for approaches to resolve the conflicting management advice for different species within the same fishery, and to generate catch or effort advice that accounts for the mixed-species nature of the fishery. This paper documents a...

  11. Spatial and taxonomic correlates of species and species trait assemblages in soil invertebrate communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Salmon, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    International audience Whether dispersal limitation and phylogenetic conservatism influence soil species assemblages is still a debated question. We hypothesized that spatial and phylogenetic patterns influence communities in a hump-backed fashion, maximizing their impact at intermediate spatial and phylogenetic distances. Species-environment relationships are blurred by dispersal limitation and restricted habitat choice at long and short spatial distances, respectively (Hypothesis 1). Co-...

  12. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  13. DNA barcoding: species delimitation in tree peonies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG JinMei; WANG JianXiu; XIA Tao; ZHOU ShiLiang

    2009-01-01

    Delimitations of species are crucial for correct and precise identification of taxa. Unfortunately "spe-cies" is more a subjective than an objective concept in taxonomic practice due to difficulties in re-vealing patterns of infra- or inter-specific variations. Molecular phylogenetic studies at the population level solve this problem and lay a sound foundation for DNA barcoding. In this paper we exemplify the necessity of adopting a phylogenetic concept of species in DNA barcoding for tree peonies (Paeonia sect. Moutan). We used 40 samples representing all known populations of rare and endangered species and several populations of widely distributed tree peonies. All currently recognized species and majorbvariants have been included in this study. Four chloroplast gene fragments, I.e. ndhF, rps16-trnQ, trnL.F and trnS-G (a total of 5040 characters, 96 variable and 69 parsimony-informative characters) and one variable and single-copy nuclear GPAT gene fragment (2093-2197 bp, 279 variable and 148 parsi-mony-informative characters) were used to construct phylogenetic relationships among the taxa. The evolutionary lineages revealed by the nuclear gene and the chloroplast genes are inconsistent with the current circumscriptions of P. Decomposita, P. Jishanensis, P. Qiui, and P. Rockii based on morphology. The inconsistencies come from (1) significant chloroplast gene divergence but little nuclear GPAT gene divergence among population systems of P. Decomposita + P. Rockii, and (2) well-diverged nuclear GPAT gene but little chloroplast gene divergence between P. Jishanensis and P. Qiui. The incongruence of the phylogenies based on the chloroplast genes and the nuclear GPAT gene is probably due to the chloro-plast capture event in evolutionary history, as no reproductive barriers exist to prevent inter-specific hybridization. We also evaluated the suitability of these genes for use as DNA barcodes for tree peonies. The variability of chloroplast genes among well

  14. Plant responses to climatic extremes: within-species variation equals among-species variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malyshev, Andrey; Arfin Kahn, Mohammed A.S.; Beierkuhnlein, Carl;

    2016-01-01

    biodiversity change and to project future species distributions using models. We present a direct comparison of among- versus within-species variation in response to three of the main stresses anticipated with climate change: drought, warming, and frost. Two earlier experiments had experimentally induced (i......) summer drought and (ii) spring frost for four common European grass species and their ecotypes from across Europe. To supplement existing data, a third experiment was carried out, to compare variation among species from different functional groups to within-species variation. Here, we simulated (iii......) winter warming plus frost for four grasses, two nonleguminous, and two leguminous forbs, in addition to eleven European ecotypes of the widespread grass Arrhenatherum elatius. For each experiment, we measured: (i) C/N ratio and biomass, (ii) chlorophyll content and biomass, and (iii) plant greenness...

  15. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci developed for Passiflora edulis Sims. in related Passiflora Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Alvarenga Fachardo Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected 41 SSR markers developed for yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Sims. for their transferability to 11 different Passiflora species. Twenty-one SSR were successfully amplified in 10 wild species of passion fruit producing 101 bands. All the markers were amplifiable for at least one species. The mean transferability was 68,8%, ranging from 15,4% (primer PE11 to 100 % (PE13, PE18, PE37, PE41 and PE88. Transferability was higher for the species from the Passiflora subgenus than for those from the Decaloba and Dysosmia subgenus. The results indicated a high level of nucleotide sequence conservation of the primer regions in the species evaluated, and consequently, they could potentially be used for the establishment of molecular strategies for use in passion fruit breeding and genetics.

