Full Text Available Introduction. Therapeutic bloodletting has been practiced at least 3000 years as one of the most frequent methods of treatment in general, whose value was not questioned until the 19th century, when it was gradually abandoned in Western medicine, while it is still practiced in Arabic and traditional Chinese medicine. Content. In modern medicine bloodletting is practiced for very few indications. Its concept was modeled on the process of menstrual bleeding, for which it was believed to “purge women of bad humours.” Thus, bloodletting was based more on the belief that it helps in the reestablishment of proper balance of body “humours” than on the opinion that it serves to remove excessive amount of blood as well as to remove toxic “pneumas” that accumulate in human body. It was indicated for almost all known diseases, even in the presence of severe anemia. Bloodletting was carried out by scarification with cupping, by phlebotomies (venesections, rarely by arteriotomies, using specific instruments called lancets, as well as leeches. In different periods of history bloodletting was practiced by priests, doctors, barbers, and even by amateurs. In most cases, between one half of liter and two liters of blood used to be removed. Bloodletting was harmful to vast majority of patients and in some of them it is believed that it was either fatal or that it strongly contributed to such outcome. In the 20th century in the “Western” medicine bloodletting was still practiced in the treatment of hypertension and in severe cardiac insufficiency and pulmonary edema, but these indications were later abandoned. Conclusion. Bloodletting is still indicated for a few indications such as polycythemia, haemochromatosis, and porphyria cutanea tarda, while leeches are still used in plastic surgery, replantation and other reconstructive surgery, and very rarely for other specific indications.
Moawia M Al-Tabakha
Full Text Available Background: Bloodletting cupping therapy (Hijama is a traditional alternative medicine practiced in different cultures. Claims about the therapeutic efficacy of Hijama in hypertension are contradictory. The aim of this project was to determine if Hijama therapy is beneficial in the treatment of patients with hypertension. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 60 files for patients treated for hypertension, aged 40–60 years and whose systolic blood pressure (SBP is at least 140mm Hg, were used. The data from 30 patient files were obtained from three licensed Hijama centers (study group, whereas data from the rest of 30 patient files were collected from a hospital (control group. The data from Hijama centers included age, date of Hijama therapy, and blood pressure measured before each Hijama session. Both diastolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP data were obtained over 3-month period. Results: The results showed a significant reduction in SBP (P value < 0.01 over three sessions of wet cupping (from 149.2 to 130.8mm Hg, but this was not significant for DBP over three sessions (P = 0.074. The study also found that the mean SBP in the study group was 9.6mm Hg less than that in the control group (130.8 vs. 140.4mm Hg, P = 0.019, whereas there was no significant difference in DBP between the study group and the control group (87.0 vs. 86.0mm Hg, P = 0.75. Conclusions: Our study shows clear relationship between Hijama and the reduction and control of SBP in patients with hypertension. Therefore, Hijama can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy, which may allow downtitration of given doses of antihypertensive drugs. The possible association of SBP reduction by Hijama and pain reduction needs an investigation.
Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Sameer, Farah Tariq; Saeed, Mai Hafiz; Batran, Rahaf Montaser; Abouhegazy, Nada Tarek; Farajallah, Alaa A
Bloodletting cupping therapy (Hijama) is a traditional alternative medicine practiced in different cultures. Claims about the therapeutic efficacy of Hijama in hypertension are contradictory. The aim of this project was to determine if Hijama therapy is beneficial in the treatment of patients with hypertension. In this retrospective study, 60 files for patients treated for hypertension, aged 40-60 years and whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) is at least 140mm Hg, were used. The data from 30 patient files were obtained from three licensed Hijama centers (study group), whereas data from the rest of 30 patient files were collected from a hospital (control group). The data from Hijama centers included age, date of Hijama therapy, and blood pressure measured before each Hijama session. Both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and SBP data were obtained over 3-month period. The results showed a significant reduction in SBP ( P value cupping (from 149.2 to 130.8mm Hg), but this was not significant for DBP over three sessions ( P = 0.074). The study also found that the mean SBP in the study group was 9.6mm Hg less than that in the control group (130.8 vs. 140.4mm Hg, P = 0.019), whereas there was no significant difference in DBP between the study group and the control group (87.0 vs. 86.0mm Hg, P = 0.75). Our study shows clear relationship between Hijama and the reduction and control of SBP in patients with hypertension. Therefore, Hijama can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy, which may allow downtitration of given doses of antihypertensive drugs. The possible association of SBP reduction by Hijama and pain reduction needs an investigation.
Miao, Xiao-mei; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Sai; Han, Wan-jun; Tu, Yue; Sun, Hong-tao
To investigate the influence of therapeutic bloodletting at Jing-well points and hypothermia on acute cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Seventy-five SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group (Sham), TBI group (TBI), bloodletting group (BL), mild-induced hypothermia group (MIH), and bloodletting plus MIH group (BL + MIH) (n = 15). The model of TBI was established by electric controlled cortical impactor (eCCI). The rats of BL group were bloodletting at Jing-well points immediately after injury, twice daily. While the MIH group was settled on a hypothermia blanket promptly after TBI for 6 hours, so that the temperature dropped to 32 degrees. Each of measurement was performed after 48 hours. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the dynamic impairment of cerebral edema after TBI (n = 3). In addition, mNSS score, measurements of wet and dry brain weight, and Evans Blue assay were performed to investigate the neurologic deficit, cerebral water content (n = 8), and blood-brain barrier permeability (BBB), (n = 4), respectively. MRI analysis showed that the cerebral edema, hematoma and midline shifting of rats in TBI group was more serious than other treatment group. Meanwhile compared with TBI group, the mNSS scores of every treatment group were meaningfully lower (all P cerebral edema and BBB dysfunction and exert neuroprotective effects after TBI. The results suggest that the combination of BL and MIH is more effective than other treatment being used alone.
Du, Yu-zhu; Jia, Chun-sheng; Wang, Jian-ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Liu, Xin; Gang, Wei-juan
To analyze the therapeutic regularities and characteristics of blood-letting therapy for acne in the past clinical practice by using data mining. Original papers about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were searched and screened from common databases as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), WanFang Data, SinoMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, Socolar, SciFinder, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service (FMJS) and PubMed using keywords of acne+bleeding therapy, acne+blood-letting, acne+ pricking blood, followed by establishing a data plateform to conduct a data mining using Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). A total of 230 original journal articles about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were collected. The included acne cases with wind-heat pattern were predoment, being 56 in frequency-times and acounting for 24. 78 %. In the treatment of acne, the therapeutic tool, three-edged needle was often used, being 168 in frequency and acounting for 71.79%. The frequently employed acupoints were those of the Governor Vessel and Bladder Meridian, such as Dazhui (GV 14) and back-shu points. When auricular points used for blood-letting, Erjian (EX-HN 6) and the Vena of the auricular back were most frequently selected. In addition to blood-letting, other therapies such as Chinese herbal medicines, filiform needles, and otopoint-pellet pressure were also used in combination, being 166 in items and constituting 72. 17%. Generally, blood-letting treatment was conducted once every three days (twice a week) or once every two days (three times a week) for about 20 sessions for each acne patient. Blood-letting therapy is effective in the treatment of acne. But if used in combination with other therapies, the therapeutic effect would be better.
Jiang, Guimei; Jia, Chao; Lin, Mode
To observe the clinical efficacy of bloodletting therapy and acupuncture at Jiaji points for treating upper back myofascial pain syndrome (MPS), and compare this with lidocaine block therapy. A total of 66 upper back MPS patients were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the control group in a 1: 1 ratio. The treatment group (n = 33) were treated with bloodletting therapy at local myofascial trigger points and acupuncture at Jiaji (EX-B 2) points; one treatment course consisted of five, single 20-min-treatments with a 2-day break between each treatment. The control group (n = 33) were treated with a lidocaine block at trigger points; one treatment course consisted of five sessions of lidocaine block therapy with a 2-day break between each session. The simplified McGill Scale (SF-MPQ) and tenderness threshold determination were used to assess pain before and after a course of treatment. After the third and fifth treatment, the SF-MPQ values were significantly decreased (P pain assessments between the two groups after three and five treatments (P > 0.05). There were five cases with minor adverse reactions reported in the control patients, while no adverse reactions were reported in the treatment group. Bloodletting therapy at local myofascial trigger points and acupuncture at Jiaji points was effective in treating upper back MPS. Clinically, bloodletting and acupuncture therapy had the same efficacy as the lidocaine block therapy, with fewer adverse reactions.
The ameliorative effect of bloodletting puncture at hand twelve Jing-well points on cerebral edema induced by permanent middle cerebral ischemia via protecting the tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier.
