WorldWideScience

Sample records for bloom detection monitoring

  1. Detecting the Killer Toxin (Harmful Algal Blooms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    IAEA is stepping up efforts to help countries understand the phenomenon and use more reliable methods for early detection and monitoring so as to limit harmful algal blooms (HABs) adverse effects on coastal communities everywhere.

  2. Algal bloom detection, monitoring and prediction. 3. Workshop on public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catena, G.; Funari, E. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-07-01

    The report presents articles discussed in the 3. Workshop on Public Health (Rome, Italy) focused on the problem of the harmful algae in the Mediterranean basin with the aim of verifying the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques together with conventional ones. These proceedings report the aim aspects of the problem, as the ecological one, the conventional monitoring techniques, the activities of international organizations and finally some of the current research activities in Italy aimed at using remote sensing techniques. [Italian] Il workshop sulla salute pubblica e' incentrato sul problema delle alghe tossiche marine all'interno del bacino del Mediterraneo con lo scopo di verificare le possibilita' di utilizzare delle tecniche di telerilevamento in modo complementare rispetto a quelle convenzionali. Si affrontano alcuni degli aspetti principali di questa problematica quali l'ecologia, le tecniche convenzionali di monitoraggio, le attivita' di organismi internazionali e infine le attivita' in corso in Italia finalizzate all'utilizzazione delle tecniche di telerilevamento.

  3. Aerial Images and Convolutional Neural Network for Cotton Bloom Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring flower development can provide useful information for production management, estimating yield and selecting specific genotypes of crops. The main goal of this study was to develop a methodology to detect and count cotton flowers, or blooms, using color images acquired by an unmanned aerial system. The aerial images were collected from two test fields in 4 days. A convolutional neural network (CNN was designed and trained to detect cotton blooms in raw images, and their 3D locations were calculated using the dense point cloud constructed from the aerial images with the structure from motion method. The quality of the dense point cloud was analyzed and plots with poor quality were excluded from data analysis. A constrained clustering algorithm was developed to register the same bloom detected from different images based on the 3D location of the bloom. The accuracy and incompleteness of the dense point cloud were analyzed because they affected the accuracy of the 3D location of the blooms and thus the accuracy of the bloom registration result. The constrained clustering algorithm was validated using simulated data, showing good efficiency and accuracy. The bloom count from the proposed method was comparable with the number counted manually with an error of −4 to 3 blooms for the field with a single plant per plot. However, more plots were underestimated in the field with multiple plants per plot due to hidden blooms that were not captured by the aerial images. The proposed methodology provides a high-throughput method to continuously monitor the flowering progress of cotton.

  4. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  5. Cyanobacterial bloom detection based on coherence between ferrybox observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groetsch, P.M.M.; Simis, S.G.H.; Eleveld, M.A.; Peters, S.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial bloom detection from flow-through optical sensors on ships-of-opportunity ('ferryboxes') is challenging in periods of strong stratification and due to varying cell physiology and phytoplankton community composition. Wavelet coherence analysis between ferrybox parameters (chlorophyll-

  6. Indian satellite IRS-P4 (OCEANSAT). Monitoring algal blooms in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhat, S.R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Nayak, S.R.

    Sea open waters. The time series from ocean colour monitor (OCM) onboard OCEANSAT indicates this bloom gradually extending as far as Oman. Bloom that generally initiates in the last week of January was found to persist until mid-March....

  7. Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms (HABs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald M

    2009-07-01

    require multidisciplinary study ranging from molecular and cell biology to large-scale field surveys, numerical modelling, and remote sensing from space. Our understanding of these phenomena is increasing dramatically, and with this understanding come technologies and management tools that can reduce HAB incidence and impact. Here I summarize the global HAB problem, its trends and causes, and new technologies and approaches to monitoring, control and management, highlighting molecular probes for cell detection, rapid and sensitive toxin assays, remote sensing detection and tracking of blooms, bloom control and mitigation strategies, and the use of large-scale physical/biological models to analyze past blooms and forecast future ones.

  8. Using Ocean Color Satellite Data to Estimate Economics Benefits Associated with Monitoring and Preventing Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes preliminary work that is underway that will illustrate the use of ocean land colour instrument data (Sentinel-3 & Landsat) to detect and monitor harmful algal blooms (HABS) in freshwater lakes for two types of economic analyses. This project is a j...

  9. Correlation of cyanobacterial harmful bloom monitoring parameters: A case study on western Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zamankhan Malayeri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CHBs in water has caused serious concern to environmental and health authorities because of their potential to produce and release lethal biological toxins. Among many toxins, microcystins (MCs are of particular interest. There have been significant efforts to observe the harmful algal bloom events and cyanotoxin levels, including: (i manual field sampling followed by lab analysis to directly measure MCs, (ii remote sensing based on satellite image analysis to estimate cyanobacterial index (CI, and (iii in-situ sensing of proxy parameters to cyanobacterial blooms such as phycocyanin. This study compared the observation systems in western Lake Erie to find any potential correlations among these CHB monitoring parameters based on the Pearson Product-Moment equation. We found the relationships among the parameters to be site-specific and so we compared geographical, ecological, meteorological, and analytical factors specific to the locations to explain the observed correlations and variations. The CHB observing parameters (MCs, CI, and phycocyanin were generally well correlated because they inherently represented the same phenomenon. In particular, we found the measured biological toxin concentration (MCs to be strongly correlated with the cyanobacterial bloom activity (CI estimated by satellite image analysis. The phycocyanin concentration also had a strong correlation with CI, implying that measuring an easy-to-detect proxy parameter in-situ and in real-time is effective for monitoring CHBs. The results support the notion that key environmental management parameters such as CHB toxicity can be inferred from remotely-sensed ocean color through proxy variables such as CI.

  10. Detection of a Planktothrix agardhii Bloom in Portuguese Marine Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Churro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria blooms are frequent in freshwaters and are responsible for water quality deterioration and human intoxication. Although, not a new phenomenon, concern exists on the increasing persistence, scale, and toxicity of these blooms. There is evidence, in recent years, of the transfer of these toxins from inland to marine waters through freshwater outflow. However, the true impact of these blooms in marine habitats has been overlooked. In the present work, we describe the detection of Planktothrix agardhii, which is a common microcystin producer, in the Portuguese marine coastal waters nearby a river outfall in an area used for shellfish harvesting and recreational activities. P. agardhii was first observed in November of 2016 in seawater samples that are in the scope of the national shellfish monitoring system. This occurrence was followed closely between November and December of 2016 by a weekly sampling of mussels and water from the sea pier and adjacent river mouth with salinity ranging from 35 to 3. High cell densities were found in the water from both sea pier and river outfall, reaching concentrations of 4,960,608 cells·L−1 and 6810.3 × 106 cells·L−1 respectively. Cultures were also established with success from the environment and microplate salinity growth assays showed that the isolates grew at salinity 10. HPLC-PDA analysis of total microcystin content in mussel tissue, water biomass, and P. agardhii cultures did not retrieve a positive result. In addition, microcystin related genes were not detected in the water nor cultures. So, the P. agardhii present in the environment was probably a non-toxic strain. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on a P. agardhii bloom reaching the sea and points to the relevance to also monitoring freshwater harmful phytoplankton and related toxins in seafood harvesting and recreational coastal areas, particularly under the influence of river plumes.

  11. Monitoring of harmful algal blooms along the Norwegian coast using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system consists of buoys designed for real-time, in situ monitoring and forecasting, and is used principally to provide an early warning to the aquaculture industry. The system allows detection of potentially toxic species, through a combination of physical, chemical, biological and bio-optical data. New datasets using ...

  12. Monitoring the algal bloom event in Lake Okeechobee, Florida under Tropical Cyclone Fay impacts using MODIS/Terra images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranpob, Ammarin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Jin, Kang-Ren; Yang, Y. Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    Lake Okeechobee, Florida is the largest freshwater lake in the southeastern U.S. It is a key component in the hydrologic system of South Florida providing water supply for agriculture, the environment, and urban areas. Excessive phosphorus loads, from the Okeechobee watershed over the last few decades have led to increased eutrophication of this lake. Much of the excess phosphorus has been sequestered into the sediments. Sediment water interactions, including diffusive fluxes and sediment resuspension are a source of available phosphorus for phytoplankton. As a consequence, nutrient-enriched lake water has led to phytoplankton blooms from time to time. These blooms are often quantified by measurement of chlorophyll-a concentrations. While the in-situ water quality monitoring is time-consuming, sporadic, and costly, multispectral remote sensing sensors onboard satellites can detect chlorophyll-a contained in most phytoplankton efficiently. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance 1- Day images to capture the unique algal bloom event one week after the landfall of the hurricane Fay in mid-Sept. 2008. Use of the genetic programming model permits sound information retrieval for spatial mapping of chlorophyll-a concentrations, which help explain the mechanism as to why the algal bloom event occurred.

  13. Under Sea Ice phytoplankton bloom detection and contamination in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Zeng, T.; Xu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Previous researches reported compelling sea ice phytoplankton bloom in Arctic, while seldom reports studied about Antarctic. Here, lab experiment showed sea ice increased the visible light albedo of the water leaving radiance. Even a new formed sea ice of 10cm thickness increased water leaving radiance up to 4 times of its original bare water. Given that phytoplankton preferred growing and accumulating under the sea ice with thickness of 10cm-1m, our results showed that the changing rate of OC4 estimated [Chl-a] varied from 0.01-0.5mg/m3 to 0.2-0.3mg/m3, if the water covered by 10cm sea ice. Going further, varying thickness of sea ice modulated the changing rate of estimating [Chl-a] non-linearly, thus current routine OC4 model cannot estimate under sea ice [Chl-a] appropriately. Besides, marginal sea ice zone has a large amount of mixture regions containing sea ice, water and snow, where is favorable for phytoplankton. We applied 6S model to estimate the sea ice/snow contamination on sub-pixel water leaving radiance of 4.25km spatial resolution ocean color products. Results showed that sea ice/snow scale effectiveness overestimated [Chl-a] concentration based on routine band ratio OC4 model, which contamination increased with the rising fraction of sea ice/snow within one pixel. Finally, we analyzed the under sea ice bloom in Antarctica based on the [Chl-a] concentration trends during 21 days after sea ice retreating. Regardless of those overestimation caused by sea ice/snow sub scale contamination, we still did not see significant under sea ice blooms in Antarctica in 2012-2017 compared with Arctic. This research found that Southern Ocean is not favorable for under sea ice blooms and the phytoplankton bloom preferred to occur in at least 3 weeks after sea ice retreating.

  14. UV-Visible Spectroscopic Method and Models for Assessment and Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    2000-01-01

    The development of an enhanced predictive and early warning capability for the occurrence and impact of harmful algal blooms (HABs) would be of great benefit to coastal communities. A critical issue for early detection and monitoring of HABs is the need to detect harmful algal species within a mixed-species phytoplankton assemblage. Possession of UV-absorbing compounds called mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) may be one factor that allows HAB species to out-compete their phytoplankton neighbors. Possession of MAAs, which we believe can be inferred from strong UV-absorption signals in phytoplankton absorption coefficients, can be used as a flag for potential HAB outbreak. The goal of this project was to develop a solar simulating UV-visible incubator to grow HAB dinoflagellates, to begin MAA analysis of samples collected on global cruises, and to carry out initial experiments on HAB dinoflagellate species in pure culture. Our scientific objectives are to quantify MAA production and spectral induction mechanisms in HAB species, to characterize spectral absorption of MAAs, and to define the ecological benefit of MAAs (i.e. photoprotection). Data collected on cruises to the global oceans will be used to parameterize phytoplankton absorption in the UV region, and this parameterization could be incorporated into existing models of seawater optical properties in the UV spectral region. Data collected in this project were used for graduate fellowship applications by Elizabeth Frame. She has been awarded an EPA STAR fellowship to continue the work initiated by this project.

  15. Relationship between magnitude of phytoplankton blooms and rainfall in a hyper-eutrophic lagoon: A continuous monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pei-Jie; Tew, Kwee Siong; Hsieh, Hung-Yen; Chen, Chung-Chi

    2017-11-30

    To evaluate the effect of rainfall intensity on phytoplankton blooms, a continuous monitoring system was deployed during 2015 in a hyper-eutrophic lagoon in Taiwan. Intensive rainfall occurs during the wet summer months, from May to September. Salinity in the lagoon was found to decrease with increasing intensity of rainfall. The magnitude of phytoplankton blooms also increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity. The chlorophyll a concentration rose by an order of magnitude during the heaviest rainfall. Blooms may be fueled by nutrient enrichment caused by drainage or run-off water from surrounding areas that is channeled into the lagoon during rainfall events. During bloom periods, the rates of net primary production and ecosystem respiration were high. However, this ecosystem was autotrophic for most of the year. As extreme rainfall is predicted to increase, the results of this study imply that the frequency and magnitude of phytoplankton blooms may increase in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations, processing techniques and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean-color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals and new aerosol models has led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean color in coastal waters. This has opened the way for studying ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales, such as the interactions at the land-sea interface, trends in coastal water quality and algal blooms. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and have increase local concentrations of phytoplankton, which cause harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present MODIS observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to 1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida and 2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and satellite imagery from Tampa Bay we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions and to develop a near decadal trend in

  17. Molecular Techniques for the Detection of Organisms in Aquatic Environments, with Emphasis on Harmful Algal Bloom Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, Linda K; Orozco, Jahir

    2017-05-22

    Molecular techniques to detect organisms in aquatic ecosystems are being gradually considered as an attractive alternative to standard laboratory methods. They offer faster and more accurate means of detecting and monitoring species, with respect to their traditional homologues based on culture and microscopic counting. Molecular techniques are particularly attractive when multiple species need to be detected and/or are in very low abundance. This paper reviews molecular techniques based on whole cells, such as microscope-based enumeration and Fluorescence In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and molecular cell-free formats, such as sandwich hybridization assay (SHA), biosensors, microarrays, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and real time PCR (RT-PCR). Those that combine one or several laboratory functions into a single integrated system (lab-on-a-chip) and techniques that generate a much higher throughput data, such as next-generation systems (NGS), were also reviewed. We also included some other approaches that enhance the performance of molecular techniques. For instance, nano-bioengineered probes and platforms, pre-concentration and magnetic separation systems, and solid-phase hybridization offer highly pre-concentration capabilities. Isothermal amplification and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) improve hybridization and amplification techniques. Finally, we presented a study case of field remote sensing of harmful algal blooms (HABs), the only example of real time monitoring, and close the discussion with future directions and concluding remarks.

  18. Monitoring of radionuclides in carbon steel blooms produced by EAF process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofilić T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because natural and artificial isotopes in steel might originate from steel scrap or from the residue of the material that was used in the technological process, thus monitoring especially artificial radionuclides 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir deserve special attention. The analysis by g-spectrometry has been applied to determine the presence of natural isotopes 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 238U as well as of the artificial isotope 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir and their activity in the produced steel round blooms in the Steel Mill of CMC Sisak d.o.o. At the same time the content of radionuclides in the other materials (ferroalloys, bauxite, fluorite, lime, coke, graphite electrodes, refractory blocks used in the same steel making process was investigated. The measured values regarding the presence of individual isotopes and their activity in steel were as follows: 40K all values were less than 1.6 Bqkg-1; 232Th all activities values were less than 0.02 Bqkg-1; 226Ra all activities values were less than 0.01 Bqkg-1; 238U all activities values were less than 1.10 Bqkg-1; 60Co all activities values were less than 0.02 Bqkg-1; 192Ir all activities values were less than 0.02 Bqkg-1 and 137Cs all activities values were less than 0.30 Bqkg-1.

  19. An algorithm for detecting Trichodesmium surface blooms in the South Western Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dandonneau

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trichodesmium, a major colonial cyanobacterial nitrogen fixer, forms large blooms in NO3-depleted tropical oceans and enhances CO2 sequestration by the ocean due to its ability to fix dissolved dinitrogen. Thus, its importance in C and N cycles requires better estimates of its distribution at basin to global scales. However, existing algorithms to detect them from satellite have not yet been successful in the South Western Tropical Pacific (SP. Here, a novel algorithm (TRICHOdesmium SATellite based on radiance anomaly spectra (RAS observed in SeaWiFS imagery, is used to detect Trichodesmium during the austral summertime in the SP (5° S–25° S 160° E–170° W. Selected pixels are characterized by a restricted range of parameters quantifying RAS spectra (e.g. slope, intercept, curvature. The fraction of valid (non-cloudy pixels identified as Trichodesmium surface blooms in the region is low (between 0.01 and 0.2 %, but is about 100 times higher than deduced from previous algorithms. At daily scales in the SP, this fraction represents a total ocean surface area varying from 16 to 48 km2 in Winter and from 200 to 1000 km2 in Summer (and at monthly scale, from 500 to 1000 km2 in Winter and from 3100 to 10 890 km2 in Summer with a maximum of 26 432 km2 in January 1999. The daily distribution of Trichodesmium surface accumulations in the SP detected by TRICHOSAT is presented for the period 1998–2010 which demonstrates that the number of selected pixels peaks in November–February each year, consistent with field observations. This approach was validated with in situ observations of Trichodesmium surface accumulations in the Melanesian archipelago around New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji Islands for the same period.

  20. Monitoring of ocean surface algal blooms in coastal and oceanic waters around India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tholkapiyan, M.; Shanmugam, P.; Suresh, T.

    spatial distribution and intensity of these blooms in the northern Arabian Sea in winter are likely caused by enhanced cooling, increased convective mixing, favorable winds, and atmospheric deposition of the mineral aerosols (from surrounding deserts...

  1. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom frequency in recreational waters and drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John M.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Darling, John A.; Urquhart, Erin A.; Johnston, John M.; Ignatius, Amber R.; Myer, Mark H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHAB) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern in both recreational waters and drinking water sources because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins. Successful cyanoHAB assessment using satellites may provide an indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, methods were developed to assess the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB frequency of occurrence at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent series of Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imagers (OLCI) launched in 2016 as part of the Copernicus program. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, the continental United States contains 275,897 lakes and reservoirs >1 ha in area. Results from this study show that 5.6% of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single-pixel resolution and 0.7% of waterbodies were resolvable when a three by three pixel (3 × 3-pixel) array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data were spatially joined to U.S. public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single-pixel resolution resolved 57% of the PWSI locations and a 3 × 3-pixel array resolved 33% of the PWSI locations. Recreational and drinking water sources in Florida and Ohio were ranked from 2008 through 2011 by cyanoHAB frequency above the World Health Organization’s (WHO) high threshold for risk of 100,000 cells mL−1. The ranking identified waterbodies with values above the WHO high threshold, where Lake Apopka, FL (99.1%) and Grand Lake St. Marys, OH (83%) had the highest observed bloom frequencies per region. The method presented here may indicate

  2. Approaches to monitoring, control and management of harmful algal blooms (HABs)

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Virtually every coastal country in the world is affected by harmful algal blooms (HABs, commonly called “red tides”). These phenomena are caused by blooms of microscopic algae. Some of these algae are toxic, and can lead to illness and death in humans, fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and other oceanic life, typically as a result of the transfer of toxins through the food web. Sometimes the direct release of toxic compounds can be lethal to marine animals. Non-toxic HABs cause damage to ecosys...

  3. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom frequency in recreational waters and drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of expos...

  4. Satellite Remote Sensing and Crowd Sourcing to Monitor and Predict Cyanobacteria Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur worldwide and are associated with human respiratory irritation, undesirable taste and odor of potable water, increased drinking water treatment costs, loss of revenue from recreational use, and human illness as a result of ingestion or skin exposure du...

  5. Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms through Drinking Water Treatment Facilities Located on Lake Erie in the 2014 and 2015 Bloom Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of drinking water treatment plants on Lake Erie have supplied water samples on a monthly basis for analysis related to the occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). General water quality parameters including total organic carbon (TOC), orthophosphate, and chlorophyll-A ...

  6. Great Lake beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected bloom of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria blooms pose a potential health risk to beachgoers. We conducted a prospective study of weekend beachgoers at a public Great Lake site during July – September 2003. We recorded each person’s health status and activity during their beach visit. We measured...

  7. Progress in Understanding Harmful Algal Blooms: Paradigm Shifts and New Technologies for Research, Monitoring, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donald M.; Cembella, Allan D.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M.

    2012-01-01

    The public health, tourism, fisheries, and ecosystem impacts from harmful algal blooms (HABs) have all increased over the past few decades. This has led to heightened scientific and regulatory attention, and the development of many new technologies and approaches for research and management. This, in turn, is leading to significant paradigm shifts with regard to, e.g., our interpretation of the phytoplankton species concept (strain variation), the dogma of their apparent cosmopolitanism, the role of bacteria and zooplankton grazing in HABs, and our approaches to investigating the ecological and genetic basis for the production of toxins and allelochemicals. Increasingly, eutrophication and climate change are viewed and managed as multifactorial environmental stressors that will further challenge managers of coastal resources and those responsible for protecting human health. Here we review HAB science with an eye toward new concepts and approaches, emphasizing, where possible, the unexpected yet promising new directions that research has taken in this diverse field.

  8. Lidar fluorosensor system for remote monitoring phytoplankton blooms in the Swedish marine campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, Roberto; Colao, Francesco; Fantoni, Roberta; Palucci, Antonio; Ribezzo, Sergio [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy); Micheli, Carla [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    The National Agency for New Technologies and the Environments group participated to the ICES/IOC workshop at Kristineberg Marine Research Station (Sweden, 9 - 15 September 1996) with instrumentation suitable to local and remote analysis of phytoplankton. The laser induced fluorescence (LIF) emission of natural communities and cultures has been monitored in vivo allowing to obtain information on the algae species, characterized by different pigments content, and on their photosynthetic activity, the latter differentially measured at different light levels in the presence of a saturating laser pulse. Chemical methods have been used for calibration purposes.

  9. Suitability of a cytotoxicity assay for detection of potentially harmful compounds produced by freshwater bloom-forming algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetti, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Jace T; Creed, Irena F; Trick, Charles G

    2014-01-01

    Detecting harmful bioactive compounds produced by bloom-forming pelagic algae is important to assess potential risks to public health. We investigated the application of a cell-based bioassay: the rainbow trout gill-w1 cytotoxicity assay (RCA) that detects changes in cell metabolism. The RCA was used to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of (1) six natural freshwater lake samples from cyanobacteria-rich lakes in central Ontario, Canada; (2) analytical standards of toxins and noxious compounds likely to be produced by the algal communities in these lakes; and (3) complex mixtures of compounds produced by cyanobacterial and chrysophyte cultures. RCA provided a measure of lake water toxicity that could not be reproduced using toxin or noxious compound standards. RCA was not sensitive to toxins and only sensitive to noxious compounds at concentrations higher than reported environmental averages (EC 50 ≥10 3 nM). Cultured algae produced bioactive compounds that had recognizable dose dependent and toxic effects as indicated by RCA. Toxicity of these bioactive compounds depended on taxa (cyanobacteria, not chrysophytes), growth stage (stationary phase more toxic than exponential phase), location (intracellular more toxic than extracellular) and iron status (cells in high-iron treatment more toxic than cells in low-iron treatment). The RCA provides a new avenue of exploration and potential for the detection of natural lake algal toxic and noxious compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of ocean acidification on marine dissolved organic matter are not detectable over the succession of phytoplankton blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zark, Maren; Riebesell, Ulf; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2015-10-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the largest active organic carbon reservoirs on Earth, and changes in its pool size or composition could have a major impact on the global carbon cycle. Ocean acidification is a potential driver for these changes because it influences marine primary production and heterotrophic respiration. We simulated ocean acidification as expected for a "business-as-usual" emission scenario in the year 2100 in an unprecedented long-term mesocosm study. The large-scale experiments (50 m(3) each) covered a full seasonal cycle of marine production in a Swedish Fjord. Five mesocosms were artificially enriched in CO2 to the partial pressure expected in the year 2100 (900 μatm), and five more served as controls (400 μatm). We applied ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry to monitor the succession of 7360 distinct DOM formulae over the course of the experiment. Plankton blooms had a clear effect on DOM concentration and molecular composition. This succession was reproducible across all 10 mesocosms, independent of CO2 treatment. In contrast to the temporal trend, there were no significant differences in DOM concentration and composition between present-day and year 2100 CO2 levels at any time point of the experiment. On the basis of our results, ocean acidification alone is unlikely to affect the seasonal accumulation of DOM in productive coastal environments.

  11. Monitoring tools and early warning system for harmful cyanobacterial blooms: Río Uruguay and Río de la Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Kruk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potentially hazardous cyanobacterial blooming constitutes one of the most widespread problems experienced by aquatic systems worldwide. However, there are not any monitoring methods sensitive enough to be directly applicable to predict and manage blooming events. In order to fulfill this goal, both ecological and genetic concepts were combined to generate cyanobacteria monitoring tools. Two approaches were used: grouping organisms into functional groups and utilizing molecular analysis (real time quantitative PCR as indicators of the presence of genes that encode the expression of cyanotoxins (mcy. Six bi-monthly sampling campaigns were performed to evaluate the suitability of these tools (2013-2014 at six locations composed of two sites each one, ranging downstream from Salto Grande, at the River Uruguay, to Punta del Este, at the Estuary River Plate. A remarkable gradient was observed in the meteorological, physical and chemical variables, as well as higher abundances in planktonic organisms both in Salto Grande and in Punta del Este. The most abundant population of toxic species in the whole gradient were found in Salto, and in particular those belonging to the Microcystis aeruginosa complex (MAC. The most relevant environmental variables to determine the gradient and the variation in biological variables were: salinity, temperature, wind and turbidity. The results of the new indicators (presence of MAC in the plankton net and mcy genes were in agreement with the traditional ones (v.g. chlorophyll-a demonstrating being much more sensitive in cases of the most severe blooming events than in the low abundance situations. The conjunction of results was applied to the construction of a monitoring and early warning system protocol.

  12. An environmental monitoring detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli Yuniarsari; Istofa; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    Is part of radiation detection of the nuclear facilities engineering activities within nuclear facilities. The system comprised of gamma-ray radiation detector and weather detection which includes anemometer to detect the wind direction and speed, as well as rain gauge to measure the rainfall in a period of time. Data acquisition of the output is processed by Arduino Uno system which transformed the data into a particular standard and then displayed online in the website. The radiation detection system uses gamma-ray detector of NaI(Tl) and GM which convert the radiation detected into electric pulse to be fed into a pre-amp and amplifier and modified into square pulse. The weather detection system on the other hand works based on switch principle. For example, the wind with a certain speed could turn on a switch in the system and produce a voltage or pulse which can be measured. This value will then be interpreted as the wind direction and speed. Likewise for the rainfall gauge, the volume of water entering the bucket will turn the switch on, at the same time producing 1 pulse. The result of the experiment shows that for radiation detection system the output is a square pulse 4 volts by using detector NaI(Tl) and 4.4 volts by using detector GM. For weather detection system, basically was able to detect the wind direction, wind speed and rainfall just to find out further research is needed accuracy and the results compared with the standard tools available in BMKG. (author)

  13. Computerized flow monitors detect small kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, D.; White, D. (Sedco Forex, Paris (FR))

    1992-02-24

    This paper reports on a smart alarm system installed on a number of offshore rigs and one land rig which can detect kicks more quickly than conventional systems. This rapid kick detection improves rig safety because the smaller the detected influx, the easier it is to control the well. The extensive computerized monitoring system helps drilling personnel detect fluid influxes and fluid losses before the changes in flow would normally be apparent.

  14. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    to the clinician and the patient for whom it may be a useful educational and motivational tool. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations are presented that can be adopted and adapted to local circumstances and that are both substantiated by evidence and promote a clear, simple and consistent approach to caries detection...... and co-workers from 2013 and this still represents the current state of the science in relation to caries detection and monitoring. The review described among others, visible detection systems, image-based detection systems and point-measurement approaches. RESULTS: The current evidence base suggests...... that while there are numerous devices or technology-enabled detection systems, the use of a careful, methodical visual inspection of clean, dry teeth, supplemented where indicated by radiographic views, remains the standard of care in caries detection and diagnostics. Further, it is possible by means...

  15. Understanding the Effect of Stratification on Vertical and Temporal Heterogenieties of Cyanobacteria Blooms in Lakes Using a Long Term in-situ Monitoring Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A.; Guala, M.; Hondzo, M.

    2017-12-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) are made up of potentially toxic freshwater microorganisms called cyanobacteria, because of this they are a ecological and public health hazard. The occurrences of toxic HAB are unpredictable and highly spatially and temporary variable in freshwater ecosystems. To study the abiotic drivers for toxic HAB, a floating research station has been deployed in a hyper-eutrophic lake in Madison Lake, Minnesota, from June-October 2016. This research station provides full depth water quality (hourly) and meteorological monitoring (5 minutes). Water quality monitoring is performed by an autonomously traversed water quality sonde that provides chemical, physical and biological measurements; including phycocyanin, a photosynthetic pigment distinct to cyanobacteria. A bloom of cyanobacteria recorded in the epiliminion in mid-July was driven by prolonged strong thermal stratification in the water column, high surface water temperatures and high phosphate concentrations in the epiliminion. The high biovolume (BV) persisted until late September and was sustained below the surface after stratification weakened, when the thermocline did not confine cyanobacteria-rich layers any more, and cyanobacteria vertical heterogeneities decayed in the water column. High correlations among BV stratification, surface water temperature, and stratification stability informed the development of a quantitative relationship to determine how BV heterogeneities vary with thermal structure in the water column. The BV heterogeneity decreased with thermal stratification stability and surface water temperature, and the dynamic lake stability described by the Lake Number. Finally the location of maximum BV accumulation showed diurnal patterns ie. BV peaks were observed at 1 m depth during the day and deeper layers during the night, which followed patterns in light penetration and thermocline depth. These findings capture cyanobacteria vertical and temporal heterogeneities on a on

  16. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica U; Del Amo, Yolanda; Costes, Laurence; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-03-05

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae)-an FP7-funded EU project-used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU) as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR) and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3) and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  17. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Medlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae—an FP7-funded EU project—used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3 and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  18. Using high-throughput DNA sequencing, genetic fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR as tools for monitoring bloom-forming and toxigenic cyanobacteria in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2013 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell Eldridge, Sara L.; Driscoll, Conner; Dreher, Theo W.

    2017-06-05

    Monitoring the community structure and metabolic activities of cyanobacterial blooms in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, is critical to lake management because these blooms degrade water quality and produce toxic microcystins that are harmful to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Genetic tools, such as DNA fingerprinting by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, high-throughput DNA sequencing (HTS), and real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), provide more sensitive and rapid assessments of bloom ecology than traditional techniques. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the microbial community at one site in Upper Klamath Lake and determine changes in the cyanobacterial community through time using T-RFLP and HTS in comparison with traditional light microscopy; (2) to determine relative abundances and changes in abundance over time of toxigenic Microcystis using qPCR; and (3) to determine relative abundances and changes in abundance over time of Aphanizomenon, Microcystis, and total cyanobacteria using qPCR. T-RFLP analysis of total cyanobacteria showed a dominance of only one or two distinct genotypes in samples from 2013, but results of HTS in 2013 and 2014 showed more variations in the bloom cycle that fit with the previous understanding of bloom dynamics in Upper Klamath Lake and indicated that potentially toxigenic Microcystis was more prevalent in 2014 than in years prior. The qPCR-estimated copy numbers of all target genes were higher in 2014 than in 2013, when microcystin concentrations also were higher. Total Microcystis density was shown with qPCR to be a better predictor of late-season increases in microcystin concentrations than the relative proportions of potentially toxigenic cells. In addition, qPCR targeting Aphanizomenon at one site in Upper Klamath Lake indicated a moderate bloom of this species (corresponding to chlorophyll a concentrations between approximately 75 and 200 micrograms

  19. A Novel approach for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms using an ensemble based system from MODIS imagery downscaled to 250 metres spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alem, A.; Chokmani, K.; Laurion, I.; El-Adlouni, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    In reason of inland freshwaters sensitivity to Harmful algae blooms (HAB) development and the limits coverage of standards monitoring programs, remote sensing data have become increasingly used for monitoring HAB extension. Usually, HAB monitoring using remote sensing data is based on empirical and semi-empirical models. Development of such models requires a great number of continuous in situ measurements to reach an acceptable accuracy. However, Ministries and water management organizations often use two thresholds, established by the World Health Organization, to determine water quality. Consequently, the available data are ordinal «semi-qualitative» and they are mostly unexploited. Use of such databases with remote sensing data and statistical classification algorithms can produce hazard management maps linked to the presence of cyanobacteria. Unlike standard classification algorithms, which are generally unstable, classifiers based on ensemble systems are more general and stable. In the present study, an ensemble based classifier was developed and compared to a standard classification method called CART (Classification and Regression Tree) in a context of HAB monitoring in freshwaters using MODIS images downscaled to 250 spatial resolution and ordinal in situ data. Calibration and validation data on cyanobacteria densities were collected by the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques on 22 waters bodies between 2000 and 2010. These data comprise three density classes: waters poorly ( 100,000 cells mL-1) loaded in cyanobacteria. Results were very interesting and highlighted that inland waters exhibit different spectral response allowing them to be classified into the three above classes for water quality monitoring. On the other, even if the accuracy (Kappa-index = 0.86) of the proposed approach is relatively lower than that of the CART algorithm (Kappa-index = 0.87), but its robustness is

  20. An Automatic Monitoring System for High-Frequency Measuring and Real-Time Management of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Urban Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Tran Khac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban lakes mitigate the negative impacts on the hydrological cycle and improve the quality of life in cities. Worldwide, the concern increases for the protection and management of urban water bodies. Since the physical-chemical and biological conditions of a small aquatic ecosystem can vary rapidly over time, traditional low frequency measurement approaches (weekly or monthly sampling limits the knowledge and the transfer of research outcomes to management decision-making. In this context, this paper presents an automatic monitoring system including a full-scale experimental site and a data transfer platform for high-frequency observations (every 5 min in a small and shallow urban lake (Lake Champs-sur-Marne, Paris, France, 10.3 ha. Lake stratification and mixing periods can be clearly observed, these periods are compared with the dynamic patterns of chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin, dissolved oxygen and pH. The results indicate that the phytoplankton growth corresponds with dissolved oxygen cycles. However, thermal stratification cannot totally explain the entire dynamic patterns of different physical-chemical and ecological variables. Besides, the cyanobacteria is one of the dominating groups of phytoplankton blooms during the lake stratification periods (8 August–29 September 2016. During the cooling mixed period (29 September–19 October 2016, the high concentration of chlorophyll-a is mainly caused by the other phytoplankton species, such as diatoms. Perspectives are discussed in order to apply this observation system for real-time management of water bodies and lakes.

  1. Air Monitoring for Hazardous Gas Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, C. Richard; Naylor, Guy; Haskell, William; Floyd, David; Curley, Charles; Griffin, Timothy P.; Adams, Frederick; Follistein, Duke

    2003-01-01

    The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and quantify various hazardous gases. Traditionally these systems are designed for leak detection of the cryogenic gases used for the propulsion of the Shuttle and other vehicles. Mass spectrometers are the basis of these systems, which provide excellent quantitation, sensitivity, selectivity, response and limits of detection. Unfortunately, these systems are large, heavy and expensive. This feature limits the ability to perform gas analysis in certain applications. Smaller and lighter mass spectrometer systems could be used in many more applications primarily due to the portability of the system. Such applications would include air analysis in confined spaces, in-situ environmental analysis and emergency response. In general, system cost is lowered as size is reduced. With a low cost air analysis system, several systems could be utilized for monitoring large areas. These networked systems could be deployed at job-sites for worker safety, throughout a community for pollution warnings, or dispersed in a battlefield for early warning of chemical or biological threats. Presented will be information on the first prototype of this type of system. Included will be field trial data, with this prototype performing air analysis autonomously from an aircraft.

  2. BLOOM: BLoom filter based oblivious outsourced matchings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeldorf, Jan Henrik; Pennekamp, Jan; Hellmanns, David; Schwinger, Felix; Kunze, Ike; Henze, Martin; Hiller, Jens; Matzutt, Roman; Wehrle, Klaus

    2017-07-26

    Whole genome sequencing has become fast, accurate, and cheap, paving the way towards the large-scale collection and processing of human genome data. Unfortunately, this dawning genome era does not only promise tremendous advances in biomedical research but also causes unprecedented privacy risks for the many. Handling storage and processing of large genome datasets through cloud services greatly aggravates these concerns. Current research efforts thus investigate the use of strong cryptographic methods and protocols to implement privacy-preserving genomic computations. We propose FHE-BLOOM and PHE-BLOOM, two efficient approaches for genetic disease testing using homomorphically encrypted Bloom filters. Both approaches allow the data owner to securely outsource storage and computation to an untrusted cloud. FHE-BLOOM is fully secure in the semi-honest model while PHE-BLOOM slightly relaxes security guarantees in a trade-off for highly improved performance. We implement and evaluate both approaches on a large dataset of up to 50 patient genomes each with up to 1000000 variations (single nucleotide polymorphisms). For both implementations, overheads scale linearly in the number of patients and variations, while PHE-BLOOM is faster by at least three orders of magnitude. For example, testing disease susceptibility of 50 patients with 100000 variations requires only a total of 308.31 s (σ=8.73 s) with our first approach and a mere 0.07 s (σ=0.00 s) with the second. We additionally discuss security guarantees of both approaches and their limitations as well as possible extensions towards more complex query types, e.g., fuzzy or range queries. Both approaches handle practical problem sizes efficiently and are easily parallelized to scale with the elastic resources available in the cloud. The fully homomorphic scheme, FHE-BLOOM, realizes a comprehensive outsourcing to the cloud, while the partially homomorphic scheme, PHE-BLOOM, trades a slight relaxation of security

  3. Adverse event detection, monitoring, and evaluation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers a single-sensor structural health-monitoring (SHM) system that uses the impedance method to monitor structural integrity, wave propagation...

  4. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  5. Dangerous jellyfish blooms are predictable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Condie, Scott A; Mansbridge, Jim V; Richardson, Anthony J

    2014-07-06

    The potentially fatal Irukandji syndrome is relatively common in tropical waters throughout the world. It is caused by the sting of the Irukandji jellyfish, a family of box jellyfish that are almost impossible to detect in the water owing to their small size and transparency. Using collated medical records of stings and local weather conditions, we show that the presence of Irukandji blooms in coastal waters can be forecast on the basis of wind conditions. On the Great Barrier Reef, blooms largely coincide with relaxation of the prevailing southeasterly trade winds, with average conditions corresponding to near zero alongshore wind on the day prior to the sting. These conditions are consistent with hypotheses long held by local communities and provide a basis for designing management interventions that have the potential to eliminate the majority of stings. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmful algal blooms of the Southern Benguela current: A review and appraisal of monitoring from 1989 to 1997. ... The Benguela upwelling system is subjected to blooms of harmful and toxic algae, the incidence and consequences of which are documented here. Red tides are common and usually attributed to members of ...

  7. Salmon mortalities associated with a bloom of Alexandrium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blue mussels Mytilus edulis analysed from areas affected by the bloom reached levels of 18 000ìg STX equivalents 100g–1 of tissue. As a result of the salmon mortalities, a project was initiated to establish a monitoring approach for harmful algal blooms to provide an early warning of potential events and to act as a tool for ...

  8. Support Vector Machine-based method for predicting Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms in coastal waters (Galician rias, NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Vilas, Luis; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Torres Palenzuela, Jesus M.; Pazos, Yolanda

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplanktonic blooms in the coastal embayments (rias) at the NW part of Spain were mentioned for the first time in 1918 and since then they have been associated numerous times with negatives impacts to a very important economic activity in the area, mussel production. In this study, eight years of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. abundance and associated meteorological and oceanographic data were used to develop and validate support vector machine (SVM) models for the prediction of these diatoms. SVM were used to identify presence/below low detection limit, bloom/no bloom conditions of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and finally to predict blooms due to these diatoms in the coastal systems of the Galician rias. The best SVM models were selected on the basis of C and γ parameters and their performance was evaluated in terms of accuracy and kappa statistics (κ). Regarding the presence/below low detection limit, bloom/no bloom models the best results in the validation dataset were achieved using all the variables: ria code, day of the year, temperature, salinity, upwelling indices and bloom occurrence in previous weeks. The best performing models were also tested in an independent dataset from the study area, where they showed high overall accuracy (78.53-82.18%), κ values (0.77-0.81) and true positive rates (62.60-78.18). In these models the bloom occurrence in previous weeks was identified as a key parameter to the prediction performance. In this paper, toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms could not be predicted due to limited information on toxin concentration and species composition. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the approach followed here is capable for high predictive performance which could be of great aid in the monitoring of algal blooms and offer valuable information to the local shellfish industry. The reliable prediction of categorical Pseudo-nitzschia abundances using variables that are operationally determined or short-term predicted could provide early warning of

  9. The detection of wind turbine shaft misalignment using temperature monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, Oliver; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Temperature is a parameter increasingly monitored in wind turbine systems. This paper details a potential temperature monitoring technique for use on shaft couplings. Such condition monitoring methods aid fault detection in other areas of wind turbines. However, application to shaft couplings has not previously been widely researched. A novel temperature measurement technique is outlined, using an infra-red thermometer which can be applied to online condition monitoring. The method was va...

  10. Fault Detection for Shipboard Monitoring and Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a basic idea of a fault-tolerant monitoring and decision support system will be explained. Fault detection is an important part of the fault-tolerant design for in-service monitoring and decision support systems for ships. In the paper, a virtual example of fault detection...... will be presented for a containership with a real decision support system onboard. All possible faults can be simulated and detected using residuals and the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) algorithm....

  11. GLRT Based Anomaly Detection for Sensor Network Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-12-07

    Proper operation of antenna arrays requires continuously monitoring their performances. When a fault occurs in an antenna array, the radiation pattern changes and can significantly deviate from the desired design performance specifications. In this paper, the problem of fault detection in linear antenna arrays is addressed within a statistical framework. Specifically, a statistical fault detection method based on the generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) principle is utilized for detecting potential faults in linear antenna arrays. The proposed method relies on detecting deviations in the radiation pattern of the monitored array with respect to a reference (fault-free) one. To assess the abilities of the GLR based fault detection method, three case studies involving different types of faults have been performed. The simulation results clearly illustrate the effectiveness of the GLR-based fault detection method in monitoring the performance of linear antenna arrays.

  12. Statistical Anomaly Detection for Monitoring of Human Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of human dynamics has drawn attention to various areas. Due to the wide spread of positioning technologies that use GPS or public Wi-Fi, location information can be obtained with high spatial-temporal resolution as well as at low cost. By collecting set of individual location information in real time, monitoring of human dynamics is recently considered possible and is expected to lead to dynamic traffic control in the future. Although this monitoring focuses on detecting anomalous states of human dynamics, anomaly detection methods are developed ad hoc and not fully systematized. This research aims to define an anomaly detection problem of the human dynamics monitoring with gridded population data and develop an anomaly detection method based on the definition. According to the result of a review we have comprehensively conducted, we discussed the characteristics of the anomaly detection of human dynamics monitoring and categorized our problem to a semi-supervised anomaly detection problem that detects contextual anomalies behind time-series data. We developed an anomaly detection method based on a sticky HDP-HMM, which is able to estimate the number of hidden states according to input data. Results of the experiment with synthetic data showed that our proposed method has good fundamental performance with respect to the detection rate. Through the experiment with real gridded population data, an anomaly was detected when and where an actual social event had occurred.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Bloom syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 link) Bloom syndrome Sources for This Page Amor-Guéret M. Bloom syndrome, genomic instability and cancer: ... Zhang B, Zhang XD, Dou SX, Wang PY, Amor-Gueret M, Xi XG. Structural and functional analyses ...

  14. Detection and quantification system for monitoring instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzenitis, John M [Danville, CA; Hertzog, Claudia K [Houston, TX; Makarewicz, Anthony J [Livermore, CA; Henderer, Bruce D [Livermore, CA; Riot, Vincent J [Oakland, CA

    2008-08-12

    A method of detecting real events by obtaining a set of recent signal results, calculating measures of the noise or variation based on the set of recent signal results, calculating an expected baseline value based on the set of recent signal results, determining sample deviation, calculating an allowable deviation by multiplying the sample deviation by a threshold factor, setting an alarm threshold from the baseline value plus or minus the allowable deviation, and determining whether the signal results exceed the alarm threshold.

  15. Detecting System of Nested Hardware Virtual Machine Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Vladimirovich Iuzbashev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of nested hardware virtual machine monitor detection was proposed in this work. The method is based on HVM timing attack. In case of HVM presence in system, the number of different instruction sequences execution time values will increase. We used this property as indicator in our detection.

  16. Byatt versus Bloom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børch, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Antonia Byatt's Possession takes issue with Harold Bloom's famous claim that creation - including an author's creative reading of an intertext - entails a violent encounter. Byatt's book suggests a more positive Construction of the process by which tradition is transformed in transmission....

  17. Early detection and monitoring of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Z.; Roytman, Leonid; Kadik, Abdelhamid; Miller, Howard; Rosy, Dilara A.

    2015-05-01

    Global Earth Observation Systems of Systems (GEOSS) are bringing vital societal benefits to people around the globe. In this research article, we engage undergraduate students in the exciting area of space exploration to improve the health of millions of people globally. The goal of the proposed research is to place students in a learning environment where they will develop their problem solving skills in the context of a world crisis (e.g., malaria). Malaria remains one of the greatest threats to public health, particularly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that over one million die of Malaria each year, with more than 80% of these found in Sub-Saharan Africa. The mosquitoes transmit malaria. They breed in the areas of shallow surface water that are suitable to the mosquito and parasite development. These environmental factors can be detected with satellite imagery, which provide high spatial and temporal coverage of the earth's surface. We investigate on moisture, thermal and vegetation stress indicators developed from NOAA operational environmental satellite data. Using these indicators and collected epidemiological data, it is possible to produce a forecast system that can predict the risk of malaria for a particular geographical area with up to four months lead time. This valuable lead time information provides an opportunity for decision makers to deploy the necessary preventive measures (spraying, treated net distribution, storing medications and etc) in threatened areas with maximum effectiveness. The main objective of the proposed research is to study the effect of ecology on human health and application of NOAA satellite data for early detection of malaria.

  18. Triplexer Monitor Design for Failure Detection in FTTH System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Minglei; Le, Zichun; Hu, Jinhua; Fei, Xia

    2012-09-01

    Triplexer was one of the key components in FTTH systems, which employed an analog overlay channel for video broadcasting in addition to bidirectional digital transmission. To enhance the survivability of triplexer as well as the robustness of FTTH system, a multi-ports device named triplexer monitor was designed and realized, by which failures at triplexer ports can be detected and localized. Triplexer monitor was composed of integrated circuits and its four input ports were connected with the beam splitter whose power division ratio was 95∶5. By means of detecting the sampled optical signal from the beam splitters, triplexer monitor tracked the status of the four ports in triplexer (e.g. 1310 nm, 1490 nm, 1550 nm and com ports). In this paper, the operation scenario of the triplexer monitor with external optical devices was addressed. And the integrated circuit structure of the triplexer monitor was also given. Furthermore, a failure localization algorithm was proposed, which based on the state transition diagram. In order to measure the failure detection and localization time under the circumstance of different failed ports, an experimental test-bed was built. Experiment results showed that the detection time for the failure at 1310 nm port by the triplexer monitor was less than 8.20 ms. For the failure at 1490 nm or 1550 nm port it was less than 8.20 ms and for the failure at com port it was less than 7.20 ms.

  19. Recurring patterns in bacterioplankton dynamics during coastal spring algae blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling, Hanno; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Bennke, Christin M; Krüger, Karen; Chafee, Meghan; Kappelmann, Lennart; Reintjes, Greta; Waldmann, Jost; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wiltshire, Karen H; Amann, Rudolf I

    2016-01-01

    A process of global importance in carbon cycling is the remineralization of algae biomass by heterotrophic bacteria, most notably during massive marine algae blooms. Such blooms can trigger secondary blooms of planktonic bacteria that consist of swift successions of distinct bacterial clades, most prominently members of the Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and the alphaproteobacterial Roseobacter clade. We investigated such successions during spring phytoplankton blooms in the southern North Sea (German Bight) for four consecutive years. Dense sampling and high-resolution taxonomic analyses allowed the detection of recurring patterns down to the genus level. Metagenome analyses also revealed recurrent patterns at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes. We, therefore, hypothesize that even though there is substantial inter-annual variation between spring phytoplankton blooms, the accompanying succession of bacterial clades is largely governed by deterministic principles such as substrate-induced forcing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11888.001 PMID:27054497

  20. Intrusion detection and monitoring for wireless networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Eric D.; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lee, Erik J.; Stephano, Amanda (Indiana University); Tabriz, Parisa (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); Pelon, Kristen (Cedarville University); McCoy, Damon (University of Colorado, Boulder); Lodato, Mark (Lafayette College); Hemingway, Franklin (University of New Mexico); Custer, Ryan P.; Averin, Dimitry (Polytechnic University); Franklin, Jason (Carnegie Mellon University); Kilman, Dominique Marie

    2005-11-01

    complete network coverage for use by emergency responders and other municipal agencies. In short, these Wi-Fi networks are being deployed everywhere. Much thought has been and is being put into evaluating cost-benefit analyses of wired vs. wireless networks and issues such as how to effectively cover an office building or municipality, how to efficiently manage a large network of wireless access points (APs), and how to save money by replacing an Internet service provider (ISP) with 802.11 technology. In comparison, very little thought and money are being focused on wireless security and monitoring for security purposes.

  1. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination...... of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing...

  2. Signal processing for solar array monitoring, fault detection, and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Henry; Spanias, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Although the solar energy industry has experienced rapid growth recently, high-level management of photovoltaic (PV) arrays has remained an open problem. As sensing and monitoring technology continues to improve, there is an opportunity to deploy sensors in PV arrays in order to improve their management. In this book, we examine the potential role of sensing and monitoring technology in a PV context, focusing on the areas of fault detection, topology optimization, and performance evaluation/data visualization. First, several types of commonly occurring PV array faults are considered and detection algorithms are described. Next, the potential for dynamic optimization of an array's topology is discussed, with a focus on mitigation of fault conditions and optimization of power output under non-fault conditions. Finally, monitoring system design considerations such as type and accuracy of measurements, sampling rate, and communication protocols are considered. It is our hope that the benefits of monitoring presen...

  3. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for early classification of harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ecological Stewardship Institute at Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are collaborating to optimize a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence and count of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis...

  4. Flood detection/monitoring using adjustable histogram equalization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Fakhera; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin; Ghafoor, Abdul; Arif, Fahim

    2014-01-01

    Flood monitoring technique using adjustable histogram equalization is proposed. The technique overcomes the limitations (overenhancement, artifacts, and unnatural look) of existing technique by adjusting the contrast of images. The proposed technique takes pre- and postimages and applies different processing steps for generating flood map without user interaction. The resultant flood maps can be used for flood monitoring and detection. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides better output quality compared to the state of the art existing technique.

  5. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC's position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF 6 release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring)

  6. MULTI-TEMPORAL SAR CHANGE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hachicha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal SAR images are a very useful source of information for a large amount of applications, especially for change detection and monitoring. In this paper, a new SAR change detection and monitoring approach is proposed through the analysis of a time series of SAR images covering the same region. The first step of the method is the SAR filtering preprocessing step using an extension of the spatial NL-means filter to the temporal domain. Then, the Rayleigh Kullback Leibler and the Rayleigh Distribution Ratio measures are combined to detect the changes between a reference image and each SAR image of the time series at both local and global scale. These measures are combined using the Dezert-Smarandache theory which takes into account conflicts between sources and thus enhances the dual change detection results. Finally, a pixel based temporal classification is applied starting from the obtained change maps in order to describe the temporal behaviour of the covered regions.

  7. A new method of describing phytoplankton blooms: Examples from Helgoland Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieruch, S.; Freund, J. A.; Feudel, U.; Boersma, M.; Janisch, S.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms, in their pivotal position in pelagic seasonal succession require precise classification criteria in order to evaluate such parameters as bloom start, bloom timing, bloom maximum and growth rates. Such bloom parameters are linked directly to species and bloom specific features. Currently the phytoplankton bloom concept, though intuitively clear, lacks operational criteria allowing the precise definition of bloom parameters. We present a semi-quantitative method of classification of marine phytoplankton blooms based on an algorithmic estimation of several bloom descriptors computed from densely recorded phytoplankton data, like the Helgoland Roads long-term time series. Combining these descriptors we propose a novel classification scheme which may serve useful in the discussion of species fitness, competition and succession of marine algae. Special emphasis is put on the detection of the bloom start, because of its crucial importance for many current research topics, including trigger mechanisms and climate-induced temporal shifts in the context of the match/mismatch hypothesis. Visual examination of scatter plots of these parameters leads us to propose three types of blooming algae.

  8. Fault Detection and Performance Monitoring in PV Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vasco Brogueira Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Given the exponential growth of the PV sector in recent years and the market?s overall need for new PV monitoring solutions, this dissertation aims at creating an automatic fault detection tool for PV systems, more specifically for shading and soiling situations. By detecting deviations in the measured PV systems? data patterns, this tool aims at providing essential information for the deployment of the right maintenance strategy for each situation.

  9. Detection of Electronic Anklet Wearers’ Groupings throughout Telematics Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Lima Machado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle bracelets (anklets imposed by law to track convicted individuals are being used in many countries as an alternative to overloaded prisons. There are many different systems for monitoring individuals wearing such devices, and these electronic anklet monitoring systems commonly detect violations of circulation areas permitted to holders. In spite of being able to monitor individual localization, such systems do not identify grouping activities of the monitored individuals, although this kind of event could represent a real risk of further offenses planned by those individuals. In order to address such a problem and to help monitoring systems to be able to have a proactive approach, this paper proposes sensor data fusion algorithms that are able to identify such groups based on data provided by anklet positioning devices. The results from the proposed algorithms can be applied to support risk assessment in the context of monitoring systems. The processing is performed using geographic points collected by a monitoring center, and as result, it produces a history of groups with their members, timestamps, locations and frequency of meetings. The proposed algorithms are validated in various serial and parallel computing scenarios, and the correspondent results are presented and discussed. The information produced by the proposed algorithms yields to a better characterization of the monitored individuals and can be adapted to support decision-making systems used by authorities that are responsible for planning decisions regarding actions affecting public security.

  10. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies.

  11. Privacy-Preserving Electrocardiogram Monitoring for Intelligent Arrhythmia Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junggab Son

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring, as a representative application of cyber-physical systems, facilitates the early detection of arrhythmia. A considerable number of previous studies has explored monitoring techniques and the automated analysis of sensing data. However, ensuring patient privacy or confidentiality has not been a primary concern in ECG monitoring. First, we propose an intelligent heart monitoring system, which involves a patient-worn ECG sensor (e.g., a smartphone and a remote monitoring station, as well as a decision support server that interconnects these components. The decision support server analyzes the heart activity, using the Pan–Tompkins algorithm to detect heartbeats and a decision tree to classify them. Our system protects sensing data and user privacy, which is an essential attribute of dependability, by adopting signal scrambling and anonymous identity schemes. We also employ a public key cryptosystem to enable secure communication between the entities. Simulations using data from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database demonstrate that our system achieves a 95.74% success rate in heartbeat detection and almost a 96.63% accuracy in heartbeat classification, while successfully preserving privacy and securing communications among the involved entities.

