Morgan, J F; Lacey, J H
Deliberate blood-letting has been characterized as an alternative to purging behavior in bulimia. We describe a female healthcare worker with an 8-year history of restrictive anorexia nervosa, who initially presented with anemia, using blood-letting, cold baths, and starvation to control her mental state. In contrast with the previous cases of bulimia, the aim of blood-letting in this case of anorexia nervosa was to achieve anemia. She compared the psychic correlates of anemia to emaciation, rather than to deliberate self-harm or purging. We note that mainstream 19th century psychiatry prescribed "baths, blood-letting and diet" as a treatment of "madness." Copyright 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction. Therapeutic bloodletting has been practiced at least 3000 years as one of the most frequent methods of treatment in general, whose value was not questioned until the 19th century, when it was gradually abandoned in Western medicine, while it is still practiced in Arabic and traditional Chinese medicine. Content. In modern medicine bloodletting is practiced for very few indications. Its concept was modeled on the process of menstrual bleeding, for which it was believed to “purge women of bad humours.” Thus, bloodletting was based more on the belief that it helps in the reestablishment of proper balance of body “humours” than on the opinion that it serves to remove excessive amount of blood as well as to remove toxic “pneumas” that accumulate in human body. It was indicated for almost all known diseases, even in the presence of severe anemia. Bloodletting was carried out by scarification with cupping, by phlebotomies (venesections, rarely by arteriotomies, using specific instruments called lancets, as well as leeches. In different periods of history bloodletting was practiced by priests, doctors, barbers, and even by amateurs. In most cases, between one half of liter and two liters of blood used to be removed. Bloodletting was harmful to vast majority of patients and in some of them it is believed that it was either fatal or that it strongly contributed to such outcome. In the 20th century in the “Western” medicine bloodletting was still practiced in the treatment of hypertension and in severe cardiac insufficiency and pulmonary edema, but these indications were later abandoned. Conclusion. Bloodletting is still indicated for a few indications such as polycythemia, haemochromatosis, and porphyria cutanea tarda, while leeches are still used in plastic surgery, replantation and other reconstructive surgery, and very rarely for other specific indications.
Moawia M Al-Tabakha
Full Text Available Background: Bloodletting cupping therapy (Hijama is a traditional alternative medicine practiced in different cultures. Claims about the therapeutic efficacy of Hijama in hypertension are contradictory. The aim of this project was to determine if Hijama therapy is beneficial in the treatment of patients with hypertension. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 60 files for patients treated for hypertension, aged 40–60 years and whose systolic blood pressure (SBP is at least 140mm Hg, were used. The data from 30 patient files were obtained from three licensed Hijama centers (study group, whereas data from the rest of 30 patient files were collected from a hospital (control group. The data from Hijama centers included age, date of Hijama therapy, and blood pressure measured before each Hijama session. Both diastolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP data were obtained over 3-month period. Results: The results showed a significant reduction in SBP (P value < 0.01 over three sessions of wet cupping (from 149.2 to 130.8mm Hg, but this was not significant for DBP over three sessions (P = 0.074. The study also found that the mean SBP in the study group was 9.6mm Hg less than that in the control group (130.8 vs. 140.4mm Hg, P = 0.019, whereas there was no significant difference in DBP between the study group and the control group (87.0 vs. 86.0mm Hg, P = 0.75. Conclusions: Our study shows clear relationship between Hijama and the reduction and control of SBP in patients with hypertension. Therefore, Hijama can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy, which may allow downtitration of given doses of antihypertensive drugs. The possible association of SBP reduction by Hijama and pain reduction needs an investigation.
Al-Tabakha, Moawia M; Sameer, Farah Tariq; Saeed, Mai Hafiz; Batran, Rahaf Montaser; Abouhegazy, Nada Tarek; Farajallah, Alaa A
Bloodletting cupping therapy (Hijama) is a traditional alternative medicine practiced in different cultures. Claims about the therapeutic efficacy of Hijama in hypertension are contradictory. The aim of this project was to determine if Hijama therapy is beneficial in the treatment of patients with hypertension. In this retrospective study, 60 files for patients treated for hypertension, aged 40-60 years and whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) is at least 140mm Hg, were used. The data from 30 patient files were obtained from three licensed Hijama centers (study group), whereas data from the rest of 30 patient files were collected from a hospital (control group). The data from Hijama centers included age, date of Hijama therapy, and blood pressure measured before each Hijama session. Both diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and SBP data were obtained over 3-month period. The results showed a significant reduction in SBP ( P value cupping (from 149.2 to 130.8mm Hg), but this was not significant for DBP over three sessions ( P = 0.074). The study also found that the mean SBP in the study group was 9.6mm Hg less than that in the control group (130.8 vs. 140.4mm Hg, P = 0.019), whereas there was no significant difference in DBP between the study group and the control group (87.0 vs. 86.0mm Hg, P = 0.75). Our study shows clear relationship between Hijama and the reduction and control of SBP in patients with hypertension. Therefore, Hijama can be used as an adjunct to conventional therapy, which may allow downtitration of given doses of antihypertensive drugs. The possible association of SBP reduction by Hijama and pain reduction needs an investigation.
Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J.
Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250–900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch’ahb’ that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities. PMID:25254359
Du, Yu-zhu; Jia, Chun-sheng; Wang, Jian-ling; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-xu; Liu, Xin; Gang, Wei-juan
To analyze the therapeutic regularities and characteristics of blood-letting therapy for acne in the past clinical practice by using data mining. Original papers about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were searched and screened from common databases as Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), WanFang Data, SinoMed, Ovid, ScienceDirect, Socolar, SciFinder, Foreign Medical Journal Full-Text Service (FMJS) and PubMed using keywords of acne+bleeding therapy, acne+blood-letting, acne+ pricking blood, followed by establishing a data plateform to conduct a data mining using Online Analytical Processing (OLAP). A total of 230 original journal articles about acne treated by pricking blood therapy were collected. The included acne cases with wind-heat pattern were predoment, being 56 in frequency-times and acounting for 24. 78 %. In the treatment of acne, the therapeutic tool, three-edged needle was often used, being 168 in frequency and acounting for 71.79%. The frequently employed acupoints were those of the Governor Vessel and Bladder Meridian, such as Dazhui (GV 14) and back-shu points. When auricular points used for blood-letting, Erjian (EX-HN 6) and the Vena of the auricular back were most frequently selected. In addition to blood-letting, other therapies such as Chinese herbal medicines, filiform needles, and otopoint-pellet pressure were also used in combination, being 166 in items and constituting 72. 17%. Generally, blood-letting treatment was conducted once every three days (twice a week) or once every two days (three times a week) for about 20 sessions for each acne patient. Blood-letting therapy is effective in the treatment of acne. But if used in combination with other therapies, the therapeutic effect would be better.
Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
目的：观察局部放血疗法加祛瘀散外敷治疗踝关节扭伤的疗效。方法：踝关节扭伤43例，采用局部放血疗法结合祛瘀散外敷法，治疗1次/d。结果：治愈27例，显效16例。总有效率100%。结论：局部放血疗法加祛瘀散外敷治疗踝关节扭伤起效快，疗效好。% Objectives: To observe the clinical effect on treating ankle sprain with local bloodletting combined with external application of Quyu powder. Methods:43 patients of ankle sprain were treated by local bloodletting combined with external application of Quyu powder, one time a day. Results: 27 patients were cured, 15 cases were significantly effective. The total efficiency was 100%. Conclusion:Local bloodletting combined with external application of Quyu powder in the treatment of ankle sprain fast onset of action efficacy.
目的：观察针灸配合刺血疗法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤的临床疗效。方法将66例陈旧性踝关节扭伤患者随机分为治疗组和对照组，每组33例。治疗组采用针刺远端取穴配合局部温针灸及刺血疗法治疗，对照组采用局部温针灸配合超短波治疗。观察两组患者治疗前后踝关节症状体征评分，比较两组临床疗效。结果治疗组治疗1、2、3个疗程后愈显率分别为51.6%、74.2%和93.5%，对照组分别为26.7%、46.7%和70.0%，两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P＜0.05)。结论针灸配合刺血疗法是一种治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤的有效方法。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of acupuncture-moxibustion plus bloodletting in treating chronic ankle sprain.Method Sixty-six patients with chronic ankle sprain were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 33 in each group. The treatment group was intervened by acupuncture with distal points plus warm needling and bloodletting method in the topical area; the control group was by warm needling plus ultrashort wave applied to the topical area. The ankle joint symptom and sign score was evaluated before and after intervention, and the clinical efficacies were compared between the two groups.Result The recovery-markedly-effective rate in the treatment group was 51.6%, 74.2%, and 93.5% respectively after 1, 2, and 3 treatment courses, versus 26.7%, 46.7%, and 70.0% in the control group, and the between-group differences were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Acupuncture-moxibustion is an effective method in treating chronic ankle sprain.