Yu, Nannan; Wang, Zhenguo; Chen, Yucen; Yang, Juntao; Lu, Xuan; Guo, Yi; Chen, Zelin; Xu, Zhifang
Cerebral edema, erupting simultaneously with severe ischemic stroke, might lead to increased intracranial pressure, cerebral herniation, and ultimately death. Studies conducted previously by our team have demonstrated the fact that bloodletting puncture at hand twelve Jing-well points (HTWP) could alleviate cerebral edema, which mainly results from the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The study, therefore, was first designed to demonstrate whether BBB-protection serves an important role in the edema-relief effect of HTWP bloodletting, based on which to research the molecular mechanism underlying. The rats were made into model suffering from permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and then bloodletting puncture were treated at HTWP once a day. Wet and dry weight method was adopted to evaluate the degree of brain edema, evans blue extravasation and electron microscopy were used to evaluate the integrity of the BBB, and RT-qPCR was carried out to analyze the expression level of occludin, claudin-5, ICAM-1, and VEGF. Results revealed that bloodletting puncture treatment could reduce water content of brain and the permeability of BBB caused by ischemic stroke. In bloodletting puncture group, ameliorated tight junctions could be observed under electron microscopy. It was demonstrated in further study that, in bloodletting group, compared with pMCAO one, the expression levels of occludin and claudin-5 were up-regulated, while ICAM-1 and VEGF were down-regulated. In conclusion, bloodletting puncture at HTWP might play a significant role in protecting the tight junctions of BBB, thus alleviating cerebral edema induced by ischemic stroke. Therefore, the therapy of bloodletting puncture at HTWP may be a promising strategy for acute ischemic stroke in the future.
Brennan, Rebekah; Wells, John; Van Hout, Marie Claire
New evidence with regard to a previously undocumented practice - self phlebotomy, known as 'bloodletting' - incontemporary injecting performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) culture is the subject of this paper. While self phlebotomy has been evidenced in psychiatric patients previously, it was performed here in people who inject AAS as a self directed health care procedure. Data was collected from five publicly accessible internet discussion forums and coded using NVivo software. For the purposes of this study, posts in relation to bloodletting were extracted from the final set of records for analysis RESULTS: Motivation to perform bloodletting or to 'self - bleed' was largely grounded in experiencing symptoms of high blood pressure or a high red blood cell count (RBC).Instructions on how to perform bloodletting were found within discussion threads. This study is intended to provide the first snapshot of online communal activity around practice of self-phlebotomy or bloodletting amongst people who inject AAS. Further research in this area is warranted, and will be of benefit to healthcare workers, treatment providers and policy makers particularly as this relates to evidence informed and targeted harm reduction policies and effective public health interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Poul R
For six centuries the barbers of Europe practiced surgery. In 1215 a papal edict forbade members of the clergy (physicians) from performing surgical procedures as contact with blood was felt to be contaminating to men of the church. Bloodletting and minor surgery was now turned over to the barber...
Even towards the end of the 19th century, the removal of circulating blood from the body (blood-letting) .... Brooks,8 discussing the situation in the USA, opined that allowing openly homosexual men to donate .... Some private hospitals in the USA have their own blood banks and are well placed to deal directly with patients ...
Černá, Alena M.
Roč. 139, 3/4 (2016), s. 315-337 ISSN 0024-4457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01298S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Jan (John) Berka of Choceň * Křišťan of Prachatice * Old Czech language * bloodletting * medical terminology Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics
Full Text Available Varicose ulcers are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves usually of the legs. They are the major occurrence of chronic wounds occurring in 70 to 90 of leg ulcer cases. In Sushrut Samhita where get the most scientific description of wound and its management. Similarly Sushrut has given the almost importance to Bloodletting therapy and considered leech as the most unique and effective method of bloodletting even in infected wounds and abscesses. Aforesaid description let us to try leech therapy in venous ulcer was advised to continue weekly application of leech around the ulcer which was followed by dressing with Seethodaka oil and Dashanga lepa. This leech therapy proved very effective and the ulcer healed completely within 30 days. However further evaluation is required to be done by taking a large samples size to prove its significant in treating Venous ulcer.
Full Text Available Auricular therapy includes acupuncture, electroacupuncture, acupressure, lasering, cauterization, moxibustion, and bloodletting in the auricle. For 2500 years, people have employed auricular therapy for treating diseases, but the methods have been limited to bloodletting and cauterization. Only after 1957, the international scientific community became aware that the map of the ear resembles an inverted fetus, its introduction has led to auricular acupuncture (AA becoming a more systemic approach, and, following the identification and standardization of more precise points, AA has been employed in clinical applications. The mechanisms of AA are considered to have a close relationship with the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, neuroimmunological factors, neuroinflammation, and neural reflex, as well as antioxidation. Auricular therapy has been applied, for example, for pain relief, for the treatment of epilepsy, anxiety, and obesity, and for improving sleep quality. However, the mechanisms and evidence for auricular therapy warrant further study.
Hou, Pu-Wei; Hsu, Hsin-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Wen; Tang, Nou-Ying; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Hsieh, Ching-Liang
Auricular therapy includes acupuncture, electroacupuncture, acupressure, lasering, cauterization, moxibustion, and bloodletting in the auricle. For 2500 years, people have employed auricular therapy for treating diseases, but the methods have been limited to bloodletting and cauterization. Only after 1957, the international scientific community became aware that the map of the ear resembles an inverted fetus, its introduction has led to auricular acupuncture (AA) becoming a more systemic approach, and, following the identification and standardization of more precise points, AA has been employed in clinical applications. The mechanisms of AA are considered to have a close relationship with the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, neuroimmunological factors, neuroinflammation, and neural reflex, as well as antioxidation. Auricular therapy has been applied, for example, for pain relief, for the treatment of epilepsy, anxiety, and obesity, and for improving sleep quality. However, the mechanisms and evidence for auricular therapy warrant further study.
Kahn, Linda G; Morabia, Alfredo
To review James Jackson's analysis of bloodletting among pneumonitis patients at the newly founded Massachusetts General Hospital, in which he implemented the numerical method advocated by Pierre-Charles-Alexandre Louis. The study sample included 34 cases of clinically diagnosed pneumonitis admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital between April 19, 1825, and May 10, 1835, and discharged alive. Patient data were extracted from meticulously kept case books. Jackson calculated mean number of venesections, ounces of blood taken, and days of convalescence within groups stratified by day of the disease when first bloodletting occurred. He also calculated average convalescence within groups stratified by age, sex, prior health, vesication, and day of the disease when the patients were admitted to the hospital. To Jackson's surprise, it "seemed to be of less importance, whether our patients were bled or not, than whether they entered the hospital early or late" after the onset of the pneumonitis. Bloodletting was ineffective. Our multivariate reanalysis of his data confirms his conclusion. Outstandingly for his time, Jackson ruled out unwarranted effects of covariates by tabulating their numerical relations to the duration of pneumonia. Using novel gathering of patient clinical data from hospital records and quantitative analytical methods, Jackson contributed results that challenged conventional wisdom and bridged French therapeutic epistemology and American medical pragmatism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The thesis includes seven short stories and one flash fiction piece; most are speculative fiction. A wide range of settings and situations are explored: a little girl in a small town in the 1960's discovers empathy through her shoes, a musical genius overcomes slavery in early 19th century New Hampshire, a demented husband confuses blood-letting with love on the fictional island of Mulieribus, a man defeats death by dying, a woman desires a safe suicide. Three of the stories are set forward a...
Wolters, Frank J
In 1628 the English physician William Harvey (1578-1657) published his revolutionary theory that blood circulates through the body driven by the heart. This challenged the long-standing teachings of Hippocrates and Galen concerning 4 different bodily fluids or 'humours' that flowed through separate arterial and venous vascular systems. Harvey gained considerable influence in society as a member of the prestigious Royal College of Physicians in London and as personal physician to King James I and King Charles I. He strove for a more empirical foundation of medicine by means of anatomic demonstrations and vivisections. Despite enduring considerable criticism he managed to disseminate his ideas around the influential universities of Europe in the course of his lifetime. However, consequent changes in practice would not be brought about until decades after Harvey's death, when Galenist treatments such as blood-letting were gradually abandoned.
Almaiman, Amer A
Wet cupping (Al-hijamah) is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient's skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.
The bleeding of infants via the skin (pile) and the roof of the mouth (qüm) is practiced in Badakhshan, the easternmost province of Tajikistan. Like folk practices elsewhere, pilé and qüm exist at the interstices of modern society and reflect a complex religious, historical, and social response to poverty, marginality, and the global processes associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this article, I attempt to move beyond an ethnomedical analysis by examining these bloodletting practices in the context of their contemporary meaning, as a moral response to suffering and to the social changes that have taken place in the post-Soviet period.
The author elucidates some aspects of the clinical medicine of P.F. von Siebold (1796-1866) by studying a manuscript titled "Rampō-kuden, namely, dictative teaching of Dutch medicine by P.F. von Siebold", which has not been studied enough yet. From this manuscript the author considers the descriptions about cancers, gynecological diseases, syphilitic diseases, urinary diseases, ophthalmic diseases, skin diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastrointestinal diseases and osteo-articular diseases, and thereby shows the concepts and therapeutic techniques of P.F. von Siebold regarding these diseases. To make his therapeutics more clearly understood, the author comments on blood-letting, opiates, emetics, purgatives, peruvian bark, digitalis, physiotherapy, abdominal paracentesis and surgical operations written in this manuscript.
Ani Kelechi Johnmary
Full Text Available The level of killing and bloodletting in Nigeria is increasing every second, minute, hour, day, month and year. Man, animals, properties etc are increasingly under threat in contemporary Nigerian society. The causes of the massive insecurity of lives and properties remain multi-dimensional. This paper is centered on the need to factor tradotronic media for human security management in Nigeria. It reveals that the dimensions of human insecurity in Nigeria, include but not limited to assassination-based human insecurity, robbery/kidnapping related human insecurity, political-related human insecurity, ethnic-based human insecurity, inter-communal conflict-related human insecurity, religious-motivated human insecurity and multi-dimensional conflict related human insecurity. The paper calles on all lovers of life and human dignity to rise up and defend the survival and existence of every breathing soul around him or her in this sovereign entity, called Nigeria.