  12. Electrokinetic enrichment and detection of neuropeptide for performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    device scaling within the electrodeless insulator dielectrophoresis geometry through the application of highly Fig. 1: Biomarker enrichment in...a competitive electrochemical detection system that is free of wash -steps and enables the real-time monitoring of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) over...methodology for quantifying the region of interest by using a statistical description of particle distribution across the device geometry to determine

  13. Electrokinetic Enrichment and Detection of Neuropeptide for Performance Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    device scaling within the electrodeless insulator dielectrophoresis geometry through the application of highly Fig. 1: Biomarker enrichment in...a competitive electrochemical detection system that is free of wash -steps and enables the real-time monitoring of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) over...methodology for quantifying the region of interest by using a statistical description of particle distribution across the device geometry to determine

  14. 1999 Leak Detection, Monitoring, and Mitigation Strategy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OHL, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document is a complete revision of WHC-SD-WM-ES-378, Rev 1. This update includes recent developments in Leak Detection, Leak Monitoring, and Leak Mitigation technologies, as well as, recent developments in single-shell tank retrieval technologies. In addition, a single-shell tank retrieval release protection strategy is presented

  15. Monitoring to detect change on rangelands: physical, social and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring to detect change on rangelands: physical, social and economic /policy drivers. ... Social drivers include attitudes and values of land mangers and the public. ... Risk assessments, adaptive management analyses, or management by hypothesis require understanding linkages between environmental drivers and ...

  16. Cow status monitoring (health and oestrus) using detection sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatje, K.; Mol, de R.M.; Rossing, W.

    1997-01-01

    In-line sensors were used to measure quarter milk conductivity and milk temperature in the milking claw for monitoring mastitis in dairy cows. In a preliminary experiment, sensor data were used to develop algorithms and threshold values for the detection of mastitis. In a later experiment, these

  17. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: Seasonal patterns and key species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  18. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  19. [Application of lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring: research progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, You-Zhu; Fang, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Lysosome is an important organelle existing in eukaryotic cells. With the development of the study on the structure and function of lysosome in recent years, lysosome is considered as a target of toxic substances on subcellular level, and has been widely applied abroad in marine pollution monitoring. This paper summarized the biological characteristics of lysosomal marker enzyme, lysosome-autophagy system, and lysosomal membrane, and introduced the principles and methods of applying lysosomal detection in marine pollution monitoring. Bivalve shellfish digestive gland and fish liver are the most sensitive organs for lysosomal detection. By adopting the lysosomal detection techniques such as lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) test, neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay, morphological measurement (MM) of lysosome, immunohistochemical (Ih) assay of lysosomal marker enzyme, and electron microscopy (EM), the status of marine pollution can be evaluated. It was suggested that the lysosome could be used as a biomarker for monitoring marine environmental pollution. The advantages and disadvantages of lysosomal detection and some problems worthy of attention were analyzed, and the application prospects of lysosomal detection were discussed.

  20. A Driver Face Monitoring System for Fatigue and Distraction Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad-Hoseyn Sigari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver face monitoring system is a real-time system that can detect driver fatigue and distraction using machine vision approaches. In this paper, a new approach is introduced for driver hypovigilance (fatigue and distraction detection based on the symptoms related to face and eye regions. In this method, face template matching and horizontal projection of top-half segment of face image are used to extract hypovigilance symptoms from face and eye, respectively. Head rotation is a symptom to detect distraction that is extracted from face region. The extracted symptoms from eye region are (1 percentage of eye closure, (2 eyelid distance changes with respect to the normal eyelid distance, and (3 eye closure rate. The first and second symptoms related to eye region are used for fatigue detection; the last one is used for distraction detection. In the proposed system, a fuzzy expert system combines the symptoms to estimate level of driver hypo-vigilance. There are three main contributions in the introduced method: (1 simple and efficient head rotation detection based on face template matching, (2 adaptive symptom extraction from eye region without explicit eye detection, and (3 normalizing and personalizing the extracted symptoms using a short training phase. These three contributions lead to develop an adaptive driver eye/face monitoring. Experiments show that the proposed system is relatively efficient for estimating the driver fatigue and distraction.

  1. A novel cross-satellite based assessment of the spatio-temporal development of a cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Benjamin P.; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Deepak R.

    2018-04-01

    As the frequency of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) become more common in recreational lakes and water supply reservoirs, demand for rapid detection and temporal monitoring will be imminent for effective management. The goal of this study was to demonstrate a novel and potentially operational cross-satellite based protocol for synoptic monitoring of rapidly evolving and increasingly common CyanoHABs in inland waters. The analysis involved a novel way to cross-calibrate a chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) detection model for the Landsat-8 OLI sensor from the relationship between the normalized difference chlorophyll index and the floating algal index derived from Sentinel-2A on a coinciding overpass date during the summer CyanoHAB bloom in Utah Lake. This aided in the construction of a time-series phenology of the Utah Lake CyanoHAB event. Spatio-temporal cyanobacterial density maps from both Sentinel-2A and Landsat-8 sensors revealed that the bloom started in the first week of July 2016 (July 3rd, mean cell count: 9163 cells/mL), reached peak in mid-July (July 15th, mean cell count: 108176 cells/mL), and reduced in August (August 24th, mean cell count: 9145 cells/mL). Analysis of physical and meteorological factors suggested a complex interaction between landscape processes (high surface runoff), climatic conditions (high temperature, high rainfall followed by negligible rainfall, stable wind), and water quality (low water level, high Chl-a) which created a supportive environment for triggering these blooms in Utah Lake. This cross satellite-based monitoring methods can be a great tool for regular monitoring and will reduce the budget cost for monitoring and predicting CyanoHABs in large lakes.

  2. Acoustic system for pipe rupture monitoring and leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, W.; Jonas, H.

    1982-06-01

    As a safety aspect pipe rupture and leakage effects are of particular interest in nuclear power plants where severe consequences for the reactor may result. Counter measures against postulated pipe breaks and leakages in nuclear power plants are necessary whenever the main safety goals: safe shut-down, safe afterheat removal and retention of radioactivity, are endangered. The requirements to be met by a leak detection system depend on the time available for counter actions. If this time is short so that automatic actions are necessary the German safety criteria for nuclear power plants (Criterion 6.1) require two physically diverse signals to be monitored. One fairly obvious possibility of leak detection is to monitor process parameters (pressure, flow). As a diverse signal physical parameters outside the process may be employed: pressure transients temperature, humidity are principally suitable. In practical application, however, it is difficult to predict these parameters by way of calculation in order to establish the required set-point of the monitoring system. Experimental determination is possible only in special cases. A study of several ways of diverse leak detection methods leads to the very promising acoustic method. We investigated experimentally the feasibility of monitoring the sound created by a leakage. Air borne sound as well as body borne sound was analyzed

  3. Amalgamation of Anomaly-Detection Indices for Enhanced Process Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-01-29

    Accurate and effective anomaly detection and diagnosis of modern industrial systems are crucial for ensuring reliability and safety and for maintaining desired product quality. Anomaly detection based on principal component analysis (PCA) has been studied intensively and largely applied to multivariate processes with highly cross-correlated process variables; howver conventional PCA-based methods often fail to detect small or moderate anomalies. In this paper, the proposed approach integrates two popular process-monitoring detection tools, the conventional PCA-based monitoring indices Hotelling’s T2 and Q and the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA). We develop two EWMA tools based on the Q and T2 statistics, T2-EWMA and Q-EWMA, to detect anomalies in the process mean. The performances of the proposed methods were compared with that of conventional PCA-based anomaly-detection methods by applying each method to two examples: a synthetic data set and experimental data collected from a flow heating system. The results clearly show the benefits and effectiveness of the proposed methods over conventional PCA-based methods.

  4. Applied network security monitoring collection, detection, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Applied Network Security Monitoring is the essential guide to becoming an NSM analyst from the ground up. This book takes a fundamental approach to NSM, complete with dozens of real-world examples that teach you the key concepts of NSM. Network security monitoring is based on the principle that prevention eventually fails. In the current threat landscape, no matter how much you try, motivated attackers will eventually find their way into your network. At that point, it is your ability to detect and respond to that intrusion that can be the difference between a small incident and a major di

  5. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Antonio Domínguez; Alonso, Covadonga Alonso; García, Ana Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used from the 1980s to study inland water quality. However, it was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that CHRIS (an experimental multi-angle sensor with good spectral and spatial resolutions) and MERIS (with good temporal and spectral resolutions) started to acquire imagery with very good resolutions, which allowed to develop a reliable imagery acquisition system so as to consider remote sensing as an inland water management tool. This paper presents the methodology developed, from the field data acquisition with which to build a freshwater spectral library and the study of different atmospheric correction systems for CHRIS mode 2 and MERIS images, to the development of algorithms to determine chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations and bloom sites. All these algorithms allow determining water eutrophic and ecological states, apart from generating surveillance maps of toxic cyanobacteria with the main objective of Assessment of the Water Quality as it was used for Monitoring Ecological Water Quality in smallest Mediterranean Reservoirs integrated in the Intercalibration Exercise of European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). We keep on using it to monitor the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) in Spain inland water.

  6. Phytoplankton Bloom Off Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Turquoise and greenish swirls marked the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Portugal on April 23, 2002. This true-color image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. There are also several fires burning in northwest Spain, near the port city of A Coruna. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site.

  7. Recreational exposure to low concentrations of microcystins during an algal bloom in a small lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, Lorraine C; Carmichael, Wayne; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Williams, Christopher; Irvin, Mitch; Zhou, Yue; Johnson, Trisha B; Nierenberg, Kate; Hill, Vincent R; Kieszak, Stephanie M; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2008-06-26

    We measured microcystins in blood from people at risk for swallowing water or inhaling spray while swimming, water skiing, jet skiing, or boating during an algal bloom. We monitored water samples from a small lake as a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom developed. We recruited 97 people planning recreational activities in that lake and seven others who volunteered to recreate in a nearby bloom-free lake. We conducted our field study within a week of finding a 10-microg/L microcystin concentration. We analyzed water, air, and human blood samples for water quality, potential human pathogens, algal taxonomy, and microcystin concentrations. We interviewed study participants for demographic and current health symptom information. Water samples were assayed for potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses), but none were detected. We did find low concentrations of Escherichia coli, indicating fecal contamination. We found low levels of microcystins (2 microg/L to 5 microg/L) in the water and (<0.1 ng/m(3)) in the aerosol samples. Blood levels of microcystins for all participants were below the limit of detection (0.147 microg/L). Given this low exposure level, study participants reported no symptom increases following recreational exposure to microcystins. This is the first study to report that water-based recreational activities can expose people to very low concentrations of aerosol-borne microcystins; we recently conducted another field study to assess exposures to higher concentrations of these algal toxins.

  8. Application of Trend Detection Methods in Monitoring Physiological Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Melek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of various trend detection methods developed using fuzzy logic, statistical, and regression techniques. A new method that uses noise rejection fuzzy clustering is also proposed in the paper to enhance the performance of trend detection methodologies. The comparative investigation has produced systematic guidelines for the selection of a proper trend detection method for different application requirements. This paper has resulted from work on military applications of on-line trend analysis, such as monitoring of wounded soldiers by first-response medical staff at the battlefield and high-acceleration protection of fighter jet pilots. Efficient trend detection methods can provide early warnings, severity assessments of a subject's physiological state, and decision support for firstresponse medical attendants. Representative physiological variables such as blood pressure, heartbeat rate, and ear opacity are considered in this paper.

  9. Local Leak Detection and Health Monitoring of Pressurized Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt; Witherow, William; Korman, Valentin; Sinko, John; Hendrickson, Adam

    2011-01-01

    An optical gas-detection sensor safely monitors pressurized systems (such as cryogenic tanks) and distribution systems for leaks. This sensor system is a fiber-coupled, solid optical body interferometer that allows for the miniaturized sensing element of the device to be placed in the smallest of recesses, and measures a wide range of gas species and densities (leaks). The deflection of the fringe pattern is detected and recorded to yield the time-varying gas density in the gap. This technology can be used by manufacturers or storage facilities with toxic, hazardous, or explosive gases. The approach is to monitor the change in the index of refraction associated with low-level gas leaks into a vacuum environment. The completion of this work will provide NASA with an enabling capability to detect gas system leaks in space, and to verify that pressurized systems are in a safe (i.e. non-leaking) condition during manned docking and transit operations. By recording the output of the sensor, a time-history of the leak can be constructed to indicate its severity. Project risk is mitigated by having several interferometric geometries and detection techniques available, each potentially leveraging hardware and lessons learned to enhance detectability.

  10. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  11. Sensitive change detection for remote sensing monitoring of nuclear treaties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, Morton J.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schlittenhardt, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Triggered in part by the advent of high resolution commercial optical satellites, the analysis of open-source satellite imagery has now established itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world (Chitumbo et al 2001). Whereas detection of land cover and land use...... or uninteresting changes, see e.g. (Canty and Schlittenhardt 2001). In our contribution we focus attention on the use of conventional multispectral earth observation satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER, SPOT) to detect changes over wide areas which are relevant to nuclear non...

  12. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful

  13. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  14. SCALABLE TIME SERIES CHANGE DETECTION FOR BIOMASS MONITORING USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCALABLE TIME SERIES CHANGE DETECTION FOR BIOMASS MONITORING USING GAUSSIAN PROCESS VARUN CHANDOLA AND RANGA RAJU VATSAVAI Abstract. Biomass monitoring,...

  15. From detection monitoring to evaluation monitoring - a case study involving crown dieback in northern white-cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; William Bechtold; Randall Morin; Stanley Zarnoch

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Phase 3 plot network is a crucial part of the U.S. Forest Health Monitoring program's detection monitoring system, where select indicators are monitored for signals that may indicate deteriorating forest health. When a negative signal is identified, evaluation monitoring provides a mechanism whereby a potential problem can...

  16. sxtA-Based Quantitative Molecular Assay To Identify Saxitoxin-Producing Harmful Algal Blooms in Marine Waters ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shauna A.; Wiese, Maria; Stüken, Anke; Brett, Steve; Kellmann, Ralf; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Neilan, Brett A.

    2011-01-01

    The recent identification of genes involved in the production of the potent neurotoxin and keystone metabolite saxitoxin (STX) in marine eukaryotic phytoplankton has allowed us for the first time to develop molecular genetic methods to investigate the chemical ecology of harmful algal blooms in situ. We present a novel method for detecting and quantifying the potential for STX production in marine environmental samples. Our assay detects a domain of the gene sxtA that encodes a unique enzyme putatively involved in the sxt pathway in marine dinoflagellates, sxtA4. A product of the correct size was recovered from nine strains of four species of STX-producing Alexandrium and Gymnodinium catenatum and was not detected in the non-STX-producing Alexandrium species, other dinoflagellate cultures, or an environmental sample that did not contain known STX-producing species. However, sxtA4 was also detected in the non-STX-producing strain of Alexandrium tamarense, Tasmanian ribotype. We investigated the copy number of sxtA4 in three strains of Alexandrium catenella and found it to be relatively constant among strains. Using our novel method, we detected and quantified sxtA4 in three environmental blooms of Alexandrium catenella that led to STX uptake in oysters. We conclude that this method shows promise as an accurate, fast, and cost-effective means of quantifying the potential for STX production in marine samples and will be useful for biological oceanographic research and harmful algal bloom monitoring. PMID:21841034

  17. sxtA-based quantitative molecular assay to identify saxitoxin-producing harmful algal blooms in marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Shauna A; Wiese, Maria; Stüken, Anke; Brett, Steve; Kellmann, Ralf; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Neilan, Brett A

    2011-10-01

    The recent identification of genes involved in the production of the potent neurotoxin and keystone metabolite saxitoxin (STX) in marine eukaryotic phytoplankton has allowed us for the first time to develop molecular genetic methods to investigate the chemical ecology of harmful algal blooms in situ. We present a novel method for detecting and quantifying the potential for STX production in marine environmental samples. Our assay detects a domain of the gene sxtA that encodes a unique enzyme putatively involved in the sxt pathway in marine dinoflagellates, sxtA4. A product of the correct size was recovered from nine strains of four species of STX-producing Alexandrium and Gymnodinium catenatum and was not detected in the non-STX-producing Alexandrium species, other dinoflagellate cultures, or an environmental sample that did not contain known STX-producing species. However, sxtA4 was also detected in the non-STX-producing strain of Alexandrium tamarense, Tasmanian ribotype. We investigated the copy number of sxtA4 in three strains of Alexandrium catenella and found it to be relatively constant among strains. Using our novel method, we detected and quantified sxtA4 in three environmental blooms of Alexandrium catenella that led to STX uptake in oysters. We conclude that this method shows promise as an accurate, fast, and cost-effective means of quantifying the potential for STX production in marine samples and will be useful for biological oceanographic research and harmful algal bloom monitoring.

  18. Experimental investigation of leak detection using mobile distributed monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Zheng, Junli; Xiong, Feng; Ge, Qi; Yan, Qixiang; Cheng, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The leak detection of rockfill dams is currently hindered by spatial and temporal randomness and wide monitoring range. The spatial resolution of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensing technology is related to the distance between measuring points. As a result, the number of measuring points should be increased to ensure that the precise location of the leak is detected. However, this leads to a higher monitoring cost. Consequently, it is difficult to promote and apply this technology to effectively monitor rockfill dam leakage. In this paper, a practical mobile distributed monitoring system with dual-tubes is used by combining the FBG sensing system and hydrothermal cycling system. This dual-tube structure is composed of an outer polyethylene of raised temperature resistance heating pipe, an inner polytetrafluoroethylene tube, and a FBG sensor string, among which, the FBG sensor string can be dragged freely in the internal tube to change the position of the measuring points and improve the spatial resolution. In order to test the effectiveness of the system, the large-scale model test of concentrated leakage in 13 working conditions is carried out by identifying the location, quantity, and leakage rate of leakage passage. Based on Newton’s law of cooling, the leakage state is identified using the seepage identification index ζ v that was confirmed according to the cooling curve. Results suggested that the monitoring system shows high sensitivity and can improve the spatial resolution with limited measuring points, and thus better locate the leakage area. In addition, the seepage identification index ζ v correlated well with the leakage rate qualitatively.

  19. Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of the atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yamagishi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have been carrying out in-situ monitoring of atmospheric O2/N2 ratio at Cape Ochi-ishi (COI; 43°10' N, 145°30' E in the northern part of Japan since March 2005 by using a modified gas chromatography/thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD. The standard deviation of the O2/N2 ratio is estimated to be about ±14 per meg (≈3 ppm with intervals of 10 minutes. Thus, the in-situ measurement system has a 1σ precision of ± 6 per meg (≈1.2 ppm for one-hour mean O2/N2 ratio. Atmospheric potential oxygen (APO≈O2+1.1 CO2, which is conserved with respect to terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration but reflects changes in air-sea O2 and CO2 fluxes, shows large variabilities from April to early July 2005. Distribution of satellite-derived marine primary production indicates occurrences of strong bloom in the Japan Sea and the latitudinal band between 30° and 40° N in the western North Pacific in April and in the Okhotsk Sea and northeastern region near Hokkaido Island in the North Pacific in June. Back trajectory analysis of air masses indicates that high values of APO, which last for several hours or several days, can be attributed to the oxygen emission associated with the spring bloom of active primary production.

  20. Tsunamis detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Antony

    2011-01-01

    The devastating impacts of tsunamis have received increased focus since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004, the most devastating tsunami in over 400 years of recorded history. This professional reference is the first of its kind: it provides a globally inclusive review of the current state of tsunami detection technology and will be a much-needed resource for oceanographers and marine engineers working to upgrade and integrate their tsunami warning systems. It focuses on the two main tsunami warning systems (TWS): International and Regional. Featured are comparative assessments of detection, monitoring, and real-time reporting technologies. The challenges of detection through remote measuring stations are also addressed, as well as the historical and scientific aspects of tsunamis.

  1. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  2. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2017-06-01

    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation.

  3. Identification of Phytoplankton Blooms under the Index of Inherent Optical Properties (IOP Index in Optically Complex Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. Aguilar-Maldonado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton blooms are sporadic events in time and are isolated in space. This complex phenomenon is produced by a variety of both natural and anthropogenic causes. Early detection of this phenomenon, as well as the classification of a water body under conditions of bloom or non-bloom, remains an unresolved problem. This research proposes the use of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs in optically complex waters to detect the bloom or non-bloom state of the phytoplankton community. An IOP index is calculated from the absorption coefficients of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, the phytoplankton (phy and the detritus (d, using the wavelength (λ 443 nm. The effectiveness of this index is tested in five bloom events in different places and with different characteristics from Mexican seas: 1. Dzilam (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, a diatom bloom (Rhizosolenia hebetata; 2. Holbox (Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, a mixed bloom of dinoflagellates (Scrippsiella sp. and diatoms (Chaetoceros sp.; 3. Campeche Bay in the Gulf of Mexico (Atlantic Ocean, a bloom of dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis; 4. Upper Gulf of California (UGC (Pacific Ocean, a diatom bloom (Coscinodiscus and Pseudo-nitzschia and 5. Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada (Pacific Ocean, a dinoflagellate bloom (Lingulodinium polyedrum. The diversity of sites show that the IOP index is a suitable method to determine the phytoplankton bloom conditions.

  4. Making Culture Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain McCalman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available On 16 June 1904, exactly one hundred years before the establishment of CHASS, an Irish Jew of Hungarian extraction called Leopold Bloom set off on a twenty-four hour perambulation around the streets and bars of Dublin. This fictional incident is the basis of James Joyce’s Ulysses, the greatest novel of modern times. It has also given rise to Bloomsday, a kind of Irish literary holy day celebrated in cities all around the world. It was a specially appropriate moment for us to celebrate the birth of our new peak body, because Bloomsday provides a perfect parable for why the Australian public and government should cherish our sector.

  5. Development of bremsstrahlung detection type tritium gas monitoring system, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingo, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Chida, Tohru; Kawasaki, Katsuya

    1982-11-01

    A tritium monitoring system by means of bremsstrahlung detecting was developed. A prototype system consisted of a sampling cylinder, a gas circulating apparatus, an NaI(T1) detector, an amplifier and a multichannel analyzer. The sizes of sampling cylinders used 208 mm phi x 290; 170; 70 mmH, 133 mm phi x 292; 172; 72 mmH and 55 mm phi x 294; 174; 74 mmH, respectively. The sensitivity of prototype system was from 12 to 57 cps/μCi.cm - 3 , depending on the size of sampling cylinder and an efficiency of NaI(T1) detector. When pulses due to breamsstrahlungs with energy from 4 to 17 keV were counted, the minimum detectable concentration of the prototype tritium monitoring system was obtained to be 5.2 x 10 - 3 μCi/cm 3 . It was evaluated that the detectable range of concentration was from 1 x 10 - 2 to 1 x 10 3 μCi/cm 3 . (author)

  6. Behavioral monitoring of trained insects for chemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Glen C; Utley, Samuel L; Lewis, W Joe

    2006-01-01

    A portable, handheld volatile odor detector ("Wasp Hound") that utilizes a computer vision system and Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid wasp, as the chemical sensor was created. Five wasps were placed in a test cartridge and placed inside the device. Wasps were either untrained or trained by associative learning to detect 3-octanone, a common fungal volatile chemical. The Wasp Hound sampled air from the headspace of corn samples prepared within the lab and, coupled with Visual Cortex, a software program developed using the LabView graphical programming language, monitored and analyzed wasp behavior. The Wasp Hound, with conditioned wasps, was able to detect 0.5 mg of 3-octanone within a 240 mL glass container filled with feed corn ( approximately 2.6 x 10(-5) mol/L). The Wasp Hound response to the control (corn alone) and a different chemical placed in the corn (0.5 mg of myrcene) was significantly different than the response to the 3-octanone. Wasp Hound results from untrained wasps were significantly different from trained wasps when comparing the responses to 3-octanone. The Wasp Hound may provide a unique method for monitoring grains, peanuts, and tree nuts for fungal growth associated with toxin production, as well as detecting chemicals associated with forensic investigations and plant/animal disease.

  7. Development of anomaly detection models for deep subsurface monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Deep subsurface repositories are used for waste disposal and carbon sequestration. Monitoring deep subsurface repositories for potential anomalies is challenging, not only because the number of sensor networks and the quality of data are often limited, but also because of the lack of labeled data needed to train and validate machine learning (ML) algorithms. Although physical simulation models may be applied to predict anomalies (or the system's nominal state for that sake), the accuracy of such predictions may be limited by inherent conceptual and parameter uncertainties. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of data-driven models for leakage detection in carbon sequestration repositories. Monitoring data collected during an artificial CO2 release test at a carbon sequestration repository were used, which include both scalar time series (pressure) and vector time series (distributed temperature sensing). For each type of data, separate online anomaly detection algorithms were developed using the baseline experiment data (no leak) and then tested on the leak experiment data. Performance of a number of different online algorithms was compared. Results show the importance of including contextual information in the dataset to mitigate the impact of reservoir noise and reduce false positive rate. The developed algorithms were integrated into a generic Web-based platform for real-time anomaly detection.

  8. Harold Bloom : canon e influencia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Vázquez, Ángel

    1998-01-01

    This essay is intended as an introduction to some of the most important aspects of the critical of the North American literary critic and theorist. Harold Bloom. The point of view from which these pages are written is mainly descriptive, and, to a very limited extent, polemical as well. The essay starts by outlining Bloom's visión of the Anglo- American literary canon, as well as his main theoretical tenets and intellectual sources. The main point of focus, though, is Bloom's theory...

  9. New Monitoring System to Detect a Radioactive Material in Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudergui, Karim; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Coulon, Romain; Corre, Gwenole; Normand, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    Illegal radioactive material transportation detection, by terrorist for example, is problematic in urban public transportation. Academics and industrials systems include Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) to detect radioactive matters transported in vehicles or carried by pedestrians. However, today's RPMs are not able to efficiently detect a radioactive material in movement. Due to count statistic and gamma background, false alarms may be triggered or at the contrary a radioactive material not detected. The statistical false alarm rate has to be as low as possible in order to limit useless intervention especially in urban mass transportation. The real-time approach depicted in this paper consists in using a time correlated detection technique in association with a sensor network. It is based on several low-cost and large area plastic scintillators and a digital signal processing designed for signal reconstruction from the sensor network. The number of sensors used in the network can be adapted to fit with applications requirements or cost. The reconstructed signal is improved by comparing other approaches. This allows us to increase the device speed that has to be scanned while decreasing the risk of false alarm. In the framework of a project called SECUR-ED Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration, this prototype system will be used during an experiment in the Milan urban mass transportation. (authors)

  10. A prototype detection system for atmospheric monitoring of xenon radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Steven A.; Farsoni, Abi T.; Ranjbar, Lily

    2018-03-01

    The design of a radioxenon detection system utilizing a CdZeTe crystal and a plastic scintillator coupled to an array of SiPMs to conduct beta-gamma coincidence detection for atmospheric radioxenon monitoring, as well as the measurement of 135Xe and 133/133mXe, have been detailed previously. This paper presents recent measurements of 133/133mXe and 131mXe and the observation of conversion electrons in their coincidence spectra, as well as a 48-hour background measurement to calculate the Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of radioxenon isotopes in the system. The identification of Regions of Interest (ROIs) in the coincidence spectra yielded from the radioxenon measurements, and the subsequent calculation of the MDCs of the system for 135Xe, 133/133mXe, and 131mXe, are also discussed. Calculated MDCs show that the detection system preforms respectably when compared to other state of the art radioxenon detection systems and achieved an MDC of less than 1 mBq/m3 for 131mXe, 133Xe, and 133mXe, in accordance with limits set by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBTO). The system also provides the advantage of room temperature operation, compactness, low noise operation and having simple readout electronics.

  11. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of

  12. Large-sized seaweed monitoring based on MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Lan, Guo-xin; Li, Chuan-long

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, large-sized seaweed, such as ulva lactuca, blooms frequently in coastal water in China, which threatens marine eco-environment. In order to take effective measures, it is important to make operational surveillance. A case of large-sized seaweed blooming (i.e. enteromorpha), occurred in June, 2008, in the sea near Qingdao city, is studied. Seaweed blooming is dynamically monitored using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After analyzing imaging spectral characteristics of enteromorpha, MODIS band 1 and 2 are used to create a band ratio algorithm for detecting and mapping large-sized seaweed blooming. In addition, chlorophyll-α concentration is inversed based on an empirical model developed using MODIS. Chlorophyll-α concentration maps are derived using multitemporal MODIS data, and chlorophyll-α concentration change is analyzed. Results show that the presented methods are useful to get the dynamic distribution and the growth of large-sized seaweed, and can support contingency planning.

  13. Monitoring and diagnosis for sensor fault detection using GMDH methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Iraci Martinez Pereira

    2006-01-01

    The fault detection and diagnosis system is an Operator Support System dedicated to specific functions that alerts operators to sensors and actuators fault problems, and guide them in the diagnosis before the normal alarm limits are reached. Operator Support Systems appears to reduce panels complexity caused by the increase of the available information in nuclear power plants control room. In this work a Monitoring and Diagnosis System was developed based on the GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) methodology. The methodology was applied to the IPEN research reactor IEA-R1. The system performs the monitoring, comparing GMDH model calculated values with measured values. The methodology developed was firstly applied in theoretical models: a heat exchanger model and an IPEN reactor theoretical model. The results obtained with theoretical models gave a base to methodology application to the actual reactor operation data. Three GMDH models were developed for actual operation data monitoring: the first one using just the thermal process variables, the second one was developed considering also some nuclear variables, and the third GMDH model considered all the reactor variables. The three models presented excellent results, showing the methodology utilization viability in monitoring the operation data. The comparison between the three developed models results also shows the methodology capacity to choose by itself the best set of input variables for the model optimization. For the system diagnosis implementation, faults were simulated in the actual temperature variable values by adding a step change. The fault values correspond to a typical temperature descalibration and the result of monitoring faulty data was then used to build a simple diagnosis system based on fuzzy logic. (author)

  14. Graph-based structural change detection for rotating machinery monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guoliang; Liu, Jie; Yan, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Detection of structural changes is critically important in operational monitoring of a rotating machine. This paper presents a novel framework for this purpose, where a graph model for data modeling is adopted to represent/capture statistical dynamics in machine operations. Meanwhile we develop a numerical method for computing temporal anomalies in the constructed graphs. The martingale-test method is employed for the change detection when making decisions on possible structural changes, where excellent performance is demonstrated outperforming exciting results such as the autoregressive-integrated-moving average (ARIMA) model. Comprehensive experimental results indicate good potentials of the proposed algorithm in various engineering applications. This work is an extension of a recent result (Lu et al., 2017).

  15. Algal Bloom: Boon or Bane?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Algal blooms occur in response to nutrient deplete or replete conditions. Nitrogen fixing forms proliferate under oligotrophic conditions when nutrient levels are low. Replete conditions in response to upwelling creates the most biologically...

  16. OSU MODIS FLH Bloom Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two bloom products were developed for the Oregon coast based on the observed change between running 8-day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) and fluorescence line-height...

  17. Signal Detection and Monitoring Based on Longitudinal Healthcare Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Pigeot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-marketing detection and surveillance of potential safety hazards are crucial tasks in pharmacovigilance. To uncover such safety risks, a wide set of techniques has been developed for spontaneous reporting data and, more recently, for longitudinal data. This paper gives a broad overview of the signal detection process and introduces some types of data sources typically used. The most commonly applied signal detection algorithms are presented, covering simple frequentistic methods like the proportional reporting rate or the reporting odds ratio, more advanced Bayesian techniques for spontaneous and longitudinal data, e.g., the Bayesian Confidence Propagation Neural Network or the Multi-item Gamma-Poisson Shrinker and methods developed for longitudinal data only, like the IC temporal pattern detection. Additionally, the problem of adjustment for underlying confounding is discussed and the most common strategies to automatically identify false-positive signals are addressed. A drug monitoring technique based on Wald’s sequential probability ratio test is presented. For each method, a real-life application is given, and a wide set of literature for further reading is referenced.

  18. Air Monitoring: New Advances in Sampling and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Watson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the harmful effects of low-level exposure to hazardous organic air pollutants become more evident, there is constant pressure to improve the detection limits of indoor and ambient air monitoring methods, for example, by collecting larger air volumes and by optimising the sensitivity of the analytical detector. However, at the other end of the scale, rapid industrialisation in the developing world and growing pressure to reclaim derelict industrial land for house building is driving the need for air monitoring methods that can reliably accommodate very-high-concentration samples in potentially aggressive matrices. This paper investigates the potential of a combination of two powerful gas chromatography—based analytical enhancements—sample preconcentration/thermal desorption and time-of-flight mass spectrometry—to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of very-low-(ppt level organic chemicals, even in the most complex air samples. It also describes new, practical monitoring options for addressing equally challenging high-concentration industrial samples.

  19. Prompt-gamma detection towards absorbed energy monitoring during hadrontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J.; Balleyguier, L.; Dauvergne, D.; Mathez, H.; Pinto, M.; Testa, E.; Zoccarato, Y. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Universite de Lyon 1, IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Krimmer, J.; Freud, N.; L' etang, J.M. [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard (France); Herault, J.; Amblard, R.; Angellier, G. [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Cyclotron Biomedical, 227 Avenue de la Lanterne, 06200 Nice (France)

    2015-07-01

    Hadrontherapy is an emerging technique which exploits the fact that a large quantity of the energy of the incident particles is deposited at the end of their flight path. This allows a conformation of the applied dose to the tumor volume and a simultaneous sparing of surrounding healthy tissue. A real-time control of the ion range during the treatment is possible via the detection of prompt secondary radiation (gamma rays or charged particles). Besides a monitoring of the ion range, the knowledge of the total energy absorbed inside the patient is also of importance for an improvement of the treatment quality. It has been shown that the ambient dose in a treatment room is correlated to the monitoring units, i.e. the number of protons of the beam delivery system. The present study consists in applying time-of-flight (TOF) information to identify prompt gamma-rays generated by interactions inside the patient which provides a direct information on the energy imparted. Results from test measurements will be given, which show that events generated in the nozzle and the target phantom can be discriminated. Furthermore, a standalone detection system is being developed which will be read out by a standard PC. The status of the developments for the corresponding electronics will be presented. (authors)

  20. Imaging monitoring techniques applications in the transient gratings detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing-ming

    2009-07-01

    Experimental studies of Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) in iodine vapor at atmospheric pressure and 0℃ and 25℃ are reported. The Laser-induced grating (LIG) studies are carried out by generating the thermal grating using a pulsed, narrow bandwidth, dye laser .A new image processing system for detecting forward DFWM spectroscopy on iodine vapor is reported. This system is composed of CCD camera, imaging processing card and the related software. With the help of the detecting system, phase matching can be easily achieved in the optical arrangement by crossing the two pumps and the probe as diagonals linking opposite corners of a rectangular box ,and providing a way to position the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) . Also it is practical to know the effect of the pointing stability on the optical path by monitoring facula changing with the laser beam pointing and disturbs of the environment. Finally the effects of Photostability of dye laser on the ration of signal to noise in DFWM using forward geometries have been investigated in iodine vapor. This system makes it feasible that the potential application of FG-DFWM is used as a diagnostic tool in combustion research and environment monitoring.

  1. QRS peak detection for heart rate monitoring on Android smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambudi Utomo, Trio; Nuryani, Nuryani; Darmanto

    2017-11-01

    In this study, Android smartphone is used for heart rate monitoring and displaying electrocardiogram (ECG) graph. Heart rate determination is based on QRS peak detection. Two methods are studied to detect the QRS complex peak; they are Peak Threshold and Peak Filter. The acquisition of ECG data is utilized by AD8232 module from Analog Devices, three electrodes, and Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3. To record the ECG data from a patient, three electrodes are attached to particular body’s surface of a patient. Patient’s heart activity which is recorded by AD8232 module is decoded by Arduino UNO R3 into analog data. Then, the analog data is converted into a voltage value (mV) and is processed to get the QRS complex peak. Heart rate value is calculated by Microcontroller Arduino UNO R3 uses the QRS complex peak. Voltage, heart rate, and the QRS complex peak are sent to Android smartphone by Bluetooth HC-05. ECG data is displayed as the graph by Android smartphone. To evaluate the performance of QRS complex peak detection method, three parameters are used; they are positive predictive, accuracy and sensitivity. Positive predictive, accuracy, and sensitivity of Peak Threshold method is 92.39%, 70.30%, 74.62% and for Peak Filter method are 98.38%, 82.47%, 83.61%, respectively.

  2. SARA (Spectroscopic Ambient Radiation Detection) Spectroscopic Monitoring Systems for Online Environmental Radiation Monitoring Edition 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzheimer, C.; Hartmann, S.

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of a nuclear incident, it is essential that you can react promptly and provide a completely reliable assessment of the radiological situation. First and foremost, it is vital that your radiation early warning system can automatically detect any man-made isotopes in the environment and identify any changes in the composition of the ambient radiation. Before appropriate countermeasures can be implemented, it is crucial that authorities have accurate information about the type of contamination and its dispersion. TechniData's spectroscopic online monitoring system will improve your existing monitoring systems, provide important information about the composition of ambient radiation during an incident, and therefore help you to make the right decisions

  3. Detection and monitoring of neurotransmitters--a spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia S; Lee, Kendall H; Durrer, William G; Bennet, Kevin E

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy provides rapid, detailed, and accurate neurotransmitter analysis, enabling millisecond time resolution monitoring of biochemical dynamics. As a prototypical demonstration of the power of the method, we present real-time in vitro serotonin, adenosine, and dopamine detection, and dopamine diffusion in an inhomogeneous organic gel, which was used as a substitute for neurologic tissue.  Dopamine, adenosine, and serotonin were used to prepare neurotransmitter solutions in distilled water. The solutions were applied to the surfaces of glass slides, where they interdiffused. Raman mapping was achieved by detecting nonoverlapping spectral signatures characteristic of the neurotransmitters with an alpha 300 WITec confocal Raman system, using 532 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser excitation. Every local Raman spectrum was recorded in milliseconds and complete Raman mapping in a few seconds.  Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific microscale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where changes in composition can influence neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.  Accurate nondestructive characterization for real-time detection of neurotransmitters in inhomogeneous environments without the requirement of sample labeling is a key issue in neuroscience. Our work demonstrates the capabilities of Raman spectroscopy in biological applications, possibly providing a new tool for elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of deep brain stimulation. © 2012 International Neuromodulation Society.

  4. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    A novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance has been developed within the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). The REWARD sensing units are small, mobile portable units with low energy consumption, which consist of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit is integrated by a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station as well as a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system also incorporates middleware and high-level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information. A central monitoring and decision support system has been designed to process the data from the sensing units and to compare them with historical record in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. A security framework ensures protection against unauthorized access to the network and data, ensuring the privacy of the communications and contributing to the overall robustness and reliability of the REWARD system. The REWARD system has been designed for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It can be deployed in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The complete system is scalable in terms of complexity and cost and offers very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system allows for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity based on their

  5. Extensive Air Showers Detected by Aragats Neutron Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalyan, A.; Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Grigoryan, A.; Khanikyants, Y.; Manukyan, A.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive Air Shower (EAS) duration as registered by the surface particle detectors does not exceed a few tens of nanosecond. However, Neutron monitors containing plenty of absorbing matter can respond to EAS core traversal during 1 ∼ms by registering secondary slow neutrons born by EAS hadrons in the soil, walls of buildings and in the matter of detector itself. Thus, the time distribution of the pulses from the proportional counters of the neutron monitor after EAS propagation extends to ∼l ms, ∼5 orders of magnitude larger than the EAS passing time. The Aragats Neutron Monitor (ArNM) has a special option for the EAS core detection. In general, the dead time of NM is ∼1 ms that provides the one-to-one relation of incident hadrons and detector counts. The pulses generated by the neutrons possibly entering the proportional chamber after the first one will be neglected. In ArNM, we use several “electronic” dead times, and with the shortest one, 400 ns, the detector counts all pulses that enter the proportional chambers. If ArNM one-second time series corresponding to the shortest dead time contain much more signals (a neutron burst) than with l-ms dead time, then we conclude that the EAS core hits the detector. We assume that he distribution of registered burst multiplicities is proportional to the energy of the primary particle. The primary cosmic ray energy spectrum was obtained by the frequency analysis through the counting frequencies of the multiplicities of different magnitudes and relating them to the integral energy spectrum measured by the MAKET array at the same place several years ago. (author)

  6. Detection of Trichodesmium bloom patches along the eastern Arabian Sea by IRS-P4/OCM ocean color sensor and by in-situ measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.S.; Suresh, T.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Desa, E.; Goes, J.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Parab, S.G.; Shaikh, N.; Fernandes, C.E.G.

    detection protocol developed by Subramaniam et al. [Deep-Sea Res-II, 49 (2002) 107-121], has been used in this paper. Localized bands of Trichodesmium were detected in OCM imageries of 16th, 18th, 20th and 22nd March 2002 in decreasing numbers with time...

  7. Episodic upwelling and dust deposition as bloom triggers in low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calil, Paulo H. R.; Doney, Scott C.; Yumimoto, Keiya; Eguchi, Kenta; Takemura, Toshihiko

    2011-06-01

    Summertime phytoplankton blooms in the oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean are supported by N2-fixing organisms that relieve the system of nitrate limitation. Phosphate and iron, however, limit their growth and need to be supplied for these organisms to thrive. We analyze two recent blooms in the region whose differences provide insight into their possible formation mechanisms. In 2008, a typical late summer bloom, with sporadic patches of higher-chlorophyll concentration, occurred near the island chain and the subtropical front. In 2010, an unusually large, contiguous bloom was observed in the western oligotrophic North Pacific, a region where blooms seldom, if ever, occur. Streaks of high chlorophyll in 2008 coincide with surface temperature fronts and regions of large horizontal stretching, as detected by Lagrangian diagnostics. Such regions are prone to the generation of vertical velocities via frontogenesis. Horizontal transport from upwelling regions or iron-rich island sediments is also important for the redistribution of nutrients. In the case of the 2010 bloom, we use a global aerosol transport model as well as space-borne lidar observations to argue that atmospheric dust deposition events prior to the bloom provided the necessary nutrient conditions for the growth of N2-fixing organisms. As sea surface temperature increased in the region, chlorophyll values increased significantly, showing that this bloom was likely a consequence of prior enrichment and that temperature is a key factor in bloom development in this important biome.

  8. Vibration-based monitoring to detect mass changes in satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Arup; Vernon, Breck

    2012-04-01

    Vibration-based structural health monitoring could be a useful form of determining the health and safety of space structures. A particular concern is the possibility of a foreign object that attaches itself to a satellite in orbit for adverse reasons. A frequency response analysis was used to determine the changes in mass and moment of inertia of the space structure based on a change in the natural frequencies of the structure or components of the structure. Feasibility studies were first conducted on a 7 in x 19 in aluminum plate with various boundary conditions. Effect of environmental conditions on the frequency response was determined. The baseline frequency response for the plate was then used as the basis for detection of the addition, and possibly the location, of added masses on the plate. The test results were compared to both analytical solutions and finite element models created in SAP2000. The testing was subsequently expanded to aluminum alloy satellite panels and a mock satellite with dummy payloads. Statistical analysis was conducted on variations of frequency due to added mass and thermal changes to determine the threshold of added mass that can be detected.

  9. Long distance high power optical laser fiber break detection and continuity monitoring systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Gray, William C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-02-23

    A monitoring and detection system for use on high power laser systems, long distance high power laser systems and tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the monitoring and detection systems provide break detection and continuity protection for performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations.

  10. An Approach for Detecting Malicious Emails Using Runtime Monitoring with Hidden Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    DETECTING MALICIOUS EMAILS USING RUNTIME MONITORING WITH HIDDEN DATA by Kristin R. Sellers September 2016 Thesis Advisor: Doron Drusinsky...3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN APPROACH FOR DETECTING MALICIOUS EMAILS USING RUNTIME MONITORING WITH...hybrid of Runtime Monitoring and Machine Learning for monitoring patterns of malicious emails. The system is designed in a way that it gathers

  11. Implementation. Improving caries detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    This chapter deals with improving the detection, assessment, diagnosis and monitoring of caries to ensure optimal personalized caries management. This can be achieved by delivering what we have (synthesized evidence and international consensus) better and more consistently, as well as driving research and innovation in the areas where we need them. There is a need to better understand the interrelated pieces of the jigsaw that makes up evidence-based dentistry, i.e. the linkages between (a) research and synthesis, (b) dissemination of research results and (c) the implementation of research findings which should ensure that research findings change practice at the clinician-patient level. The current situation is outlined; it is at the implementation step where preventive caries control seems to have failed in some countries but not others. Opportunities for implementation include: capitalizing on the World Health Organization's global policy for improvement of oral health, which sets out an action plan for health promotion and integrated disease prevention; utilizing the developments around the International Caries Detection and Assessment System wardrobe of options and e-learning; building on initiatives from the International Dental Federation and the American Dental Association and linking these to patients' preferences, the wider moves to wellbeing and health maintenance. Challenges for implementation include the slow pace of evolution around dental remuneration systems and some groups of dentists failing to embrace clinical prevention. In the future, implementation of current and developing evidence should be accompanied by research into getting research findings into routine practice, with impacts on the behaviour of patients, professionals and policy makers. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. A novel earth observation based ecological indicator for cyanobacterial blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Saku; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Attila, Jenni; Junttila, Sofia; Alasalmi, Hanna; Hällfors, Heidi; Kervinen, Mikko; Koponen, Sampsa

    2018-02-01

    Cyanobacteria form spectacular mass occurrences almost annually in the Baltic Sea. These harmful algal blooms are the most visible consequences of marine eutrophication, driven by a surplus of nutrients from anthropogenic sources and internal processes of the ecosystem. We present a novel Cyanobacterial Bloom Indicator (CyaBI) targeted for the ecosystem assessment of eutrophication in marine areas. The method measures the current cyanobacterial bloom situation (an average condition of recent 5 years) and compares this to the estimated target level for 'good environmental status' (GES). The current status is derived with an index combining indicative bloom event variables. As such we used seasonal information from the duration, volume and severity of algal blooms derived from earth observation (EO) data. The target level for GES was set by using a remote sensing based data set named Fraction with Cyanobacterial Accumulations (FCA; Kahru & Elmgren, 2014) covering years 1979-2014. Here a shift-detection algorithm for time series was applied to detect time-periods in the FCA data where the level of blooms remained low several consecutive years. The average conditions from these time periods were transformed into respective CyaBI target values to represent target level for GES. The indicator is shown to pass the three critical factors set for marine indicator development, namely it measures the current status accurately, the target setting can be scientifically proven and it can be connected to the ecosystem management goal. An advantage of the CyaBI method is that it's not restricted to the data used in the development work, but can be complemented, or fully applied, by using different types of data sources providing information on cyanobacterial accumulations.

  13. Harmful algal bloom smart device application: using image analysis and machine learning techniques for classification of harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern Kentucky University and the U.S. EPA Office of Research Development in Cincinnati Agency are collaborating to develop a harmful algal bloom detection algorithm that estimates the presence of cyanobacteria in freshwater systems by image analysis. Green and blue-green alg...

  14. Protecting Clock Synchronization: Adversary Detection through Network Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lisova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, industrial networks are often used for safety-critical applications with real-time requirements. Such applications usually have a time-triggered nature with message scheduling as a core property. Scheduling requires nodes to share the same notion of time, that is, to be synchronized. Therefore, clock synchronization is a fundamental asset in real-time networks. However, since typical standards for clock synchronization, for example, IEEE 1588, do not provide the required level of security, it raises the question of clock synchronization protection. In this paper, we identify a way to break synchronization based on the IEEE 1588 standard, by conducting a man-in-the-middle (MIM attack followed by a delay attack. A MIM attack can be accomplished through, for example, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP poisoning. Using the AVISPA tool, we evaluate the potential to perform a delay attack using ARP poisoning and analyze its consequences showing both that the attack can, indeed, break clock synchronization and that some design choices, such as a relaxed synchronization condition mode, delay bounding, and using knowledge of environmental conditions, can make the network more robust/resilient against these kinds of attacks. Lastly, a Configuration Agent is proposed to monitor and detect anomalies introduced by an adversary performing attacks targeting clock synchronization.

  15. Localization and Tracking of Submerged Phytoplankton Bloom Patches by an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, M. A.; Ryan, J. P.; Zhang, Y.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2012-12-01

    Observing plankton in their drifting frame of reference permits effective studies of marine ecology from the perspective of microscopic life itself. By minimizing variation caused simply by advection, observations in a plankton-tracking frame of reference focus measurement capabilities on the processes that influence the life history of populations. Further, the patchy nature of plankton populations motivates use of sensor data in real-time to resolve patch boundaries and adapt observing resources accordingly. We have developed capabilities for population-centric plankton observation and sampling by autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Our focus has been on phytoplankton populations, both because of their ecological significance - as the core of the oceanic food web and yet potentially harmful under certain bloom conditions, as well as the accessibility of their signal to simple optical sensing. During the first field deployment of these capabilities in 2010, we tracked a phytoplankton patch containing toxigenic diatoms and found that their toxicity correlated with exposure to resuspended sediments. However, this first deployment was labor intensive as the AUV drove in a pre-programmed pattern centered around a patch-marking drifter; it required a boat deployment of the patch-marking drifter and required full-time operators to periodically estimate of the position of the patch with respect to the drifter and adjust the AUV path accordingly. In subsequent field experiments during 2011 and 2012, the Tethys-class long-range AUVs ran fully autonomous patch tracking algorithms which detected phytoplankton patches and continually updated estimates of each patch center by driving adaptive patterns through the patch. Iterations of the algorithm were generated to overcome the challenges of tracking advecting and evolving patches while minimizing human involvement in vehicle control. Such fully autonomous monitoring will be necessary to perform long-term in

  16. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun; Causon, Tim; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First review on detection of nanomaterials in complex waste samples. • Focus on nanoparticles in solid, liquid and gaseous waste samples. • Summary of current applicable methods for nanowaste detection and characterisation. • Limitations and challenges of characterisation of nanoparticles in waste. - Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while

  17. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun [Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Causon, Tim [Department of Chemistry, Division of Analytical Chemistry, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Sinner, Eva-Kathrin [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute for Synthetic Bioarchitectures, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 11/II, 1190 Vienna (Austria); Huber-Humer, Marion, E-mail: marion.huber-humer@boku.ac.at [Department of Water-Atmosphere-Environment, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Institute of Waste Management, Muthgasse 107, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • First review on detection of nanomaterials in complex waste samples. • Focus on nanoparticles in solid, liquid and gaseous waste samples. • Summary of current applicable methods for nanowaste detection and characterisation. • Limitations and challenges of characterisation of nanoparticles in waste. - Abstract: Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while

  18. Scalable Distributed Change Detection from Astronomy Data Streams using Local, Asynchronous Eigen Monitoring Algorithms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper considers the problem of change detection using local distributed eigen monitoring algorithms for next generation of astronomy petascale data pipelines...

  19. Allan Bloom, America, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…

  20. Recreational Exposure to Low Concentrations of Microcystins During an Algal Bloom in a Small Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sung Cheng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We measured microcystins in blood from people at risk for swallowing water or inhaling spray while swimming, water skiing, jet skiing, or boating during an algal bloom. We monitored water samples from a small lake as a Microcystis aeruginosa bloom developed. We recruited 97 people planning recreational activities in that lake and seven others who volunteered to recreate in a nearby bloom-free lake. We conducted our field study within a week of finding a 10-μg/L microcystin concentration. We analyzed water, air, and human blood samples for water quality, potential human pathogens, algal taxonomy, and microcystin concentrations. We interviewed study participants for demographic and current health symptom information. Water samples were assayed for potential respiratory viruses (adenoviruses and enteroviruses, but none were detected. We did find low concentrations of Escherichia coli, indicating fecal contamination. We found low levels of microcystins (2 μg/L to 5 μg/L in the water and (<0.1 ng/m3 in the aerosol samples. Blood levels of microcystins for all participants were below the limit of detection (0.147μg/L. Given this low exposure level, study participants reported no symptom increases following recreational exposure to microcystins. This is the first study to report that water-based recreational activities can expose people to very low concentrations of aerosol-borne microcystins; we recently conducted another field study to assess exposures to higher concentrations of these algal toxins.

  1. Analysis of algal bloom risk with uncertainties in lakes by integrating self-organizing map and fuzzy information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuwen; Rui, Han; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yanhui

    2014-06-01

    Algal blooms are a serious problem in waters, which damage aquatic ecosystems and threaten drinking water safety. However, the outbreak mechanism of algal blooms is very complex with great uncertainty, especially for large water bodies where environmental conditions have obvious variation in both space and time. This study developed an innovative method which integrated a self-organizing map (SOM) and fuzzy information diffusion theory to comprehensively analyze algal bloom risks with uncertainties. The Lake Taihu was taken as study case and the long-term (2004-2010) on-site monitoring data were used. The results showed that algal blooms in Taihu Lake were classified into four categories and exhibited obvious spatial-temporal patterns. The lake was mainly characterized by moderate bloom but had high uncertainty, whereas severe blooms with low uncertainty were observed in the northwest part of the lake. The study gives insight on the spatial-temporal dynamics of algal blooms, and should help government and decision-makers outline policies and practices on bloom monitoring and prevention. The developed method provides a promising approach to estimate algal bloom risks under uncertainties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dinoflagellate blooms in upwelling systems: Seeding, variability, and contrasts with diatom bloom behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smayda, T. J.; Trainer, V. L.