莫爱群; 李桂玲; 萧汉达
目的 观察毫火针加刺络拔罐治疗青少年学生急性踝关节扭伤的疗效.方法 将100例急性踝关节扭伤的青少年学生患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组50例.治疗组进行毫火针及刺络拔罐治疗,火针及拔罐位置为踝关节压痛最明显的部位,隔天治疗1次;对照组进行常规保护、休息、冰敷、加压、抬高患肢处理.记录入选时和治疗1、3、5 d,2星期、4星期、8星期后肿胀指数评分,AOFAS评分,VAS评分变化并比较疗效.结果 治疗后两组的肿胀指数评分、AOFAS评分、VAS评分均较治疗前明显改善(P<0.05),且治疗后治疗组评分低于对照组(P<0.05).治疗组总有效率为100%(50/50),优于对照组的80%(40/50,P<0.05).结论 毫火针加刺络拔罐治疗为急性踝关节扭伤的较佳疗法,能短时间内减少患者的疼痛、肿胀,缩短治疗时间,在短时间内使其踝关节活动正常,从而减少后遗症的发生.%Objective To investigate the efficacy of filiform needle fire acupuncture plus pricking-cupping bloodletting in treating acute ankle sprain in adolescent students.Method One hundred adolescent student outpatients with acute ankle sprainwere randomly allocated to treatment and control groups, 50 cases each.The treatment group received filiform needle fire acupuncture plus pricking-cupping bloodletting at the most obviouspart of ankle tenderness once every other day. The control group received routine protection, a rest, ice compress,compressionand affected limb elevation.Swelling severitywas examined and the AOFAS Ankle Hindfoot Scalescore and the VAS score were recorded at study entry, and one, three and five days and two, four and eight weeks after treatment.Result Swelling severityand the ankle pain score improved in both groups after treatment (P<0.05) and the post-treatment score was lower in the treatment group than in the controlgroup(P<0.05). The total efficacy rate was 100% (50/50) in the treatment group
Even towards the end of the 19th century, the removal of circulating blood from the body (blood-letting) .... Brooks,8 discussing the situation in the USA, opined that allowing openly homosexual men to donate .... Some private hospitals in the USA have their own blood banks and are well placed to deal directly with patients ...
Laan, Nick; Bremmer, Rolf H.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; de Bruin, Karla G.
The volume of bloodstains found on crime scenes may help forensic investigators reconstruct the location and kinematics of bloodletting events, as stain size, volume, and impact velocity are related. Optical coherence tomography was used as a method to determine the volume and volume ratio of dried
Černá, Alena M.
Roč. 139, 3/4 (2016), s. 315-337 ISSN 0024-4457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01298S Institutional support: RVO:68378092 Keywords : Jan (John) Berka of Choceň * Křišťan of Prachatice * Old Czech language * bloodletting * medical terminology Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics
Full Text Available Auricular therapy includes acupuncture, electroacupuncture, acupressure, lasering, cauterization, moxibustion, and bloodletting in the auricle. For 2500 years, people have employed auricular therapy for treating diseases, but the methods have been limited to bloodletting and cauterization. Only after 1957, the international scientific community became aware that the map of the ear resembles an inverted fetus, its introduction has led to auricular acupuncture (AA becoming a more systemic approach, and, following the identification and standardization of more precise points, AA has been employed in clinical applications. The mechanisms of AA are considered to have a close relationship with the autonomic nervous system, the neuroendocrine system, neuroimmunological factors, neuroinflammation, and neural reflex, as well as antioxidation. Auricular therapy has been applied, for example, for pain relief, for the treatment of epilepsy, anxiety, and obesity, and for improving sleep quality. However, the mechanisms and evidence for auricular therapy warrant further study.
Benli, Ali Ramazan; Sunay, Didem
Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood-letting with wet cupping therapy (WCT) in migraine treatment and to determine whether there was any difference according to the phase of the moon when the treatment was applied. Material/Methods This self-controlled study was conducted in Karabuk between 2014 and 2016. Patients who were diagnosed with migraine were enrolled in the study. Migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), demographic characteristics, migra...
Ani Kelechi Johnmary
The level of killing and bloodletting in Nigeria is increasing every second, minute, hour, day, month and year. Man, animals, properties etc are increasingly under threat in contemporary Nigerian society. The causes of the massive insecurity of lives and properties remain multi-dimensional. This paper is centered on the need to factor tradotronic media for human security management in Nigeria. It reveals that the dimensions of human insecurity in Nigeria, include but not limited to assassinat...
infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects, the CDC says. In May 2015, the...from parasitic diseases like shistosomiasis to alcoholism well into the twentieth century. Venesection or blood-letting was a common practice...application of leeches to the temples. Narcotics like laudanum ( alcoholic solution containing opium), black drop (opium, vinegar, and sugar
Summary: Hereditary hemochromatosis with an incidence of 1:200 – 1:400 is the most common hereditary disease. It is characterized by increased iron absorption and deposition in various organs, leading to organ damage and even death. To date, phlebotomy (bloodletting) is the standard therapy of iron-overload in hemochromatosis. However, this treatment is long lasting, frequently intolerable and/or remains limited due the development of significant anemia. All these difficulties might be ov...
among the various clans, and this quasi- electoral system gave the king legitimacy.10 This kingdom lasted until the 15th century when “European...does not have the capacity to conduct the elections and its campaign against Boko Haram simultaneously.54 The Nigerian electoral commission postponed...civil war.10 The culmination of this civil war is referred to as the ‘La Violencia ’ or the bloodletting. It lasted from 1948 to 1958 and resulted in an
Niu, Hua; Cao, Haibo; Wang, Yin
Professor WANG Yin 's academic thoughts and clinical application for difficult and miscellaneous di-seases, especially acupuncture for spleen-stomach care, are introduced. Based on TCM basic theory and "ten needles for elderly" by WANG Yueting , Professor WANG Yin proposes the acupuncture for spleen-stomach care. In this method, three-element acupoint selection is applied; the conception vessel, spleen meridian of foot taiyin and stomach meridian of foot yangming were selected. The deep and penetration acupuncture with 0.4 mm×100 mm elongated needles is used at Zhongwan (CV 12), Qihai (CV 6) and Zigong (EX-CA 1), and the mild reinforcing-reducing method is used at remaining acupoints. According to the severity of diseases, fire acupuncture combined with blood-letting cupping is applied at Tianshu (ST 25), Xuehai (SP 10) and Yinlingquan (SP 9); gene-rally, two acupoints are selected and 1 to 3 mL blood-letting is appropriate. The modification based on this me-thod can be applied for various difficult and miscellaneous diseases, leading to superior efficacy.
Grace, P A
Dr. Nathaniel Alcock in his book A treatise on cholera described 22 cases of cholera that he treated in 1832. Blood-letting, either by leeches or venesection, was an essential part of the treatment. The belief was that reducing the blood volume would relieve stress on the heart and lungs allowing for better function. The receipts of the Townsend Street Cholera Hospital where Dr. Alcock worked show how extensive the practice was. Outside Dublin, local Boards of Health dealt with the cholera epidemic. Various public measures such as street cleaning and removal of patients to temporary hospitals were undertaken and various cures were tried. The overall mortality rate from cholera in Ireland during the epidemic was 38 %, but in some areas much higher. Even as cholera was spreading in the 1830s, a number of doctors were showing that intravenous fluids could dramatically alter the course of the disease. Unfortunately, their work was ignored and blood-letting continued to be a major component of the treatment of cholera for another 55 years.
Almaiman, Amer A
Wet cupping (Al-hijamah) is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient's skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.