Yun, Gak Won; Yang, Young Joon; Song, Ik Chan; Park, Keon Uk; Baek, Seung-Woo; Yun, Hwan Jung; Kim, Samyong; Jo, Deog Yeon; Lee, Hyo Jin
Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide. However, the information concerning various causes of IDA in adult men is still insufficient. The aim of our study was to evaluate adult men with IDA. We prospectively studied 206 adult men with IDA. All subjects had a direct history taken and underwent a physical examination. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed in most patients, and colonoscopy was conducted if no lesion causing IDA was found or the fecal occult blood test was positive. The history of prior gastrectomy and blood-letting cupping therapy that probably had caused IDA were reported in 24 (11.7%) and 11 (5.3%) patients, respectively. In terms of potential causes of IDA, 68 (33.0%) patients were found to have upper gastrointestinal disorders (34 peptic ulcers, 17 erosive gastritis, 16 gastric cancers, and one gastrointestinal stromal tumor). Colonoscopy showed 42 (20.4%) clinically relevant lesions that probably caused IDA: colon cancer (five patients), colon polyps (14 patients), ulcerative colitis (one patient), and hemorrhoids (22 patients). One small bowel tumor was detected at small bowel series. Concerning malignant lesions that were responsible for IDA, 22 malignant lesions were found in patients of 50 years or older, accounting for 16.8% (22 of 131 patients), while only one (1.3%) early gastric cancer was found in the younger patients. This study demonstrated that gastrointestinal blood loss is the main cause of IDA in adult men, and that there is a high rate of malignancy in men older than 50 years, emphasizing the need for a complete, rigorous gastrointestinal examination in this group of patients. Considering blood-letting cupping therapy, there is a need to consider culture-specific procedures as a possible cause of IDA.
V. N. Jakovlev
Full Text Available Purpose. To study glutamate metabolism characteristics in phylogenetically different parts of the mammalian brain in experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock (HS in cats.Material and methods. Experiments were performed on 76 cats. HS was induced by intermittent bloodletting from femoral artery at a rate of 10ml/kg•10 minutes, with the average volume of 24±0.8 ml/kg. The bloodletting was discontinued after arterial pressure (BP drop to 60.0±1.5 mmHg. We studied ammonia, glutamate (Gt, and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG levels and glutaminase (GS and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDG activity in specimens harvested from phylogenetically different parts of the brain (cortex, limbic system, diencephalon, and medulla oblongata.Results. In intact animals, the peak GDG activity was found in the medulla oblongata (phylogenetically the oldest part of the brain and the peak GS activity was registered in the sensorimotor cortex (phylogenetically the youngest part of the brain; the glutaminase activity did not depend on the phylogenetic age of brain structures.In the case of HS, Gt metabolism changes began in the sensorimotor cortex manifested by decreased GS activity, which progresses by the 70th minute of the post%hemorrhagic period (PHP accompanied by delayed increase in the GDG and glutaminase activity, as well as Gt accumulation. In the limbic system and diencephalon the Gt metabolism was changing (impaired glutamine synthesis, stimuled Gt synthesis with glutamine desamidization and α%KG amination when developed by the 70th minute of the PHP. Similarly to sensorimotor cortex, changes were associated with Gt accumulation. During the agony, α%KG deficiency developed in all parts of the brain as a result of its increased contribution to Gt synthesis. At the same period of time, in the sensorimotor cortex, limbic system and diencephalon the Gt synthesis from glutamine was stimulated, however, the Gt contribution tothe formation of glutamine was decreased. The
Choi, Hak Yong; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Moon Ho
Reappraisal measurement of apparent half survival time of red cell by 51 Cr method was made and effects of blood-letting over red cell survival were observed. The study was performed on 53 normal male subjects under three different experimental conditions. 1) Group 1: Mean 51 Cr red cell half survival by ACD wash method was 29.7 days. T 1 /2 of Ascorbic acid method was 29.0 days in group with 100 mg dose and 29.1 days in group with 50 mg dose respectively. There was no difference between these two methods in regards to red cell half survival. No difference were noted in amount of ascorbic acid administered. 2) Group 2: As daily amount of blood loss in increased the shortening of red cell half survival was noted. Rapid phase was seen when blood loss ranged 10 to 25 ml per day, while slow phase noted when more loss amounted 25 ml more daily. Thus, it was clear that there was more than an exponential relation between T 1 /2 and the amount of blood loss. 3) Group 3: T 1 /2 measured cpm per whole blood was within normal range and T 1 /2 measured by cpm per red mass showed shortening tendency when compared with the former in the group measured after blood loss (from 25 ml daily up to 100 ml daily in 10 days). In the group with rather constant blood loss of 100 ml daily for 10 consecutive days revealed the significant difference in two measurement (P 1 /2 in non-steady state. When red cell production is increased compared with red cell destruction, T 1 /2 measured by cpm per red cell mass shorter than that by cpm per whole blood. Shortening of T 1 /2 measured by cpm per whole blood is more prominent, if red destruction is enhanced and exceeds production. 5) It is clear that when expressing red cell destruction rate, T 1 /2 measured by cpm per whole blood is more adequate and production more consistent with cpm red cell mass. 6) T 1 /2 measured during blood-letting, when corrected by amount of blood loss, it remains normal. It is erroneous to use conventional equational
This report, made in two parts, relates Philibert Guybert's Charitable works history which were reprinted at least sixty times between 1623 and 1679 - quite an exceptional number for that period. Le Médecin charitable (The Charitable Physician) (1623), was followed by other works such as Le Prix et valeur des médicaments (Price and value of medicines) (1625), l'Apothicaire charitable (The charitable Apothecary) (1625), la Manière d'embaumer les corps morts (The way of embalming corpses) (1627), etc. As an indication of methods then used in the Parisian Faculty of Medicine, Guybert's works were compiled at many times under the title (Euvres charitables de Philibert Guybert, until the reference edition in 1633, in which other authors works were added. Philibert Guybert's objective was to help people, particulary the poor, to treat themselves by making their own remedies, in other words, fighting against privileges, as well as the apothecaries' lure of profit-making and their corrupted methods. The first part recalls the period between 1623 and 1629, with regard to Guybert's first works and the controversy between doctors and apothecaries. The second part begins by relating the history of the reference edition, in 1633, which came out few months before Guybert's death. Gui Patin, the well-known parisian doctor, took an important part in this edition: he wrote a Traité de la Conservation de la Santé (Treaty of health conservation), and also many annotations concerning l'Avis sur la peste (Advice on the plague) by Nicolas Ellain - in which Patin expresses his disapproval of certain remedies such as theriac, mithridate, arsenic, pearls, bezoaa, etc. -, and also how he felt about le Traité de la Saignée de Galien (The treaty of blood-letting by Galien) - with his approval of both the blood-letting and Galien! Then the author recalls the posthumous editions, some of them clandestine, and also evokes latine and english editions (Medici officiosi opera and The
The life and works of Dr Robert Robertson are reviewed set against the background of the extant British management of fevers during the latter 18th-century. Commencing in 1769, using the febrifuge Peruvian bark (cortex Peruvianus; Jesuit's Powder), he experimented and tested Peruvian bark mono-therapy protocols in the tropics in the cure and prevention of intermittent fever (predominantly malaria). His later work also showed the benefit of the bark in the acute care of developed continuous fevers (largely Ship Fever due to Epidemic Louse-borne Typhus Fever) in both the Temperate and Torrid Zones. In the realm of comparative statistics Robertson first demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of bark therapy against the dangerous depleting processes of the antiphlogistic regimen. He was the first to alert the Admiralty to the efficacy of bark in both the cure of acute fevers as well as a prophylactic in the tropics, and signalled the dangers of bloodletting in treating fevers of the tropics. He authored 13 books devoted to fevers outlining his theory of Febrile Infection and its treatment. The essay concludes with his role as the Physician-in-Charge of the Royal Hospital, Greenwich over a 28-year period, as an acknowledged expert in the small British group of 18th-century fever specialists.
Amer A. Almaiman
Full Text Available Wet cupping (Al-hijamah is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient’s skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.
De Luca, Luigi M; Norum, Kaare R
We translated two Latin texts about scurvy. One is by Ambrosius Rhodius, who in 1635 published his doctoral thesis on scurvy. This contains aspects of 16th- and 17th-century folklore medicine. The other is a 1593 letter by Henrik Høyer (Hoierus), a German physician in Bergen, Norway. The letter states that in Norway grew a plant, Chamaemorus Norvegicus, whose berries had curative abilities against scurvy. Rhodius lists symptoms of scurvy and suggests ingestion of fatty and smoked foods as etiological agents. He thought that a malfunction of the spleen was involved in this disease, so that the undigested parts of the chylus perturbed liver function. Plants with curative abilities were "those that abound in volatile salts." He listed seven facilitating causes of scurvy and its therapies. These included blood-letting after laxatives and root extracts. The star of the show was the cloudberry, which had miraculous effects on scurvy patients. Palliative care included a bath containing decoction of brooklime, water cress, mallow, hogweed, roman chamomile, and similar plants. Before bathing, the person was to drink an extract of wormwood, scurvy grass, or elder. As medication for gums and teeth, Rhodius recommended rosemary, hyssop, bistort, sage, nasturtium, waterweed, creeping Jenny, and scurvy grass. He referred to medications described by Albertus, Sennertus, and in antiquity by Hippocrates and Galenus. We discuss the manuscripts by Høyer and Rhodius in light of earlier treatments and opinions about scurvy.