    2010-04-01

    The influence of diatom bloom behaviour, dinoflagellate life cycles, propagule type and upwelling bloom cycles on the seeding of dinoflagellate blooms in eastern boundary current upwelling systems is evaluated. Winter-spring diatom bloom behaviour is contrasted with upwelling bloom behaviour because their phenology impacts dinoflagellate blooms. The winter-spring diatom bloom is usually sustained, whereas the classical upwelling diatom bloom occurs as a series of separate, recurrent mini-blooms intercalated by upwelling-relaxation periods, during which dinoflagellates often bloom. Four sequential wind-regulated phases characterize upwelling cycles, with each phase having different effects on diatom and dinoflagellate bloom behaviour: bloom “spin up”, bloom maximum, bloom “spin down”, and upwelling relaxation. The spin up - bloom maximum is the period of heightened diatom growth; the spin down - upwelling-relaxation phases are the periods when dinoflagellates often bloom. The duration, intensity and ratio of the upwelling and relaxation periods making up upwelling cycles determine the potential for dinoflagellate blooms to develop within a given upwelling cycle and prior to the subsequent “spin up” of upwelling that favours diatom blooms. Upwelling diatoms and meroplanktonic dinoflagellates have three types of propagules available to seed blooms: vegetative cells, resting cells and resting cysts. However, most upwelling dinoflagellates are holoplanktonic, which indicates that the capacity to form resting cysts is not an absolute requirement for growth and survival in upwelling systems. The long-term (decadal) gaps in bloom behaviour of Gymnodinium catenatum and Lingulodinium polyedrum, and the unpredictable bloom behaviour of dinoflagellates generally, are examined from the perspective of seeding strategies. Mismatches between observed and expected in situ bloom behaviour and resting cyst dynamics are common among upwelling dinoflagellates. This

  3. Condition monitoring approaches for the detection of railway wheel defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alemi, A.; Corman, F.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Condition monitoring systems are commonly exploited to assess the health status of equipment. A fundamental part of any condition monitoring system is data acquisition. Meaningfully estimating the current condition and predicting the future behaviour of the equipment strongly depend on the

  4. Protein biomarker discovery and fast monitoring for the identification and detection of Anisakids by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M; Pascual, Santiago; González, Ángel F; Medina, Isabel

    2016-06-16

    Anisakids are fish-borne parasites that are responsible for a large number of human infections and allergic reactions around the world. World health organizations and food safety authorities aim to control and prevent this emerging health problem. In the present work, a new method for the fast monitoring of these parasites is described. The strategy is divided in three steps: (i) purification of thermostable proteins from fish-borne parasites (Anisakids), (ii) in-solution HIFU trypsin digestion and (iii) monitoring of several peptide markers by parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) mass spectrometry. This methodology allows the fast detection of Anisakids in Biomarker Discovery and the Fast Monitoring for the identification and detection of Anisakids in fishery products. The strategy is based on the purification of thermostable proteins, the use of accelerated in-solution trypsin digestions under an ultrasonic field provided by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) and the monitoring of several peptide biomarkers by Parallel Reaction Monitoring (PRM) Mass Spectrometry in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. The workflow allows the unequivocal detection of Anisakids, in <2h. The present strategy constitutes the fastest method for Anisakids detection, whose application in the food quality control area, could provide to the authorities an effective and rapid method to guarantee the safety to the consumers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Damage Detection Using Lamb Waves for Structural Health Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crider II, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    .... This study evaluates Lamb wave approaches used to detect simulated cracks in laboratory experiments on thin plates to detect more realistic damage in a test article representing the complex geometry...

  6. Current limitations and challenges in nanowaste detection, characterisation and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Florian; Zecha, Gudrun; Causon, Tim; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Huber-Humer, Marion

    2015-09-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are already extensively used in diverse consumer products. Along the life cycle of a nano-enabled product, ENMs can be released and subsequently accumulate in the environment. Material flow models also indicate that a variety of ENMs may accumulate in waste streams. Therefore, a new type of waste, so-called nanowaste, is generated when end-of-life ENMs and nano-enabled products are disposed of. In terms of the precautionary principle, environmental monitoring of end-of-life ENMs is crucial to allow assessment of the potential impact of nanowaste on our ecosystem. Trace analysis and quantification of nanoparticulate species is very challenging because of the variety of ENM types that are used in products and low concentrations of nanowaste expected in complex environmental media. In the framework of this paper, challenges in nanowaste characterisation and appropriate analytical techniques which can be applied to nanowaste analysis are summarised. Recent case studies focussing on the characterisation of ENMs in waste streams are discussed. Most studies aim to investigate the fate of nanowaste during incineration, particularly considering aerosol measurements; whereas, detailed studies focusing on the potential release of nanowaste during waste recycling processes are currently not available. In terms of suitable analytical methods, separation techniques coupled to spectrometry-based methods are promising tools to detect nanowaste and determine particle size distribution in liquid waste samples. Standardised leaching protocols can be applied to generate soluble fractions stemming from solid wastes, while micro- and ultrafiltration can be used to enrich nanoparticulate species. Imaging techniques combined with X-ray-based methods are powerful tools for determining particle size, morphology and screening elemental composition. However, quantification of nanowaste is currently hampered due to the problem to differentiate engineered from

  7. Variability of factors driving spatial and temporal dispersion in river plume and Chattonella antiqua bloom in the Yatsushiro Sea, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Onitsuka, Goh; Shimizu, Manabu; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Kitadai, Yuuki; Sakurada, Kiyonari; Ando, Hidenori; Nishi, Hiromi; Tahara, Yoshio

    2014-04-15

    The dynamics of river plume in relation to harmful blooms of the raphidophycean flagellate, Chattonella antiqua in summer 2008-2010 in the Yatsushiro Sea, Japan were studied using a hydrodynamic model and monitoring data. In the southern area, the bloom formed in the waters stratified by a halocline caused by the southward expansion of riverine water from the Kuma River after the bloom initially forming in the northern area. The timing of the southward riverine water advection can be explained by the balance between the wind stress term and the pressure gradient term calculated from the horizontal density difference between the northern and southern areas. The wind stress and pressure gradient terms were evaluated using the sea surface temperature, salinity, wind speed and direction at two stations. Real time monitoring or continuous observations in these areas will enable nowcasts of bloom expansion when a bloom develops in the northern area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-04-01

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (<0.4μm). The relative stickiness of AOM substantially varied between algal species and that the cohesion between AOM-coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms.

  9. Characterisation of algal organic matter produced by bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacorte, L O; Ekowati, Y; Neu, T R; Kleijn, J M; Winters, H; Amy, G; Schippers, J C; Kennedy, M D

    2015-04-15

    Algal blooms can seriously affect the operation of water treatment processes including low pressure (micro- and ultra-filtration) and high pressure (nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) membranes mainly due to accumulation of algal-derived organic matter (AOM). In this study, the different components of AOM extracted from three common species of bloom-forming algae (Alexandrium tamarense, Chaetoceros affinis and Microcystis sp.) were characterised employing various analytical techniques, such as liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, alcian blue staining and lectin staining coupled with laser scanning microscopy to indentify its composition and force measurement using atomic force microscopy to measure its stickiness. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying characteristics in terms of growth pattern, cell concentration and AOM release. The AOM produced by the three algal species comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) but some refractory compounds (e.g., humic-like substances) and other low molecular weight acid and neutral compounds were also found. Biopolymers containing fucose and sulphated functional groups were found in all AOM samples while the presence of other functional groups varied between different species. A large majority (>80%) of the acidic polysaccharide components (in terms of transparent exopolymer particles) were found in the colloidal size range (coated surfaces was much stronger than the adhesion of AOM on AOM-free surfaces. Overall, the composition as well as the physico-chemical characteristics (e.g., stickiness) of AOM will likely dictate the severity of fouling in membrane systems during algal blooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish sound production in the presence of harmful algal blooms in the eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie C Wall

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs. Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set to encounter toxic Karenia brevis blooms (a.k.a red tides. Oceanographic conditions measured by the glider were significantly correlated to the variation in sounds from six known or suspected species of fish across the three missions with depth consistently being the most significant factor. At the time and space scales of this study, there was no detectable effect of red tide on sound production. Sounds were still recorded within red tide-affected waters from species with overlapping depth ranges. These results suggest that the fishes studied here did not alter their sound production nor migrate out of red tide-affected areas. Although these results are preliminary because of the limited measurements, the data and methods presented here provide a proof of principle and could serve as protocol for future studies on the effects of algal blooms on the behavior of soniferous fishes. To fully capture the effects of episodic events, we suggest that stationary or vertically profiling acoustic recorders and environmental sampling be used as a complement to glider measurements.

  11. Crucial Component Damage Detection, Monitoring and Mitigation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers an on-board structural health-monitoring (SHM) system with embedded sensors that sense mechanical impedance deviations to flag incipient...

  12. Monitor for detecting and assessing exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Johan; Voetz, Matthias; Kiesling, Heinz-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    An important safety aspect of the workplace environment concerns the severity of its air pollution with nanoparticles (NP; chemical nature, exposure to these particles through inhalation can be hazardous because of their intrinsic ability to deposit in the deep lung regions and the possibility to subsequently pass into the blood stream. Recommended safety measures in the nanomaterials industry are pragmatic, aiming at exposure minimization in general, and advocating continuous control by monitoring both the workplace air pollution level and the personal exposure to airborne NPs. This article describes the design and operation of the Aerasense NP monitor that enables intelligence gathering in particular with respect to airborne particles in the 10-300 nm size range. The NP monitor provides real time information about their number concentration, average size, and surface areas per unit volume of inhaled air that deposit in the various compartments of the respiratory tract. The monitor's functionality relies on electrical charging of airborne particles and subsequent measurements of the total particle charge concentration under various conditions. Information obtained with the NP monitor in a typical workplace environment has been compared with simultaneously recorded data from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) capable of measuring the particle size distribution in the 11-1086 nm size range. When the toxicological properties of the engineered and/or released particles in the workplace are known, personal exposure monitoring allows a risk assessment to be made for a worker during each workday, when the workplace-produced particles can be distinguished from other (ambient) particles.

  13. An overview of cyanobacterial bloom occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlela, L L; Oberholster, P J; Van Wyk, J H; Cheng, P H

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a current cause for concern globally, with vital water sources experiencing frequent and increasingly toxic blooms in the past decade. These increases are resultant of both anthropogenic and natural factors, with climate change being the central concern. Of the more affected parts of the world, Africa has been considered particularly vulnerable due to its historical predisposition and lag in social economic development. This review collectively assesses the available information on cyanobacterial blooms in Africa as well as any visible trends associated with reported occurrences over the last decade. Of the 54 countries in Africa, only 21 have notable research information in the area of cyanobacterial blooms within the last decade, although there is substantial reason to attribute these blooms as some of the major water quality threats in Africa collectively. The collected information suggests that civil wars, disease outbreaks and inadequate infrastructure are at the core of Africa's delayed advancement. This is even more so in the area of cyanobacteria related research, with 11 out of 21 countries having recorded toxicity and physicochemical parameters related to cyanobacterial blooms. Compared to the rest of the continent, peripheral countries are at the forefront of research related to cyanobacteria, with countries such as Angola having sufficient rainfall, but poor water quality with limited information on bloom occurrences. An assessment of the reported blooms found nitrogen concentrations to be higher in the water column of more toxic blooms, validating recent global studies and indicating that phosphorous is not the only factor to be monitored in bloom mitigation. Blooms occurred at low TN: TP ratios and at temperatures above 12°C. Nitrogen was linked to toxicity and temperature also had a positive effect on bloom occurrence and toxicity. Microcystis was the most ubiquitous of the cyanobacterial strains reported in Africa and the

  14. Monitor for detecting and assessing exposure to airborne nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Johan; Voetz, Matthias; Kiesling, Heinz-Juergen

    2010-01-01

    An important safety aspect of the workplace environment concerns the severity of its air pollution with nanoparticles (NP; <100 nm) and ultrafine particles (UFP; <300 nm). Depending on their size and chemical nature, exposure to these particles through inhalation can be hazardous because of their intrinsic ability to deposit in the deep lung regions and the possibility to subsequently pass into the blood stream. Recommended safety measures in the nanomaterials industry are pragmatic, aiming at exposure minimization in general, and advocating continuous control by monitoring both the workplace air pollution level and the personal exposure to airborne NPs. This article describes the design and operation of the Aerasense NP monitor that enables intelligence gathering in particular with respect to airborne particles in the 10-300 nm size range. The NP monitor provides real time information about their number concentration, average size, and surface areas per unit volume of inhaled air that deposit in the various compartments of the respiratory tract. The monitor's functionality relies on electrical charging of airborne particles and subsequent measurements of the total particle charge concentration under various conditions. Information obtained with the NP monitor in a typical workplace environment has been compared with simultaneously recorded data from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) capable of measuring the particle size distribution in the 11-1086 nm size range. When the toxicological properties of the engineered and/or released particles in the workplace are known, personal exposure monitoring allows a risk assessment to be made for a worker during each workday, when the workplace-produced particles can be distinguished from other (ambient) particles.

  15. Groundwater detection monitoring system design under conditions of uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenigül, N.B.

    2006-01-01

    Landfills represent a wide-spread and significant threat to groundwater quality. In this thesis a methodology was developed for the design of optimal groundwater moni-toring system design at landfill sites under conditions of uncertainty. First a decision analysis approach was presented for optimal

  16. Design and analysis for detection monitoring of forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. A. Roesch

    1995-01-01

    An analysis procedure is proposed for the sample design of the Forest Health Monitoring Program (FHM) in the United States. The procedure is intended to provide increased sensitivity to localized but potentially important changes in forest health by explicitly accounting for the spatial relationships between plots in the FHM design. After a series of median sweeps...

  17. FLUES - A new monitoring system for leak detection and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jax, P.; Streicher, V.

    1995-01-01

    A new Leakage Monitoring and Location System with high sensitivity was developed and tested by Siemens during the last years. Now this system has been installed in a Nuclear Power Plant. The experiences gained during the qualification test and the first months of operation can be reported. (author)

  18. An overview of diversity, occurrence, genetics and toxin production of bloom-forming Dolichospermum (Anabaena) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaochuang; Dreher, Theo W; Li, Renhui

    2016-04-01

    The new genus name Dolichospermum, for most of the planktonic former members of the genus Anabaena, is one of the most ubiquitous bloom-forming cyanobacterial genera. Its dominance and persistence have increased in recent years, due to eutrophication from anthropogenic activities and global climate change. Blooms of Dolichospermum species, with their production of secondary metabolites that commonly include toxins, present a worldwide threat to environmental and public health. In this review, recent advances of the genus Dolichospermum are summarized, including taxonomy, genetics, bloom occurrence, and production of toxin and taste-and-odor compounds. The recent and continuing acquisition of genome sequences is ushering in new methods for monitoring and understanding the factors regulating bloom dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Detecting the Misappropriation of Sensitive Information through Bottleneck Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goan, Terrance; Broadhead, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    ...), that can achieve high levels of accuracy in detecting the unauthorized access and distribution of sensitive/proprietary information by insiders -- the single most costly type of computer crime...

  20. Adaptive, Model-Based Monitoring and Threat Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valdes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    .... We describe a network intrusion detection system (IDS) using Bayes inference, wherein the knowledge base is encoded not as rules but as conditional probability relations between observables and hypotheses of normal and malicious usage...

  1. Development of a novel optical remote sensing monitor for fenceline monitoring and enhancement of existing leak detection and repair programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manual leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs are currently implemented on a regular basis at refinery sites to limit fugitive emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC). However, LDAR surveys can be time-consuming and are not always cost-effective. Fence line monitoring of...

  2. Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Bowden

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word “earthquake” clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  3. Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

  4. Food intake monitoring: automated chew event detection in chewing sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Päßler, Sebastian; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of the food intake behavior has the potential to provide insights into the development of obesity and eating disorders. As an elementary part of this analysis, chewing strokes have to be detected and counted. Our approach for food intake analysis is the evaluation of chewing sounds generated during the process of eating. These sounds were recorded by microphones applied to the outer ear canal of the user. Eight different algorithms for automated chew event detection were presented and evaluated on two datasets. The first dataset contained food intake sounds from the consumption of six types of food. The second dataset consisted of recordings of different environmental sounds. These datasets contained 68,094 chew events in around 18 h recording data. The results of the automated chew event detection were compared to manual annotations. Precision and recall over 80% were achieved by most of the algorithms. A simple noise reduction algorithm using spectral subtraction was implemented for signal enhancement. Its benefit on the chew event detection performance was evaluated. A reduction of the number of false detections by 28% on average was achieved by maintaining the detection performance. The system is able to be used for calculation of the chewing frequency in laboratory settings.

  5. Algae Bloom in a Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sanabria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the likelihood of an algae bloom in a particular lake located in upstate New York. The growth of algae in this lake is caused by a high concentration of phosphorous that diffuses to the surface of the lake. Our calculations, based on Fick's Law, are used to create a mathematical model of the driving force of diffusion for phosphorous. Empirical observations are also used to predict whether the concentration of phosphorous will diffuse to the surface of this lake within a specified time and under specified conditions.

  6. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  7. Damage Detection with Streamlined Structural Health Monitoring Data

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Deng, Jun; Xie, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The huge amounts of sensor data generated by large scale sensor networks in on-line structural health monitoring (SHM) systems often overwhelms the systems’ capacity for data transmission and analysis. This paper presents a new concept for an integrated SHM system in which a streamlined data flow is used as a unifying thread to integrate the individual components of on-line SHM systems. Such an integrated SHM system has a few desirable functionalities including embedded sensor data compressio...

  8. Detecting, mapping and monitoring of land subsidence in Jharia ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    monitoring of the subsiding areas vulnerable to future collapse. This will .... areas that are vulnerable to future roof collapse. ..... F22. F21. F20. F23. F24. F25. F16. Figure 5. Land subsidence areas in Jharia Coalfield as obtained separately from C- and L-band DInSAR during 2007–2008 by union of the fringes ('a' and 'b' ...

  9. Detection system for continuous 222Rn monitoring in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Patschova, E.; Bosa, I.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution presents one of the high-sensitive systems of continuous radon monitoring in waters. The device can be used for the continual control of 222 Rn activity concentration in water sources, for a study of the daily and seasonal variations of radon activity concentration in water systems, for the determination of the infiltration time of surface water into the ground water and for the next untraditional applications. (authors)

  10. Leak Detection by Acoustic Emission Monitoring. Phase 1. Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-26

    ino ,nfv~tO $.dem"uradfqtn ~d titati raye te Ofec t colIH~ron ou ,efeaonnIdn MIi9qtoMIfrrrcn Mb~8 to". WaI i.ngton HtadQam9 a fttt rcan. Directorae or...f.,ORESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING iMONITORING Armstrong Laboratory Environics Directorate AEC EOTNME 139 Bar ~ies Drive. Suite 2 Tyndall AFB FL 32403-5323

  11. Method and apparatus for continuous fluid leak monitoring and detection in analytical instruments and instrument systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Karl K [Pasco, WA; Moore, Ronald J [West Richland, WA

    2010-07-13

    A method and device are disclosed that provide for detection of fluid leaks in analytical instruments and instrument systems. The leak detection device includes a collection tube, a fluid absorbing material, and a circuit that electrically couples to an indicator device. When assembled, the leak detection device detects and monitors for fluid leaks, providing a preselected response in conjunction with the indicator device when contacted by a fluid.

  12. Fast Human Detection for Intelligent Monitoring Using Surveillance Visible Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Ko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human detection using visible surveillance sensors is an important and challenging work for intruder detection and safety management. The biggest barrier of real-time human detection is the computational time required for dense image scaling and scanning windows extracted from an entire image. This paper proposes fast human detection by selecting optimal levels of image scale using each level’s adaptive region-of-interest (ROI. To estimate the image-scaling level, we generate a Hough windows map (HWM and select a few optimal image scales based on the strength of the HWM and the divide-and-conquer algorithm. Furthermore, adaptive ROIs are arranged per image scale to provide a different search area. We employ a cascade random forests classifier to separate candidate windows into human and nonhuman classes. The proposed algorithm has been successfully applied to real-world surveillance video sequences, and its detection accuracy and computational speed show a better performance than those of other related methods.

  13. Hazardous sign detection for safety applications in traffic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, Wanda; Kottman, Michal; Sidla, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    The transportation of hazardous goods in public streets systems can pose severe safety threats in case of accidents. One of the solutions for these problems is an automatic detection and registration of vehicles which are marked with dangerous goods signs. We present a prototype system which can detect a trained set of signs in high resolution images under real-world conditions. This paper compares two different methods for the detection: bag of visual words (BoW) procedure and our approach presented as pairs of visual words with Hough voting. The results of an extended series of experiments are provided in this paper. The experiments show that the size of visual vocabulary is crucial and can significantly affect the recognition success rate. Different code-book sizes have been evaluated for this detection task. The best result of the first method BoW was 67% successfully recognized hazardous signs, whereas the second method proposed in this paper - pairs of visual words and Hough voting - reached 94% of correctly detected signs. The experiments are designed to verify the usability of the two proposed approaches in a real-world scenario.

  14. Detection of Atmospheric Explosions at IMS Monitoring Stations using Infrasound Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, Douglas R; Kennett, Brian L; Tarlowski, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Work is continuing on the development of infrasound techniques that can be used to improve detection, location and discrimination capability for atmospheric nuclear explosions at International Monitoring System (IMS...

  15. Data analysis and detection methods for on-line health monitoring of bridge structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Developing an efficient structural health monitoring (SHM) technique is important for reducing potential hazards posed : to the public by damaged civil structures. The ultimate goal of applying SHM is to real-time detect, localize, and quantify : the...

  16. Parametric roll resonance monitoring using signal-based detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Falkenberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Extreme roll motion of ships can be caused by several phenomena, one of which is parametric roll resonance. Several incidents occurred unexpectedly around the millennium and caused vast fiscal losses on large container vessels. The phenomenon is now well understood and some consider parametric roll...... algorithms in real conditions, and to evaluate the frequency of parametric roll events on the selected vessels. Detection performance is scrutinised through the validation of the detected events using owners’ standard methods, and supported by available wave radar data. Further, a bivariate statistical...... analysis of the outcome of the signal-based detectors is performed to assess the real life false alarm probability. It is shown that detection robustness and very low false warning rates are obtained. The study concludes that small parametric roll events are occurring, and that the proposed signal...

  17. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF 6 gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques

  18. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-03-30

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF{sub 6} gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques.

  19. Spectroscopic monitoring of batch reactions for on-line fault detection and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, J. A.; Gurden, S. P.; Smilde, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the general methodology to use spectroscopic measurements directly for on-line process monitoring and detection and diagnosis of disturbances. An application of the on-line monitoring of a chemical batch reaction using UV-visible spectroscopy is discussed in detail. Successful

  20. Algal blooms and Membrane Based Desalination Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villacorte, L.O.

    2014-01-01

    Seawater desalination is rapidly growing in terms of installed capacity (~80 million m3/day in 2013), plant size and global application. An emerging threat to this technology is the seasonal proliferation of microscopic algae in seawater known as algal blooms. Such blooms have caused operational

  1. The Cartesian Heritage of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucio, Brett

    2017-01-01

    This essay seeks to contribute to the critical reception of "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" by tracing the Taxonomy's underlying philosophical assumptions. Identifying Bloom's work as consistent with the legacy of Cartesian thought, I argue that its hierarchy of behavioral objectives provides a framework for certainty and…

  2. Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.D Joehnk; J. Huisman; J. Sharples; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben); P.M. Visser (Petra); J.M. Stroom

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractDense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a

  3. Summer heatwaves promote blooms of harmful cyanobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jöhnk, K.D.; Huisman, J.; Sharples, J.; Sommeijer, B.; Visser, P.M.; Stroom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Dense surface blooms of toxic cyanobacteria in eutrophic lakes may lead to mass mortalities of fish and birds, and provide a serious health threat for cattle, pets, and humans. It has been argued that global warming may increase the incidence of harmful algal blooms. Here, we report on a lake

  4. Mental Fatigue Monitoring Using a Wearable Transparent Eye Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Sampei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose mental fatigue measurement using a wearable eye detection system. The system is capable of acquiring movement of the pupil and blinking from the light reflected from the eye. The reflection is detected by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells. Since these cells are patterned onto the eyeglass and do not require external input power, the system is notable for its lightweight and low power consumption and can be combined with other wearable devices, such as a head mounted display. We performed experiments to correlate information obtained by the eye detection system with the mental fatigue of the user. Since it is quite difficult to evaluate mental fatigue objectively and quantitatively, we assumed that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX had a strong correlation with te mental fatigue. While a subject was requested to conduct calculation tasks, the eye detection system collected his/her information that included position, velocity and total movement of the eye, and amount and frequency of blinking. Multiple regression analyses revealed the correlation between NASA-TLX and the information obtained for 3 out of 5 subjects.

  5. Comprehensive methods for earlier detection and monitoring of forest decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Pontius; Richard Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Forested ecosystems are threatened by invasive pests, pathogens, and unusual climatic events brought about by climate change. Earlier detection of incipient forest health problems and a quantitatively rigorous assessment method is increasingly important. Here, we describe a method that is adaptable across tree species and stress agents and practical for use in the...

  6. Detection and monitoring of fatigue damage in SMCR26 specimens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of the work presented here was to establish the use of thermoelastic measurements in detecting the presence of damage and its subsequent accumulation in sheet moulding compound (SMCR26). To this end, several dog bone shaped specimens of SMCR26 were cycled at a constant mean stress of 38.87 ...

  7. Evaluation of Rapid, Early Warning Approaches to Track Shellfish Toxins Associated with Dinophysis and Alexandrium Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa K. Hattenrath-Lehmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine biotoxin-contaminated seafood has caused thousands of poisonings worldwide this century. Given these threats, there is an increasing need for improved technologies that can be easily integrated into coastal monitoring programs. This study evaluates approaches for monitoring toxins associated with recurrent toxin-producing Alexandrium and Dinophysis blooms on Long Island, NY, USA, which cause paralytic and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (PSP and DSP, respectively. Within contrasting locations, the dynamics of pelagic Alexandrium and Dinophysis cell densities, toxins in plankton, and toxins in deployed blue mussels (Mytilus edulis were compared with passive solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT samplers filled with two types of resin, HP20 and XAD-2. Multiple species of wild shellfish were also collected during Dinophysis blooms and used to compare toxin content using two different extraction techniques (single dispersive and double exhaustive and two different toxin analysis assays (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PP2A for the measurement of DSP toxins. DSP toxins measured in the HP20 resin were significantly correlated (R2 = 0.7–0.9, p < 0.001 with total DSP toxins in shellfish, but were detected more than three weeks prior to detection in deployed mussels. Both resins adsorbed measurable levels of PSP toxins, but neither quantitatively tracked Alexandrium cell densities, toxicity in plankton or toxins in shellfish. DSP extraction and toxin analysis methods did not differ significantly (p > 0.05, were highly correlated (R2 = 0.98–0.99; p < 0.001 and provided complete recovery of DSP toxins from standard reference materials. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis and ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa were found to accumulate DSP toxins above federal and international standards (160 ng g−1 during Dinophysis blooms while Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and soft shell clams (Mya

  8. Tsunamis: Detection, monitoring, and early-warning technologies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    detection from Open Ocean regions, islands, and coastal waters, and the significant progress made in this area over the years have been addressed. Additionally, a brief description of some theoretically sound physical principles, which have been confirmed... waters, faster hydrographic survey (automatic sounding correction), dredging operations, as well as port operations. Although tsunami service has improved considerably after the December 2004 global tsunami event, it is still not completely free...

  9. Webcams for Bird Detection and Monitoring: A Demonstration Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem W. Verstraeten

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Better insights into bird migration can be a tool for assessing the spread of avian borne infections or ecological/climatologic issues reflected in deviating migration patterns. This paper evaluates whether low budget permanent cameras such as webcams can offer a valuable contribution to the reporting of migratory birds. An experimental design was set up to study the detection capability using objects of different size, color and velocity. The results of the experiment revealed the minimum size, maximum velocity and contrast of the objects required for detection by a standard webcam. Furthermore, a modular processing scheme was proposed to track and follow migratory birds in webcam recordings. Techniques such as motion detection by background subtraction, stereo vision and lens distortion were combined to form the foundation of the bird tracking algorithm. Additional research to integrate webcam networks, however, is needed and future research should enforce the potential of the processing scheme by exploring and testing alternatives of each individual module or processing step.

  10. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  11. Portable obstructive sleep apnea detection and mobile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkol ćakmak, Duygu; Eyüboǧlu, B. Murat

    2017-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is becoming a prevalent disease for both adults and children. It is described as the cessation of breath for at least 10 seconds during sleep. Detecting sleep apnea is considered as a troublesome and timeconsuming method, which requires the patients to stay one or more nights in dedicated sleep disorder rooms with sensors physically attached to their body. Undiagnosed thereby untreated sleep apnea patients are under high risk of hypertension, heart attack, traffic accident through fatigue and sleeplessness. In this project, nasal and oral respiratory information is obtained with utilizing thermocouple and oxygen saturation in the blood is obtained with utilizing pulse oximeter. An analog hardware circuit is designed to readout thermocouple and pulse oximeter signals. According to this respiratory and pulse oximetry signals, obstructive sleep apnea is detected in real time with using a software implemented into an ARM based processor. An Android mobile application is developed to record and display the oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory signal data during sleep. ARM based processor and mobile application communication is established via Bluetooth interface to reduce cabling on the patient. In summary, a portable, low cost and user friendly device to detect obstructive sleep apnea which is able to share the necessary information to the patients and doctors for the duration of the whole sleep cycle is developed.

  12. Research on Overflow Monitoring Mechanism Based on Downhole Microflow Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow rate variation of the drilling fluid and micro-overflow loss is difficult to analyze. The purpose to prevent the occurrence of kick, lost circulation, and other complex conditions is not easy to be achieved. Therefore, the microflow-induced annulus multiphase flow rate and annulus pressure field model were studied, and a downhole microflow measurement system has been developed. A differential pressure type flow measurement was used in the system, and real-time downhole information was obtained to achieve deep, narrow windows and other safety-density complex formation security. This paper introduced a new bottom-hole flow meter which can measure the annular flux while drilling and monitor overflow and circulation loss. The accuracy and reliability of the MPD (managed pressure drilling system can be improved obviously by applying the device; as a result, the safety of drilling is enhanced and the cost is reduced.

  13. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring.

  14. A new approach for structural health monitoring by applying anomaly detection on strain sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichias, Konstantinos; Pijpers, Richard; Meeuwissen, Erik

    2014-03-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems help to monitor critical infrastructures (bridges, tunnels, etc.) remotely and provide up-to-date information about their physical condition. In addition, it helps to predict the structure's life and required maintenance in a cost-efficient way. Typically, inspection data gives insight in the structural health. The global structural behavior, and predominantly the structural loading, is generally measured with vibration and strain sensors. Acoustic emission sensors are more and more used for measuring global crack activity near critical locations. In this paper, we present a procedure for local structural health monitoring by applying Anomaly Detection (AD) on strain sensor data for sensors that are applied in expected crack path. Sensor data is analyzed by automatic anomaly detection in order to find crack activity at an early stage. This approach targets the monitoring of critical structural locations, such as welds, near which strain sensors can be applied during construction and/or locations with limited inspection possibilities during structural operation. We investigate several anomaly detection techniques to detect changes in statistical properties, indicating structural degradation. The most effective one is a novel polynomial fitting technique, which tracks slow changes in sensor data. Our approach has been tested on a representative test structure (bridge deck) in a lab environment, under constant and variable amplitude fatigue loading. In both cases, the evolving cracks at the monitored locations were successfully detected, autonomously, by our AD monitoring tool.

  15. Predictive monitoring for early detection of sepsis in neonatal ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Karen D

    2013-04-01

    Predictive monitoring is an exciting new field involving analysis of physiologic data to detect abnormal patterns associated with critical illness. The first example of predictive monitoring being taken from inception (proof of concept) to reality (demonstration of improved outcomes) is the use of heart rate characteristics (HRC) monitoring to detect sepsis in infants in the neonatal ICU. The commercially available 'HeRO' monitor analyzes electrocardiogram data from existing bedside monitors for decreased HR variability and transient decelerations associated with sepsis, and converts these changes into a score (the HRC index or HeRO score). This score is the fold increase in probability that a patient will have a clinical deterioration from sepsis within 24 h. This review focuses on HRC monitoring and discusses future directions in predictive monitoring of ICU patients. In a randomized trial of 3003 very low birthweight infants, display of the HeRO score reduced mortality more than 20%. Ongoing research aims to combine respiratory and HR analysis to optimize care of ICU patients. Predictive monitoring has recently been shown to save lives. Harnessing and analyzing the vast amounts of physiologic data constantly displayed in ICU patients will lead to improved algorithms for early detection, prognosis, and therapy of critical illnesses.

  16. Novelty detection methods for online health monitoring and post data analysis of turbopumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Hu; Niaoqing, Hu; Xinpeng, Zhang; Fengshou, Gu; Ming, Gao

    2013-01-01

    As novelty detection works when only normal data are available, it is of considerable promise for health monitoring in cases lacking fault samples and prior knowledge. We present two novelty detection methods for health monitoring of turbopumps in large-scale liquid propellant rocket engines. The first method is the adaptive Gaussian threshold model. This method is designed to monitor the vibration of the turbopumps online because it has minimal computational complexity and is easy for implementation in real time. The second method is the one-class support vector machine (OCSVM) which is developed for post analysis of historical vibration signals. Via post analysis the method not only confirms the online monitoring results but also provides diagnostic results so that faults from sensors are separated from those actually from the turbopumps. Both of these two methods are validated to be efficient for health monitoring of the turbopumps.

  17. Detection and plant monitoring programs: lessons from an intensive survey of Asclepias meadii with five observers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M Alexander

    Full Text Available Monitoring programs, where numbers of individuals are followed through time, are central to conservation. Although incomplete detection is expected with wildlife surveys, this topic is rarely considered with plants. However, if plants are missed in surveys, raw count data can lead to biased estimates of population abundance and vital rates. To illustrate, we had five independent observers survey patches of the rare plant Asclepias meadii at two prairie sites. We analyzed data with two mark-recapture approaches. Using the program CAPTURE, the estimated number of patches equaled the detected number for a burned site, but exceeded detected numbers by 28% for an unburned site. Analyses of detected patches using Huggins models revealed important effects of observer, patch state (flowering/nonflowering, and patch size (number of stems on probabilities of detection. Although some results were expected (i.e. greater detection of flowering than nonflowering patches, the importance of our approach is the ability to quantify the magnitude of detection problems. We also evaluated the degree to which increased observer numbers improved detection: smaller groups (3-4 observers generally found 90 - 99% of the patches found by all five people, but pairs of observers or single observers had high error and detection depended on which individuals were involved. We conclude that an intensive study at the start of a long-term monitoring study provides essential information about probabilities of detection and what factors cause plants to be missed. This information can guide development of monitoring programs.

  18. Noninvasive cardiac event monitoring to detect atrial fibrillation after ischemic stroke: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Peter; MacFarlane, Peter W; Dawson, Jesse; McInnes, Gordon T; Langhorne, Peter; Lees, Kennedy R

    2013-09-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) elevates risk of recurrent stroke but is incompletely identified by standard investigation after stroke, though detection rates correlate with monitoring duration. We hypothesized that 7 days of noninvasive cardiac-event monitoring early after stroke would accelerate detection of AF and thus uptake of effective therapy. We performed a pragmatic randomized trial with objective outcome assessment among patients presenting in sinus rhythm with no AF history, within 7 days of ischemic stroke symptom onset. Patients were randomized to standard practice investigations (SP) to detect AF, or SP plus additional monitoring (SP-AM). AM comprised 7 days of noninvasive cardiac-event monitoring reported by an accredited cardiac electrocardiology laboratory. Primary outcome was detection of AF at 14 days. One-hundred patients were enrolled from 2 centers. Within 14 days of stroke, sustained paroxysms of AF were detected in 18% of patients undergoing SP-AM versus 2% undergoing SP (Pstroke enhances detection of paroxysmal AF and early anticoagulation. Extended monitoring should be offered to all eligible patients soon after acute stroke. Guidelines on investigation for AF in stroke patients could be strengthened. http://www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn/. Unique identifier: ISRCTN97412358.

  19. Sensitivity Verification of PWR Monitoring System Using Neuro-Expert For LOCA Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Subekti

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity Verification of PWR Monitoring System Using Neuro-Expert For LOCA Detection. The present research was done for verification of previous developed method on Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) detection and perform simulations for knowing the sensitivity of the PWR monitoring system that applied neuro-expert method. The previous research continuing on present research, has developed and has tested the neuro-expert method for several anomaly detections in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) typed Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Neuro-expert can detect the LOCA anomaly with sensitivity of primary coolant leakage of 7 gallon/min and the conventional method could not detect the primary coolant leakage of 30 gallon/min. Neuro expert method detects significantly LOCA anomaly faster than conventional system in Surry-1 NPP as well so that the impact risk is reducible. (author)

  20. Novel Damage Detection Techniques for Structural Health Monitoring Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengjiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a technique for detecting fatigue cracks based on a hybrid sensor monitoring system consisting of a combination of intelligent coating monitoring (ICM and piezoelectric transducer (PZT sensors. An experimental procedure using this hybrid sensor system was designed to monitor the cracks generated by fatigue testing in plate structures. A probability of detection (POD model that quantifies the reliability of damage detection for a specific sensor or the nondestructive testing (NDT method was used to evaluate the weight factor for the ICM and PZT sensors. To estimate the uncertainty of model parameters in this study, the Bayesian method was employed. Realistic data from fatigue testing was used to validate the overall method, and the results show that the novel damage detection technique using a hybrid sensor can quantify fatigue cracks more accurately than results obtained by conventional sensor methods.

  1. Weather during bloom affects pollination and yield of highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Weather plays an important role in spring-blooming fruit crops due to the combined effects on bee activity, flower opening, pollen germination, and fertilization. To determine the effects of weather on highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., productivity, we monitored bee activity and compared fruit set, weight, and seed number in a field stocked with honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and common eastern bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson). Flowers were subjected to one of five treatments during bloom: enclosed, open, open during poor weather only, open during good weather only, or open during poor and good weather. Fewer bees of all types were observed foraging and fewer pollen foragers returned to colonies during poor weather than during good weather. There were also changes in foraging community composition: honey bees dominated during good weather, whereas bumble bees dominated during poor weather. Berries from flowers exposed only during poor weather had higher fruit set in 1 yr and higher berry weight in the other year compared with enclosed clusters. In both years, clusters exposed only during good weather had > 5 times as many mature seeds, weighed twice as much, and had double the fruit set of those not exposed. No significant increase over flowers exposed during good weather was observed when clusters were exposed during good and poor weather. Our results are discussed in terms of the role of weather during bloom on the contribution of bees adapted to foraging during cool conditions.

  2. Detecting and monitoring UCG subsidence with InSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J; Foxall, W; Yang, X

    2012-03-23

    The use of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to measure surface subsidence caused by Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is tested. InSAR is a remote sensing technique that uses Synthetic Aperture Radar images to make spatial images of surface deformation and may be deployed from satellite or an airplane. With current commercial satellite data, the technique works best in areas with little vegetation or farming activity. UCG subsidence is generally caused by roof collapse, which adversely affects UCG operations due to gas loss and is therefore important to monitor. Previous studies have demonstrated the usefulness of InSAR in measuring surface subsidence related to coal mining and surface deformation caused by a coal mining roof collapse in Crandall Canyon, Utah is imaged as a proof-of-concept. InSAR data is collected and processed over three known UCG operations including two pilot plants (Majuba, South Africa and Wulanchabu, China) and an operational plant (Angren, Uzbekistan). A clear f eature showing approximately 7 cm of subsidence is observed in the UCG field in Angren. Subsidence is not observed in the other two areas, which produce from deeper coal seams and processed a smaller volume. The results show that in some cases, InSAR is a useful tool to image UCG related subsidence. Data from newer satellites and improved algorithms will improve effectiveness.

  3. Damage Detection with Streamlined Structural Health Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The huge amounts of sensor data generated by large scale sensor networks in on-line structural health monitoring (SHM systems often overwhelms the systems’ capacity for data transmission and analysis. This paper presents a new concept for an integrated SHM system in which a streamlined data flow is used as a unifying thread to integrate the individual components of on-line SHM systems. Such an integrated SHM system has a few desirable functionalities including embedded sensor data compression, interactive sensor data retrieval, and structural knowledge discovery, which aim to enhance the reliability, efficiency, and robustness of on-line SHM systems. Adoption of this new concept will enable the design of an on-line SHM system with more uniform data generation and data handling capacity for its subsystems. To examine this concept in the context of vibration-based SHM systems, real sensor data from an on-line SHM system comprising a scaled steel bridge structure and an on-line data acquisition system with remote data access was used in this study. Vibration test results clearly demonstrated the prominent performance characteristics of the proposed integrated SHM system including rapid data access, interactive data retrieval and knowledge discovery of structural conditions on a global level.

  4. Damage detection with streamlined structural health monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Deng, Jun; Xie, Weizhi

    2015-04-15

    The huge amounts of sensor data generated by large scale sensor networks in on-line structural health monitoring (SHM) systems often overwhelms the systems' capacity for data transmission and analysis. This paper presents a new concept for an integrated SHM system in which a streamlined data flow is used as a unifying thread to integrate the individual components of on-line SHM systems. Such an integrated SHM system has a few desirable functionalities including embedded sensor data compression, interactive sensor data retrieval, and structural knowledge discovery, which aim to enhance the reliability, efficiency, and robustness of on-line SHM systems. Adoption of this new concept will enable the design of an on-line SHM system with more uniform data generation and data handling capacity for its subsystems. To examine this concept in the context of vibration-based SHM systems, real sensor data from an on-line SHM system comprising a scaled steel bridge structure and an on-line data acquisition system with remote data access was used in this study. Vibration test results clearly demonstrated the prominent performance characteristics of the proposed integrated SHM system including rapid data access, interactive data retrieval and knowledge discovery of structural conditions on a global level.

  5. Detecting SYN flood attacks via statistical monitoring charts: A comparative study

    KAUST Repository

    Bouyeddou, Benamar

    2017-12-14

    Accurate detection of cyber-attacks plays a central role in safeguarding computer networks and information systems. This paper addresses the problem of detecting SYN flood attacks, which are the most popular Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. Here, we compare the detection capacity of three commonly monitoring charts namely, a Shewhart chart, a Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control chart and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) chart, in detecting SYN flood attacks. The comparison study is conducted using the publicly available benchmark datasets: the 1999 DARPA Intrusion Detection Evaluation Datasets.

  6. Recurrent blooms of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae in the Piraquê Channel, Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Branco

    Full Text Available Six blooms of Heterosigma akashiwo(Raphidophyceae were observed from March 2007 through March 2008 in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, a semi-confined eutrophic system located in Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil. Vegetative cells of H. akashiwo analysed by optical and electron microscopy showed morphology as described in the literature. The blooms (2.8 × 104 to 4 × 108 cell.L–1 were restricted to the middle section of the Piraquê Channel, which is situated in the northeastern part of the lagoon and receives freshwater inflow. The salinity of subsurface water and the channel depth showed significant negative correlations with H. akashiwo abundances, and appeared to restrict the blooms to this compartment of the lagoon. No fish mortality was associated with the H. akashiwo blooms, nor were brevetoxins detected in a cell extract obtained from the bloom observed on 19 March 2007.

  7. Early detection monitoring for larval dreissenid mussels: how much plankton sampling is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D; Bollens, Stephen M

    2017-03-01

    The development of quagga and zebra mussel (dreissenids) monitoring programs in the Pacific Northwest provides a unique opportunity to evaluate a regional invasive species detection effort early in its development. Recent studies suggest that the ecological and economic costs of a dreissenid infestation in the Pacific Northwest of the USA would be significant. Consequently, efforts are underway to monitor for the presence of dreissenids. However, assessments of whether these efforts provide for early detection are lacking. We use information collected from 2012 to 2014 to characterize the development of larval dreissenid monitoring programs in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in the context of introduction and establishment risk. We also estimate the effort needed for high-probability detection of rare planktonic taxa in four Columbia and Snake River reservoirs and assess whether the current level of effort provides for early detection. We found that the effort expended to monitor for dreissenid mussels increased substantially from 2012 to 2014, that efforts were distributed across risk categories ranging from high to very low, and that substantial gaps in our knowledge of both introduction and establishment risk exist. The estimated volume of filtered water required to fully census planktonic taxa or to provide high-probability detection of rare taxa was high for the four reservoirs examined. We conclude that the current level of effort expended does not provide for high-probability detection of larval dreissenids or other planktonic taxa when they are rare in these reservoirs. We discuss options to improve early detection capabilities.

  8. LANDSAT-derived 28-year history of phytoplankton blooms in Western Lake Erie shows changes in peak bloom timing and challenges due to phytoplankton species variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J. C.; Michalak, A. M.; Stumpf, R. P.

    2016-02-01

    Information on historical phytoplankton blooms can yield insight that can be used to tackle present-day challenges in inland waters. Thus far, attempts to use historical information to understand long-term changes relevant for present-day management have been stymied by a limited historical record in many freshwater systems. For Lake Erie, we augment the existing record based on MERIS imagery that begins in 2002 by gleaning information on the spatial extent and timing of blooms for 1984-2001 from LANDSAT 5 imagery. Despite limitations stemming from LANDSAT's long revisit period and regular cloudiness obscuring scenes, we demonstrate that remotely-sensed historical data add relevant context for addressing current blooms by documenting the presence, magnitude, and timing of past blooms. Comparing the remotely-sensed history to the sparse in situ data taken during this period, we find that new information can be gleaned about historical bloom presence, magnitude, and seasonality despite LANDSAT's limitations. We also find that the remotely-sensed record shows systematic differences in the remotely sensed signal as a function of the colony size of the dominant phytoplankton species present, providing a note of caution for using remote sensing to monitor water quality in systems with multiple phytoplankton regime shifts.

  9. Bloom dynamics and life cycle strategies of two toxic dinoflagellates in a coastal upwelling system (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Isabel; Fraga, Santiago; Isabel Figueroa, Rosa; Pazos, Yolanda; Massanet, Ana; Ramilo, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    A study of Gymnodinium catenatum and Alexandrium minutum blooms on the Galician coast was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in order to increase knowledge of the mechanisms governing recurrent blooms of these species. Considerable differences in their bloom dynamics were observed. G. catenatum blooms occurred in autumn and winter, following the pattern previously reported in the literature: they began off-shore and were advected to the Galician rias when a relaxation of the coastal upwelling occurred. On the other hand, A. minutum blooms developed inside embayments in spring and summer during the upwelling season and were associated with water stability and stratification. Both the vegetative population and the cyst distribution of A. minutum were related to less saline water from freshwater river outputs, which support a saline-gradient relationship postulated herein for this species. Dinoflagellates may produce both long-term double-walled cysts (resting) and short-term pellicle cysts. Resting cyst deposition and distribution in sediments showed that seeding occurred during the blooms of both species. However, the relationship between the cyst distribution in the sediments in Baiona Bay and the intensity and occurrence of G. catenatum blooms, suggests that the latter are not directly related to resting cyst germination. Moreover, the results presented in the present study point to other difference between the two species, such as the detection of pellicle cysts only for A. minutum. Finally, we discuss how the life cycle strategies of these two species may help to explain the different mechanisms of bloom formation reported herein.

  10. Dynamics of a cyanobacterial bloom in a hypereutrophic reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blooming and non-blooming periods between 2004 and 2006 in a hypereutrophic reservoir, where cyanobacterial blooms have previously been reported to be permanent, presented an opportunity to characterise factors that may favour cyanobacterial dominance. As a bloom developed in May 2004, a shift to dominance by ...

  11. Examining change detection approaches for tropical mangrove monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Soe W.; Franklin, Janet; Buenemann, Michaela; Kim, Won; Giri, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of different band combinations and classifiers (unsupervised, supervised, object-oriented nearest neighbor, and object-oriented decision rule) for quantifying mangrove forest change using multitemporal Landsat data. A discriminant analysis using spectra of different vegetation types determined that bands 2 (0.52 to 0.6 μm), 5 (1.55 to 1.75 μm), and 7 (2.08 to 2.35 μm) were the most effective bands for differentiating mangrove forests from surrounding land cover types. A ranking of thirty-six change maps, produced by comparing the classification accuracy of twelve change detection approaches, was used. The object-based Nearest Neighbor classifier produced the highest mean overall accuracy (84 percent) regardless of band combinations. The automated decision rule-based approach (mean overall accuracy of 88 percent) as well as a composite of bands 2, 5, and 7 used with the unsupervised classifier and the same composite or all band difference with the object-oriented Nearest Neighbor classifier were the most effective approaches.

  12. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  13. National infrastructure for detecting, controlling and monitoring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.

    2001-01-01

    shipments to prevent theft, diversion or misuse. A high technique for radiation monitoring was established in four boarder centers. Each of these centers has a Radiological Control for Vehicle loads (multi channel system) RCVL. This system allows radiological control for vehicle loads at each access of the Syrian boarders: Syrian-Lebanon, Syrian-Turkey, Syrian-Jordan and Syrian-Iraq borders. At the time being, our new updating regulations enforce medical practices, their quality and operational characteristics and the patient protection provisions - to have and implement a proper Medical Exposure Control for radiological patients. Syria has a national Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at AECS which is managed by a well qualified and trained team. (author)

  14. Cardiac monitoring for detection of atrial fibrillation after TIA: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korompoki, Eleni; Del Giudice, Angela; Hillmann, Steffi; Malzahn, Uwe; Gladstone, David J; Heuschmann, Peter; Veltkamp, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose The detection rate of atrial fibrillation has not been studied specifically in transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients although extrapolation from ischemic stroke may be inadequate. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the rate of newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation using different methods of ECG monitoring in TIA. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed following a pre-specified protocol the PRISMA statement. Prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials were considered that included TIA patients who underwent cardiac monitoring for >12 h. Primary outcome was frequency of detection of atrial fibrillation ≥30 s. Analyses of subgroups and of duration and type of monitoring were performed. Results Seventeen studies enrolling 1163 patients were included. The pooled atrial fibrillation detection rate for all methods was 4% (95% CI: 2-7%). Yield of monitoring was higher in selected (higher age, more extensive testing for arrhythmias before enrolment, or presumed cardioembolic/cryptogenic cause) than in unselected cohorts (7% vs 3%). Pooled mean atrial fibrillation detection rates rose with duration of monitoring: 4% (24 h), 5% (24 h to 7 days) and 6% (>7 days), respectively. Yield of non-invasive was significantly lower than that of invasive monitoring (4% vs. 11%). Significant heterogeneity was observed among studies (I 2 =60.61%). Conclusion This first meta-analysis of atrial fibrillation detection in TIA patients finds a lower atrial fibrillation detection rate in TIA than reported for IS and TIA cohorts in previous meta-analyses. Prospective studies are needed to determine actual prevalence of atrial fibrillation and optimal diagnostic procedure for atrial fibrillation detection in TIA.

  15. Stayed-Cable Bridge Damage Detection and Localization Based on Accelerometer Health Monitoring Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ damage detection and localization using real acceleration structural health monitoring technique are the main idea of this study. The statistical and model identification time series, the response spectra, and the power density of the frequency domain are used to detect the behavior of Yonghe cable-stayed bridge during the healthy and damage states. The benchmark problem is used to detect the damage localization of the bridge during its working time. The assessment of the structural health monitoring and damage analysis concluded that (1 the kurtosis statistical moment can be used as an indicator for damage especially with increasing its percentage of change as the damage should occur; (2 the percentage of change of the Kernel density probability for the model identification error estimation can detect and localize the damage; (3 the simplified spectrum of the acceleration-displacement responses and frequencies probability changes are good tools for detection and localization of the one-line bridge damage.

  16. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: Cyanotoxin (Microcystin) transfer from land to sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; Mekebri, Abdu; Crane, Dave; Oates, Stori C.; Tinker, M. Timothy; Staedler, Michelle; Miller, Woutrina A.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Dominik, Clare; Hardin, Dane; Langlois, Gregg; Murray, Michael; Ward, Kim; Jessup, David A.

    2010-01-01

    "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins) are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb) were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels) and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine "harmful algal

  17. Evidence for a novel marine harmful algal bloom: cyanotoxin (microcystin transfer from land to sea otters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Miller

    Full Text Available "Super-blooms" of cyanobacteria that produce potent and environmentally persistent biotoxins (microcystins are an emerging global health issue in freshwater habitats. Monitoring of the marine environment for secondary impacts has been minimal, although microcystin-contaminated freshwater is known to be entering marine ecosystems. Here we confirm deaths of marine mammals from microcystin intoxication and provide evidence implicating land-sea flow with trophic transfer through marine invertebrates as the most likely route of exposure. This hypothesis was evaluated through environmental detection of potential freshwater and marine microcystin sources, sea otter necropsy with biochemical analysis of tissues and evaluation of bioaccumulation of freshwater microcystins by marine invertebrates. Ocean discharge of freshwater microcystins was confirmed for three nutrient-impaired rivers flowing into the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, and microcystin concentrations up to 2,900 ppm (2.9 million ppb were detected in a freshwater lake and downstream tributaries to within 1 km of the ocean. Deaths of 21 southern sea otters, a federally listed threatened species, were linked to microcystin intoxication. Finally, farmed and free-living marine clams, mussels and oysters of species that are often consumed by sea otters and humans exhibited significant biomagnification (to 107 times ambient water levels and slow depuration of freshwater cyanotoxins, suggesting a potentially serious environmental and public health threat that extends from the lowest trophic levels of nutrient-impaired freshwater habitat to apex marine predators. Microcystin-poisoned sea otters were commonly recovered near river mouths and harbors and contaminated marine bivalves were implicated as the most likely source of this potent hepatotoxin for wild otters. This is the first report of deaths of marine mammals due to cyanotoxins and confirms the existence of a novel class of marine

  18. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil contamination and waste monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Close, D.A.; McAtee, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Alpha contamination monitoring has been traditionally limited by the short range of alpha particles in air and through detector windows. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) described in this paper circumvents that limitation by detecting alpha-produced ions, rather than alpha particles directly. Since the LRAD is sensitive to all ions, it can monitor all contamination present on a large surface at one time. Because air is the ''detector gas,'' the LRAD can detect contamination on any surface to which air can penetrate. We present data showing the sensitivity of LRAD detectors, as well as documenting their ability to detect alpha sources in previously unmonitorable locations, and verifying the ion lifetime. Specific designs and results for soil contamination and waste monitors are also included

  19. Tritiated-water detection with a 2D(γ,n)1H monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.; Baumann, N.P.

    Tritiated process water is monitored by detecting the D 2 O component via the 2 D(γ,n) 1 H reaction. A probe containing a 1 to 7 mCi 24 Na (15 h) γ-source and six 3 He neutron detectors produces and monitors the 2 D(γ,n) 1 H reaction. A variety of probe configurations were examined for D 2 O detection sensitivity. The corresponding detection limits range from 6 to 280 μL for D 2 O droplets and 1 to 13 μL/cm for D 2 O streams, when 10-minute neutron counting with a 1 mCi γ-source is used. Results from two field applications illustrate the utility of the monitor

  20. Multisensor fusion for atrial and ventricular activity detection in coronary care monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A I; Carrault, G; Mora, F; Thoraval, L; Passariello, G; Schleich, J M

    1999-10-01

    Information management for critical care monitoring is still a very difficult task. Medical staff is often overwhelmed by the amount of data provided by the increased number of specific monitoring devices and instrumentation, and the lack of an effective automated system. Specifically, a basic task such as arrhythmia detection still produce an important amount of undesirable alarms, due in part to the mechanistic approach of current monitoring systems. In this work, multisensor and multisource data fusion schemes to improve atrial and ventricular activity detection in critical care environments are presented. Applications of these schemes are quantitatively evaluated and compared with current methods, showing the potential advantages of data fusion techniques for event detection in noise corrupted signals.

  1. Continuous AE monitoring of nuclear plants to detect flaws - status and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, P.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a brief commentary on the evolution of acoustic emission (AE) technology for continuous monitoring of nuclear reactors and the current status. The technical work described to support the status description has the objective of developing and validating the use of AE to detect, locate, and evaluate growing flaws in reactor pressure boundaries. The future of AE for continuous monitoring is discussed in terms of envisioned applications and further accomplishments required to achieve them. 12 refs.

  2. Climate Adaptation and Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports local, state and tribal efforts to maintain water quality. A key element of its efforts is to reduce excess nutrient pollution and the resulting adverse impacts, including harmful algal blooms.