  16. INVENTORY OF THE INVASIVE ALIE N PLANT SPECIES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI S UDARMIYATI T JITROSOEDIRDJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of the alien plant species in Indone sia based on the existing references and herbarium specimens concluded that 1936 alien plant species ar e found in Indonesia which belong to 187 families. Field studies should be done to get the complete figur es of alien plant species in Indonesia. Based on the existing figures of the plant species, the invasive alien plant species can be iden tified, followed by studies on the assessment of losses, biology, management and their possible utilizations. Alien plant species are imported to Indonesia for cultivation, collection of the botanical garden, as experimental plants or other curiosities. Aside from plants purposely imported, there are also introduced plant propagules conta-minating imported agricultural products. These alien plant species can be beneficial or have a potential of being invasive. The alien cultivated species consisted of 67% of the total number. More than half of the cultivated plants are ornamental plants. Some of th e species are naturalized or escaped from cultivation and become wild and invasive. Some other natura lized species, adapted well without any problems of invasion. There are 339 species or 17% of the species r ecorded as weeds. The highest record of weeds is found in the family of Poaceae (57 species, follo wed by Asteraceae (53 species and Cyperaceae (35 species. There are 6 families having more than 10 species of weeds: Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, and Rubiaceae. Three families have more than 100 species: Asteraceae 162 species, Poaceae 120 species, and Papillionaceae 103 species. Five species of aquatic and 20 species of terrestrial plants considered as important alien plant species in Indonesia were identified and some of their distributions noted

  17. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  18. FISHy Analysis of Tetrapioid Cotton Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Guo-li; WANG Kun-bo; PENG Ren-hai; WU Qiong; LING Jian; LIU Fang; STELLY David

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is an important technique in plant genome research,because it provides integrated information about DNA,chromosomes and genomes.Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) is a modification of FISH that can be used to rapidly compare genorne content,relatedness,organization and/or behavior.GISH results often provide insight into genome evolution and species relationships.

  19. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe; Martens, M.

    2000-01-01

    species and storage time (1-9 clays) in ice at OC. An initial list containing 46 descriptive words derived from panel, panel leaders and literature was reduced in two steps to 15 words. The vocabulary development was split up in five "qualitative" and seven "quantitative" sessions with relevant references...

  20. Statistical mapping of tree species over Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Hengeveld, G.M.; Walvoort, D.J.J.; Goedhart, P.W.; Heidema, A.H.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Gunia, K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to map the spatial distribution of twenty tree species groups over Europe at 1 km × 1 km resolution, the ICP-Forest Level-I plot data were extended with the National Forest Inventory (NFI) plot data of eighteen countries. The NFI grids have a much smaller spacing than the ICP grid. In areas

  1. Changes in interacting species with disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Glen F.

    1987-03-01

    Human-influenced changes in the diversity and abundance of native wildlife in a southern boreal forest area, which became a national park in 1975, are used to develop working hypotheses for predicting and subsequently measuring the effects of disturbance or restoration programs on groups of interacting species. Changes from presettlement conditions began with early 1900 hunting, which eliminated woodland caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) and elk ( Cervus elaphus), and reduced moose ( Alces alces) to the low numbers which still persist. Increases in white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus), as these other cervid species became less abundant or absent, provided enough alternative food to sustain the system's carnivores until plant succession on previously burned or logged areas also caused deer to decline. With increased competition for reduced food, carnivore species also became less abundant or absent and overexploited some prey populations. The abilities of interacting species to maintain dynamically stable populations or persist varied with their different capacities to compensate for increased exploitation or competition. These relationships suggested a possible solution to the problem of predicting the stability of populations in disturbed systems. For the 1976 1985 period, a hypothesis that the increased protection of wildlife from exploitation in a national park would restore a more diverse, abundant, and productive fauna had to be rejected.

  2. A series of Xerophilic Chrysosporium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1992-01-01

    Xerophilic Chrysosporium species related to C. farinicola were often isolated from uneaten provisions (pollen-and-nectar mixture) of mason bees (Osmia spp.). The fungi have an optimal growth rate on media which are 2 to 3 molar in regard to glucose, exhibit some growth up to 3.6 molar glucose, and...

  3. New species in Aspergillus section Terrei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R. A.; Peterson, S. W.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the beta-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based...