Abbas Zaidi, S M; Jameel, S S; Jafri, Kehkashan; Khan, Shariq A; Ahmad, Ehsan
Cupping (Hijamah) therapy is very well documented as a result of several thousand years of clinical experiences in Unani medicine. In this procedure, suction is created by various means either with or without bloodletting. Though this therapy is being widely practiced across the globe for treating many chronic and intractable ailments but many reports reveal its unscientific and improper practices which results in many complications. Therefore to develop standard operative procedures and to propose protocols of cupping therapy in various diseases is the need of hour. A thorough literature review of relevant journals and textbooks was performed to gather the maximum available data on cupping therapy. This paper seeks to introduce the general concepts of cupping therapy in Unani medicine and other traditional systems of medicine, shortcomings and limitations of the currently published studies and suggest ways to improve these technical/methodological flaws. In addition, the authors have also attempted to provide the cupping related materials, hypotheses, observations which will provide the researchers the base for evaluating their usefulness in future clinical trials.
Jin Hyong Cho
Full Text Available The microneedle therapy system (MTS, a mechanical method involving making minute multiple holes in the skin, reportedly improves skin condition, such as by reducing flushing and melanin. A newly attempted bloodletting therapy, Jae-Seng Acupuncture, has several advantages over traditional mechanical punching methods because it allows the practitioner to regulate the depth and direction of needle stimulations and to choose whether to stimulate the muscle layers. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Jae-Seng Acupuncture in the treatment of nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles. The nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles of 107 patients ranging in age from their 20s to their 70s were subjected to DermaVision, a digital skin image analyzer, before the treatment and one to six months after treatment. Additionally, stimulation of the meridians, such as Taeyang, Tongjaryo, Chongmyong, Sungup, Sabaek, Yonghyang, Chichang, Taeyong, was performed to improve the function of the stomach, large intestine. Analyses of the images indicate that Jae-Seng Acupuncture improved nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles, suggesting that this technique is a safe and effective method for the improvement of facial skin conditions.
Joshi, Suma; Toshikhane, Sangeeta Hemant; Toshikhane, Hemant D
Calcaneus forms the bone of the foot. Due to abnormal pressures, foot muscles and ligaments are stretched beyond their normal limits that lead to chronic plantar heel pain, among which calcaneal spur tops the list. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated to "Vātakaṇṭaka" (pricking sensation in the foot)-a painful condition of heel caused by its improper placement on the ground. To assess the effect of syringing method (modified Śṛṅga) in the treatment of Vātakaṇṭaka. A 10 ml syringe was for ease, hygiene, and to enable the case to be managed in the outpatient department. A diagnosed case of calcaneal spurs with pain, tenderness, and swelling visited KLE University's Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. After Snigdha Patrapoṭṭali sveda (a form of sudation therapy), bloodletting was performed by syringing method. In total procedure was performed for 4 times on the patient. Marked subjective relief was observed. Pain from 8 visual analog scale (VAS) came to 2 visual analog scale (VAS) and tenderness and swelling relived completely.
Full Text Available Calcaneus forms the bone of the foot. Due to abnormal pressures, foot muscles and ligaments are stretched beyond their normal limits that lead to chronic plantar heel pain, among which calcaneal spur tops the list. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated to "Vātakaṇṭaka" (pricking sensation in the foot-a painful condition of heel caused by its improper placement on the ground. To assess the effect of syringing method (modified Śṛṅga in the treatment of Vātakaṇṭaka. A 10 ml syringe was for ease, hygiene, and to enable the case to be managed in the outpatient department. A diagnosed case of calcaneal spurs with pain, tenderness, and swelling visited KLE University′s Shri BMK Ayurveda Hospital and Research Centre, Belgaum, Karnataka, India. After Snigdha Patrapoṭṭali sveda (a form of sudation therapy, bloodletting was performed by syringing method. In total procedure was performed for 4 times on the patient. Marked subjective relief was observed. Pain from 8 visual analog scale (VAS came to 2 visual analog scale (VAS and tenderness and swelling relived completely.
Comparison of Hemostatic Durability between N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Gelatin Sponge Particles in Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in a Coagulopathic Condition in a Swine Model
Yonemitsu, Takafumi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Takasaka, Isao; Nakai, Motoki; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Sahara, Shinya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiro; Naka, Toshio; Shinozaki, Masahiro
This study was designed to compare the efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) or gelatin sponge particles (GSP) for acute arterial bleeding in a coagulopathic condition using a swine model. Four healthy swine were divided into two coagulopathic conditions: mild and severe. Five hemorrhages were created in each swine (10 hemorrhages per coagulopathy). Mild coagulopathy was achieved by bloodletting 10% of the total circulatory whole blood and preserving activated clotting time (ACT) less than 200 s (ACT 400 s (ACT > 400-second state). For each state, of ACT 400 s, TAE was conducted with GSP or NBCA to control five hemorrhages arising from artificially created renal and splenic injuries. Angiography immediately after TAE with GSP or NBCA showed complete occlusion in both coagulopathic conditions. In the ACT 400-second state, follow-up angiography showed recurrent hemorrhage in four (80%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with GSP and in one (20%) of the five hemorrhages embolized with NBCA. Microscopically, red thrombi were observed densely surrounding GSP in mild coagulopathy but were scarce in severe coagulopathy. In a condition with severe coagulopathy, TAE with NBCA was more effective in durability to cease active arterial bleeding than with GSP.
Full Text Available Respiratory diseases were quite common in the past. A treatment procedure for an acute respiratory disorder, most probably pneumonia, in a 72-year-old man was presented based on archival source materials dating from 1801. The treatment was provided by a doctor, barber surgeon “nurse” and pharmacist, who were practicing in Koniecpol in 1801. The patient was given mucolytic, antitussive, cardiac, antipyretic and analgesic medications and appetite stimulants. From the medical point of view that prevailed at that time, the treatment was correct. The patient was also given medications recommended under the humoral theory, which was still being followed at that time. According to that theory, the human body was thought to contain four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. An imbalance of humours resulted in a disease. The treatment was designed to restore the proper humoral balance by techniques such as enemas, diuretics and bloodletting. From the present medical point of view, the treatment was incorrect. It caused anaemia and disturbances in water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The treatment resulted in the patient’s death. However, one can hardly blame doctor Tichi, as his treatment was fully compliant with the scientific views prevailing at that time.
In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Earp, Brian D; Wudarczyk, Olga A; Sandberg, Anders; Savulescu, Julian
"Love hurts"-as the saying goes-and a certain amount of pain and difficulty in intimate relationships is unavoidable. Sometimes it may even be beneficial, since adversity can lead to personal growth, self-discovery, and a range of other components of a life well-lived. But other times, love can be downright dangerous. It may bind a spouse to her domestic abuser, draw an unscrupulous adult toward sexual involvement with a child, put someone under the insidious spell of a cult leader, and even inspire jealousy-fueled homicide. How might these perilous devotions be diminished? The ancients thought that treatments such as phlebotomy, exercise, or bloodletting could "cure" an individual of love. But modern neuroscience and emerging developments in psychopharmacology open up a range of possible interventions that might actually work. These developments raise profound moral questions about the potential uses-and misuses-of such anti-love biotechnology. In this article, we describe a number of prospective love-diminishing interventions, and offer a preliminary ethical framework for dealing with them responsibly should they arise.
Notwithstanding the traditional belief that disciples of Jesus Christ introduced Christianity into China, conclusive evidence showed that it was the Nestorian missionaries who entered China in AD 635. Alongside commercial contacts between the West and China during the prosperous T'ang dynasty (618-906), trepanation, bloodletting and the universal antidote theriac were introduced from the Byzantium Empire. Nestorian Christians built churches throughout China and offered some form of medical services. During the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1260-1368), foreign physicians were present in the Royal Court; the most famous was the astronomer, linguist and physician Ai-hsieh (Isaiah), Head of the Imperial Medical Bureau. With the fall of this dynasty, Christianity, being primarily the faith of a foreign community, naturally fell into oblivion. It was not until the sixteenth-century's Age of Discovery when a safe sea route to China was found that a new phase of Christian missionaries began. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Černá, Alena M.; Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena; Stluka, Martin
The critical edition of the collection "King John's Astronomy" is based on the Old Czech manuscript written at the beginning of the 15th century which is preserved at the Library of the National Museum in Prague (ms. II F 14). The collection consists of several separate parts - first of all it contains astronomical and astrological treatises refering to Ptolemy's works. Explanations on the impact of the seven planets and twelve zodiacal signs on the fate of man, who was born under their influence, prevail in the texts. The texts which are connected with Hippocrates and Galenos' doctrines about humoral physiology and humoral pathology are another subject. They are supplemented by a treatise on blood-letting and by pharmaceutical instructions on different weight units. Another treatise deals with God, God's acts and with human fate. The manuscript also contains calendar tools for the calculation of Easter and other feasts during the year. The origin of this Old Czech text coincides with the period of the development of national languages as languages of science. Vocabulary contained in the manuscript is rich. It yields evidence about the formation of terminological systems in various fields involved in the collection. The Old Czech language of this literary monument exhibits unexpectedly archaic features. The present edition is a result of interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers from the fields of diachronic Bohemistics, classical philology, and astronomy. The publication is completed with the critical apparatus, indices, vocabulary, by a list of the chosen literature and other related supplements.