  3. Design considerations for community-based stream monitoring to detect changes in Pacific salmon habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory R. Lagasse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada are highly dependent on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. and the watersheds that support them, yet current monitoring efforts are likely inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitats that may affect salmon populations. The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System is attempting to address these information gaps through a new stream assessment program that collects baseline information and tracks changes in stream habitats. Using the program's monitoring protocol, we assessed the habitat characteristics of eight streams within the Koeye and Namu watersheds, then used a statistical power simulation to determine within-stream sampling requirements for detecting changes in substrate composition that may affect salmon habitat suitability. We also assessed resource constraints and perceived threats to stream habitats via questionnaires to coastal First Nations' stewardship staff. Results suggest that the current recommended sample size of 6 within-stream transects has low statistical power for detecting biologically significant changes in fine sediment. Given limited monitoring resources, we recommend higher transect sampling intensities within productive riffle-pool streams, but an emphasis on monitoring site level characteristics, such as large woody debris and pool volume, in less productive, high gradient cascade-pool streams. Questionnaire results highlight the need for flexibility and local adaptation in monitoring efforts because of differences in resource constraints among First Nations communities. If successfully implemented, the stream assessment program can integrate local knowledge with western science to inform ecosystem-based management of watersheds within the Great Bear Rainforest.

  4. Spatial Outlier Detection of CO2 Monitoring Data Based on Spatial Local Outlier Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial local outlier factor (SLOF algorithm was adopted in this study for spatial outlier detection because of the limitations of the traditional static threshold detection. Based on the spatial characteristics of CO2 monitoring data obtained in the carbon capture and storage (CCS project, the K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN graph was constructed using the latitude and longitude information of the monitoring points to identify the spatial neighbourhood of the monitoring points. Then SLOF was adopted to calculate the outlier degrees of the monitoring points and the 3σ rule was employed to identify the spatial outlier. Finally, the selection of K value was analysed and the optimal one was selected. The results show that, compared with the static threshold method, the proposed algorithm has a higher detection precision. It can overcome the shortcomings of the static threshold method and improve the accuracy and diversity of local outlier detection, which provides a reliable reference for the safety assessment and warning of CCS monitoring.

  5. GMDH and neural networks applied in monitoring and fault detection in sensors in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e, E-mail: martinez@ipen.b, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this work a new monitoring and fault detection methodology was developed using GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm and artificial neural networks (ANNs) which was applied in the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The monitoring and fault detection system was developed in two parts: the first was dedicated to preprocess information, using GMDH algorithm; and the second to the process information using ANNs. The preprocess information was divided in two parts. In the first part, the GMDH algorithm was used to generate a better database estimate, called matrix z, which was used to train the ANNs. In the second part the GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train the ANNs, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The methodology was developed and tested using five different models: one theoretical model and for models using different sets of reactor variables. After an exhausting study dedicated to the sensors monitoring, the fault detection in sensors was developed by simulating faults in the sensors database using values of +5%, +10%, +15% and +20% in these sensors database. The good results obtained through the present methodology shows the viability of using GMDH algorithm in the study of the best input variables to the ANNs, thus making possible the use of these methods in the implementation of a new monitoring and fault detection methodology applied in sensors. (author)

  6. GMDH and neural networks applied in monitoring and fault detection in sensors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio; Pereira, Iraci Martinez; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e

    2011-01-01

    In this work a new monitoring and fault detection methodology was developed using GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm and artificial neural networks (ANNs) which was applied in the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The monitoring and fault detection system was developed in two parts: the first was dedicated to preprocess information, using GMDH algorithm; and the second to the process information using ANNs. The preprocess information was divided in two parts. In the first part, the GMDH algorithm was used to generate a better database estimate, called matrix z, which was used to train the ANNs. In the second part the GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train the ANNs, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The methodology was developed and tested using five different models: one theoretical model and for models using different sets of reactor variables. After an exhausting study dedicated to the sensors monitoring, the fault detection in sensors was developed by simulating faults in the sensors database using values of +5%, +10%, +15% and +20% in these sensors database. The good results obtained through the present methodology shows the viability of using GMDH algorithm in the study of the best input variables to the ANNs, thus making possible the use of these methods in the implementation of a new monitoring and fault detection methodology applied in sensors. (author)

  7. Monitoring low density populations: a perspective on what level of population decline we can truly detect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurz, P. W. W.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of mammal species is an important part in detecting changes in their status. Efforts are based on a variety of direct and indirect methods and many low density populations are monitored through field signs. We present data on the endangered European red squirrel from Kidland Forest in the UK. We used cone transects to both record changes in seed availability and to monitor population trends. We examined the difficulty of accurately detecting population change when populations are low and field signs are patchily distributed. Current efforts would be sufficient to detect significant population declines of 50-75% in years with a modest squirrel population but not when they fall below one squirrel for every 20 ha of forest. The findings emphasise that monitoring aims have to be clearly defined with an awareness and understanding of what level of change the adopted methodological approach can reliably detect. We propose that mammal monitoring schemes need to be based on a pilot scheme to determine effect size and planned accordingly.

  8. Adaptive Change Detection for Long-Term Machinery Monitoring Using Incremental Sliding-Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Lu, Guo-Liang; Liu, Jie; Yan, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Detection of structural changes from an operational process is a major goal in machine condition monitoring. Existing methods for this purpose are mainly based on retrospective analysis, resulting in a large detection delay that limits their usages in real applications. This paper presents a new adaptive real-time change detection algorithm, an extension of the recent research by combining with an incremental sliding-window strategy, to handle the multi-change detection in long-term monitoring of machine operations. In particular, in the framework, Hilbert space embedding of distribution is used to map the original data into the Re-producing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) for change detection; then, a new adaptive threshold strategy can be developed when making change decision, in which a global factor (used to control the coarse-to-fine level of detection) is introduced to replace the fixed value of threshold. Through experiments on a range of real testing data which was collected from an experimental rotating machinery system, the excellent detection performances of the algorithm for engineering applications were demonstrated. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, the proposed algorithm can be more suitable for long-term machinery condition monitoring without any manual re-calibration, thus is promising in modern industries.

  9. Method for detecting, screening and/or monitoring a cancer in an individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for screening and/or detecting and/or monitoring a cancer in an individual, said method comprising determining a first parameter represented by the concentration of TIMP-1 in at least one excreta, e.g. saliva, from the individual. The invention provides a method...... that without the need to use a blood sample is suitable for facilitating the early diagnosis of a cancer, monitoring the recurrence of a cancer, and/or monitoring the status of a cancer or the effect of cancer treatment in an individual....

  10. Vibration-Based Adaptive Novelty Detection Method for Monitoring Faults in a Kinematic Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Adolfo Cariño-Corrales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive novelty detection methodology applied to a kinematic chain for the monitoring of faults. The proposed approach has the premise that only information of the healthy operation of the machine is initially available and fault scenarios will eventually develop. This approach aims to cover some of the challenges presented when condition monitoring is applied under a continuous learning framework. The structure of the method is divided into two recursive stages: first, an offline stage for initialization and retraining of the feature reduction and novelty detection modules and, second, an online monitoring stage to continuously assess the condition of the machine. Contrary to classical static feature reduction approaches, the proposed method reformulates the features by employing first a Laplacian Score ranking and then the Fisher Score ranking for retraining. The proposed methodology is validated experimentally by monitoring the vibration measurements of a kinematic chain driven by an induction motor. Two faults are induced in the motor to validate the method performance to detect anomalies and adapt the feature reduction and novelty detection modules to the new information. The obtained results show the advantages of employing an adaptive approach for novelty detection and feature reduction making the proposed method suitable for industrial machinery diagnosis applications.

  11. Detection of system failures in multi-axes tasks. [pilot monitored instrument approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephrath, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of the pilot's participation mode in the control task on his workload level and failure detection performance were examined considering a low visibility landing approach. It is found that the participation mode had a strong effect on the pilot's workload, the induced workload being lowest when the pilot acted as a monitoring element during a coupled approach and highest when the pilot was an active element in the control loop. The effects of workload and participation mode on failure detection were separated. The participation mode was shown to have a dominant effect on the failure detection performance, with a failure in a monitored (coupled) axis being detected significantly faster than a comparable failure in a manually controlled axis.

  12. Study of Harmful Algae Blooms Using UAS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitriu, Ileana; Spacher, Peter; Halfman, John

    2017-04-01

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) occurrence has increased in recent decades. The transient nature of HABs in both space and time result in monitoring challenges, which add to the difficulty in understanding the criteria that trigger HABs. Traditional monitoring programs are expensive and time consuming. The use of UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) assures high-resolution space and time monitoring for HABs, and is economical for small bodies of water. By using UAS (Matrice100 and Phantom3) we obtained aerial photographs of eight Finger Lakes which span the oligotrophic to eutrophic spectrum of algal productivity. Water samples were collected and analyzed simultaneously. The Green/Blue (G/B) ratio extracted from the aerial photos was proportional to chlorophyll-a abundance. The algal pigments are also characterized by unique light absorbance and reflectance features, and spectral images obtained from two up-down visible spectrometers revealed a prominent feature 790 nm which correlates to the concentration of algae in the water.

  13. Peculiarities of the Woody Plants Re-Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalko Olga Anatolievna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The data of literary sources concerning the bloom of angiosperm plants and deviation in the development of a flower and inflorescence, in particular untimely flowering, was generalized; our observation results of some peculiarities of re-bloom of woody plants in the National Dendrological Park “Sofiyivka” of NAS of Ukraine (NDP “Sofiyivka” were discussed. The flowering process was formed during a long-term evolution of a propagation system of angiosperm plants as a basis of fertilization and further fruit and seed development. As a result of vernalization and photoperiodism reactions, flowering (under regular conditions occurs in the most favorable period for pollination and fertilization of every plant. However, various deviations, in particular, the untimely (most frequently double, sometimes three- and four-fold flowering occurs in this perfect process of generative organ formation of angiosperm plants. An increased number of reports about re-bloom (at the end of summer – at the beginning of fall of the representatives of various woody plant species whose flowers usually blossom in May-June prompts the analysis of the available information concerning the mechanisms of flowering and the causes which lead to deviation of flowering processes. Flowering of the woody plant representatives of the collection fund of the NDP “Sofiyivka” was studied; statistics about re-bloom in different cities of Ukraine were monitored. The classification of re-bloom facts was carried out according to V.L. Vitkovskiy (1984. Although this classification has mostly a stated nature, it was good enough when being formulated and, with certain conditions, it can be applied nowadays. Accordingly, using this classification, abnormal cases can include facts of early summer-fall flowering and early winter flowering. A late spring flowering can be adaptive response of damaged plants to exogenous stresses, due to which the probability of sexual propagation remains

  14. Detection Optimization of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation Algorithm Used in Infrasound Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    also thank Dr. Arrowsmith at Los Alamos National Laboratory for providing me with ground truth data he collected using his own impressive detection...Centre IMS International Monitoring System LANL Los Alamos National Laboratory LRT Likelihood ratio test LTA Long-term-power-average MAP Maximum a...IMS likewise uses 4 different sensor networks to ensure the detection of explosions by anyone, anywhere. Seismic, hydroacoustic , infrasound, and

  15. On Line Current Monitoring and Application of a Residual Method for Eccentricity Fault Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METATLA, A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the monitoring and diagnosis of faults in induction motors. We develop an approach based on residual analysis of stator currents to detect and diagnose faults eccentricity static, dynamic and mixed in three phase induction motor. To simulate the behavior of motor failure, a model is proposed based on the approach of magnetically coupled coils. The simulation results show the importance of the approach applied for the detection and diagnosis of fault in three phase induction motor.

  16. Fault Detection for Shipboard Monitoring – Volterra Kernel and Hammerstein Model Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajic, Zoran; Blanke, Mogens; Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2009-01-01

    In this paper nonlinear fault detection for in-service monitoring and decision support systems for ships will be presented. The ship is described as a nonlinear system, and the stochastic wave elevation and the associated ship responses are conveniently modelled in frequency domain. The transform....... The transformation from time domain to frequency domain has been conducted by use of Volterra theory. The paper takes as an example fault detection of a containership on which a decision support system has been installed....

  17. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  18. Emergence of Algal Blooms: The Effects of Short-Term Variability in Water Quality on Phytoplankton Abundance, Diversity, and Community Composition in a Tidal Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Egerton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms are dynamic phenomena, often attributed to environmental parameters that vary on short timescales (e.g., hours to days. Phytoplankton monitoring programs are largely designed to examine long-term trends and interannual variability. In order to better understand and evaluate the relationships between water quality variables and the genesis of algal blooms, daily samples were collected over a 34 day period in the eutrophic Lafayette River, a tidal tributary within Chesapeake Bay’s estuarine complex, during spring 2006. During this period two distinct algal blooms occurred; the first was a cryptomonad bloom and this was followed by a bloom of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium instriatum. Chlorophyll a, nutrient concentrations, and physical and chemical parameters were measured daily along with phytoplankton abundance and community composition. While 65 phytoplankton species from eight major taxonomic groups were identified in samples and total micro- and nano-phytoplankton cell densities ranged from 5.8 × 106 to 7.8 × 107 cells L−1, during blooms, cryptomonads and G. instriatum were 91.6% and 99.0%, respectively, of the total phytoplankton biomass during blooms. The cryptomonad bloom developed following a period of rainfall and concomitant increases in inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations 0 to 5 days prior were positively lag-correlated with cryptomonad abundance. In contrast, the G. insriatum bloom developed during periods of low dissolved nitrogen concentrations and their abundance was negatively correlated with inorganic nitrogen concentrations.

  19. A Data-Driven Monitoring Technique for Enhanced Fall Events Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Zerrouki, Nabil

    2016-07-26

    Fall detection is a crucial issue in the health care of seniors. In this work, we propose an innovative method for detecting falls via a simple human body descriptors. The extracted features are discriminative enough to describe human postures and not too computationally complex to allow a fast processing. The fall detection is addressed as a statistical anomaly detection problem. The proposed approach combines modeling using principal component analysis modeling with the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. The EWMA scheme is applied on the ignored principal components to detect the presence of falls. Using two different fall detection datasets, URFD and FDD, we have demonstrated the greater sensitivity and effectiveness of the developed method over the conventional PCA-based methods.

  20. Spatio-temporal interdependence of bacteria and phytoplankton during a Baltic Sea spring bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eBunse

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate systems, phytoplankton spring blooms deplete inorganic nutrients and are major sources of organic matter for the microbial loop. In response to phytoplankton exudates and environmental factors, heterotrophic microbial communities are highly dynamic and change their abundance and composition both on spatial and temporal scales. Yet, most of our understanding about these processes comes from laboratory model organism studies, mesocosm experiments or single temporal transects. Spatial-temporal studies examining interactions of phytoplankton blooms and bacterioplankton community composition and function, though being highly informative, are scarce. In this study, pelagic microbial community dynamics (bacteria and phytoplankton and environmental variables were monitored during a spring bloom across the Baltic Proper (two cruises between North Germany to Gulf of Finland. To test to what extent bacterioplankton community composition relates to the spring bloom, we used next generation amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, phytoplankton diversity analysis based on microscopy counts and population genotyping of the dominating diatom Skeletonema marinoi. Several phytoplankton bloom related and environmental variables were identified to influence bacterial community composition. Members of Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria dominated the bacterial community composition but the bacterial groups showed no apparent correlation with direct bloom related variables. The less abundant bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia, on the other hand, were strongly associated with phytoplankton biomass, diatom:dinoflagellate ratio and colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM. Many bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs showed high niche specificities. For example, particular Bacteroidetes OTUs were associated with two distinct genetic clusters of S. marinoi. Our study revealed the complexity of interactions of bacterial

  1. Damage Detection Sensitivity of a Vehicle-based Bridge Health Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito; Lúcio, Válter J. G.

    2017-05-01

    As one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span (10-30m) reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (called “Bus monitoring system”) was proposed, along with safety indices, namely, “characteristic deflection”, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. In this study, to evaluate the practicality of the newly developed bus monitoring system, it has been field-tested over a period of about four years by using an in-service fixed-route bus operating on a bus route in the city of Ube, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. In here, although there are some useful monitoring methods for short and medium span bridges based on the qualitative or quantitative information, the sensitivity of damage detection was newly discussed for safety assessment based on long term health monitoring data. The verification results thus obtained are also described in this paper, and also evaluates the sensitivity of the “characteristic deflection”, which is a bridge (health) condition indicator used by the bus monitoring system, in damage detection. Sensitivity of “characteristic deflection” is verified by introducing artificial damage into a bridge that has ended its service life and is awaiting removal. Furthermore, the sensitivity of “characteristic deflection” is verified by 3D FEM analysis.

  2. Monitoring of transmission of Salmonella enterica serovars in pigs using bacteriological and serological detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsen, van R.L.; Nes, van A.; Keuzenkamp, D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Lipman, L.J.A.; Biesterveld, S.; Snijders, J.M.A.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Knapen, van F.

    2001-01-01

    The standard method to detect Salmonella positive pigs is bacteriological examination of the faeces, but in recent years the use of Salmonella-ELISA’s have become available to screen pigs for serological evidence of infection. This study was conducted to monitor the transmission of five different

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 258 - Constituents for Detection Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; DBCP 96-12-8 (29) 1,2-Dibromoethane; Ethylene dibromide; EDB 106-93-4 (30) o-Dichlorobenzene; 1,2... for Detection Monitoring Common name 1 CAS RN 2 Inorganic Constituents: (1) Antimony (Total) (2... 67-64-1 (17) Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 (18) Benzene 71-43-2 (19) Bromochloromethane 74-97-5 (20...

  4. Fault detection properties of global, local and time evolving models for batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H. J.; van Sprang, E. N. M.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses alternative methods for batch process monitoring. Two alternative methods are investigated and compared to an existing one (the benchmark). A description of the models is given and the performance is discussed by means of fault detection performance indices. The performance

  5. Fault detection properties of global, local and time evolving models for batch process monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H.J.; van Sprang, E.N.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Smilde, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses alternative methods for batch process monitoring. Two alternative methods are investigated and compared to an existing one (the benchmark). A description of the models is given and the performance is discussed by means of fault detection performance indices. The performance

  6. Development of cost effective fenceline monitoring approaches to support advanced leak detection and repair strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost-effective fence line and process monitoring systems to support advanced leak detection and repair (LDAR) strategies can enhance protection of public health, facilitate worker safety, and help companies realize cost savings by reducing lost product. The U.S. EPA Office of Re...

  7. Arrhythmia detection after atrial fibrillation ablation: value of incremental monitoring time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, A.A.W.; Wijffels, M.C.; Wever, E.F.; Kelder, J.C.; Boersma, L.V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), patients need to be followed to analyze the effect of the treatment. We evaluated the influence of the duration of Holter monitoring on the detection of arrhythmia recurrences after a single PVI at 12 months. METHODS: Consecutive patients with

  8. Operating a Microwave Radiation Detection Monitor. Module 10. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on operating a microwave radiation detection monitor. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) testing the…

  9. Fuzzy logic based anaesthesia monitoring systems for the detection of absolute hypovolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor Baig, Mirza; Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Harrison, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Anaesthesia monitoring involves critical diagnostic tasks carried out amongst lots of distractions. Computers are capable of handling large amounts of data at high speed and therefore decision support systems and expert systems are now capable of processing many signals simultaneously in real time. We have developed two fuzzy logic based anaesthesia monitoring systems; a real time smart anaesthesia alarm system (RT-SAAM) and fuzzy logic monitoring system-2 (FLMS-2), an updated version of FLMS for the detection of absolute hypovolaemia. This paper presents the design aspects of these two systems which employ fuzzy logic techniques to detect absolute hypovolaemia, and compares their performances in terms of usability and acceptability. The interpretation of these two systems of absolute hypovolaemia was compared with clinicians' assessments using Kappa analysis, RT-SAAM K=0.62, FLMS-2 K=0.75; an improvement in performance by FLMS-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Winter bloom of a rare betaproteobacterium in the Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAlonso-Saez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extremely low abundance microorganisms (members of the ‘rare biosphere’ are believed to include dormant taxa, which can sporadically become abundant following environmental triggers. Yet, microbial transitions from rare to abundant have seldom been captured in situ, and it is uncertain how widespread these transitions are. A bloom of a single ribotype (≥99% similarity in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of a widespread betaproteobacterium (Janthinobacterium sp. occurred over two weeks in Arctic marine waters. The Janthinobacterium population was not detected microscopically in situ in January and early February, but suddenly appeared in the water column thereafter, eventually accounting for up to 20% of bacterial cells in mid February. During the bloom, this bacterium was detected at open water sites up to 50 km apart, being abundant down to more than 300 meters. This event is one of the largest monospecific bacterial blooms reported in polar oceans. It is also remarkable because Betaproteobacteria are typically found only in low abundance in marine environments. In particular, Janthinobacterium were known from non-marine habitats and had previously been detected only in the rare biosphere of seawater samples, including the polar oceans. The Arctic janthinobacterium formed mucilagenous monolayer aggregates after short (ca. 8 hours incubations, suggesting that biofilm formation may play a role in maintaining rare bacteria in pelagic marine environments. The spontaneous mass occurrence of this opportunistic rare taxon in polar waters during the energy-limited season extends current knowledge of how and when microbial transitions between rare and abundant occur in the ocean.

  11. Detecting Specific Health-Related Events Using an Integrated Sensor System for Vital Sign Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Adnane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for the detection of apnea/hypopnea periods in physiological data is presented. The method is based on the intelligent combination of an integrated sensor system for long-time cardiorespiratory signal monitoring and dedicated signal-processing packages. Integrated sensors are a PVDF film and conductive fabric sheets. The signal processing package includes dedicated respiratory cycle (RC and QRS complex detection algorithms and a new method using the respiratory cycle variability (RCV for detecting apnea/hypopnea periods in physiological data. Results show that our method is suitable for online analysis of long time series data.

  12. The use of soil monitoring networks to detect changes in soil organic carbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A.; Schwierz, C.; Schwab, P.; Ammann, S.; Meuli, R.; Rossier, N.; Papritz, A.

    2010-05-01

    Process-based carbon dynamic models are widely used to estimate and forecast temporal changes in soil organic carbon content (SOC). Often, these models are calibrated against measurements from long-term field experiments with controlled treatments at a local scale. Repeated SOC inventories at the sites of a soil monitoring network may provide additional valuable information about temporal changes at a regional scale for a broader range of environmental conditions (land use, soil type, climate, etc.). Recently, Saby et al. (2008) assessed the adequacy of European soil monitoring networks to detect changes in SOC. The minimum detectable changes (MDC) differed considerably among the networks, and the design turned out to be an important factor. However, Saby et al. derived their results from scenarios because the majority of the European monitoring networks performed only one sampling campaign so far. Data on SOC changes, gathered by repeated sampling at monitoring sites under controlled conditions including strict quality assurance protocols, are still rare, and little is known about random and systematic errors in the estimated changes. Furthermore, suitable (geo-) statistical procedures are required to extrapolate the SOC measurements and their change from the surveyed sites to the regional scale. In our presentation, we report (i) our experiences on MDC gained by repeated SOC measurements at selected sites of the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO), and (ii) we show how the SOC measurements recorded at the sites of the soil monitoring network of Canton Fribourg can be used for a mapping SOC and its change at the regional scale. For this purpose we a use robust geostatistical kriging approach which exploits the dependence of SOC on land use, altitude and climate. Saby P.A. et al. (2008). Will European soil-monitoring networks be able to detect changes in topsoil organic carbon content? Global Change Biology 14: 2432-2442.

  13. Water quality real-time monitoring system via biological detection based on video analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Chen; Fei, Yuan

    2017-11-01

    With the development of society, water pollution has become the most serious problem in China. Therefore, real-time water quality monitoring is an important part of human activities and water pollution prevention. In this paper, the behavior of zebrafish was monitored by computer vision. Firstly, the moving target was extracted by the method of saliency detection, and tracked by fitting the ellipse model. Then the motion parameters were extracted by optical flow method, and the data were monitored in real time by means of Hinkley warning and threshold warning. We achieved classification warning through a number of dimensions by comprehensive toxicity index. The experimental results show that the system can achieve more accurate real-time monitoring.

  14. Reliable fault detection and diagnosis of photovoltaic systems based on statistical monitoring approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-09-18

    This study reports the development of an innovative fault detection and diagnosis scheme to monitor the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems. Towards this end, we propose a statistical approach that exploits the advantages of one-diode model and those of the univariate and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) charts to better detect faults. Specifically, we generate array\\'s residuals of current, voltage and power using measured temperature and irradiance. These residuals capture the difference between the measurements and the predictions MPP for the current, voltage and power from the one-diode model, and use them as fault indicators. Then, we apply the multivariate EWMA (MEWMA) monitoring chart to the residuals to detect faults. However, a MEWMA scheme cannot identify the type of fault. Once a fault is detected in MEWMA chart, the univariate EWMA chart based on current and voltage indicators is used to identify the type of fault (e.g., short-circuit, open-circuit and shading faults). We applied this strategy to real data from the grid-connected PV system installed at the Renewable Energy Development Center, Algeria. Results show the capacity of the proposed strategy to monitors the DC side of PV systems and detects partial shading.

  15. Modeling anuran detection and site occupancy on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) routes in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, L.A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Nanjappa, P.; Jung, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most fundamental problems in monitoring animal populations is that of imperfect detection. Although imperfect detection can be modeled, studies examining patterns in occurrence often ignore detection and thus fail to properly partition variation in detection from that of occurrence. In this study, we used anuran calling survey data collected on North American Amphibian Monitoring Program routes in eastern Maryland to investigate factors that influence detection probability and site occupancy for 10 anuran species. In 2002, 17 calling survey routes in eastern Maryland were surveyed to collect environmental and species data nine or more times. To analyze these data, we developed models incorporating detection probability and site occupancy. The results suggest that, for more than half of the 10 species, detection probabilities vary most with season (i.e., day-of-year), air temperature, time, and moon illumination, whereas site occupancy may vary by the amount of palustrine forested wetland habitat. Our results suggest anuran calling surveys should document air temperature, time of night, moon illumination, observer skill, and habitat change over time, as these factors can be important to model-adjusted estimates of site occupancy. Our study represents the first formal modeling effort aimed at developing an analytic assessment framework for NAAMP calling survey data.

  16. Transient Monitoring Function–Based Fault Detection for Inverter-Interfaced Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadeghkhani, Iman; Esmail Hamedani Golshan, Mohamad; Mehrizi-Sani, Ali

    2018-01-01

    of the inverter current waveform using a transient monitoring function (TMF). To enhance the ability of the proposed fault detection scheme, an auxiliary control system is employed in addition to the main control system of the inverter. The proposed scheme can also differentiate asymmetrical and symmetrical fault......One of the major challenges in protection of the inverter-interfaced islanded microgrids is their limited fault current level. This degrades the performance of traditional overcurrent protection schemes. This paper proposes a fault detection strategy based on monitoring the transient response...... conditions from normal load switching events and is effective for various inverter topologies (i.e., three/four-leg), main current limiting strategies, and all reference frames of the multi-loop control system. The merits of the proposed fault detection scheme are demonstrated through several time...

  17. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Allison

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites. Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context.

  18. Airborne Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Wildfire Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Robert S.; Johnston, Joshua M.; Craig, Gregory; Jennings, Sion

    2016-01-01

    For decades detection and monitoring of forest and other wildland fires has relied heavily on aircraft (and satellites). Technical advances and improved affordability of both sensors and sensor platforms promise to revolutionize the way aircraft detect, monitor and help suppress wildfires. Sensor systems like hyperspectral cameras, image intensifiers and thermal cameras that have previously been limited in use due to cost or technology considerations are now becoming widely available and affordable. Similarly, new airborne sensor platforms, particularly small, unmanned aircraft or drones, are enabling new applications for airborne fire sensing. In this review we outline the state of the art in direct, semi-automated and automated fire detection from both manned and unmanned aerial platforms. We discuss the operational constraints and opportunities provided by these sensor systems including a discussion of the objective evaluation of these systems in a realistic context. PMID:27548174

  19. Monitoring a robot swarm using a data-driven fault detection approach

    KAUST Repository

    Khaldi, Belkacem

    2017-06-30

    Using swarm robotics system, with one or more faulty robots, to accomplish specific tasks may lead to degradation in performances complying with the target requirements. In such circumstances, robot swarms require continuous monitoring to detect abnormal events and to sustain normal operations. In this paper, an innovative exogenous fault detection method for monitoring robots swarm is presented. The method merges the flexibility of principal component analysis (PCA) models and the greater sensitivity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) and cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts to insidious changes. The method is tested and evaluated on a swarm of simulated foot-bot robots performing a circle formation task, via the viscoelastic control model. We illustrate through simulated data collected from the ARGoS simulator that a significant improvement in fault detection can be obtained by using the proposed method where compared to the conventional PCA-based methods (i.e., T2 and Q).

  20. A measurement-based fault detection approach applied to monitor robots swarm

    KAUST Repository

    Khaldi, Belkacem

    2017-07-10

    Swarm robotics requires continuous monitoring to detect abnormal events and to sustain normal operations. Indeed, swarm robotics with one or more faulty robots leads to degradation of performances complying with the target requirements. This paper present an innovative data-driven fault detection method for monitoring robots swarm. The method combines the flexibility of principal component analysis (PCA) models and the greater sensitivity of the exponentially-weighted moving average control chart to incipient changes. We illustrate through simulated data collected from the ARGoS simulator that a significant improvement in fault detection can be obtained by using the proposed methods as compared to the use of the conventional PCA-based methods.

  1. Temporal influences on satellite retrieval of cyanobacteria bloom: an examination in Lake Taihu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yuanbo; Ruan, Renzong; Zhao, Dongbo

    2009-10-01

    Satellite imagery provides a cost-effective way to retrieve the cyanbacteria bloom dynamics, which is useful to early warning of the blooms. However, temporal variations in sun-target-satellite geometry and atmosphere may generate inconsistencies in multi-temporal images. To explore to what extent temporal influences could affect the retrieved results, we applied the single band and the band ratio approaches to retrieve cyanobacteria bloom in Lake Taihu of China. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products in the cases with and without correction for sun-target-satellite geometry and atmospheric effects for the whole year 2006. In addition, we made use of MODIS data including aerosol optical thickness (AOT), solar zenith angle and sensor zenith angle, all of which are indicators of the temporal influences. We then analyzed the relationships of retrieval differences with the three indicators to evaluate the temporal influences quantitatively. Our results showed that both AOT and solar zenith angle had a positive correlation with the retrieval of cyanobacteria bloom. Although it is yet under investigation if this relationship could hold on for other cases, here we emphasized that for reliable monitoring the dynamics of bloom, it should be careful to apply the approaches using satellite data without radiometric correction.

  2. Kick Detection at the Bit: Early Detection via Low Cost Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tost, Brian [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Rose, Kelly [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Aminzadeh, Fred [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Ante, Magdalene A. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering; Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Formation fluid influxes (i.e. kicks) pose persistent challenges and operational costs during drilling operations. Implications of kicks range in scale but cumulatively result in substantial costs that affect drilling safety, environment, schedule, and infrastructure. Early kick detection presents a low-cost, easily adopted solution for avoiding well control challenges associated with kicks near the bit. Borehole geophysical tools used during the drilling process as part of the logging-while-drilling (LWD) and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) provide the advantage of offering real-time downhole data. LWD/MWD collect data on both the annulus and borehole wall. The annular data are normally treated as background, and are filtered out to isolate the formation measurements. Because kicks will change the local physical properties of annular fluids, bottom-hole measurements are among the first indicators that a formation fluid has invaded the wellbore. This report describes and validates a technique for using the annular portion of LWD/MWD data to facilitate early kick detection using first order principles. The detection technique leverages data from standard and cost-effective technologies that are typically implemented during well drilling, such as MWD/LWD data in combination with mud-pulse telemetry for data transmission.

  3. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  4. The Madagascar Bloom - a serendipitous study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokosz, M. A.; Quartly, G.

    2012-12-01

    The late austral summer (February-April) phytoplankton bloom that occurs east of Madagascar, exhibits significant interannual variability and at its largest extent covers ~1% of the world's ocean surface area. The bloom raises many intriguing questions about how it begins, is sustained, propagates to the east, exports carbon and ends. It has been observed and studied using satellite ocean colour observations, but the lack of in situ data makes it difficult to address these questions. Here we describe observations that were made on a cruise in February 2005 serendipitously. These show clearly for the first time the existence of both a deep chlorophyll maximum at ~70-110m depths (seen in SeaSoar fluorimeter data) and a surface chlorophyll signature (seen in SeaWiFS satellite ocean colour data). The observations also show the modulation of biological signature at the surface by the eddy field, but not apparently of the deep chlorophyll maximum. In situ observations indicate that Trichodesmium dominates the bloom nearer to Madagascar, while the diatom Rhizosolenia clevei (and its symbiont Richelia intracellularis) dominates further from the island. In addition, SeaSoar Optical Plankton Counter (OPC), temperature and salinity data suggest that the surface bloom seen in the SeaWiFS data is confined to the shallow (~30m) mixed layer. It is hypothesised that the interannual variability in bloom intensity may be due to variations in coastal upwelling and thus the supply of iron, which is a micronutrient that can limit diazotroph growth.

  5. The Madagascar Bloom: A serendipitous study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokosz, M. A.; Quartly, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    The late austral summer (February-April) phytoplankton bloom that occurs east of Madagascar exhibits significant interannual variability and at its largest extent covers 1% of the world's ocean surface area. The bloom raises many intriguing questions about how it begins, is sustained, propagates to the east, exports carbon, and ends. It has been observed and studied using satellite ocean color observations, but the lack of in situ data makes it difficult to address these questions. Here we describe observations that were made serendipitously on a cruise in February 2005. These show clearly for the first time the simultaneous existence of a deep chlorophyll maximum at 70-110 m depths (seen in SeaSoar fluorimeter data) and a surface chlorophyll signature [seen in Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite ocean color data]. The observations also show the modulation of the biological signature at the surface by the eddy field but not of the deep chlorophyll maximum. Trichodesmium dominates the bloom nearer to Madagascar, while the diatom Rhizosolenia clevei (and its symbiont Richelia intracellularis) dominates further from the island. The surface bloom seen in the SeaWiFS data is confined to the shallow ( 30 m) mixed layer. It is hypothesized that the interannual variability in bloom intensity may be due to variations in coastal upwelling and thus the supply of iron, which is a micronutrient that can limit diazotroph growth.

  6. Energy Efficient Monitoring for Intrusion Detection in Battery-Powered Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Hassanzadeh, Amin

    2011-07-18

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMN) are easy-to-deploy, low cost solutions for providing networking and internet services in environments with no network infrastructure, e.g., disaster areas and battlefields. Since electric power is not readily available in such environments battery-powered mesh routers, operating in an energy efficient manner, are required. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of energy efficient solutions, e.g., involving duty-cycling, on WMN intrusion detection systems, which require continuous monitoring, remains an open research problem. In this paper we propose that carefully chosen monitoring mesh nodes ensure continuous and complete detection coverage, while allowing non-monitoring mesh nodes to save energy through duty-cycling. We formulate the monitoring node selection problem as an optimization problem and propose distributed and centralized solutions for it, with different tradeoffs. Through extensive simulations and a proof-of-concept hardware/software implementation we demonstrate that our solutions extend the WMN lifetime by 8%, while ensuring, at the minimum, a 97% intrusion detection rate.

  7. Detection of GRBs and OTs by All-Sky Optical and SID Monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hudec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on two alternative simple methods to detect counterparts of cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs and optical transients (OTs. We report on the development and tests of an alternative optical all-sky monitor recently tested at the Karlovy Vary Observatory. The monitor is based on a Peleng 8 mm fish-eye lens (1 : 3,5–1 : 16 and CANON EOS 350D digital CCD camera. This type of monitor represents a low-cost device suitable for easy replication and still able to detect brighter optical transients simultaneously to GRB triggers. Such OTs have been observed for some of the GRBs such as GRB990123, GRB060117, or recently GRB080319 indicating that some fraction of GRBs can generate optical transient emission accessible by simple small aperture instrumentation as described here. These efforts are accompanied by development of dedicated programmes to access and to evaluate all-sky images; these efforts will be also briefly described. The All-Sky Monitor is a space variant optical system and its point spread function (PSF has not uniform shape in the field of view. The processing and measuring of image data is complicated, and sophisticated deconvolution algorithms are used for image restoration. The second method is the GRB detection based on their ionospheric response.

  8. Design of Wearable Breathing Sound Monitoring System for Real-Time Wheeze Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the clinic, the wheezing sound is usually considered as an indicator symptom to reflect the degree of airway obstruction. The auscultation approach is the most common way to diagnose wheezing sounds, but it subjectively depends on the experience of the physician. Several previous studies attempted to extract the features of breathing sounds to detect wheezing sounds automatically. However, there is still a lack of suitable monitoring systems for real-time wheeze detection in daily life. In this study, a wearable and wireless breathing sound monitoring system for real-time wheeze detection was proposed. Moreover, a breathing sounds analysis algorithm was designed to continuously extract and analyze the features of breathing sounds to provide the objectively quantitative information of breathing sounds to professional physicians. Here, normalized spectral integration (NSI was also designed and applied in wheeze detection. The proposed algorithm required only short-term data of breathing sounds and lower computational complexity to perform real-time wheeze detection, and is suitable to be implemented in a commercial portable device, which contains relatively low computing power and memory. From the experimental results, the proposed system could provide good performance on wheeze detection exactly and might be a useful assisting tool for analysis of breathing sounds in clinical diagnosis.

  9. Detection of microbial contaminations in drinking water using ATP measurements – evaluating potential for online monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Óluva Karin; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    of reagent kit. Surface water diluted 100-1000 times was detected in drinking water with ATP measurements. ATP has the potential as an early warning tool, especially in the period when the contamination concentration is high. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights......There is an increasing call for fast and reliable methods for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. The potential for Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements as a real-time analysis for continuous monitoring of microbial drinking water...

  10. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring May Detect Carotid Occlusion Intolerance during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Furuse, Motomasa; Yagi, Ryokichi; Ohmura, Tomohisa; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naokado; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Kawabata, Shinji; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2018-02-05

    The frequency of the occurrence of adverse events associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) is usually low, but serious adverse events such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) may occur. Real-time monitoring is ideal for the early detection of adverse events during the surgical procedure. This study aimed to evaluate continuous blood glucose (BG) monitoring for the detection of adverse events during CAS. Forty patients undergoing scheduled CAS were prospectively enrolled. An artificial pancreas was used for continuous BG monitoring (once per minute), using venous blood extracted at a rate of 2 mL/hr during CAS. The primary endpoint was a correlation between BG change and adverse events. CAS was discontinued in 1 patient, and BG was not measured in 5 patients (12.5%) because of the inability to extract blood. Among 34 evaluable patients, no patient developed CHS, but 3 patients (9%) experienced carotid occlusion intolerance. During CAS, BG was significantly higher in patients with carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 5 mg/dL) than in patients without carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 0 mg/dL) (P = 0.0221). A cutoff BG value ≥4 mg/dL during CAS showed 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of carotid occlusion intolerance. There was no significant correlation between BG change and other adverse events. BG elevation may help detect carotid occlusion intolerance although it is still unknown whether BG monitoring can detect CHS. Further studies should validate that a cutoff BG elevation value of ≥4 mg/dL during CAS indicates carotid occlusion intolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced Oil Spill Detection Algorithms For Satellite Based Maritime Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, Andrea; Azevedo, Rui; Sapage, Tania; Carmo, Paulo

    2013-12-01

    During the last years, the increasing pollution occurrence and the alarming deterioration of the environmental health conditions of the sea, lead to the need of global monitoring capabilities, namely for marine environment management in terms of oil spill detection and indication of the suspected polluter. The sensitivity of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to the different phenomena on the sea, especially for oil spill and vessel detection, makes it a key instrument for global pollution monitoring. The SAR performances in maritime pollution monitoring are being operationally explored by a set of service providers on behalf of the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA), which has launched in 2007 the CleanSeaNet (CSN) project - a pan-European satellite based oil monitoring service. EDISOFT, which is from the beginning a service provider for CSN, is continuously investing in R&D activities that will ultimately lead to better algorithms and better performance on oil spill detection from SAR imagery. This strategy is being pursued through EDISOFT participation in the FP7 EC Sea-U project and in the Automatic Oil Spill Detection (AOSD) ESA project. The Sea-U project has the aim to improve the current state of oil spill detection algorithms, through the informative content maximization obtained with data fusion, the exploitation of different type of data/ sensors and the development of advanced image processing, segmentation and classification techniques. The AOSD project is closely related to the operational segment, because it is focused on the automation of the oil spill detection processing chain, integrating auxiliary data, like wind information, together with image and geometry analysis techniques. The synergy between these different objectives (R&D versus operational) allowed EDISOFT to develop oil spill detection software, that combines the operational automatic aspect, obtained through dedicated integration of the processing chain in the existing open source NEST

  12. Luminance level of a monitor: influence on detectability and detection rate of breast cancer in 2D mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemelmans, Frédéric; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Chesterman, Frédérique; Kimpe, Tom; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate lesion detectability and reading time as a function of luminance level of the monitor. Material and Methods: 3D mass models and microcalcification clusters were simulated into ROIs of for processing mammograms. Randomly selected ROIs were subdivided in three groups according to their background glandularity: high (>30%), medium (15-30%) and low (microcalcification clusters (2 - 4mm) were scaled in 3D to create a range of sizes. The linear attenuation coefficient (AC) of the masses was adjusted from 100% glandular tissue to 90%, 80%, 70%, to create different contrasts. Six physicists read the full database on Barco's Coronis Uniti monitor for four different luminance levels (300, 800, 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2), using a 4-AFC tool. Percentage correct (PC) and time were computed for all different conditions. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate the effect of luminance on PC and time. A multi-factorial analysis was performed using MANOVA.. Results: Paired t-test indicated a statistically significant difference for the average time per session between 300 and 1200; 800 and 1200; 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2, for all participants combined. There was no effect on PC. MANOVA denoted significantly lower reading times for high glandularity images at 1200 Cd/m2. Both types of masses were significantly faster detected at 1200 Cd/m2, for the contrast study. In the size study, microcalcification clusters and spiculated masses had a significantly higher detection rate at 1200 Cd/m2. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a significant decrease in reading time, while detectability remained constant.

  13. Incorporation of Bloom's taxonomy into multiple-choice examination questions for a pharmacotherapeutics course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Patel, Rajul A; Uchizono, James A; Beck, Lynn

    2012-08-10

    To incorporate Bloom's taxonomy into multiple-choice examination questions in a pharmacotherapeutics course and assess its effectiveness in detecting areas of improvement in learning. Bloom's taxonomy was incorporated into examination questions through a multi-step process: Sample questions representing each learning domain within Bloom's taxonomy (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) were introduced to students during lecture presentations and discussions. Quiz and examination containing questions categorized according to Bloom's taxonomy were administered to students. During review sessions following each quiz or examination, the categorization of each question was provided to students and feedback from students was gathered. The effect of the 5 types of test questions on the correct response fraction and discrimination index was determined after combining synthesis and evaluation. Correct response fractions for knowledge, comprehension, and application questions were significantly higher than those for analysis and synthesis/evaluation questions (plearning assistance, the majority realized the importance of critical-thinking skills in the learning process. Well-designed multiple-choice questions incorporating different learning domains of Bloom's taxonomy may be a potential method of assessing critical-thinking skills in large classes of students.

  14. Design of Cyber Attack Precursor Symptom Detection Algorithm through System Base Behavior Analysis and Memory Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sungmo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Cagalaban, Giovanni; Lim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Seoksoo

    More recently, botnet-based cyber attacks, including a spam mail or a DDos attack, have sharply increased, which poses a fatal threat to Internet services. At present, antivirus businesses make it top priority to detect malicious code in the shortest time possible (Lv.2), based on the graph showing a relation between spread of malicious code and time, which allows them to detect after malicious code occurs. Despite early detection, however, it is not possible to prevent malicious code from occurring. Thus, we have developed an algorithm that can detect precursor symptoms at Lv.1 to prevent a cyber attack using an evasion method of 'an executing environment aware attack' by analyzing system behaviors and monitoring memory.

  15. Monitoring and Fault Detection in Photovoltaic Systems Based On Inverter Measured String I-V Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Sera, Dezso; Kerekes, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Most photovoltaic (PV) string inverters have the hardware capability to measure at least part of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curve of the PV strings connected at the input. However, this intrinsic capability of the inverters is not used, since I-V curve measurement and monitoring...... functions are not implemented in the inverter control software. In this paper, we aim to show how such a functionality can be useful for PV system monitoring purposes, to detect the presence and cause of power-loss in the PV strings, be it due to shading, degradation of the PV modules or balance-of-system...... components through increased series resistance losses, or shunting of the PV modules. To achieve this, we propose and experimentally demonstrate three complementary PV system monitoring methods that make use of the I-V curve measurement capability of a commercial string inverter. The first method is suitable...

  16. Study for Reactor Monitoring using Anti-neutrino Detection in the Neos experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bo Young; Sun, Gwang Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Eun Ju [ISB, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-05-15

    In this study we describe a feasibility study of reactor monitoring using antineutrino detection in the Neutrino Experiment for Oscillation at Short baseline (NEOS) at Hanbit power plant. Recently, in the perspective of nonproliferation issues and misuse of nuclear energy as a fast-growing nuclear energy industry, the application of anti-neutrino measurement has been proposed and the feasibility studies has been carried out as a novel technology for monitoring the burning process of nuclear power reactor. The NEOS detector with 1000 L Gd-doped liquid scintillator was installed in tendon gallery at Hanbit power station unit 5 and has been collecting close to 2000 IBD events per day with the signal to noise ratio of ∼ 20. As a preliminary result, we demonstrate the possibility of monitoring nuclear power reactor with the IBD counting rate during reactor power ON, ramping up, and OFF.

  17. Tank S-102 waste retrieval leak detection and monitoring and mitigation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANSON, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a proactive and mitigative strategy for the identification and management of potential S-102 waste leaks during the S-102 Waste Retrieval and the basis for this approach. The strategy is based on preventing leakage, minimizing leak volumes if a lead should occur, and providing the best available leak detection and monitoring technologies. Ex-tank leak detection will use the baseline borehole gamma and neutron drywell logging trucks, supplemented with manually deployed neutron moisture measurements. Waste mitigation includes management of the retrieval fluids in a manner that limits the risk for a potential leak

  18. Comparison of Three Nonlinear Filters for Fault Detection in Continuous Glucose Monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Wendt, Sabrina Lyngbye; Boiroux, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of three nonlinear filters in online drift detection of continuous glucose monitors. The nonlinear filters are the extended Kalman filter (EKF), the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and the particle filter (PF). They are all based on a nonlinear...... model of the glucose-insulin dynamics in people with type 1 diabetes. Drift is modelled by a Gaussian random walk and is detected based on the statistical tests of the 90-min prediction residuals of the filters. The unscented Kalman filter had the highest average F score of 85.9%, and the smallest...

  19. Radioactive aerosol detection station for near real-time atmospheric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, L.R.; Bohner, John D.

    1997-01-01

    A radionuclide aerosol detection station has been developed to measure radioactivity in the environment. The objective is to monitor the atmosphere for anthropogenic radioactivity that could be indicative of nuclear weapons tests to verify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Eighty stations will form the backbone of the International Monitoring System in which stations are linked to a central analysis facility called the International Data Centre. Data are transmitted to this centre in near real-time to facilitate rapid detection. Principal process of the field measurement are collection, separation, and assay. Collection of airborne radioactivity is achieved through high-volume air sampling. Aerosols separation is accomplished by high-efficiency particulate filtration. Radionuclides assay is achieved by in-situ high resolution gamma spectrometry. These modules are integrated into a unit that provides power, control, and communication support subsystems. Station operation is semi-automatic requiring only minimal human interaction. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Point-of-Care Detection Devices for Food Safety Monitoring: Proactive Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Marie Yung-Chen; Hsu, Min-Yen; Chen, Shih-Jen; Hwang, De-Kuang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2017-04-01

    Food safety has become an increasingly significant public concern in both developed and under-developed nations around the world; it increases morbidity, mortality, human suffering, and economic burden. This Opinion focuses on (i) examining the influence of pathogens and chemicals (e.g., food additives and pesticide residue) on food-borne illnesses, (ii) summarizing food hazards that are present in Asia, and (iii) summarizing the array of current point-of-care (POC) detection devices that have potential applications in food safety monitoring. In addition, we provide insight into global healthcare issues in both developing and under-developed nations with a focus on bridging the gap between food safety issues in the public sector (associated with relevant clinical cases) and the use of POC detection devices for food safety monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous dynamic monitoring of a lively footbridge for serviceability assessment and damage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Hua; Moutinho, Carlos; Caetano, Elsa; Magalhães, Filipe; Cunha, Álvaro

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the feasibility of applying a vibration based damage detection approach, based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA), to eliminate environmental effects using the large amount of high quality data continuously collected by the dynamic monitoring system of Pedro e Inês footbridge since 2007. Few works describe real data, regularly collected along several years by reliable continuous dynamic monitoring systems in bridge structures. One main contribution is to show a large difference between making academic research based on numerical simulations or limited experimental samples, and making validity tests of innovative procedures using large high quality databases collected in real structures. The monitoring system, installed with the only initial objective of checking the efficiency of vibration control devices used to mitigate lateral and vertical vibrations, was therefore further developed for research purposes by implementing LabVIEW based automated signal processing and output-only modal identification routines, that enabled the analysis of the correlation of modal estimates with the temperature and the vibration level, as well as the automatic tracking of modal parameters along several years. With the final purpose of detecting potential structural damage at an early stage, the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was employed to effectively eliminate temperature effects, whereas Novelty Analysis on the residual errors of the PCA model was used to provide a statistical indication of damage. The efficiency of this vibration based damage detection approach was verified using 3 years of measurements at Pedro e Inês footbridge under operational conditions and simulating several realistic damage scenarios affecting the boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that such a dynamic monitoring system, apart from providing relevant instantaneous dynamic information, working as an alert system associated to the verification of vibration

  2. Leak detection in steam generators with hydrogen monitors using diffusion membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissink, M.

    1975-01-01

    Large water leaks in steam-generators give rise to violent chemical reactions which can only be controlled by a pressure relief system. Smaller leaks do not pose direct safety hazards but wastage of pipes surrounding the leak should be prevented. Leak detection is best carried out by monitors recording the hydrogen in sodium content. For large leaks the specification of these monitors causes no problems, contrary to those for the timely detection of small leaks. Essential parameters are sensitivity and speed of response, specificity is less important. But apart from the instrument specification, a number of factors, related to the construction and operation of the steam-generator, determine the performance of the leak detection system. A discussion of these factors is given, with a view to the design of the SNR-300. Although tile results of many theoretical studies and experimental work are available, there seems to be room for further investigations on the growths of minor leaks. Also lacking a sufficient experience concerning the level and fluctuations of the hydrogen background in the sodium. A description is given of the hydrogen monitor developed at TNO, which is based on a combination of a nickel membrane and an ion getter pump. The parameters of this instrument have been evaluated in a test rig. Operational experience with the monitor is available from the 50 MW Test Facility at Hengelo. Especially for further studies the need for a calibrated instrument has become apparent. Test are going on with a modified design of a monitor meeting this requirement. (author)

  3. On the Beat Detection Performance in Long-Term ECG Monitoring Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco-Manuel Melgarejo-Meseguer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide literature on R-wave detection algorithms for ECG Holter recordings, the long-term monitoring applications are bringing new requirements, and it is not clear that the existing methods can be straightforwardly used in those scenarios. Our aim in this work was twofold: First, we scrutinized the scope and limitations of existing methods for Holter monitoring when moving to long-term monitoring; Second, we proposed and benchmarked a beat detection method with adequate accuracy and usefulness in long-term scenarios. A longitudinal study was made with the most widely used waveform analysis algorithms, which allowed us to tune the free parameters of the required blocks, and a transversal study analyzed how these parameters change when moving to different databases. With all the above, the extension to long-term monitoring in a database of 7-day Holter monitoring was proposed and analyzed, by using an optimized simultaneous-multilead processing. We considered both own and public databases. In this new scenario, the noise-avoid mechanisms are more important due to the amount of noise that exists in these recordings, moreover, the computational efficiency is a key parameter in order to export the algorithm to the clinical practice. The method based on a Polling function outperformed the others in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency, yielding 99.48% sensitivity, 99.54% specificity, 99.69% positive predictive value, 99.46% accuracy, and 0.85% error for MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. We conclude that the method can be used in long-term Holter monitoring systems.

  4. Improvement of statistical methods for detecting anomalies in climate and environmental monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakunin, A. G.; Hussein, H. M.

    2018-01-01

    The article shows how the known statistical methods, which are widely used in solving financial problems and a number of other fields of science and technology, can be effectively applied after minor modification for solving such problems in climate and environment monitoring systems, as the detection of anomalies in the form of abrupt changes in signal levels, the occurrence of positive and negative outliers and the violation of the cycle form in periodic processes.

  5. Developing a PQ monitoring system for assessing power quality and critical areas detection

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Romero; Ricardo Pardo; Luis Gallego

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a power quality monitoring system. The system is aimed at assessing power quality and detecting critical areas throughout at distribution system. Such system integrates a hardware system and a software processing tool developed in four main stages. Power quality disturbances are registered by PQ meters and the data is transmitted through a 3G wireless network. This data is processed and filtered in an open source database. Some interesting statistical in...

  6. Empirical Model for Phycocyanin Concentration Estimation as an Indicator of Cyanobacterial Bloom in the Optically Complex Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Woźniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used parameters to assess cyanobacteria blooms are chlorophyll a concentration and cyanobacterial cell counts. Chlorophyll a is contained in all phytoplankton groups and therefore it is not a good estimator when only detection of cyanobacteria is desired. Moreover, laboratory determination of cyanobacterial cell counts is difficult and it requires a well-trained specialist. Instead of that, cyanobacterial blooms can be assessed using phycocyanin, a marker pigment for cyanobacteria, which shows a strong correlation with the biomass of cyanobacteria. The objective of this research is to develop a simple, remote sensing reflectance-based spectral band ratio model for the estimation of phycocyanin concentration, optimized for the waters of the Baltic Sea. The study was performed using hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance data and reference pigment concentration obtained in the optically complex coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, where cyanobacteria bloom occur regularly every summer, often causing severe damages. The presented two-band model shows good estimation results, with root-mean-square error (RMSE 0.26 and determination coefficient (R2 0.73. Moreover, no correlation with chlorophyll a concentration is observed, which makes it accurate in predicting cyanobacterial abundance in the presence of other chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton groups as well as for the waters with high colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM concentration. The developed model was also adapted to spectral bands of the recently launched Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Color Imager (OLCI radiometer, and the estimation accuracy was comparable (RMSE = 0.28 and R2 = 0.69. The presented model allows frequent, large-scale monitoring of cyanobacteria biomass and it can be an effective tool for the monitoring and management of coastal regions.