  4. The Acoustical Properties of Indonesian Hardwood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisius Rio Mardikanto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The acoustical properties of four Indonesian tropical hardwood species were evaluated in this study. The objectives of this study were to determine acoustical parameters e.g. logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, sound velocity as well as density and wood stiffness; and to evaluate the potential of those species for acoustical purposes. Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia, Mahoni (Swietenia mahagony, Acacia (Acacia mangium and Manii wood (Maesopsis eminii were selected in this research. Three different cutting plane patterns of sawn timber (quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn were converted into small specimens. The methods for determining acoustical properties were longitudinal vibration testing and time of flight of ultrasonic wave method. The result showed no significant difference (α=0.05 of acoustical properties in logarithmic decrement, sound absorption, and ultrasonic velocity means on quarter-sawn, flat-sawn, and plain-sawn for all wood species tested. We found that Mahoni and Sonokeling had good acoustical properties of logarithmic decrement, ultrasonic wave velocity, and ratio of wood stiffness to wood density; and is preferred for crafting musical instruments. Acacia and Manii woods are recommended for developing acoustic panels in building construction because those species possess higher sound absorption values.

  5. Inferring species decline from collection records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Valerio, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The decline of roller dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) in Italy, at national and regional level, was described using a database of both literature and unpublished data, since the late of 19th century. The probability of finding roller species was assessed for each decade of the 20th century...

  6. Geographic distribution of wild potato species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, R.J.; Spooner, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The geographic distribution of wild potatoes (Solanaceae sect. Petota) was analyzed using a database of 6073 georeferenced observations. Wild potatoes occur in 16 countries, but 88% of the observations are from Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. Most species are rare and narrowly endemic: for 77

  7. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  8. Bacteroides species: maintenance of laboratory strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, W W; Tseng, M; Landay, M E

    1981-01-01

    A medium composed of blood agar base (40 g/liter), yeast extract (5 g/liter), and cysteine hydrochloride (0.05 g/liter), completely filling screw-cap tubes (13 by 100 mm), can keep Bacteroides species alive for at least 10 months without refrigeration.

  9. VULVO VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS : IMPORTANCE OF SPECIES IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarajya Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis is a common nagging problem faced by 75% of women in reproductive age group. Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Candida in patients suffering from vaginitis , to assess predisposing factors and correlate the symptoms with gram stain for presumptive diagnosis of Candidiasis. METHODS : A prospective study of the laboratory diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC was carried out in 100 women presenting with symptoms suggestive of vaginosis in the reproductive age group. Investigation s included microscopy and culture for yeast. Candida is identified, based on growth on SDA, corn meal agar and Saba raud’s Triphenyl tetrazolium agar, and assimilation and fermentation of sugars. RESULTS : Candida was isolated in 33% of women. Clue cells on gram stain suggestive of bacterial vaginosis was seen in equal number of women, whereas mixed infection was found in 9%. Candida albicans accounted for 15% and nonalbicans species for 85% . O f the non albicans species, Candida glabrata was the commonest (4 2%. Pruritus with or without vaginal discharge and vaginal erythema were the most common symptoms and signs in women with positive Candida culture. CONCLUSION : On comparing the significance of gram stain and culture for presumptive diagnosis of candidiasi s, culture was more significant than gram stain alone. In present study, the rate of culture positivity was 33% and C. glabrata was the predominant species. VVC cannot be diagnosed by clinical criteria alone and requires confirmation by culture including i dentification of species.

  10. Reassessment of Phomopsis species on grapevines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van J.M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Farr, D.F.; Fourie, P.H.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    Ten species of Phomopsis have previously been identified from grapevines. Of these, P. viticola, the causal agent of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, and P. vitimegaspora, the causal agent of swelling arm of grapevines, have been confirmed as severe pathogens of this host. Earlier taxonomic treatments

  11. Spatial patterns of species diversity in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oindo, B.O.

    2001-01-01

    The most striking feature of Earth is the existence of life and the most striking feature of life is its diversity. Explaining patterns of species diversity is one of the most complex problems in ecology. This is because diversity is usually the outcome of many contributing factors whose relative im

  12. Taxonomic position of the comovirus species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel

    Istanbul : Turkish Microbiological Society, 2008. s. 393. [International Congress of Virology/14/. 10.08.2008-15.08.2008, Istanbul] R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145; GA ČR GA522/07/0053 Keywords : plant pathology * comovirus species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  13. Sargassum species and usefulness in endocrinology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkti

    2016-01-01

    Sargassum species is a group of big marine algae. It can be seen around the world and the coastal people have used it as food for years. The use of Sargassum spp. in medicine is very interesting. In this short article, the authors summarize and discuss on Sargassum spp. and its usefulness in endocrinology.