The bleeding of infants via the skin (pile) and the roof of the mouth (qüm) is practiced in Badakhshan, the easternmost province of Tajikistan. Like folk practices elsewhere, pilé and qüm exist at the interstices of modern society and reflect a complex religious, historical, and social response to poverty, marginality, and the global processes associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union. In this article, I attempt to move beyond an ethnomedical analysis by examining these bloodletting practices in the context of their contemporary meaning, as a moral response to suffering and to the social changes that have taken place in the post-Soviet period.
Ani Kelechi Johnmary
Full Text Available The level of killing and bloodletting in Nigeria is increasing every second, minute, hour, day, month and year. Man, animals, properties etc are increasingly under threat in contemporary Nigerian society. The causes of the massive insecurity of lives and properties remain multi-dimensional. This paper is centered on the need to factor tradotronic media for human security management in Nigeria. It reveals that the dimensions of human insecurity in Nigeria, include but not limited to assassination-based human insecurity, robbery/kidnapping related human insecurity, political-related human insecurity, ethnic-based human insecurity, inter-communal conflict-related human insecurity, religious-motivated human insecurity and multi-dimensional conflict related human insecurity. The paper calles on all lovers of life and human dignity to rise up and defend the survival and existence of every breathing soul around him or her in this sovereign entity, called Nigeria.
Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi
Dizziness and vertigo are the most common complaints of patients that has a high economic burden on the health system. In modern medicine, treatment for dizziness and vertigo consists of chemical pharmacological therapy. Although these drugs are useful in controlling the disease, their side effects and inefficiency in full control of the disease require the use of complementary medicine in this field. Persian medicine consists of valuable experiences of Persian medicine scholars based on the theory of humors and temperaments. In Persian medicine, 2 types of disease are presented: dizziness (sadar) and vertigo (dovar). Persian medicine physicians expressed a different mechanism of action than modern medicine for these diseases. They believed that accumulation of abnormal humors, reeh (normal bloating) or causative pathologic substances, is the basic cause of sadar and dovar and that the most important treatment is cleansing the body, particularly the head from accumulated substances by bloodletting methods.
Full Text Available In this paper, the interesting and significant chapter on the bloodletting, included in the medical treatise entitled the Liber de arte medendi (1564 of Cristóbal de Vega (1510-1573, has been studied. His doctrine, mainly with regard to the morbus lateralis, supports the proper one from the most of the sixteenth century authors belonging to the medical humanism: a copious bloodletting in the elbow`s flexure of the homolateral arm. In addition to the Vesalius’ anatomical contributions on the venous tree recorded in that chapter, Vega has a debate on certain controversial aspects with the
contemporary doctors Argenterio and Fuchs. In spite of his fidelity to the galenism, Vega shows some practical disagreements concerning its use in children, pregnant women and its achievement up to fainting.
En este artículo se ha estudiado el interesante y significativo capítulo sobre la sangría, incluido en el tratado de medicina titulado Liber de arte medendi (1564 de Cristóbal de Vega (1510-1573. Su doctrina, sobre todo en lo que atañe al morbus lateralis, sigue la de la mayoría de los autores del quinientos pertenecientes al humanismo médico: sangría abundante en la flexura del codo del brazo homolateral. Además de recoger las aportaciones anatómicas de Vesalio sobre el árbol venoso, Vega polemiza sobre ciertos aspectos controvertidos con los médicos coetáneos Argenterio y Fuchs. A pesar de su fidelidad al galenismo, Vega muestra algunas discrepancias prácticas relativas a su uso en niños y embarazadas y a su aplicación hasta el desvanecimiento.
Choi, Hak Yong; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Moon Ho
Reappraisal measurement of apparent half survival time of red cell by 51 Cr method was made and effects of blood-letting over red cell survival were observed. The study was performed on 53 normal male subjects under three different experimental conditions. 1) Group 1: Mean 51 Cr red cell half survival by ACD wash method was 29.7 days. T 1 /2 of Ascorbic acid method was 29.0 days in group with 100 mg dose and 29.1 days in group with 50 mg dose respectively. There was no difference between these two methods in regards to red cell half survival. No difference were noted in amount of ascorbic acid administered. 2) Group 2: As daily amount of blood loss in increased the shortening of red cell half survival was noted. Rapid phase was seen when blood loss ranged 10 to 25 ml per day, while slow phase noted when more loss amounted 25 ml more daily. Thus, it was clear that there was more than an exponential relation between T 1 /2 and the amount of blood loss. 3) Group 3: T 1 /2 measured cpm per whole blood was within normal range and T 1 /2 measured by cpm per red mass showed shortening tendency when compared with the former in the group measured after blood loss (from 25 ml daily up to 100 ml daily in 10 days). In the group with rather constant blood loss of 100 ml daily for 10 consecutive days revealed the significant difference in two measurement (P 1 /2 in non-steady state. When red cell production is increased compared with red cell destruction, T 1 /2 measured by cpm per red cell mass shorter than that by cpm per whole blood. Shortening of T 1 /2 measured by cpm per whole blood is more prominent, if red destruction is enhanced and exceeds production. 5) It is clear that when expressing red cell destruction rate, T 1 /2 measured by cpm per whole blood is more adequate and production more consistent with cpm red cell mass. 6) T 1 /2 measured during blood-letting, when corrected by amount of blood loss, it remains normal. It is erroneous to use conventional equational
Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.
Full text: True polycythemia (Vaquez' disease) is the disease of the hemopoietic system of an unknown origin accompanied by increase of erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood with absolute and relative increase in the mass of circulating erythrocytes. True polycythemia is treated with bloodletting and myelosuppressing drugs. This treatment is not always effective. A special place among myelo-depressants is occupied by P-32. Its main therapeutic effect is mediated by the participation in the metabolic processes. Besides DNA damage with beta-radiation, P-32 incorporation by DNA followed by decay and transformation to a stable sulphur isotope (S-32) results in the damage of the structure of nucleic acids, which is main mechanism of cellular proliferation inhibition. Therefore, P-32 is considered a powerful myelosuppressive agent. The indication to P-32 administration is true polycythemia, which, in contrast to secondary polycythemia accompanying numerous diseases, requires special cytostatic treatment. The study involved 152 patients with true polycythemia (76 men and 76 women aged 48) treated with P-32. The treatment was administered in case when bloodletting proved to be ineffective and hematocrit level exceeded 75%. P-32 was administered orally in 100 ml of 10% glucose solution on an empty stomach at a dose of 37-111 MBq with a 4-10-day intervals (mean 6 days). The blood count was checked for 12 weeks. If the number of thrombocytes and leukocytes decreased less than by 25% and the level of hematocrit did not normalize, repeated P-32 treatments were performed. In 13 (8.6%) patients, haematocrit parameters became normal after a single P-32 administration, in 15 (9.9%) patients two treatments with P-32 were necessary to normalize the blood count. In 134 (88.1%) cases P-32 treatment was administered more then two times (maximum 10 treatments). Total P-32 activity ranged from 37 to 740 MBq. Of all the patients who were administered P- 32 treatment, hematological
Tianjin, as the earliest city to open up, the exchange of Chinese and Western cultures also started earlier. Therefore, today's emergency medicine system with integrated features of Chinese and Western medicine is formed. Professor Wang Jinda, who works in Tianjin First Center Hospital, makes the theory of "treating bronchitis and treating diseases" and "three methods of three syndromes" for the treatment of severe diseases such as sepsis. The surgical aspect is the treatment of acute abdomen with the combination of Chinese and Western medicine which is proposed by Academician Wu Xianzhong who worked in Tianjin Nankai Hospital. In the aspect of acupuncture and moxibustion, Professor Guo Yi, who works in Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, provides the twelve Jing points blood-letting therapy for cerebral diseases such as stroke. Professor Liu Xinqiao from the First Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine also conducts in-depth studies on brain protection after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). He proposes the importance of traditional Chinese medicine in addition to mild hypothermia and neuroprotective agents. The author summarized these achievements, in light of which looked forward to the future and proposed the concept of establishing a multi-specialist collaboration and an emergency center with obvious characteristics of integrated Chinese and Western medicine, which would pave the way for the development of integrated Chinese and Western medicine first aid.