Xiang, Yu; Wu, Xing; Lu, Chuanjian; Wang, Kaiyi
Psoriasis is a chronic, proliferative, and inflammatory skin disease which affects around 2-3% of the global population. Current pharmacotherapy is effective, however medication with safe and long-lasting therapeutic effects is needed. Acupuncture for psoriasis is widely used in China as well as other Asian countries, and is gradually becoming accepted globally. To determine the characteristics and advantages of acupuncture treatment for psoriasis, and to improve the clinical outcomes of this disease in the future, this review summarizes literature on acupuncture treatment for psoriasis published between 2009 and 2014. Databases search was conducted with the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), MEDLINE, and PubMed databases over a time period ranging from January 2009 to December 2014. The condition term was "psoriasis" and the key intervention terms were "needling", "moxibustion", "auriculotherapy", "cupping and bloodletting therapy", "catgut embedding therapy", "point-injection therapy", "traditional Chinese medicine fumigation therapy", "fire needling therapy", and "vesiculation moxibustion". Languages were limited to English and Chinese. Therapeutic mechanisms, therapy, therapeutic characteristics, advantages and limits of acupuncture for psoriasis are discussed. The conclusion is that acupuncture therapies for psoriasis are simple, convenient, and effective, with long-lasting therapeutic effects as well as minimal side effects and toxicity.
Lopez-Munoz, F; Garcia-Garcia, P; Alamo, C
The most outstanding novel of the Spanish literature, Don Quixote, represents the source to which the different specialists who intend to deepen their knowledge of the late Renaissance society usually address. This masterpiece of Miguel de Cervantes has been frequently approached from the psychopathological perspective to obtain a psychiatric diagnosis of its main character, Alonso Quijano. Also, other clinical approaches from the traumatological and general therapeutical view (oils, ointments, balms and other pharmacy preparations) have been frequent. We have tackled Don Quixote from the psychopharmacological perspective, a barely explored field. In this work, we intend to study the therapeutical cures used during the Cervantine time for the treatment of insane and mentally disturbed people (sedatives like opium, laxatives like hellebore, tonics, irritants and surgical techniques like bloodlettings and ) and we analyze the limited and unspecific therapies, mainly of herbal origin (balms, purgatives and emetics), which Cervantes reveals to us in his novel. Among them, rhubarb root (Rumex alpinus), seeds of spurge (Euphorbia lathyris), St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), main ingredient of Aparicio's oil, and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), primary component of the famous balsam of Fierabras, should be highlighted. We have also examined the possible scientific influences which might have inspired Cervantes in this field, mainly the works of Juan Huarte de San Juan The examination of men's wits and the one of Andres Laguna Dioscorides' materia medica.
Connecting the circulatory system of old and young mice (parabiosis) is documented to have rejuvenating effects on cells, tissues, organs, and functions. A wide range of benefits are envisioned. Blood-based rejuvenation can come to totally change population health and aging. The first blood rejuvenation studies on humans with Alzheimer's disease have started. It puts blood at the center of therapy and revitalizes the historical line of humoral pathology from Hippocrates and Harvey, creating a new type of 'bloodletting.' However, moving from mice to men requires careful consideration. Parabiosis actualizes well-known ethical challenges, such as just distribution of health care, avoiding disparities, and providing equal access to health care resources, as well as issues of human enhancement. However, it also poses new problems. Using internal substances in some persons as means to rejuvenate others calls for ethical reflection. New type of 'blood bonds' may result from the continuous demand for specific types of blood. Even if rejuvenating substances from blood may be artificially and cheaply produced and justly distributed, problems arise: survival may have to be balanced against reproduction, as reproductive age increases. Eternal youth and endless bliss have always been vital human dreams. Although parabiosis may bring us closer to the fountain of youth than ever, it is still too early to provide full-fledged assessments of its implications or to foresee how it will change health, aging, medicine, and society. However, in order to bring our reflective abilities on par with our technical skills, we need to start reflection now.
Zegers, R H C
Not much is known about the medical history and cause of death of the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Contrary to popular opinion, Mozart was not an exceptionally ill child and as an adult he generally enjoyed good health. At the age of 9 years he experienced a life-threatening illness, which was probably typhoid fever. On the left-hand side he had what has since become known as 'Mozart's ear', a pinna with under-development of the anthelical fold. His psychological condition gives rise to the notion that he was not exceptional, but that he responded to the events in his life in a normal manner. His terminal illness was characterised by edema of hands and feet, without any associated dyspnoea being described. The medical treatment was aggressive: enema, bloodletting on several occasions and treatment with a laxative substance. He was burried in an anonymous grave. The skull that was later ascribed to him was not his own, as no element of the denture fits with the tooth abscess he was known to have experienced. An overdose of mercury during the treatment of syphilis seems to be unlikely, as equally Henoch-Schönlein-purpura and the consequences of acute rheumatism. Trichinosis is a recent hypothesis which fits the terminal symptoms and the fact that Mozart was fond of pork. The diagnosis of his physician Closset was 'hitsiges Frieselfieber', which was possibly caused by one of the many infectious diseases prevalent at that time.
Drake, M E
No commemoration of the bicentennial of Mozart's death would be complete without some consideration of that premature yet predictable demise. Mozart's premonitions of death are well known and apparently played a role in the composition of the K.626 Requiem and perhaps other works. His death has traditionally been ascribed to infectious causes, chiefly rheumatic fever or post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, exacerbated by intemperance and chronic penury. Pathology has been difficult because of his supposed burial in a pauper's grave, the location and contents of which were later supposedly lost. Mozart's burial place in St. Mark's Cemetery in Vienna was known and, in the parlance of the day, "reorganized" a decade later, as the occupants of plots were disinterred to make room for the more recently decreased. A skull believed to the Mozart's was saved by the successor of the gravedigger who had supervised Mozart's burial, and then passed into the collections of the anatomist Josef Hyrtl, the municipality of Salzburg, and the Mozarteum museum (Salzburg). Forensic reconstruction of soft tissues related to this skull reveals substantial concordance with Mozart's portraits. The skull suggests premature closure of the metopic suture, which has been suggested on the basis of his physiognomy. A left temporal fracture and concomitant erosions raise the question of chronic subdural hematoma, which would be consistent with several falls in 1789 and 1790 and could have caused the weakness, headaches, and fainting he experienced in 1790 and 1791. Aggressive bloodletting to treat suspected rheumatic fever could have decompensated such a lesion to produce his death on December 5, 1791.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Intolerance, is a reaction against food, but not immunological manner, and may be confused with real food allergies. In this study, effects of special weight-loss diet together with an elimination diet on body composition and biochemical parameters of overweight and obese people who were diagnosed with food intolerance were investigated. The study group consists of 20 patients in total who were followed-up and treated in Yorktest Turkey Laboratory; who were diagnosed with food intolerance, and whose BMI was > 26kg/m2. Bloodletting for these patients was executed with Lancet from their fingertips, and the blood drawn from these patients was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA method, and food reactions of patients were determined for each food. Biochemical parameters of these patients are routine tests, which are necessary for food intolerance tests, and they are analyzed at Yorktest Turkey Laboratory for two times: before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet. It has been determined that, the most common sensivity is obtained against yeast, egg yolk and white, cranberry, cow’s milk, chicken, lentils and parsley. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet applied to participants, were significantly improved in statistical manner. Due to positive changes in body composition and biochemical parameters obtained through application of special weight-loss diets together with elimination diet applied to fat and obese people, we think that this diet might be used for medical nutrition treatment of obesity as a treatment option.
Benli, Ali Ramazan; Sunay, Didem
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood-letting with wet cupping therapy (WCT) in migraine treatment and to determine whether there was any difference according to the phase of the moon when the treatment was applied. MATERIAL AND METHODS This self-controlled study was conducted in Karabuk between 2014 and 2016. Patients who were diagnosed with migraine were enrolled in the study. Migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), demographic characteristics, migraine attack frequency and duration, and family history was used to assess the severity of headache. WCT was applied in 3 sessions and the questionnaire was administered before and 3 months after the final WCT session. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used in pre-and posttreatment measurements, and the Chi-square test was used to check independence in two-way categorical tables. RESULTS A total of 85 patients were included. The reduction in MIDAS scores and number of migraine attacks was significantly greater in the WCT applications made in the first half of the month compared to those in the second half of the month. Although the reduction in visual analog scale (VAS) scores was greater in the second half of the month, it was also significant in the applications made in the first half of the month. CONCLUSIONS WCT was found to be an effective treatment of migraine. The effect on MIDAS, VAS, and the number of attacks was significantly better when the application was made in the second half of the month compared to those made in the first half.