  7. Cryptophyte bloom in a Mediterranean estuary: High abundance of Plagioselmis cf. prolonga in the Krka River estuary (eastern Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Šupraha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During the June 2010 survey of phytoplankton and physicochemical parameters in the Krka River estuary (eastern Adriatic Sea, a cryptophyte bloom was observed. High abundance of cryptophytes (maximum 7.9×106 cells l–1 and high concentrations of the class-specific biomarker pigment alloxanthine (maximum 2312 ng l–1 were detected in the surface layer and at the halocline in the lower reach of the estuary. Taxonomical analysis revealed that the blooming species was Plagioselmis cf. prolonga. Analysis of the environmental parameters in the estuary suggested that the bloom was supported by the slower river flow as well as the increased orthophosphate and ammonium concentrations. The first record of a cryptophyte bloom in the Krka River estuary may indicate that large-scale changes are taking place in the phytoplankton community. Such changes could have a major impact on the natural ecosystem dynamics and the mariculture production in the area.

  8. Functions and requirements for Hanford single-shell tank leakage detection and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, J.M.; Ohl, P.C.

    1995-04-19

    This document provides the initial functions and requirements for leakage detection and monitoring applicable to past and potential future leakage from the Hanford Site`s 149 single-shell high-level waste tanks. This mission is a part of the overall mission of the Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Waste Remediation System division to remediate the tank waste in a safe and acceptable manner. Systems engineering principles are being applied to this effort. This document reflects the an initial step in the systems engineering approach to decompose the mission into primary functions and requirements. The document is considered approximately 30% complete relative to the effort required to produce a final version that can be used to support demonstration and/or procurement of technologies. The functions and requirements in this document apply to detection and monitoring of below ground leaks from SST containment boundaries and the resulting soil contamination. Leakage detection and monitoring is invoked in the TWRS Program in three fourth level functions: (1) Store Waste, (2) Retrieve Waste, and (3) Disposition Excess Facilities (as identified in DOE/RL-92-60 Rev. 1, Tank Waste Remediation System Functions and Requirements).

  9. Detection and monitoring of surface micro-cracks by PPP-BOTDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dewei; Ansari, Farhad; Feng, Xin

    2015-06-01

    Appearance of micrometer size surface cracks is common in structural elements such as welded connections, beams, and gusset plates in bridges. Brillouin scattering-based sensors are capable of making distributed strain measurements. Pre-pump-pulse Brillouin optical time domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA) provides a centimeter-level spatial resolution, which facilitates detection and monitoring of the cracks. In the work described here, in addition to the shift in Brillouin frequency (distributed strains), change in the Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) width is investigated for the detection and monitoring of surface micro-cracks. A theoretical analysis was undertaken in order to verify the rationality of the proposed method. The theoretical approach involved simulation of strain within a segment of the optical fiber traversing a crack and use of the simulated strain distribution in the opto-mechanical relations in order to numerically obtain the change in the BGS. Simulations revealed that the increase in crack opening displacements is associated with increase in BGS width and decrease in its peak power. Experimental results also indicated that the increases in crack opening displacements are accompanied with increases in BGS widths. However, it will be difficult to use the decrease in BGS power peak as another indicator due to practical difficulties in establishing generalized power amplitude in all the experiments. The study indicated that, in combination with the shift in Brillouin frequency, the increase in BGS width will provide a strong tool for detection and monitoring of surface micro-crack growths.

  10. Urban air pollution monitoring: laser-based procedure for the detection of carbon monoxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W X; Ledingham, K W; Singhal, R P; McCanny, T

    1998-05-01

    Urban air quality is of considerable importance in many cities throughout Europe and the USA. In particular, current EU legislation has driven an expansion of monitoring of more pollutants at more sites. At present in the UK, real time readings are now available for benzene, buta-1,3-diene and other volatile organic compounds, airborne fine dust (PM10), CO, 03, SO2, and NOX. Carbon monoxide is produced to varying degrees in all combustion processes but more than 90% is caused by emissions from petrol vehicle exhausts. The World Health Ogranisation guidelines for exposure to the gas is pollutants mentioned above are monitored by different detection techniques and it has been the authors' philosophy to develop instrumentation which can monitor all the different pollutants using a single detector. To this end, a multiphoton laser based procedure, using simple ionization chambers, has been developed to detect the different pollutants with different wavelengths. For CO, a 2 + 1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme at 230 nm can be used with detection limits of about 1 ppm.

  11. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  12. Seawater reverse osmosis desalination and (harmful) algal blooms

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the occurrence of HABs in seawater, their effects on the operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants, the indicators for quantifying/predicting these effects, and the pretreatment strategies for mitigating operational issues during algal blooms. The potential issues in SWRO plants during HABs are particulate/organic fouling of pretreatment systems and biological fouling of RO membranes, mainly due to accumulation of algal organic matter (AOM). The presence of HAB toxins in desalinated water is also a potential concern but only at very low concentrations. Monitoring algal cell density, AOM concentrations and membrane fouling indices is a promising approach to assess the quality of SWRO feedwater and performance of the pretreatment system. When geological condition is favourable, subsurface intake can be a robust pretreatment for SWRO during HABs. Existing SWRO plants with open intake and are fitted with granular media filtration can improve performance in terms of capacity and product water quality, if preceded by dissolved air flotation or sedimentation. However, the application of advanced pretreatment using ultrafiltration membrane with in-line coagulation is often a better option as it is capable of maintaining stable operation and better RO feed water quality during algal bloom periods with significantly lower chemical consumption.

  13. A Gaussian Process Based Online Change Detection Algorithm for Monitoring Periodic Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandola, Varun [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Online time series change detection is a critical component of many monitoring systems, such as space and air-borne remote sensing instruments, cardiac monitors, and network traffic profilers, which continuously analyze observations recorded by sensors. Data collected by such sensors typically has a periodic (seasonal) component. Most existing time series change detection methods are not directly applicable to handle such data, either because they are not designed to handle periodic time series or because they cannot operate in an online mode. We propose an online change detection algorithm which can handle periodic time series. The algorithm uses a Gaussian process based non-parametric time series prediction model and monitors the difference between the predictions and actual observations within a statistically principled control chart framework to identify changes. A key challenge in using Gaussian process in an online mode is the need to solve a large system of equations involving the associated covariance matrix which grows with every time step. The proposed algorithm exploits the special structure of the covariance matrix and can analyze a time series of length T in O(T^2) time while maintaining a O(T) memory footprint, compared to O(T^4) time and O(T^2) memory requirement of standard matrix manipulation methods. We experimentally demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithm over several existing time series change detection algorithms on a set of synthetic and real time series. Finally, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for identifying land use land cover changes using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data collected for an agricultural region in Iowa state, USA. Our algorithm is able to detect different types of changes in a NDVI validation data set (with ~80% accuracy) which occur due to crop type changes as well as disruptive changes (e.g., natural disasters).

  14. A Self-Learning Sensor Fault Detection Framework for Industry Monitoring IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many applications based on Internet of Things (IoT technology have recently founded in industry monitoring area. Thousands of sensors with different types work together in an industry monitoring system. Sensors at different locations can generate streaming data, which can be analyzed in the data center. In this paper, we propose a framework for online sensor fault detection. We motivate our technique in the context of the problem of the data value fault detection and event detection. We use the Statistics Sliding Windows (SSW to contain the recent sensor data and regress each window by Gaussian distribution. The regression result can be used to detect the data value fault. Devices on a production line may work in different workloads and the associate sensors will have different status. We divide the sensors into several status groups according to different part of production flow chat. In this way, the status of a sensor is associated with others in the same group. We fit the values in the Status Transform Window (STW to get the slope and generate a group trend vector. By comparing the current trend vector with history ones, we can detect a rational or irrational event. In order to determine parameters for each status group we build a self-learning worker thread in our framework which can edit the corresponding parameter according to the user feedback. Group-based fault detection (GbFD algorithm is proposed in this paper. We test the framework with a simulation dataset extracted from real data of an oil field. Test result shows that GbFD detects 95% sensor fault successfully.

  15. Automatic Change Detection for Real-Time Monitoring of EEG Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, automatic change detection for real-time monitoring of electroencephalogram (EEG signals has attracted widespread interest with a large number of clinical applications. However, it is still a challenging problem. This paper presents a novel framework for this task where joint time-domain features are firstly computed to extract temporal fluctuations of a given EEG data stream; and then, an auto-regressive (AR linear model is adopted to model the data and temporal anomalies are subsequently calculated from that model to reflect the possibilities that a change occurs; a non-parametric statistical test based on Randomized Power Martingale (RPM is last performed for making change decision from the resulting anomaly scores. We conducted experiments on the publicly-available Bern-Barcelona EEG database where promising results for terms of detection precision (96.97%, detection recall (97.66% as well as computational efficiency have been achieved. Meanwhile, we also evaluated the proposed method for real detection of seizures occurrence for a monitoring epilepsy patient. The results of experiments by using both the testing database and real application demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of the method for the purpose of change detection in EEG signals. The proposed framework has two additional properties: (1 it uses a pre-defined AR model for modeling of the past observed data so that it can be operated in an unsupervised manner, and (2 it uses an adjustable threshold to achieve a scalable decision making so that a coarse-to-fine detection strategy can be developed for quick detection or further analysis purposes.

  16. Decadal-Scale Changes of Dinoflagellates and Diatoms in the Anomalous Baltic Sea Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klais, Riina; Tamminen, Timo; Kremp, Anke; Spilling, Kristian; Olli, Kalle

    2011-01-01

    The algal spring bloom in the Baltic Sea represents an anomaly from the winter-spring bloom patterns worldwide in terms of frequent and recurring dominance of dinoflagellates over diatoms. Analysis of approximately 3500 spring bloom samples from the Baltic Sea monitoring programs revealed (i) that within the major basins the proportion of dinoflagellates varied from 0.1 (Kattegat) to >0.8 (central Baltic Proper), and (ii) substantial shifts (e.g. from 0.2 to 0.6 in the Gulf of Finland) in the dinoflagellate proportion over four decades. During a recent decade (1995–2004) the proportion of dinoflagellates increased relative to diatoms mostly in the northernmost basins (Gulf of Bothnia, from 0.1 to 0.4) and in the Gulf of Finland, (0.4 to 0.6) which are typically ice-covered areas. We hypothesize that in coastal areas a specific sequence of seasonal events, involving wintertime mixing and resuspension of benthic cysts, followed by proliferation in stratified thin layers under melting ice, favors successful seeding and accumulation of dense dinoflagellate populations over diatoms. This head-start of dinoflagellates by the onset of the spring bloom is decisive for successful competition with the faster growing diatoms. Massive cyst formation and spreading of cyst beds fuel the expanding and ever larger dinoflagellate blooms in the relatively shallow coastal waters. Shifts in the dominant spring bloom algal groups can have significant effects on major elemental fluxes and functioning of the Baltic Sea ecosystem, but also in the vast shelves and estuaries at high latitudes, where ice-associated cold-water dinoflagellates successfully compete with diatoms. PMID:21747911

  17. Multiscale bloom dynamics from a high frequency autonomous measurement system in the Eastern English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derot, Jonathan; Schmitt, François; Gentilhomme, Valérie

    2014-05-01

    We consider here a dataset from an Eulerian automated system, located on the coastal area of the French side of the English Channel (Boulogne-sur-Mer), called MAREL Carnot, operated by IFREMER (France). This system records more than 15 physico-chemical parameters at 20 minutes intervals, and at the constant depth of -1,5m whatever the tidal range. Our study focuses on the period 2004 to 2011. The objective of this study is to have a better understanding of the bloom fluorescence multiscale dynamics, as regards the coastal area of English Channel and possible influence of temperature on this dynamics. Annual blooms are visible, superposed to multiscale fluctuations. The probability density function (PDF) of the fluorescence time series very nicely obeys a power law with slope -2. The PDF for annual portions obeys also power laws, with slopes which are related to the annual average. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is used to study the dynamics and display the power spectrum, which will be linked with these dynamics. EMD method is also used to extract a trend and isolate the blooms from the high frequency dynamics. We show that the high frequency part of the fluorescence dynamics has a very large variance during bloom events, compared to normal conditions. We also show that there is a link between the mean winter temperature and the strength of bloom next spring. These results contribute to statistically characterize the bloom dynamics and extract some possible universal relations. Keywords: English Channel; Autonomous monitoring; Power spectra; EMD method; Probability density functions; Power laws.

  18. Cyanobacterial blooms in lake Atitlan, Guatemala

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejmánková, E.; Komárek, Jiří; Dix, M.; Komárková, Jaroslava; Girón, N.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 4 (2011), s. 296-302 ISSN 0075-9511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : water blooms * plancton * Guatemala Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  19. Plankton bloom controlled by horizontal stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W.; Neufeld, Z.; Scheuring, I.

    2009-10-01

    Here we show a simple mechanism in which changes in the rate of horizontal stirring by mesoscale ocean eddies can trigger or suppress plankton blooms and can lead to an abrupt change in the average plankton density. We consider a single species phytoplankton model with logistic growth, grazing and a spatially non-uniform carrying capacity. The local dynamics have multiple steady states for some values of the carrying capacity that can lead to localized blooms as fluid moves across the regions with different properties. We show that for this model even small changes in the ratio of biological timescales relative to the flow timescales can greatly enhance or reduce the global plankton productivity. Thus, this may be a possible mechanism in which changes in horizontal mixing can trigger plankton blooms or cause regime shifts in some oceanic regions. Comparison between the spatially distributed model and Lagrangian simulations considering temporal fluctuations along fluid trajectories, demonstrates that small scale transport processes also play an important role in the development of plankton blooms with a significant influence on global biomass.

  20. Distance Sensitive Bloom Filters Without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    answers. Absence of false negatives is of critical importance in many applications of Bloom filters, so it is natural to ask if this can be also achieved in the distance sensitive setting. Our main contributions are upper and lower bounds (that are tight in several cases) for space usage in the distance...

  1. Improved nonlinear fault detection strategy based on the Hellinger distance metric: Plug flow reactor monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-03-18

    Fault detection has a vital role in the process industry to enhance productivity, efficiency, and safety, and to avoid expensive maintenance. This paper proposes an innovative multivariate fault detection method that can be used for monitoring nonlinear processes. The proposed method merges advantages of nonlinear projection to latent structures (NLPLS) modeling and those of Hellinger distance (HD) metric to identify abnormal changes in highly correlated multivariate data. Specifically, the HD is used to quantify the dissimilarity between current NLPLS-based residual and reference probability distributions obtained using fault-free data. Furthermore, to enhance further the robustness of these methods to measurement noise, and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of residuals is used before the application of the HD-based monitoring scheme. The performances of the developed NLPLS-HD fault detection technique is illustrated using simulated plug flow reactor data. The results show that the proposed method provides favorable performance for detection of faults compared to the conventional NLPLS method.

  2. Leak before break detection-annulus gas monitoring system evolution and operating experience at KGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, D.D.; Sanathkumar, V.V.; Ramamurthy, K.; Nageswara Rao, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) at RAPS 1 and 2 and MAPS have provision for detection of pressure tube leak by indirect method. The reactor vessel (calandria) is housed in calandria vault (C/V) filled with air and C/V moisture element indicates the water leak from calandria tube or pressure tube. Further, detection of leak is a cumbersome process. From NAPS onwards, calandria is housed in C/V filled with water, annulus between calandria tube and pressure tube is filled with CO 2 and annulus gas monitoring system (AGMS) is provided by design for detection of any pressure tube leak. The design was improved and AGMS for Kaiga 1 and 2 and RAPS 3 and 4 is having re-circulation mode of operation. The design provides for monitoring dew point of annulus gas (CO 2 ) for indicating the leak and later to identify the pressure tube/calandria tube having leak. The paper deals with operating experience of AGMS at Kaiga generating station (KGS). During the commissioning and initial power operation at KGS, problems were encountered in re-circulation mode. These problems were high radiation field near AGMS piping, high temperature on blower body, blower bearing failure and system leaks. Design modifications were carried out for effective performance of the system for detecting leak before break

  3. Quantitative Assessment of Detection Frequency for the INL Ambient Air Monitoring Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondrup, A. Jeffrey [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rood, Arthur S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A quantitative assessment of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) air monitoring network was performed using frequency of detection as the performance metric. The INL air monitoring network consists of 37 low-volume air samplers in 31 different locations. Twenty of the samplers are located on INL (onsite) and 17 are located off INL (offsite). Detection frequencies were calculated using both BEA and ESER laboratory minimum detectable activity (MDA) levels. The CALPUFF Lagrangian puff dispersion model, coupled with 1 year of meteorological data, was used to calculate time-integrated concentrations at sampler locations for a 1-hour release of unit activity (1 Ci) for every hour of the year. The unit-activity time-integrated concentration (TICu) values were calculated at all samplers for releases from eight INL facilities. The TICu values were then scaled and integrated for a given release quantity and release duration. All facilities modeled a ground-level release emanating either from the center of the facility or at a point where significant emissions are possible. In addition to ground-level releases, three existing stacks at the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, and Material and Fuels Complex were also modeled. Meteorological data from the 35 stations comprising the INL Mesonet network, data from the Idaho Falls Regional airport, upper air data from the Boise airport, and three-dimensional gridded data from the weather research forecasting model were used for modeling. Three representative radionuclides identified as key radionuclides in INL’s annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants evaluations were considered for the frequency of detection analysis: Cs-137 (beta-gamma emitter), Pu-239 (alpha emitter), and Sr-90 (beta emitter). Source-specific release quantities were calculated for each radionuclide, such that the maximum inhalation dose at any publicly accessible sampler or the National

  4. Conceptual design and development of GEM based detecting system for tomographic tungsten focused transport monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Malinowski, K.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E.; Poźniak, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Zabołotny, W.; Wojeński, A.; Kolasiński, P.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2015-10-01

    Implementing tungsten as a plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactors will require effective monitoring of not just its level in the plasma but also its distribution. That can be successfully achieved using detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology. This work presents the conceptual design of the detecting unit for poloidal tomography to be tested at the WEST project tokamak. The current stage of the development is discussed covering aspects which include detector's spatial dimensions, gas mixtures, window materials and arrangements inside and outside the tokamak ports, details of detector's structure itself and details of the detecting module electronics. It is expected that the detecting unit under development, when implemented, will add to the safe operation of tokamak bringing the creation of sustainable nuclear fusion reactors a step closer. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  5. A SURVEY ON DELAY AND NEIGHBOR NODE MONITORING BASED WORMHOLE ATTACK PREVENTION AND DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir T Bagade

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, network layer attacks, for example wormhole attacks, disrupt the network routing operations and can be used for data theft. Wormhole attacks are of two types: hidden and exposed wormhole. There are various mechanisms in literature which are used to prevent and detect wormhole attacks. In this paper, we survey wormhole prevention and detection techniques and present our critical observations for each. These techniques are based on cryptographic mechanisms, monitoring of packet transmission delay and control packet forwarding behavior of neighbor nodes. We compare the techniques using the following criteria- extra resources needed applicability to different network topologies and routing protocols, prevention/detection capability, etc. We conclude the paper with potential research directions.

  6. Online model-based fault detection for grid connected PV systems monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-12-14

    This paper presents an efficient fault detection approach to monitor the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The key contribution of this work is combining both single diode model (SDM) flexibility and the cumulative sum (CUSUM) chart efficiency to detect incipient faults. In fact, unknown electrical parameters of SDM are firstly identified using an efficient heuristic algorithm, named Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. Then, based on the identified parameters, a simulation model is built and validated using a co-simulation between Matlab/Simulink and PSIM. Next, the peak power (Pmpp) residuals of the entire PV array are generated based on both real measured and simulated Pmpp values. Residuals are used as the input for the CUSUM scheme to detect potential faults. We validate the effectiveness of this approach using practical data from an actual 20 MWp grid-connected PV system located in the province of Adrar, Algeria.

  7. A MEMS differential viscometric sensor for affinity glucose detection in continuous glucose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xian; Cai, Haogang; Song, Bing; Lin, Qiao; Li, Siqi; Davis, Erin; Wang, Qian; Leduc, Charles; Ravussin, Yann; Leibel, Rudolph; Li, Dachao; Accili, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Micromachined viscometric affinity glucose sensors have been previously demonstrated using vibrational cantilever and diaphragm. These devices featured a single glucose detection module that determines glucose concentrations through viscosity changes of glucose-sensitive polymer solutions. However, fluctuations in temperature and other environmental parameters might potentially affect the stability and reliability of these devices, creating complexity in their applications in subcutaneously implanted continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). To address these issues, we present a MEMS differential sensor that can effectively reject environmental disturbances while allowing accurate glucose detection. The sensor consists of two magnetically driven vibrating diaphragms situated inside microchambers filled with a boronic-acid based glucose-sensing solution and a reference solution insensitive to glucose. Glucose concentrations can be accurately determined by characteristics of the diaphragm vibration through differential capacitive detection. Our in vitro and preliminary in vivo experimental data demonstrate the potential of this sensor for highly stable subcutaneous CGM applications. (paper)

  8. A Lagrangian View of Spring Phytoplankton Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Shinichiro; Ito, Takamitsu

    2017-11-01

    The mechanisms of spring phytoplankton blooms are investigated from a Lagrangian framework by using a Lagrangian NPZD model that can track the movement and transfers of nutrient parcels in a turbulent environment. The model reveals that the onset of spring blooms depends on the cumulative euphotic age, which is the total time that inorganic nutrient is exposed to light before the photosynthetic conversion to phytoplankton biomass. A spring bloom, defined as a tenfold increase of near-surface phytoplankton, occurs when this cumulative euphotic age is approximately μeff-1·ln⁡10, where μeff is the effective growth rate in the euphotic layer, regardless of the underlying mechanism. If the turbulent layer depth is shallower than the critical depth and turbulence is strong, nutrient parcels accumulate enough light exposure through multiple entries to the sun-lit zone near the surface. If turbulence is weak, as that considered in the critical turbulence theory, the accumulation of the light exposure depends on the residence time of the nutrients parcels near the surface. The spectral shape of the cumulative euphotic age can clearly distinguish these two modes of spring blooms. The spectrum shows a peak at the theoretical growth timescale when multiple entries become important, while it shows a maximum near age zero that decays with age when the near-surface residence time becomes important. Mortality increases the cumulative euphotic age necessary for a bloom but does not affect the spectral shape, suggesting that it does not alter the primary mechanism behind the accumulation of cumulative euphotic age.

  9. Heterogeneous detection probabilities for imperiled Missouri River fishes: implications for large-river monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, J.T.; Paukert, Craig P.; Doyle, W.J.; Hill, Tracy D.; Steffensen, K.D.; Travnichek, Vincent H.

    2012-01-01

    Occupancy modeling was used to determine (1) if detection probabilities (p) for 7 regionally imperiled Missouri River fishes (Scaphirhynchus albus, Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, Cycleptus elongatus, Sander canadensis, Macrhybopsis aestivalis, Macrhybopsis gelida, and Macrhybopsis meeki) differed among gear types (i.e. stationary gill nets, drifted trammel nets, and otter trawls), and (2) how detection probabilities were affected by habitat (i.e. pool, bar, and open water), longitudinal position (five 189 to 367 rkm long segments), sampling year (2003 to 2006), and season (July 1 to October 30 and October 31 to June 30). Adult, large-bodied fishes were best detected with gill nets (p: 0.02–0.74), but most juvenile large-bodied and all small-bodied species were best detected with otter trawls (p: 0.02–0.58). Trammel nets may be a redundant sampling gear for imperiled fishes in the lower Missouri River because most species had greater detection probabilities with gill nets or otter trawls. Detection probabilities varied with river segment for S. platorynchus, C. elongatus, and all small-bodied fishes, suggesting that changes in habitat influenced gear efficiency or abundance changes among river segments. Detection probabilities varied by habitat for adult S. albus and S. canadensis, year for juvenile S. albus, C. elongatus, and S. canadensis, and season for adult S. albus. Concentrating sampling effort on gears with the greatest detection probabilities may increase species detections to better monitor a population's response to environmental change and the effects of management actions on large-river fishes.

  10. Contamination Event Detection with Multivariate Time-Series Data in Agricultural Water Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchi Mao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series data of multiple water quality parameters are obtained from the water sensor networks deployed in the agricultural water supply network. The accurate and efficient detection and warning of contamination events to prevent pollution from spreading is one of the most important issues when pollution occurs. In order to comprehensively reduce the event detection deviation, a spatial–temporal-based event detection approach with multivariate time-series data for water quality monitoring (M-STED was proposed. The M-STED approach includes three parts. The first part is that M-STED adopts a Rule K algorithm to select backbone nodes as the nodes in the CDS, and forward the sensed data of multiple water parameters. The second part is to determine the state of each backbone node with back propagation neural network models and the sequential Bayesian analysis in the current timestamp. The third part is to establish a spatial model with Bayesian networks to estimate the state of the backbones in the next timestamp and trace the “outlier” node to its neighborhoods to detect a contamination event. The experimental results indicate that the average detection rate is more than 80% with M-STED and the false detection rate is lower than 9%, respectively. The M-STED approach can improve the rate of detection by about 40% and reduce the false alarm rate by about 45%, compared with the event detection with a single water parameter algorithm, S-STED. Moreover, the proposed M-STED can exhibit better performance in terms of detection delay and scalability.

  11. Detecting impacts of extreme events with ecological in situ monitoring networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mahecha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydrometeorological conditions typically impact ecophysiological processes on land. Satellite-based observations of the terrestrial biosphere provide an important reference for detecting and describing the spatiotemporal development of such events. However, in-depth investigations of ecological processes during extreme events require additional in situ observations. The question is whether the density of existing ecological in situ networks is sufficient for analysing the impact of extreme events, and what are expected event detection rates of ecological in situ networks of a given size. To assess these issues, we build a baseline of extreme reductions in the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR, identified by a new event detection method tailored to identify extremes of regional relevance. We then investigate the event detection success rates of hypothetical networks of varying sizes. Our results show that large extremes can be reliably detected with relatively small networks, but also reveal a linear decay of detection probabilities towards smaller extreme events in log–log space. For instance, networks with  ≈  100 randomly placed sites in Europe yield a  ≥  90 % chance of detecting the eight largest (typically very large extreme events; but only a  ≥  50 % chance of capturing the 39 largest events. These findings are consistent with probability-theoretic considerations, but the slopes of the decay rates deviate due to temporal autocorrelation and the exact implementation of the extreme event detection algorithm. Using the examples of AmeriFlux and NEON, we then investigate to what degree ecological in situ networks can capture extreme events of a given size. Consistent with our theoretical considerations, we find that today's systematically designed networks (i.e. NEON reliably detect the largest extremes, but that the extreme event detection rates are not higher than would

  12. Weak fault detection and health degradation monitoring using customized standard multiwavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yizhen; Wei, Chenjun

    2017-09-01

    Due to the nonobvious symptoms contaminated by a large amount of background noise, it is challenging to beforehand detect and predictively monitor the weak faults for machinery security assurance. Multiwavelets can act as adaptive non-stationary signal processing tools, potentially viable for weak fault diagnosis. However, the signal-based multiwavelets suffer from such problems as the imperfect properties missing the crucial orthogonality, the decomposition distortion impossibly reflecting the relationships between the faults and signatures, the single objective optimization and independence for fault prognostic. Thus, customized standard multiwavelets are proposed for weak fault detection and health degradation monitoring, especially the weak fault signature quantitative identification. First, the flexible standard multiwavelets are designed using the construction method derived from scalar wavelets, seizing the desired properties for accurate detection of weak faults and avoiding the distortion issue for feature quantitative identification. Second, the multi-objective optimization combined three dimensionless indicators of the normalized energy entropy, normalized singular entropy and kurtosis index is introduced to the evaluation criterions, and benefits for selecting the potential best basis functions for weak faults without the influence of the variable working condition. Third, an ensemble health indicator fused by the kurtosis index, impulse index and clearance index of the original signal along with the normalized energy entropy and normalized singular entropy by the customized standard multiwavelets is achieved using Mahalanobis distance to continuously monitor the health condition and track the performance degradation. Finally, three experimental case studies are implemented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can quantitatively identify the fault signature of a slight rub on

  13. OIL SPILL DETECTION AND MONITORING OF ABU DHABI COASTAL ZONE USING KOMPSAT-5 SAR IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Harahsheh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy ‘A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS with Vertical polarization (VV to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like ”Zirku Island”, and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to

  14. Oil Spill Detection and Monitoring of Abu Dhabi Coastal Zone Using KOMPSAT-5 SAR Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahsheh, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    Abu Dhabi Government endorsed vision for its Maritime Strategy `A safe, secure and sustainable maritime domain for Abu Dhabi'. This research study share this vision using the concept of monitoring as tool for marine protection against any possible oil pollution. The best technology to detect and monitor oil pollution and in particularly oil spill is SAR imagery In this case study we chose KOMPSAT-5 SAR. KOMPSAT-5 carries X-band SAR for earth observation, and is capable of day-and-night imaging under all weather condition. It provides three operation modes: High Resolution Mode to provide 1 m resolution, Standard Mode to provide 3 m resolution and Wide Swath Mode to provide 20 m resolution with 100 km swath at 550 km altitude, with four modes of polarization. KOMPSAT-5 provides products for various applications; security and defense, mapping, and natural resource management, environmental monitoring, disaster monitoring and more. For our case study we chose to work with Wide Swath mode (WS) with Vertical polarization (VV) to cover a wide area of interest located to the north west of Abu Dhabi including some important islands like "Zirku Island", and areas with oil production activities. The results of data acquired on 4th May 2015 show some spot of oil spill with length estimated about 3 KM, and the daily satellite data acquisition over the period July 24 through July 31 shows serious and many oil spill events some are small, but many others are considered to be big with area size around 20 km2. In the context of oil spill pollution in the seas, we have to consider the development and increase of overseas transportation, which is an important factor for both social and economic sectors. The harmful effects of marine pollution are numerous, from the damage of marine life to the damage of the aquatic ecosystem as whole. As such, the need for oil slick detection is crucial, for the location of polluted areas and to evaluate slick drift to protect the coastline

  15. Influence of the display monitor on observer performance in detection of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Farzad; Balaei, Esrafil; Pouralibaba, Firoz; Kaviani, Farzaneh; Kashefimehr, Atabak

    2007-01-01

    Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection. Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a Planmeca (Planmeca Co, Helsinki, Finland) digital imaging system. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists rated each image on a five-point scale for the presence or absence of lesion. Radiographic images were viewed on the following monitors: (1) LG Flatron 700p (LG Electronics Co., South Korea); (2) Samsung Magicgreen (Samsung Electronics Corp., South Korea); (3) Hansol 710p (Hansol Electronics Corp., South Korea) and (4) Toshiba satellite laptop (Toshiba Computer Corp., Philippines). Examiners were allowed to magnify and adjust density and contrast of each image at will. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Data was subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression to test for significance between variables and to determine odds ratios. Mean ROC curve areas ranged from 0.8728 for the LG monitor to 0.8395 for the Samsung. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between observers (P<0.0001), lesion size (P<0.0001), examiner/monitor interaction (P<0.033) and examiner/block interaction (P<0.013). However, no significant difference was found between monitors. This study suggests that observer performance is independent of the visual characteristics of the display monitor.

  16. Influence of the Display Monitor on Observer Performance in Detection of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Kaviani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Digital imaging continues to gain acceptance in dentistry and video display used for this becomes important. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the display monitor on observer performance on caries detection.

    Materials and methods. Artificial enamel lesions were created in 40 extracted teeth at random using 1/4 and 1/2 round burs. Teeth were mounted in dental stone blocks to simulate a hemi-dentition. Approximate exposures were recorded at 70 kVp using a Planmeca (Planmeca Co, Helsinki, Finland digital imaging system. Three oral and maxillofacial radiologists rated each image on a five-point scale for the presence or absence of lesion. Radiographic images were viewed on the following monitors: (1 LG Flatron 700p (LG Electronics Co., South Korea; (2 Samsung Magicgreen (Samsung Electronics Corp., South Korea; (3 Hansol 710p (Hansol Electronics Corp., South Korea and (4 Toshiba satellite laptop (Toshiba Computer Corp., Philippines. Examiners were allowed to magnify and adjust density and contrast of each image at will. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis was performed. Data was subjected to repeated measures analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression to test for significance between variables and to determine odds ratios.

    Results. Mean ROC curve areas ranged from 0.8728 for the LG monitor to 0.8395 for the Samsung. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant differences between observers (P< 0.0001, lesion size (P< 0.0001, examiner/monitor interaction (P< 0.033 and examiner/block interaction (P< 0.013. However, no significant difference was found between monitors.

    Conclusion. This study suggests that observer performance is independent of the visual characteristics of the display monitor.

  17. An electrical resistivity monitor for the detection of composition changes in Pb-17Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.; Sample, T.

    1991-01-01

    An electrical resistivity monitor for the detection of composition changes in the lithium-lead eutectic alloy, Pb-17Li, has been developed. A miniature electromagnetic pump is used to sample alloy continuously from a pool or loop system and force it through a capillary section, within which the necessary resistance measurements are made, prior to its return to the bulk source. To calibrate the monitor, detailed resistivity-temperature and resistivity-composition data have been determined for Pb-Li alloys at temperatures from 600 to 800K and compositions from 0 to 20.5 at% Li. The resistivity increases with both temperature and composition; for Pb-17li at 723 K, dρ/dT=0.054x10 -8 ΩmK -1 , and dρ/d[Li]=1.27x10 -8 Ωm(at% Li) -1 . The sensitivity of the monitor is such that changes in composition of as little as ±0.05 at% Li can be detected and its response time is limited soley by the rate of sampling. (orig.)

  18. Using wearable sensors for semiology-independent seizure detection - towards ambulatory monitoring of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldberg, Beeke E; Kautz, Thomas; Leutheuser, Heike; Hopfengartner, Rudiger; Kasper, Burkhard S; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of the central nervous system. Nearly 70% of people with epilepsy respond to a proper treatment, but for a successful therapy of epilepsy, physicians need to know if and when seizures occur. The gold standard diagnosis tool video-electroencephalography (vEEG) requires patients to stay at hospital for several days. A wearable sensor system, e.g. a wristband, serving as diagnostic tool or event monitor, would allow unobtrusive ambulatory long-term monitoring while reducing costs. Previous studies showed that seizures with motor symptoms such as generalized tonic-clonic seizures can be detected by measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA) and motion measuring acceleration (ACC). In this study, EDA and ACC from 8 patients were analyzed. In extension to previous studies, different types of seizures, including seizures without motor activity, were taken into account. A hierarchical classification approach was implemented in order to detect different types of epileptic seizures using data from wearable sensors. Using a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) classifier an overall sensitivity of 89.1% and an overall specificity of 93.1% were achieved, for seizures without motor activity the sensitivity was 97.1% and the specificity was 92.9%. The presented method is a first step towards a reliable ambulatory monitoring system for epileptic seizures with and without motor activity.

  19. [Early detection of hypoxia with BIS monitoring during percutaneous cardiopulmonary support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, H; Hirota, K; Sakai, I; Tsubo, T; Ishihara, H; Matuki, A

    2001-04-01

    We report a patient in whom hypoxia developed during percutaneous cardiopulmonary bypass (PCPS) and was detected with the lowering of the bispectral index (BIS) values. A 7-yr-old boy was managed with PCPS for the treatment of cardiogenic shock after cardiac surgery. His circulation was dependent on PCPS and pulse pressure was nearly zero. Signals by pulse oxymetry were undetectable and periodical blood gas analysis was performed to confirm proper oxygenation. BIS was monitored, and a gradual decrease in the value was observed. Careful observation also revealed darkening of the blood in the PCPS circuit and blood gas analysis showed severe hypoxia. Oxygen concentration of the gas to a PCPS oxygenator was increased immediately and new PCPS circuit was prepared. It took almost two minutes to exchange the circuit. Near circulatory arrest might have occurred during the procedure and BIS and suppression ratio (SR) became below 10 and above 90, respectively. Both returned to the previous values 30 min after the replacement of the circuit. Severe hypoxia, otherwise overlooked, was detected with BIS monitoring and BIS reflected the circulatory status of the patient, especially of the brain. This monitoring is useful to confirm proper oxygenation during PCPS.

  20. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms fuel pelagic production in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Kathrine; Visser, Andre; Pedersen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    relatively quickly from the water column and a large proportion of the material sedimenting to the bottom following the spring bloom is often comprised of intact phytoplankton cells. Thus, it is easy to argue that the spring bloom is fueling the energy demands of the benthos, but more difficult to argue......The seasonal phytoplankton biomass distribution pattern in stratified temperate marine waters is traditionally depicted as consisting of spring and autumn blooms. The energy source supporting pelagic summer production is believed to be the spring bloom. However, the spring bloom disappears...... convincingly that energy fixed during the spring bloom is fueling the pelagic production occurring during summer months. We argue here that periodic phytoplankton blooms are occurring during the summer in the North Sea at depths of >25 m and that the accumulated new production [sensu (Dugdale and Goering...

  1. Algal Blooms and Cyanotoxins in Jordan Lake, North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wiltsie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of waterways has led to a rise in cyanobacterial, harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs worldwide. The deterioration of water quality due to excess algal biomass in lakes has been well documented (e.g., water clarity, hypoxic conditions, but health risks associated with cyanotoxins remain largely unexplored in the absence of toxin information. This study is the first to document the presence of dissolved microcystin, anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-l-alanine in Jordan Lake, a major drinking water reservoir in North Carolina. Saxitoxin presence was not confirmed. Multiple toxins were detected at 86% of the tested sites and during 44% of the sampling events between 2014 and 2016. Although concentrations were low, continued exposure of organisms to multiple toxins raises some concerns. A combination of discrete sampling and in-situ tracking (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking [SPATT] revealed that microcystin and anatoxin were the most pervasive year-round. Between 2011 and 2016, summer and fall blooms were dominated by the same cyanobacterial genera, all of which are suggested producers of single or multiple cyanotoxins. The study’s findings provide further evidence of the ubiquitous nature of cyanotoxins, and the challenges involved in linking CyanoHAB dynamics to specific environmental forcing factors are discussed.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Flower Volatiles from Nine Citrus at Three Blooming Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled.

  3. Postoperative real-time electrocardiography monitoring detects myocardial ischemia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Homer; Fayad, Ashraf; Chaput, Alan; Oake, Stuart; Chan, Adrian D C; Crossan, Mary Lou

    2017-04-01

    This case report outlines the utility and challenges of remote continuous postoperative electrocardiography ECG) monitoring, which is routed through a secure smartphone to provide real-time detection and management of myocardial ischemia. A 42-yr-old male with previous myocardial infarction and angioplasty underwent a radical prostatectomy. At three hours and 45 min postoperatively, remote real-time ECG monitoring was initiated upon the patient's arrival on a regular surgical ward. Monitor alerts were routed to a study clinician's smartphone. About six hours postoperatively, alarms were received and horizontal ST segment depressions were observed. A 12-lead ECG validated the ST segment changes, prompting initiation of a metoprolol iv and a red blood cell transfusion. Approximately seven hours and 30 min postoperatively, the ST segments normalized. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3 and followed for four years without any sequelae. This case report illustrates the use of remote ECG monitoring and clinician response in real time with the use of a smartphone. With each alert, a small ECG strip is transmitted to the smartphone for viewing. In our view, this technology and management system provides a possible means to interrupt myocardial ischemic cascades in real time and prevent postoperative myocardial infarction.

  4. Error detection capability of a novel transmission detector: a validation study for online VMAT monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasler, Marlies; Michel, Kilian; Marrazzo, Livia; Obenland, Michael; Pallotta, Stefania; Björnsgard, Mari; Lutterbach, Johannes

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize a new single large-area ionization chamber, the integral quality monitor system (iRT, Germany), for online and real-time beam monitoring. Signal stability, monitor unit (MU) linearity and dose rate dependence were investigated for static and arc deliveries and compared to independent ionization chamber measurements. The dose verification capability of the transmission detector system was evaluated by comparing calculated and measured detector signals for 15 volumetric modulated arc therapy plans. The error detection sensitivity was tested by introducing MLC position and linac output errors. Deviations in dose distributions between the original and error-induced plans were compared in terms of detector signal deviation, dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics and 2D γ-evaluation (2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm). The detector signal is linearly dependent on linac output and shows negligible (metrics and detector signal deviation was found (e.g. PTV D mean: R 2  =  0.97). Positional MLC errors of 1 mm and errors in linac output of 2% were identified with the transmission detector system. The extensive tests performed in this investigation show that the new transmission detector provides a stable and sensitive cumulative signal output and is suitable for beam monitoring during patient treatment.

  5. Video-based respiration monitoring with automatic region of interest detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Rik; Wang, Wenjin; Moço, Andreia; de Haan, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Vital signs monitoring is ubiquitous in clinical environments and emerging in home-based healthcare applications. Still, since current monitoring methods require uncomfortable sensors, respiration rate remains the least measured vital sign. In this paper, we propose a video-based respiration monitoring method that automatically detects a respiratory region of interest (RoI) and signal using a camera. Based on the observation that respiration induced chest/abdomen motion is an independent motion system in a video, our basic idea is to exploit the intrinsic properties of respiration to find the respiratory RoI and extract the respiratory signal via motion factorization. We created a benchmark dataset containing 148 video sequences obtained on adults under challenging conditions and also neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The measurements obtained by the proposed video respiration monitoring (VRM) method are not significantly different from the reference methods (guided breathing or contact-based ECG; p-value  =  0.6), and explain more than 99% of the variance of the reference values with low limits of agreement (-2.67 to 2.81 bpm). VRM seems to provide a valid solution to ECG in confined motion scenarios, though precision may be reduced for neonates. More studies are needed to validate VRM under challenging recording conditions, including upper-body motion types.

  6. Improving global detection of volcanic eruptions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. B. Flower

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions pose an ever-present threat to human populations around the globe, but many active volcanoes remain poorly monitored. In regions where ground-based monitoring is present the effects of volcanic eruptions can be moderated through observational alerts to both local populations and service providers, such as air traffic control. However, in regions where volcano monitoring is limited satellite-based remote sensing provides a global data source that can be utilised to provide near-real-time identification of volcanic activity. This paper details a volcanic plume detection method capable of identifying smaller eruptions than is currently feasible, which could potentially be incorporated into automated volcanic alert systems. This method utilises daily, global observations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI on NASA's Aura satellite. Following identification and classification of known volcanic eruptions in 2005–2009, the OMI SO2 data, analysed using a logistic regression analysis, permitted the correct classification of volcanic events with an overall accuracy of over 80 %. Accurate volcanic plume identification was possible when lower-tropospheric SO2 loading exceeded ∼ 400 t. The accuracy and minimal user input requirements of the developed procedure provide a basis for incorporation into automated SO2 alert systems.

  7. Wind-driven marine phytoplank blooms: Satellite observation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, DanLing

    2016-07-01

    Algal bloom is defined as a rapid increase or accumulation in biomass in an aquatic system. It not only can increase the primary production but also could result in negative ecological consequence, e.g.,Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). According to the classic theory for the formation of algal blooms "critical depth" and "eutrophication", oligotrophic sea area is usually difficult to form a large area of algal blooms, and actuallythe traditional observation is only sporadic capture to the existence of algal blooms.Taking full advantage of multiple data of satellite remote sensing , this study introduces "Wind-driven algal blooms in open oceans: observation and mechanisms" It explained except classic coastal Ekman transport, the wind through a variety of mechanisms affecting the formation of algal blooms. Proposed a conceptual model of "Strong wind -upwelling-nutrient-phytoplankton blooms" in Western South China Sea (SCS) to assess role of wind-induced advection transport in phytoplankton bloom formation. It illustrates the nutrient resources that support long-term offshore phytoplankton blooms in the western SCS; (2)Proposal of the theory that "typhoons cause vertical mixing, induce phytoplankton blooms", and quantify their important contribution to marine primary production; Proposal a new ecological index for typhoon. Proposed remote sensing inversion models. (3)Finding of the spatial and temporaldistributions pattern of harmful algal bloom (HAB)and species variations of HAB in the South Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and in the Pearl River estuary, and their oceanic dynamic mechanisms related with monsoon; The project developed new techniques and generated new knowledge, which significantly improved understanding of the formation mechanisms of algal blooms. The proposed "wind-pump" mechanism integrates theoretical system combined "ocean dynamics, development of algal blooms, and impact on primary production", which will benefit fisheries management. These

  8. Wetland Monitoring Using the Curvelet-Based Change Detection Method on Polarimetric SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One fundamental task in wetland monitoring is the regular mapping of (temporarily flooded areas especially beneath vegetation. Due to the independence of weather and illumination conditions, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR sensors could provide a suitable data base. Using polarimetric modes enables the identification of flooded vegetation by means of the typical double-bounce scattering. In this paper three decomposition techniques—Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden, and Normalized Kennaugh elements—are compared to each other in terms of identifying the flooding extent as well as its temporal change. The image comparison along the time series is performed with the help of the Curvelet-based Change Detection Method. The results indicate that the decomposition algorithm has a strong impact on the robustness and reliability of the change detection. The Normalized Kennaugh elements turn out to be the optimal representation for Curvelet-based change detection processing. Furthermore, the co-polarized channels (same transmit and receive polarization in horizontal (HH and vertical (VV direction respectively appear to be sufficient for wetland monitoring so that dual-co-polarized imaging modes could be an alternative to conventional quad-polarized acquisitions.

  9. Hierarchical Leak Detection and Localization Method in Natural Gas Pipeline Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point’s position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate.

  10. Hierarchical leak detection and localization method in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiangwen; Yu, Yang; Wu, Yinfeng; Feng, Renjian; Yu, Ning

    2012-01-01

    In light of the problems of low recognition efficiency, high false rates and poor localization accuracy in traditional pipeline security detection technology, this paper proposes a type of hierarchical leak detection and localization method for use in natural gas pipeline monitoring sensor networks. In the signal preprocessing phase, original monitoring signals are dealt with by wavelet transform technology to extract the single mode signals as well as characteristic parameters. In the initial recognition phase, a multi-classifier model based on SVM is constructed and characteristic parameters are sent as input vectors to the multi-classifier for initial recognition. In the final decision phase, an improved evidence combination rule is designed to integrate initial recognition results for final decisions. Furthermore, a weighted average localization algorithm based on time difference of arrival is introduced for determining the leak point's position. Experimental results illustrate that this hierarchical pipeline leak detection and localization method could effectively improve the accuracy of the leak point localization and reduce the undetected rate as well as false alarm rate.

  11. Image corruption detection in diffusion tensor imaging for post-processing and real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M; Lorenz, Christine H; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called "corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity" (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies.

  12. The Use of Hidden Markov Models for Anomaly Detection in Nuclear Core Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Bruce; West, Graeme M.; Galloway, Stuart; McArthur, Stephen D. J.; McDonald, James R.; Towle, Dave

    2009-04-01

    Unplanned outages can be especially costly for generation companies operating nuclear facilities. Early detection of deviations from expected performance through condition monitoring can allow a more proactive and managed approach to dealing with ageing plant. This paper proposes an anomaly detection framework incorporating the use of the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) to support the analysis of nuclear reactor core condition monitoring data. Fuel Grab Load Trace (FGLT) data gathered within the UK during routine refueling operations has been seen to provide information relating to the condition of the graphite bricks that comprise the core. Although manual analysis of this data is time consuming and requires considerable expertise, this paper demonstrates how techniques such as the HMM can provide analysis support by providing a benchmark model of expected behavior against which future refueling events may be compared. The presence of anomalous behavior in candidate traces is inferred through the underlying statistical foundation of the HMM which gives an observation likelihood averaged along the length of the input sequence. Using this likelihood measure, the engineer can be alerted to anomalous behaviour, indicating data which might require further detailed examination. It is proposed that this data analysis technique is used in conjunction with other intelligent analysis techniques currently employed to analyse FGLT to provide a greater confidence measure in detecting anomalous behaviour from FGLT data.

  13. Image corruption detection in diffusion tensor imaging for post-processing and real-time monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called "corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity" (cISID to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies.

  14. Image Corruption Detection in Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Post-Processing and Real-Time Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called “corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity” (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies. PMID:24204551

  15. A novel electrical potential sensing method for in vitro stent fracture monitoring and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hee; Tijing, Leonard D; Yun, Yeoheung; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a preliminary investigation and prototype fabrication of a novel potential sensing method to continuously monitor vascular stent fractures. A potential measurement system consisting of Wheatstone bridge circuit and signal conditioning circuit was designed for the cardiovascular stent durability and fatigue test. Each end of a bare and polyurethane-covered Nitinol vascular stent was electrically connected to the potential measurement system and then immersed either in simulated body fluid (SBF) media or distilled water at 36.4 ± 1 °C. When the stent experienced fracture (i.e., a cut), its electrical potential decreased with an increase in electrical resistance. This method successfully measured fractures in the stent regardless of location. Furthermore, the number of cycles at the onset of stent fracture was accurately detected and continuously monitored using this technique. Thus, the present fracture detection method, which to our knowledge is the first ever report to use electrical potential measurement for stent durability test, gives a fast, real-time, accurate and efficient detection of fractures in stent during in vitro fatigue and durability test.

  16. A portable detection system for in vivo monitoring of 131I in routine and emergency situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, EA; Dantas, ALA; Dantas, BM

    2018-03-01

    In vivo monitoring of 131I in human thyroid is often used to evaluate occupational exposure in nuclear medicine facilities and in the case of accidental intakes in nuclear power plants for the monitoring of workers and population. The device presented in this work consists on a Pb-collimated NaI(Tl)3”x3” scintillation detector assembled on a tripod and connected to a portable PC. The evaluation of the applicability and limitations of the system is based on the estimation of the committed effective doses associated to the minimum detectable activities in different facilities. It has been demonstrated that the system is suitable for use in routine and accidental situations.

  17. Sensor data monitoring and decision level fusion scheme for early fire detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Thanos, Konstantinos Georgios; Astyakopoulos, Alkiviadis; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the sensor monitoring and decision level fusion scheme for early fire detection which has been developed in the context of the AF3 Advanced Forest Fire Fighting European FP7 research project, adopted specifically in the OCULUS-Fire control and command system and tested during a firefighting field test in Greece with prescribed real fire, generating early-warning detection alerts and notifications. For this purpose and in order to improve the reliability of the fire detection system, a two-level fusion scheme is developed exploiting a variety of observation solutions from air e.g. UAV infrared cameras, ground e.g. meteorological and atmospheric sensors and ancillary sources e.g. public information channels, citizens smartphone applications and social media. In the first level, a change point detection technique is applied to detect changes in the mean value of each measured parameter by the ground sensors such as temperature, humidity and CO2 and then the Rate-of-Rise of each changed parameter is calculated. In the second level the fire event Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) function is determined for each ground sensor using Fuzzy-logic theory and then the corresponding mass values are combined in a decision level fusion process using Evidential Reasoning theory to estimate the final fire event probability.

  18. Critical heat flux acoustic detection: Methods and application to ITER divertor vertical target monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Escourbiac, F. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, F-13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Richou, M.; Cantone, V. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Constans, S. [AREVA-NP, Le Creusot (France)

    2013-10-15

    Actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs) have to exhaust high heat fluxes from plasma radiation and plasma–wall interaction. Critical heat flux (CHF) event may occur in the cooling channel due to unexpected heat loading or operational conditions, and has to be detected as soon as possible. Therefore it is essential to develop means of monitoring based on precursory signals providing an early detection of this destructive phenomenon, in order to be able to stop operation before irremediable damages appear. Capabilities of CHF early detection based on acoustic techniques on PFC mock-ups cooled by pressurised water were already demonstrated. This paper addresses the problem of the detection in case of flow rate reduction and of flow dilution resulting from multiple plasma facing units (PFU) which are hydraulically connected in parallel, which is the case of ITER divertor. An experimental study is launched on a dedicated mock-up submitted to heat loads up to the CHF. It shows that the measurement of the acoustic waves, generated by the cooling phenomena, allows the CHF detection in conditions similar to that of the ITER divertor, with a reasonable number of sensors. The paper describes the mock-ups and the tests sequences, and comments the results.

  19. Siderophores: The special ingredient to cyanobacterial blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue; Creed, Irena; Trick, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lakes provide a number of significant ecological services including clean drinking water, habitat for aquatic biota, and economic benefits. The provision of these ecological services, as well as the health of these aquatic systems, is threatened by the excessive growth of algae, specifically, cyanobacteria. Historically, blooms have been linked to eutrophication but recent occurrences indicate that there are less dramatic changes that induce these blooms. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for specific essential metabolic pathways; however, the amount of biologically available iron in naturally occurring lake ranges from saturation to much lower than cell transport affinities. To assist in the modulation of iron availabilities, cyanobacteria in culture produce low molecular weight compounds that function in an iron binding and acquisition system; nevertheless, this has yet to be confirmed in naturally occurring lakes. This project explored the relationship of P, N and in particular, Fe, in the promotion of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms in 30 natural freshwater lakes located in and around the Elk Island National Park, Alberta. It is hypothesized that cyanobacteria produce and utilize iron chelators called siderophores in low Fe and nitrogen (N) conditions, creating a competitive advantage over other algae in freshwater lakes. Lakes were selected to represent a range of iron availability to explore the nutrient composition of lakes that propagated cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) compared to lakes that did not. Lake water was analyzed for nutrients, microbial composition, siderophore concentration, and toxin concentration. Modifications were made to optimize the Czaky and Arnow tests for hydroxamate- and catecholate-type siderophores, respectively, for field conditions. Preliminary results indicate the presence of iron-binding ligands (0.11-2.34 mg/L) in freshwater lakes characterized by widely ranging Fe regimes (0.04-2.74 mg

  20. Enhanced surveillance strategies for detecting and monitoring chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide wildlife management agencies with the foundation upon which they can build scientifically rigorous and cost-effective surveillance and monitoring programs for chronic wasting disease (CWD) or refine their existing programs. The first chapter provides an overview of potential demographic and spatial risk factors of susceptible wildlife populations that may be exploited for CWD surveillance and monitoring. The information contained in this chapter explores historic as well as recent developments in our understanding of CWD disease dynamics. It also contains many literature references for readers who may desire a more thorough review of the topics or CWD in general. The second chapter examines methods for enhancing efforts to detect CWD on the landscape where it is not presently known to exist and focuses on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the surveillance program. Specifically, it describes the means of exploiting current knowledge of demographic and spatial risk factors, as described in the first chapter, through a two-stage surveillance scheme that utilizes traditional design-based sampling approaches and novel statistical methods to incorporate information about the attributes of the landscape, environment, populations and individual animals into CWD surveillance activities. By accounting for these attributes, efficiencies can be gained and cost-savings can be realized. The final chapter is unique in relation to the first two chapters. Its focus is on designing programs to monitor CWD once it is discovered within a jurisdiction. Unlike the prior chapters that are more detailed or prescriptive, this chapter by design is considerably more general because providing comprehensive direction for creating monitoring programs for jurisdictions without consideration of their monitoring goals, sociopolitical constraints, or their biological systems, is not possible. Therefore, the authors draw upon their collective

  1. An α-activity imaging monitor system for rapidly detecting PU contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Nishiya, T.; Ogura, T.; Nomura, T.