Amer A. Almaiman
Full Text Available Wet cupping (Al-hijamah is a therapeutic technique practiced worldwide as a part of the Unani system of medicine. It involves bloodletting from acupoints on a patient’s skin to produce a therapeutic outcome. A thorough review of research articles on wet cupping with relevance to proteomics field that are indexed by Google Scholar, PubMed, and/or Science Direct databases was performed. Eight original research articles were summarized in this paper. Overall, wet cupping did not have a significant effect on C-reactive protein, Hsp-27, sister chromatid exchanges, and cell replication index. In contrast, wet cupping was found to produce higher oxygen saturation, eliminate lactate from subcutaneous tissues, remove blood containing higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and produce higher activity of myeloperoxidase. The proteomic effects of wet cupping therapy have not been adequately investigated. Thus, future studies on wet cupping that use systemic and sound protocols to avoid bias should be conducted.
Abbas Zaidi, S M; Jameel, S S; Jafri, Kehkashan; Khan, Shariq A; Ahmad, Ehsan
Cupping (Hijamah) therapy is very well documented as a result of several thousand years of clinical experiences in Unani medicine. In this procedure, suction is created by various means either with or without bloodletting. Though this therapy is being widely practiced across the globe for treating many chronic and intractable ailments but many reports reveal its unscientific and improper practices which results in many complications. Therefore to develop standard operative procedures and to propose protocols of cupping therapy in various diseases is the need of hour. A thorough literature review of relevant journals and textbooks was performed to gather the maximum available data on cupping therapy. This paper seeks to introduce the general concepts of cupping therapy in Unani medicine and other traditional systems of medicine, shortcomings and limitations of the currently published studies and suggest ways to improve these technical/methodological flaws. In addition, the authors have also attempted to provide the cupping related materials, hypotheses, observations which will provide the researchers the base for evaluating their usefulness in future clinical trials.
Connecting the circulatory system of old and young mice (parabiosis) is documented to have rejuvenating effects on cells, tissues, organs, and functions. A wide range of benefits are envisioned. Blood-based rejuvenation can come to totally change population health and aging. The first blood rejuvenation studies on humans with Alzheimer's disease have started. It puts blood at the center of therapy and revitalizes the historical line of humoral pathology from Hippocrates and Harvey, creating a new type of 'bloodletting.' However, moving from mice to men requires careful consideration. Parabiosis actualizes well-known ethical challenges, such as just distribution of health care, avoiding disparities, and providing equal access to health care resources, as well as issues of human enhancement. However, it also poses new problems. Using internal substances in some persons as means to rejuvenate others calls for ethical reflection. New type of 'blood bonds' may result from the continuous demand for specific types of blood. Even if rejuvenating substances from blood may be artificially and cheaply produced and justly distributed, problems arise: survival may have to be balanced against reproduction, as reproductive age increases. Eternal youth and endless bliss have always been vital human dreams. Although parabiosis may bring us closer to the fountain of youth than ever, it is still too early to provide full-fledged assessments of its implications or to foresee how it will change health, aging, medicine, and society. However, in order to bring our reflective abilities on par with our technical skills, we need to start reflection now.
A large number of Ethiopians reside abroad as refugees, immigrants, or students. To provide adequate care, physicians must understand their beliefs about health and medicine. To Ethiopians, health is an equilibrium between the body and the outside. Excess sun is believed to cause mitch ("sunstroke"), leading to skin disease. Blowing winds are thought to cause pain wherever they hit. Sexually transmitted disease is attributed to urinating under a full moon. People with buda, "evil eye," are said to be able to harm others by looking at them. Ethiopians often complain of rasehn, "my head" (often saying it burns); yazorehnyal, "spinning" (not a true vertigo); and libehn, "my heart" (usually indicating dyspepsia rather than a cardiac problem). Most Ethiopians have faith in traditional healers and procedures. In children, uvulectomy (to prevent presumed suffocation during pharyngitis in babies), the extraction of lower incisors (to prevent diarrhea), and the incision of eyelids (to prevent or cure conjunctivitis) are common. Circumcision is performed on almost all men and 90% of women. Ethiopians do bloodletting for moygnbagegn, a neurologic disease that includes fever and syncope. Chest pain is treated by cupping. Ethiopians often prefer injections to tablets. Bad news is usually given to families of patients and not the patients themselves. Zar is a form of spirit possession treated by a traditional healer negotiating with the alien spirit and giving gifts to the possessed patient. Health education must address Ethiopian concerns and customs.
Černá, Alena M.; Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena; Stluka, Martin
The critical edition of the collection "King John's Astronomy" is based on the Old Czech manuscript written at the beginning of the 15th century which is preserved at the Library of the National Museum in Prague (ms. II F 14). The collection consists of several separate parts - first of all it contains astronomical and astrological treatises refering to Ptolemy's works. Explanations on the impact of the seven planets and twelve zodiacal signs on the fate of man, who was born under their influence, prevail in the texts. The texts which are connected with Hippocrates and Galenos' doctrines about humoral physiology and humoral pathology are another subject. They are supplemented by a treatise on blood-letting and by pharmaceutical instructions on different weight units. Another treatise deals with God, God's acts and with human fate. The manuscript also contains calendar tools for the calculation of Easter and other feasts during the year. The origin of this Old Czech text coincides with the period of the development of national languages as languages of science. Vocabulary contained in the manuscript is rich. It yields evidence about the formation of terminological systems in various fields involved in the collection. The Old Czech language of this literary monument exhibits unexpectedly archaic features. The present edition is a result of interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers from the fields of diachronic Bohemistics, classical philology, and astronomy. The publication is completed with the critical apparatus, indices, vocabulary, by a list of the chosen literature and other related supplements.
Full Text Available Respiratory diseases were quite common in the past. A treatment procedure for an acute respiratory disorder, most probably pneumonia, in a 72-year-old man was presented based on archival source materials dating from 1801. The treatment was provided by a doctor, barber surgeon “nurse” and pharmacist, who were practicing in Koniecpol in 1801. The patient was given mucolytic, antitussive, cardiac, antipyretic and analgesic medications and appetite stimulants. From the medical point of view that prevailed at that time, the treatment was correct. The patient was also given medications recommended under the humoral theory, which was still being followed at that time. According to that theory, the human body was thought to contain four humours: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile. An imbalance of humours resulted in a disease. The treatment was designed to restore the proper humoral balance by techniques such as enemas, diuretics and bloodletting. From the present medical point of view, the treatment was incorrect. It caused anaemia and disturbances in water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The treatment resulted in the patient’s death. However, one can hardly blame doctor Tichi, as his treatment was fully compliant with the scientific views prevailing at that time.
Tan, Qian; Zhou, Hong-Reng; Wang, Shu-Qin; Zheng, Dong-Feng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Jie; Ge, Hua-Qiang; Lin, Yue; Yan, Xin
To investigate the aesthetic effect of wound repair with flaps. One thousand nine hundred and ninety-six patients with 2082 wounds hospitalized from January 2004 to December 2011. These wounds included 503 deep burn wounds, 268 pressure sores, 392 soft tissue defects caused by trauma, 479 soft tissue defects due to resection of skin cancer and mole removal, 314 soft tissue defects caused by scar excision, and 126 other wounds. Wound area ranged from 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 30.0 cm x 22.0 cm. Sliding flaps, expanded flaps, pedicle flaps, and free flaps were used to repair the wounds in accordance with the principle and timing of wound repair with flaps. Five flaps showed venous congestion within 48 hours post-operation, 2 flaps of them improved after local massage. One flap survived after local heparin wet packing and venous bloodletting. One flap survived after emergency surgical embolectomy and bridging with saphenous vein graft. One flap showed partial necrosis and healed after skin grafting. The other flaps survived well. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one patients were followed up for 3 months to 2 years, and flaps of them were satisfactory in shape, color, and elasticity, similar to that of normal skin. Some patients underwent scar revision later with good results. Application of suitable flaps in wound repair will result in quick wound healing, good function recovery, and satisfactory aesthetic effect.