Zhang, Xia; Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Guang-Xi; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Chen; Tang, Jing-Jing; Yao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Meng
This paper systematically studies relevant literatures at home and abroad in recent years. China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) was used to collect the literatures for acute pharyngitis treated with traditional Chinese medicine from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016, and the bibliometric method was employed for statistical analysis. A total of 493 papers were preliminarily selected. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, 182 eligible articles were selected. According to the evaluation and analysis of the literatures, the Guidelines for Clinical Research of New Drugs is currently used as the common standards for the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis; Chinese patent medicines are the main traditional Chinese medicine for treating this disease; Decoctions for treatment of this disease include Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, Platycodonis Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scrophdlariae Radix, Isatidis Radix, and Ophiopogonis Radix; The bloodletting puncture is the common external therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine have their own characteristics in the treatment of this disease. Western medicine for the treatment of acute pharyngitis are mainly antiviral, antibiotic and glucocorticoid drugs, whose disadvantages are toxicity, side effects, drug resistance and double infections. Traditional Chinese medicine doctors have rich experiences in the treatment of the disease, which is characterized by treatment determination based on syndrome differentiation, safe and reliable medication, significant curative effect, low drug resistance, and wide varieties of traditional Chinese medicine forms, convenient portability and taking, low price, and low toxic and side effects. It is an arduous and significant task to explore traditional Chinese medicine, and study and develop new-type effective drugs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Van Hee, R
By publishing De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem in 1543, Andries van Wesel (1514-1564) gave surgical science an immense impulse. The revolutionary renovation in the knowledge of man's anatomical structure changed slowly and progressively into topographical and physiological understanding of surgical diseases. At the same time, this made better aimed and more secure operations possible. Apart from the importance of this anatomical publication, Andreas Vesalius also won his spurs as a surgeon. He taught surgery in Padua for many years. He was appointed court physician and surgeon at the Habsburg Court of Charles V and Philip II. He personally performed lots of operations known at the time as major ones. He not only quickly adopted the surgical innovations of his fellow-surgeon Ambroise Paré, but he even performed operations that had been forgotten during several centuries, among which thoracocentesis for pleural empyema. His clinical perspicacity in discovering the indication for some operations was staggering and was appreciated by all great monarchs of Europe in the 16th century. In his several consilia, numerous pieces of advice were given for the treatment of surgical patients. The surgical practice which Vesalius had in Brussels for many years, consequently became most successful. Many publications by Vesalius about surgery and blood-letting are well-known. His Chirurgia magna in septem Libros digesta still remains controversial; these books were published by Prospero Borgarruccio (1560) in 1568 by the Venetian editor Valgrisi. This book gives an excellent survey of surgical pathology as it was taught and treated in the 16th century. The scientific method that Vesalius used, not only in his anatomical studies but also in his surgical practice, deserves not only our full appraisal but should still be studied in our own time.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.
Full Text Available Glosses on Chancellor Angela Merkel: In ancient times the poets of Ireland and Scotland wrote satires on royals and chiefs they held to be administratively challenged and/or ungenerous to needy bards. The poems were not in strict form, but, generally, 17 line stanzas implied “should be put down”, while 13 line stanzas connoted “harmless but dim”. Walküre, whence Valkyrie, means “chooser of the slain” in Old German. In the bloodletting attending the formation of the present Grand Coalition in Germany, Edmund Stoiber was a casualty and withdrew, embittered, to lead Bavaria again. Angela is widely reported to find relief from the tensions of major political crises by baking cakes, a method more acceptable to the German middle-class than that once favoured by President Clinton. Prince Potemkin, lover and right-hand-man, of Czarina Catherine II, is – maybe slanderously – supposed to have had fake villages built in which actors mimed happy peasants as she drove past in her carriage. When Bush visited Angela’s provincial electorate, the real locals were sent somewhere else, while blokes from Germany’s security services replaced them, smiling, cheering and waving American flags. Consuming coffee and cake at 4 p.m. is the only Categorical Imperative that Germany absolutely obeys. The plot of Wagner’s Twilight of the Gods resembles a stale lamington, as do Germany’s present economic woes. The Grand Coalition is also looking crumbly and dry, despite Angela’s keeping it in the fridge in glad-wrap.
Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD assisted intra-abdominal volume increment (IAVI technique on the liver in the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in pigs. Methods Twelve healthy mini-pigs (Bama, Guangxi were selected for bloodletting from the femoral artery to reproduce hemorrhagic shock model (mean arterial blood pressure, 50mmHg, 1h, and IAH model was successfully reproduced in eight pigs by partial occlusion of portal vein. The eight pigs were randomly divided into the intra-abdominal volume increment treatment (IT group (n=4 and sham operation control (SC group (n=4. Vesical pressure (VP and inferior vena cava pressure (IVCP were observed before shock, 2h after IAH, and 22h after IAVI treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured. In addition, the ratio of the abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter was assessed, and the liver CT values were measured after enhanced CT scanning. The pigs were sacrificed 26h after operation. Liver specimens were collected to measure the ratio of wet weight to dry weight and pathological examination. Results The VP in 8 IAH pigs was 21.16±4.63mmHg. The ratio of abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter increased remarkably 2h after IAH compared with that before shock (1.22±1.41 vs 0.96±0.08, PPvs 42.73±4.92HU, PPPvs 5.14±0.71, PConclusions The established model could better reproduce the symptoms of IAH after hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation, accompanied by liver damage. IAVI helps to relieve liver functional disturbance after IAH, which is related to decreased intra-abdominal pressure and hypoxia-ischemia of the liver.
Song, Jing; Lu, Xiaoting; Li, Qiuying; Liu, Chengyun; Liu, Ying
To investigate the role of oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages triggered by quartz dust. Seventy-two healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, quartz dust group, quartz dust plus N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) group, and NAC group, with 18 rats in each group. One milliliter of sterile saline (for the control and NAC groups) or 1 ml of saline with 5%ultrafine quartz dust (for dust group and dust plus NAC group) was given to each rat by non-exposed endotracheal infusion. From the second day after dust infusion, rats in dust plus NAC group and NAC group received intragastric administration of NAC (100 mg/kg). In each week, the treatment with NAC lasted for 5 consecutive days, followed by 2 days' interval. For each group, 6 rats were randomly selected on the 14th, 28th, or 56th day after dust exposure; they were sacrificed by bloodletting from the femoral artery, and the lungs were collected. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected to separate macrophages. The protein expression of caspase-12 in alveolar macrophages, the apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content of alveolar macrophages, and the protein carbonyl content of alveolar macrophages were determined by Western blot, flow cytometry, and colorimetry, respectively. Increased protein expression of caspase-12, apoptosis rate, and content of ROS and protein carbonyl were discovered on the 14th day in the dust group, in comparison with the control group (P quartz dust. Oxidative damage of protein in the endoplasmic reticulum may play an important role in the process.
Alembizar, Faranak; Nimrouzi, Majid
Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, known as Rhazes in the Western world (854-925 CE), was an Iranian polymath, physician and one of the most prominent sages in the medieval period. He wrote several medical books and treaties such as "Continents", a comprehensive medical encyclopedia, treaties in smallpox and measles, "Al-Mansuri" and many other important manuscripts in the medical field. "Resale Shammieh" is one of his pioneering well-known works in medicine; replying to Shahid-Ibn-Hussein Balkhi, dedicated to his master Abuzeid Ahmad-Ibn-sahl Balkhi, who was getting cold in spring at the time of rose blossoming. We are about to review "Resale Shammieh" because of the importance of this treaty as a pioneering work in allergy and its clinical manifestation. This study is a traditionary review of "Resale Shammieh" and similar copies as well as works cited by Abureihan Birooni, Ibn Abi-Ossaiba'ei, Ibn-e-nadim. It seems that this treatise has been prepared before treatise of Qest-ibn-Looqa, written for Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil, about hay fever. Rhazes, in "Resale Shammieh" elucidated almost all clinical manifestations of allergic rhinitis and hay fever is mentioned in the conventional medical resources, including nasal stuffiness, itchy nose, sneezing repeatedly, runny nose, red face, and light elevated temperature of the body. He also cited complications of hay fever such as hoarseness, dyspnea and fever; and mentioned primary preventive measures including covering the head in cold weather, abstaining from drinking cold water as well as smelling musk, Costus and myrrh Maki. His proposed remedies for hay fever comprising of dipping a fabric in the nose, fumigation, shaving the head and rubbing mustard and allium on it, as well as ear or forehead bloodletting. "Resale Shammieh", a valuable work of Rhazes, the Muslim Persian physician, in hay fever is most probably the first known treaty about allergy in the season of rose blossoming, the spring.
Danino, Dikla; Amar, Zohar
There is a large Ethiopian community in Israel which preserves its unique culture and customs. Many of the members of this community still use traditional methods of healing, such as blood-letting, burns, tattooing, amulets, healing water, incense and various medicinal herbs that are prescribed based on the diagnosis of the disease. This study deals with documenting the use of the medicinal drugs implemented by the Ethiopian community in Israel, which is a rapidly vanishing world. The study is based on interviews with hundreds of informants, among them traditional healers, and it surveyed some fifty shops which sell Ethiopian medicinal drugs and spices. The survey brought to light a list of medical materials which are found in the Ethiopian markets in Israel including 89 kinds of plants (some 85%); 6 different minerals (some 6%); 5 types of animals (some 4.5%); and 5 substances of various origins (some 4.5%). Most of the drugs are imported from Ethiopia to Israel, since they are endemic. There are also other medicinal drugs that are gathered in the field in Israel or brought through personal import; in total, our estimate is that there are approximately 150 different kinds of medicinal drugs in use in Israel. This is a relatively small number when compared to the inventory of drugs in the land of origin, Ethiopia. The decline in the use of traditional drugs, due to limited availability and processes of modernization in the Ethiopian community in Israel, heightens the importance of a study that documents this unique culture. The study is also of assistance to the modern medical authorities in order to better understand and become more familiar with the Ethiopian community and with its needs and special practices, in terms of both prevention and treatment.