    1992-01-01

    A new type of α-activity imaging monitor system was constructed for rapidly obtaining the position profile of Pu contamination on filter paper. The system consists of a detector head, and image intensifier, a low-lag vidicon and an image processor. When the integrated image is taken with 10 min., PuO 2 particles more than 0.03 Bq and Pu (NO 3 ) 4 particles more than 0.13 Bq can be rapidly detected by spot separation processing. (author)

  2. Near infrared transillumination compared with radiography to detect and monitor proximal caries: A clinical retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Marwa; Krejci, Ivo; Perneger, Thomas; Feilzer, Albert; Vazquez, Lydia

    2018-03-01

    To compare near infrared transillumination device, DIAGNOcam (DC) and bitewing radiography (BW) for the detection of proximal caries. This retrospective analysis of DC and BW images of 18 students in dental medicine who had consented to the anonymous use of their dental record. The data included BW and DC images performed for a check-up in 2013, and corresponding follow-up images performed in 2015. Two observers rated 376 proximal surfaces on a 4-level dentin lesion scale and reached a unanimous rating for each surface. Calculated measures of agreement for each assessment method over time provided the reproducibility of the information obtained by each method. Agreement between 2013 and 2015 within each method was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, BW: 0.86, DC: 0.90). Agreement between DC and BW was similar for dentin lesion detection, but was low for enamel caries detection; DC detected more enamel caries than BW. Agreement between DC and BW was modest (0.33 in 2013 and 0.36 in 2015), chiefly because DC identified more enamel caries. This study shows that DC is as reliable as BW to detect proximal dentin lesions. DC detects proximal enamel lesions at an earlier stage than BW. DC enables clinicians to differentiate lesions limited to the enamel from lesions that have reached the enamel dentin junction. Regular monitoring with DC should help provide individualized preventive measures and early non-invasive caries management. The early detection of enamel lesions with near infrared transillumination can help clinicians undertake early non invasive treatments to prevent or slow down the progression of initial proximal lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Blooms and subsurface phytoplankton layers on the Scotian Shelf: Insights from profiling gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Tetjana; Craig, Susanne E.; Comeau, Adam; Davis, Richard; Dever, Mathieu; Beck, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how phytoplankton respond to their physical environment is key to predicting how bloom dynamics might change under future climate change scenarios. Phytoplankton are at the base of most marine food webs and play an important role in drawing CO2 out of the atmosphere. Using nearly 5 years of simultaneous CTD, irradiance, chlorophyll a fluorescence and optical backscattering observations obtained from Slocum glider missions, we observed the subsurface phytoplankton populations across the Scotian Shelf, near Halifax (Nova Scotia, Canada) along with their physical environment. Bloom conditions were observed in each of the 5 springs, with the average chlorophyll in the upper 60 m of water generally exceeding 3 mg m- 3. These blooms occurred when the upper water column stratification was at its lowest, in apparent contradiction of the critical depth hypothesis. A subsurface chlorophyll layer was observed each summer at about 30 m depth, which was below the base of the mixed layer. This subsurface layer lasted 3-4 months and contained, on average, 1/4 of the integrated water column chlorophyll found during the spring bloom. This suggests that a significant portion of the primary productivity over the Scotian Shelf occurs at depths that cannot be observed by satellites-highlighting the importance of including subsurface observations in the monitoring of future changes to primary productivity in the ocean.

  4. Sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection for rapid monitoring of commercial Calendula officinalis extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Phylogenetic structure of bacterial assemblages co-occurring with Ostreopsis cf. ovata bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanucci, Silvana; Guidi, Flavio; Pistocchi, Rossella; Long, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Extensive blooms of the toxic epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata are being reported with increasing frequency and spatial distribution in temperate coastal regions including the Mediterranean. These blooms are of human and environmental health concern due to the production of isobaric palytoxin and a wide range of ovatoxins by Ostreopsis cf. ovata. Bacterial-microalgal interactions are important regulators in algal bloom dynamics and potentially toxin dynamics. This study investigated the bacterial assemblages co-occurring with O. cf. ovata (OA) and from ambient seawaters (SW) during the early and peak phases of bloom development in NW Adriatic Sea. Fractions of the bacterial assemblages co-occurring with O. cf. ovata (OA) and more closely associated to the mucilage layer (LA) embedding O. cf. ovata cells were also reported. In total, 14 bacterial phyla were detected by targeted 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The dominant bacterial phyla in the OA assemblages were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes; while at the class level, Alphaproteobacteria were the most abundant (83 and 66%, relative abundance, early and peak bloom phases), followed by Flavobacteria (7 and 19%, early and peak phases). Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria were of minor importance (<5% of the relative bacterial abundance each). Gammaproteobacteria showed a notably presence in OA assemblage only at the early phase of the bloom (genus Haliea, 13%). The Alphaproteobacteria were predominately composed by the genera Ruegeria, Jannaschia and Erythrobacter which represented about half of the total phylotypes' contribution of OA at both early and peak phases of the O. cf. ovata bloom, suggesting interactions between this consortium and the microalga. Moreover, the highest contribution of Ruegeria (30% of the total phylotypes) was observed at the early phase of the bloom in LA assemblage. Microbial assemblages associated with the ambient seawaters while being also dominated by

  6. Evaluation of the android-based fall detection system with physiological data monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshmak, Gregory A; Linden, Maria; Loutfi, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Aging population is considered to be major problem in modern healthcare. At the same time, fall incidents often occur among elderly and cause serious injuries affecting their independent living. This paper proposes a framework which uses mobile phone technology together with physiological data monitoring in order to detect falls. The system carries out collecting, storing and processing of acceleration data with further alarm generating and transferring all the measurements to remote caregiver. To perform evaluation, an experimental setup involving novice ice-skaters were carried out to obtain realistic fall data and examine the effects of falling on physiological parameters. A fall detection algorithm has been designed therefore to cope with large variations of movement in the torso. The online algorithm operating showed performance results of 90% specificity, 100% sensitivity and 94% accuracy.

  7. Pressurized water reactor monitoring. Study of detection, diagnostic and estimation methods (least error squares and filtering)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillet, M.

    1986-07-01

    This thesis presents a study for the surveillance of the ''primary coolant circuit inventory monitoring'' of a pressurized water reactor. A reference model is developed in view of an automatic system ensuring detection and diagnostic in real time. The methods used for the present application are statistical tests and a method related to pattern recognition. The estimation of failures detected, difficult owing to the non-linearity of the problem, is treated by the least error squares method of the predictor or corrector type, and by filtering. It is in this frame that a new optimized method with superlinear convergence is developed, and that a segmented linearization of the model is introduced, in view of a multiple filtering [fr

  8. Development of a laser Doppler system for the detection and monitoring of atmospheric disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, H. B.; Bilbro, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    A Scanning Laser Doppler Velocimeter System (SLDVS) capable of detecting and monitoring atmospheric disturbances, including wake vortices of landing aircraft and vertical wind profiles in the atmosphere was developed. The SLDVS is a focused, continuous wave, CO2 system that determines the line-of-sight velocities of particles in the focal volume by measuring the Doppler shift created by these particles. At present, the SLDVS is designed to have a range coverage of approximately 2000 ft with a vertical angle coverage of approximately 60 deg. It is also designed to detect Doppler velocities of up to 200 ft/sec with a velocity resolution of approximately 1.8 ft/sec. A complete velocity spectrum is provided by the SLDVS at each point in space at which it is focused. The overall operation and performance of the system and the description of its individual components and data handling capabilities were given.

  9. Real-time detection of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes using a novel non-invasive hypoglycemia monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung T; Ghevondian, Nejhdeh; Jones, Timothy W

    2009-01-01

    Hypoglycemia or low blood glucose is a common and serious side effect of insulin therapy in patients with diabetes. Hypoglycemia is unpleasant and can result in unconsciousness, seizures and even death. HypoMon is a realtime non-invasive monitor that measures relevant physiological parameters continuously to provide detection of hypoglycemic episodes in Type 1 diabetes mellitus patients (T1DM). Based on heart rate and corrected QT interval of the ECG signal, we have continued to develop effective algorithms for early detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia. From a clinical study of 24 children with T1DM, associated with natural occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes at night, their heart rates increased (1.021+/-0.264 vs. 1.068+/-0.314, PBayesian neural network which was derived from the training set with the highest log evidence, the estimated blood glucose profiles produced a significant correlation (P<0.02) against measured values in the test set.

  10. Implementation of a FPGA-Based Feature Detection and Networking System for Real-time Traffic Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jieshi; Schafer, Benjamin Carrion; Ho, Ivan Wang-Hei

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of real-time traffic monitoring nowadays, software-based image processing can hardly meet the real-time data processing requirement due to the serial data processing nature. In this paper, the implementation of a hardware-based feature detection and networking system prototype for real-time traffic monitoring as well as data transmission is presented. The hardware architecture of the proposed system is mainly composed of three parts: data collection, feature detection,...

  11. Conflict monitoring in speech processing : An fMRI study of error detection in speech production and perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauvin, Hanna; De Baene, W.; Brass, Marcel; Hartsuiker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    To minimize the number of errors in speech, and thereby facilitate communication, speech is monitored before articulation. It is, however, unclear at which level during speech production monitoring takes place, and what mechanisms are used to detect and correct errors. The present study investigated

  12. Innovative concept for a major breakthrough in atmospheric radioactive xenon detection for nuclear explosion monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Petit, G; Cagniant, A; Morelle, M; Gross, P; Achim, P; Douysset, G; Taffary, T; Moulin, C

    The verification regime of the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT) is based on a network of three different waveform technologies together with global monitoring of aerosols and noble gas in order to detect, locate and identify a nuclear weapon explosion down to 1 kt TNT equivalent. In case of a low intensity underground or underwater nuclear explosion, it appears that only radioactive gases, especially the noble gas which are difficult to contain, will allow identification of weak yield nuclear tests. Four radioactive xenon isotopes, 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133 Xe and 135 Xe, are sufficiently produced in fission reactions and exhibit suitable half-lives and radiation emissions to be detected in atmosphere at low level far away from the release site. Four different monitoring CTBT systems, ARIX, ARSA, SAUNA, and SPALAX™ have been developed in order to sample and to measure them with high sensitivity. The latest developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is likely to be drastically improved in detection sensitivity (especially for the metastable isotopes) through a higher sampling rate, when equipped with a new conversion electron (CE)/X-ray coincidence spectrometer. This new spectrometer is based on two combined detectors, both exhibiting very low radioactive background: a well-type NaI(Tl) detector for photon detection surrounding a gas cell equipped with two large passivated implanted planar silicon chips for electron detection. It is characterized by a low electron energy threshold and a much better energy resolution for the CE than those usually measured with the existing CTBT equipments. Furthermore, the compact geometry of the spectrometer provides high efficiency for X-ray and for CE associated to the decay modes of the four relevant radioxenons. The paper focus on the design of this new spectrometer and presents spectroscopic performances of a prototype based on recent results achieved from both radioactive xenon standards and air sample

  13. MedMon: securing medical devices through wireless monitoring and anomaly detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Raghunathan, Anand; Jha, Niraj K

    2013-12-01

    Rapid advances in personal healthcare systems based on implantable and wearable medical devices promise to greatly improve the quality of diagnosis and treatment for a range of medical conditions. However, the increasing programmability and wireless connectivity of medical devices also open up opportunities for malicious attackers. Unfortunately, implantable/wearable medical devices come with extreme size and power constraints, and unique usage models, making it infeasible to simply borrow conventional security solutions such as cryptography. We propose a general framework for securing medical devices based on wireless channel monitoring and anomaly detection. Our proposal is based on a medical security monitor (MedMon) that snoops on all the radio-frequency wireless communications to/from medical devices and uses multi-layered anomaly detection to identify potentially malicious transactions. Upon detection of a malicious transaction, MedMon takes appropriate response actions, which could range from passive (notifying the user) to active (jamming the packets so that they do not reach the medical device). A key benefit of MedMon is that it is applicable to existing medical devices that are in use by patients, with no hardware or software modifications to them. Consequently, it also leads to zero power overheads on these devices. We demonstrate the feasibility of our proposal by developing a prototype implementation for an insulin delivery system using off-the-shelf components (USRP software-defined radio). We evaluate its effectiveness under several attack scenarios. Our results show that MedMon can detect virtually all naive attacks and a large fraction of more sophisticated attacks, suggesting that it is an effective approach to enhancing the security of medical devices.

  14. Isolation by Time During an Arctic Phytoplankton Spring Bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammilehto, Anna; Watts, Phillip C; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-03-01

    The arctic phytoplankton spring bloom, which is often diatom-dominated, is a key event that provides the high latitude communities with a fundamental flux of organic carbon. During a bloom, phytoplankton may increase its biomass by orders of magnitude within days. Yet, very little is known about phytoplankton bloom dynamics, including for example how blooming affects genetic composition and diversity of a population. Here, we quantified the genetic composition and temporal changes of the diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus, which is one of the most important primary producers in the Arctic, during the spring bloom in western Greenland, using 13 novel microsatellite markers developed for this study. We found that genetic differentiation (quantified using sample-specific F ST ) decreased between time points as the bloom progressed, with the most drastic changes in F ST occurring at the start of the bloom; thus the genetic structure of the bloom is characterized by isolation by time. There was little temporal variation in genetic diversity throughout the bloom (mean H E  = 0.57), despite marked fluctuations in F. cylindrus cell concentrations and the temporal change in sample-specific F ST . On the basis of this novel pattern of genetic differentiation, we suggest that blooming behavior may promote genetic diversity of a phytoplankton population. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  15. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-15

    We consider the development of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in a lake with uncertain nutrients inflow. Two general frameworks, Fokker-Planck equation and the PDF methods, are developed to quantify the resultant concentration uncertainty of various algae groups, via deriving a deterministic equation of their joint probability density function (PDF). A computational example is examined to study the evolution of cyanobacteria (the blue-green algae) and the impacts of initial concentration and inflow-outflow ratio.

  16. Stochastic Forecasting of Algae Blooms in Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2013-01-03

    We consider a general framework to predict the development of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in a lake driven by uncertain parameters. To quantify the concentration uncertainty of those algae groups via their joint probabilistic density function (PDF), we explore an approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. Our result is presented in an example where abundant nutrients contribute to the proliferation of cyanobacteria and other minor algae groups.

  17. New Coccolithophore Bloom in Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For the fourth year in a row it appears as if there is a bloom of coccolithophores-marine single-celled plants with calcite scales-in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska. Similar blooms were rare before 1997, but they have appeared every year since then. Scientists believe the coccolithophore blooms are the result of changing wind patterns in the region. Weaker than normal winds fail to mix the water of the Bering Sea, resulting in the growth of coccolithophores instead of other types of phytoplankton. Seabird populations have also been changing as a result of this climate change. The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, saw the coccolith-brightened waters of the Bering Sea in 1997, 1998, and 1999. The waters have looked fairly bright again this winter and spring, as seen in this SeaWiFS image acquired April 29, 2000. But scientists are unsure whether this year's phenomenon is caused by living coccolithophorids, re-suspended coccoliths, or something else. Like all phytoplankton, coccolithophores contain chlorophyll and have the tendency to multiply rapidly near the surface. Yet, in large numbers, coccolithophores periodically shed their tiny scales, called 'coccoliths,' by the bucketful into the surrounding waters. The calcium-rich coccoliths turn the normally dark water a bright, milky aquamarine, making coccolithophore blooms easy to spot in satellite imagery. The edge of the whitish cloud in the water seen in this image is roughly 50 kilometers off the West Coast of Alaska. For more information see: SeaWiFS home page Changing Currents Color the Bering Sea a New Shade of Blue Image courtesy SeaWiFS project

  18. Merunut Pemahaman Taksonomi Bloom: Suatu Kontemplasi Filosofis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus Tulasi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article would like to share the use of Bloom's taxonomy as a cognitive framework for teaching-learning process to undertake the way student-centered learning. Related to the curriculum based competence in excellent education, the abstract cognitive in applying Bloom’s taxonomy is so called scaffolding. We know the taxonomy Bloom is a six-level classification system that uses observed student behavior to infer and absorb the level of cognitive achievement domain. This article surveys thinking within general education and management education, which uses and draws on Bloom's taxonomy, and then describes suggested uses of the taxonomy. The empirical evaluation of its effect on student achievement follows, as do thoughts about ways colleagues might use this tool to empower and motivate students as self-responsible learners in the classroom. The objective is to promote higher order thinking in college students, we understood an effort to learn how to assess critical-thinking skills in an introductory course. It means, we develop a process by which questions are prepared with both content and critical-thinking skills in mind. 

  19. Unannounced Meals in the Artificial Pancreas: Detection Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charrise M. Ramkissoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The artificial pancreas (AP system is designed to regulate blood glucose in subjects with type 1 diabetes using a continuous glucose monitor informed controller that adjusts insulin infusion via an insulin pump. However, current AP developments are mainly hybrid closed-loop systems that include feed-forward actions triggered by the announcement of meals or exercise. The first step to fully closing the loop in the AP requires removing meal announcement, which is currently the most effective way to alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia due to the delay in insulin action. Here, a novel approach to meal detection in the AP is presented using a sliding window and computing the normalized cross-covariance between measured glucose and the forward difference of a disturbance term, estimated from an augmented minimal model using an Unscented Kalman Filter. Three different tunings were applied to the same meal detection algorithm: (1 a high sensitivity tuning, (2 a trade-off tuning that has a high amount of meals detected and a low amount of false positives (FP, and (3 a low FP tuning. For the three tunings sensitivities 99 ± 2%, 93 ± 5%, and 47 ± 12% were achieved, respectively. A sensitivity analysis was also performed and found that higher carbohydrate quantities and faster rates of glucose appearance result in favorable meal detection outcomes.

  20. Ensembles of novelty detection classifiers for structural health monitoring using guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Gerges; Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias; Khomenko, Anton; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2018-01-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses sparse sensor networks embedded in sophisticated structures for defect detection and characterization. The biggest challenge of those sensor networks is developing robust techniques for reliable damage detection under changing environmental and operating conditions (EOC). To address this challenge, we develop a novelty classifier for damage detection based on one class support vector machines. We identify appropriate features for damage detection and introduce a feature aggregation method which quadratically increases the number of available training observations. We adopt a two-level voting scheme by using an ensemble of classifiers and predictions. Each classifier is trained on a different segment of the guided wave signal, and each classifier makes an ensemble of predictions based on a single observation. Using this approach, the classifier can be trained using a small number of baseline signals. We study the performance using Monte-Carlo simulations of an analytical model and data from impact damage experiments on a glass fiber composite plate. We also demonstrate the classifier performance using two types of baseline signals: fixed and rolling baseline training set. The former requires prior knowledge of baseline signals from all EOC, while the latter does not and leverages the fact that EOC vary slowly over time and can be modeled as a Gaussian process.

  1. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Enables the Detection of Losses in Infusion Set Actuation (LISAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Howsmon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM enables a variety of advanced technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In addition to artificial pancreas algorithms that use CGM to automate continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII, CGM can also inform fault detection algorithms that alert patients to problems in CGM or CSII. Losses in infusion set actuation (LISAs can adversely affect clinical outcomes, resulting in hyperglycemia due to impaired insulin delivery. Prolonged hyperglycemia may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis—a serious metabolic complication in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, an algorithm for the detection of LISAs based on CGM and CSII signals was developed to improve patient safety. The LISA detection algorithm is trained retrospectively on data from 62 infusion set insertions from 20 patients. The algorithm collects glucose and insulin data, and computes relevant fault metrics over two different sliding windows; an alarm sounds when these fault metrics are exceeded. With the chosen algorithm parameters, the LISA detection strategy achieved a sensitivity of 71.8% and issued 0.28 false positives per day on the training data. Validation on two independent data sets confirmed that similar performance is seen on data that was not used for training. The developed algorithm is able to effectively alert patients to possible infusion set failures in open-loop scenarios, with limited evidence of its extension to closed-loop scenarios.

  2. Ensembles of novelty detection classifiers for structural health monitoring using guided waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Gerges; Karpenko, Oleksii; Koricho, Ermias; Khomenko, Anton; Haq, Mahmoodul; Udpa, Lalita

    2017-11-17

    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses sparse sensor networks embedded in sophisticated structures for defect detection and characterization. The biggest challenge of those sensor networks is developing robust techniques for reliable damage detection under changing environmental and operating conditions. To address this challenge, we develop a novelty classifier for damage detection based on one class support vector machines. We identify appropriate features for damage detection and introduce a feature aggregation method which quadratically increases the number of available training observations.We adopt a two-level voting scheme by using an ensemble of classifiers and predictions. Each classifier is trained on a different segment of the guided wave signal, and each classifier makes an ensemble of predictions based on a single observation. Using this approach, the classifier can be trained using a small number of baseline signals. We study the performance using monte-carlo simulations of an analytical model and data from impact damage experiments on a glass fiber composite plate.We also demonstrate the classifier performance using two types of baseline signals: fixed and rolling baseline training set. The former requires prior knowledge of baseline signals from all environmental and operating conditions, while the latter does not and leverages the fact that environmental and operating conditions vary slowly over time and can be modeled as a Gaussian process.

  3. An Illustration of New Methods in Machine Condition Monitoring, Part II: Adaptive outlier detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I.; Worden, K.; Marchesiello, S.; Mba, C.; Garibaldi, L.

    2017-05-01

    There have been many recent developments in the application of data-based methods to machine condition monitoring. A powerful methodology based on machine learning has emerged, where diagnostics are based on a two-step procedure: extraction of damage-sensitive features, followed by unsupervised learning (novelty detection) or supervised learning (classification). The objective of the current pair of papers is simply to illustrate one state-of-the-art procedure for each step, using synthetic data representative of reality in terms of size and complexity. The second paper in the pair will deal with novelty detection. Although there has been considerable progress in the use of outlier analysis for novelty detection, most of the papers produced so far have suffered from the fact that simple algorithms break down if multiple outliers are present or if damage is already present in a training set. The objective of the current paper is to illustrate the use of phase-space thresholding; an algorithm which has the ability to detect multiple outliers inclusively in a data set.

  4. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liansheng Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR. The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved.

  5. Ontology-Driven Monitoring of Patient’s Vital Signs Enabling Personalized Medical Detection and Alert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hristoskova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge related to caring for patients with chronic conditions is the early detection of exacerbations of the disease. Medical personnel should be contacted immediately in order to intervene in time before an acute state is reached, ensuring patient safety. This paper proposes an approach to an ambient intelligence (AmI framework supporting real-time remote monitoring of patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure (CHF. Its novelty is the integration of: (i personalized monitoring of the patients health status and risk stage; (ii intelligent alerting of the dedicated physician through the construction of medical workflows on-the-fly; and (iii dynamic adaptation of the vital signs’ monitoring environment on any available device or smart phone located in close proximity to the physician depending on new medical measurements, additional disease specifications or the failure of the infrastructure. The intelligence lies in the adoption of semantics providing for a personalized and automated emergency alerting that smoothly interacts with the physician, regardless of his location, ensuring timely intervention during an emergency. It is evaluated on a medical emergency scenario, where in the case of exceeded patient thresholds, medical personnel are localized and contacted, presenting ad hoc information on the patient’s condition on the most suited device within the physician’s reach.

  6. An open system approach to change detection and failure monitoring of complex plants: the NPP experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, J.; Bokor, J.; Edelmayer, A.; Soumelidis, A.

    1996-01-01

    Along the lines of the recent developments of the diagnostic information system (DIS) in the Nuclear Power Plant Co., Paks, Hungary, in this paper the concept and main features of the system is discussed. DIS is a plant-wide failure monitoring and diagnosis assistance system, whose computational framework is based on distributed computational and diagnostic information resources ensuring fast information retrieval thus considerably improving the availability of diagnostic data in the organization. Main functional constituents of DIS include reactor and primary loops diagnostic, in-core diagnostic and turbine diagnostic subsystems. Experimental leakage detection and loose part monitoring are also part of the system. Advances networking technology makes the integration of inhomogeneous computing technologies to the architecture possible. The idea can play invaluable role in developing next generations of large-scale diagnosis assistance systems and applies directly to surveillance and failure monitoring of the VVER-440 type pressurized water reactor units and to their main components in the plant, enhancing operational safety and reliability. (authors)

  7. Physical quality status analysis for hypertensive crowd detected in Shanghai national physique monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI He

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the physical fitness of hypertension group for 20-69 years old hypertension crowd that were checked through Shanghai national physique monitoring in 2010,and to provide scientific basis for making exercise health promotion plans for them.Index test methods are based on “2010 China National Physique Monitoring Handbook” issued by the State Sports General Administration.Overall the detection rate of mild hypertension was 16.8%,moderate to severe hypertension was 4.5%.The excellent and good rate in the national physique monitoring was different between different groups,the rate of normotensive group was the highest,then was the mild hypertensive group,the smallest was the severe hypertensive group.With the increase of blood pressure levels,morphological indexes were increased,and the difference was significant.With the increase of blood pressure,the quiet pulse significantly increased,vital capacity and step index decreased significantly,diathesis indexes were significant difference except for back strength,females′ grip strength and men's pushups.The hypertensive group has obvious physical characteristics and obesity morphology,most of them have abdominal obesity,their performance indicators and some quality parameters are significantly lower than normotensive group.

  8. Stress detection in bivalve mollusk using non-invasive bioelectric monitoring of myoneural behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, E.L.; Hardison, B.S. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Dawson, V.K.; Waller, D. [National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI (United States); Waller, W.T.; Dickson, K.L.; Allen, H.J. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Inst. of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Few studies have demonstrated cause-and-effect linkages between extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic bioelectric action potentials of bivalve mollusk using non-invasive, non-destructive approaches. A non-invasive, external probe configuration and detection system, similar to one used previously with native unionids, was developed for continuously monitoring bioelectric activities of clams and mussels. Using remote probes and differential amplifiers, bioelectric activities were recorded for cardiac, adductor, siphon and foot responses using a computer equipped with integrating software. To test if remote, non-invasive probes would detect similar information to that recorded by invasive needle electrodes, two individuals of zebra mussel (Dreissenia polymorpha), and Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) were each configured with two sets of probes. One set was inserted between the valves and along the inside surface of the shelf; the other set was positioned remotely about the outside margins of the valves. Signal validation was made by simultaneously recording bioelectric responses for the same animal from both sets of probes. In preliminary stress tests monitored bivalves were subjected to changes in temperatures over 2 to 3 hr intervals from ambient to potentially lethal levels (20 to 30 C for zebra, 25 C to 40 C for corbicula). Dramatic increases resulted in both number and amplitude of cardiac events as temperature increased. Planned studies will use this approach to evaluate bivalve myoneural behavior patterns in response to chemical and non-chemical stimuli.

  9. Self-assembled monolayer-based immunoassays for okadaic acid detection in seawater as monitoring tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Sandra; Toldrà, Anna; Rambla-Alegre, Maria; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Andree, Karl B; Ferreres, Laura; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Pazos, Yolanda; Diogène, Jorge; Campàs, Mònica

    2018-02-01

    Rapid and cost-effective methods to monitor the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in seawater samples in an easy and reliable manner are required to protect human health and avoid economic losses to shellfish industry. Immunoassays for the detection of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 are developed by immobilising OA on self-assembled monothiols or dithiols in an ordered and oriented way, providing an effective limit of detection of ∼1 ng OA equiv./mL seawater. The immunoassays are applied to the analysis of the particulate fraction of seawater samples from two Catalan harbours (NW Mediterranean) and samples collected periodically from the Galician Rias (E Atlantic), as well as a reference mussel sample. Results are in agreement with LC-MS/MS and the certified values. OA concentration in seawater correlates with Dinophysis cell abundance, with a 1-2 weeks lag. The immunoassays provide powerful high-throughput analytical methods potentially applicable as alternative monitoring tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water Pipeline Monitoring and Leak Detection using Flow Liquid Meter Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Satria, I. S.; Siregar, B.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    Water distribution is generally installed through underground pipes. Monitoring the underground water pipelines is more difficult than monitoring the water pipelines located on the ground in open space. This situation will cause a permanent loss if there is a disturbance in the pipeline such as leakage. Leaks in pipes can be caused by several factors, such as the pipe’s age, improper installation, and natural disasters. Therefore, a solution is required to detect and to determine the location of the damage when there is a leak. The detection of the leak location will use fluid mechanics and kinematics physics based on harness water flow rate data obtained using flow liquid meter sensor and Arduino UNO as a microcontroller. The results show that the proposed method is able to work stably to determine the location of the leak which has a maximum distance of 2 metres, and it’s able to determine the leak location as close as possible with flow rate about 10 litters per minute.

  11. Alkaline peptone water enrichment with a dipstick test to quickly detect and monitor cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Abdallah, Dauda; Debes, Amanda Kay; Kagirita, Atek; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A

    2017-11-21

    Detection, confirmation and monitoring of cholera outbreaks in many developing countries including Uganda is a big challenge due to lack of the required resources and the time the test takes. Culture method which takes 24-48 h to get the feedback and requires highly skilled laboratory staff plus other complex resources is the standard test. This study evaluated the new cholera rapid detection method that relies on Crystal VC dipsticks after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (APW) against the culture method for monitoring the progress of cholera outbreaks in rural setting. We conducted the study between March and June 2015. Fresh stool samples and rectal swabs were incubated in 1% APW for 6 h at room temperature before testing with RDT following the manufacturer's instruction. The same stool sample was cultured to isolate V. cholerae in the standard manner. We also reviewed patient registers to epidemiologically describe the cholera epidemic. We tested stool from 102 consenting suspected cholera patients reporting during daytime at Bwera Hospital (n = 69), Kilembe Mines Hospital (n = 4) and Kinyabwama Health Centre (n = 29). Ninety one (91) samples were positive and nine samples were negative according to both methods. One (1) sample was positive only by dipstick and one sample was positive only by culture (sensitivity of 99%, specificity of 90%, Positive Predictive Value of 99% and Negative Predictive Value of 90%). Overall, 146 suspected cholera cases and two deaths, (case fatality rate of 1.36%) were recorded during the study period. Among the cases aged 1-9 years, 63% (50/79) were males while in those aged 20-49 years, 76% (34/45) were females. Our findings showed that the modified dipstick test after enrichment with 1% APW had high level of accuracy in detection of V. cholerae and is quick, affordable alternative cholera outbreak monitoring tool in resource constrained settings. However, culture method should remain for cholera epidemic

  12. Alkaline peptone water enrichment with a dipstick test to quickly detect and monitor cholera outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection, confirmation and monitoring of cholera outbreaks in many developing countries including Uganda is a big challenge due to lack of the required resources and the time the test takes. Culture method which takes 24–48 h to get the feedback and requires highly skilled laboratory staff plus other complex resources is the standard test. This study evaluated the new cholera rapid detection method that relies on Crystal VC dipsticks after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (APW against the culture method for monitoring the progress of cholera outbreaks in rural setting. Methods We conducted the study between March and June 2015. Fresh stool samples and rectal swabs were incubated in 1% APW for 6 h at room temperature before testing with RDT following the manufacturer’s instruction. The same stool sample was cultured to isolate V. cholerae in the standard manner. We also reviewed patient registers to epidemiologically describe the cholera epidemic. Results We tested stool from 102 consenting suspected cholera patients reporting during daytime at Bwera Hospital (n = 69, Kilembe Mines Hospital (n = 4 and Kinyabwama Health Centre (n = 29. Ninety one (91 samples were positive and nine samples were negative according to both methods. One (1 sample was positive only by dipstick and one sample was positive only by culture (sensitivity of 99%, specificity of 90%, Positive Predictive Value of 99% and Negative Predictive Value of 90%. Overall, 146 suspected cholera cases and two deaths, (case fatality rate of 1.36% were recorded during the study period. Among the cases aged 1–9 years, 63% (50/79 were males while in those aged 20–49 years, 76% (34/45 were females. Conclusions Our findings showed that the modified dipstick test after enrichment with 1% APW had high level of accuracy in detection of V. cholerae and is quick, affordable alternative cholera outbreak monitoring tool in resource constrained

  13. Rheticus Displacement: an Automatic Geo-Information Service Platform for Ground Instabilities Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, M. T.; Samarelli, S.; Agrimano, L.; Lorusso, A. P.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Morea, A.; Tijani, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rheticus® is an innovative cloud-based data and services hub able to deliver Earth Observation added-value products through automatic complex processes and a minimum interaction with human operators. This target is achieved by means of programmable components working as different software layers in a modern enterprise system which relies on SOA (service-oriented-architecture) model. Due to its architecture, where every functionality is well defined and encapsulated in a standalone component, Rheticus is potentially highly scalable and distributable allowing different configurations depending on the user needs. Rheticus offers a portfolio of services, ranging from the detection and monitoring of geohazards and infrastructural instabilities, to marine water quality monitoring, wildfires detection or land cover monitoring. In this work, we outline the overall cloud-based platform and focus on the "Rheticus Displacement" service, aimed at providing accurate information to monitor movements occurring across landslide features or structural instabilities that could affect buildings or infrastructures. Using Sentinel-1 (S1) open data images and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry techniques (i.e., SPINUA), the service is complementary to traditional survey methods, providing a long-term solution to slope instability monitoring. Rheticus automatically browses and accesses (on a weekly basis) the products of the rolling archive of ESA S1 Scientific Data Hub; S1 data are then handled by a mature running processing chain, which is responsible of producing displacement maps immediately usable to measure with sub-centimetric precision movements of coherent points. Examples are provided, concerning the automatic displacement map generation process, as well as the integration of point and distributed scatterers, the integration of multi-sensors displacement maps (e.g., Sentinel-1 IW and COSMO-SkyMed HIMAGE), the combination of displacement rate maps acquired along both ascending

  14. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A Storm

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts, Up (Jawbone, One (Fitbit, ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc., Tractivity (Kineteks Corp. and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia. Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  15. Step detection and activity recognition accuracy of seven physical activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Fabio A; Heller, Ben W; Mazzà, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the seven following commercially available activity monitors in terms of step count detection accuracy: Movemonitor (Mc Roberts), Up (Jawbone), One (Fitbit), ActivPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd.), Nike+ Fuelband (Nike Inc.), Tractivity (Kineteks Corp.) and Sensewear Armband Mini (Bodymedia). Sixteen healthy adults consented to take part in the study. The experimental protocol included walking along an indoor straight walkway, descending and ascending 24 steps, free outdoor walking and free indoor walking. These tasks were repeated at three self-selected walking speeds. Angular velocity signals collected at both shanks using two wireless inertial measurement units (OPAL, ADPM Inc) were used as a reference for the step count, computed using previously validated algorithms. Step detection accuracy was assessed using the mean absolute percentage error computed for each sensor. The Movemonitor and the ActivPAL were also tested within a nine-minute activity recognition protocol, during which the participants performed a set of complex tasks. Posture classifications were obtained from the two monitors and expressed as a percentage of the total task duration. The Movemonitor, One, ActivPAL, Nike+ Fuelband and Sensewear Armband Mini underestimated the number of steps in all the observed walking speeds, whereas the Tractivity significantly overestimated step count. The Movemonitor was the best performing sensor, with an error lower than 2% at all speeds and the smallest error obtained in the outdoor walking. The activity recognition protocol showed that the Movemonitor performed best in the walking recognition, but had difficulty in discriminating between standing and sitting. Results of this study can be used to inform choice of a monitor for specific applications.

  16. Detection and monitoring of shear crack growth using S-P conversion of seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiriasari, A.; Bobet, A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    A diagnostic method for monitoring shear crack initiation, propagation, and coalescence in rock is key for the detection of major rupture events, such as slip along a fault. Active ultrasonic monitoring was used in this study to determine the precursory signatures to shear crack initiation in pre-cracked rock. Prismatic specimens of Indiana limestone (203x2101x638x1 mm) with two pre-existing parallel flaws were subjected to uniaxial compression. The flaws were cut through the thickness of the specimen using a scroll saw. The length of the flaws was 19.05 mm and had an inclination angle with respect to the loading direction of 30o. Shear wave transducers were placed on each side of the specimen, with polarization parallel to the loading direction. The shear waves, given the geometry of the flaws, were normally incident to the shear crack forming between the two flaws during loading. Shear crack initiation and propagation was detected on the specimen surface using digital image correlation (DIC), while initiation inside the rock was monitored by measuring full waveforms of the transmitted and reflected shear (S) waves across the specimen. Prior to the detection of a shear crack on the specimen surface using DIC, transmitted S waves were converted to compressional (P) waves. The emergence of converted S-P wave occurs because of the presence of oriented microcracks inside the rock. The microcracks coalesce and form the shear crack observed on the specimen surface. Up to crack coalescence, the amplitude of the converted waves increased with shear crack propagation. However, the amplitude of the transmitted shear waves between the two flaws did not change with shear crack initiation and propagation. This is in agreement with the conversion of elastic waves (P- to S-wave or S- to P-wave) observed by Nakagawa et al., (2000) for normal incident waves. Elastic wave conversions are attributed to the formation of an array of oriented microcracks that dilate under shear stress

  17. Monitoring, imperfect detection, and risk optimization of a Tasmanian devil insurance population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Tracy M; Baker, Christopher M; Huxtable, Stewart; Wintle, Brendan A

    2018-04-01

    Most species are imperfectly detected during biological surveys, which creates uncertainty around their abundance or presence at a given location. Decision makers managing threatened or pest species are regularly faced with this uncertainty. Wildlife diseases can drive species to extinction; thus, managing species with disease is an important part of conservation. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such disease that led to the listing of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) as endangered. Managers aim to maintain devils in the wild by establishing disease-free insurance populations at isolated sites. Often a resident DFTD-affected population must first be removed. In a successful collaboration between decision scientists and wildlife managers, we used an accessible population model to inform monitoring decisions and facilitate the establishment of an insurance population of devils on Forestier Peninsula. We used a Bayesian catch-effort model to estimate population size of a diseased population from removal and camera trap data. We also analyzed the costs and benefits of declaring the area disease-free prior to reintroduction and establishment of a healthy insurance population. After the monitoring session in May-June 2015, the probability that all devils had been successfully removed was close to 1, even when we accounted for a possible introduction of a devil to the site. Given this high probability and the baseline cost of declaring population absence prematurely, we found it was not cost-effective to carry out any additional monitoring before introducing the insurance population. Considering these results within the broader context of Tasmanian devil management, managers ultimately decided to implement an additional monitoring session before the introduction. This was a conservative decision that accounted for uncertainty in model estimates and for the broader nonmonetary costs of mistakenly declaring the area disease-free. © 2017 Society for

  18. Detection and localization capability of an urban seismic sinkhole monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Dirk; Dahm, Torsten; Schneider, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    Microseismic events linked to underground processes in sinkhole areas might serve as precursors to larger mass dislocation or rupture events which can cause felt ground shaking or even structural damage. To identify these weak and shallow events, a sensitive local seismic monitoring network is needed. In case of an urban environment the performance of local monitoring networks is severely compromised by the high anthropogenic noise level. We study the detection and localization capability of such a network, which is already partly installed in the urban area of the city of Hamburg, Germany, within the joint project SIMULTAN (http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/section/near-surface-geophysics/projects/simultan/). SIMULTAN aims to monitor a known sinkhole structure and gain a better understanding of the underlying processes. The current network consists of six surface stations installed in the basement of private houses and underground structures of a research facility (DESY - Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron). During the started monitoring campaign since 2015, no microseismic events could be unambiguously attributed to the sinkholes. To estimate the detection and location capability of the network, we calculate synthetic waveforms based on the location and mechanism of former events in the area. These waveforms are combined with the recorded urban seismic noise at the station sites. As detection algorithms a simple STA/LTA trigger and a more sophisticated phase detector are used. While the STA/LTA detector delivers stable results and is able to detect events with a moment magnitude as low as 0.35 at a distance of 1.3km from the source even under the present high noise conditions the phase detector is more sensitive but also less stable. It should be stressed that due to the local near surface conditions of the wave propagation the detections are generally performed on S- or surface waves and not on P-waves, which have a significantly lower amplitude. Due to the often

  19. Estrous detection by monitoring ventral tail base surface temperature using a wearable wireless sensor in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Ryotaro; Yoshioka, Koji; Miyamoto, Toru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Okada, Hironao; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the ventral tail base surface temperature (ST) was monitored using a wearable wireless sensor for estrus detection in cattle. Relationships among ST, behavioral estrus expression, ovulation, and changes in hormone profiles during the estrous cycle were examined. Holstein Friesian or Japanese Black female cattle were used in summer (August-September), autumn (October-November) and winter (January-February; three animals per season). On Day 11 of the estrous cycle (Day 0=the day of ovulation), the sensor was attached to the surface of the ventral tail base and ST was measured every 2min until Day 11 of the next estrous cycle. Hourly maximum ST values were used for analysis. To exclude circadian rhythm and seasonal effects, ST changes were expressed as residual temperatures (RT=actual ST - mean ST for the same hour on the previous 3days). Obvious circadian rhythms of the ST were observed and daily changes in the ST significantly differed among seasons. There was no significant seasonal difference, however, in the RT. The mean RT increased significantly ∼24 compared with ∼48h before ovulation. The mean maximum RT was 1.27±0.30°C, which was observed 5.6±2.4h after the onset of estrus, 2.4±1.3h before LH peak, and 26.9±1.2h before ovulation. The ST of the ventral tail base could be monitored throughout the estrous cycle and could detect a substantial change around the time of expression of behavioral estrus. Calculation and analysis of the RT could be useful for automatic estrous detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Complementary Metaproteomic Approaches to Assess the Bacterioplankton Response toward a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom in the Southern North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhlbrand, Lars; Wemheuer, Bernd; Feenders, Christoph; Ruppersberg, Hanna S; Hinrichs, Christina; Blasius, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf; Rabus, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Annually recurring phytoplankton spring blooms are characteristic of temperate coastal shelf seas. During these blooms, environmental conditions, including nutrient availability, differ considerably from non-bloom conditions, affecting the entire ecosystem including the bacterioplankton. Accordingly, the emerging ecological niches during bloom transition are occupied by different bacterial populations, with Roseobacter RCA cluster and SAR92 clade members exhibiting high metabolic activity during bloom events. In this study, the functional response of the ambient bacterial community toward a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea was studied using metaproteomic approaches. In contrast to other metaproteomic studies of marine bacterial communities, this is the first study comparing two different cell lysis and protein preparation methods [using trifluoroethanol (TFE) and in-solution digest as well as bead beating and SDS-based solubilization and in-gel digest (BB GeLC)]. In addition, two different mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-iontrap MS and MALDI-TOF MS) were used for peptide analysis. A total of 585 different proteins were identified, 296 of which were only detected using the TFE and 191 by the BB GeLC method, demonstrating the complementarity of these sample preparation methods. Furthermore, 158 proteins of the TFE cell lysis samples were exclusively detected by ESI-iontrap MS while 105 were only detected using MALDI-TOF MS, underpinning the value of using two different ionization and mass analysis methods. Notably, 12% of the detected proteins represent predicted integral membrane proteins, including the difficult to detect rhodopsin, indicating a considerable coverage of membrane proteins by this approach. This comprehensive approach verified previous metaproteomic studies of marine bacterioplankton, e.g., detection of many transport-related proteins (17% of the detected proteins). In addition, new insights into e.g., carbon and nitrogen

  1. Bloom dynamics of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae in two coastal bays (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quijano-Scheggia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations in the composition of Pseudo-nitzschia during bloom events from August 2005 to February 2006 were characterised in two bays of the NW Mediterranean Sea (Alfacs and Fangar Bay by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study provides detailed records of the Pseudo-nitzschia community at the species level and describes its relationship with both the surrounding environmental conditions and biotic factors such as the accompanying phytoplankton community. The size distributions of several species of Pseudo-nitzschia were monitored during the bloom events. These measurements may serve as indicators of the physiological status of the cells. The species observed in the two bays were Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, P. delicatissima, P. fraudulenta, P. multistriata, and P. pungens. In Alfacs Bay, a mixed species bloom of P. calliantha and P. delicatissima began in late August 2005 and lasted 11 weeks. In Fangar Bay, the Pseudo-nitzschia bloom was limited to the period from early August to late September 2005 and comprised P. calliantha and P. delicatissima. Commonly, the proliferation of Pseudo-nitzschia was mono-specific or was accompanied by other diatoms. Two objectively defined groups were identified by the statistical analysis in Alfacs bay; the first was made up only of winter samples and the second of summer and autumn samples. The first group was defined by a high concentration of NO3¯ and low concentrations of NH4+, conditions associated with a high abundance of P. delicatissima and a low abundance of P. calliantha. The second group expressed the opposite characteristics. A succession of different blooming species of Pseudo-nitzschia lasting months in Alfacs Bay is described.

  2. MONITORING TECHNOLOGY FOR EARLY DETECTION OF INTERNAL CORROSION FOR PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn M. Light; Sang Y. Kim; Robert L. Spinks; Hegeon Kwun; Patrick C. Porter

    2003-09-01

    Transmission gas pipelines are an important part of energy-transportation infrastructure vital to the national economy. The prevention of failures and continued safe operation of these pipelines are therefore of national interest. These lines, mostly buried, are protected and maintained by protective coating and cathodic protection systems, supplemented by periodic inspection equipped with sensors for inspection. The primary method for inspection is ''smart pigging'' with an internal inspection device that traverses the pipeline. However, some transmission lines are however not suitable for ''pigging'' operation. Because inspection of these ''unpiggable'' lines requires excavation, it is cost-prohibitive, and the development of a methodology for cost-effectively assessing the structural integrity of ''unpiggable'' lines is needed. This report describes the laboratory and field evaluation of a technology called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for monitoring and early detection of internal corrosion in known susceptible sections of transmission pipelines. With the MsS technology, developed by Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), a pulse of a relatively low frequency (typically under 100-kHz) mechanical wave (called guided wave) is launched along the pipeline and signals reflected from defects or welds are detected at the launch location in the pulse-echo mode. This technology can quickly examine a long length of piping for defects, such as corrosion wastage and cracking in circumferential direction, from a single test location, and has been in commercial use for inspection of above-ground piping in refineries and chemical plants. The MsS technology is operated primarily in torsional guided waves using a probe consisting of a thin ferromagnetic strip (typically nickel) bonded to a pipe and a number of coil-turns (typically twenty or so turns) wound

  3. Phytoplankton as Particles - A New Approach to Modeling Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ER D C/ EL T R -1 3 -1 3 Civil Works Basic Research Program Phytoplankton as Particles – A New Approach to Modeling Algal Blooms E nv... Phytoplankton as Particles – A New Approach to Modeling Algal Blooms Carl F. Cerco and Mark R. Noel Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research... phytoplankton blooms can be modeled by treating phytoplankton as discrete particles capable of self- induced transport via buoyancy regulation or other

  4. Near-Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Intense Pyroconvection from Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. A.; Fromm, M. D.; Hyer, E. J.; Surratt, M. L.; Solbrig, J. E.; Campbell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Intense fire-triggered thunderstorms, known as pyrocumulonimbus (or pyroCb), can alter fire behavior, influence smoke plume trajectories, and hinder fire suppression efforts. PyroCb are also known for injecting a significant quantity of aerosol mass into the upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere (UTLS). Near-real-time (NRT) detection and monitoring of pyroCb is highly desirable for a variety of forecasting and research applications. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) recently developed the first automated NRT pyroCb detection algorithm for geostationary satellite sensors. The algorithm uses multispectral infrared observations to isolate deep convective clouds with the distinct microphysical signal of pyroCb. Application of this algorithm to 88 intense wildfires observed during the 2013 fire season in western North America resulted in detection of individual intense events, pyroCb embedded within traditional convection, and multiple, short-lived pulses of activity. Comparisons with a community inventory indicate that this algorithm captures the majority of pyroCb. The primary limitation of the current system is that pyroCb anvils can be small relative to satellite pixel size, especially in in regions with large viewing angles. The algorithm is also sensitive to some false positives from traditional convection that either ingests smoke or exhibits extreme updraft velocities. This algorithm has been automated using the GeoIPS processing system developed at NRL, which produces a variety of imagery products and statistical output for rapid analysis of potential pyroCb events. NRT application of this algorithm has been extended to the majority of regions worldwide known to have a high frequency of pyroCb occurrence. This involves a constellation comprised of GOES-East, GOES-West, and Himawari-8. Imagery is posted immediately to an NRL-maintained web page. Alerts are generated by the system and disseminated via email. This detection system also has potential to serve

  5. Phytoplankton-Associated Bacterial Community Composition and Succession during Toxic Diatom Bloom and Non-Bloom Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison-Mangus, Marilou P; Jiang, Sunny; Kudela, Raphael M; Mehic, Sanjin

    2016-01-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia blooms often occur in coastal and open ocean environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid that can cause severe negative impacts to higher trophic levels. Increasing evidence suggests a close relationship between phytoplankton bloom and bacterial assemblages, however, the microbial composition and succession during a bloom process is unknown. Here, we investigate the bacterial assemblages before, during and after toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in a natural bloom setting. Opportunistic sampling of bacterial community profiles were determined weekly at Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf by 454 pyrosequencing and analyzed together with domoic acid levels, phytoplankton community and biomass, nutrients and temperature. We asked if the bacterial communities are similar between bloom and non-bloom events and if domoic acid or the presence of toxic algal species acts as a driving force that can significantly structure phytoplankton-associated bacterial communities. We found that bacterial diversity generally increases when Pseudo-nitzschia numbers decline. Furthermore, bacterial diversity is higher when the low-DA producing P. fraudulenta dominates the algal bloom while bacterial diversity is lower when high-DA producing P. australis dominates the algal bloom, suggesting that the presence of algal toxin can structure bacterial community. We also found bloom-related succession patterns among associated bacterial groups; Gamma-proteobacteria, were dominant during low toxic P. fraudulenta blooms comprising mostly of Vibrio spp., which increased in relative abundance (6-65%) as the bloom progresses. On the other hand, Firmicutes bacteria comprising mostly of Planococcus spp. (12-86%) dominate during high toxic P. australis blooms, with the bacterial assemblage showing the same bloom-related successional patterns in three independent bloom events. Other environmental

  6. Phytoplankton-associated bacterial community composition and succession during toxic diatom bloom and non-bloom events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilou P. Sison-Mangus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-nitzschia blooms often occur in coastal and open ocean environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid that can cause severe negative impacts to higher trophic levels. Increasing evidence suggests a close relationship between phytoplankton bloom and bacterial assemblages, however, the microbial composition and succession during a bloom process is unknown. Here, we investigate the bacterial assemblages before, during and after toxic and non-toxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in a natural bloom setting. Opportunistic sampling of bacterial community profiles were determined weekly at Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf by 454 pyrosequencing and analyzed together with domoic acid levels, phytoplankton community and biomass, nutrients and temperature. We asked if the bacterial communities are similar between bloom and non-bloom events and if domoic acid or the presence of toxic algal species acts as a driving force that can significantly structure phytoplankton-associated bacterial communities. We found that bacterial diversity generally increases when Pseudo-nitzschia numbers decline. Furthermore, bacterial diversity is higher when the low-DA producing P. fraudulenta dominates the algal bloom while bacterial diversity is lower when high-DA producing P. australis dominates the algal bloom, suggesting that the presence of algal toxin can structure bacterial community. We also found bloom-related succession patterns among associated bacterial groups; Gamma-proteobacteria, were dominant during low toxic P. fraudulenta blooms comprising mostly of Vibrio spp., which increased in relative abundance (6%-65% as the bloom progresses. On the other hand, Firmicutes bacteria comprising mostly of Planococcus spp. (12%- 86% dominate during high toxic P. australis blooms, with the bacterial assemblage showing the same bloom-related successional patterns in 3 independent bloom events. Other

  7. Monitoring and Detecting X-ray Transients with the Swift Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwardt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Swift is a multi-wavelength observatory specifically designed to detect transients sources in the gamma-ray energy band 15-200 keV. The primary goals of the mission involve gamma ray burst (GRB) astronomy, namely to determine the origin of GRBs and their afterglows, and use bursts to probe the early Universe. However, Swift will also discover new X-ray transient sources, and it will be possible to bring Swift's considerable multi-wavelength capabilities to bear on these sources, and those discovered by other means. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is a coded mask instrument sensitive to 15-200 keV gamma rays, and has a field of view which covers approximately 1/8th of the sky in a single pointing. Over a typical observing day, the almost the entire sky will be observed and monitored for new transient sources. Sources will be detected within several hours of observation. The two narrow field instruments, the X-ray Telescope and Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope, can provide sensitive simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy observations in the optical through soft X-ray bands. The Swift science operations team will entertain requests for targets of opportunity for sources which are astrophysically significant. Swift will be ideally suited for the detection of transients which produce hard X-rays, such as black hole binaries and some neutron star systems.

  8. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-09-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill- Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data generated by multiple sensors of different types, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for a specific decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offliine. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  9. Spoofing cyber attack detection in probe-based traffic monitoring systems using mixed integer linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham- Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber-attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offline. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber-attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Evaluation of detection and response times of fire sensors using an atmospheric monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J H; Litton, C D; Thomas, R A

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric monitoring systems (AMS) are required when using air from conveyor belt entries to ventilate working sections in U.S. underground coal mines. AMS technology has the potential to increase fire safety mine-wide, but research is needed to determine the detection and response times for fires of a variety of combustible materials. To evaluate the potential of an AMS for fire detection in other areas of a coal mine, a series of full-scale fire experiments were conducted to determine detection and response times from fires of different combustible materials that are found in U.S. underground coal mines, including high- and low-volatility coals, conveyor belts, brattice materials, different types of wood, diesel fuel, and a foam sealant. These experiments were conducted in the Safety Research Coal Mine (SRCM) of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) located in Pittsburgh, PA, using a commercially available AMS that is typical of current technology. The results showed that through proper selection of sensors and their locations, a mine-wide AMS can provide sufficient early fire warning times and improve the health and safety of miners.

  11. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Incipient in Journal Bearings - Part I : Detectability and measurement for bearing damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dong Jin; Kwon, Oh Yang; Chung, Min Hwa; Kim, Kyung Woong

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the machinery using rolling element bearings, systems with journal bearings generally operate in large scale and under severe loading condition such as steam generator turbines and internal combustion engines. Failure of the bearings in these machinery can result in the system breakdown. To avoid the time consuming repair and considerable economic loss, the detection of incipient failure in journal bearings becomes very important. In this experimental approach, acoustic emission monitoring is applied to the detection of incipient failure caused by several types of abnormal operating condition most probable in the journal bearing systems. It has been known that the intervention of foreign materials, insufficient lubrication and misassembly etc. are principal factors to cause bearing failure and distress. The experiment was conducted under such designed conditions as hard particles in the lubrication layer, insufficient lubrication, and metallic contact in the simulated journal bearing system. The results showed that acoustic emission could be an effective tool to detect the incipient failure in journal bearings

  12. Wireless-based portable EEG-EOG monitoring for real time drowsiness detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnin, J; Anopas, D; Horapong, M; Triponyuwasi, P; Yamsa-ard, T; Iampetch, S; Wongsawat, Y

    2013-01-01

    Drowsiness is one of the major risk factors causing accidents that result in a large number of damage. Drivers and industrial workers probably have a large effect on several mishaps occurring from drowsiness. Therefore, advanced technology to reduce these accidental rates is a very challenging problem. Nowadays, there have been many drowsiness detectors using electroencephalogram (EEG), however, the cost is still high and the use of this is uncomfortable in long-term monitoring because most of them require wiring and conventional wet electrodes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a portable wireless device that can automatically detect the drowsiness in real time by using the EEG and electrooculogram (EOG). The silver (Ag) conducting fabric consolidated in a headband used as dry electrodes can acquire signal from the user's forehead. The signal was sent via the wireless communication of XBee® 802.15.4 to a standalone microcontroller to analyze drowsiness using the proposed algorithm. The alarm will ring when the drowsiness occurs. Besides, the automatic drowsiness detection and alarm device yields the real-time detection accuracy of approximately 81%.