De Luca, Luigi M; Norum, Kaare R
We translated two Latin texts about scurvy. One is by Ambrosius Rhodius, who in 1635 published his doctoral thesis on scurvy. This contains aspects of 16th- and 17th-century folklore medicine. The other is a 1593 letter by Henrik Høyer (Hoierus), a German physician in Bergen, Norway. The letter states that in Norway grew a plant, Chamaemorus Norvegicus, whose berries had curative abilities against scurvy. Rhodius lists symptoms of scurvy and suggests ingestion of fatty and smoked foods as etiological agents. He thought that a malfunction of the spleen was involved in this disease, so that the undigested parts of the chylus perturbed liver function. Plants with curative abilities were "those that abound in volatile salts." He listed seven facilitating causes of scurvy and its therapies. These included blood-letting after laxatives and root extracts. The star of the show was the cloudberry, which had miraculous effects on scurvy patients. Palliative care included a bath containing decoction of brooklime, water cress, mallow, hogweed, roman chamomile, and similar plants. Before bathing, the person was to drink an extract of wormwood, scurvy grass, or elder. As medication for gums and teeth, Rhodius recommended rosemary, hyssop, bistort, sage, nasturtium, waterweed, creeping Jenny, and scurvy grass. He referred to medications described by Albertus, Sennertus, and in antiquity by Hippocrates and Galenus. We discuss the manuscripts by Høyer and Rhodius in light of earlier treatments and opinions about scurvy.
Jin Hyong Cho
Full Text Available The microneedle therapy system (MTS, a mechanical method involving making minute multiple holes in the skin, reportedly improves skin condition, such as by reducing flushing and melanin. A newly attempted bloodletting therapy, Jae-Seng Acupuncture, has several advantages over traditional mechanical punching methods because it allows the practitioner to regulate the depth and direction of needle stimulations and to choose whether to stimulate the muscle layers. This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Jae-Seng Acupuncture in the treatment of nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles. The nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles of 107 patients ranging in age from their 20s to their 70s were subjected to DermaVision, a digital skin image analyzer, before the treatment and one to six months after treatment. Additionally, stimulation of the meridians, such as Taeyang, Tongjaryo, Chongmyong, Sungup, Sabaek, Yonghyang, Chichang, Taeyong, was performed to improve the function of the stomach, large intestine. Analyses of the images indicate that Jae-Seng Acupuncture improved nasolabial folds and eye wrinkles, suggesting that this technique is a safe and effective method for the improvement of facial skin conditions.
Utilizing QFD model to determine quality characteristics of the products and priority needs of customers in the medical industry products (Case Study: Plasma seat product in mashhad`s Sahateb medical equipment company
Full Text Available Quality Function Deployment (QFD as one of the quality engineering methods; originates from market study and product or service customers identification, where by determining their needs; tries to involve them in all stages of product or service development. This study uses QFD method to apply customers’ criteria in production of Coach Plasma in Mashhad`s Sahateb Company. Coach Plasma is used for healthy bloodletting. The proposed study of this paper designed and distributed a questionnaire, which includes identification & determination of customers’ needs and investigation of their satisfaction of manufactured products, while looking for technical and engineering characteristics related to their needs. The Coach Plasma costumers are categorized into two groups of local and external customers. Data collection was done based on available documents, experts opinions, structured interview with managers and questionnaire. Customers’ needs were studied in QFD teams. Collecting essential information such as needs importance degree and competitive benchmarking of customer`s needs, the weight of each need has been evaluated. In this research, House of Quality was used from first matrix of QFD leading to estimation of engineering & technical characteristics in order to enter to the quality deployment matrix. Take a look at obtained results, we could mention the role of each of these external factors in satisfaction of Sahateb Company customers and technical characteristics of the company in providing these factors and the prioritization of the customer's needs.
Earp, Brian D; Wudarczyk, Olga A; Sandberg, Anders; Savulescu, Julian
"Love hurts"-as the saying goes-and a certain amount of pain and difficulty in intimate relationships is unavoidable. Sometimes it may even be beneficial, since adversity can lead to personal growth, self-discovery, and a range of other components of a life well-lived. But other times, love can be downright dangerous. It may bind a spouse to her domestic abuser, draw an unscrupulous adult toward sexual involvement with a child, put someone under the insidious spell of a cult leader, and even inspire jealousy-fueled homicide. How might these perilous devotions be diminished? The ancients thought that treatments such as phlebotomy, exercise, or bloodletting could "cure" an individual of love. But modern neuroscience and emerging developments in psychopharmacology open up a range of possible interventions that might actually work. These developments raise profound moral questions about the potential uses-and misuses-of such anti-love biotechnology. In this article, we describe a number of prospective love-diminishing interventions, and offer a preliminary ethical framework for dealing with them responsibly should they arise.
Notwithstanding the traditional belief that disciples of Jesus Christ introduced Christianity into China, conclusive evidence showed that it was the Nestorian missionaries who entered China in AD 635. Alongside commercial contacts between the West and China during the prosperous T'ang dynasty (618-906), trepanation, bloodletting and the universal antidote theriac were introduced from the Byzantium Empire. Nestorian Christians built churches throughout China and offered some form of medical services. During the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1260-1368), foreign physicians were present in the Royal Court; the most famous was the astronomer, linguist and physician Ai-hsieh (Isaiah), Head of the Imperial Medical Bureau. With the fall of this dynasty, Christianity, being primarily the faith of a foreign community, naturally fell into oblivion. It was not until the sixteenth-century's Age of Discovery when a safe sea route to China was found that a new phase of Christian missionaries began. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
In our era, the idea of a stimulant is synonymous with its biochemical properties. A stimulant, we think, is a substance that enhances the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. But in the eighteenth century, a new family of theories about the workings of stimulants took shape, based on exciting but erroneous assumptions. Proponents of these theories thought that many more diseases were "nervous" in origin than had previously been supposed. They hoped that the workings of the "nervous power" could be aided by the judicious use of stimulants and narcotics. Practitioners working within this broad "neuropathological" paradigm equated the workings of stimulation with those of gravity. Stimulation, they believed, was a kind of master principle in nature. Some hoped it would help refound medicine on Newtonian, mathematical lines. For patients, the most visible legacy of the neuropathological revolution was the abandonment of bloodletting or "cupping" and the increasingly widespread use of opium and alcohol in medical treatments. In this chapter, I explore the career of one of the most famous writers of the Romantic era, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) who had the misfortune to live through this therapeutic revolution. I describe the circumstances under which he came to take opiates and the development of his opinions about their effect on him. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zegers, R H C
Not much is known about the medical history and cause of death of the composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Contrary to popular opinion, Mozart was not an exceptionally ill child and as an adult he generally enjoyed good health. At the age of 9 years he experienced a life-threatening illness, which was probably typhoid fever. On the left-hand side he had what has since become known as 'Mozart's ear', a pinna with under-development of the anthelical fold. His psychological condition gives rise to the notion that he was not exceptional, but that he responded to the events in his life in a normal manner. His terminal illness was characterised by edema of hands and feet, without any associated dyspnoea being described. The medical treatment was aggressive: enema, bloodletting on several occasions and treatment with a laxative substance. He was burried in an anonymous grave. The skull that was later ascribed to him was not his own, as no element of the denture fits with the tooth abscess he was known to have experienced. An overdose of mercury during the treatment of syphilis seems to be unlikely, as equally Henoch-Schönlein-purpura and the consequences of acute rheumatism. Trichinosis is a recent hypothesis which fits the terminal symptoms and the fact that Mozart was fond of pork. The diagnosis of his physician Closset was 'hitsiges Frieselfieber', which was possibly caused by one of the many infectious diseases prevalent at that time.