A. K. Korzhevskaya
Full Text Available Objective: to study the effect of sodium oxybutyrate on canine mesentery microcirculation and liver metabolism in hemorrhagic stroke. Materials and methods. The investigation was based on the examination of specimens taken from 72 dogs of both sexes, weight 15.5±1.5 kg. Hypovolemic hypotension was induced by free bloodletting via the femoral artery. Systolic blood pressure was lowered to 40 mm Hg and maintained at the same level during an hour by the Wiggers procedure. The magnitude of blood loss was 31—33 ml/kg. The dogs were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact (n=5; 2 one-hour hypovolemic hypotension (n=8; 3 control (n=31, in which physiological saline was intravenously injected at a concentration of 0.9—1.1 ml/kg an hour after hypovolemic hypotension; 4 experimental (n=28, in which 10% sodium oxybutyrate solution was intravenously injected at a concentration of 180—200 mg/kg an hour after hypovolemic hypotension. In Groups 1 and 2 dogs, as well as in the control and experimental groups, divided into 2 subgroups, in which laparotomy was carried out under local 0.25% novocaine solution in combination with intravenous sodium thiopental (15—20 mg/kg an hour after the drug administration and an hour after blood reinfusion, then right liver lobe pieces were excised for histochemical and biochemical studies. In Groups 3 and 4, heparinized blood was reinfused an hour after administration of the agent. The animals were observed during an hour. In the dogs from the latter two groups, mesentery vascular microcirculation was evaluated at control time stages, by using biomicroscopy on a MBR-1 microscope-based unit. Results. Despite uncompensated blood loss, the use of sodium oxybutyrate in hemor-rhagic stroke improves microcirculation in the mesentery vessels. In the liver, it enhances the rate of reactions of oxida-tive phosphorylation and the pentose phosphate pathway, activates glucose uptake processes, prevents lactate accumulation, preserves
Feng, Qin; Sun, Bao-cun; Xia, Wen-kai
To study the protective effect of Arctigenin in goto-kakizaki (GK) rats combined with hypertension macroangiopathy. Six-week-old GK rats were divided randomly according to blood glucose level into four groups: the model group and low, middle and high dose arctigenin groups (12.5, 25, 50 mg x kg(-1)), with Wistar rats as the normal group. All of GK rats were given high-glucose and high-fat diet. After 16 weeks, GK rats were orally administrated with 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) N-Ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for eight weeks. During the modeling, all of arctigenin groups were orally administrated with different dose of arctigenin twice a day; The model group and the normal group were given solvents. At the beginning, mid-term and end of the experiment, blood glucose was measured. At the end of the experiment, efforts were made to detect blood pressure, collect abdominal aortic blood after anesthesia, fix thoracic aorta after bloodletting to make paraffin sections, observe morphological characteristics and detect the expression of VEGF by immunohistochemistry. According to the results, the blood glucose rose in all GK rats, with no significant difference between the drug group and the model group. At the end of the experiment, the blood pressure significantly increased in GK rats, indicating that Arctigenin could notably reduce the blood pressure in GK rats in a dose-dependent manner. The blood routine test showed increases in both the total white blood cell count and differential blood count, MPV and PDW, abnormal blood platelet parameters and decrease in PLT in GK rats, suggesting that Arctigenin could remarkably reduce the total white blood cell count and differential blood count, MPV and PDW. The thoracic aortic morphological observation revealed obvious endangium lesions in GK rats, demonstrating that Arctigenin could ameliorate the lesion extent. VEGF immumohistochemical staining showed a higher VEGF expression in the model group but lower expression in Arctigenin
Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of sevoflurane post-conditioning on the expression of Aquaporin 8 (AQP8 and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP, in order to investigate the protective role of sevoflurane post-conditioning on intestinal injury and its underlying mechanism. Methods Eighteen bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups (6 each using a random number table: control group (S group, hemorrhagic shock group (HS group, and sevoflurane post-coditioning group (Post/ Sev group. Experimental animals were fasted for 8 hours before surgery, and propofol 3mg/kg was given viathe ear vein. Endotracheal intubation was done when the animal fell asleep. Bloodletting from the femoral artery after anesthesia was done to reproduce hemorrhagic shock. In Post/Sev group, 2% sevoflurane was given by inhalation for 30min (post-conditioning after successful reproduction of the model. Blood samples were collected prior to anesthesia (T0 and 30min (T1, 1h (T2, 1.5h (T3, 2h (T4, 3h (T5, 4h (T6 after hemorrhagic shock. The quantity of blood I-FABP and intestinal AQP8 levels were determined with ELISA. Water content in the intestinal tissue was determined by wet and dry weight method. Histopathological changes in the intestinal tissue were observed with HE staining. Results Compared with the control group, the serum I-FABP content, the expressions of intestinal AQP8, and water content in the intestinal tissue were significantly increased in HS group and Post/Sev (P<0.05 group. Compared with HS group, the above indices in Post/Sev group were significantly lower (P<0.05. These results were confirmed by pathological examination. Conclusion Postconditioning with sevoflurane could improve, to some extent, pig's intestinal barrier function in hemorrhagic shock, and this effect is likely related with lowering of intestinal AQP8 and I-FABP expression and mucosal edema. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.11
de Barra, Mícheál; Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus
Medical treatments with no direct effect (like homeopathy) or that cause harm (like bloodletting) are common across cultures and throughout history. How do such treatments spread and persist? Most medical treatments result in a range of outcomes: some people improve while others deteriorate. If the people who improve are more inclined to tell others about their experiences than the people who deteriorate, ineffective or even harmful treatments can maintain a good reputation. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that positive outcomes are overrepresented in online medical product reviews, to examine if this reputational distortion is large enough to bias people's decisions, and to explore the implications of this bias for the cultural evolution of medical treatments. We compared outcomes of weight loss treatments and fertility treatments in clinical trials to outcomes reported in 1901 reviews on Amazon. Then, in a series of experiments, we evaluated people's choice of weight loss diet after reading different reviews. Finally, a mathematical model was used to examine if this bias could result in less effective treatments having a better reputation than more effective treatments. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that people with better outcomes are more inclined to write reviews. After 6 months on the diet, 93% (64/69) of online reviewers reported a weight loss of 10 kg or more while just 27% (19/71) of clinical trial participants experienced this level of weight change. A similar positive distortion was found in fertility treatment reviews. In a series of experiments, we show that people are more inclined to begin a diet with many positive reviews, than a diet with reviews that are representative of the diet's true effect. A mathematical model of medical cultural evolution shows that the size of the positive distortion critically depends on the shape of the outcome distribution. Online reviews overestimate the benefits of medical treatments
1793 Yellow fever in Philadelphia was the most severe epidemics in the late 18th century in the United States. More than 10% of the population in the city died and many people fled to other cities. The cause of yellow fever in the United States had close relationship with slaves and sugar in Philadelphia. Sugarcane plantation had needed many labors to produce sugar and lots of Africans had to move to America as slaves. In this process, Aëdes aegypti, the vector of yellow fever had migrated to America and the circumstances of ships or cities provided appropriate conditions for its breeding. In this period, the cause of yellow fever could not be established exactly, so suggestions of doctors became entangled in political and intellectual discourses in American society. There was a critical conflict between Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism about the origin and treatment of yellow fever. Benjamin Rush, a Jeffersonian Republican, suggested urban sanitation reform and bloodletting. He believed the infectious disease happened because of unsanitary city condition, so he thought the United States could be a healthy nation by improvement of the public health and sanitation. He would like to cope with national crisis and develop American society on the basis of republicanism. While Rush suggested the improvement of public health and sanitation, the city government of Philadelphia suggested isolation of yellow fever patients and quarantine. City government isolated the patients from healthy people and it reconstructed space of hospital. Also, it built orphanages to take care of children who lost their parents during the epidemic and implemented power to control people put in the state of exception. Of course, city government tried to protect the city and nation by quarantine of every ship to Philadelphia. Control policies of yellow fever in 1793 showed different conflicts and interactions. Through the yellow fever, Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism had
Alembizar, Faranak; Nimrouzi, Majid