  13. Structural Health Monitoring of Precast Concrete Box Girders Using Selected Vibration-Based Damage Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjie Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast, prestressed concrete box girders are commonly used as superstructure components for short and medium span bridges. Their configuration and typical side-by-side placement make large portions of these elements inaccessible for visual inspection or the application of nondestructive testing techniques. This paper demonstrates that vibration-based damage detection (VBDD is an effective alternative for monitoring their structural health. A box girder removed from a dismantled bridge was used to evaluate the ability of five different VBDD algorithms to detect and localize low levels of spalling damage, with a focus on using a small number of sensors and only the fundamental mode of vibration. All methods were capable of detecting and localizing damage to a region within approximately 1.6 times the longitudinal spacing between as few as six uniformly distributed accelerometers. Strain gauges configured to measure curvature were also effective, but tended to be susceptible to large errors in near support damage cases. Finite element analyses demonstrated that increasing the number of sensor locations leads to a proportional increase in localization accuracy, while the use of additional modes provides little advantage and can sometimes lead to a deterioration in the performance of the VBDD techniques.

  14. The Contact State Monitoring for Seal End Faces Based on Acoustic Emission Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the contact state of seal end faces would help the early warning of the seal failure. In the acoustic emission (AE detection for mechanical seal, the main difficulty is to reduce the background noise and to classify the dispersed features. To solve these problems and achieve higher detection rates, a new approach based on genetic particle filter with autoregression (AR-GPF and hypersphere support vector machine (HSSVM is presented. First, AR model is used to build the dynamic state space (DSS of the AE signal, and GPF is used for signal filtering. Then, multiple features are extracted, and a classification model based on HSSVM is constructed for state recognition. In this approach, AR-GPF is an excellent time-domain method for noise reduction, and HSSVM has advantage on those dispersed features. Finally experimental data shows that the proposed method can effectively detect the contact state of the seal end faces and has higher accuracy rates than some other existing methods.

  15. Ground-water monitor-well installation at twelve hazardous-waste storage or handling facilities at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Phase 2, Detection monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmeier, P.D.; Motley, C.A.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides construction information for 41 ground-water monitor wells and a narrative describing a drilling, geophysical logging, and hydraulic permeability testing programs to detect and identify chemical compounds that may have entered the uppermost aquifer and any interconnecting aquifers. This investigation is the second phase of well installations at the storage and handling facilities. The initial phase characterized the hydrogeology at each facility. A third phase will delineate the extent of any detected contamination. The sites that were investigated require monitoring. The activities conducted during this investigation included installation of unconsolidated zone wells, installation of bedrock zone wells, geophysical logging and hydraulic testing of selected wells, and re-development of Phase I monitor wells. 5 refs., 97 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Unsupervised Change Detection for Geological and Ecological Monitoring via Remote Sensing: Application on a Volcanic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, N.; Pedersen, G. B. M.; Vilmunandardóttir, O. K.; Belart, J. M. M. C.; Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Benediktsson, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The project "Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland by Remote Sensing (EMMIRS)" aims at providing fast and reliable mapping and monitoring techniques on a big spatial scale with a high temporal resolution of the Icelandic landscape. Such mapping and monitoring will be crucial to both mitigate and understand the scale of processes and their often complex interlinked feedback mechanisms.In the EMMIRS project, the Hekla volcano area is one of the main sites under study, where the volcanic eruptions, extreme weather and human activities had an extensive impact on the landscape degradation. The development of innovative remote sensing approaches to compute earth observation variables as automatically as possible is one of the main tasks of the EMMIRS project. Furthermore, a temporal remote sensing archive is created and composed by images acquired by different sensors (Landsat, RapidEye, ASTER and SPOT5). Moreover, historical aerial stereo photos allowed decadal reconstruction of the landscape by reconstruction of digital elevation models. Here, we propose a novel architecture for automatic unsupervised change detection analysis able to ingest multi-source data in order to detect landscape changes in the Hekla area. The change detection analysis is based on multi-scale analysis, which allows the identification of changes at different level of abstraction, from pixel-level to region-level. For this purpose, operators defined in mathematical morphology framework are implemented to model the contextual information, represented by the neighbour system of a pixel, allowing the identification of changes related to both geometrical and spectral domains. Automatic radiometric normalization strategy is also implemented as pre-processing step, aiming at minimizing the effect of different acquisition conditions. The proposed architecture is tested on multi-temporal data sets acquired over different time periods coinciding with the last three eruptions (1980-1981, 1991

  17. Partial discharge detection for condition monitoring of covered-conductor overhead distribution networks using Rogowski coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashmi, G.M.

    2008-07-01

    Partial discharge (PD) is a small electrical avalanche caused by locally disrupted electric fields in dielectric materials, and is known to be one of the major factors which accelerate the degradation of electrical insulation. This thesis deals with a relatively new and challenging application of conducting on-line high frequency PD measurements for the monitoring of falling trees on covered-conductor (CC) overhead distribution lines. A measuring test set-up was arranged in the high voltage laboratory for real-time analysis. A pine tree was leaned against a 20 kV energized conductor and PDs were measured at different locations on the CC line using a Rogowski coil. The time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurement technique is presented to extract the frequency-dependent wave propagation characteristics (attenuation, phase constant, and propagation velocity) of CC overhead distribution lines. The theoretical modeling of the CC line based on its geometry is presented using two-wire transmission line theory and its frequency-dependent line characteristics are derived. The theoretical model is verified experimentally using TDR measurements taken on a certain length of the line. The entire single-phase on-line PD monitoring system including CC line and Rogowski coil is simulated in the electromagnetic transient program-alternative transient program (EMTP-ATP) simulation environment for detecting falling trees on CC overhead distribution lines. The model is confirmed by the measurement results taken in the laboratory. The model can be used to estimate the length of the CC line at which the PDs due to falling trees can be detected, thus deciding the number and positioning of the sensors over a particular length of the CC line. Moreover, the challenges in on-line condition monitoring of falling trees on CC lines using wireless sensors are also discussed. The wavelet transform technique is applied as a powerful tool to de-noise on-line PD signals, which are completely buried

  18. Procedures and techniques for monitoring the radiation detection, signalization and alarm systems in the centralized ambience monitoring systems of the basic nuclear facilities of the CEN Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, J.-J.; Drouet, J.; Leblanc, P.

    1979-01-01

    After referring to the regulations governing the 'systematic ambience monitoring' in the basic nuclear facilities, the main radiation detection, signalization and alarm devices existing at present in these facilities of the Saclay Nuclear Study Centre are described. The analysis of the operating defects of the measuring channels and detection possibilities leads to the anomalies being classified in two separate groups: the anomalies of the logical 'all or nothing' type of which all the possible origins are integrated into a so-called 'continuity' line and the evolutive anomalies of various origins corresponding to poor functioning extending possibly to a complete absence of signal. The techniques for testing the detection devices of the radiation monitoring board set up in the 'Departement de Rayonnements' at the Saclay Nuclear Study Centre are also described [fr

  19. Remarkable difference in paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin distribution in tissues of pen shell atrina pectinata exposed to toxic red tide bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narceda, Ronald Jefferson A.; Montojo, Ulysses M.; Cayme, Mirriam F.; Borja, Valeriano M.

    2011-01-01

    Pen shell atrina pectinata is one of the commercially important bivalves in Western Pacific region. In the Philippines, it is marketed as a whole meat or processed by shellfish harvesters to separate the abductor muscle as an export commodity. During blooms of toxic dinoflagellate pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), A. pectinata accumulates paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins sometimes exceeding Philippine regulatory limit of 60μgSTXeq/100g tissue and international regulatory limit of 80μgSTXeq/100g tissue for safe human consumption, based on whole tissue analysis. Toxic blooms directly affect the shellfish industry which includes A. pectinata, and this causes not only significant economical losses on shellfish gatherers but also serious public health concerns. In this study, samples of A. pectinata exposed to toxic bloom of Pbc were collected in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines. Bioaccumulation and distribution of PSP toxins were determined in different tissues namely, abductor muscle, mantle, gills, gonads, siphon, stomach and intestine using High Performance Liquid Chromatography post column derivatization method with fluorescence detection. Likewise, green mussels Perna viridis being the sentinel species for PSP monitoring in the Philippines were also collected in the same area and served as control. Interestingly, results showed that the abductor muscle accumulates minimal level of PSP toxins and is several folds lower than the Philippine and international regulatory limits in contrast with the results obtained from P. viridis. Mantle parts showed toxicity values exceeding local regulatory limit and near to go beyond the international regulatory limit. Conversely, the remaining parts showed high toxicity values surpassing both regulation limits. Standard mouse bioassay regulatory used in PSP monitoring in the Philippines was also performed and revealed that the abductor muscle had non-detectable level of toxins. Also, toxicity values from different

  20. Dealing with incomplete and variable detectability in multi-year, multi-site monitoring of ecological populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    An ecological monitoring program should be viewed as a component of a larger framework designed to advance science and/or management, rather than as a stand-alone activity. Monitoring targets (the ecological variables of interest; e.g. abundance or occurrence of a species) should be set based on the needs of that framework (Nichols and Williams 2006; e.g. Chapters 2–4). Once such monitoring targets are set, the subsequent step in monitoring design involves consideration of the field and analytical methods that will be used to measure monitoring targets with adequate accuracy and precision. Long-term monitoring programs will involve replication of measurements over time, and possibly over space; that is, one location or each of multiple locations will be monitored multiple times, producing a collection of site visits (replicates). Clearly this replication is important for addressing spatial and temporal variability in the ecological resources of interest (Chapters 7–10), but it is worth considering how this replication can further be exploited to increase the effectiveness of monitoring. In particular, defensible monitoring of the majority of animal, and to a lesser degree plant, populations and communities will generally require investigators to account for imperfect detection (Chapters 4, 18). Raw indices of population state variables, such as abundance or occupancy (sensu MacKenzie et al. 2002), are rarely defensible when detection probabilities are failing to correct for differences in detection, resulting in indices that have an unknown relationship to the parameters of interest (e.g. Nichols 1992, Anderson 2001, MacKenzie et al. 2002, Williams et al. 2002, Anderson 2003, White 2005, Kéry and Schmidt 2008). While others have argued that indices may be preferable in some cases due to the challenges associated with estimating detection probabilities (e.g. McKelvey and Pearson 2001, Johnson 2008), we do not attempt to resolve this debate here. Rather, we are

  1. A PCR Based Microbial Monitoring Alternative Method of Detection and Identification of Microbes Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina; Oubre, Cherie; Castro, Victoria; Flint, Stephanie; Ott, Mark; Roman, Monserrate; Wheeler, Ray; Melendez, Orlando

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that microorganisms and potential human pathogens have been detected on the International Space Station (ISS) with additional introduction of new microflora occurring with every exchange of crew or addition of equipment and supplies. These microbes are readily transferred between crew and subsystems (i.e. ECLSS, environmental control and life support systems). As this can be detrimental to astronaut health and optimal performance of ISS systems, monitoring of systems such as ECLSS to include identification of microbial contaminants could prevent adverse effects on human health and life support systems. Current monitoring on ISS is laborious and utilizes culture based methods followed by sample return to Earth for complete analysis. Future, long-distance spaceflight missions will require real-time monitoring capabilities that enable efficient and rapid assessments of the microbial environment allowing for expedited decisions and more targeted response to cope with anomalies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a molecular microbial monitoring method was chosen and numerous PCR instruments investigated for their potential to perform in microgravity conditions. Using ISS as a test bed for PCR verification in microgravity will enable NASA to assess whether molecular based microbiological sensors may be components of reliable, closed-loop life support and habitation systems in spacecraft, enhancing infrastructure capabilities through increased efficiency, reliability, and time savings by enabling sample analysis on orbit. NASA selected the Water Monitoring Suite as one of the rapid spaceflight hardware demonstration activities utilizing a streamlined process to minimize the time required to fly experimental flight hardware. The RAZOR EX (BioFire Defense, Salt Lake City, UT) system was part of the water monitoring suite and is a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time PCR instrument designed for field work. The RAZOR EX was originally designed

  2. Simultaneous Fault Detection and Sensor Selection for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenna Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system are used widely in wind farms to obtain operation and performance information about wind turbines. The paper presents a three-way model by means of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC for wind turbine fault detection and sensor selection, and evaluates the method with SCADA data obtained from an operational farm. The main characteristic of this new approach is that it can be used to simultaneously explore measurement sample profiles and sensors profiles to avoid discarding potentially relevant information for feature extraction. With K-means clustering method, the measurement data indicating normal, fault and alarm conditions of the wind turbines can be identified, and the sensor array can be optimised for effective condition monitoring.

  3. Detection of coherent beam-beam modes with digitized beam position monitor signals

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, G.; White, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations in the Fermilab Tevatron collider is described. It is based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, band-limited noise is applied to the beam for about 1 s. This excitation does not adversely affect the circulating beams even at high luminosities. The device has a response time of a few seconds, a frequency resolution of $1.6\\times 10^{-5}$ in fractional tune, and it is sensitive to oscillation amplitudes of 60 nm. It complements Schottky detectors as a diagnostic tool for tunes, tune spreads, and beam-beam effects. Measurements of coherent mode spectra are presented and compared with models of beam-beam oscillations.

  4. Traffic intensity monitoring using multiple object detection with traffic surveillance cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, H. G. Muhammad; Khalifah, O. O.

    2017-11-01

    Object detection and tracking is a field of research that has many applications in the current generation with increasing number of cameras on the streets and lower cost for Internet of Things(IoT). In this paper, a traffic intensity monitoring system is implemented based on the Macroscopic Urban Traffic model is proposed using computer vision as its source. The input of this program is extracted from a traffic surveillance camera which has another program running a neural network classification which can identify and differentiate the vehicle type is implanted. The neural network toolbox is trained with positive and negative input to increase accuracy. The accuracy of the program is compared to other related works done and the trends of the traffic intensity from a road is also calculated. relevant articles in literature searches, great care should be taken in constructing both. Lastly the limitation and the future work is concluded.

  5. Characterization of Signal Quality Monitoring Techniques for Multipath Detection in GNSS Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsiavash, Ali; Broumandan, Ali; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2017-07-05

    The performance of Signal Quality Monitoring (SQM) techniques under different multipath scenarios is analyzed. First, SQM variation profiles are investigated as critical requirements in evaluating the theoretical performance of SQM metrics. The sensitivity and effectiveness of SQM approaches for multipath detection and mitigation are then defined and analyzed by comparing SQM profiles and multipath error envelopes for different discriminators. Analytical discussions includes two discriminator strategies, namely narrow and high resolution correlator techniques for BPSK(1), and BOC(1,1) signaling schemes. Data analysis is also carried out for static and kinematic scenarios to validate the SQM profiles and examine SQM performance in actual multipath environments. Results show that although SQM is sensitive to medium and long-delay multipath, its effectiveness in mitigating these ranges of multipath errors varies based on tracking strategy and signaling scheme. For short-delay multipath scenarios, the multipath effect on pseudorange measurements remains mostly undetected due to the low sensitivity of SQM metrics.

  6. Further Studies on the Physical and Biogeochemical Causes for Large Interannual Changes in the Patagonian Shelf Spring-Summer Phytoplankton Bloom Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Garcia, Virginia M.T.; Piola, Alberto R.; Evangelista, Heitor; McClain, Charles R.; Garcia, Carlos A.E.; Mata, Mauricio M.

    2009-01-01

    A very strong and persistent phytoplankton bloom was observed by ocean color satellites during September - December 2003 along the northern Patagonian shelf. The 2003 bloom had the highest extent and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations of the entire Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) period (1997 to present). SeaWiFS-derived Chl-a exceeded 20 mg/cu m in November at the bloom center. The bloom was most extensive in December when it spanned more than 300 km across the shelf and nearly 900 km north-south (35degS to 43degS). The northward reach and the deep penetration on the shelf of the 2003 bloom were quite anomalous when compared with other years, which showed the bloom more confined to the Patagonian shelf break (PSB). The PSB bloom is a conspicuous austral spring-summer feature detected by ocean color satellites and its timing can be explained using the Sverdrup critical depth theory. Based on high-resolution numerical simulations, in situ and remote sensing data, we provide some suggestions for the probable mechanisms responsible for that large interannual change of biomass as seen by ocean color satellites. Potential sources of macro and micro (e.g., Fe) nutrients that sustain the high phytoplankton productivity of the Patagonian shelf waters are identified, and the most likely physical processes that maintain the nutrient balance in the region are discussed.

  7. Improved detection of incipient anomalies via multivariate memory monitoring charts: Application to an air flow heating system

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-08-11

    Detecting anomalies is important for reliable operation of several engineering systems. Multivariate statistical monitoring charts are an efficient tool for checking the quality of a process by identifying abnormalities. Principal component analysis (PCA) was shown effective in monitoring processes with highly correlated data. Traditional PCA-based methods, nevertheless, often are relatively inefficient at detecting incipient anomalies. Here, we propose a statistical approach that exploits the advantages of PCA and those of multivariate memory monitoring schemes, like the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) monitoring schemes to better detect incipient anomalies. Memory monitoring charts are sensitive to incipient anomalies in process mean, which significantly improve the performance of PCA method and enlarge its profitability, and to utilize these improvements in various applications. The performance of PCA-based MEWMA and MCUSUM control techniques are demonstrated and compared with traditional PCA-based monitoring methods. Using practical data gathered from a heating air-flow system, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and efficiency of the developed method over the traditional PCA-based methods. Results indicate that the proposed techniques have potential for detecting incipient anomalies in multivariate data. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Nursing-Based Dysrhythmia Detection on a Dedicated Stroke Unit Using a Unit-Based Cardiac Telemetry Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebski, Cheryl; Hernandez, Erika; Nadis, Susan; Lichtenberg, Robert

    Acute stroke care includes cardiac rhythm monitoring in the first 24 hours. The method of monitoring varies, as do the reported findings. The nurses' role in this process can be intensive, including primary response and review of all data. Competency is critical as the acute stroke setting can be associated with life-threatening dysrhythmias as well as the detection of atrial fibrillation that affects therapy. Limited studies exist to evaluate the effectiveness of a unit-based cardiac monitoring system for which the bedside nurse has primary responsibility. The goal was to determine if a unit-based cardiac monitoring system for which the bedside nurse was responsible detected clinically significant dysrhythmias. Stroke unit nurses completed a mandatory education program on identifying common dysrhythmias and using the monitoring equipment along with a structured algorithm for cardiac dysrhythmia detection. The nurse was responsible for all alarms as well as review of their patients' data. Their findings were recorded and reviewed by a cardiology team after the 24-hour monitoring was completed. A total of 300 consecutive stokes, transient ischemic attack, and possible stroke patients were enrolled. Nurses identified 96% of all significant dysrhythmias. Twenty-eight percent of the stroke patients had a dysrhythmia, of which 79% were atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter. The bedside nurses did identify all 8 new atrial fibrillation cases. Stroke unit nurses who complete an educational program can identify dysrhythmias on their patients' unit-based cardiac monitoring systems and can improve patient outcomes.

  9. Internal Dosimetry Monitoring- Detection Limits for a Selected Set of Radionuclides and Their Translation Into Committed Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandl, A.; Hrnecek, E.; Steger, F.

    2004-01-01

    To harmonize the practice of internal dosimetry monitoring across the country, the Austrian Standards Institute is currently drafting a new set of standards which are concerned with occupational incorporation monitoring of individuals handling non-sealed radioactive material. This set of standards is expected to consist of three parts discussing the general necessity and frequency, the requirements for monitoring institutions, and the determination and rigorous calculation of committed effective dose after incorporation of radioactive material, respectively. Considerations of the requirements for routine monitoring laboratories have led to an evaluation of the detection limits for routine monitoring equipment. For a selected set of radionuclides, these detection limits are investigated in detail. The main emphasis is placed on the decay chains of naturally occurring radionuclides showing some significant potential for being out of equilibrium due to chemical processes in certain mining industries. The radionuclides considered in this paper are 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, and 238U. Given the routine monitoring intervals of the Austrian Standard, these detection limits are translated into information on committed effective dose. This paper investigates whether routine monitoring equipment is sufficient to ensure compliance with EC directive 96/29/Euratom for this selected set of radionuclides. (Author) 9 refs

  10. Remote vital parameter monitoring in neonatology - robust, unobtrusive heart rate detection in a realistic clinical scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanik, Nikolai; Heimann, Konrad; Pereira, Carina; Paul, Michael; Blazek, Vladimir; Venema, Boudewijn; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-12-01

    Vital parameter monitoring of term and preterm infants during incubator care with self-adhesive electrodes or sensors directly positioned on the skin [e.g. photoplethysmography (PPG) for oxygen saturation or electrocardiography (ECG)] is an essential part of daily routine care in neonatal intensive care units. For various reasons, this kind of monitoring contains a lot of stress for the infants. Therefore, there is a need to measure vital parameters (for instance respiration, temperature, pulse, oxygen saturation) without mechanical or conductive contact. As a non-contact method of monitoring, we present an adapted version of camera-based photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) according to neonatal requirements. Similar to classic PPG, the PPGI camera detects small temporal changes in the term and preterm infant's skin brightness due to the cardiovascular rhythm of dermal blood perfusion. We involved 10 preterm infants in a feasibility study [five males and five females; mean gestational age: 26 weeks (24-28 weeks); mean biological age: 35 days (8-41 days); mean weight at the time of investigation: 960 g (670-1290 g)]. The PPGI camera was placed directly above the incubators with the infant inside illuminated by an infrared light emitting diode (LED) array (850 nm). From each preterm infant, 5-min video sequences were recorded and analyzed post hoc. As the measurement scenario was kept as realistic as possible, the infants were not constrained in their movements in front of the camera. Movement intensities were assigned into five classes (1: no visible motion to 5: heavy struggling). PPGI was found to be significantly sensitive to movement artifacts. However, for movement classes 1-4, changes in blood perfusion according to the heart rate (HR) were recovered successfully (Pearson correlation: r=0.9759; r=0.765 if class 5 is included). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universal Hospital of the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany (EK 254/13).

  11. Detection of structural damage in multiwire cables by monitoring the entropy evolution of wavelet coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Flor; Baltazar, Arturo; Mijarez, Rito; Aranda, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Multiwire cables are widely used in important civil structures. Since they are exposed to several dynamic and static loads, their structural health can be compromised. The cables can also be submitted to mechanical contact, tension and energy propagation in addition to changes in size and material within their wires. Due to the critical role played by multiwire cables, it is necessary to develop a non-destructive health monitoring method to maintain their structure and proper performance. Ultrasonic inspection using guided waves is a promising non-destructive damage monitoring technique for rods, single wires and multiwire cables. The propagated guided waves are composed by an infinite number of vibrational modes making their analysis difficult. In this work, an entropy-based method to identify small changes in non-stationary signals is proposed. A system to capture and post-process acoustic signals is implemented. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is computed in order to obtain the reconstructed wavelet coefficients of the signals and to analyze the energy at different scales. The feasibility of using the concept of entropy evolution of non-stationary signals to detect damage in multiwire cables is evaluated. The results show that there is a high correlation between the entropy value and damage level of the cable. The proposed method has low sensitivity to noise and reduces the computational complexity found in a typical time-frequency analysis.

  12. Acoustic emission detection with fiber optical sensors for dry cask storage health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number, size, and complexity of nuclear facilities deployed worldwide are increasing the need to maintain readiness and develop innovative sensing materials to monitor important to safety structures (ITS). In the past two decades, an extensive sensor technology development has been used for structural health monitoring (SHM). Technologies for the diagnosis and prognosis of a nuclear system, such as dry cask storage system (DCSS), can improve verification of the health of the structure that can eventually reduce the likelihood of inadvertently failure of a component. Fiber optical sensors have emerged as one of the major SHM technologies developed particularly for temperature and strain measurements. This paper presents the development of optical equipment that is suitable for ultrasonic guided wave detection for active SHM in the MHz range. An experimental study of using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as acoustic emission (AE) sensors was performed on steel blocks. FBG have the advantage of being durable, lightweight, and easily embeddable into composite structures as well as being immune to electromagnetic interference and optically multiplexed. The temperature effect on the FBG sensors was also studied. A multi-channel FBG system was developed and compared with piezoelectric based AE system. The paper ends with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

  13. Experimental studies on brain hematoma detection and oxygenation monitoring using PRM/NIR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liu; Lee, Hyo Sang; Wilson, David A.; Hanley, Daniel F.; Lokos, Sandor; Kim, Jin

    1997-08-01

    Real time noninvasive head injury detection is needed in critical care facilities and triage site with limited resources. One tool missing right now is a small and fast noninvasive sensor which can help urgent care workers to (1) diagnose the location and severity of the injury, (2) to perform on site pre-hospital treatment if necessary, and (3) to make a decision on what kind of further medical action is needed. On the other hand, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is also needed in intensive care unit and in operation rooms. Pseudo-random modulation/near infrared sensor (PRM/NIR sensor) is developed to address these issues. It relies on advanced techniques in diode laser cw modulation and time resolved spectroscopy to perform fast and noninvasive brain tissue diagnostics. Phantom experiments have been conducted to study the feasibility of the sensor. Brain's optical properties are simulated with solutions of intralipid and ink. Hematomas are simulated with bags of paint and hemoglobin immersed in the solution of varies sizes, depths, and orientations. Effects of human skull and hair are studied experimentally. In animal experiment, the sensor was used to monitor the cerebral oxygenation change due to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and hyperventilation. Good correlations were found between NIR measurement parameters and physiological changes induced to the animals.

  14. Oxygen-19 monitor for heavy water leak detection in Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manna, A.; Madhavi, V.; Sawant, S.; Punekar, P.; Korgaonkar, Mohan; Patel, Nilesh; Ramkumar, N.; Sumanth, P.

    2016-01-01

    Accidental leakage of primary heavy water into secondary coolant system may occur due to heat exchanger tube failures, causing radiation hazards. A heavy water leak detection instrument has been developed for Dhruva research reactor based on the principle of measuring activity of 19 O in the secondary process water system, the isotope being generated in the primary coolant during reactor operation. The probe comprises of a Nal based Scintillation detector with its bias supply and pulse processing electronics, located near the main coolant pump area and a counting/alarm electronics, located in the Auxiliary equipment room (AER). The probe design has been made very compact and low power by use of an active voltage divider network for photomultiplier tube (PMT) biasing. Integration of a low noise HV supply and the entire signal processing blocks on the back of the detector has been envisaged to reduce the effect of external noise interference on measuring electronics. A microcontroller based calibrator system has been developed to tune the probe for onsite calibrations. Currently, the monitor is undergoing commissioning trials at Dhruva. The paper will discuss salient design features and performances of the probe and monitoring electronics

  15. Proposal of an intelligent wayside monitoring system for detection of critical ice accumulations on railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelberger, Frank; Wagner, Adrian; Ostermann, Michael; Maly, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    At railway lines with ballasted tracks, under unfavourable conditions, the so-called flying ballast can occur predominantly for trains driving at high speeds. Especially in wintertime, it is highly likely that the causes are adhered snow or ice deposits, which are falling off the vehicle. Due to the high kinetic energy, the impact can lead to the removal of ballast stones from the structure of the ballasted track. If the stones reach the height of vehicles underside, they may be accelerated significantly due to the collision with the vehicle or may detach further ice blocks. In the worst case, a reinforcing effect occurs, which can lead to considerable damage to railway vehicles (under-floor-area, vehicle exteriors, etc.) and infrastructure (signal masts, noise barriers, etc.). Additionally the flying gravel is a significant danger to people in the nearby area of the tracks. With this feasibility study the applicability and meaningfulness of an intelligent monitoring system for identification of the critical ice accumulation to prevent the ballast fly induced by ice dropping was examined. The key findings of the research are that the detection of ice on railway vehicles and the development of an intelligent monitoring seem to be possible with existing technologies, but a proof of concept in terms of field tests is necessary.

  16. In situ Occurrence, Prevalence and Dynamics of Parvilucifera Parasitoids during Recurrent Blooms of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Alacid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellate blooms are natural phenomena that often occur in coastal areas, which in addition to their large number of nutrient-rich sites are characterized by highly restricted hydrodynamics within bays, marinas, enclosed beaches, and harbors. In these areas, massive proliferations of dinoflagellates have harmful effects on humans and the ecosystem. However, the high cell density reached during blooms make them vulnerable to parasitic infections. Under laboratory conditions parasitoids are able to exterminate an entire host population. In nature, Parvilucifera parasitoids infect the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum during bloom conditions but their prevalence and impact remain unexplored. In this study, we evaluated the in situ occurrence, prevalence, and dynamics of Parvilucifera parasitoids during recurrent blooms of A. minutum in a confined site in the NW Mediterranean Sea as well as the contribution of parasitism to bloom termination. Parvilucifera parasitoids were recurrently detected from 2009 to 2013, during seasonal outbreaks of A. minutum. Parasitic infections in surface waters occurred after the abundance of A. minutum reached 104–105 cells L−1, suggesting a density threshold beyond which Parvilucifera transmission is enhanced and the number of infected cells increases. Moreover, host and parasitoid abundances were not in phase. Instead, there was a lag between maximum A. minutum and Parvilucifera densities, indicative of a delayed density-dependent response of the parasitoid to host abundances, similar to the temporal dynamics of predator-prey interactions. The highest parasitoid prevalence was reached after a peak in host abundance and coincided with the decay phase of the bloom, when a maximum of 38% of the A. minutum population was infected. According to our estimates, Parvilucifera infections accounted for 5–18% of the total observed A. minutum mortality, which suggested that the contribution of parasitism to

  17. Strategies for Detecting Hidden Geothermal Systems by Near-Surface Gas Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2004-12-15

    ''Hidden'' geothermal systems are those systems above which hydrothermal surface features (e.g., hot springs, fumaroles, elevated ground temperatures, hydrothermal alteration) are lacking. Emissions of moderate to low solubility gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, He) may be one of the primary near-surface signals from these systems. Detection of anomalous gas emissions related to hidden geothermal systems may therefore be an important tool to discover new geothermal resources. This study investigates the potential for CO2 detection and monitoring in the subsurface and above ground in the near-surface environment to serve as a tool to discover hidden geothermal systems. We focus the investigation on CO2 due to (1) its abundance in geothermal systems, (2) its moderate solubility in water, and (3) the wide range of technologies available to monitor CO2 in the near-surface environment. However, monitoring in the near-surface environment for CO2 derived from hidden geothermal reservoirs is complicated by the large variation in CO2 fluxes and concentrations arising from natural biological and hydrologic processes. In the near-surface environment, the flow and transport of CO2 at high concentrations will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of CO2 migration show that CO2 concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively low geothermal source CO2 fluxes. However, once CO2 seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO2 seepage. In natural ecological systems in the absence of geothermal gas emissions, near-surface CO2 fluxes and concentrations are primarily controlled by CO2 uptake by photosynthesis, production by root respiration, and microbial decomposition of soil/subsoil organic matter, groundwater degassing, and exchange with the atmosphere. Available technologies for monitoring CO2 in

  18. Biology in bloom: implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to enhance student learning in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Alison; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    We developed the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT), an assessment tool based on Bloom's Taxonomy, to assist science faculty in better aligning their assessments with their teaching activities and to help students enhance their study skills and metacognition. The work presented here shows how assessment tools, such as the BBT, can be used to guide and enhance teaching and student learning in a discipline-specific manner in postsecondary education. The BBT was first designed and extensively tested for a study in which we ranked almost 600 science questions from college life science exams and standardized tests. The BBT was then implemented in three different collegiate settings. Implementation of the BBT helped us to adjust our teaching to better enhance our students' current mastery of the material, design questions at higher cognitive skills levels, and assist students in studying for college-level exams and in writing study questions at higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. From this work we also created a suite of complementary tools that can assist biology faculty in creating classroom materials and exams at the appropriate level of Bloom's Taxonomy and students to successfully develop and answer questions that require higher-order cognitive skills.

  19. Bio-optical Properties of Cyanobacteria Blooms in Western Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S. Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of remote sensing observations for detecting and quantifying freshwater cyanobacteria populations, yet the inherent optical properties of these communities in natural settings, fundamental to bio-optical algorithms, are not well known. Toward bridging this knowledge gap, we measured a full complement of optical properties in western Lake Erie during cyanobacteria blooms in the summers of 2013 and 2014. Our measurements focus attention on the optical uniqueness of cyanobacteria blooms, which have consequences for remote sensing and bio-optical modeling. We found the cyanobacteria blooms in the western basin during our field work were dominated by Microcystis, while the waters in the adjacent central basin were dominated by Planktothrix. Chlorophyll concentrations ranged from 1 to over 135 μg/L across the study area with the highest concentrations associated with Microcystis in the western basin. We observed large, amorphous colonial Microcystis structures in the bloom area characterized by high phytoplankton absorption and high scattering coefficients with a mean particle backscatter ratio at 443 nm > 0.03, which is higher than other plankton types and more comparable to suspended inorganic sediments. While our samples contained mixtures of both, our analysis suggests high contributions to the measured scatter and backscatter coefficients from cyanobacteria. Our measurements provide new insights into the optical properties of cyanobacteria blooms, and indicate that current semi-analytic models are likely to have problems resolving a closed solution in these types of waters as many of our observations are beyond the range of existing model components. We believe that different algorithm or model approaches are needed for these conditions, specifically for phytoplankton absorption and particle backscatter components. From a remote sensing perspective, this presents a challenge not only in terms of a need for new algorithms

  20. Detection of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation by 30-day event monitoring in cryptogenic ischemic stroke: the Stroke and Monitoring for PAF in Real Time (SMART) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Alexander C; Banki, Nader M; Ren, Xiushui; Rao, Vivek A; Go, Alan S

    2012-10-01

    Patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke may have undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). We established the Stroke and Monitoring for PAF in Real Time (SMART) Registry to determine the yield of 30-day outpatient PAF monitoring in cryptogenic ischemic stroke. The SMART Registry was a 3-year, prospective multicenter registry of 239 patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke undergoing 30-day outpatient autotriggered PAF detection in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. In intention-to-monitor analysis, PAF was detected in 29 of 239 patients (12.1%; 95% CI, 8.6%-16.9%). After retrospective chart review was performed, a new diagnosis of PAF was confirmed in 26 of 236 patients (11.0%; 95% CI, 7.6%-15.7%). The majority of detected PAF events were asymptomatic; only 6 of 98 recorded PAF events (6.1%) were patient-triggered or associated with symptoms. -Approximately 1 in every 9 patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke was found to have new PAF within 30 days. Routine monitoring in this population should be strongly considered.

  1. From MERIS To OLCI And Sentinel 2: Harmful Algal Bloom Applications & Modelling In South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson Lain, L.; Bernard, S.; Evers-King, H.; Matthews, M. W.; Smith, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Sentinel 2 and 3 missions offer new capabilities for Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) observations in Southern Africa and further afield on the African continent where there is a great need for improved monitoring of water quality: both in freshwater resources where eutrophication is common, and in vulnerable coastal ecosystems. Two well validated algorithms - Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) & Maximum Peak Height (MPH) - available for operational use on eutrophic waters are described. Spectral remote sensing reflectances (Rrs) and inherent optical properties (IOPs) are characterised via measurement and modelling of phytoplankton assemblages typical of high biomass algal blooms of the Southern Benguela and inland waters of South Africa. Sensitivity to phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) is investigated, with focus on optically significant biological characteristics e.g. particle size distribution and intracellular structure (including vacuoles).

  2. Acoustic Methods to Monitor Protein Crystallization and to Detect Protein Crystals in Suspensions of Agarose and Lipidic Cubic Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Daniel L.; Yin, Xingyu; Scalia, Alexander; Samara, Yasmin N.; Stearns, Richard; Vlahos, Harry; Ellson, Richard; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2016-02-01

    Improvements needed for automated crystallography include crystal detection and crystal harvesting. A technique that uses acoustic droplet ejection to harvest crystals was previously reported. Here a method is described for using the same acoustic instrument to detect protein crystals and to monitor crystal growth. Acoustic pulses were used to monitor the progress of crystallization trials and to detect the presence and location of protein crystals. Crystals were detected, and crystallization was monitored in aqueous solutions and in lipidic cubic phase. Using a commercially available acoustic instrument, crystals measuring ~150 µm or larger were readily detected. Simple laboratory techniques were used to increase the sensitivity to 50 µm by suspending the crystals away from the plastic surface of the crystallization plate. This increased the sensitivity by separating the strong signal generated by the plate bottom that can mask the signal from small protein crystals. It is possible to further boost the acoustic reflection from small crystals by reducing the wavelength of the incident sound pulse, but our current instrumentation does not allow this option. In the future, commercially available sound-emitting transducers with a characteristic frequency near 300 MHz should detect and monitor the growth of individual 3 µm crystals.

  3. Acoustic Methods to Monitor Protein Crystallization and to Detect Protein Crystals in Suspensions of Agarose and Lipidic Cubic Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Daniel L; Yin, Xingyu; Scalia, Alexander; Samara, Yasmin N; Stearns, Richard; Vlahos, Harry; Ellson, Richard; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2016-02-01

    Improvements needed for automated crystallography include crystal detection and crystal harvesting. A technique that uses acoustic droplet ejection to harvest crystals was previously reported. Here a method is described for using the same acoustic instrument to detect protein crystals and to monitor crystal growth. Acoustic pulses were used to monitor the progress of crystallization trials and to detect the presence and location of protein crystals. Crystals were detected, and crystallization was monitored in aqueous solutions and in lipidic cubic phase. Using a commercially available acoustic instrument, crystals measuring ~150 µm or larger were readily detected. Simple laboratory techniques were used to increase the sensitivity to 50 µm by suspending the crystals away from the plastic surface of the crystallization plate. This increased the sensitivity by separating the strong signal generated by the plate bottom that can mask the signal from small protein crystals. It is possible to further boost the acoustic reflection from small crystals by reducing the wavelength of the incident sound pulse, but our current instrumentation does not allow this option. In the future, commercially available sound-emitting transducers with a characteristic frequency near 300 MHz should detect and monitor the growth of individual 3 µm crystals. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. Fully Autonomous Multiplet Event Detection: Application to Local-Distance Monitoring of Blood Falls Seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, Christina [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Pettit, Erin C. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2015-06-18

    We apply a fully autonomous icequake detection methodology to a single day of high-sample rate (200 Hz) seismic network data recorded from the terminus of Taylor Glacier, ANT that temporally coincided with a brine release episode near Blood Falls (May 13, 2014). We demonstrate a statistically validated procedure to assemble waveforms triggered by icequakes into populations of clusters linked by intra-event waveform similarity. Our processing methodology implements a noise-adaptive power detector coupled with a complete-linkage clustering algorithm and noise-adaptive correlation detector. This detector-chain reveals a population of 20 multiplet sequences that includes ~150 icequakes and produces zero false alarms on the concurrent, diurnally variable noise. Our results are very promising for identifying changes in background seismicity associated with the presence or absence of brine release episodes. We thereby suggest that our methodology could be applied to longer time periods to establish a brine-release monitoring program for Blood Falls that is based on icequake detections.

  5. Applications of the automatic change detection for disaster monitoring by the knowledge-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadono, T.; Hashimoto, S.; Onosato, M.; Hori, M.

    2012-11-01

    Change detection is a fundamental approach in utilization of satellite remote sensing image, especially in multi-temporal analysis that involves for example extracting damaged areas by a natural disaster. Recently, the amount of data obtained by Earth observation satellites has increased significantly owing to the increasing number and types of observing sensors, the enhancement of their spatial resolution, and improvements in their data processing systems. In applications for disaster monitoring, in particular, fast and accurate analysis of broad geographical areas is required to facilitate efficient rescue efforts. It is expected that robust automatic image interpretation is necessary. Several algorithms have been proposed in the field of automatic change detection in past, however they are still lack of robustness for multi purposes, an instrument independency, and accuracy better than a manual interpretation. We are trying to develop a framework for automatic image interpretation using ontology-based knowledge representation. This framework permits the description, accumulation, and use of knowledge drawn from image interpretation. Local relationships among certain concepts defined in the ontology are described as knowledge modules and are collected in the knowledge base. The knowledge representation uses a Bayesian network as a tool to describe various types of knowledge in a uniform manner. Knowledge modules are synthesized and used for target-specified inference. The results applied to two types of disasters by the framework without any modification and tuning are shown in this paper.

  6. Impact of feedback and monitoring on colonoscopy withdrawal times and polyp detection rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Amalie Bach; Hendel, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown colonoscopy withdrawal time (WT) to be a reliable surrogate indicator for polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) in colonoscopy. Our aim was to assess the impact of feedback and monitoring of WT on PDR in routine colonoscopies with long-term follow-up. Materials and methods A total of 307 colonoscopies were performed in three separate clinical scenarios. First, PDR and WT were recorded without the staff being aware of the specific objective of the study. Before the second scenario, the staff was given interventional information and feedback on WTs and PDRs from the first scenario and was encouraged to aim for a minimum WT of 8 min. Retention of knowledge gained was reassessed in the third scenario 1 year later. Results The PDR in the first two scenarios differed significantly (p0.05). The increase in PDR between the first and second scenarios was retained in the third follow-up scenario 1 year later where the WT of both polyp-positive and polyp-negative colonoscopies was found to be longer. Conclusions PDR almost doubled from the first to the second scenario of a real-life colonoscopy setting, indicating that awareness of WT is crucial. The knowledge gained from this intervention in routine practice was even retained after a year. PMID:28761691

  7. Detection and monitoring of pollutant sources with Lidar/Dial techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, P; Gelfusa, M; Malizia, A; Parracino, S; Richetta, M; De Leo, L; Perrimezzi, C; Bellecci, C

    2015-01-01

    It's well known that air pollution due to anthropogenic sources can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. Therefore, in the last years, surveying large regions of the atmosphere in an automatic way has become a strategic objective of various public health organizations for early detection of pollutant sources in urban and industrial areas.The Lidar and Dial techniques have become well established laser based methods for the remote sensing of the atmosphere. They are often implemented to probe almost any level of the atmosphere and to acquire information to validate theoretical models about different topics of atmospheric physics. They can also be used for environment surveying by monitoring particles, aerosols and molecules.The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the potential of these methods to detect pollutants emitted from local sources (such as particulate and/or chemical compounds) and to evaluate their concentration. This is exemplified with the help of experimental data acquired in an industrial area in the south of Italy by mean of experimental campaign by use of pollutants simulated source. For this purpose, two mobile systems Lidar and Dial have been developed by the authors. In this paper there will be presented the operating principles of the system and the results of the experimental campaign. (paper)

  8. Radiation monitors of new generation - New methodology of detection of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, L.; Stavrov, A.

    2001-01-01

    and stored in the non-volatile memory and, if necessary, may be consequently transmitted to the PC for analysis; When the source is detected (alarm triggers), the device may be held in hand and used for location of the detected source; After the source is located one may evaluate its danger to a person just by switching the LCD indication to the dose rate units. It helps the user who may not be an expert in radiation protection to choose at once a proper way of actions in response to the detected and located source; It should be emphasized that these devices combine functions of fixed installed monitors (being in fact 'fixed installed monitor in pocket'), portable devices and dosimeters. They are the only possible type of monitors that may be used for searching sources in such not easily accessible places as railroad cars, the interior of ships, etc. Thus, these devices are examples of the new generation devices. They were developed using the available experience and up-to-date achievements in microelectronics especially for fulfillment of tasks in the field of control of trafficking of radioactive sources through the state borders. These devices provide an opportunity to develop new versions of methodology of their operation considerably simplifying and facilitating the user's work. (author)

  9. Using particle counters for pretreatment optimization, iron transport monitoring, condenser leak detection, and carryover monitoring - a synopsis of experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Steam generating systems all require clean water. The effects of particulate material in the steam/water cycle on metal corrosion, erosion, cracking, and deposition are frequently observed. However, the physical/chemical mechanisms are often difficult to correlate with a specific plant event, since the periodic ''grab'' samples from various areas of the water/steam process which are generally conducted do not allow real time continuous on-line particulate monitoring and data collection. This paper introduces the concept of using particulate measuring instruments to monitor the steam generation cycle, and presents case histories of real world plant situations where on-line particulate measurement using particle counters and particle monitors has defined the source of a problem, quantified the severity of a problem, and provided a solution to a problem. (orig.)

  10. A global organism detection and monitoring system for non-native species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J.; Newman, G.; Jarnevich, C.; Shory, R.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Harmful invasive non-native species are a significant threat to native species and ecosystems, and the costs associated with non-native species in the United States is estimated at over $120 Billion/year. While some local or regional databases exist for some taxonomic groups, there are no effective geographic databases designed to detect and monitor all species of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. We developed a web-based solution called the Global Organism Detection and Monitoring (GODM) system to provide real-time data from a broad spectrum of users on the distribution and abundance of non-native species, including attributes of their habitats for predictive spatial modeling of current and potential distributions. The four major subsystems of GODM provide dynamic links between the organism data, web pages, spatial data, and modeling capabilities. The core survey database tables for recording invasive species survey data are organized into three categories: "Where, Who & When, and What." Organisms are identified with Taxonomic Serial Numbers from the Integrated Taxonomic Information System. To allow users to immediately see a map of their data combined with other user's data, a custom geographic information system (GIS) Internet solution was required. The GIS solution provides an unprecedented level of flexibility in database access, allowing users to display maps of invasive species distributions or abundances based on various criteria including taxonomic classification (i.e., phylum or division, order, class, family, genus, species, subspecies, and variety), a specific project, a range of dates, and a range of attributes (percent cover, age, height, sex, weight). This is a significant paradigm shift from "map servers" to true Internet-based GIS solutions. The remainder of the system was created with a mix of commercial products, open source software, and custom software. Custom GIS libraries were created where required for processing large datasets

  11. Tendencies in Coccolithophorid Blooms in Some Marine Environments of the Northern Hemisphere according to the Data of Satellite Observations in 1998-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrik, D.; Pozdnyakov, D.; Pettersson, L.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the method developed for the delineation of E. huxleyi blooms, a new technique is achieved for (1) the automated detection of E. huxleyi blooms among coexisting massive blooms of microalgae species of other phytoplankton groups and (2) quantifying the boom surface of this type of coccolithophores. As a result, according to the data of the Climate Change Initiative Ocean Colour (OC CCI) for 1998-2013, we have obtained multiyear time series of variability in both the incidence of E. huxleyi bloom and its area in the North, Norwegian, Greenland, Barents, and Bering seas. It is found that E. huxleyi blooms propagate within the intra-annual cycle from the studied middle-latitude marine areas towards the northern areas of the Northern Atlantic Ocean (NAO) and the Arctic Ocean (AO) following the pathways of the main Gulfstream and its branches. It is also found that E. huxleyi blooms are formed annually, initially in the vicinity of the British Islands; then they successively emerge in the northward direction following the western coast of the Great Britain, turn over its northern extremity to reach, firstly, the North Sea (in May), the Norwegian Sea, and finally the Greenland Sea (in June). Then they burst out in the Barents Sea, where the typical period of blooming lasts until late August and, in some years, even to mid-September. We determine the patterns of maximal rates and duration of blooms for each of the seas studied in the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. As for the Bering Sea, the temporal and spatial variability in the growth of E. huxleyi has an irregular pattern: after a period of remarkably high expression of this phenomenon in 1998-2001, there was an abrupt decrease in both the number and, especially, extent of bloom areas.

  12. Analysis and asynchronous detection of gradually unfolding errors during monitoring tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omedes, Jason; Iturrate, Iñaki; Minguez, Javier; Montesano, Luis

    2015-10-01

    Human studies on cognitive control processes rely on tasks involving sudden-onset stimuli, which allow the analysis of these neural imprints to be time-locked and relative to the stimuli onset. Human perceptual decisions, however, comprise continuous processes where evidence accumulates until reaching a boundary. Surpassing the boundary leads to a decision where measured brain responses are associated to an internal, unknown onset. The lack of this onset for gradual stimuli hinders both the analyses of brain activity and the training of detectors. This paper studies electroencephalographic (EEG)-measurable signatures of human processing for sudden and gradual cognitive processes represented as a trajectory mismatch under a monitoring task. Time-locked potentials and brain-source analysis of the EEG of sudden mismatches revealed the typical components of event-related potentials and the involvement of brain structures related to cognitive control processing. For gradual mismatch events, time-locked analyses did not show any discernible EEG scalp pattern, despite related brain areas being, to a lesser extent, activated. However, and thanks to the use of non-linear pattern recognition algorithms, it is possible to train an asynchronous detector on sudden events and use it to detect gradual mismatches, as well as obtaining an estimate of their unknown onset. Post-hoc time-locked scalp and brain-source analyses revealed that the EEG patterns of detected gradual mismatches originated in brain areas related to cognitive control processing. This indicates that gradual events induce latency in the evaluation process but that similar brain mechanisms are present in sudden and gradual mismatch events. Furthermore, the proposed asynchronous detection model widens the scope of applications of brain-machine interfaces to other gradual processes.

  13. In vivo confocal microscopy for the detection of canine fungal keratitis and monitoring of therapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Norman, Mary L; Starr, Jennifer K

    2016-05-01

    To describe in vivo corneal confocal microscopy of dogs during the clinical course of fungal keratitis and correlate findings with clinical evaluations and an ex vivo experimental canine fungal keratitis model. Seven dogs with naturally acquired fungal keratitis and ex vivo canine corneas experimentally infected with clinical fungal isolates. Dogs with naturally acquired fungal keratitis were examined by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy. Initial confocal microscopic examinations were performed to assist in establishing the diagnosis of fungal keratitis. Serial confocal microscopic examinations were performed to guide antifungal chemotherapy. Confocal microscopy images of canine corneal fungal isolates were obtained by examination of experimentally infected ex vivo canine corneas to corroborate in vivo findings. Fungi cultured and detected by PCR from canine corneal samples included Candida albicans, Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti, Malassezia pachydermatis, and a Rhodotorula sp. Linear, branching, interlocking, hyperreflective structures were detected by confocal microscopy in dogs with filamentous fungal keratitis and round to oval hyperreflective structures were detected in dogs with yeast fungal keratitis. Antifungal chemotherapy was associated with a progressive reduction in the distribution and density of corneal fungal elements, alterations to fungal morphology, decreased leukocyte numbers, restoration of epithelial layers, and an increased number of visible keratocyte nuclei. No dogs had a recurrence of fungal keratitis following medication discontinuation. Confocal microscopic fungal morphologies were similar between in vivo and ex vivo examinations. In vivo corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid method of diagnosing fungal keratitis in dogs and provides a noninvasive mechanism for monitoring therapeutic response. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Using reality monitoring to improve deception detection in the context of the cognitive interview for suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Michael; Book, Angela S; Frosina, Paul; Huizinga, Tylor; Amos, Shelby

    2015-08-01

    Research has found that deception detection accuracy in the context of suspect interrogation hovers around chance levels. Geiselman (2012) adapted the cognitive interview (typically used for witnesses) for use with suspects (CIS) and found that judgments of deception were more accurate than previous interrogation techniques. The current study attempted to use the CIS to improve deception detection with Reality Monitoring (RM: Vrij et al., 2008), which has already been validated in the context of witness statements. One hundred sixty-six undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 2 conditions. In the Truthful condition, participants played a game with a confederate, whereas in the Deceptive condition, participants rehearsed (but did not experience) a synopsis of the game scenario. Participants in the Deceptive condition were also instructed to steal $10 from a confederate's wallet. In both conditions, $10 was purported to be missing and a researcher blind to condition conducted a CIS. Statement veracity was coded using 6 of the RM criteria advanced by Vrij et al. (frequency of visual, auditory, spatial, temporal, cognitive, and affective details). According to results from a MANOVA, truthful and deceptive statements differed significantly on all RM criteria, with the exception of affective details, validating the importance for evaluation of statement veracity (p ≤ .01). Further, a binary logistic regression found that combining the RM criteria together correctly classified 86.6% of statements, χ(²)(6) = 114.4, p Cognitive details uniquely predicted condition. Findings support using RM criteria to detect deception in interviews conducted with the CIS. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Coal fires in Northwest China. Detection, monitoring, and prediction using remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangmin

    1998-01-01

    Coal fires in China occur within a region that stretches over 5,000 km in the east- western part and 750 km. in the north-southern part. These fires cause an economic and environmental threat by making a significant contribution to the global CO2 budget. The studies made in this thesis can be divided into two parts. Part one is based on field work and laboratory analysis that includes the dating of the paleo coal fires; part two concerns remote sensing applications for the active coal fires. In Chapter 2, the evolution of the paleo coal fires in Toutunhe and Xinjiang areas are studied. Several age groups of burnt rock have been recognized and their relationships with the river terraces will be discussed. The causes of the paleo coal fires are addressed, and the areas of coal fires with different ages have been dated. In Chapter 3, the physical basis of thermal infrared remote sensing for the detection and measurement of coal fires are addressed with an emphasis on the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution. In Chapter 4, a method to reduce the effect of solar heating, the main factor of confusion when investigating the thermal anomalies of coal fires, is discussed with the help of a DEM. In Chapter 5, as the coal fires normally occupy only part of one pixel of the Landsat TM thermal channel data, the capability of sub pixel coal fire detection is addressed. In Chapter 6, the airborne data from different wavelengths acquired at different times are studied to analyze the spatial thermal characteristics of the coal fires. Spreading direction and different types of coal fires are studied. Chapter 7 presents, based on multi-sensor data fusion techniques, a hierarchical methodology for detection and monitoring of the coal fires. 120 refs

  16. WATER BLOOM OF BLUEGREEN ALGE IN CARP FISHPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Mihaljević

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The massive development of bluegreen algae (Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria, the so--called water bloom, is a frequent phenomenon in fishpond ecosystems. This study analyses water bloom development in three carp fishponds owned by a fishbreeding company at Donji Miholjac (Croatia, where one-year-old carps (Cyprinus carpio , were bred in defferent fishstock densities. Analyses of physicallychemical properties of water and phytoplankton biomass were per- formed in fortnight intervals from May till October, 1992. In all there investigated fishponds the water bloom of bluegreen algae developed, but at a different time and showing a different qualitative composition. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 250 kg/ha water bloom consisted of the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the biggest biomass (131.92 mg/I was found in August. In the fishpond with fishstock density of 437 kg/ha a water bloom consisting of species from the genues Anabaena and species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae developed at the end of July. In the fishpond with the so--called intensive breeding (fishstock density of 750 kg/ha water bloom of the species Microcystis aeruginosa developed as late as September. The beginning of water bloom development was caused by the low value (lower than 7 of the ratio between the quantities of total phosphorus and total nitrogen. However, the qualitative composition of water bloom was influenced by one-year-old carp fingerlings density.