Hakim, Nashad; Liscio, Eugene
The point of origin of an impact pattern is important in establishing the chain of events in a bloodletting incident. In this study, the accuracy and reproducibility of the point of origin estimation using the FARO Scene software with the FARO Focus(3D) laser scanner was determined. Five impact patterns were created for each of three combinations of distances from the floor (z) and the front wall (x). Fifteen spatters were created using a custom impact rig, scanned using the laser scanner, photographed using a DSLR camera, and processed using the Scene software. Overall results gave a SD = 3.49 cm (p < 0.0001) in the x-direction, SD = 1.14 cm (p = 0.9291) in the y-direction, and SD = 9.08 cm (p < 0.0115) in the z-direction. The technique performs within literature ranges of accepted accuracy and reproducibility and is comparable to results reported for other virtual stringing software. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD assisted intra-abdominal volume increment (IAVI technique on the liver in the treatment of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH following hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in pigs. Methods Twelve healthy mini-pigs (Bama, Guangxi were selected for bloodletting from the femoral artery to reproduce hemorrhagic shock model (mean arterial blood pressure, 50mmHg, 1h, and IAH model was successfully reproduced in eight pigs by partial occlusion of portal vein. The eight pigs were randomly divided into the intra-abdominal volume increment treatment (IT group (n=4 and sham operation control (SC group (n=4. Vesical pressure (VP and inferior vena cava pressure (IVCP were observed before shock, 2h after IAH, and 22h after IAVI treatment. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured. In addition, the ratio of the abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter was assessed, and the liver CT values were measured after enhanced CT scanning. The pigs were sacrificed 26h after operation. Liver specimens were collected to measure the ratio of wet weight to dry weight and pathological examination. Results The VP in 8 IAH pigs was 21.16±4.63mmHg. The ratio of abdominal anteroposterior diameter to the transverse diameter increased remarkably 2h after IAH compared with that before shock (1.22±1.41 vs 0.96±0.08, PPvs 42.73±4.92HU, PPPvs 5.14±0.71, PConclusions The established model could better reproduce the symptoms of IAH after hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation, accompanied by liver damage. IAVI helps to relieve liver functional disturbance after IAH, which is related to decreased intra-abdominal pressure and hypoxia-ischemia of the liver.
Benli, Ali Ramazan; Sunay, Didem
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood-letting with wet cupping therapy (WCT) in migraine treatment and to determine whether there was any difference according to the phase of the moon when the treatment was applied. MATERIAL AND METHODS This self-controlled study was conducted in Karabuk between 2014 and 2016. Patients who were diagnosed with migraine were enrolled in the study. Migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS), demographic characteristics, migraine attack frequency and duration, and family history was used to assess the severity of headache. WCT was applied in 3 sessions and the questionnaire was administered before and 3 months after the final WCT session. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used in pre-and posttreatment measurements, and the Chi-square test was used to check independence in two-way categorical tables. RESULTS A total of 85 patients were included. The reduction in MIDAS scores and number of migraine attacks was significantly greater in the WCT applications made in the first half of the month compared to those in the second half of the month. Although the reduction in visual analog scale (VAS) scores was greater in the second half of the month, it was also significant in the applications made in the first half of the month. CONCLUSIONS WCT was found to be an effective treatment of migraine. The effect on MIDAS, VAS, and the number of attacks was significantly better when the application was made in the second half of the month compared to those made in the first half.
Wang, Ling; Liu, Shao-ming; Liu, Min; Li, Bao-jun; Hui, Zhen-liang; Gao, Xiang
To assess the clinical efficacy on post-stroke speech disorder treated with acupuncture and psychological intervention combined with rehabilitation training. The multi-central randomized controlled study was adopted. One hundred and twenty cases of brain stroke were divided into a speech rehabilitation group (control group), a speech rehabilitation plus acupuncture group (observation group 1) and a speech rehabilitation plus acupuncture combined with psychotherapy group (observation group 2), 40 cases in each one. The rehabilitation training was conducted by a professional speech trainer. In acupuncture treatment, speech function area in scalp acupuncture, Jinjin (EX-HN 12) and Yuye (EX-HN 13) in tongue acupuncture and Lianquan (CV 23) were the basic points. The supplementary points were selected according to syndrome differentiation. Bloodletting method was used in combination with acupuncture. Psychotherapy was applied by the physician in psychiatric department of the hospital. The corresponding programs were used in each group. Examination of Aphasia of Chinese of Beijing Hospital was adopted to observe the oral speech expression, listening comprehension and reading and writing ability. After 21-day treatment, the total effective rate was 92.5% (37/40) in observation group 1, 97.5% (39/40) in observation group 2 and 87.5% (35/40) in control group. The efficacies were similar in comparison among 3 groups. The remarkable effective rate was 15.0% (6/40) in observation group 1, 50.0% (20/40) in observation group 2 and 2.5% (1/40) in control group. The result in observation group 2 was superior to the other two groups (Prehabilitation training is obviously advantageous in the treatment of post-stroke speech disorder.
Full Text Available Glosses on Chancellor Angela Merkel: In ancient times the poets of Ireland and Scotland wrote satires on royals and chiefs they held to be administratively challenged and/or ungenerous to needy bards. The poems were not in strict form, but, generally, 17 line stanzas implied “should be put down”, while 13 line stanzas connoted “harmless but dim”. Walküre, whence Valkyrie, means “chooser of the slain” in Old German. In the bloodletting attending the formation of the present Grand Coalition in Germany, Edmund Stoiber was a casualty and withdrew, embittered, to lead Bavaria again. Angela is widely reported to find relief from the tensions of major political crises by baking cakes, a method more acceptable to the German middle-class than that once favoured by President Clinton. Prince Potemkin, lover and right-hand-man, of Czarina Catherine II, is – maybe slanderously – supposed to have had fake villages built in which actors mimed happy peasants as she drove past in her carriage. When Bush visited Angela’s provincial electorate, the real locals were sent somewhere else, while blokes from Germany’s security services replaced them, smiling, cheering and waving American flags. Consuming coffee and cake at 4 p.m. is the only Categorical Imperative that Germany absolutely obeys. The plot of Wagner’s Twilight of the Gods resembles a stale lamington, as do Germany’s present economic woes. The Grand Coalition is also looking crumbly and dry, despite Angela’s keeping it in the fridge in glad-wrap.
目的:观察扬刺法针刺配合燃酒疗法治疗急性踝关节扭伤的临床疗效.方法:86例急性踝关节扭伤患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各43例,治疗组采用扬刺法针刺配合燃酒疗法,对照组采用刺络拔罐治疗,观察两组疗效.结果:治疗组总有效率为100.00%,显著高于对照组的88.37%(P<0.01).结论:扬刺法针刺配合燃酒疗法治疗急性踝关节扭伤疗效肯定,值得临床推广应用.%Objective: To observe the clinical effect of multiple superficial needling combined with alcohol burning method treating acute ankle sprain. Methods:86 cases of acute ankle sprain were randomly divided into treatment group and control group with each of 43 cases, treatment group adopted multiple superficial needling combined with alcohol burning method, control group with bloodletting puncture and cupping therapy, the cura-tive effect of the two groups were observed. Results:The total effective rate of treatment group was 100.00%, significantly higher than that of control group by 88.37% (P<0.01). Conclusion:The efficacy of multiple superficial needling combined with alcohol burning method treating acute ankle sprain is definite, being worthy of clinical application.
Zhang, Xia; Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Guang-Xi; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Chen; Tang, Jing-Jing; Yao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Meng
This paper systematically studies relevant literatures at home and abroad in recent years. China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) was used to collect the literatures for acute pharyngitis treated with traditional Chinese medicine from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016, and the bibliometric method was employed for statistical analysis. A total of 493 papers were preliminarily selected. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, 182 eligible articles were selected. According to the evaluation and analysis of the literatures, the Guidelines for Clinical Research of New Drugs is currently used as the common standards for the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis; Chinese patent medicines are the main traditional Chinese medicine for treating this disease; Decoctions for treatment of this disease include Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, Platycodonis Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scrophdlariae Radix, Isatidis Radix, and Ophiopogonis Radix; The bloodletting puncture is the common external therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine have their own characteristics in the treatment of this disease. Western medicine for the treatment of acute pharyngitis are mainly antiviral, antibiotic and glucocorticoid drugs, whose disadvantages are toxicity, side effects, drug resistance and double infections. Traditional Chinese medicine doctors have rich experiences in the treatment of the disease, which is characterized by treatment determination based on syndrome differentiation, safe and reliable medication, significant curative effect, low drug resistance, and wide varieties of traditional Chinese medicine forms, convenient portability and taking, low price, and low toxic and side effects. It is an arduous and significant task to explore traditional Chinese medicine, and study and develop new-type effective drugs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Food Intolerance, is a reaction against food, but not immunological manner, and may be confused with real food allergies. In this study, effects of special weight-loss diet together with an elimination diet on body composition and biochemical parameters of overweight and obese people who were diagnosed with food intolerance were investigated. The study group consists of 20 patients in total who were followed-up and treated in Yorktest Turkey Laboratory; who were diagnosed with food intolerance, and whose BMI was > 26kg/m2. Bloodletting for these patients was executed with Lancet from their fingertips, and the blood drawn from these patients was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELİSA method, and food reactions of patients were determined for each food. Biochemical parameters of these patients are routine tests, which are necessary for food intolerance tests, and they are analyzed at Yorktest Turkey Laboratory for two times: before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet. It has been determined that, the most common sensivity is obtained against yeast, egg yolk and white, cranberry, cow’s milk, chicken, lentils and parsley. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters before and after elimination diet plus special weight-loss diet applied to participants, were significantly improved in statistical manner. Due to positive changes in body composition and biochemical parameters obtained through application of special weight-loss diets together with elimination diet applied to fat and obese people, we think that this diet might be used for medical nutrition treatment of obesity as a treatment option.