  14. Molecular genetic strategies for species identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper probes into the molecular genetic mechanism of the formation of species, subspecies and variety in evolving progression, and brings forward 5 criteria of an ideal strategy in species identification: stating the specific characteristics at species, subspecies and variety level without any interference of too high polymorphism at individual or population level; keys should be distributed as 0 or 1, e. g. yes or no; satisfying re-peatability and simple operation; high veracity and reliability; adaptability to widely various specimen. Respec-tively, this paper reviews two strategies focusing on detecting the fragment length polymorphism and base re-placement and lays out some detail methods under above strategies. It demonstrates that it is not possible to solve all species problems by pursuing identification with only a single gene or DNA fragment. Only based on thorough consideration of all strategies, a method or combined several methods could bring satisfying reliability. For advanced focuses, it requires not only development and optimization of methods under above strategies, but also new originality of creative strategies.

  15. Dispersal of invasive species by drifting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C. VAN RIEL; G. VAN DER VELDE; A. BIJ DE VAATE

    2011-01-01

    Drifting can be an effective way for aquatic organisms to disperse and colonise new areas.Increasing connectivity between European large rivers facilitates invasion by drifting aquatic macroinvertebrates.The present study shows that high abundances of invasive species drift in the headstream of the river Rhine.Dikerogammarus villosus and Chelicorophium curvispinum represented up to 90% of the total of drifting macroinvertebrates.Drift activity shows seasonal and diel patterns.Most species started drifting in spring and were most abundant in the water column during the summer period.Drift activity was very low during the winter period.Diel patterns were apparent; most species,including D.villosus,drifted during the night.Drifting macroinvertebrates colonised stony substrate directly from the water column.D.villosus generally colonised the substrate at night,while higher numbers of C.curvispinum colonised the substrate during the day.It is very likely that drifting functions as a dispersal mechanism for crustacean invaders.Once waterways are connected,these species are no longer necessarily dependent on dispersal vectors other than drift for extending their distribution range [Current Zoology 57 (6):818-827,2011].

  16. Maximizing seed germination in two Acacia species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akram Kiani Abari; Mohammad Hoseini Nasr; Mohammad Hodjati; Dariush Bayat; Morteza Radmehr

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of disturbed land,particularly in arid environment,is often hindered by low seedling establishment.Information on seed biology and germination cues of valuable species is lacking.We investigated seed germination of two Acacia species (Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne and Acacia oerfota (Forssk) schweinf),required for nitrogen fixation and rehabilitation of arid and semi-arid areas.(four pre-germination seed treatments were applied in order to find the best treatment in germinating acacia species.The medium was L2 and three replicates were used.Seeds pre-treated with sand paper and also with H2SO4 and then H2O2 had the highest germination percentage in both species.The lowest germination percentage resulted from soaking seeds in water for 48 h followed by soaking in H2SO4 for A.oerfota and from soaking in water for 24 h for A.tortilis.Because the use of sand paper is difficult and time consuming,we recommend pre-treatment of A.tortilis and A.oerfota seeds with H2SO4 and H2O2 before planting.Our study results are significant for conservation agencies with an interest in optimizing germination in arid zones for rehabilitation and reforestation.

  17. A new alamellate Hygrocybe species from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laessøe, Thomas; Boertmann, David

    2008-10-01

    The first known species of Hygrocybe with a smooth hymenophore is described based on material from the eastern slopes of Andean Ecuador. It is considered as incertae sedis in the genus due to a lack of conclusive morphological characters and in the absence of sequence data. PMID:18703325

  18. Lichtheimia Species Exhibit Differences in Virulence Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartze, V.U.; Hoffmann, K.; Nyilasi, I.; Papp, T.; Vagvoelgyi, C.; de Hoog, S.; Voigt, K.; Jacobsen, I.D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the number of mucormycosis cases has increased during the last decades, little is known about the pathogenic potential of most mucoralean fungi. Lichtheimia species represent the second and third most common cause of mucormycosis in Europe and worldwide, respectively. To date only three of

  19. A new Species of Spadella (Benthic Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvariño, Angeles

    1970-01-01

    According to the literature, the genus Spadella Langerhans includes several species, Sp. cephaloptera (Busch) 1851, Sp. schizoptera Conant 1895, Sp. moretonensis Johnston & Taylor 1919, Sp. sheardi Mawson 1944, Sp. johnstoni Mawson 1944, Sp. angulata Tokioka 1951, Sp. nana Owre 1963, Sp. pulchella O

  20. Disposition of recently described species of Penicillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Samson, Robert A.; Stolk, Amelia C.

    1990-01-01

    Hundred and twenty-two species, varieties, and new combinations of Penicillium, Eupenicillium, and Talaromyces described since 1977 have been studied taxonomically and screened for mycotoxin production. Only 48 taxa could be accepted: Eupenicillium angustiporcatum, E. cryptum, E. lineolatum, E. limo