  17. Use of Bloom's Taxonomy in Developing Reading Comprehension Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Stephen; Lorie, James

    2013-01-01

    This article is a brief account of the use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) by staff of the Law School Admission Council in the 1990 development of redesigned specifications for the Reading Comprehension section of the Law School Admission Test. Summary item statistics for the…

  18. The Evolution of Educational Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial for teachers to communicate effectively about educational objectives to students, colleagues, and others in education. In 1956, Bloom developed a cognitive learning taxonomy to enhance communication between college examiners. The Bloom taxonomy consists of 6 hierarchical levels of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application,…

  19. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms fuel pelagic production in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Kathrine; Visser, Andre; Pedersen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    convincingly that energy fixed during the spring bloom is fueling the pelagic production occurring during summer months. We argue here that periodic phytoplankton blooms are occurring during the summer in the North Sea at depths of >25 m and that the accumulated new production [sensu (Dugdale and Goering...

  20. Ocean fertilization experiments may initiate a large scale phytoplankton bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Zoltán; Haynes, Peter H.; Garçon, Véronique; Sudre, Joël

    2002-06-01

    Oceanic plankton plays an important role in the marine food chain and through its significant contribution to the global carbon cycle can also influence the climate. Plankton bloom is a sudden rapid increase of the population. It occurs naturally in the North Atlantic as a result of seasonal changes. Ocean fertilization experiments have shown that supply of iron, an important trace element, can trigger a phytoplankton bloom in oceanic regions with low natural phytoplankton density. Here we use a simple mathematical model of the combined effects of stirring by ocean eddies and plankton evolution to consider the impact of a transient local perturbation, e.g. in the form of iron enrichment as in recent `ocean fertilization' experiments. The model not only explains aspects of the bloom observed in such experiments but predicts the unexpected outcome of a large scale bloom that in its extent could be comparable to the spring bloom in the North Atlantic.

  1. Deep-Learning-Based Approach for Prediction of Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Algal blooms have recently become a critical global environmental concern which might put economic development and sustainability at risk. However, the accurate prediction of algal blooms remains a challenging scientific problem. In this study, a novel prediction approach for algal blooms based on deep learning is presented—a powerful tool to represent and predict highly dynamic and complex phenomena. The proposed approach constructs a five-layered model to extract detailed relationships between the density of phytoplankton cells and various environmental parameters. The algal blooms can be predicted by the phytoplankton density obtained from the output layer. A case study is conducted in coastal waters of East China using both our model and a traditional back-propagation neural network for comparison. The results show that the deep-learning-based model yields better generalization and greater accuracy in predicting algal blooms than a traditional shallow neural network does.

  2. Trade study of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies to support Hanford single-shell waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System to safely manage and dispose of low-level, high-level, and transuranic wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site in Eastern Washington. This report supports the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone No. M-45-08-T01 and addresses additional issues regarding single-shell tank leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation technologies and provide an indication of the scope of leakage detection, monitoring, and mitigation activities necessary to support the Tank Waste Remedial System Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project

  3. Real Time Supervisors and Monitors for Performing Health Monitoring and Fault Detection for Systems Operating in Multiple Regimes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaw, Link

    2003-01-01

    In this Phase I STTR, SMI and ARL have developed a Real Time Supervisor for fault detection and system reconfiguration in a team of micro UAVs, that are tasked to perform a team mission like surveillance or rendezvous...

  4. Detection and monitoring of volatile and semivolatile pollutants in soil through different sensing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2013-04-01

    Pollutants in environments are more and more threatening the maintenance of health of habitats and their inhabitants. A proper evaluation of the impact of contaminants from several different potential sources on soil quality and health and then on organisms living therein, and the possible and sometime probable related risk of transfer of pollutants, with their toxic effects, to organisms living in different environmental compartments, through the trophic chain up to humans is strongly required by decision makers, in order to promptly take adequate actions to prevent environmental and health damages and monitor the exposure rate of individuals to toxicants. Then, a reliable detection of pollutants in environments and the monitoring of dynamics and fate of contaminants therein are of utmost importance to achieve this goal. In soil, chemical and physical techniques to detect pollutants have been well known for decades, but can often drive to both over- and underestimations of the actual bioavailable (and then toxic) fraction of contaminants, and then of the real risk for organisms, deriving from their presence therein. The use of bioindicators (both living organisms and enzyme activities somehow derived from them) can supply more reliable information about the quantification of the bioavailable fraction of soil pollutants. In the last decades, a physicochemical technique, such as SPME (solid phase microextraction) followed by GC-MS analysis, has been demonstrated to provide similar results to those obtained from some pedofaunal populations, used as bioindicators, as concerns the bioavailable pollutant quantification in soil. More recently, we have applied a sensing technology, namely electronic nose (EN), which comprises several unspecific sensors arranged in an array and that is capable of providing more qualitative than quantitative information about complex air samples, to the study of soils contaminated with semivolatile (SVOCs) pollutants, such as polycyclic

  5. Field-based detection and monitoring of uranium in contaminated groundwater using two immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, S.J.; Yu, H.; Williams, K.H.; Morris, S.A.; Long, P.E.; Blake, D.A.

    2009-05-01

    Field-based monitoring of environmental contaminants has long been a need for environmental scientists. Described herein are two kinetic exclusion-based immunosensors, a field portable sensor (FPS) and an inline senor, that were deployed at the Integrated Field Research Challenge Site of the U.S. Department of Energy in Rifle, CO. Both sensors utilized a monoclonal antibody that binds to a U(VI)-dicarboxyphenanthroline complex (DCP) in a kinetic exclusion immunoassay format. These sensors were able to monitor changes of uranium in groundwater samples from {approx} 1 {micro}M to below the regulated drinking water limit of 126 nM (30 ppb). The FPS is a battery-operated sensor platform that can determine the uranium level in a single sample in 5-10 min, if the instrument has been previously calibrated with standards. The average minimum detection level (MDL) in this assay was 0.33 nM (79 ppt), and the MDL in the sample (based on a 1:200?1:400 dilution) was 66?132 nM (15.7?31.4 ppb). The inline sensor, while requiring a grounded power source, has the ability to autonomously analyze multiple samples in a single experiment. The average MDL in this assay was 0.12 nM (29 ppt), and the MDL in the samples (based on 1:200 or 1:400 dilutions) was 24?48 nM (5.7?11.4 ppb). Both sensor platforms showed an acceptable level of agreement (r{sup 2} = 0.94 and 0.76, for the inline and FPS, respectively) with conventional methods for uranium quantification.

  6. Optoacoustic detection and monitoring of blast-induced intracranial hematomas in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Prough, Donald S.; Dewitt, Douglas S.; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Irene Y.; Parsley, Margaret A.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2014-03-01

    Patients with acute intracranial hematomas often require surgical drainage within the first four hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) to avoid death or severe neurologic disability. CT and MRI permit rapid, noninvasive diagnosis of hematomas, but can be used only at a major health-care facility. At present, there is no device for noninvasive detection and characterization of hematomas in pre-hospital settings. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for rapid, noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of hematomas, including intracranial hematomas. Unlike bulky CT and MR equipment, an optoacoustic system can be small and easily transported in an emergency vehicle. In this study we used a specially-designed blast device to inflict TBI in rats. A near-infrared OPO-based optoacoustic system developed for hematoma diagnosis and for blood oxygenation monitoring in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in small animals was used in the study. Optoacoustic signals recorded simultaneously from the SSS and hematomas allowed for measurements of their oxygenations. The presence of hematomas was confirmed after the experiment in gross pictures of the exposed brains. After blast the hematoma signal and oxygenation increased, while SSS oxygenation decreased due to the blastinduced TBI. The increase of the oxygenation in fresh hematomas may be explained by the leakage of blood from arteries which have higher blood pressure compared to that of veins. These results indicate that the optoacoustic technique can be used for early diagnosis of hematomas and may provide important information for improving outcomes in patients with TBI or stroke (both hemorrhagic and ischemic).

  7. [Detection of episodes of ischemic tissue hypoxia by means of the combined intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring with the tissue oxygenation monitoring in aneurysm surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, F; Vilalta, J; Minoves, T; Moncho, D; Vilalta, A; Moguer, M; Ibarra, B; Sahuquillo, J

    2008-04-01

    Intraoperative neuromonitoring in aneurysm surgery can be very useful to determine inadequate positions of the vascular clip that cause partial or complete compromise of the cerebral sanguineous flow in the vascular territories irrigated by the arteries related to aneurysm. The direct visualization of these arteries after the application of the surgical clip can be insufficient in detecting this potentially detrimental situation. Knowing this circumstance on the onset would allow the neurosurgeon to correct it and to avoid, therefore, cerebral ischemic tissue hypoxia. We show the utility of the intraoperative monitoring of the oxygen tissue pressure (PtiO2) and the somatosensorial evoked potential (SSEP) for the detection of these situations with the example of a clinical case. We present the case of a 62 year-old woman, that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage of aneurysmal origin. The cerebral arteriography demonstrated the existence of an aneurysm of the posterior communicating artery that was treated initially by endovascular procedure with partial exclusion of the aneurysm. For this reason it was decided to complete the treatment with a programmed surgery. The patient was put on an intraoperative monitoring system with a PtiO2 sensor located in the risk area and with SSEP. After positioning the surgical clip the partial oxygen pressure decreased rapidly, as well as the amplitude of the cortical potential of the left posterior tibial nerve. The knowledge of this situation allowed the detection of a trapped posterior communicating artery. After correcting this situation by replacing the surgical clip, both variables recovered to their basal values. The intraoperative PtiO2 monitoring, combined with neurophysiologic monitoring during aneurysm surgery offers a fast and trustworthy form of early detection of ischemic phenomena caused by bad positioning of the surgical clip.

  8. The ToF-ACSM: a portable aerosol chemical speciation monitor with TOFMS detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fröhlich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new instrument for monitoring aerosol composition, the time-of-flight aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ToF-ACSM, combining precision state-of-the-art time-of-flight mass spectrometry with stability, reliability, and easy handling, which are necessities for long-term monitoring operations on the scale of months to years. Based on Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS technology, the ToF-ACSM provides continuous online measurements of chemical composition and mass of non-refractory submicron aerosol particles. In contrast to the larger AMS, the compact-sized and lower-priced ToF-ACSM does not feature particle sizing, similar to the widely-used quadrupole-ACSM (Q-ACSM. Compared to the Q-ACSM, the ToF-ACSM features a better mass resolution of M/ΔM = 600 and better detection limits on the order of −3 for a time resolution of 30 min. With simple upgrades these limits can be brought down by another factor of ~ 8. This allows for operation at higher time resolutions and in low concentration environments. The associated software packages (single packages for integrated operation and calibration and analysis provide a high degree of automation and remote access, minimising the need for trained personnel on site. Intercomparisons with Q-ACSM, C-ToF-AMS, nephelometer and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS measurements, performed during a first long-term deployment (> 10 months on the Jungfraujoch mountain ridge (3580 m a.s.l. in the Swiss Alps, agree quantitatively. Additionally, the mass resolution of the ToF-ACSM is sufficient for basic mass defect resolved peak fitting of the recorded spectra, providing a data stream not accessible to the Q-ACSM. This allows for quantification of certain hydrocarbon and oxygenated fragments (e.g. C3H7+ and C2H3O+, both occurring at m/Q = 43 Th, as well as improving inorganic/organic separation.

  9. Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated

  10. Older adults' perceptions of technologies aimed at falls prevention, detection or monitoring: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley-Hague, Helen; Boulton, Elisabeth; Hall, Alex; Pfeiffer, Klaus; Todd, Chris

    2014-06-01

    Over recent years a number of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have emerged aiming at falls prevention, falls detection and alarms for use in case of fall. There are also a range of ICT interventions, which have been created or adapted to be pro-active in preventing falls, such as those which provide strength and balance training to older adults in the prevention of falls. However, there are issues related to the adoption and continued use of these technologies by older adults. This review provides an overview of older adults' perceptions of falls technologies. We undertook systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsychINFO, COMPENDEX and the Cochrane database. Key search terms included 'older adults', 'seniors', 'preference', 'attitudes' and a wide range of technologies, they also included the key word 'fall*'. We considered all studies that included older adults aged 50 and above. Studies had to include technologies related specifically to falls prevention, detection or monitoring. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tool and the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies by the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) were used. We identified 76 potentially relevant papers. Some 21 studies were considered for quality review. Twelve qualitative studies, three quantitative studies and 6 mixed methods studies were included. The literature related to technologies aimed at predicting, monitoring and preventing falls suggest that intrinsic factors related to older adults' attitudes around control, independence and perceived need/requirements for safety are important for their motivation to use and continue using technologies. Extrinsic factors such as usability, feedback gained and costs are important elements which support these attitudes and perceptions. Positive messages about the benefits of falls technologies for promoting healthy active ageing and independence are critical, as is ensuring that the technologies are simple

  11. Bioavailable nitrate detection in water by an immobilized luminescent cyanobacterial reporter strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbeunkui, F; Richaud, C; Etienne, A-L; Schmid, R D; Bachmann, T T

    2002-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a major group of photosynthetic bacteria that can accumulate in surface water as so-called "blooms" in response to environmental factors such as temperature, light and certain nutrients such as N, P, and Fe. Some species of cyanobacteria produce toxins, causing a considerable danger for human and livestock health. As a consequence, monitoring of bloom formation and toxin production of drinking water supplies has become a major concern. To enable prediction and monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms, tools to detect nutrient bioavailability in water would be advantageous. A whole-cell biosensor was developed for monitoring nitrate (NO(3-)) bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems using the recombinant bioluminescent cyanobacterial strain Synechocystis PCC 6803 harboring an insertion of a luxAB-kmr fusion with nblA1 in its chromosomal DNA, leading to PnblA::luxAB-kmr. This reporter strain was designated N1LuxKm. Cells were immobilized in microtiter plates and showed a dose-dependent response to nitrate deprivation. The resultant CyanoSensor could detect nitrate in the 4-100 micro M concentration range after a sample incubation time of 10 h under continuous illumination (50 micro E m(-2) s(-1)). The optimal temperature for sensor operation was 29 degrees C and the immobilized biosensor could be stored at 4 degrees C in dark for about 1 month without significant loss of sensitivity.

  12. Group method of data handling and neral networks applied in monitoring and fault detection in sensors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, Elaine Inacio

    2011-01-01

    The increasing demand in the complexity, efficiency and reliability in modern industrial systems stimulated studies on control theory applied to the development of Monitoring and Fault Detection system. In this work a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology was developed using GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) algorithm and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) which was applied to the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN. The Monitoring and Fault Detection system was developed in two parts: the first was dedicated to preprocess information, using GMDH algorithm; and the second part to the process information using ANNs. The GMDH algorithm was used in two different ways: firstly, the GMDH algorithm was used to generate a better database estimated, called matrix z , which was used to train the ANNs. After that, the GMDH was used to study the best set of variables to be used to train the ANNs, resulting in a best monitoring variable estimative. The methodology was developed and tested using five different models: one Theoretical Model and four Models using different sets of reactor variables. After an exhausting study dedicated to the sensors Monitoring, the Fault Detection in sensors was developed by simulating faults in the sensors database using values of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% in these sensors database. The results obtained using GMDH algorithm in the choice of the best input variables to the ANNs were better than that using only ANNs, thus making possible the use of these methods in the implementation of a new Monitoring and Fault Detection methodology applied in sensors. (author)

  13. Factors influencing detection of the federally endangered Diamond Darter Crystallaria cincotta: Implications for long-term monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Austin A.; Brown, Donald J.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Thompson, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Population monitoring is an essential component of endangered species recovery programs. The federally endangered Diamond Darter Crystallaria cincotta is in need of an effective monitoring design to improve our understanding of its distribution and track population trends. Because of their small size, cryptic coloration, and nocturnal behavior, along with limitations associated with current sampling methods, individuals are difficult to detect at known occupied sites. Therefore, research is needed to determine if survey efforts can be improved by increasing probability of individual detection. The primary objective of this study was to determine if there are seasonal and diel patterns in Diamond Darter detectability during population surveys. In addition to temporal factors, we also assessed five habitat variables that might influence individual detection. We used N-mixture models to estimate site abundances and relationships between covariates and individual detectability and ranked models using Akaike's information criteria. During 2015 three known occupied sites were sampled 15 times each between May and Oct. The best supported model included water temperature as a quadratic function influencing individual detectability, with temperatures around 22 C resulting in the highest detection probability. Detection probability when surveying at the optimal temperature was approximately 6% and 7.5% greater than when surveying at 16 C and 29 C, respectively. Time of Night and day of year were not strong predictors of Diamond Darter detectability. The results of this study will allow researchers and agencies to maximize detection probability when surveying populations, resulting in greater monitoring efficiency and likely more precise abundance estimates.

  14. New method for the detection and monitoring of subsea power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Philipp; Schneider, Jens; Feldens, Peter; Wilken, Dennis

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy farms, no matter what kind of, have in common that they need a connection with the onshore power grid. Thus, not only their offshore generation facilities could have impacts on the surrounding environment, but also associated submarine power cables. These cables have to be buried in the seabed - at least in coastal heavy shipping environments - for safety reasons. Cable laying disturbs the local seafloor and the sub-bottom. Refillment of dredged sediments are expected softer than the original material and could be washed away by currents. Therefore, buried cables have to be repeatedly monitored to ensure their burial depth. This study presents a new method for efficient cable detection. A parametric echosounder system using 15 kHz as secondary frequency was adapted to investigate the angular response of sub-bottom backscatter strength of layered mud and to introduce a new method for enhanced acoustic detection of buried targets. Adaptations to achieve both vertical (0°) and non-vertical inclination of incident sound on the seabed (1-15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) comprise mechanical tilting of the acoustic transducer and electronic beam steering. A sample data set was acquired at a study site at 18 m water depth and a flat and muddy seafloor. At this site, a 0.1 m diameter power cable is buried 1-2 m below the sea floor. Surveying the cable with vertical incidence revealed that the buried cable can hardly be discriminated against the backscatter strength of the layered mud. However, the backscatter strength of layered mud was found to strongly decrease at >3±0.5° incidence and the layered mud echo pattern vanished beyond 5°. As a consequence the visual recognition of the cable echo in acoustic images improves for higher incidence angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°. Data analysis support this visual impression. The size of the cable echo pattern was found to linearly increase with incidence, whereas the signal-to-noise ratio peaks at about

  15. Bloom Chasing With a Wave Glider: The MAGI (Mesoscale Features Aggregates Interaction) Project in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Villareal, T. A.; Anderson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite ocean color data over the past decade has revealed the existence of large phytoplankton blooms in the North Pacific Ocean - specifically in the region NE of Hawai´I near 30°N. These blooms cover thousands of km2, persist for weeks or longer, and are often dominated by nitrogen-fixing diatom symbioses. These events have proven difficult to study outside of the time series station ALOHA at Hawai´i. The limited data indicates that the 30°N blooms are longer-lived, larger, and occur at a greater temperature range than the blooms that develop closer to Hawai´i. In the NE Pacific, at least some of these blooms occur at or near the subtropical front, a salinity-defined temperature compensated frontal zone that has a number of fronts imbedded in it. Here we will report on the results from the MAGI (Mesoscale features Aggregates Interaction) project. In this project, we deployed a Liquid Robotics SV2 Wave Glider® in June, 2015 for a multiple (up to 6) month mission to sample these features and assist in characterizing the bloom dynamics of this region. The Wave Gliders are the first unmanned autonomous marine robots to use only the ocean's wave energy for propulsion. The gliders are navigated remotely allowing a dynamic route through the keying of unique waypoints. Waypoints can be changed to sample features as they develop in the near-real time satellite imagery. The wave glider named Honey Badger is equipped with a CTD, two C3 fluorometers (one with an anti-biofouling coating applied), a Turner Designs PhytoFlash, meteorology and wave sensors, a downward facing camera, a Vengmar passive acoustic monitor, and a towed LISST-Holo.

  16. SYSTEM FOR DETECTION AND CONTROL OF DEPOSITION IN KRAFT CHEMICAL RECOVERY BOILERS AND MONITORING GLASS FURNACES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Ariessohn

    2003-04-15

    Combustion Specialists, Inc. has just completed a project designed to develop the capability to monitor and control the formation of deposits on the outside of boiler tubes inside an operating kraft recovery furnace. This project, which was carried out in the period from April 1, 2001 to January 31, 2003, was funded by the Department of Energy's Inventions and Innovations program. The primary objectives of the project included the development and demonstration of the ability to produce clear images of deposits throughout the convective sections of operating recovery boilers using newly developed infrared imaging technology, to demonstrate the automated detection and quantification of these deposits using custom designed image processing software developed as part of the project, and to demonstrate the feasibility of all technical elements required for a commercial ''smart'' sootblowing control system based on direct feedback from automated imaging of deposits in real-time. All of the individual tasks have been completed and all objectives have been substantially achieved. Imaging of deposits throughout the convective sections of several recovery boilers has been demonstrated, a design for a combined sootblower/deposit inspection probe has been developed and a detailed heat transfer analysis carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of this design, an improved infrared imager which can be sufficiently miniaturized for this application has been identified, automated deposit detection software has been developed and demonstrated, a detailed design for all the necessary communications and control interfaces has been developed, and a test has been carried out in a glass furnace to demonstrate the applicability of the infrared imaging sensor in that environment. The project was completed on time and within the initial budget. A commercial partner has been identified and further federal funding will be sought to support a project to develop a

  17. Reactor condition monitoring and singularity detection via wavelet and use of entropy in Monte Carlo calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Joo

    2007-02-01

    Wavelet theory was applied to detect the singularity in reactor power signal. Compared to Fourier transform, wavelet transform has localization properties in space and frequency. Therefore, by wavelet transform after de-noising, singular points can be found easily. To demonstrate this, we generated reactor power signals using a HANARO (a Korean multi-purpose research reactor) dynamics model consisting of 39 nonlinear differential equations and Gaussian noise. We applied wavelet transform decomposition and de-noising procedures to these signals. It was effective to detect the singular events such as sudden reactivity change and abrupt intrinsic property changes. Thus this method could be profitably utilized in a real-time system for automatic event recognition (e.g., reactor condition monitoring). In addition, using the wavelet de-noising concept, variance reduction of Monte Carlo result was tried. To get correct solution in Monte Carlo calculation, small uncertainty is required and it is quite time-consuming on a computer. Instead of long-time calculation in the Monte Carlo code (MCNP), wavelet de-noising can be performed to get small uncertainties. We applied this idea to MCNP results of k eff and fission source. Variance was reduced somewhat while the average value is kept constant. In MCNP criticality calculation, initial guess for the fission distribution is used and it could give contamination to solution. To avoid this situation, sufficient number of initial generations should be discarded, and they are called inactive cycles. Convergence check can give guildeline to determine when we should start the active cycles. Various entropy functions are tried to check the convergence of fission distribution. Some entropy functions reflect the convergence behavior of fission distribution well. Entropy could be a powerful method to determine inactive/active cycles in MCNP calculation

  18. Heterosigma bloom and associated fish kill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P.K.; Rensel, J.E.; Postel, J.R.; Taub, F.B.

    1997-01-01

    A bloom of the harmful marine phytoplankton, Heterosigma carterae occurred in upper Case Inlet, south Puget Sound, Washington in late September, 1994, correlating with the presence of at least 35 dead salmon. This marks the first time that this alga has been closely correlated with a wild fish kill; in the past it was thought to be associated with kills of penned fish at fish farms only. We were informed of the presence of a possible harmful algal bloom and dead salinois Ilear the town of Allyn on 27 September and a team was formed to investigate. We arrived at the Allyn waterfront at 17:30 hours the same day. Prior to our arrival, state agency personnel walked approximatcly two miles of shoreline from the powerlines north of the dock, to the mouth of Sherwood Creek and conducted the only official count of dead fish present along the shore consisting of 12 coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), 11 chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), 12 chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), one flat fish, and one sculpin on the morning of 9/27. Since previous harmful blooms of Heterosigma have resultedin the majority of net penreared salmon sinking to the bottom of pens, and only approximately two miles of shoreline were sampled, it is suspected that many more exposed fish may have succumbed than were counted. Witnesses who explored the east side of the bay reported seeing many dead salmon there as well, but no counts were made. State agency personnel who observed the fish kill reported seeing “dying fish coming to the beach, gulping at the surface, trying to get out of the water” Scavengers were seen consuming the salmon carcasses; these included two harbor seals, a house cat, and Hymenopteran insects. None suffered any noticeable acute ill effects. Although precise cause of death has not been ascertained, visual inspection of the reproductive organs from a deceased male chum salmon found on the shore at Allyn confirmed that the fish was not yet reproductively mature and

  19. NRC Job Code V6060: Extended in-situ and real time monitoring. Task 4: Detection and monitoring of leaks at nuclear power plants external to structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, S. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-08-01

    In support of Task 4 of the NRC study on compliance with 10 CFR part 20.1406, minimization of contamination, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a one-year scoping study, in concert with a parallel study performed by NRC/NRR staff, on monitoring for leaks at nuclear power plants (NPPs) external to structures. The objective of this task-4 study is to identify and assess those sensors and monitoring techniques for early detection of abnormal radioactive releases from the engineered facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) to the surrounding underground environment in existing NPPs and planned new reactors. As such, methods of interest include: (1) detection of anomalous water content of soils surrounding SSCs, (2) radionuclides contained in the leaking water, and (3) secondary signals such as temperature. ANL work scope includes mainly to (1) identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, the sensors and techniques that have most promise to detect radionuclides and/or associated chemical releases from SSCs of existing NPPs and (2) review and provide comments on the results of the NRC/NRR staff scoping study to identify candidate technologies. This report constitutes the ANL deliverable of the task-4 study. It covers a survey of sensor technologies and leak detection methods currently applied to leak monitoring at NPPs. The survey also provides a technology evaluation that identifies their strength and deficiency based on their detection speed, sensitivity, range and reliability. Emerging advanced technologies that are potentially capable of locating releases, identifying the radionuclides, and estimating their concentrations and distributions are also included in the report along with suggestions of required further research and development.

  20. Harmful Algal Blooms of the West Florida Shelf and Campeche Bank: Visualization and Quantification using Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ramos, Inia Mariel

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are natural phenomena that can have negative impacts on marine ecosystems on which human health and the economy of some Gulf States depends. Many of the HABs in the GOM are dominated by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Non-toxic phytoplankton taxa such as Scrippsiella sp. also form intense blooms off the Mexican coast that result in massive fish mortality and economic losses, particularly as they may lead to anoxia. The main objectives of this dissertation were to (1) evaluate and improve the techniques developed for detection of Karenia spp. blooms on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using satellite remote sensing methods, (2) test the use of these methods for waters in the GOM, and (3) use the output of these techniques to better understand the dynamics and evolution of Karenia spp. blooms in the WFS and off Mexico. The first chapter of this dissertation examines the performance of several Karenia HABs detection techniques using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images and historical ground truth observations collected on the WFS from August 2002 to December 2011. A total of 2323 in situ samples collected by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute to test for Karenia spp. matched pixels with valid ocean color satellite observations over this period. This dataset was used to systematically optimize variables and coefficients used in five published HAB detection methods. Each technique was tested using a set of metrics that included the F-Measure (FM). Before optimization, the average FM for all techniques was 0.47. After optimization, the average FM increased to 0.59, and false positives decreased ~50%. The addition of a Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) criterion improved the performance of every method. A new practical method was developed using a combination of FLH and Remote Sensing Reflectance at 555 nm (Rrs555-FLH). The new method resulted in an FM of 0.62 and 3

  1. Endocultivation: metabolism during heterotopic osteoinduction in vivo--monitoring with fiber optic detection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta Elisabeth; Christofzik, David W; Daschner, Frank; Knöchel, Reinhard; Smeets, Ralf; Warnke, Patrick; Wiltfang, Jörg; Becker, Stephan T

    2012-10-01

    Reconstructions of facial bone defects are one of the most challenging aspects in surgical treatment of malignant diseases, large facial traumata, or congenital anomalies. High-level reconstruction techniques are often associated with an elevated morbidity by the harvest of autologous bone grafts from the patient. Tissue engineering techniques may help to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to monitor metabolic processes during cellular colonization of matrices in vivo in an established rat model for endocultivation. After implantation of computer-designed hydroxyapatite scaffolds into the latissimus dorsi muscle of six rats, 100 μg bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was injected twice, in week 1 and 2, directly into the center of the matrices. The development of pH value and oxygen (O₂) saturation inside the matrix was followed by fiber optic detection technique over 8 weeks and analyzed by variance analyses. Bone density measurements were performed by computed tomography as well as histological evaluations. Two weeks after implantation, oxygen supply and pH value measurements had decreased significantly. In the following weeks both parameters increased and stabilized on higher levels. This is the first study reporting a reproducible method to follow metabolic processes during heterotopic osteoinduction in vivo. It was shown that in the beginning of the study pH value and O₂ saturation decreased and it took several weeks to regain physiological levels. This is an important step to further understand the physiological process of bone induction.

  2. Characterisation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) produced during algal bloom: A membrane treatment perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2013-01-01

    Algal blooms are currently a major concern of the membrane industry as it generates massive concentrations of organic matter (e.g. transparent exopolymer particles [TEP]), which can adversely affect the operation of membrane filtration systems. The goal of this study is to understand the production, composition and membrane rejection of these organic materials using different characterisation techniques. Two common species of bloom-forming freshwater and marine algae were cultivated in batch cultures for 30days and the productions of TEP and other organic matter were monitored at different growth phases. TEP production of the marine diatom, Chaetoceros affinis, produced 6-9 times more TEP than the freshwater blue-green algae, Microcystis. The organic substances produced by both algal species were dominated by biopolymeric substances such as polysaccharides (45-64%) and proteins (2-17%) while the remaining fraction comprises of low molecular weight refractory (humic-like) and/ or biogenic organic substances. MF/UF membranes mainly rejected the biopolymers but not the low molecular weight organic materials. MF membranes (0.1-0.4 lm) rejected 42-56% of biopolymers, while UF membranes (10-100 kDa) rejected 65-95% of these materials. Further analysis of rejected organic materials on the surface of the membranes revealed that polysac-charides and proteins are likely responsible for the fouling of MF/UF systems during an algal bloom situation. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  3. Application of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter for Fault Detection in Continuous Glucose Monitors for Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Boiroux, Dimitri; Hagdrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the online detection of faults and anomalies of a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). We simulated a type 1 diabetes patient using the Medtronic virtual patient model. The model is a system of stochastic differential equations and includes insulin pharmacokinetics...

  4. Multivariate Principal Component Analysis and Case-Based Reasoning for monitoring, fault detection and diagnosis in a WWTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Magda; Sin, Gürkan; Berjaga, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The main idea of this paper is to develop a methodology for process monitoring, fault detection and predictive diagnosis of a WasteWater Treatment Plant (WWTP). To achieve this goal, a combination of Multiway Principal Component Analysis (MPCA) and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is proposed. First...

  5. Changes are detected - cameras and video systems are monitoring the plant site, only rarely giving false alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeissler, H.

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of automatic data acquisition and processing for monitoring goals is to relieve the security personnel from monotonous observation tasks. The novel video systems can be programmed to detect moving target alarm signals, or accept alarm-suppressing image changes. This allows an intelligent alarm evaluation for physical protection in industry, differentiating between real and false alarm signals. (orig.) [de

  6. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  7. An improved cloud detection algorithm for monitoring agricultural growing conditions with NOAA AVHRR data in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yu

    Near-real time access and large regional coverage are strong advantages of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. Cloud contamination in almost each AVHRR scene influences solar reflectance data. Most environmental research requires cloud-free AVHRR data. An automated cloud detection algorithm was developed for the state of Texas. The time-dependent cloud detection algorithm effectively identified about 89% of cloud-contaminated pixels. Maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite was further applied to cloud-free AVHRR data to remove additional cloud contamination. NDVI derived from AVHRR data has been successfully applied to global vegetation research. An observation of solar reflectance data for healthy vegetation produces a positive NDVI value. Negative NDVI values indicate the presence of clouds, snow, water, or bright non-vegetated surfaces. Weekly NDVI composites built from the cloud-free AVHRR data (named conditional NDVI composites) provided smooth temporal profiles during crop growing seasons, whereas traditional NDVI composites without the pre-process of cloud detection showed irregular patterns. This study suggested that cloud removal was important for composite products to be used for vegetation studies. Field data indicated that the sorghum needed 2 to 4 more weeks to reach heading in non-irrigated sites than in irrigated sites. The conditional NDVI composites showed that it took three more weeks for sorghum to attain maximum NDVI in non-irrigated sites than in irrigated sites. The conditional NDVI composites accurately depict in-field crop conditions. This study suggested that applying inexpensive NDVI data for crop monitoring could reduce fieldwork while achieving the same goals. More National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites will be launched in the near future, which will provide more AVHRR data from different satellites for research. Since cloud contamination is an inevitable issue for

  8. RoADS: A road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Atzmueller, Martin; Chin, Alvin; Janssen, Frederik; Schweizer, Immanuel; Trattner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we

  9. Long-term ecosystem monitoring and change detection: the Sonoran initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Lozar; Charles Ehlschlaeger

    2005-01-01

    Ecoregional Systems Heritage and Encroachment Monitoring (ESHEM) examines issues of land management at an ecosystem level using remote sensing. Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), in partnership with Western Illinois University, has developed an ecoregional database and monitoring capability covering the Sonoran region. The monitoring time horizon will...

  10. Harmful Algal Blooms and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan, Lynn M; Holobaugh, Sailor; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-07-01

    The five most commonly recognized Harmful Algal Bloom related illnesses include Ciguatera poisoning, Paralytic Shellfish poisoning, Neurotoxin Shellfish poisoning, Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning and Amnesic Shellfish poisoning. Although they are each the product of different toxins, toxin assemblages or HAB precursors these clinical syndromes have much in common. Exposure occurs through the consumption of fish or shellfish; routine clinical tests are not available for diagnosis; there is no known antidote for exposure; and the risk of these illnesses can negatively impact local fishing and tourism industries. Thus, illness prevention is of paramount importance to minimize human and public health risks. To accomplish this, close communication and collaboration is needed among HAB scientists, public health researchers and local, state and tribal health departments at academic, community outreach, and policy levels.

  11. Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Hess, Steve; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina R.; Cole, Colleen; Deguzman, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) encompasses 1,308 km2 on Hawai‘i Island. The park harbors endemic plants and animals which are threatened by a variety of invasive species. Introduced ungulates have caused sharp declines of numerous endemic species and have converted ecosystems to novel grazing systems in many cases. Local ranchers and the Territorial Government of Hawai‘i had long conducted regional ungulate control even prior to the establishment of HAVO in 1916. In 1995 the park’s hunting team began a new hunt database that allowed managers to review hunt effort and effectiveness in each management unit. Target species included feral pigs (Sus scrofa), European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), feral goats (Capra hircus) and wild cattle (Bos taurus). Hunters removed 1,204 feral pigs from HAVO over a 19-year period (1996‒2014). A variety of methods were employed, but trapping, snaring and ground hunts with dogs accounted for the most kills. Trapping yielded the most animals per unit effort. Hunters and volunteers removed 6,657 mouflon from HAVO; 6,601 of those were from the 468 km2 Kahuku Unit. Aerial hunts yielded the most animals followed by ground hunt methods. Hunters completed eradications of goats in several management units over an 18- year period (1997‒2014) when they removed the last 239 known individuals in HAVO primarily with aerial hunts. There have also been seven cattle and five feral dogs (Canis familiaris) removed from HAVO. Establishing benchmarks and monitoring the success of on-the-ground ungulate removal efforts can improve the efficiency of protecting and restoring native forest for high-priority watersheds and native wildlife. We tested a variety of methods to detect small populations of ungulates within HAVO and the Hō‘ili Wai study area in the high-priority watershed of Ka‘ū Forest Reserve on Hawai‘i Island. We conducted ground surveys, aerial surveys and continuous camera trap monitoring in both fence

  12. Detection and Monitoring of E-Waste Contamination through Remote Sensing and Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garb, Yaakov; Friedlander, Lonia

    2015-04-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of today's fastest growing waste streams, and also one of the more problematic, as this end-of-life product contains precious metals mixed with and embedded in a variety of low value and potentially harmful plastic and other materials. This combination creates a powerful incentive for informal value chains that transport, extract from, and dispose of e-waste materials in far-ranging and unregulated ways, and especially in settings where regulation and livelihood alternatives are sparse, most notably in areas of India, China, and Africa. E-waste processing is known to release a variety of contaminants, such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, including flame retardants, dioxins and furans. In several sites, where the livelihoods of entire communities are dependent on e-waste processing, the resulting contaminants have been demonstrated to enter the hydrological system and food chain and have serious health and ecological effects. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time the usefulness of multi-spectral remote sensing imagery to detect and monitor the release and possibly the dispersal of heavy metal contaminants released in e-waste processing. While similar techniques have been used for prospecting or for studying heavy metal contamination from mining and large industrial facilities, we suggest that these techniques are of particular value in detecting contamination from the more dispersed, shifting, and ad-hoc kinds of release typical of e-waste processing. Given the increased resolution and decreased price of multi-spectral imagery, such techniques may offer a remarkably cost-effective and rapidly responsive means of assessing and monitoring this kind of contamination. We will describe the geochemical and multi-spectral image-processing principles underlying our approach, and show how we have applied these to an area in which we have a detailed, multi-temporal, spatially referenced, and ground

  13. Annual Report for 2008 - 2009 Detection Monitoring at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker J.R.

    2010-03-01

    This annual Environmental Monitoring Report (EMR) presents results of environmental monitoring performed during fiscal year (FY) 2009 (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2009) at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF). The EMWMF is an operating state-of-the-art hazardous waste landfill located in Bear Creek Valley (BCV) west of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Appendix A, Fig. A.1). Opened in 2002 and operated by a DOE prime contractor, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), the EMWMF was built specifically to accommodate disposal of acceptable solid wastes generated from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) remedial actions for former waste sites and buildings that have been impacted by past DOE operations on the ORR and at DOE sites off the ORR within the state of Tennessee. Environmental monitoring at the EMWMF is performed to detect and monitor the impact of facility operations on groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air quality and to determine compliance with applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) specified in governing CERCLA decision documents. Annually, the EMR presents an evaluation of the groundwater, surface water, stormwater, and air monitoring data with respect to the applicable EMWMF performance standards. The purpose of the evaluation is to: (1) identify monitoring results that indicate evidence of a contaminant release from the EMWMF to groundwater, surface water, stormwater, or air, and (2) recommend appropriate changes to the associated sampling and analysis requirements, including sampling locations, methods, and frequencies; field measurements; or laboratory analytes that may be warranted in response to the monitoring data. Sect. 2 of this annual EMR provides background information relevant to environmental monitoring at the landfill, including

  14. LCD versus CRT monitors for digital mammography: a comparison of observer performance for the detection of clustered microcalcifications and masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Joo Hee; Moon, Woo Kyung; Cho, Nariya; Lee, Eun Hye; Park, Jeong Seon; Jang, Mi Jung

    2009-12-01

    There are two types of soft-copy display of digital mammograms, cathode-ray tube (CRT) and liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, and these present different resolutions and noise characteristics. To compare observer performances for the detection of clustered microcalcifications and masses in digital mammograms, using LCD and CRT monitors. Four radiologists evaluated 100 digital mammograms. Of these, 28 mammograms depicted clustered microcalcifications (12 benign, 16 malignant), 18 depicted masses (10 benign, eight malignant), and 54 depicted no apparent abnormality. The images were stored uncompressed as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) files and randomized for two sessions of soft-copy reading. The readers independently read all cases displayed on two 5-megapixel LCD and two CRT monitors with an interval of 3 months. Observers were asked to rate using a five-point scale the likelihoods of microcalcifications and masses independently. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to analyze results. For the LCD and CRT monitors, average area-under-the-curve (A(z)) values for microcalcification detection were 0.977 (0.976, 0.970, 0.980, and 0.983 for the four readers) and 0.958 (0.910, 0.990, 0.976, 0.956), respectively. Corresponding A(z) values for masses were 0.971 (0.955, 0.990, 0.949, 0.989) and 0.944 (0.928, 0.966, 0.955, 0.925). No statistically significant difference was detected between the two monitor types (P>0.05). The LCD and CRT monitors are comparable in terms of detecting clustered microcalcifications and masses in digital mammograms.

  15. Effects of temperature and nutrients on phytoplankton biomass during bloom seasons in Taihu Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-lin Cai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term variations of phytoplankton chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, nutrients, and suspended solids (SS in Taihu Lake, a large shallow freshwater lake in China, during algal bloom seasons from May to August were analyzed using the monthly investigated data from 1999 to 2007. The effective accumulated water temperature (EAWT in months from March to June was calculated with daily monitoring data from the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research (TLLER. The concentrations of Chl-a and nutrients significantly decreased from Meiliang Bay to Central Lake. Annual averages of the total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and Chl-a concentrations, and EAWT generally increased in the nine years. In Meiliang Bay, the concentration of Chl-a was significantly correlated with EAWT, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, TN, the soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP, TP, and SS. In Central Lake, however, the concentration of Chl-a was only correlated with EAWT, TP, and SS. Multiple stepwise linear regression revealed that EAWT, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP, and TP explained 99.2% of the variation of Chl-a in Meiliang Bay, and that EAWT, NH4+-N , and TP explained 98.7% of the variation of Chl-a in Central Lake. Thus EAWT is an important factor influencing the annual change of phytoplankton biomass. Extreme climate change, such as extremely hot springs or cold springs, could cause very different bloom intensities in different years. It is also suggested that both nutrients and EAWT played important roles in the growth of phytoplankton in Taihu Lake. The climate factors and nutrients dually controlled the risk of harmful algal blooms in Taihu Lake. Cutting down phosphorus and nitrogen loadings from catchments should be a fundamental strategy to reduce the risk of blooms in Taihu Lake.

  16. Floating Algae Blooms in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lin; Hu, Chuanmin; Wang, Mengqiu; Shang, Shaoling; Wilson, Cara

    2017-11-01

    A floating algae bloom in the East China Sea was observed in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in May 2017. Using satellite imagery from MODIS, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite, Geostationary Ocean Color Imager, and Ocean Land Imager, and combined with numerical particle tracing experiments and laboratory experiments, we examined the history of this bloom as well as similar blooms in previous years and attempted to trace the bloom source and identify the algae type. Results suggest that one bloom origin is offshore Zhejiang coast where algae slicks have appeared in satellite imagery almost every February-March since 2012. Following the Kuroshio Current and Taiwan Warm Current, these "initial" algae slicks are first transported to the northeast to reach South Korea (Jeju Island) and Japan coastal waters (up to 135°E) by early April 2017, and then transported to the northwest to enter the Yellow Sea by the end of April. The transport pathway covers an area known to be rich in Sargassum horneri, and spectral analysis suggests that most of the algae slicks may contain large amount of S. horneri. The bloom covers a water area of 160,000 km2 with pure algae coverage of 530 km2, which exceeds the size of most Ulva blooms that occur every May-July in the Yellow Sea. While blooms of smaller size also occurred in previous years and especially in 2015, the 2017 bloom is hypothesized to be a result of record-high water temperature, increased light availability, and continuous expansion of Porphyra aquaculture along the East China Sea coast.

  17. Detection of CO2 Leaked Associated with its Geological Sequestration using Uniformly and Randomly Located Monitoring Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogues, J. P.; Court, B.; Dobossy, M.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Celia, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Identification of CO2 or brine leakage is one of the most challenging problems associated with carbon capture and storage. In North America, millions of legacy oil and gas wells present unique challenges for analysis and modeling of leakage as well as monitoring and detection. We have defined a study area in the Wabamun Lake area of Alberta, Canada, where more than one thousand old wells exist within the 50 km by 50 km study area. We have simulated injection of CO2 and the associated flow of both CO2 and brine including leakage along the existing wells and subsequent movement of leaked fluids into overlying permeable formations in the stratigraphic sequence. Leakage into permeable formations outside the injection formation leads to plumes of CO2 and/or leaked brine which tend to be small in size relative to the domain size. The leakage also leads to pressure perturbations in these permeable formations whose spatial extent is much larger than the associated CO2 or brine plumes. Because of the larger spatial extent of the pressure perturbations, we use detection of pressure changes as an indicator of leakage, which we assume is detected via monitoring wells. We use a semi-analytical model for flow and leakage in the context of a Monte Carlo analysis to understand how the number and location of monitoring wells affect the effectiveness of this type of monitoring. In particular, we use multiple realizations of injection and leakage where the stochastic part of the calculation resides in the effective permeability values assigned to the leaky wells. Two monitoring well scenarios were studied. In the first scenario, monitoring wells were uniformly spaced over the domain and the number of CO2 plumes and pressure pulses detected were counted (we assume brine plumes cannot be distinguished from background fluids). The results show the effectiveness of different numbers of uniformly spaced monitoring wells to detect CO¬2 plumes and the pressure pulses. In the second

  18. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection of anthrop......The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection...... of conventional multispectral satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER) to detect changes over wide areas.We chose the Nevada Test Site (NTS), USA, for a case study because of the large amount of available ground truth information. The analysis is based on the multivariate alteration...

  19. Evaluation of a Capacitively-Coupled, Non-Contact (through Clothing) Electrode or ECG Monitoring and Life Signs Detection for the Objective Force Warfighter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jaime M; Pearce, Frederick; Hibbs, Andrew D; Matthews, Robert; Morrissette, Craig

    2004-01-01

    .... This sensor can detect ECG and respiratory signals thru clothing and is being considered by the US Army as a physiological monitoring detection sensor on the Objective WarFighter uniform of the future...

  20. Identification of bloom date QTLs and haplotype analysis in tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Lichun; Stegmeir, Travis; Sebolt, Audrey; Zheng, Chaozhi; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Iezzoni, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Bloom date is an important production trait in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) as the risk of crop loss to floral freeze injury increases with early bloom time. Knowledge of the major loci controlling bloom date would enable breeders to design crosses and select seedlings with late bloom date. As

  1. MONITORING TREE POPULATION DYNAMICS IN ARID ZONE THROUGH MULTIPLE TEMPORAL SCALES: INTEGRATION OF SPATIAL ANALYSIS, CHANGE DETECTION AND FIELD LONG TERM MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Isaacson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1 individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2 spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  2. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki [System Instruments Co., Ltd., 776-2 Komiya-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0031 (Japan); Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu [Division of Biomedical Food Research, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ikebukuro, Kazunori, E-mail: ikebu@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Zif268 fused to luciferase was used for E. coli O157, Salmonella and coliform detection. •Artificial zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was constructed for Norovirus detection. •An analyzer that automatically detects PCR products by zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was developed. •Target pathogens were specifically detected by the automatic analyzer with zinc finger protein fused to luciferase. -- Abstract: An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268–luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF–luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF–luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10{sup 6} copies.

  3. Evaluation of Feature Extraction and Recognition for Activity Monitoring and Fall Detection Based on Wearable sEMG Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xugang; Tang, Minyan; Miran, Seyed M; Luo, Zhizeng

    2017-05-27

    As an essential subfield of context awareness, activity awareness, especially daily activity monitoring and fall detection, plays a significant role for elderly or frail people who need assistance in their daily activities. This study investigates the feature extraction and pattern recognition of surface electromyography (sEMG), with the purpose of determining the best features and classifiers of sEMG for daily living activities monitoring and fall detection. This is done by a serial of experiments. In the experiments, four channels of sEMG signal from wireless, wearable sensors located on lower limbs are recorded from three subjects while they perform seven activities of daily living (ADL). A simulated trip fall scenario is also considered with a custom-made device attached to the ankle. With this experimental setting, 15 feature extraction methods of sEMG, including time, frequency, time/frequency domain and entropy, are analyzed based on class separability and calculation complexity, and five classification methods, each with 15 features, are estimated with respect to the accuracy rate of recognition and calculation complexity for activity monitoring and fall detection. It is shown that a high accuracy rate of recognition and a minimal calculation time for daily activity monitoring and fall detection can be achieved in the current experimental setting. Specifically, the Wilson Amplitude (WAMP) feature performs the best, and the classifier Gaussian Kernel Support Vector Machine (GK-SVM) with Permutation Entropy (PE) or WAMP results in the highest accuracy for activity monitoring with recognition rates of 97.35% and 96.43%. For fall detection, the classifier Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (FMMNN) has the best sensitivity and specificity at the cost of the longest calculation time, while the classifier Gaussian Kernel Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (GK-FDA) with the feature WAMP guarantees a high sensitivity (98.70%) and specificity (98.59%) with a short

  4. Evaluation of Feature Extraction and Recognition for Activity Monitoring and Fall Detection Based on Wearable sEMG Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xugang Xi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As an essential subfield of context awareness, activity awareness, especially daily activity monitoring and fall detection, plays a significant role for elderly or frail people who need assistance in their daily activities. This study investigates the feature extraction and pattern recognition of surface electromyography (sEMG, with the purpose of determining the best features and classifiers of sEMG for daily living activities monitoring and fall detection. This is done by a serial of experiments. In the experiments, four channels of sEMG signal from wireless, wearable sensors located on lower limbs are recorded from three subjects while they perform seven activities of daily living (ADL. A simulated trip fall scenario is also considered with a custom-made device attached to the ankle. With this experimental setting, 15 feature extraction methods of sEMG, including time, frequency, time/frequency domain and entropy, are analyzed based on class separability and calculation complexity, and five classification methods, each with 15 features, are estimated with respect to the accuracy rate of recognition and calculation complexity for activity monitoring and fall detection. It is shown that a high accuracy rate of recognition and a minimal calculation time for daily activity monitoring and fall detection can be achieved in the current experimental setting. Specifically, the Wilson Amplitude (WAMP feature performs the best, and the classifier Gaussian Kernel Support Vector Machine (GK-SVM with Permutation Entropy (PE or WAMP results in the highest accuracy for activity monitoring with recognition rates of 97.35% and 96.43%. For fall detection, the classifier Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network (FMMNN has the best sensitivity and specificity at the cost of the longest calculation time, while the classifier Gaussian Kernel Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (GK-FDA with the feature WAMP guarantees a high sensitivity (98.70% and specificity (98.59% with a

  5. First experiences of beam presence detection based on dedicated beam position monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, A.; Gabourin, S.; Gasior, M.; Todd, B.

    2012-01-01

    High intensity particle beam injection into the LHC is only permitted when a low intensity pilot beam is already circulating in the LHC. This requirement addresses some of the risks associated with high intensity injection, and is enforced by a so-called Beam Presence Flag (BPF) system which is part of the interlock chain between the LHC and its injector complex. For the 2010 LHC run, the detection of the presence of this pilot beam was implemented using the LHC Fast Beam Current Transformer (FBCT) system. However, the primary function of the FBCTs, that is reliable measurement of beam currents, did not allow the BPF system to satisfy all quality requirements of the LHC Machine Protection System (MPS). Safety requirements associated with high intensity injections triggered the development of a dedicated system, based on Beam Position Monitors (BPM). This system was meant to work first in parallel with the FBCT BPF system and eventually replace it. At the end of 2010 and in 2011, this new BPF implementation based on BPMs was designed, built, tested and deployed. This paper reviews both the FBCT and BPM implementation of the BPF system, outlining the changes during the transition period. The paper briefly describes the testing methods, focuses on the results obtained from the tests performed during the end of 2010 LHC run and shows the changes made for the BPM BPF system deployment in LHC in 2011. Whilst the system has been proved to work with a threshold of 6*10 8 charges, it has been implemented with a threshold of 2*10 9 charges to protect the LHC. (authors)

  6. GNSS-monitoring of Natural Hazards: Ionospheric Detection of Earthquakes and Volcano Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, K.; Astafyeva, E.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    During the last few decades earthquakes as sources of strong perturbations in the ionosphere have been reported by many researchers, and in the last few years the seismo-ionosphere coupling has been more and more discussed (e.g., Calais and Minster, 1998, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 105, 167-181; Afraimovich et al., 2010, Earth, Planets, Space, V.62, No.11, 899-904; Rolland et al., 2011, Earth Planets Space, 63, 853-857). Co-volcanic ionospheric perturbations have come under the scrutiny of science only in recent years but observations have already shown that mass and energy injections of volcanic activities can also excite oscillations in the ionosphere (Heki, 2006, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14303; Dautermann et al., 2009, Geophys. Res., 114, B02202). The ionospheric perturbations are induced by acoustic and gravity waves generated in the neutral atmosphere by seismic source or volcano eruption. The upward propagating vibrations of the atmosphere interact with the plasma in the ionosphere by the particle collisions and excite variations of electron density detectable with dual-frequency receivers of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). In addition to co-seismic ionospheric disturbances (CID) observations, ionospheric GNSS measurements have recently proved to be useful to obtain ionospheric images for the seismic fault allowing to provide information on its' parameters and localization (Astafyeva et al., 2011, Geophys. Res. Letters, 38, L22104). This work describes how the GNSS signals can be used for monitoring of natural hazards on examples of the 9 March 2011 M7.3 Tohoku Foreshock and April 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake as well as the April 2015 Calbuco volcano eruptions. We also show that use of high-resolution GNSS data can aid to plot the ionospheric images of seismic fault.

  7. Final Technical Report Recovery Act: Online Nonintrusive Condition Monitoring and Fault Detection for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Qiao

    2012-05-29

    The penetration of wind power has increased greatly over the last decade in the United States and across the world. The U.S. wind power industry installed 1,118 MW of new capacity in the first quarter of 2011 alone and entered the second quarter with another 5,600 MW under construction. By 2030, wind energy is expected to provide 20% of the U.S. electricity needs. As the number of wind turbines continues to grow, the need for effective condition monitoring and fault detection (CMFD) systems becomes increasingly important [3]. Online CMFD is an effective means of not only improving the reliability, capacity factor, and lifetime, but it also reduces the downtime, energy loss, and operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines. The goal of this project is to develop novel online nonintrusive CMFD technologies for wind turbines. The proposed technologies use only the current measurements that have been used by the control and protection system of a wind turbine generator (WTG); no additional sensors or data acquisition devices are needed. Current signals are reliable and easily accessible from the ground without intruding on the wind turbine generators (WTGs) that are situated on high towers and installed in remote areas. Therefore, current-based CMFD techniques have great economic benefits and the potential to be adopted by the wind energy industry. Specifically, the following objectives and results have been achieved in this project: (1) Analyzed the effects of faults in a WTG on the generator currents of the WTG operating at variable rotating speed conditions from the perspective of amplitude and frequency modulations of the current measurements; (2) Developed effective amplitude and frequency demodulation methods for appropriate signal conditioning of the current measurements to improve the accuracy and reliability of wind turbine CMFD; (3) Developed a 1P-invariant power spectrum density (PSD) method for effective signature extraction of wind turbine faults with

  8. Efficient generation of receiver operating characteristics for the evaluation of damage detection in practical structural health monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Dobson, Jacob; Cawley, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Permanently installed guided wave monitoring systems are attractive for monitoring large structures. By frequently interrogating the test structure over a long period of time, such systems have the potential to detect defects much earlier than with conventional one-off inspection, and reduce the time and labour cost involved. However, for the systems to be accepted under real operational conditions, their damage detection performance needs to be evaluated in th