Danino, Dikla; Amar, Zohar
There is a large Ethiopian community in Israel which preserves its unique culture and customs. Many of the members of this community still use traditional methods of healing, such as blood-letting, burns, tattooing, amulets, healing water, incense and various medicinal herbs that are prescribed based on the diagnosis of the disease. This study deals with documenting the use of the medicinal drugs implemented by the Ethiopian community in Israel, which is a rapidly vanishing world. The study is based on interviews with hundreds of informants, among them traditional healers, and it surveyed some fifty shops which sell Ethiopian medicinal drugs and spices. The survey brought to light a list of medical materials which are found in the Ethiopian markets in Israel including 89 kinds of plants (some 85%); 6 different minerals (some 6%); 5 types of animals (some 4.5%); and 5 substances of various origins (some 4.5%). Most of the drugs are imported from Ethiopia to Israel, since they are endemic. There are also other medicinal drugs that are gathered in the field in Israel or brought through personal import; in total, our estimate is that there are approximately 150 different kinds of medicinal drugs in use in Israel. This is a relatively small number when compared to the inventory of drugs in the land of origin, Ethiopia. The decline in the use of traditional drugs, due to limited availability and processes of modernization in the Ethiopian community in Israel, heightens the importance of a study that documents this unique culture. The study is also of assistance to the modern medical authorities in order to better understand and become more familiar with the Ethiopian community and with its needs and special practices, in terms of both prevention and treatment.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.
1793 Yellow fever in Philadelphia was the most severe epidemics in the late 18th century in the United States. More than 10% of the population in the city died and many people fled to other cities. The cause of yellow fever in the United States had close relationship with slaves and sugar in Philadelphia. Sugarcane plantation had needed many labors to produce sugar and lots of Africans had to move to America as slaves. In this process, Aëdes aegypti, the vector of yellow fever had migrated to America and the circumstances of ships or cities provided appropriate conditions for its breeding. In this period, the cause of yellow fever could not be established exactly, so suggestions of doctors became entangled in political and intellectual discourses in American society. There was a critical conflict between Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism about the origin and treatment of yellow fever. Benjamin Rush, a Jeffersonian Republican, suggested urban sanitation reform and bloodletting. He believed the infectious disease happened because of unsanitary city condition, so he thought the United States could be a healthy nation by improvement of the public health and sanitation. He would like to cope with national crisis and develop American society on the basis of republicanism. While Rush suggested the improvement of public health and sanitation, the city government of Philadelphia suggested isolation of yellow fever patients and quarantine. City government isolated the patients from healthy people and it reconstructed space of hospital. Also, it built orphanages to take care of children who lost their parents during the epidemic and implemented power to control people put in the state of exception. Of course, city government tried to protect the city and nation by quarantine of every ship to Philadelphia. Control policies of yellow fever in 1793 showed different conflicts and interactions. Through the yellow fever, Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism had
Gross, R A
The history of epilepsy and its treatment in the western world dates back at least 4 millennia to the ancient civilization of the middle east. Past and present treatments have been empirical, usually reflecting the prevailing views of epilepsy, be they medical, theological or superstitious. Ancient physicians relied on clinical observation to distinguish between epileptic syndromes and infer their cause. Early pathophysiological theories of epilepsy correctly identified the brain as the site of the problem, but emphasized incorrect causes such as an excess of phlegm in the brain. Treatments consisted of prescribed diets or living conditions, occasional surgery such as bloodletting or skull trephination and medicinal herbs. These treatments, often ineffective, had the intellectual advantage of being based on pathophysiological principles, unlike current, more empirical, therapies. The unfortunate but widely held view of epilepsy as being due to occult or evil influences gained adherents even in the medical world during ancient times, and the later acceptance of Christianity allowed theological interpretations of seizures as well. Magical or religious treatments were more frequently prescribed as a result, practices which persist to this day. In the Renaissance an attempt was made to view epilepsy as a manifestation of physical illness rather than a moral or occult affliction, but it was during the Enlightenment that epilepsy was viewed along more modern lines, helped by advances in anatomy and pathology and the development of chemistry, pharmacy and physiology. The idea that focal irritation may cause seizures came about from clinical and experimental work, and was supported by the successful control of seizures by the (sedative) bromides and barbiturates in the late 19th century. The introduction of phenytoin showed that non-sedative drugs could be effective in controlling seizures as well, and the development of in vivo seizure models widened the scope of
Feng, Qin; Sun, Bao-cun; Xia, Wen-kai
To study the protective effect of Arctigenin in goto-kakizaki (GK) rats combined with hypertension macroangiopathy. Six-week-old GK rats were divided randomly according to blood glucose level into four groups: the model group and low, middle and high dose arctigenin groups (12.5, 25, 50 mg x kg(-1)), with Wistar rats as the normal group. All of GK rats were given high-glucose and high-fat diet. After 16 weeks, GK rats were orally administrated with 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) N-Ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester for eight weeks. During the modeling, all of arctigenin groups were orally administrated with different dose of arctigenin twice a day; The model group and the normal group were given solvents. At the beginning, mid-term and end of the experiment, blood glucose was measured. At the end of the experiment, efforts were made to detect blood pressure, collect abdominal aortic blood after anesthesia, fix thoracic aorta after bloodletting to make paraffin sections, observe morphological characteristics and detect the expression of VEGF by immunohistochemistry. According to the results, the blood glucose rose in all GK rats, with no significant difference between the drug group and the model group. At the end of the experiment, the blood pressure significantly increased in GK rats, indicating that Arctigenin could notably reduce the blood pressure in GK rats in a dose-dependent manner. The blood routine test showed increases in both the total white blood cell count and differential blood count, MPV and PDW, abnormal blood platelet parameters and decrease in PLT in GK rats, suggesting that Arctigenin could remarkably reduce the total white blood cell count and differential blood count, MPV and PDW. The thoracic aortic morphological observation revealed obvious endangium lesions in GK rats, demonstrating that Arctigenin could ameliorate the lesion extent. VEGF immumohistochemical staining showed a higher VEGF expression in the model group but lower expression in Arctigenin
目的：对温经通络法治疗踝关节扭伤的临床效果进行探讨。方法：笔者对2012年3月-2014年9月收治的43例踝关节扭伤患者运用随机数字表法，将其分为对照组与试验组，对照组21例行针刺放血治疗，试验组22例在针刺放血治疗的基础上加用艾灸治疗，对比两组患者的治疗效果。结果：试验组的有效率为100.0%：对照组的有效率为90.5%，试验组有效率明显高于对照组，P<0.05，差异具有统计学意义。结论：对踝关节扭伤患者采用温经通络法可有效提高疗效，促进患者踝关节功能的恢复，值得肯定和推广。%Objective:To analyze and explore clinical effcacy of the Wenjing Tongluo therapy on ankle sprain. Methods: From March 2012 to September 2014, 43 patients were randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group. 21 cases in the control group were treated by pricking blood therapy; 22 cases in the experimental group were given acupuncture bloodletting therapy. Effciency in two groups were compared. Results: The effciency was 100.0% in the experimental group, signiifcantly higher than 90.5% in the control group,P<0.05. Conclusion: The Wenjing Tongluo therapy on ankle sprain can improve efficacy, promote recovery of the ankle joint function, and is worthy of promotion.