Background: Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, known as Rhazes in the Western world (854-925 CE), was an Iranian polymath, physician and one of the most prominent sages in the medieval period. He wrote several medical books and treaties such as “Continents”, a comprehensive medical encyclopedia, treaties in smallpox and measles, “Al-Mansuri” and many other important manuscripts in the medical field. “Resale Shammieh” is one of his pioneering well-known works in medicine; replying to Shahid-Ibn-Hussein Balkhi, dedicated to his master Abuzeid Ahmad-Ibn-sahl Balkhi, who was getting cold in spring at the time of rose blossoming. We are about to review “Resale Shammieh” because of the importance of this treaty as a pioneering work in allergy and its clinical manifestation. Methods: This study is a traditionary review of “Resale Shammieh” and similar copies as well as works cited by Abureihan Birooni, Ibn Abi-Ossaiba’ei, Ibn-e-nadim. Results: It seems that this treatise has been prepared before treatise of Qest-ibn-Looqa, written for Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil, about hay fever. Rhazes, in “Resale Shammieh” elucidated almost all clinical manifestations of allergic rhinitis and hay fever is mentioned in the conventional medical resources, including nasal stuffiness, itchy nose, sneezing repeatedly, runny nose, red face, and light elevated temperature of the body. He also cited complications of hay fever such as hoarseness, dyspnea and fever; and mentioned primary preventive measures including covering the head in cold weather, abstaining from drinking cold water as well as smelling musk, Costus and myrrh Maki. His proposed remedies for hay fever comprising of dipping a fabric in the nose, fumigation, shaving the head and rubbing mustard and allium on it, as well as ear or forehead bloodletting. Conclusion: “Resale Shammieh”, a valuable work of Rhazes, the Muslim Persian physician, in hay fever is most probably the first known treaty
Yuan, Mengqi; Duan, Zheng; Sun, Yanli; Yuan, Yadong
To explore the effects of estrogen (E2) on angiotensin converting enzyme-angiotensin II-angiotensin type 1 receptor (ACE-Ang II-AT1) axis in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension rats. A total of 60 healthy female Sprague-Dawdley (SD) rats were divided randomly into 6 groups (n = 10 each) of sham operation, pure ovariectomy (OVX), pure hypoxia,OVX+hypoxia,OVX+E2 and OVX+hypoxia+E2. Abdominal cavity was opened for sham operation group and bilateral ovaries were left intact without any other procedure. The pure OVX group underwent oophorectomy. The pure hypoxia group were placed into a low-oxygen environment (24 hour, 8 weeks). The OVX+hypoxia group were placed into a low-oxygen environment after bilateral oophorectomy. The OVX+E2 group received a subcutaneous injection of E2 (20 µg×kg(-1)×d(-1)) after bilateral oophorectomy. The OVX+hypoxia+E2 group had an injection of E2 and was placed into a low-oxygen environment after bilateral oophorectomy. The rats were feed continuously for 8 weeks to establish hypoxic pulmonary hypertension model. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was measured after bloodletting. Then right ventricle hypertrophy index (RVHI) and hematoxylin-eosin pulmonary artery remodeling (HPSR) were observed. And electron microscope was employed to observe pulmonary arteriolar ultrastructure. The methods of radio-immunity assay, ultraviolet spectroscopy, Western blot and reverse transcription PCR were used to measure the levels of CE,Ang II and AT1 in sera, lung and pulmonary artery. The vascular walls of pure hypoxia and OVX+hypoxia groups became thickened and lumen narrowed.mPAP and RVHI were (32.4 ± 2.2) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa),0.331 ± 0.032 and (37.9 ± 1.6) mmHg,0.433 ± 0.033. Both were significantly higher than those of Sham operation group ((12.6 ± 1.8) mmHg,0.233 ± 0.029) (both P 0.05). Compared with Sham operation group, the expression levels of ACE,Ang II and AT1 in pure OVX, pure hypoxia and OVX+ hypoxia groups rose markedly (all P 0
Full Text Available Teorien om balansen mellom de fire kroppsvæskene – humoralpatologien – dominerte sykdomsforståelse og dermed også medisinsk behandling i 2000 år. Brekkmidler, årelating og avføringsmidler var hyppig brukte virkemidler for å rette opp i ”ubalanse” mellom kroppsvæskene, som var regnet som årsak til sykdom.Det var ikke før på 1700-tallet at faktisk empirisk kunnskap ble etterspurt som begrunnelse for valg av behandlingsmetoder. Det å telle opp hvordan det gikk med pasienter som fikk en behandling, og sammenlikne med pasienter som ikke fikk behandlingen, var en ny måte å presentere behandlingseffekter på. Fra 1800-tallet av er det mange eksempler på at behandlingsmetoder ble prøvet ut ved å la annenhver pasient motta behandlingen.Streptomycinstudien til UK Medical Research Council (1946 regnes for å være det første randomiserte kontrollerte forsøket innen medisinsk forskning, og for å ha satt standarden for hvordan kliniske utprøvninger bør utføres.I boka ”Effectiveness and Efficiency. Random Reflections on Health Services” (1972 kritiserte Archie Cochrane mangelen på dokumentasjon for mange av tiltakene som utføres i helsetjenesten. Han ønsket seg langt flere randomiserte studier. Dessuten tok han til orde for at alle randomiserte studier burde samles, og at resultatene burde oppsummeres jevnlig. Iain Chalmers tok utfordringen og påbegynte et omfattende arbeid med å utarbeide en database over randomiserte kontrollerte forsøk. Med utgangspunkt i denne databasen ble det så utarbeidet systematiske oversikter over gjeldende kunnskap om effekt av tiltak i helsetjenesten. Dette ble starten på Cochrane-samarbeidet.Fretheim A. Medical knowledge then and now: From theory to systematic reviews. Nor J Epidemiol 2013; 23 (2: 113-118.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe humoral medicine-theory dominated the understanding of diseases and thus also medical treatments over 2,000 years. Purgatives, bloodletting and laxatives were
Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros
diseases are a result of mood imbalance. Results: Differing from the current Hippocratic idea, only in extreme cases he prescribed medications and bloodletting, two of the most-used therapies of that time. He usually prescribed therapies based on the Epicurean thought, then consisting of walks and music, massages, and thermal baths. He anticipated the modern idea of the body consisting of atoms, and believed that between the atoms exist empty spaces called pores. As the founder of the so called Methodist School , he was the first to divide acute and chronic diseases, and thought that body weakness was dependent on the excessive width of the pores, while their excessive shrinkage determines fever. According to his student Caelius Aurelianus he was the first to adopt tracheotomy as an emergency therapy for diphtheria. Conclusions: Although it is very difficult to reconstruct the theories of Asclepiades of Bithynia because of the lack of original texts, this paper attempts to focus his role and his thought in affirming the Greek medical practice in ancient Rome and to highlight his modernity.
V. M. Meretskyі
Full Text Available Traumatic cranial injury is one of the leading reasons in the statistics of mortality. Modern ideas about the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury based on the allocation of primary and secondary factors of brain damage. One of the main causes of secondary brain injury is hypoxia – insufficient provision with oxygen. Changes in oxygen balance lead to activation of oxidative stress, disturbances of mitochondria membranes and their death, and progression of energy metabolism imbalance caused by trauma. Millions of people worldwide suffer from diabetes mellitus. One of the factors that influences the development of complications of diabetes, is an accumulation of highly toxic peroxide compounds that intensify the processes of destabilization of cell membranes. Further research of peculiarities of oxidative stress and energy metabolism imbalance in diabetes associated with trauma will provide the basis for therapeutic directions to increase treatment options and improve patient health and well-being. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to study the effect of traumatic cranial injury on the energy supplying processes in the liver and kidneys of rats with streptozotocin diabetes, as well as establishing a link between impaired mitochondrial oxidation and the intensity of oxidative stress. Hundred adult male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were used in this study. Rats were assigned to one of four groups: (1 control animals (n=10; (2 rats with diabetes (n=10; (3 rats with closed cranial trauma (n=40; (4 animals with cranial trauma on the diabetes background (n=40. To induce diabetes, streptozotocin (“Sigma-Aldrich”,USA was dissolved in citrate buffer (pH 4.5 and a single intra-peritoneal injection (60 mg/kg was given to each animal. The application of the cranial injury was done according to the method developed in our laboratory. The rats were sacrificed under thiopental sodium anesthesia by total bloodletting from the heart. The rats of
the Hippocratic ideas that diseases are a result of mood imbalance. Results: Differing from the current Hippocratic idea, only in extreme cases he prescribed medications and bloodletting, two of the most-used therapies of that time. He usually prescribed therapies based on the Epicurean thought, then consisting of walks and music, massages, and thermal baths. He anticipated the modern idea of the body consisting of atoms, and believed that between the atoms exist empty spaces called pores. As the founder of the so called Methodist School, he was the first to divide acute and chronic diseases, and thought that body weakness was dependent on the excessive width of the pores, while their excessive shrinkage determines fever. According to his student Caelius Aurelianus he was the first to adopt tracheotomy as an emergency therapy for diphtheria. Conclusions: Although it is very difficult to reconstruct the theories of Asclepiades of Bithynia because of the lack of original texts, this paper attempts to focus his role and his thought in affirming the Greek medical practice in ancient Rome and to highlight his modernity.
Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros
ideas that diseases are a result of mood imbalance. Results: Differing from the current Hippocratic idea, only in extreme cases he prescribed medications and bloodletting, two of the most-used therapies of that time. He usually prescribed therapies based on the Epicurean thought, then consisting of walks and music, massages, and thermal baths. He anticipated the modern idea of the body consisting of atoms, and believed that between the atoms exist empty spaces called pores. As the founder of the so called Methodist School, he was the first to divide acute and chronic diseases, and thought that body weakness was dependent on the excessive width of the pores, while their excessive shrinkage determines fever. According to his student Caelius Aurelianus he was the first to adopt tracheotomy as an emergency therapy for diphtheria. Conclusions: Although it is very difficult to reconstruct the theories of Asclepiades of Bithynia because of the lack of original texts, this paper attempts to focus his role and his thought in affirming the Greek medical practice in ancient Rome and to highlight his modernity. PMID:29231878