Liu, Liang-Ming; Hu, De-Yao; Zhou, Xue-Wu; Liu, Jiang-Cang; Li, Ping
To investigate the fluid tolerance of hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema (HSPE) at high altitude in unacclimated rats and the beneficial effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline/6% dextran (HSD). One hundred seventy-six Sprague-Dawley rats, transported to LaSa, Tibet, 3,760 m above the sea level, were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, i.p.) within 1 week. Hemorrhagic shock with pulmonary edema was induced by bloodletting (50 mmHg for 1 h) plus intravenous injection of oleic acid (50 microL/kg). Seventy-seven rats were equally divided into 11 groups (n = 7/group) including sham-operated control group; hemorrhagic shock control group; HSPE control group; HSPE plus 0.5-, 1.0-, 1.5-, 2.0-, or 3.0-fold volumes of lactated Ringer's solution (LR) groups; and HSPE plus 4, 6, and 8 mL/kg of HSD groups. Hemodynamic parameters including mean arterial blood pressure, left intraventricular systolic pressure, and the maximal change rate of intraventricular pressure rise or decline (+/-dp/dtmax) were observed at baseline and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after infusion; blood gases were measured at 30 and 120 min after infusion, and the water content of lung and brain was determined at 120 min after infusion. Additional 99 rats were used to observe the effect of these treatments on the survival time of HSPE rats; 0.5 volume of LR infusion slightly increased the mean arterial blood pressure, left intraventricular systolic pressure, and +/-dp/dtmax and prolonged the survival time of HSPE animals as compared with the HSPE group (P solution infusion, 1.5, 2, and 3 volumes, significantly deteriorated the hemodynamic parameters, increased the water content of lung, and decreased the survival time of HSPE animals. Hypertonic saline/6% dextran (4 - 8 mL/kg) significantly increased the hemodynamic parameters, improved the blood gases, decreased the water content of lung and brain, and prolonged the survival time of HSPE rats. Among the three dosages of HSD, 6 mL/kg of HSD had the
Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of sevoflurane post-conditioning on the expression of Aquaporin 8 (AQP8 and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP, in order to investigate the protective role of sevoflurane post-conditioning on intestinal injury and its underlying mechanism. Methods Eighteen bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups (6 each using a random number table: control group (S group, hemorrhagic shock group (HS group, and sevoflurane post-coditioning group (Post/ Sev group. Experimental animals were fasted for 8 hours before surgery, and propofol 3mg/kg was given viathe ear vein. Endotracheal intubation was done when the animal fell asleep. Bloodletting from the femoral artery after anesthesia was done to reproduce hemorrhagic shock. In Post/Sev group, 2% sevoflurane was given by inhalation for 30min (post-conditioning after successful reproduction of the model. Blood samples were collected prior to anesthesia (T0 and 30min (T1, 1h (T2, 1.5h (T3, 2h (T4, 3h (T5, 4h (T6 after hemorrhagic shock. The quantity of blood I-FABP and intestinal AQP8 levels were determined with ELISA. Water content in the intestinal tissue was determined by wet and dry weight method. Histopathological changes in the intestinal tissue were observed with HE staining. Results Compared with the control group, the serum I-FABP content, the expressions of intestinal AQP8, and water content in the intestinal tissue were significantly increased in HS group and Post/Sev (P<0.05 group. Compared with HS group, the above indices in Post/Sev group were significantly lower (P<0.05. These results were confirmed by pathological examination. Conclusion Postconditioning with sevoflurane could improve, to some extent, pig's intestinal barrier function in hemorrhagic shock, and this effect is likely related with lowering of intestinal AQP8 and I-FABP expression and mucosal edema. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.11.11
the Hippocratic ideas that diseases are a result of mood imbalance. Results: Differing from the current Hippocratic idea, only in extreme cases he prescribed medications and bloodletting, two of the most-used therapies of that time. He usually prescribed therapies based on the Epicurean thought, then consisting of walks and music, massages, and thermal baths. He anticipated the modern idea of the body consisting of atoms, and believed that between the atoms exist empty spaces called pores. As the founder of the so called Methodist School, he was the first to divide acute and chronic diseases, and thought that body weakness was dependent on the excessive width of the pores, while their excessive shrinkage determines fever. According to his student Caelius Aurelianus he was the first to adopt tracheotomy as an emergency therapy for diphtheria. Conclusions: Although it is very difficult to reconstruct the theories of Asclepiades of Bithynia because of the lack of original texts, this paper attempts to focus his role and his thought in affirming the Greek medical practice in ancient Rome and to highlight his modernity.
Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros
ideas that diseases are a result of mood imbalance. Results: Differing from the current Hippocratic idea, only in extreme cases he prescribed medications and bloodletting, two of the most-used therapies of that time. He usually prescribed therapies based on the Epicurean thought, then consisting of walks and music, massages, and thermal baths. He anticipated the modern idea of the body consisting of atoms, and believed that between the atoms exist empty spaces called pores. As the founder of the so called Methodist School, he was the first to divide acute and chronic diseases, and thought that body weakness was dependent on the excessive width of the pores, while their excessive shrinkage determines fever. According to his student Caelius Aurelianus he was the first to adopt tracheotomy as an emergency therapy for diphtheria. Conclusions: Although it is very difficult to reconstruct the theories of Asclepiades of Bithynia because of the lack of original texts, this paper attempts to focus his role and his thought in affirming the Greek medical practice in ancient Rome and to highlight his modernity. PMID:29231878
Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros
diseases are a result of mood imbalance. Results: Differing from the current Hippocratic idea, only in extreme cases he prescribed medications and bloodletting, two of the most-used therapies of that time. He usually prescribed therapies based on the Epicurean thought, then consisting of walks and music, massages, and thermal baths. He anticipated the modern idea of the body consisting of atoms, and believed that between the atoms exist empty spaces called pores. As the founder of the so called Methodist School , he was the first to divide acute and chronic diseases, and thought that body weakness was dependent on the excessive width of the pores, while their excessive shrinkage determines fever. According to his student Caelius Aurelianus he was the first to adopt tracheotomy as an emergency therapy for diphtheria. Conclusions: Although it is very difficult to reconstruct the theories of Asclepiades of Bithynia because of the lack of original texts, this paper attempts to focus his role and his thought in affirming the Greek medical practice in ancient Rome and to highlight his modernity.
Full Text Available Teorien om balansen mellom de fire kroppsvæskene – humoralpatologien – dominerte sykdomsforståelse og dermed også medisinsk behandling i 2000 år. Brekkmidler, årelating og avføringsmidler var hyppig brukte virkemidler for å rette opp i ”ubalanse” mellom kroppsvæskene, som var regnet som årsak til sykdom.Det var ikke før på 1700-tallet at faktisk empirisk kunnskap ble etterspurt som begrunnelse for valg av behandlingsmetoder. Det å telle opp hvordan det gikk med pasienter som fikk en behandling, og sammenlikne med pasienter som ikke fikk behandlingen, var en ny måte å presentere behandlingseffekter på. Fra 1800-tallet av er det mange eksempler på at behandlingsmetoder ble prøvet ut ved å la annenhver pasient motta behandlingen.Streptomycinstudien til UK Medical Research Council (1946 regnes for å være det første randomiserte kontrollerte forsøket innen medisinsk forskning, og for å ha satt standarden for hvordan kliniske utprøvninger bør utføres.I boka ”Effectiveness and Efficiency. Random Reflections on Health Services” (1972 kritiserte Archie Cochrane mangelen på dokumentasjon for mange av tiltakene som utføres i helsetjenesten. Han ønsket seg langt flere randomiserte studier. Dessuten tok han til orde for at alle randomiserte studier burde samles, og at resultatene burde oppsummeres jevnlig. Iain Chalmers tok utfordringen og påbegynte et omfattende arbeid med å utarbeide en database over randomiserte kontrollerte forsøk. Med utgangspunkt i denne databasen ble det så utarbeidet systematiske oversikter over gjeldende kunnskap om effekt av tiltak i helsetjenesten. Dette ble starten på Cochrane-samarbeidet.Fretheim A. Medical knowledge then and now: From theory to systematic reviews. Nor J Epidemiol 2013; 23 (2: 113-118.ENGLISH SUMMARYThe humoral medicine-theory dominated the understanding of diseases and thus also medical treatments over 2,000 years. Purgatives, bloodletting and laxatives were